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Sample records for bruce nuclear generating

  1. Nuclear emergency plan, Part III: Bruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan parts I through VIII were developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This part III prescribes measures to be taken to deal with a nuclear emergency caused by the Bruce Nuclear Power Development. This plan deals mainly with actions at the provincial level and should be supplemented by the appropriate municipal plan from the Townships of Bruce and Kincardine and the Village of Tiverton. This document gives details on the plan data and organization and measures to be taken for internal and external notification, operations in general and for liquid emissions, and the provision of emergency information and public direction. Appendices detail response sector boundaries, alerting and lead times, outline plan and times for evacuation, the location of emergency facilities, and communications through television, radio and telephone.

  2. Implementation of a radiological emergency monitoring system for Bruce Power nuclear power plant (Canada); Implementierung eines radiologischen Umgebungsueberwachungsmesssystems fuer das Kernkraftwerk Bruce Power (Kanada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaric, M. [Saphymo GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Bruce Power nuclear power plant (BP NPP) in Ontario, Canada, is the largest nuclear generating station in the world, operating 8 nuclear reactors producing 6300 MW. In correlation with Bruce Power's safety culture, ''Safety first'' and continuous improvements are essential and substantial parts of the Bruce Power philosophy and management system. After the Fukushima nuclear accident the existing radiological emergency monitoring was analyzed and improved.

  3. Steam generator tubesheet waterlancing at Bruce B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, R. [Babcock and Wilcox Canada, Cambridge, Ontario (Canada); Eybergen, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    High pressure water cleaning of steam generator secondary side tubesheet surfaces is an important and effective strategy for reducing or eliminating under-deposit chemical attack of the tubing. At the Bruce B station, reaching the interior of the tube bundle with a high-pressure water lance is particularly challenging due to the requirement to setup on-boiler equipment within the containment bellows. This paper presents how these and other design constraints were solved with new equipment. Also discussed is the application of new high-resolution inter-tube video probe capability to the Bruce B steam generator tubesheets. (author)

  4. Third generation nuclear plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Bertrand

    2012-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a new generation of Light Water Reactors has been designed and is being built. Third generation nuclear plants are equipped with dedicated systems to insure that if the worst accident were to occur, i.e. total core meltdown, no matter how low the probability of such occurrence, radioactive releases in the environment would be minimal. This article describes the EPR, representative of this "Generation III" and a few of its competitors on the world market.

  5. Fans af Bruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2007-01-01

    Analysen viser, hvordan det samme ritual under en koncert forener og opdeler de fans, der orienterer sig mod Bruce Springsteen. På den ene side forener ritualet hele publikum i en stor fælles "Intimitet for mange" og på den anden side splitter det dem, fordi det bliver tydeligt, hvem der er de ri...

  6. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  7. 78 FR 20144 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 (Indian... Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 (Indian Point 3...

  8. 78 FR 52987 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear... Fire Areas ETN-4 and PAB-2, issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3 (Indian Point 3), located in Westchester County, NY, will remain...

  9. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  10. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  11. Creep in generation IV nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanen, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    Nuclear power has an important role in fulfilling the world's growing energy needs and reducing the carbon dioxide emission. Six new, innovative nuclear energy systems have been identified and selected for further development by the international Generation Four International Forum (GIF). These generation four (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems include a variety of reactor, energy conversion and fuel cycle technologies. The successful development and deployment of these largely depend on the performance and reliability of the available structural materials. These potential materials need to sustain their mechanical properties up to high temperatures, high neutron doses and corrosive environments of the new or enhanced types of coolants. Current knowledge on material properties, material-coolant interaction and especially material degradation processes in these new environments are limited. This paper gives an overview of the Gen IV material issues with special emphasis on European design of supercritical light water reactor concept high performance light water reactor (HPLWR). The challenges for the structural materials and the components most likely to suffer from creep and creep-irradiation are highlighted. Some results from relatively short term creep testing in supercritical water are presented for AISI 316NG, 347H and 1.4970 steels. The 1.4970 steel was superior in creep and oxidation resistance (orig.)

  12. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  13. Environmental and Safety Concerns for Nuclear Power Generation in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Ampomah-Amoako; Edward H. K. Akaho; Nyarko, Benjamin J. B.; Isaac Ennison; Odoi, Henry C.; Abrefah, Rex G.; Sogbadji, Robert B. M.; Sylvester A. Birikorang; Aboh, Innocent J. K.; Danso, Kwaku A.; Ekua Mensimah; Kwame Gyamfi

    2011-01-01

    Misconception about nuclear reactor safety has led several nuclear power projects to be abandoned. Safety was taken into consideration even before the first fission chain reaction was initiated. These safety precautions coupled with half a century of experience in nuclear power generation have made nuclear power the best choice for base load electricity generation in several countries across the globe. The storage of nuclear waste has been extensively studied over the years and several opport...

  14. 77 FR 40091 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3 AGENCY: Nuclear... the renewal of operating licenses DPR-26 and DPR-64 for an additional 20 years of operation for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3 (IP2 and IP3). IP2 and IP3 are located in Westchester County in...

  15. 78 FR 39018 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3 AGENCY... additional 20 years of operation for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3 (IP2 and IP3). This... INFORMATION: Discussion The NRC received an application, dated April 23, 2007, from Entergy Nuclear Operations...

  16. Proliferation resistances of Generation IV recycling facilities for nuclear fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg Lindell, Matilda

    2013-01-01

    The effects of global warming raise demands for reduced CO2 emissions, whereas at the same time the world’s need for energy increases. With the aim to resolve some of the difficulties facing today’s nuclear power, striving for safety, sustainability and waste minimization, a new generation of nuclear energy systems is being pursued: Generation IV. New reactor concepts and new nuclear facilities should be at least as resistant to diversion of nuclear material for weapons production, as were th...

  17. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  18. Power Generation from Nuclear Reactors in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere; a program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  20. Treatment of Nuclear Data Covariance Information in Sample Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wieselquist, William [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division

    2017-10-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on developing a sampling capability that can handle the challenges of generating samples from nuclear cross-section data. The covariance information between energy groups tends to be very ill-conditioned and thus poses a problem using traditional methods for generated correlated samples. This report outlines a method that addresses the sample generation from cross-section matrices.

  1. 78 FR 26662 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 3 Extension of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 3 Extension of Public Comment Period AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft environmental assessment and finding...

  2. 77 FR 16278 - License Renewal Application for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3; Entergy Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION License Renewal Application for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: License renewal application; intent to...

  3. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Bruun; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH4 and CD4......We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters...... and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane....

  4. KOREAN STUDENTS' BEHAVIORAL CHANGE TOWARD NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION THROUGH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUN OK HAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of conducting a 45 minute-long seminar on the principles, state of use, advantages, and disadvantages of nuclear power generation for Korean elementary, middle, and high school students, the levels of perception including the necessity (p<0.017, safety (p<0.000, information acquisition (p<0.000, and subjective knowledge (p<0.000, objective knowledge (p<0.000, attitude (p<0.000, and behavior (p<0.000 were all significantly higher. This indicates that education can be effective in promoting widespread social acceptance of nuclear power and its continued use. In order to induce behavior change toward positive judgments on nuclear power generation, it is necessary to focus on attitude improvement while providing the information in all areas related to the perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Here, the positive message on the convenience and the safety of nuclear power generation should be highlighted.

  5. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  6. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    Rising global energy demands coupled with increased environmental concerns point to one solution; they must reduce their dependence on fossil fuels that emit greenhouse gases. As the global community faces the challenge of maintaining sovereign nation security, reducing greenhouse gases, and addressing climate change nuclear power will play a significant and likely growing role. In the US, nuclear energy already provides approximately one-fifth of the electricity used to power factories, offices, homes, and schools with 104 operating nuclear power plants, located at 65 sites in 31 states. Additionally, 19 utilities have applied to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for construction and operating licenses for 26 new reactors at 17 sites. This planned growth of nuclear power is occurring worldwide and has been termed the 'nuclear renaissance.' As major industrial nations craft their energy future, there are several important factors that must be considered about nuclear energy: (1) it has been proven over the last 40 years to be safe, reliable and affordable (good for Economic Security); (2) its technology and fuel can be domestically produced or obtained from allied nations (good for Energy Security); and (3) it is nearly free of greenhouse gas emissions (good for Environmental Security). Already an important part of worldwide energy security via electricity generation, nuclear energy can also potentially play an important role in industrial processes and supporting the nation's transportation sector. Coal-to-liquid processes, the generation of hydrogen and supporting the growing potential for a greatly increased electric transportation system (i.e. cars and trains) mean that nuclear energy could see dramatic growth in the near future as we seek to meet our growing demand for energy in cleaner, more secure ways. In order to address some of the prominent issues associated with nuclear power generation (i.e., high capital costs, waste management

  7. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  8. The SCC testing of nuclear steam generator tubing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P. E.; Sarver, J. M.; Miglin, B. P.

    1996-05-01

    The integrity of heat-exchanger tubes in a nuclear reaction system is crucial for the safe operation of a power plant. In order to study the corrosion behavior of certain alloys, constant extension rate (CERT) tests were performed on alloy 690 and alloy 800 nuclear steam generator tubing specimens. In this article, the CERT test results (such as maximum stress achieved and crack morphology) are correlated to tubing microstructure, chemistry, and manufacturing processes.

  9. Future of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Carajlescov, Pedro, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: pedro.carajlescov@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    We discuss in this paper the medium- and long- terms evolution of nuclear power in Brazil considering official governmental studies and reports prepared by research groups. The documents reviewed include the national energy balance (BEN, 2014), the short-term planning (PDEE, 2023) and long-term planning (PNE-2030) documents emitted by EPE, and studies conducted by independent institutions and researchers. The studies consider different scenarios regarding gross national product growth and institutional development for the country and conclude that nuclear power should increase its role in Brazil. The generation matrix should diversity by 2030 and 2040 with hydropower decreasing its share from today's 70 % to values between 47 and 57 %. Nuclear power is considered a viable alternative for base load electricity generation in Brazil; to reduce generation risks during dry seasons, and to facilitate the operation of the whole power generation system. The share of nuclear power may reach values between 8 % and 15 % by 2040 according to different scenarios. To meet such growth and facilitate new investments, it is necessary to change the legal framework of the sector, and allow private ownership of enterprises to build and operate nuclear power plants in the country. (author)

  10. 75 FR 77920 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Notice of... additional 20 years of operation for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3 (IP2 and IP3). The IP2... submitted by Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; (3) consultation with Federal, State, local, and tribal...

  11. Challenges of deploying nuclear energy for power generation in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Mohd Zamzam; Nazaruddin, Nurul Huda; Lye, Jonathan Tan Thiam

    2017-01-01

    Under the 10th Malaysia Plan (2010-2015) and the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), nuclear energy was identified as a potential long-term option to be explored for electricity generation in Peninsular Malaysia. The energy sector in Malaysia currently faces several concerns including depleting domestic gas supply which will affect security and reliability of supply as well as overdependance on fossil fuels - mainly gas and imported coal, and nuclear energy may offer a possible solution to these issues as well as global climate change concern. Pursuing the nuclear option, Malaysia Nuclear Power Corporation (MNPC) is undertaking a series of comprehensive studies to facilitate an informed Government decision on the matter. This paper aims to discuss the many challenges towards the peaceful use of nuclear energy for electricity generation in the context of the New Energy Policy 2010 to achieve a balanced and sustainable energy mix. This effort will continue in the 11th Malaysia Plan (2016-2020) with emphasis on implementing a comprehensive communications plan and public awareness programme for the potential use of nuclear energy in the future. In analysing the challenges for the development of nuclear energy in Malaysia, the traditional triple bottom line (TBL) framework for sustainability, encompassing economic, social and environmental objectives is utilized. An additional factor, technical, is also included in the analysis to provide a more holistic view. It is opined that the main challenges of developing nuclear energy for electricity generation in a newcomer country like Malaysia can be attributed primarily to domestic non-technical factors compared to the technical factor.

  12. Regional projections of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1983-12-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 1995. A complete data set is supplied which specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results. When the comparison is based on reference cost parameters, nuclear- and coal-fired generation costs are found to be very close in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is favored in the South Atlantic region where coal must be transported over long distances, while coal-fired generation is favored in the Central and North Central regions where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. The reference data set reflects recent electric utility construction experience. Significantly lower nuclear capital investment costs would result if regulatory reform and improved construction practices were instituted. The electric power generation costs for base load oil- and natural gas-fired plants were also estimated. These plants were found to be noncompetitive in all regions for those scenarios most likely to develop. Generation cost sensitivity to changes in various parameters was examined at a reference location. The sensitivity parameters included capital investment costs, lead times, capacity factors, costs of money, and coal and uranium prices. In addition to the levelized lifetime costs, year-by-year cash flows and revenue requirements are presented. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic merits of recycling spent fuel in light-water reactors.

  13. Generating the option of a two-stage nuclear renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Robin W; Nuttall, William J

    2010-08-13

    Concerns about climate change, security of supply, and depleting fossil fuel reserves have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear power generation in Europe and North America, while other regions continue or initiate an expansion. We suggest that the first stage of this process will include replacing or extending the life of existing nuclear power plants, with continued incremental improvements in efficiency and reliability. After 2030, a large-scale second period of construction would allow nuclear energy to contribute substantially to the decarbonization of electricity generation. For nuclear energy to be sustainable, new large-scale fuel cycles will be required that may include fuel reprocessing. Here, we explore the opportunities and constraints in both time periods and suggests ways in which measures taken today might, at modest cost, provide more options in the decades to come. Careful long-term planning, along with parallel efforts aimed at containing waste products and avoiding diversion of material into weapons production, can ensure that nuclear power generation remains a carbon-neutral option.

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  15. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  16. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghel, C. (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Penttilae, S. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  17. 75 FR 14639 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3... Operation of Indian Point Generating Plant Unit No. 3,'' dated February 1975. Agencies and Persons Consulted..., DPR-26, and DPR-64, issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of Indian...

  18. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  19. David Bruce Payton : väikeriigid mõistavad üksteist / David Bruce Payton ; interv. Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Payton, David Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Uus-Meremaa suursaadik Eestis David Bruce Payton talupidaja toetamise loobumisest Uus-Meremaal, Uus-Meremaa põllumajandussektorist, veinidest, ekspordist, Eesti saamisest EL-i ja NATO liikmeks, Uus-Meremaa rahvastikust, elatustasemest, Iraagi võimalikust ründamisest, Põhja-Koreast

  20. Nuclear Power as a Basis for Future Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioro, Igor; Buruchenko, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that electrical-power generation is the key factor for advances in industry, agriculture, technology and the level of living. Also, strong power industry with diverse energy sources is very important for country independence. In general, electrical energy can be generated from: 1) burning mined and refined energy sources such as coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear; and 2) harnessing energy sources such as hydro, biomass, wind, geothermal, solar, and wave power. Today, the main sources for electrical-energy generation are: 1) thermal power – primarily using coal and secondarily - natural gas; 2) “large” hydro power from dams and rivers and 3) nuclear power from various reactor designs. The balance of the energy sources is from using oil, biomass, wind, geothermal and solar, and have visible impact just in some countries. In spite of significant emphasis in the world on using renewables sources of energy, in particular, wind and solar, they have quite significant disadvantages compared to “traditional” sources for electricity generation such as thermal, hydro, and nuclear. These disadvantages include low density of energy, which requires large areas to be covered with wind turbines or photovoltaic panels or heliostats, and dependence of these sources on Mother Nature, i.e., to be unreliable ones and to have low (20 – 40%) or very low (5 – 15%) capacity factors. Fossil-fueled power plants represent concentrated and reliable source of energy. Also, they operate usually as “fast-response” plants to follow rapidly changing electrical-energy consumption during a day. However, due to combustion process they emit a lot of carbon dioxide, which contribute to the climate change in the world. Moreover, coal-fired power plants, as the most popular ones, create huge amount of slag and ash, and, eventually, emit other dangerous and harmful gases. Therefore, Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), which are also concentrated and reliable source of energy

  1. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  2. The meteorological advisor in a nuclear generation station emergency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiazza, R.

    1985-01-01

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) has developed an extensive emergency response plan for the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Generating Station, located near Oswego, New York, in response to requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). If an emergency involving actual or potential release of radioactivity occurs, meteorological conditions in the vicinity of the plant are an extremely important factor in the emergency response. In recognition of this, NMPC has included a Meteorological Advisor position in its Technical Support Center (TSC)/Emergency Operations Facility (HOF) support staffing plans. The Meteorological Advisor is responsible for verification of meteorological measurements, interpretation and dissemination of weather forecasts, dose projection verification, and monitoring team direction. This paper describes those responsibilities as they are integrated into the emergency plan.

  3. Nuclear data banks generation by interpolation; Generacion de bancos de datos nucleares mediante interpolacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo M, J. A

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear Data Bank generation, is a process in which a great amount of resources is required, both computing and humans. If it is taken into account that at some times it is necessary to create a great amount of those, it is convenient to have a reliable tool that generates Data Banks with the lesser resources, in the least possible time and with a very good approximation. In this work are shown the results obtained during the development of INTPOLBI code, use to generate Nuclear Data Banks employing bicubic polynominal interpolation, taking as independent variables the uranium and gadolinia percents. Two proposal were worked, applying in both cases the finite element method, using one element with 16 nodes to carry out the interpolation. In the first proposals the canonic base was employed, to obtain the interpolating polynomial and later, the corresponding linear equation systems. In the solution of this systems the Gaussian elimination methods with partial pivot was applied. In the second case, the Newton base was used to obtain the mentioned system, resulting in a triangular inferior matrix, which structure, applying elemental operations, to obtain a blocks diagonal matrix, with special characteristics and easier to work with. For the validation tests, a comparison was made between the values obtained with INTPOLBI and INTERTEG (create at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (MX) with the same purpose) codes, and Data Banks created through the conventional process, that is, with nuclear codes normally used. Finally, it is possible to conclude that the Nuclear Data Banks generated with INTPOLBI code constitute a very good approximation that, even though do not wholly replace conventional process, however are helpful in cases when it is necessary to create a great amount of Data Banks.

  4. 77 FR 22361 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., (Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., (Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic...

  5. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  6. Generation of Transgenic Xenopus laevis: III. Sperm Nuclear Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Shoko; Kroll, Kristin L; Amaya, Enrique

    2007-09-01

    INTRODUCTIONManipulating genes specifically during later stages of amphibian embryonic development requires fine control over the time and place of expression. These protocols describe an efficient nuclear-transplantation-based method of transgenesis developed for Xenopus laevis. The approach enables stable expression of cloned gene products in Xenopus embryos. The procedure is based on restriction-enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) and can be divided into three parts: (I) high-speed preparation of egg extracts, (II) sperm nuclei preparation, and (III) nuclear transplantation. This protocol describes a method for the nuclear transplantation in Xenopus laevis. Permeabilized sperm nuclei are incubated briefly with linearized plasmid DNA, after which egg extract and a small amount of restriction enzyme are added. The egg extract partially decondenses the chromosomes, and the restriction enzyme stimulates recombination by creating double-strand breaks, facilitating integration of DNA into the genome. Diluted nuclei are transplanted into unfertilized eggs. Because the transgene integrates into the genome prior to fertilization, the resulting transgenic embryos are not chimeric and there is no need to breed to the next generation in order to obtain nonmosaic transgenic animals.

  7. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    OpenAIRE

    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nuc...

  8. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mark Schanfein; Philip Casey Durst

    2012-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to be constructed near Idaho Falls, Idaho The NGNP is intrinsically safer than current reactors and is planned for startup ca. 2021 Safety is more prominent in the minds of the Public and Governing Officials following the nuclear reactor meltdown accidents in Fukushima, Japan The authors propose that the NGNP should be designed with International (IAEA) Safeguards in mind to support export to Non-Nuclear-Weapons States There are two variants of the NGNP design; one using integral Prismatic-shaped fuel assemblies in a fixed core; and one using recirculating fuel balls (or Pebbles) The following presents the infrastructure required to safeguard the NGNP This infrastructure is required to safeguard the Prismatic and Pebble-fueled NGNP (and other HTGR/VHTR) The infrastructure is based on current Safeguards Requirements and Practices implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for similar reactors The authors of this presentation have worked for decades in the area of International Nuclear Safeguards and are recognized experts in this field Presentation for INMM conference in July 2012.

  9. ENDF/B-VII.0: Next Generation Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Nuclear Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M B; Oblozinsky, P; Herman, M; Greene, N M; McKnight, R D; Smith, D L; Young, P G; MacFarlane, R E; Hale, G M; Haight, R C; Frankle, S; Kahler, A C; Kawano, T; Little, R C; Madland, D G; Moller, P; Mosteller, R; Page, P; Talou, P; Trellue, H; White, M; Wilson, W B; Arcilla, R; Dunford, C L; Mughabghab, S F; Pritychenko, B; Rochman, D; Sonzogni, A A; Lubitz, C; Trumbull, T H; Weinman, J; Brown, D; Cullen, D E; Heinrichs, D; McNabb, D; Derrien, H; Dunn, M; Larson, N M; Leal, L C; Carlson, A D; Block, R C; Briggs, B; Cheng, E; Huria, H; Kozier, K; Courcelle, A; Pronyaev, V; der Marck, S

    2006-10-02

    We describe the next generation general purpose Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF/B-VII.0, of recommended nuclear data for advanced nuclear science and technology applications. The library, released by the U.S. Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in December 2006, contains data primarily for reactions with incident neutrons, protons, and photons on almost 400 isotopes. The new evaluations are based on both experimental data and nuclear reaction theory predictions. The principal advances over the previous ENDF/B-VI library are the following: (1) New cross sections for U, Pu, Th, Np and Am actinide isotopes, with improved performance in integral validation criticality and neutron transmission benchmark tests; (2) More precise standard cross sections for neutron reactions on H, {sup 6}Li, {sup 10}B, Au and for {sup 235,238}U fission, developed by a collaboration with the IAEA and the OECD/NEA Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC); (3) Improved thermal neutron scattering; (4) An extensive set of neutron cross sections on fission products developed through a WPEC collaboration; (5) A large suite of photonuclear reactions; (6) Extension of many neutron- and proton-induced reactions up to an energy of 150 MeV; (7) Many new light nucleus neutron and proton reactions; (8) Post-fission beta-delayed photon decay spectra; (9) New radioactive decay data; and (10) New methods developed to provide uncertainties and covariances, together with covariance evaluations for some sample cases. The paper provides an overview of this library, consisting of 14 sublibraries in the same, ENDF-6 format, as the earlier ENDF/B-VI library. We describe each of the 14 sublibraries, focusing on neutron reactions. Extensive validation, using radiation transport codes to simulate measured critical assemblies, show major improvements: (a) The long-standing underprediction of low enriched U thermal assemblies is removed; (b) The {sup 238}U, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 9}Be reflector

  10. 76 FR 32237 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability... Plants and Public Meetings for the License Renewal of Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published a draft plant...

  11. Steam Generator tube integrity -- US Nuclear Regulatory Commission perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.L.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1997-02-01

    In the US, the current regulatory framework was developed in the 1970s when general wall thinning was the dominant degradation mechanism; and, as a result of changes in the forms of degradation being observed and improvements in inspection and tube repair technology, the regulatory framework needs to be updated. Operating experience indicates that the current U.S. requirements should be more stringent in some areas, while in other areas they are overly conservative. To date, this situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis in the US. However, the NRC staff is now developing a proposed steam generator rule as a generic framework for ensuring that the steam generator tubes are capable of performing their intended safety functions. This paper discusses the current U.S. regulatory framework for assuring steam generator (SG) tube integrity, the need to update this regulatory framework, the objectives of the new proposed rule, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guide (RG) that will accompany the rule, how risk considerations affect the development of the new rule, and some outstanding issues relating to the rule that the NRC is still dealing with.

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  13. Hipse: an event generator for nuclear collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D

    2003-11-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. Based on the sudden approximation and on geometrical hypothesis, it can conveniently simulate heavy-ion interactions at all impact parameters and thus can constitute a valuable tool for the understanding of processes such as neck emission or multifragmentation in peripheral or/and central collisions. After a detailed description of the ingredients of the model, first comparisons with experimental data collected by the INDRA collaboration are shown. Special emphasis is put on the kinematical characteristics of fragments and light particles observed at all impact parameters for Xe+Sn reactions at 25 and 50 MeV/u and Ni + Ni at 82 MeV/u. (authors)

  14. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  15. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C to 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor, and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX).This component will be operated in flowing, impure helium on the primary and secondary side at temperatures up to 950°C. There are major high temperature design, materials availability, and fabrication issues that need to be addressed. The prospective materials are Alloys 617, 230, 800H and X, with Alloy 617 being the leading candidate for the use at 950°C. The material delivery schedule for these materials does not pose a problem for a 2018 start up as the vendors can quote reasonable delivery times at the moment. The product forms and amount needed must be finalized as soon as possible. An

  16. Nuclear Fusion Effects Induced in Intense Laser-Generated Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deutered polyethylene (CD2n thin and thick targets were irradiated in high vacuum by infrared laser pulses at 1015W/cm2 intensity. The high laser energy transferred to the polymer generates plasma, expanding in vacuum at supersonic velocity, accelerating hydrogen and carbon ions. Deuterium ions at kinetic energies above 4 MeV have been measured by using ion collectors and SiC detectors in time-of-flight configuration. At these energies the deuterium–deuterium collisions may induce over threshold fusion effects, in agreement with the high D-D cross-section valuesaround 3 MeV energy. At the first instants of the plasma generation, during which high temperature, density and ionacceleration occur, the D-D fusions occur as confirmed by the detection of mono-energetic protonsand neutrons with a kinetic energy of 3.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV, respectively, produced by the nuclear reaction. The number of fusion events depends strongly on the experimental set-up, i.e. on the laser parameters (intensity, wavelength, focal spot dimension, target conditions (thickness, chemical composition, absorption coefficient, presence of secondary targets and used geometry (incidence angle, laser spot, secondary target positions.A number of D-D fusion events of the order of 106÷7 per laser shot has been measured.

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  18. Dependable Hydrogen and Industrial Heat Generation from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson; Vincent C. Maio; Piyush Sabharwall

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy is working with industry to develop a next generation, high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) as a part of the effort to supply the US with abundant, clean and secure energy. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory, will demonstrate the ability of the HTGR to generate hydrogen, electricity, and high-quality process heat for a wide range of industrial applications. Substituting HTGR power for traditional fossil fuel resources reduces the cost and supply vulnerability of natural gas and oil, and reduces or eliminates greenhouse gas emissions. As authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, industry leaders are developing designs for the construction of a commercial prototype producing up to 600 MWt of power by 2021. This paper describes a variety of critical applications that are appropriate for the HTGR with an emphasis placed on applications requiring a clean and reliable source of hydrogen. An overview of the NGNP project status and its significant technology development efforts are also presented.

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  20. Management of radioactive waste generated in nuclear medicine; Gestion de los residuos radiactivos generados en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz Perez, P.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a clinical specialty in which radioactive material is used in non-encapsulated form, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Nuclear medicine involves administering to a patient a radioactive substance, usually liquid, both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This process generates solid radioactive waste (syringes, vials, gloves) and liquid (mainly the patient's urine). (Author)

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  3. Steam generator management at Ontario Hydro Nuclear Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickerson, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Maruska, C.C. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Managing ageing steam generators involves costly decisions for the utility, both in terms of the cost of the maintenance activities andin terms of having the unit shutdown and consequent power loss while performing these activities. The benefits of these activities are seldom guaranteed and are sometimes very intangible. For nuclear utilities the most pertinent questions that arise are have we identified all the problem(s), can we predict the risk due to these problems? Can we implement corrective and preventive activities to manage the problem and what is the optimum timing of implementation? Is the money spent worthwhile, i.e. has it given us a return in production and safety? Can we avoid surprises? How can we tangibly measure success? This paper touches briefly on all the questions mentioned above but it mainly addresses the last question: 'how can we tangibly measure success?' by using several success indicators proposed by EPRI and by applying them to actual Ontario Hydro experience. The appropriateness of these success indicators as the means to assess the success of these programs, to feed back the results, and to enhance or revise the programs will be discussed. (author)

  4. Strain measurement on a compact nuclear reactor steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaldaferri, Denis Henrique Bianchi; Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida; Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues, E-mail: dhbs@cdtn.b, E-mail: gomespt@cdtn.b, E-mail: tanius@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pozzo, Renato del, E-mail: delpozzo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Mola, Jairo [Unitecnica Engenharia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the strain measurement procedures applied to a compact nuclear reactor steam generator, during a hydrostatic test, using strain gage technology. The test was divided in two steps: primary side test and secondary side test. In the primary side test twelve points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, three points (two external and one internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. In the secondary side test 18 points for strain measurement using rectangular rosettes, four points (two external and two internal) for temperature measurement using special strain gages and one point for pressure measurement using a pressure transducer were monitored. The measurement points on both internal and external pressurizer walls were established from pre-calculated stress distribution by means of numerical approach (finite elements modeling). Strain values using a quarter Wheatstone bridge circuit were obtained. Stress values, from experimental strain were determined, and to numerical calculation results were compared. (author)

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  6. Modeling a Helical-coil Steam Generator in RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan A. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Options for the primary heat transport loop heat exchangers for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant are currently being evaluated. A helical-coil steam generator is one heat exchanger design under consideration. Safety is an integral part of the helical-coil steam generator evaluation. Transient analysis plays a key role in evaluation of the steam generators safety. Using RELAP5-3D to model the helical-coil steam generator, a loss of pressure in the primary side of the steam generator is simulated. This report details the development of the steam generator model, the loss of pressure transient, and the response of the steam generator primary and secondary systems to the loss of primary pressure. Back ground on High Temperature Gas-cooled reactors, steam generators, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant is provided to increase the readers understanding of the material presented.

  7. Technical characteristics of new generation of nuclear power plants; Charakterystyka techniczna elektrowni jadrowych nowej generacji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janczak, R.; Mikulski, A.; Staron, E. [Instytut Energii Atomowej, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The concept of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) as a new generation of nuclear reactors for energetics have been presented. The influence of reactor accidents (TMI and Chernobyl) on technical and scientific development of nuclear reactors has been discussed from the view point of safety assurance and requirements being defined by American and European Nuclear Regulatory commission. 12 refs, 14 figs.

  8. Generating Entanglement and Squeezed States of Nuclear Spins in Quantum Dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudner, M.S.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Vuletic, V.; Levitov, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for achieving coherent spin squeezing of nuclear spin states in semiconductor quantum dots. The nuclear polarization dependence of the electron spin resonance generates a unitary evolution that drives nuclear spins into a collective entangled state. The polarization dependence of

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded microRNA BART15-3p promotes cell apoptosis partially by targeting BRUCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoyun; Lee, Hanna; Kim, Sae Rom; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2013-07-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) generates a variety of viral microRNAs (miRNAs) by processing the BHRF1 and BamHI A rightward (BART) transcripts. BART miRNAs are expressed in all cells latently infected with EBV, but the functions of most BART miRNAs remain unknown. The results of a cell proliferation assay revealed that miR-BART15-3p inhibited cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting following staining with annexin V or propidium iodide showed that miR-BART15-3p promoted apoptosis. Furthermore, the inhibitor for miR-BART15-3p increased cell growth and reduced apoptosis in EBV-infected cells. Using bioinformatic analyses, we predicted that miR-BART15-3p may target the antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), BCL2L2, DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 42 (DDX42), and baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (BRUCE) mRNAs. The luciferase reporter assay showed that only the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of BRUCE was affected by miR-BART15-3p. Two putative seed-matched sites for miR-BART15-3p were evident on the BRUCE 3' UTR. The results of a mutation study indicated that miR-BART15-3p hybridized only with the first seed-matched site on the BRUCE 3' UTR. miR-BART15-3p downregulated the BRUCE protein in EBV-negative cells, while the inhibitor for miR-BART15-3p upregulated the BRUCE protein in EBV-infected cells without affecting the BRUCE mRNA level. miR-BART15-3p was secreted from EBV-infected gastric carcinoma cells, and the level of miR-BART15-3p was 2- to 16-fold higher in exosomes than in the corresponding cells. Our data suggest that miR-BART15-3p can induce apoptosis partially by inhibiting the translation of the apoptosis inhibitor BRUCE. Further study is warranted to understand the role of miR-BART15-3p in the EBV life cycle.

  10. Bruce Davidson. Time of Change et 100th Street.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kempf

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruce Davidson, né en 1933, est l’un des grands photographes de reportage des années 1960 à 1980, dans la lignée d’un Henri Cartier-Bresson ou d’un Marc Riboud. Le photographe étant membre de Magnum depuis 1958, il n’est a priori pas surprenant que cette double exposition de son travail des années 1960 (plutôt d’ailleurs que deux expositions, nous y reviendrons se trouve présentée à la fondation Henri Cartier-Bresson. Attaché à la forme mais sans excès, passionné de « contenu » et spectateur...

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  12. Transcending the National in Australian Studies Bruce Bennett’s Influence on a Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Haag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There was something peculiar about meeting Bruce Bennett. Chances to see Bruce in Europe were much higher than getting hold of him in Australia. The first time we met was neither in Australia nor in Europe, but in Kolkata, India. This was at the 2008 IASA conference, one of the biennial meetings of the Indian Association for the Study of Australia. Bruce was surrounded by a bevy of Indian scholars, especially students, eager to ask for his advice or simply having a chat about their papers over coffee. Bruce had always had an open ear for everyone. He was interested in talking to students and emerging scholars alike. An eminent authority on Australian literature and culture, Bruce was not only preoccupied with ‘big’ names. He also engaged with young scholars of Australian studies.

  13. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-11-29

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  14. Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1987-06-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive.

  15. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume II, reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986, to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators. The technical issues discussed most extensively were: man/machine interfaces, component interfaces, thermal gradients of startup and cooldown and the need for an accurate industry database for trend analysis of the diesel generator system.

  16. Nuclear power generation safe and competitive - now and in future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf-Dieter, Krebs [European Nuclear Society and Framatome ANP (Germany); Hoffman, D.R. [American Nuclear Society and Excel Services Corp. (United States)

    2002-07-01

    ENC brings together scientists, academics, chief executives and all the major players from both the European and world nuclear utilities, to debate on the nuclear energy from technical, commercial and political perspectives. The abstracts of presentation from this conference are proposed in this paper grouped in four main themes: innovative reactors and fuel cycle; waste management including partitioning and transmutation and ADS development; experimental, research reactors and neutron sources; operation, maintenance, inspection and thermal hydraulics. (A.L.B.)

  17. Membranes for H2 generation from nuclear powered thermochemical cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Ambrosini, Andrea; Garino, Terry J.; Gelbard, Fred; Leung, Kevin; Navrotsky, Alexandra (University of California, Davis, CA); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G. (University of California, Davis, CA); Axness, Marlene

    2006-11-01

    In an effort to produce hydrogen without the unwanted greenhouse gas byproducts, high-temperature thermochemical cycles driven by heat from solar energy or next-generation nuclear power plants are being explored. The process being developed is the thermochemical production of Hydrogen. The Sulfur-Iodide (SI) cycle was deemed to be one of the most promising cycles to explore. The first step of the SI cycle involves the decomposition of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} into O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O at temperatures around 850 C. In-situ removal of O{sub 2} from this reaction pushes the equilibrium towards dissociation, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the decomposition reaction. A membrane is required for this oxygen separation step that is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and corrosive conditions inherent in this process. Mixed ionic-electronic perovskites and perovskite-related structures are potential materials for oxygen separation membranes owing to their robustness, ability to form dense ceramics, capacity to stabilize oxygen nonstoichiometry, and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Two oxide families with promising results were studied: the double-substituted perovskite A{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}B{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A=La, Y; B=Cr-Ni), in particular the family La{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}Co{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCM), and doped La{sub 2}Ni{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 4} (M = Cu, Zn). Materials and membranes were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray and neutron diffraction, SEM, thermal analyses, calorimetry and conductivity. Furthermore, we were able to leverage our program with a DOE/NE sponsored H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition reactor study (at Sandia), in which our membranes were tested in the actual H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition step.

  18. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  19. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events. PMID:17663775

  20. Possible Nuclear Safeguards Applications: Workshop on Next-Generation Laser Compton Gamma Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, J. Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Physics Division

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for the development of a next-generation photon source white paper. The following topics are covered in these slides: Nuclear Safeguards; The Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Precise isotopic determination via NRF; UF6 Enrichment Assay; and Non-Destructive Assay of Spent Nuclear Fuel. In summary: A way to non-destructively measure precise isotopics of ~kg and larger samples has multiple uses in nuclear safeguards; Ideally this is a compact, fieldable device that can be used by international inspectors. Must be rugged and reliable; A next-generation source can be used as a testing ground for these techniques as technology develops.

  1. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  2. 76 FR 29279 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION NORTHERN STATES POWER COMPANY Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Plants Regarding the License Renewal of Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plants, Units 1 and 2 Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published a final plant...

  3. Detailed requirements for a next generation nuclear data structure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-07-05

    This document attempts to compile the requirements for the top-levels of a hierarchical arrangement of nuclear data such as found in the ENDF format. This set of requirements will be used to guide the development of a new data structure to replace the legacy ENDF format.

  4. Nuclear Power and Justice between Generations. A Moral Analysis of Fuel Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Taebi, B.

    2010-01-01

    When we produce nuclear power we are depleting a non-renewable resource (uranium) that will eventually not be available to future generations. Furthermore the ensuing nuclear waste needs to be isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time to come. This gives rise to the problem of justice to posterity or intergenerational justice. Different production methods or nuclear fuel cycles address these issues differently which is why we first need to carefully scrutinize all the possibilities...

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Wright

    2010-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  6. Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Ryskamp; Phil Hildebrandt; Osamu Baba; Ron Ballinger; Robert Brodsky; Hans-Wolfgang Chi; Dennis Crutchfield; Herb Estrada; Jeane-Claude Garnier; Gerald Gordon; Richard Hobbins; Dan Keuter; Marilyn Kray; Philippe Martin; Steve Melancon; Christian Simon; Henry Stone; Robert Varrin; Werner von Lensa

    2004-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions, observations, and recommendations of the Independent Technology Review Group (ITRG) regarding design features and important technology uncertainties associated with very-high-temperature nuclear system concepts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The ITRG performed its reviews during the period November 2003 through April 2004.

  7. Nuclear Power and Justice between Generations. A Moral Analysis of Fuel Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taebi, B.

    2010-01-01

    When we produce nuclear power we are depleting a non-renewable resource (uranium) that will eventually not be available to future generations. Furthermore the ensuing nuclear waste needs to be isolated from the biosphere for long periods of time to come. This gives rise to the problem of justice to

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project 2009 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick; Jim Kinsey; Keith Perry; Dave Petti

    2010-05-01

    The mission of the NGNP Project is to broaden the environmental and economic benefits of nuclear energy technology to the United States and other economies by demonstrating its applicability to market sectors not served by light water reactors (LWRs). Those markets typically use fossil fuels to fulfill their energy needs, and high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) like the NGNP can reduce this dependence and the resulting carbon footprint.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Collins

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Systems, Subsystems, and Components, establishes a baseline for the current technology readiness status, and provides a path forward to achieve increasing levels of technical maturity.

  10. Production of gel {sup 99m}Tc generators for Nuclear Medicine at the Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R.E

    1996-07-01

    The development and testing of the gel-type {sup 99m}Tc generator technology has been going on for several years at the Nuclear Power Institute of China. This generator type has already been licensed by the Ministry of Health. With the co-operation of the IAEA, under Model Project CPR/2/006,it is intended to upgrade and optimise the existing facility for large scale production and continue to improve the generator performance in terms of quality and reliability of its use in nuclear medicine. The expert mission objective was to carry out final laboratory tests to assess the performance of the gel- type {sup 99m}Tc, locally produced, as well as to assess the suitability of the corresponding {sup 99m}Tc eluate for nuclear medicine studies. In particular, the expert tested the suitability of the {sup 99m}Tc for the labelling of sensitive biomolecules and its general performance in a nuclear medicine service

  11. Seismic risk assessment as applied to the Zion Nuclear Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J.

    1984-08-01

    To assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its licensing and evaluation role, the NRC funded the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of developing tools and data bases to evaluate the risk of earthquake caused radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. This paper describes the SSMRP risk assessment methodology and the results generated by applying this methodology to the Zion Nuclear Generating Station. In addition to describing the failure probabilities and risk values, the effects of assumptions about plant configuration, plant operation, and dependence will be given.

  12. Protocol for generating multiphoton entangled states from quantum dots in the presence of nuclear spin fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denning, Emil Vosmar; Iles-Smith, Jake; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Multiphoton entangled states are a crucial resource for many applications inquantum information science. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a promising route to generate such states by mediating photon-photon correlations via a confinedelectron spin, but dephasing caused by the host nuclear spin...... environment typically limits coherence (and hence entanglement) between photons to the spin T2* time of a few nanoseconds. We propose a protocol for the deterministic generation of multiphoton entangled states that is inherently robust against the dominating slow nuclear spin environment fluctuations, meaning...... or nuclear spin calming techniques....

  13. Technology development for nuclear power generation for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Placco, Guilherme M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: lamartine.guimaraes@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear; Faria, Saulo M. de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    For a few years now, the TERRA project is developing several technology pieces to foster nuclear space applications. In this way, a nuclear reactor concept has been developed as a first proposal. Together, the problem of heat to electricity conversion has been addressed. A closed Brayton cycle is being built and a Stirling machine is being worked out and perfected. In addition, two types of heat pipes are being look at. One related with high temperature made of Mo13Re, an especial alloy. And a second one made of copper, which mainly could be used as a passive heat rejection. In this way, all major areas of interest in a micro station to be used in space has been addressed. A new passive technology has been inferred and is related with Tesla turbine or its evolution, known as multi fluid passive turbine. This technology has the potential to either: improve the Brayton cycle or its efficiency. In this paper, some details are discussed and some will be shown during the presentation, as the work evolve. (author)

  14. Korean students' behavioral change toward nuclear power generation through education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kim, Jae Rok; Choi, Yoon Seok [Dept. of Education and Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    As a result of conducting a 45 minute-long seminar on the principles, state of use, advantages, and disadvantages of nuclear power generation for Korean elementary, middle, and high school students, the levels of perception including the necessity (p<0.017), safety (p<0.000), information acquisition (p<0.000), and subjective knowledge (p<0.000), objective knowledge (p<0.000), attitude (p<0.000), and behavior (p<0.000) were all significantly higher. This indicates that education can be effective in promoting widespread social acceptance of nuclear power and its continued use. In order to induce behavior change toward positive judgments on nuclear power generation, it is necessary to focus on attitude improvement while providing the information in all areas related to the perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Here, the positive message on the convenience and the safety of nuclear power generation should be highlighted.

  15. Generating highly polarized nuclear spins in solution using dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolber, J.; Ellner, F.; Fridlund, B.

    2004-01-01

    and other low-γ nuclei. Subsequent to the DNP process, the solid sample is dissolved rapidly with a warm solvent to create a solution of molecules with highly polarized nuclear spins. Two main applications are proposed: high-resolution liquid state NMR with enhanced sensitivity, and the use...

  16. Hydraulic Testing of Silurian and Ordovician Strata at the Bruce Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauheim, R. L.; Avis, J. D.; Chace, D. A.; Roberts, R. M.; Toll, N. J.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) within a Paleozoic-age sedimentary sequence beneath the Bruce Site near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The concept envisions that the DGR would be excavated at a depth of approximately 680 m within the Ordovician Cobourg Formation, a massive, dense, argillaceous limestone. A key attribute of the Bruce site is the extremely low permeabilities associated with the thick Ordovician carbonate and argillaceous bedrock formations that will host and enclose the DGR. Such rock mass permeabilities are thought sufficiently low to contribute toward or govern a diffusion-dominated transport regime. To support this concept, hydraulic testing was performed in 2008 and 2009 in two deep boreholes at the proposed repository site, DGR-3 and DGR-4. The hydraulic testing was performed using a straddle-packer tool with a 30.74-m test interval. Sequential tests were performed over the entire open lengths of the boreholes from the F Unit of the Silurian Salina Formation into the Ordovician Gull River Formation, a distance of approximately 635 m. The tests consisted primarily of pressure-pulse tests, with a few slug tests performed in several of the higher permeability Silurian units. The tests are analyzed using the nSIGHTS code, which allows the entire pressure history a test interval has experienced since it was penetrated by the drill bit to be included in the test simulation. nSIGHTS also allows the model fit to the test data to be optimized over an n-dimensional parameter space to ensure that the final solution represents a true global minimum rather than simply a local minimum. The test results show that the Ordovician-age strata above the Coboconk Formation (70+ m below the Cobourg) have average horizontal hydraulic conductivities of 1E-13 m/s or less. Coboconk and Gull River hydraulic conductivities are as high as 1E-11 m

  17. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This text was written to accompany a course concerning the need, environmental costs, and benefits of electrical power generation. It was compiled and written by a committee drawn from educators, health physicists, members of industry and conservation groups, and environmental scientists. Topics include: the increasing need for electrical power,…

  18. 78 FR 25486 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC., Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC., Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power... Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant) for the proposed facility to be located in Somervell County, Texas. In.... No changes are being made in the types of effluents that may be released offsite. There is no...

  19. Natural Gas, Wind and Nuclear Options for Generating Electricity in a Carbon Constrained World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    A linear programming model is used to examine the impact of carbon taxes on the optimal generation mix in the Alberta electrical system. The model permits decommissioning of generating assets with high carbon dioxide emissions and investment in new gas-fired, wind and, in some scenarios, nuclear

  20. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  2. Spare parts management for nuclear power generation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Natalie Michele

    With deregulation, utilities in the power sector face a much more urgent imperative to emphasize cost efficiencies as compared to the days of regulation. One major opportunity for cost savings is through reductions in spare parts inventories. Most utilities are accustomed to carrying large volumes of expensive, relatively slow-moving parts because of a high degree of risk-averseness. This attitude towards risk is rooted in the days of regulation. Under regulation, companies recovered capital inventory costs by incorporating them into the base rate charged to their customers. In a deregulated environment, cost recovery is no longer guaranteed. Companies must therefore reexamine their risk profile and develop policies for spare parts inventory that are appropriate for a competitive business environment. This research studies the spare parts inventory management problem in the context of electric utilities, with a focus on nuclear power. It addresses three issues related to this problem: criticality, risk, and policy. With respect to criticality and risk, a methodology is presented that incorporates the use of influence diagrams and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A new method is developed for group aggregation in the AHP when Saaty and Vargas' (2007) dispersion test fails and decision makers are unwilling or unable to revise their judgments. With respect to policy, a quantitative model that ranks the importance of keeping a part in inventory and recommends a corresponding stocking policy through the use of numerical simulation is developed. This methodology and its corresponding models will enable utilities that have transitioned from a regulated to a deregulated environment become more competitive in their operations while maintaining safety and reliability standards. Furthermore, the methodology developed is general enough so that other utility plants, especially those in the nuclear sector, will be able to use this approach. In addition to regulated

  3. 78 FR 27260 - Southern California Edison, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3 Request for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... COMMISSION Southern California Edison, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3 Request for... regard to San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3. The petitioner supplemented its petition... identified in the Unit 2 and Unit 3 Steam Generators at San Onofre Generating Station and other specified...

  4. Potential growth of nuclear and coal electricity generation in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.

    1989-08-01

    Electricity demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity over the next fifty years. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will require solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear, the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. This report assesses the impacts associated with a range of projected growth rates in electricity demand over the next 50 years. The resource requirements and waste generation resulting from pursuing the coal and nuclear fuel options to meet the projected growth rates are estimated. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Improvements in technology and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety concerns about electricity generation from both options. 34 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  6. Nuclear Fusion Effects Induced in Intense Laser-Generated Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Torrisi; Salvatore Cavallaro; Mariapompea Cutroneo; Josef Krasa

    2013-01-01

    Deutered polyethylene (CD2)n thin and thick targets were irradiated in high vacuum by infrared laser pulses at 1015W/cm2 intensity. The high laser energy transferred to the polymer generates plasma, expanding in vacuum at supersonic velocity, accelerating hydrogen and carbon ions. Deuterium ions at kinetic energies above 4 MeV have been measured by using ion collectors and SiC detectors in time-of-flight configuration. At these energies the deuterium–deuterium collisions may induce over thres...

  7. Development of technology for next generation reactor - Research of evaluation technology for nuclear power plant -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1993-09-01

    For development of next generation reactor, a project for evaluation technology for nuclear power plant is performed. Evaluation technology is essential to next generation reactor for reactor safety and system analysis. For design concept, detailed evaluation technologies are studied as follows: evaluation of safety margin, evaluation of safety facilities, evaluation of measurement and control technology; man-machine interface. Especially for thermal efficiency, thermal properties and chemical composition of inconel 690 tube, instead of inconel 600 tube, are measured for steam generator. (Author).

  8. Czech young generation activities in nuclear training and education framework in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejkova, J.; Foral, S.; Varmuza, J.; Katovsky, K.

    2014-07-01

    The Czech Republic has a long tradition in nuclear power production. One third of Czech electricity production is generated in two nuclear power plants, Dukovany and Temelin, totaling six power reactors. There are also three non-power, research reactors: two zero power reactors for education and research support, and one material testing reactor (MTR) used mainly for radioisotopes production. One of zero power reactors is employed by the Czech Technical University in Prague for education and research purposes, other zero power reactor and MTR are situated at nuclear research complex in Rez. (Author)

  9. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-11-03

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  10. Protocol for generating multiphoton entangled states from quantum dots in the presence of nuclear spin fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Emil V.; Iles-Smith, Jake; McCutcheon, Dara P. S.; Mork, Jesper

    2017-12-01

    Multiphoton entangled states are a crucial resource for many applications in quantum information science. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a promising route to generate such states by mediating photon-photon correlations via a confined electron spin, but dephasing caused by the host nuclear spin environment typically limits coherence (and hence entanglement) between photons to the spin T2* time of a few nanoseconds. We propose a protocol for the deterministic generation of multiphoton entangled states that is inherently robust against the dominating slow nuclear spin environment fluctuations, meaning that coherence and entanglement is instead limited only by the much longer spin T2 time of microseconds. Unlike previous protocols, the present scheme allows for the generation of very low error probability polarization encoded three-photon GHZ states and larger entangled states, without the need for spin echo or nuclear spin calming techniques.

  11. Comparing the sustainability parameters of renewable, nuclear and fossil fuel electricity generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Annette; Strezov, Vladimir; Evans, Tim

    2010-09-15

    The sustainability parameters of electricity generation have been assessed by the application of eight key indicators. Photovoltaics, wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass, natural gas, coal and nuclear power have been assessed according to their price, greenhouse gas emissions, efficiency, land use, water use, availability, limitations and social impacts on a per kilowatt hour basis. The relevance of this information to the Australian context is discussed. Also included are the results of a survey on Australian opinions regarding electricity generation, which found that Australian prefer solar electricity above any other method, however coal, biomass and nuclear power have low acceptance.

  12. Static analysis of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations based on finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Chen, Tian-jin; Li, Wei-yang; Xiong, Ze-cheng; Ma, Rui

    2017-09-01

    In order to obtain the deformation map and equivalent stress distribution of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations, the quality distribution of structure and electrical are described, the tensile bond strengths of the rings are checked, and the finite element model of cabinet is set up by ANSYS. The transport conditions of the hoisting state and fork loading state are analyzed. The deformation map and equivalent stress distribution are obtained. The attentive problems are put forward. It is a reference for analysis method and the obtained results for the transport of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations.

  13. Debate on Bruce Bimber´s Book Information and American Democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpf, David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availablePresentation José Manuel Robles Abstract of Information and American Democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2003 Bruce Bimber From Regimes to Ecologies: Globalizing Bruce Bimber’s Model of Information and Politics Steven Livingston Internet, new forms of power and democracy José Luís Garcia Internet: A Technological Tool and Changes in Political Power Liu Gang Information and American Democracy in the era of web 2.0 Lorenzo Mosca What Comes Next?: Bimber’s Information Revolutions and Institutional Disruptions David Karpf Online Political Information and Online Political Participation José Manuel Robles Digital Media and Political Change: A Response to Garcia, Karpf, Livingston, Liu, Mosca, and Robles Bruce Bimber

  14. Quantification of the Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Nuclear Power Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kadiyala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper statistically quantifies the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from six distinct reactor-based (boiling water reactor (BWR, pressurized water reactor (PWR, light water reactor (LWR, heavy-water-moderated reactor (HWR, gas-cooled reactor (GCR, fast breeder reactor (FBR nuclear power generation systems by following a two-step approach that included (a performing a review of the lifecycle assessment (LCA studies on the reactor-based nuclear power generation systems; and (b statistically evaluating the lifecycle GHG emissions (expressed in grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt hour, gCO2e/kWh for each of the reactor-based nuclear power generation systems to assess the role of different types of nuclear reactors in the reduction of the lifecycle GHG emissions. Additionally, this study quantified the impacts of fuel enrichment methods (centrifuge, gaseous diffusion on GHG emissions. The mean lifecycle GHG emissions resulting from the use of BWR (sample size, N = 15, PWR (N = 21, LWR (N = 7, HWR (N = 3, GCR (N = 1, and FBR (N = 2 in nuclear power generation systems are 14.52 gCO2e/kWh, 11.87 gCO2e/kWh, 20.5 gCO2e/kWh, 28.2 gCO2e/kWh, 8.35 gCO2e/kWh, and 6.26 gCO2e/kWh, respectively. The FBR nuclear power generation systems produced the minimum lifecycle GHGs. The centrifuge enrichment method produced lower GHG emissions than the gaseous diffusion enrichment method.

  15. 77 FR 31402 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ..., Plant Licensing Branch II-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor... Plugging Degraded PWR Steam Generator Tubes,'' (Reference 10) are maintained for both normal and postulated... affected by the primary-to secondary leakage flow during the event. However, primary-to-secondary leakage...

  16. 75 FR 52045 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental... Operating License No. NPF-74, issued to Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee), for operation of... the public health and safety. The NRC-approved Westinghouse Electric Company LLC (Westinghouse...

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pete Jordan

    2010-09-01

    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  18. 75 FR 34776 - Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4; Environmental... permit are needed. No effects on the aquatic or terrestrial habitat in the vicinity or the plant, or to..., for Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-31 and DPR-41, issued to Florida Power & Light Company (the...

  19. Phylogenetic properties of 50 nuclear loci in Medicago (Leguminosae) generated using multiplexed sequence capture and next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Filipe; Bertrand, Yann J K; Nylinder, Stephan; Oxelman, Bengt; Eriksson, Jonna S; Pfeil, Bernard E

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology has increased the capacity to generate molecular data for plant biological research, including phylogenetics, and can potentially contribute to resolving complex phylogenetic problems. The evolutionary history of Medicago L. (Leguminosae: Trifoliae) remains unresolved due to incongruence between published phylogenies. Identification of the processes causing this genealogical incongruence is essential for the inference of a correct species phylogeny of the genus and requires that more molecular data, preferably from low-copy nuclear genes, are obtained across different species. Here we report the development of 50 novel LCN markers in Medicago and assess the phylogenetic properties of each marker. We used the genomic resources available for Medicago truncatula Gaertn., hybridisation-based gene enrichment (sequence capture) techniques and Next-Generation Sequencing to generate sequences. This alternative proves to be a cost-effective approach to amplicon sequencing in phylogenetic studies at the genus or tribe level and allows for an increase in number and size of targeted loci. Substitution rate estimates for each of the 50 loci are provided, and an overview of the variation in substitution rates among a large number of low-copy nuclear genes in plants is presented for the first time. Aligned sequences of major species lineages of Medicago and its sister genus are made available and can be used in further probe development for sequence-capture of the same markers.

  20. 78 FR 26663 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, License Renewal of Nuclear Plants and Public Meetings for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, License Renewal of Nuclear Plants and Public Meetings for the... Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants (GEIS), NUREG-1437, regarding the renewal of operating...

  1. 78 FR 79709 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-31317] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-302; NRC-2013-0283] Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Notice of receipt; availability; public...

  2. Determination of leveled costs of electric generation for gas plants, coal and nuclear; Determinacion de costos nivelados de generacion electrica para plantas de gas, carbon y nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G.; Palacios H, J.C.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Gomez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: galonso@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The present work analyzes the leveled costs of electric generation for different types of nuclear reactors known as Generation III, these costs are compared with the leveled costs of electric generation of plants with the help of natural gas and coal. In the study several discount rates were used to determine their impact in the initial investment. The obtained results are comparable with similar studies and they show that it has more than enough the base of the leveled cost the nuclear option it is quite competitive in Mexico. Also in this study it is also thinks about the economic viability of a new nuclear power station in Mexico. (Author)

  3. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  4. Fighting with Reality: Considering Mark Johnson's Pragmatic Realism through Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alexander David

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation considers the supportive and complementary relation between Mark Johnson's embodied realism and Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do as a philosophical practice. In exploring this relationship, the emphasis on one's embodiment condition and its relationship with metaphor and self-expression are the primary focus. First, this work involves…

  5. Coffee Cups, Canoes, Airplanes and the Lived Experience: Reflections on the Works of Bertram (Chip) Bruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A career spent in research, teaching, and engagement with community entails a lifetime of assemblage of meaning from people, resources, technologies and experience. In his work, Bertram (Chip) Bruce has long engaged with how we create such an assemblage of meaning from our formal and found learning, and from the "lived experience" of…

  6. Our GSLIS Colleague, Chip Bruce: An Appreciation. A Deweyan Pragmatist in the Internet Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The reconstructive project needed to enable information for democracy, to which Chip Bruce has contributed much, is of long standing. Using a few wide brush strokes, in this article some of the most vital historical contexts for situating this project are supplied.

  7. "He's Supportive, Period": A Tribute to Bertram (Chip) Bruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    In this personal and revealing essay, the author traces her relationship with Chip Bruce, from its beginnings, when he served on her dissertation committee, to the present, when she realizes that she is paying forward to her own graduate students the fruits of community inquiry and supportive teaching and learning.

  8. Males' non-enhancement of bruce and whitten effects in female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the second round, there was no significant difference (p>0.05). in both mean litter size and weight among all the five groups. Results showed that male mice placed in the same cage with female mice were not seen as strange by the females. Keywords: Bruce and Whitten effects, Albino mice, Strange, Pheromones ...

  9. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  10. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS Cells by Nuclear Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Dey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development pluripotency is progressively lost irreversibly by cell division, differentiation, migration and organ formation. Terminally differentiated cells do not generate other kinds of cells. Pluripotent stem cells are a great source of varying cell types that are used for tissue regeneration or repair of damaged tissue. The pluripotent stem cells can be derived from inner cell mass of blastocyte but its application is limited due to ethical concerns. The recent discovery of iPS with defined reprogramming factors has initiated a flurry of works on stem cell in various laboratories. The pluripotent cells can be derived from various differentiated adult cells as well as from adult stem cells by nuclear reprogramming, somatic cell nuclear transfer etc. In this review article, different aspects of nuclear reprogramming are discussed.

  11. A nuclear Argonaute promotes multi-generational epigenetic inheritance and germline immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Bethany; Burkhart, Kirk; Gu, Sam Guoping; Spracklin, George; Kershner, Aaron; Fritz, Heidi; Kimble, Judith; Fire, Andrew; Kennedy, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic information is frequently erased near the start of each new generation (1). In some cases, however, epigenetic information can be transmitted from parent to progeny (epigenetic inheritance) (2). A particularly striking example of epigenetic inheritance is dsRNA-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) in C. elegans, which can be inherited for more than five generations (3–8). To understand this process we conducted a genetic screen for animals defective for transmitting RNAi silencing signals to future generations. This screen identified the gene heritable RNAi defective (hrde)-1. hrde-1 encodes an Argonaute (Ago) that associates with small interfering (si)RNAs in germ cells of the progeny of animals exposed to dsRNA. In nuclei of these germ cells, HRDE-1 engages the Nrde nuclear RNAi pathway to direct H3K9me3 at RNAi targeted genomic loci and promote RNAi inheritance. Under normal growth conditions, HRDE-1 associates with endogenously expressed siRNAs, which direct nuclear gene silencing in germ cells. In hrde-1 or nuclear RNAi deficient animals, germline silencing is lost over generational time. Concurrently, these animals exhibit steadily worsening defects in gamete formation and function that ultimately lead to sterility. These results establish that the Ago HRDE-1 directs gene-silencing events in germ cell nuclei, which drive multi-generational RNAi inheritance and promote immortality of the germ cell lineage. We propose that C. elegans uses the RNAi inheritance machinery to transmit epigenetic information, accrued by past generations, into future generations to regulate important biological processes. PMID:22810588

  12. Educating Next Generation Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bess; J. B. Briggs; A. S. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    One of the challenges in educating our next generation of nuclear safety engineers is the limitation of opportunities to receive significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Such training is generally restricted to on-the-job-training before this new engineering workforce can adequately provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) can provide students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills. The ICSBEP and IRPhEP publish annual handbooks that contain evaluations of experiments along with summarized experimental data and peer-reviewed benchmark specifications to support the validation of neutronics codes, nuclear cross-section data, and the validation of reactor designs. Participation in the benchmark process not only benefits those who use these Handbooks within the international community, but provides the individual with opportunities for professional development, networking with an international community of experts, and valuable experience to be used in future employment. Traditionally students have participated in benchmarking activities via internships at national laboratories, universities, or companies involved with the ICSBEP and IRPhEP programs. Additional programs have been developed to facilitate the nuclear education of students while participating in the benchmark projects. These programs include coordination with the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) Next Degree Program, the Collaboration with the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to train nuclear and criticality safety engineers, and student evaluations as the basis for their Master's thesis in nuclear engineering.

  13. Geração hidrelétrica, termelétrica e nuclear Hydroelectric, thermal and nuclear generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta a situação da produção de energia elétrica no Brasil e expõe os problemas para a implementação de um novo modelo no setor energético e para a inclusão de termelétricas em um grande sistema hidrelétrico. Questões ambientais são consideradas, particularmente as emissões de gás de efeito estufa. Atenta ainda para a possível construção de novos reatores nucleares no Brasil e destaca a importância da conservação energética e do uso de fontes de energia renovável.The situation of electric energy generation in Brazil is presented here, showing the problems in the implementation of the new model for the Power Sector, as well as in the inclusion of thermal plants in a very big hydroelectric system. Environment issues are considered, in particular the greenhouse gas emissions. The article pays attention to the possible construction of new nuclear reactors in Brazil. It is pointed out the importance of energy conservation and of using renewable energy sources.

  14. Nuclear Co-generation: The Analysis of Technical Capabilities and Cost Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Reński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of the parallel connection of a nuclear power plant fitted to provide heat for district heating application, with the CHP and heat plants existing in the supply region, in this case with the heating systems of Wejherowo and Gdynia. Presented variant proposes to add heat to a nuclear power plant’s total output by supplying heat exchangers with the steam from bleeders of low pressure (LP turbine stage and from the crossover pipe between its high pressure (HP and intermediate pressure (IP stages. A detailed diagram of the EPR nuclear turbine system adapted to supply district heat is also presented. Also determined are the formulas for: electric power output of a nuclear CHP plant; electric power generated strictly in cogeneration, and the decrease in the electric power and energy resulting from the operation in cogeneration mode. Finally, the profitability (competitiveness criteria for a nuclear power plant adapted to supply district heat in a selected heat supply region were proposed.

  15. Progress toward generating a ferret model of cystic fibrosis by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt John F; Li Ziyi

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Mammalian cloning by nuclear transfer from somatic cells has created new opportunities to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species other than mice. Although genetic mouse models play a critical role in basic and applied research for numerous diseases, often mouse models do not adequately reproduce the human disease phenotype. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one such disease. Targeted ablation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in mice does not...

  16. Multi-criteria Generation-Expansion Planning with Carbon dioxide emissions and Nuclear Safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hun Gyu [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Chang [Aju University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) method is developed to aid decision makers in Generation Expansion planning and management. Traditionally, the prime objective of an electric utility's generation-expansion planning has been to determine the minimum cost supply plans that meet expected demands over a planning horizon (typically 10 to 30 years). Today, however, the nature of decision environments has changed substantially. Increased policy attention is given to solve the multiple tradeoff function including environmental and social factors as well as economic one related to nuclear power expansion. In order to deal with this MCDM problem, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Model is applied

  17. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) gas generation from N-Fuel in multi-canister overpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1996-08-01

    During the conversion from wet pool storage for spent nuclear fuel at Hanford, gases will be generated from both radiolysis and chemical reactions. The gas generation phenomenon needs to be understood as it applies to safety and design issues,specifically over pressurization of sealed storage containers,and detonation/deflagration of flammable gases. This study provides an initial basis to predict the implications of gas generation on the proposed functional processes for spent nuclear fuel conversion from wet to dry storage. These projections are based upon examination of the history of fuel manufacture at Hanford, irradiation in the reactors, corrosion during wet pool storage, available fuel characterization data and available information from literature. Gas generation via radiolysis and metal corrosion are addressed. The study examines gas generation, the boundary conditions for low medium and high levels of sludge in SNF storage/processing containers. The functional areas examined include: flooded and drained Multi-Canister Overpacks, cold vacuum drying, shipping and staging and long term storage.

  19. Spent fuel bundle counter sequence error manual - BRUCE NGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, L.E

    1992-03-20

    The Spent Fuel Bundle Counter (SFBC) is used to count the number and type of spent fuel transfers that occur into or out of controlled areas at CANDU reactor sites. However if the transfers are executed in a non-standard manner or the SFBC is malfunctioning, the transfers are recorded as sequence errors. Each sequence error message typically contains adequate information to determine the cause of the message. This manual provides a guide to interpret the various sequence error messages that can occur and suggests probable cause or causes of the sequence errors. Each likely sequence error is presented on a 'card' in Appendix A. Note that it would be impractical to generate a sequence error card file with entries for all possible combinations of faults. Therefore the card file contains sequences with only one fault at a time. Some exceptions have been included however where experience has indicated that several faults can occur simultaneously.

  20. Status Report and Research Plan for Cables Harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Harvested cables from operating or decommissioned nuclear power plants present an important opportunity to validate models, understanding material aging behavior, and validate characterization techniques. Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant is a pressurized water reactor that was licensed to operate from 1976 to 2013. Cable segments were harvested and made available to the Light Water Reactor Sustainability research program through the Electric Power Research Institute. Information on the locations and circuits within the reactor from whence the cable segments came, cable construction, sourcing and installation information, and photographs of the cable locations prior to harvesting were provided. The cable variations provided represent six of the ten most common cable insulations in the nuclear industry and experienced service usage for periods from 15 to 42 years. Subsequently, these cables constitute a valuable asset for research to understand aging behavior and measurement of nuclear cables. Received cables harvested from Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant consist of low voltage, insulated conductor surrounded by jackets in lengths from 24 to 100 feet each. Cable materials will primarily be used to investigate aging under simultaneous thermal and gamma radiation exposure. Each cable insulation and jacket material will be characterized in its as-received condition, including determination of the temperatures associated with endothermic transitions in the material using differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. Temperatures for additional thermal exposure aging will be selected following the thermal analysis to avoid transitions in accelerated laboratory aging that do not occur in field conditions. Aging temperatures above thermal transitions may also be targeted to investigate the potential for artifacts in lifetime prediction from rapid accelerated aging. Total gamma doses and dose rates targeted for each material

  1. The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. (Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Center)

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, F. F., Jr.; Callahan, A. P.; Mirzadeh, S.; Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M.

    Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed.

  3. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best

  4. Study of a scenario of nuclear power reactors made only for generation IV; Estudio de un escenario de parque nuclear compuesto unicamente por reactores de Generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martin, S.; Ochoa, R.; Jimenez Varas, G.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we analyze a hypothetical scenario generation in Spain, checking if a number of reactors of Generation IV, would solve some of the challenges that the current fission nuclear power faces, as this type of reactors improve safety ensure the provision and operation more efficiently manage both its own fuel as the fuel irradiated in the current LWR . (Author)

  5. Ethics Beyond Finitude: Responsibility towards Future Generations and Nuclear Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefquist, Lars

    2008-05-15

    This dissertation has three aims: 1. To evaluate several ethical theories about responsibility towards future generations. 2. To construct a theory about responsibility towards future generations. 3. To carry out an ethical evaluation of different nuclear waste management methods. Five theories are evaluated with the help of evaluative criteria, primarily: A theory must provide future generations with some independent moral status. A theory should acknowledge moral pluralism. A theory should provide some normative claims about real-world problems. Derek Parfit's theory provides future generations with full moral status. But it is incompatible with moral pluralism, and does not provide reasonable normative claims about real-world problems. Brian Barry's theory provides such claims and a useful idea about risk management, but it does not provide an argument why future generations ought to exist. Avner de-Shalit's theory explains why they ought to exist; however, his theory can not easily explain why we ought to care for other people than those in our own community. Emmanuel Agius' theory gives an ontological explanation for mankind's unity, but reduces conflicts of interests to a common good. Finally, Hans Jonas' theory shifts the focus from the situation of future generations to the preconditions of human life generally. However, his theory presupposes a specific ontology, which might be unable to motivate people to act. The concluding chapters describe a narrative theory of responsibility. It claims that we should comprehend ourselves as parts of the common story of mankind and that we ought to provide future generations with equal opportunities. This implies that we should avoid transferring risks and focus on reducing the long-term risks associated with the nuclear waste

  6. Projecting Dynastic Majesty: State Ceremony in the Reign of Robert Bruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Dean

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the murder of his rival John Comyn on 10 February at Greyfriars in Dumfries, and the crisis this act incited, Robert the Bruce’s inaugural ceremony took place at Scone in late March 1306. Much about this ceremony is speculative; however, subsequent retrospective legitimisation of the Bruce claims to the royal succession would suggest that all possible means by which Robert’s inauguration could emulate his Canmore predecessors and outline his right to rule on a level playing field with his contemporaries were amplified, particularly where they served the common purpose of legitimising Robert’s highly questioned hold on power. Fourteenth-century Scottish history is inextricably entwined in the Wars of Independence, civil strife and an accelerated struggle for autonomous rule and independence. The historiography of this period is unsurprisingly heavily dominated by such themes and, while this has been offset by works exploring subjects such as the tomb of Bruce and the piety of the Bruce dynasty, the ceremonial history of this era remains firmly in the shadows. This paper will address three key ceremonies through which a king would, traditionally, make powerful statements of royal authority: the inauguration or coronation of Bruce; the marriage of his infant son to the English princess Joan of the Tower in 1328, and his extravagant funeral ceremony in 1329. By focusing thus this paper hopes to shed new light on the ‘dark and drublie days’ of fourteenth-century Scotland and reveal that glory, dynastic majesty and pleasure were as central to the Scottish monarchy in this era as war and political turbulence.

  7. La polisemia comunicativa delle opere linguistiche di Bruce Nauman come adesione alle teorie del secondo Wittgenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Magini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bruce Nauman, artista americano postminimalista, ha indagato l’elemento linguistico in tutte le sue possibilità espressive attraverso l’impiego di media disparati quali neon, audioinstallazioni, videoinstallazioni, stampe e testi. Tale pluralità metodologica risponde ad una profonda rielaborazione del Wittgenstein delle Ricerche Filosofiche. This paper aims to analyze l’influenza del pensiero wittgensteiniano sulla produzione artistica di Nauman.

  8. R. Bruce Merrifield and Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Historical Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R

    2007-12-04

    Bruce Merrifield, trained as a biochemist, had to address three major challenges related to the development and acceptance of solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The challenges were (1) to reduce the concept of peptide synthesis on a insoluble support to practice, (2) overcome the resistance of synthetic chemists to this novel approach, and (3) establish that a biochemist had the scientific credentials to effect the proposed revolutionary change in chemical synthesis. How these challenges were met is discussed in this article.

  9. Kuldlõvid Louise Bourgeois'le, Bruce Naumanile ja Itaalia paviljonile / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    1999-01-01

    Veneetsia 48. rahvusvahelise kunstibiennaali preemiasaajad, premeeritud tööd, korralduskomitee ja žürii koosseis. Kuldlõvid: Louise Bourgeois, Bruce Nauman, Itaalia paviljon (Monica Bonvicini, Bruna Esposito, Luisa Lambri, Paola Pivi, Grazia Toderi ühisprojekt); kolm rahvusvahelist preemiat: Doug Aitken, Cai Gou-Qiang, Shirin Neshat; žürii tõstis esile: Georges Abeagbo, Eija-Liisa Ahtila, Katarzyna Kozura ? (Kozyra), Lee Bul; UNESCO preemia: Ghada Amer

  10. The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for Next Generation Safeguards Specialists--Maximizing Potential and Minimizing the Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eipeldauer, Mary D [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to provide an overview of the workshop entitled 'The Coming Nuclear Renaissance for the Next Generation Safeguards Experts-Maximizing Benefits While Minimizing Proliferation Risks', conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in partnership with the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This document presents workshop objectives; lists the numerous participant universities and individuals, the nuclear nonproliferation lecture topics covered, and the facilities tours taken as part of the workshop; and discusses the university partnership sessions and proposed areas for collaboration between the universities and ORNL for 2009. Appendix A contains the agenda for the workshop; Appendix B lists the workshop attendees and presenters with contact information; Appendix C contains graphics of the evaluation form results and survey areas; and Appendix D summarizes the responses to the workshop evaluation form. The workshop was an opportunity for ORNL, Y-12, and SRNL staff with more than 30 years combined experience in nuclear nonproliferation to provide a comprehensive overview of their expertise for the university professors and their students. The overall goal of the workshop was to emphasize nonproliferation aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and to identify specific areas where the universities and experts from operations and national laboratories could collaborate.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEXT-GENERATION SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CASKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W.; Matveev, V.Z.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-10-03

    The design of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks used in the present SNF disposition systems has evolved from early concepts about the nuclear fuel cycle. The reality today is much different from that envisioned by early nuclear scientists. Most SNF is placed in pool storage, awaiting reprocessing (as in Russia) or disposal at a geologic SNF repository (as in the United States). Very little transport of SNF occurs. This paper examines the requirements for SNF casks from today's perspective and attempts to answer this question: What type of SNF cask would be produced if we were to start over and design SNF casks based on today's requirements? The characteristics for a next-generation SNF cask system are examined and are found to be essentially the same in Russia and the United States. It appears that the new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet material will enable these requirements to be met. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium in which a portion of the 235U isotope has been removed during a uranium enrichment process. The DUO2-steel cermet material is described. The United States and Russia are cooperating toward the development of a next-generation, dual-purpose, storage and transport SNF system.

  12. Overview of the CEA R and D support to generation IV nuclear energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, Frank; Anzieu, Pascal; Billot, Philippe; Brossard, Philippe; Fiorini, Gian-Luigi

    2004-07-01

    As a result of an early technology road-map performed at the end of 2000, the CEA selected a sequenced development of advanced gas cooled high temperature nuclear systems as main focus for its R and D programme on future nuclear energy systems. The selection of this research objectives originates both from the significance of fast neutrons and high temperature for nuclear energy to meet the needs anticipated beyond 2020/2030, and from the significant common R and D pathway that supports both medium term industrial projects and more advanced versions of gas cooled reactors. The first step of the 'Gas Technology Path' aims to support the development of a modular HTR likely to meet international market needs around 2020. The second step is a Very High Temperature Reactor (> 950 deg. C) to efficiently produce, among others, hydrogen though thermo-chemical water splitting or to generate electricity with an efficiency above 50%. The third step of the Path is a Gas Fast Reactor that features a fast-spectrum helium-cooled reactor and closed fuel cycle, with a direct-cycle helium turbine for electricity production and full recycle of actinides. The paper succinctly presents the R and D program launched in 2001 by the CEA with industrial partners on the 'Gas Technology Path', which is destined to become the contribution of France to the development of the VHTR and the GFR within the next phase of the Generation IV Forum.

  13. Developing the concept of maintenance and repairs in projects of power units for new-generation nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2012-05-01

    Results from conceptual elaboration of individual requirements for the system of maintenance and repairs that must be implemented in the projects of new-generation nuclear power stations are presented taking as an example the power unit project for a nuclear power station equipped with a standard optimized VVER reactor with enhanced information support (the so-called VVER TOI reactor). Implementation of these concepts will help to achieve competitiveness of such nuclear power stations in the domestic and international markets.

  14. Characterization of New-Generation Silicon Photomultipliers for Nuclear Security Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonders Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon photomultipliers have received a great deal of interest recently for use in applications spanning a wide variety of fields, including nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. For nuclear-related applications, the ability of silicon photomultipliers to discriminate neutrons from gamma rays using pulse shape discrimination when coupled with certain organic scintillators is a characteristic of utmost importance. This work reports on progress characterizing the performance of twenty different silicon photomultipliers from five manufacturers with an emphasis on pulse shape discrimination performance and timing. Results are presented on pulse shape discrimination performance as a function of overvoltage for 6-mm x 6-mm silicon photomultipliers, and the time response to stilbene is characterized for silicon photomultipliers of three different sizes. Finally, comparison with a photomultiplier tube shows that some new-generation silicon photomultipliers can perform as well as photomultiplier tubes in neutron-gamma ray discrimination.

  15. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Corletti, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  16. Discouraging ROK Development of Nuclear Weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2013-01-01

    FY 2013-2014. Project Lead: Bruce Bennett Ironically, the greatest likelihood for nuclear proliferation in the coming years may come from U.S. allies. The development of nuclear weapons by South Korea (ROK) could result in a regional nuclear arms race and global failure of the Nonproliferation Treaty. As North Korean development of nuclear weapons continues irrespective of the U.S. security umbrella, fewer external options remain to ensure ROK security. To assist both the Office of the ...

  17. Generation of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields during large- scale chemical and nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V. [Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Dynamics of the Geospheres; Dubinya, V.A.; Karaseva, V.A.; Soloviev, S.P.; Surkov, V.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We discuss the main parameters of the electric field in the surface layer of the atmosphere and the results of the investigations of the natural electric field variations. Experimental investigations of the electromagnetic field for explosions in air are presented. Electromagnetic signals generated by underground nuclear and chemical explosions are discussed and explosions for 1976--1991 are listed. Long term anomalies of the earth`s electromagnetic field in the vicinity of underground explosions were also investigated. Study of the phenomenon of the irreversible shock magnetization showed that in the zone nearest to the explosion the quasistatic magnetic field decreases in inverse proportion to the distance.

  18. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  19. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, F.J. [Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility`s actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities.

  20. The economic valuation on atmospheric improvement benefit by nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, S. J.; Yoo, S. H.; Han, S. Y.; Do, G. W.; Lee, J. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The major contents are as follows : To begin with, major air pollutants' emissions and emission reduction facilities in industrial sectors including a power generation were investigated and the future prospect was suggested. Environmental effects by attributes of air pollutions were summarized through a extensive literature survey. And the concept of benefit-cost based upon social costs and economic values of generation was established to estimate atmospheric improvement benefits by using a nuclear power. As a result of investigating many valuation methodologies that can estimate economic values of environmental improvement, we adopted MAUA(multi-attribute utility assessment) as a research method and estimated environmental costs by air pollutant and by power generating source. Also, we presented foreign case studies related to social costs in power generating sector and horizontally compared study's results home and abroad. Then, we set up four scenarios based on total generation that the 5th long-term power resources planning forecasted and calculated economic values of atmospheric improvement benefits among scenarios. Further, we suggested the results incorporating uncertainty of estimation parameters. Finally, we suggested a rational ground to move toward environment-friendly energy consumption and proposed a plan for the national energy policy against the green age in the 21th century. 147 refs., 45 figs., 103 tabs. (Author)

  1. Closed Cycle Magnetohydrodynamic Nuclear Space Power Generation Using Helium/Xenon Working Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, R. J.; Harada, N.

    2005-01-01

    A multimegawatt-class nuclear fission powered closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic space power plant using a helium/xenon working gas has been studied, to include a comprehensive system analysis. Total plant efficiency was expected to be 55.2 percent including pre-ionization power. The effects of compressor stage number, regenerator efficiency, and radiation cooler temperature on plant efficiency were investigated. The specific mass of the power generation plant was also examined. System specific mass was estimated to be 3 kg/kWe for a net electrical output power of 1 MWe, 2-3 kg/kWe at 2 MWe, and approx.2 kg/KWe at >3 MWe. Three phases of research and development plan were proposed: (1) Phase I-proof of principle, (2) Phase II-demonstration of power generation, and (3) Phase III-prototypical closed loop test.

  2. Residual stress analysis of laser cladding repair for nuclear steam generator damaged tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Won Jin; Lee, Sang Cheol; Lee, Seon Ho [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Laser cladding technology was studied as a method for upgrading the present repair procedures of damaged tubes in a nuclear steam generator and Doosan subsequently developed and designed a new Laser Cladding Repair System. One of the important features of this newly developed Laser Cladding Repair System is that molten metal can be deposited on damaged tube surfaces using a laser beam and filler wire without the need to install sleeves inside the tube. Laser cladding qualification tests on the steam generator tube material, Alloy 600, were performed according to ASME Section IX. Residual stress analyses were performed for weld metal and heat affected zone of as-welded and PWHT with SYSWELD software.

  3. Generation of micronuclei during interphase by coupling between cytoplasmic membrane blebbing and nuclear budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh-ichi Utani

    Full Text Available Micronucleation, mediated by interphase nuclear budding, has been repeatedly suggested, but the process is still enigmatic. In the present study, we confirmed the previous observation that there are lamin B1-negative micronuclei in addition to the positive ones. A large cytoplasmic bleb was found to frequently entrap lamin B1-negative micronuclei, which were connected to the nucleus by a thin chromatin stalk. At the bottom of the stalk, the nuclear lamin B1 structure appeared broken. Chromatin extrusion through lamina breaks has been referred to as herniation or a blister of the nucleus, and has been observed after the expression of viral proteins. A cell line in which extrachromosomal double minutes and lamin B1 protein were simultaneously visualized in different colors in live cells was established. By using these cells, time-lapse microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic membrane blebbing occurred simultaneously with the extrusion of nuclear content, which generated lamin B1-negative micronuclei during interphase. Furthermore, activation of cytoplasmic membrane blebbing by the addition of fresh serum or camptothecin induced nuclear budding within 1 to 10 minutes, which suggested that blebbing might be the cause of the budding. After the induction of blebbing, the frequency of lamin-negative micronuclei increased. The budding was most frequent during S phase and more efficiently entrapped small extrachromosomal chromatin than the large chromosome arm. Based on these results, we suggest a novel mechanism in which cytoplasmic membrane dynamics pulls the chromatin out of the nucleus through the lamina break. Evidence for such a mechanism was obtained in certain cancer cell lines including human COLO 320 and HeLa. The mechanism could significantly perturb the genome and influence cancer cell phenotypes.

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Bratton, Rob [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Marsden, Barry [University of Manchester, UK; Srinivasan, Makuteswara [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Penfield, Scott [Technology Insights; Mitchell, Mark [PBMR (Pty) Ltd.; Windes, Will [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2008-03-01

    Here we report the outcome of the application of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process to the issue of nuclear-grade graphite for the moderator and structural components of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), considering both routine (normal operation) and postulated accident conditions for the NGNP. The NGNP is assumed to be a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), either a gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GTMHR) version [a prismatic-core modular reactor (PMR)] or a pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) version [a pebble bed reactor (PBR)] design, with either a direct- or indirect-cycle gas turbine (Brayton cycle) system for electric power production, and an indirect-cycle component for hydrogen production. NGNP design options with a high-pressure steam generator (Rankine cycle) in the primary loop are not considered in this PIRT. This graphite PIRT was conducted in parallel with four other NRC PIRT activities, taking advantage of the relationships and overlaps in subject matter. The graphite PIRT panel identified numerous phenomena, five of which were ranked high importance-low knowledge. A further nine were ranked with high importance and medium knowledge rank. Two phenomena were ranked with medium importance and low knowledge, and a further 14 were ranked medium importance and medium knowledge rank. The last 12 phenomena were ranked with low importance and high knowledge rank (or similar combinations suggesting they have low priority). The ranking/scoring rationale for the reported graphite phenomena is discussed. Much has been learned about the behavior of graphite in reactor environments in the 60-plus years since the first graphite rectors went into service. The extensive list of references in the Bibliography is plainly testament to this fact. Our current knowledge base is well developed. Although data are lacking for the specific grades being considered for Generation IV (Gen IV

  5. Progress toward generating a ferret model of cystic fibrosis by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyi; Engelhardt, John F

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian cloning by nuclear transfer from somatic cells has created new opportunities to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species other than mice. Although genetic mouse models play a critical role in basic and applied research for numerous diseases, often mouse models do not adequately reproduce the human disease phenotype. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one such disease. Targeted ablation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in mice does not adequately replicate spontaneous bacterial infections observed in the human CF lung. Hence, several laboratories are pursuing alternative animal models of CF in larger species such as the pig, sheep, rabbits, and ferrets. Our laboratory has focused on developing the ferret as a CF animal model. Over the past few years, we have investigated several experimental parameters required for gene targeting and nuclear transfer (NT) cloning in the ferret using somatic cells. In this review, we will discuss our progress and the hurdles to NT cloning and gene-targeting that accompany efforts to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species such as the ferret. PMID:14613541

  6. Progress toward generating a ferret model of cystic fibrosis by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhardt John F

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mammalian cloning by nuclear transfer from somatic cells has created new opportunities to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species other than mice. Although genetic mouse models play a critical role in basic and applied research for numerous diseases, often mouse models do not adequately reproduce the human disease phenotype. Cystic fibrosis (CF is one such disease. Targeted ablation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene in mice does not adequately replicate spontaneous bacterial infections observed in the human CF lung. Hence, several laboratories are pursuing alternative animal models of CF in larger species such as the pig, sheep, rabbits, and ferrets. Our laboratory has focused on developing the ferret as a CF animal model. Over the past few years, we have investigated several experimental parameters required for gene targeting and nuclear transfer (NT cloning in the ferret using somatic cells. In this review, we will discuss our progress and the hurdles to NT cloning and gene-targeting that accompany efforts to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species such as the ferret.

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.E. Mizia; W.E. Windes; W.R. Corwin; T.D. Burchell; C.E. Duty; Y. Katoh; J.W. Klett; T.E. McGreevy; R.K. Nanstad; W. Ren; P.L. Rittenhouse; L.L. Snead; R.W. Swindeman; D.F. Wlson

    2007-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Some of the general and administrative aspects of the R&D Plan include: • Expand American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards in support of the NGNP Materials R&D Program. • Define and develop inspection needs and the procedures for those inspections. • Support selected university materials related R&D activities that would be of direct benefit to the NGNP Project. • Support international materials related collaboration activities through the DOE sponsored Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Materials and Components (M&C) Project Management Board (PMB). • Support document review activities through the Materials Review Committee (MRC) or other suitable forum.

  8. Possible generation of heat from nuclear fusion in Earth's inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio

    2016-11-23

    The cause and source of the heat released from Earth's interior have not yet been determined. Some research groups have proposed that the heat is supplied by radioactive decay or by a nuclear georeactor. Here we postulate that the generation of heat is the result of three-body nuclear fusion of deuterons confined in hexagonal FeDx core-centre crystals; the reaction rate is enhanced by the combined attraction effects of high-pressure (~364 GPa) and high-temperature (~5700 K) and by the physical catalysis of neutral pions: 2 D +  2 D +  2 D → 2 1 H +  4 He + 2  + 20.85 MeV. The possible heat generation rate can be calculated as 8.12 × 10 12  J/m 3 , based on the assumption that Earth's primitive heat supply has already been exhausted. The H and He atoms produced and the anti-neutrino are incorporated as Fe-H based alloys in the H-rich portion of inner core, are released from Earth's interior to the universe, and pass through Earth, respectively.

  9. X-ray-generated heralded macroscopical quantum entanglement of two nuclear ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Te; Keitel, Christoph H; Pálffy, Adriana

    2016-09-19

    Heralded entanglement between macroscopical samples is an important resource for present quantum technology protocols, allowing quantum communication over large distances. In such protocols, optical photons are typically used as information and entanglement carriers between macroscopic quantum memories placed in remote locations. Here we investigate theoretically a new implementation which employs more robust x-ray quanta to generate heralded entanglement between two crystal-hosted macroscopical nuclear ensembles. Mössbauer nuclei in the two crystals interact collectively with an x-ray spontaneous parametric down conversion photon that generates heralded macroscopical entanglement with coherence times of approximately 100 ns at room temperature. The quantum phase between the entangled crystals can be conveniently manipulated by magnetic field rotations at the samples. The inherent long nuclear coherence times allow also for mechanical manipulations of the samples, for instance to check the stability of entanglement in the x-ray setup. Our results pave the way for first quantum communication protocols that use x-ray qubits.

  10. A Critical Heat Generation for Safe Nuclear Fuels after a LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a thermo-elasto-plastic-creep finite element procedure to the analysis of an accidental behavior of nuclear fuel as well as normal behavior. The result will be used as basic data for the robust design of nuclear power plant and fuels. We extended the range of mechanical strain from small or medium to large adopting the Hencky logarithmic strain measure in addition to the Green-Lagrange strain and Almansi strain measures, for the possible large strain situation in accidental environments. We found that there is a critical heat generation after LOCA without ECCS (event category 5, under which the cladding of fuel sustains the internal pressure and temperature for the time being for the rescue of the power plant. With the heat generation above the critical value caused by malfunctioning of the control rods, the stiffness of cladding becomes zero due to the softening by high temperature. The weak position of cladding along the length continuously bulges radially to burst and to discharge radioactive substances. This kind of cases should be avoid by any means.

  11. Developing the User Experience for a Next Generation Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulator (NGFCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Schneider, Erich [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Livnat, Yarden [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hiromoto, Robert [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Scopatz, Anthony [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Brossard, Dominique [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Scheufele, Dietram [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-07-30

    This project made substantial progress on its original aim for providing a modern user experience for nuclear fuel cycle analysis while also creating a robust and functional next- generation fuel cycle simulator. The Cyclus kernel experienced a dramatic clari cation of its interfaces and data model, becoming a full- edged agent-based framework, with strong support for third party developers of novel archetypes. The most important contribution of this project to the the development of Cyclus was the introduction of tools to facilitate archetype development. These include automated code generation of routine archetype components, metadata annotations to provide re ection and rich description of each data member's purpose, and mechanisms for input validation and output of complex data. A comprehensive social science investigation of decision makers' interests in nuclear fuel cycles, and speci cally their interests in nuclear fuel cycle simulators (NFCSs) as tools for understanding nuclear fuel cycle options, was conducted. This included document review and analysis, stakeholder interviews, and a survey of decision makers. This information was used to study the role of visualization formats and features in communicating information about nuclear fuel cycles. A exible and user-friendly tool was developed for building Cyclus analysis models, featuring a drag-and-drop interface and automatic input form generation for novel archetypes. Cycic allows users to design fuel cycles from arbitrary collections of facilities for the rst time, with mechanisms that contribute to consistency within that fuel cycle. Interacting with some of the metadata capabilities introduced in the above-mentioned tools to support archetype development, Cycic also automates the generation of user input forms for novel archetypes with little to no special knowledge required by the archetype developers. Translation of the fundamental metrics of Cyclus into more interesting quantities is

  12. Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  13. Expected changes in competency assurance at Bruce Power over next decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, C., E-mail: chip.horton@brucepower.com [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    There will be ten expected changes in competency assurance at Bruce Power over next decade. These changes are: outage worker supplemental staff change; entry level power worker union staff; self-paced process & software training; electronic confirmation of qualifications; JIT built into processes for low frequency tasks; more terminal objective back to fundamentals vs fundamentals build to terminal objective instructional design; more learning by practice / doing in a safe environment; SAT emphasis move from analysis, design & development to evaluation & maintenance of task lists (clearly tied to working rights); more formal tacit knowledge capture programs, systematic movement of knowledge from tacit to explicit; more breadth & depth training driven by demographic changes.

  14. Per una narratologia postumanista. Bruce Clarke, Posthuman Metamorphosis: Narrative and Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Iuli, Maria Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Review of Clarke Bruce. Posthuman Metamorphosis: Narrative and Systems. New York: Fordham University Press, New York, 2008. Print. In this study we reconstruct the story of a little-known tale by Leo Tolstoy, What Men Live By? (1881). Tolstoy’s aim with this work was to illustrate certain key aspects of the new ethical-religious vision he had developed during the 1870s. On completing What Men Live By, the author took an active part in distributing it among both the urban and rural working cla...

  15. Pacing the Cell: Walking and Productivity in the Work of Bruce Nauman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Burgon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available After graduating from art school in the late 1960s Bruce Nauman found himself pacing his studio, unsure how to produce work as a professional artist. Out of this practice arose several films and videos recording these performances of studio pacing. This paper draws upon Michel Foucault’s Discipline and Punish (1975, translated into English 1977 to shed light upon the aesthetic of confinement and incarceration found in Nauman’s use of the walking body in this early work.

  16. Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1987-06-26

    The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Study of a scenario of nuclear park consisting solely of reactors of Generation IV; Estudio de un escenario de parque nuclear compuesto unicamente por reactores de Generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martin, S.; Ochoa, R.; Jimenez, G.

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses a hypothetical scenario of generation in Spain, checking if a park of such reactors would solve some of the challenges facing current fission nuclear power.This type of reactors improve operation safety, guarantee the supply and more efficiently manage both their own fuel as irradiated fuel in the current LWR reactors.

  18. DRAGON: Monte Carlo generator of particle production from a fragmented fireball in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomášik, Boris

    2009-09-01

    A Monte Carlo generator of the final state of hadrons emitted from an ultrarelativistic nuclear collision is introduced. An important feature of the generator is a possible fragmentation of the fireball and emission of the hadrons from fragments. Phase space distribution of the fragments is based on the blast wave model extended to azimuthally non-symmetric fireballs. Parameters of the model can be tuned and this allows to generate final states from various kinds of fireballs. A facultative output in the OSCAR1999A format allows for a comprehensive analysis of phase-space distributions and/or use as an input for an afterburner. Program summaryProgram title: DRAGON Catalogue identifier: AEDK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6383 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 32 756 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC Pentium 4, though no particular tuning for this machine was performed Operating system: Linux; the program has been successfully run on Gentoo Linux 2.6, RedHat Linux 9, Debian Linux 4.0, all with g++ compiler. It also ran successfully on MS Windows under Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition as well as under cygwin/g++ RAM: 100 Mbytes Supplementary material: Sample output files from the test run, provided in the distribution, are available. Classification: 11.2 Nature of problem: Deconfined matter produced in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions expands and cools down and eventually returns into the confined phase. If the expansion is fast, the fireball could fragment either due to spinodal decomposition or due to suddenly arising bulk viscous force. Particle abundances are reasonably well described with just a few parameters

  19. New generation nuclear fuel structures: dense particles in selectively soluble matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickafus, Kurt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Devlin, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jarvinen, Gordon D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patterson, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pattillo, Steve G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a technology for dispersing sub-millimeter sized fuel particles within a bulk matrix that can be selectively dissolved. This may enable the generation of advanced nuclear fuels with easy separation of actinides and fission products. The large kinetic energy of the fission products results in most of them escaping from the sub-millimeter sized fuel particles and depositing in the matrix during burning of the fuel in the reactor. After the fuel is used and allowed to cool for a period of time, the matrix can be dissolved and the fission products removed for disposal while the fuel particles are collected by filtration for recycle. The success of such an approach would meet a major goal of the GNEP program to provide advanced recycle technology for nuclear energy production. The benefits of such an approach include (1) greatly reduced cost of the actinide/fission product separation process, (2) ease of recycle of the fuel particles, and (3) a radiation barrier to prevent theft or diversion of the recycled fuel particles during the time they are re-fabricated into new fuel. In this study we describe a method to make surrogate nuclear fuels of micrometer scale W (shell)/Mo (core) or HfO2 particles embedded in an MgO matrix that allows easy separation of the fission products and their embedded particles. In brief, the method consists of physically mixing W-Mo or hafnia particles with an MgO precursor. Heating the mixture, in air or argon, without agitation, to a temperature is required for complete decomposition of the precursor. The resulting material was examined using chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro X-ray computed tomography and found to consist of evenly dispersed particles in an MgO + matrix. We believe this methodology can be extended to actinides and other matrix materials.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production, with an outlet gas temperature in the range of 750°C, and a design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. This technology development plan details the additional research and development (R&D) required to design and license the NGNP RPV, assuming that A 508/A 533 is the material of construction. The majority of additional information that is required is related to long-term aging behavior at NGNP vessel temperatures, which are somewhat above those commonly encountered in the existing database from LWR experience. Additional data are also required for the anticipated NGNP environment. An assessment of required R&D for a Grade 91 vessel has been retained from the first revision of the R&D plan in Appendix B in somewhat less detail. Considerably more development is required for this steel compared to A 508/A 533 including additional irradiation testing for expected NGNP operating temperatures, high-temperature mechanical properties, and extensive studies of long-term microstructural stability.

  1. Modality determines VO2max achieved in self-paced exercise tests: validation with the Bruce protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Nicholas J; Scheadler, Cory M; Lee, Taylor L; Neuenfeldt, Noah C; Michael, Timothy J; Miller, Michael G

    2016-07-01

    The Bruce protocol is traditionally used to assess maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), but may have limitations, such as an unknown duration and large work rate increases. The use of self-paced VO2max tests (SPVs) may be beneficial if they are able to elicit similar maximal values in a set period of time. In addition, differences in modality between SPVs have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to compare SPVs, utilizing two different modes, with the Bruce (treadmill) protocol. Thirteen healthy, recreationally active individuals (eight men, five women) volunteered and participated in three different laboratory visits with each utilizing a different VO2max testing protocol. The first visit consisted of the Bruce protocol test, and the remaining visits entailed a maximal SPV on a treadmill (TM SPV) and a cycle ergometer (CE SPV). There were no differences in VO2max values between the TM SPV and the Bruce protocol tests (55.6 ± 4.9 vs. 56.2 ± 6.8, respectively; p = .510). As expected, the CE SPV (48.3 ± 7.6) was significantly lower than the other two tests (p VO2max as the Bruce protocol and did so with less incline and in less time suggesting that there are no changes in the limits of VO2max even when the test is self-paced and perceptually regulated.

  2. Research and Development Technology Development Roadmaps for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian McKirdy

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for process heat, hydrogen and electricity production. The reactor will be graphite moderated with helium as the primary coolant and may be either prismatic or pebble-bed. Although, final design features have not yet been determined. Research and Development (R&D) activities are proceeding on those known plant systems to mature the technology, codify the materials for specific applications, and demonstrate the component and system viability in NGNP relevant and integrated environments. Collectively these R&D activities serve to reduce the project risk and enhance the probability of on-budget, on-schedule completion and NRC licensing. As the design progresses, in more detail, toward final design and approval for construction, selected components, which have not been used in a similar application, in a relevant environment nor integrated with other components and systems, must be tested to demonstrate viability at reduced scales and simulations prior to full scale operation. This report and its R&D TDRMs present the path forward and its significance in assuring technical readiness to perform the desired function by: Choreographing the integration between design and R&D activities; and proving selected design components in relevant applications.

  3. Potential Application of a Thermoelectric Generator in Passive Cooling System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqing; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Jin; Pang, Wei; Lau, Woon Ming; Mei, Jun

    2017-05-01

    In the design of nuclear power plants, various natural circulation passive cooling systems are considered to remove residual heat from the reactor core in the event of a power loss and maintain the plant's safety. These passive systems rely on gravity differences of fluids, resulting from density differentials, rather than using an external power-driven system. Unfortunately, a major drawback of such systems is their weak driving force, which can negatively impact safety. In such systems, there is a temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink, which potentially offers a natural platform for thermoelectric generator (TEG) applications. While a previous study designed and analyzed a TEG-based passive core cooling system, this paper considers TEG applications in other passive cooling systems of nuclear power plants, after which the concept of a TEG-based passive cooling system is proposed. In such a system, electricity is produced using the system's temperature differences through the TEG, and this electricity is used to further enhance the cooling process.

  4. Fault diagnosis of generation IV nuclear HTGR components – Part 1: The error enthalpy-entropy graph approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schoor, George van; Du Rand, Carel Petrus

    2012-01-01

    Fault diagnosis (FD) is an important element in modern nuclear power plant (NPP) diagnostic systems. In this respect, FD of generation II and III water-cooled nuclear energy systems has become an active research topic to continually improve levels of reliability, safety, and operation. However, evolutionary advances in reactor and component technology together with different energy conversion methodologies support the investigation of alternative approaches to FD. Within this context, the bas...

  5. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  6. Research and Improvement on Characteristics of Emergency Diesel Generating Set Mechanical Support System in Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, Yang

    2017-06-01

    There are often mechanical problems of emergency power generation units in nuclear power plant, which bring a great threat to nuclear safety. Through analyzing the influence factors caused by mechanical failure, the existing defects of the design of mechanical support system are determined, and the design idea has caused the direction misleading in the field of maintenance and transformation. In this paper, research analysis is made on basic support design of diesel generator set, main pipe support design and important components of supercharger support design. And this paper points out the specific design flaws and shortcomings, and proposes targeted improvement program. Through the implementation of improvement programs, vibration level of unit and mechanical failure rate are reduced effectively. At the same time, it also provides guidance for design, maintenance and renovation of diesel generator mechanical support system of nuclear power plants in the future.

  7. Concerning anti-technological ideology. In the case of nuclear power generation; Hangijutsuteki ideorogi ni tsuite. Genshiryoku hatsuden no baai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kase, S. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    Controversy over nuclear power is now an endless argument based on instinct and emotion, rather than a scientific debate on industrial safety, and has reached a level where logical persuasion is difficult with any of the opposing parties. An individual person being destined to be unconsciously subject to the will of the society, the issue has come to take on an aspect of an ideological dispute. Nuclear power generation is not dependent on oil that will be depleted, it does not pollute the air, it is already on the level where it is judged to be able to stand serviceable in view of the ordinary industrial safety standard, and its radioactive wastes can be buried safe in the ground. These signify that human intelligence will be expressed by choosing the optimal technology at a given time point. Accordingly, it is necessary to deploy a large-scale campaign to persuade people from the ideological dispute for the purpose of releasing nuclear power generation from conscious domination and ideological spellbinding. It is desired that the need of nuclear power generation will be explained flatly to people through vigorous PR activities and release of information. The recent trend in other Asian nations for building nuclear power generators is a source of useful knowledge, and making propositions in the international theater will also help. 13 refs.

  8. Dryout occurrence in a helically coiled steam generator for nuclear power application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santini L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dryout phenomena have been experimentally investigated in a helically coiled steam generator tube. The experiences carried out in the present work are part of a wide experimental program devoted to the study of a GEN III+ innovative nuclear power plant [1].The experimental facility consists in an electrically heated AISI 316L stainless steel coiled tube. The tube is 32 meters long, 12.53 mm of inner diameter, with a coil diameter of 1m and a pitch of 0.79 m, resulting in a total height of the steam generator of 8 meters. The thermo-hydraulics conditions for dryout investigations covered a spectrum of mass fluxes between 199 and 810 kg/m2s, the pressures ranges from 10.7 to 60.7 bar, heat fluxes between 43.6 to 209.3 kW/m2.Very high first qualities dryout, between 0.72 and 0.92, were found in the range of explored conditions, comparison of our results with literature available correlations shows the difficulty in predicting high qualities dryout in helical coils., immediately following the heading. The text should be set to 1.15 line spacing. The abstract should be centred across the page, indented 15 mm from the left and right page margins and justified. It should not normally exceed 200 words.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 1: Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL

    2008-03-01

    A phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process was conducted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design. This design (in the conceptual stage) is a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) that generates both electricity and process heat for hydrogen production. Expert panels identified safety-relevant phenomena, ranked their importance, and assessed the knowledge levels in the areas of accidents and thermal fluids, fission-product transport and dose, high-temperature materials, graphite, and process heat for hydrogen production. This main report summarizes and documents the process and scope of the reviews, noting the major activities and conclusions. The identified phenomena, analyses, rationales, and associated ratings of the phenomena, plus a summary of each panel's findings, are presented. Individual panel reports for these areas are provided as attached volumes to this main report and provide considerably more detail about each panel's deliberations as well as a more complete listing of the phenomena that were evaluated.

  10. Free Radicals Generated by Ionizing Radiation Signal Nuclear Translocation of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. D.; Pennington, M. E.; Craven, M. T.; Warters, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a transcription factor that regulates several pathways, which function collectively to maintain the integrity of the genome. Nuclear localization is critical for wild-type function. However, the signals that regulate subcellular localization of p53 have not been identified. Here, we examine the effect of ionizing radiation on the subcellular localization of p53 in two cell lines in which p63 is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm and found that ionizing radiation caused a biphasic translocation response. p53 entered the nucleus 1-2 hours postirradiation (early response), subsequently emerged from the nucleus, and then again entered the nucleus 12-24 hours after the cells had been irradiated (delayed response). These changes in subcellular localization could be completely blocked by the free radical scavenger, WR1065. By comparison, two DNA-damaging agents that do not generate free radicals, mitomycin C and doxorubicin, caused translocation only after 12-24 h of exposure to the drugs, and this effect could not be inhibited by WR1065. Hence, although all three DNA-damaging agents induced relocalization of p53 to the nucleus, only the translocation caused by radiation was sensitive to free radical scavenging. We suggest that the free radicals generated by ionizing radiation can signal p53 translocation to the nucleus.

  11. Monoenergetic proton emission from nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser-generated plasmaa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Cutroneo, M.; Giuffrida, L.; Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Kravarik, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M.

    2012-02-01

    A 1016 W/cm2 Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm at the fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD2 targets placed inside a high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deutons and carbon ions emission with energy of up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deutons may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD2 targets can be employed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deutons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  12. Monoenergetic proton emission from nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser-generated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L; Cavallaro, S; Cutroneo, M; Giuffrida, L; Krasa, J; Margarone, D; Velyhan, A; Kravarik, J; Ullschmied, J; Wolowski, J; Szydlowski, A; Rosinski, M

    2012-02-01

    A 10(16) W∕cm(2) Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm at the fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD(2) targets placed inside a high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deutons and carbon ions emission with energy of up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deutons may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD(2) targets can be employed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deutons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  13. Monoenergetic proton emission from nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser-generated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Giuffrida, L. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cutroneo, M. [Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Ullschmied, J. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kravarik, J. [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Electro-Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic); Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 23 Hery Str., 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-02-15

    A 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm at the fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD{sub 2} targets placed inside a high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deutons and carbon ions emission with energy of up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deutons may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD{sub 2} targets can be employed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deutons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  14. Change in Knowledge of Korean Elementary, Middle, and High School Students in the Fundamental Education on the Nuclear Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaerok; Lee, Seungkoo; Choi, Yoonseok; Han, Eunok [Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear power facilities and policies are based upon their acceptability to local residents and citizens. In Korea, where nuclear power should be consistently used for national energy security and economic growth, it is important to enhance the social acceptability of nuclear power. To do so, it is necessary to relieve the minds of the Korean people and global nuclear power communities regarding safety. However, there is sharp division on the perception of nuclear power safety between the expert group of operators, philosophers, and regulators, and ordinary citizens, local residents, media, and anti-nuclear groups. This study designed an experiment on knowledge change as part of an educational strategy to enhance public understanding and develop extensive bonds of sympathy for nuclear power generation adequate for Korean society. In order to provide fundamental evidence for planning an educational intervention strategy, this study analyzed the knowledge change of elementary, middle, and high school students, who are then expected to impact education of the general population. As a result of conducting a 45 minute-long education on the principles, state of use, advantages, and disadvantages of nuclear power generation for Korean elementary, middle, and high school students, the levels of objective knowledge (p<0.000) was significantly higher. This indicates that if education for enhancing social acceptance in Korea argued nuclear power should be constantly used, an education effect could be anticipated. Although objective knowledge does not have any direct influence on behavior change, it is an important variable for attitude change, and thus information on objective knowledge should be offered as well. Here, the contents preferred by the education subjects should also be considered.

  15. Nuclear data processing for cross-sections generation for fusion-fission, ADS, and IV generation reactors utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Fernandes, Lorena C.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    One of the mains topics about nuclear reactors is the microscopic cross section for incident neutrons. Therefore, in this work, it is evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic cross section for a nuclide and a material. One of the nuclides microscopic cross-section studied is the {sup 56}Fe which is the highest compound from the material macroscopic cross section studied SS316. On the other hand, it was studied the microscopic cross section of the {sup 242}Pu which is one of the nuclides that composes the nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel chosen is a spent fuel reprocessed by UREX+ technique and spiked with thorium with 20% of fissile material. Therefore it was studied the macroscopic cross section from this nuclear fuel. Both of them were compared by using three different ways to reprocess the nuclides, one for LWR, another for ADS and the last one for Fusion reactors. The library used was JEFF-3.2 recommend for the reactors studied. The comparison was made at 1200 K for the nuclear fuel and 700K for the SS316.The results present differences due to the energy discretization, the number of groups chosen for each reactor and some nuclear reactions taken into consideration according to the neutron spectrum for each reactor. The nuclides were processed by NJOY99.364 and plotted with MCNP-Vised. (author)

  16. Comparison of the performance, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power generation compared to other clean sources of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Jônatas F.C. da; Neto, Rieder O., E-mail: jonatasfmata@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rieder.neto@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais (UEMG), João Monlevade, MG (Brazil); Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, there is an increase in the demand for electricity in emerging countries, such as India, China and Brazil. There are several alternatives to increase energy generation, and each country has followed certain strategies to achieve this goal. For a long time, developed countries, such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany, had focused their efforts on the use of thermoelectric generators through the combustion of non-renewable sources such as coal, natural gas and oil. These examples were followed, also, by the emerging countries. However, pollution levels, generated by these sources, have required the breakdown of this paradigm, and the consequent reversal of large investments in clean energy sources, such as hydraulics, solar and wind. Nucleo-electric energy is also considered a clean energy source, since it does not generate polluting gases during the processing of concentrated uranium in nuclear reactors. In addition, all radioactive waste occupying relatively small volumes and being stored in controlled deposits, in aspects of health, environment and safety. The objective of this article is to compare the performance, in economic, environmental and safety aspects, of nuclear power in relation to renewable energy sources. The results show that nuclear energy has become increasingly competitive in all these fields, justifying the growth of investments in new nuclear technologies. Therefore, the coexistence between the use of clean sources of electricity and the thermonuclear matrix will bring, for humanity, truly sustainable systems of energy generation. (author)

  17. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  18. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI): On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring for Next Generation Nuclear Plants - Phase I Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Bond; S. R. Doctor; R. W. Gilbert; D. B. Jarrell; F. L. Greitzer; R. J. Meador

    2000-09-01

    OAK-B135 This OSTI ID belongs to an IWO and is being released out of the system. The Program Manager Rebecca Richardson has confirmed that all reports have been received. The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the operation of the real-time intelligent self-diagnostic and prognostic system for next generation nuclear power plant systems. This new self-diagnostic technology is titled, ''On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring System'' (SDMS). This project provides a proof-of-principle technology demonstration for SDMS on a pilot plant scale service water system, where a distributed array of sensors is integrated with active components and passive structures typical of next generation nuclear power reactor and plant systems. This project employs state-of-the-art sensors, instrumentation, and computer processing to improve the monitoring and assessment of the power reactor system and to provide diagnostic and automated prognostics capabilities.

  19. Impact of the fuel cost in the electric generation cost by nuclear means; Impacto del costo del combustible en el costo de generacion electrica por medios nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J.R.; Alonso V, G.; Gomez R, M.C.; Palacios H, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jrrs@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, the uranium cost has been increased in the international market due to a countless of factors like they are: increase of the demand, the turnaround of the nuclear energy in some Asian countries, the decrease of the offer due to problems in the mining for their extraction, etc. These increments impact the costs of electric generation in the concept of fuel, presently work is calculated that order is the prospective impact when the costs of the uranium and the services of the fuel cycle are increased to the speed that one has come increasing, and an increase is postulated beyond the 100 usd/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, being also calculated its impact in the total cost of electric generation by nuclear means. (Author)

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program is responsible for performing research and development on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. Studies of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels have been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual design studies. These design studies generally focus on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Three realistic candidate materials have been identified by this process: conventional light water reactor RPV steels A508/533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and modified 9Cr 1Mo ferritic martenistic steel. Based on superior strength and higher temperature limits, the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been identified by the majority of design engineers as the preferred choice for the RPV. All of the vendors have

  1. Nuclear position in power generation sector - under the pressure of anti-global warming and power market reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Taizo

    2005-12-15

    The future structure surrounding fuel choice in power generation sector should be understood how to evaluate actual and potential merit and demerit both in economic and environmental aspects on nuclear power generation. That is i.e. nuclear can be understood as superior power source without GHGs and on the other hand, as unfavorable power source which might cause some critical dangers due to its hazardous radioactive nuclear waste. On this specific characteristic, this theme on fuel choice surrounding nuclear in power generation sector could be understood as a highly cultural problem as much as economic and political one. For instance, we can observe quite opposite direction with each other on nuclear power development in European countries like France and Finland on one hand and Germany and Sweden on the other hand. Looking at Asian countries, we also observe the very reality of high economic growth with rapid growth of electricity demand like China. What on earth, is it really possible without nuclear power source for such gigantic countries. I will develop my personal idea on nuclear power source based on Japanese experience towards successfully managing nuclear power technologies in the world, consisting of developing countries with growing economies and of advanced ones with rather matured nuclear technology under the pressure of environmentally restricted world order. My basic view point to discuss nuclear power problem has, conclusionally speaking, several aspects; The first one is in the relation with deregulation or liberalization of electricity market, which has been undergoing among such developed countries as OECD member countries i.e. USA, EU, Japan and other countries. Deregulation or liberalization of electricity market seems to be the inevitable process towards more matured market economy among developed countries group, and that process inevitably forces management of power companies towards more near sighted attitude if those companies are

  2. 53BP1 nuclear bodies form around DNA lesions generated by mitotic transmission of chromosomes under replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Claudia; Savic, Velibor; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    bodies shield chromosomal fragile sites sequestered in these compartments against erosion. Together, these data indicate that restoration of DNA or chromatin integrity at loci prone to replication problems requires mitotic transmission to the next cell generations....... stress increases the frequency of chromosomal lesions that are transmitted to daughter cells. Throughout G1, these lesions are sequestered in nuclear compartments marked by p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and other chromatin-associated genome caretakers. We show that the number of such 53BP1 nuclear bodies...... increases after genetic ablation of BLM, a DNA helicase associated with dissolution of entangled DNA. Conversely, 53BP1 nuclear bodies are partially suppressed by knocking down SMC2, a condensin subunit required for mechanical stability of mitotic chromosomes. Finally, we provide evidence that 53BP1 nuclear...

  3. Electricity generating costs for thermal and nuclear plants to be commissioned in 2005 (evaluation made in 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, J.; Caruana, L.; Leydolf, E.; Lemmens, J.-P.; Lalumiere, J. [and others] [Electricite de France (EDF) (France)

    1997-03-01

    The paper gives results of a study of electricity generating costs carried out in 1996 by the UNIPEDE ad hoc group of correspondents of electricity generation costs for thermal and nuclear plants. Costs have been calculated according to the method developed by the working group (as described in the Europe Commission report EUR 5914) based on discounted cash flow. The report updates the traditional representation of base load generating costs for coal, oil - and natural gas-fired power plants and nuclear plants. Appendices show calculation methods used and give tables of average discounted generating costs at 5 ad 10% discount rate. The report also contains reports by the TARGEN group on cogeneration competitiveness, with some detail on the situation for cogeneration in Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Spain and Italy.

  4. Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-21

    In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for

  5. Detection of Hydroxyl and Perhydroxyl Radical Generation from Bleaching Agents with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Himanshu; Sharma, Divya S

    Children/adolescent's orodental structures are different in anatomy and physiology from that of adults, therefore require special attention for bleaching with oxidative materials. Hydroxyl radical (OH(.)) generation from bleaching agents has been considered directly related to both its clinical efficacy and hazardous effect on orodental structures. Nonetheless bleaching agents, indirectly releasing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are considered safer yet clinically efficient. Apart from OH(.), perhydroxyl radicals (HO2(.)) too, were detected in bleaching chemistry but not yet in dentistry. Therefore, the study aims to detect the OH(.) and HO2(.) from bleaching agents with their relative integral value (RIV) using (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)PNMR) spectroscope. Radicals were generated with UV light in 30% H2O2, 35% carbamide peroxide (CP), sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPT) and; neutral and alkaline 30% H2O2. Radicals were spin-trapped with DIPPMPO in NMR tubes for each test agents as a function of time (0, 1, 2, 3min) at their original pH. Peaks were detected for OH(.) and HO2(.) on NMR spectrograph. RIV were read and compared for individual radicals detected. Only OH(.) were detected from acidic and neutral bleaching agent (30% acidic and neutral H2O2, 35%CP); both HO2(.) and OH(.) from 30% alkaline H2O2; while only HO2(.) from more alkaline SPT. RIV for OH(.) was maximum at 1min irradiation of acidic 30%H2O2 and 35%CP and minimum at 1min irradiation of neutral 30%H2O2. RIV for HO2(.)was maximum at 0min irradiation of alkaline 30%H2O2 and minimum at 2min irradiation of SPT. The bleaching agents having pH- neutral and acidic were always associated with OH(.); weak alkaline with both OH(.) and HO2(.); and strong alkaline with HO2(.) only. It is recommended to check the pH of the bleaching agents and if found acidic, should be made alkaline to minimize oxidative damage to enamel itself and then to pulp/periodontal tissues. H2O2: hydrogen peroxide CP: carbamide

  6. Uma etnografia visual da maternidade na Penitenciária Talavera Bruce

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Andrea Silva Copque

    2010-01-01

    A partir de um estudo etnográfico, pretendemos investigar as representações sobre a gravidez e a maternidade em mulheres que são mães durante o cumprimento da pena na Penitenciária Talavera Bruce, no Rio de Janeiro. Estas mães, que convivem com seus filhos durante seis meses, têm os vínculos interrompidos após o período de amamentação. Todavia, os presídios não são designados para propiciar o vínculo familiar, pois, se pensarmos as prisões como instituições cujas práticas ocorrem à margem da ...

  7. Passion, containment, and commitment-essential elements of groups across the lifespan in Bruce Springsteen's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Lorraine

    2012-10-01

    The group, with its intensity, interaction, roles and dynamics, is an important unit of experience in everyday life, in psychotherapy groups, and in Bruce Springsteen's music. This paper explores experiences of and ideas about real life groups throughout the lifecycle through Springsteen's music, framed in concepts from a broad group literature including clinical psychology, social psychology, group psychotherapy, sociology, anthropology, and organizational psychology. The lifecycle includes adolescence and the role of the group to contain all its passions; the work world with its excitements and disillusionments; encounters with loss, and the holding power of the group; experiences of dissolution of the group, and possibilities for recommitment; and the passion and support of the group during celebrations. Themes of passion, containment, and commitment weave throughout the narrative.

  8. 75 FR 15745 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... COMMISSION Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3; Exemption 1.0 Background The Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee) is the holder of Facility... portions of the letters are being withheld from public disclosure. The licensee has requested an exemption...

  9. 75 FR 13606 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...-51, and NPF-74, issued to Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee), for operation of the...-related information and, accordingly, those portions of the letters are being withheld from public...

  10. 75 FR 8149 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Arizona Public Service Company, et al. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3... NPF-74, issued to the Arizona Public Service Company (APS, or the licensee), for operation of the Palo..., respectively). Documents may be examined, and/or copied for a fee, at the NRC's Public Document Room (PDR...

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2804)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Wright

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Research and Development Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2008-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  13. Surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, H.J.

    1980-11-03

    Seismic surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain is studied through a series of synthetic radiation-pattern calculations based on the earthquake-trigger model. From amplitude and phase radiation patterns for 20-s Rayleigh waves, inferences are made about effects on surface-wave magnitude, M/sub s/, and waveform character. The focus of this study is a comparison between two mechanisms of tectonic strain release: strike-slip motion on vertical faults and thrust motion on 45/sup 0/ dipping faults. The results of our calculations show that Rayleigh-wave amplitudes of the dip-slip model at F values between 0.75 and 1.5 are significantly lower than amplitudes of the strike-slip model or of the explosion source alone. This effect translates into M/sub s/ values about 0.5 units lower than M/sub s/ of the explosion alone. Waveform polarity reversals occur in two of four azimuthal quadrants for the strike-slip model and in all azimuths of the dip-slip-thrust model for F values above about 3. A cursory examination of waveforms from presumed explosions in eastern Kazakhstan suggests that releases of tectonic strain are accompanying the detonation of many of these explosions. Qualitatively, the observations seem to favor the dip-slip-thrust model, which, in the case of a few explosions, must have F values above 3.

  14. A Study on the Planning of Technology Development and Research for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H. J. and others

    2005-08-15

    This study aimed at the planning the domestic technology development of the Gen IV and the formulating the international collaborative project contents and executive plan for 'A Validity Assessment and Policies of the R and D of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'. The results of the study include follows; - Survey of the technology state in the fields of the Gen IV system specific technologies and the common technologies, and the plans of the international collaborative research - Drawing up the executive research and development plan by the experts of the relevant technology field for the systems which Korean will participate in. - Formulating the effective conduction plan of the program reflecting the view of the experts from the industry, the university and the research institute. - Establishing the plan for estimation of the research fund and the manpower for the efficient utilization of the domestic available resources. This study can be useful material for evaluating the appropriateness of the Korea's participation in the international collaborative development of the Gen IV, and can be valuably utilized to establish the strategy for the effective conduction of the program. The executive plan of the research and development which was produced in this study will be used to the basic materials for the establishing the guiding direction and the strategic conduction of the program when the research and development is launched in the future.

  15. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY IN DISPOSAL REPOSITORY OF HEAT-GENERATING NUCLEAR WASTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Saurí Suárez, Héctor; Becker, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Certain working scenarios in a disposal facility of heat-generating nuclear waste might lead to an enhanced level of radiation exposure for workers in such facilities. Hence, a realistic estimation of the personal dose during individual working scenarios is desired. In this study, the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code MCNP6 (Pelowitz, D. B. (ed). MCNP6 user manual LA-CP-13-00634, Rev. 0 (2013)) was applied to simulate a representative radiation field in a disposal facility. A tool to estimate the personal dose was then proposed by taking into account the influence of individual motion sequences during working scenarios. As basis for this approach, a movable whole-body phantom was developed to describe individual body gestures of the workers during motion sequences. In this study, the proposed method was applied to the German concept of geological disposal in rock salt. The feasibility of the proposed approach was demonstrated with an example of working scenario in an emplacement drift of a rock salt mine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Hydrous mineral dehydration around heat-generating nuclear waste in bedded salt formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie A; Robinson, Bruce A; Stauffer, Philip H

    2015-06-02

    Heat-generating nuclear waste disposal in bedded salt during the first two years after waste emplacement is explored using numerical simulations tied to experiments of hydrous mineral dehydration. Heating impure salt samples to temperatures of 265 °C can release over 20% by mass of hydrous minerals as water. Three steps in a series of dehydration reactions are measured (65, 110, and 265 °C), and water loss associated with each step is averaged from experimental data into a water source model. Simulations using this dehydration model are used to predict temperature, moisture, and porosity after heating by 750-W waste canisters, assuming hydrous mineral mass fractions from 0 to 10%. The formation of a three-phase heat pipe (with counter-circulation of vapor and brine) occurs as water vapor is driven away from the heat source, condenses, and flows back toward the heat source, leading to changes in porosity, permeability, temperature, saturation, and thermal conductivity of the backfill salt surrounding the waste canisters. Heat pipe formation depends on temperature, moisture availability, and mobility. In certain cases, dehydration of hydrous minerals provides sufficient extra moisture to push the system into a sustained heat pipe, where simulations neglecting this process do not.

  17. D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deuterium-Deuterium fusion processes were generated by focusing the 3 TW PALS Laser on solid deuterated polyethylene targets placed in vacuum. Deuterium ion acceleration of the order of 4 MeV was obtained using laser irradiance Iλ2 ∼ 5 × 1016 W μm2/cm2 on the target. Thin and thick targets, at low and high density, were irradiated and plasma properties were monitored “on line” and “off line”. The ion emission from plasma was monitored with Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, track detectors and ion collectors. Fast semiconductor detectors based on SiC and fast plastic scintillators, both employed in time-of-flight configuration, have permitted to detect the characteristic 3.0 MeV protons and 2.45 MeV neutrons emission from the nuclear fusion reactions. From massive absorbent targets we have evaluated the neutron flux by varying from negligible values up to about 5 × 107 neutrons per laser shot in the case of foams targets, indicating a reaction rate of the order of 108 fusion events per laser shot using “advanced targets”.

  18. D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Cavallaro, S.; Ullschmied, J.

    2015-06-01

    Deuterium-Deuterium fusion processes were generated by focusing the 3 TW PALS Laser on solid deuterated polyethylene targets placed in vacuum. Deuterium ion acceleration of the order of 4 MeV was obtained using laser irradiance Iλ2 ˜ 5 × 1016 W μm2/cm2 on the target. Thin and thick targets, at low and high density, were irradiated and plasma properties were monitored "on line" and "off line". The ion emission from plasma was monitored with Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, track detectors and ion collectors. Fast semiconductor detectors based on SiC and fast plastic scintillators, both employed in time-of-flight configuration, have permitted to detect the characteristic 3.0 MeV protons and 2.45 MeV neutrons emission from the nuclear fusion reactions. From massive absorbent targets we have evaluated the neutron flux by varying from negligible values up to about 5 × 107 neutrons per laser shot in the case of foams targets, indicating a reaction rate of the order of 108 fusion events per laser shot using "advanced targets".

  19. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  20. Human resource development for nuclear generation - from the perspective of a utility company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Mostafa, Nor Azlan; Salim, Mohd Faiz

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is currently in the planning phase of its nuclear power program, with the first unit targeted to be operational in 2030. Training of nuclear power plant (NPP) staffs are usually long and rigorous due to the complexity and safety aspects of nuclear power. As the sole electricity utility in the country, it is therefore essential that Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) prepares early in developing its human resource and nuclear expertise as a potential NPP owner-operator. A utility also has to be prudent in managing its work force efficiently and effectively, while ensuring that adequate preparations are being made to acquire the necessary nuclear knowledge with sufficient training lead time. There are several approaches to training that can be taken by a utility company with no experience in nuclear power. These include conducting feasibility studies and benchmarking exercises, preparing long term human resource development, increasing the exposure on nuclear power technology to both the top management and general staff, and employing the assistance of relevant agencies locally and abroad. This paper discusses the activities done and steps taken by TNB in its human resource development for Malaysia's nuclear power program.

  1. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Frank

    Traditionally, electric utilities have been slow to change and very bureaucratic in nature. This culture, in and of itself, has now contributed to a high percentage of United States electric utilities operating uneconomical nuclear plants (Crooks, 2014). The economic picture behind owning and operating United States nuclear plants is less than favorable for many reasons including rising fuel, capital and operating costs (EUCG, 2012). This doctoral dissertation is specifically focused on life without nuclear power. The purpose of this dissertation is to create a model and guide that will provide electric utilities who currently operate or will operate uneconomical nuclear plants the opportunity to economically assess whether or not their nuclear plant should be retired. This economic assessment and stakeholder analysis will provide local government, academia and communities the opportunity to understand how Southern California Edison (SCE) embraced system upgrade import and "voltage support" opportunities to replace "base load" generation from San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) versus building new replacement generation facilities. This model and guide will help eliminate the need to build large replacement generation units as demonstrated in the SONGS case analysis. The application of The Nuclear Power Retirement Model and Guide will provide electric utilities with economic assessment parameters and an evaluation assessment progression needed to better evaluate when an uneconomical nuclear plant should be retired. It will provide electric utilities the opportunity to utilize sound policy, planning and development skill sets when making this difficult decision. There are currently 62 nuclear power plants (with 100 nuclear reactors) operating in the United States (EIA, 2014). From this group, 38 are at risk of early retirement based on the work of Cooper (2013). As demonstrated in my model, 35 of the 38 nuclear power plants qualify to move to the economic

  2. Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xingshuo

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the leading concepts of the Generation IV nuclear reactor development, which is the core component of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The major challenge in the research and development of NGNP is the performance and reliability of structure materials at high temperature. Alloy 617, with an exceptional combination of high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, has been selected as a primary candidate material for structural use, particularly in Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) which has an outlet temperature in the range of 850 to 950°C and an inner pressure from 5 to 20MPa. In order to qualify the material to be used at the operation condition for a designed service life of 60 years, a comprehensive scientific understanding of creep behavior at high temperature and low stress regime is necessary. In addition, the creep mechanism and the impact factors such as precipitates, grain size, and grain boundary characters need to be evaluated for the purpose of alloy design and development. In this study, thermomechanically processed specimens of alloy 617 with different grain sizes were fabricated, and creep tests with a systematic test matrix covering the temperatures of 850 to 1050°C and stress levels from 5 to 100MPa were conducted. Creep data was analyzed, and the creep curves were found to be unconventional without a well-defined steady-state creep. Very good linear relationships were determined for minimum creep rate versus stress levels with the stress exponents determined around 3-5 depending on the grain size and test condition. Activation energies were also calculated for different stress levels, and the values are close to 400kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in nickel. Power law dislocation climb-glide mechanism was proposed as the dominant creep mechanism in the test condition regime. Dynamic recrystallization happening at high strain range enhanced dislocation climb and

  3. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre.

  4. The role of nuclear technology beyond power generation deserves wider recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    Building new nuclear power plants, extending the lifetimes of existing reactors or decommissioning plants are regular topics of debate surrounding the civil nuclear industry. Then there are the challenges faced in many countries that still await political leadership on solutions for the future safe long-term management of waste for the future. However, one aspect of the industry that impacts the everyday lives of the general public is often overlooked - and that is nuclear's role in protecting the global environment and public health.

  5. Multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for U-tube steam generator in nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchalski Bartosz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, analysis of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers for steam generator of pressurized water reactor (PWR working in wide range of thermal power changes is presented. The U-tube steam generator has a nonlinear dynamics depending on thermal power transferred from coolant of the primary loop of the PWR plant. Control of water level in the steam generator conducted by a traditional PID controller which is designed for nominal power level of the nuclear reactor operates insufficiently well in wide range of operational conditions, especially at the low thermal power level. Thus the steam generator is often controlled manually by operators. Incorrect water level in the steam generator may lead to accidental shutdown of the nuclear reactor and consequently financial losses. In the paper a comparison of proposed multi region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controllers designed only for nominal condition is presented. The gains of the local PID controllers have been derived by solving appropriate optimization tasks with the cost function in a form of integrated squared error (ISE criterion. In both cases, a model of steam generator which is readily available in literature was used for control algorithms synthesis purposes. The proposed multi-region fuzzy logic controller and traditional PID controller were subjected to broad-based simulation tests in rapid prototyping software - Matlab/Simulink. These tests proved the advantage of multi-region fuzzy logic controller with local PID controllers over its traditional counterpart.

  6. Impacts of nuclear plant shutdown on coal-fired power generation and infant health in the Tennessee Valley in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severnini, Edson

    2017-04-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 generated deep public anxiety and uncertainty about the future of nuclear energy. However, differently to fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants produce virtually no greenhouse gas emissions or air pollutants during power generation. Here we show the effect on air pollution and infant health in the context of the temporary closure of nuclear plants by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the 1980s. After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission intensified inspections throughout the nation, leading to the shutdown of two large nuclear power plants in the TVA area. In response to that shutdown, electricity generation shifted one to one to coal-fired power plants within TVA, increasing particle pollution in counties where they were located. Consequently, infant health may have deteriorated in the most affected places, indicating deleterious effects to public health.

  7. Floral micromorphology of the genus Ensete Bruce ex Horan. (Musaceae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandee Inta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To fulfil scarce and incomplete information on floral micromorphology of ensets (Ensete Bruce ex Horan. in the banana family (Musaceae, a comparative anatomical study of two species: E. glaucum (Roxb. Cheesman and E. superbum (Roxb. Cheesman, native to Thailand was conducted. It was found that, apart from five fertile stamens presented in other members of the Musaceae family, both ensets possess a short staminode. It is suggested from this investigation that six is the basic number of Ensete androecial whorl and the taxa could secure the most primitive status within the family and the Zingiberales order, of which stamen numbers are reduced. The results also indicated that the vascular bundle position in compound tepal, the vascular patterns in vascular zone of ovary and cell shapes of stigma epidermis and the ovary cortex are of systematic significance in conjunction with pollen size and exine ornamentation. These useful micromorphological characters can be further applied for identification of other Ensete species distribute elsewhere in the world.

  8. A Differential-Algebraic Model for the Once-Through Steam Generator of MHTGR-Based Multimodular Nuclear Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs are those fission reactors whose electrical output power is no more than 300 MWe. SMRs usually have the inherent safety feature that can be applicable to power plants of any desired power rating by applying the multimodular operation scheme. Due to its strong inherent safety feature, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR, which uses helium as coolant and graphite as moderator and structural material, is a typical SMR for building the next generation of nuclear plants (NGNPs. The once-through steam generator (OTSG is the basis of realizing the multimodular scheme, and modeling of the OTSG is meaningful to study the dynamic behavior of the multimodular plants and to design the operation and control strategy. In this paper, based upon the conservation laws of mass, energy, and momentum, a new differential-algebraic model for the OTSGs of the MHTGR-based multimodular nuclear plants is given. This newly-built model can describe the dynamic behavior of the OTSG in both the cases of providing superheated steam and generating saturated steam. Numerical simulation results show the feasibility and satisfactory performance of this model. Moreover, this model has been applied to develop the real-time simulation software for the operation and regulation features of the world first underconstructed MHTGR-based commercial nuclear plant—HTR-PM.

  9. The bungling giant: Atomic Energy Canada Limited and next-generation nuclear technology, 1980--1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ian James

    From 1980--1994 Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), the Crown Corporation responsible for the development of nuclear technology in Canada, ventured into the market for small-scale, decentralized power systems with the Slowpoke Energy System (SES), a 10MW nuclear reactor for space heating in urban and remote areas. The SES was designed to be "passively" or "inherently" safe, such that even the most catastrophic failure of the system would not result in a serious accident (e.g. a meltdown or an explosion). This Canadian initiative, a beneficiary of the National Energy Program, was the first and by far the most successful attempt at a passively safe, decentralized nuclear power system anywhere in the world. Part one uses archival documentation and interviews with project leaders to reconstruct the history of the SES. The standard explanations for the failure of the project, cheap oil, public resistance to the technology, and lack of commercial expertise, are rejected. Part two presents an alternative explanation for the failure of AECL to commercialize the SES. In short, technological momentum towards large-scale nuclear designs led to structural restrictions for the SES project. These restrictions manifested themselves internally to the company (e.g., marginalization of the SES) and externally to the company (e.g., licensing). In part three, the historical lessons of the SES are used to refine one of the central tenets of Popper's political philosophy, "piecemeal social engineering." Popper's presentation of the idea is lacking in detail; the analysis of the SES provides some empirical grounding for the concept. I argue that the institutions surrounding traditional nuclear power represent a form utopian social engineering, leading to consequences such as the suspension of civil liberties to guarantee security of the technology. The SES project was an example of a move from the utopian social engineering of large-scale centralized nuclear technology to the piecemeal

  10. Autophagic degradation of dBruce controls DNA fragmentation in nurse cells during late Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shravage, Bhupendra V.; Sagona, Antonia P.; Lamark, Trond; Bjørkøy, Geir; Johansen, Terje; Rusten, Tor Erik; Brech, Andreas; Baehrecke, Eric H.

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway responsible for degradation of cytoplasmic material via the lysosome. Although autophagy has been reported to contribute to cell death, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that autophagy controls DNA fragmentation during late oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Inhibition of autophagy by genetically removing the function of the autophagy genes atg1, atg13, and vps34 resulted in late stage egg chambers that contained persisting nurse cell nuclei without fragmented DNA and attenuation of caspase-3 cleavage. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) dBruce was found to colocalize with the autophagic marker GFP-Atg8a and accumulated in autophagy mutants. Nurse cells lacking Atg1 or Vps34 in addition to dBruce contained persisting nurse cell nuclei with fragmented DNA. This indicates that autophagic degradation of dBruce controls DNA fragmentation in nurse cells. Our results reveal autophagic degradation of an IAP as a novel mechanism of triggering cell death and thereby provide a mechanistic link between autophagy and cell death. PMID:20713604

  11. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  12. 78 FR 77726 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Range,'' and American Society for Mechanical Engineering (ASME), Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Code... the ASME Code, Section III, Division 1, ``Rules for Construction of Nuclear Power Plant Components...,(I)(A) requires the use of methods equivalent to Appendix G to ASME Section XI, Division 1, ``Rules...

  13. Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-12-15

    OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study.

  14. OECD: a slight decrease of nuclear power generation in 2007; OCDE: legere baisse de la production electronucleaire en 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-07-15

    The figures concerning the status of nuclear power in the OECD countries have been published for 2007. In OECD countries nuclear power plants have produced 2172 TWh that is 21.6% of the total electric power generated and that is 3.6% less than in 2006. At the beginning of 2008, 346 reactors were connected to the power grid in 17 OECD countries. 14 reactors are being built: 6 in Korea, 3 in Japan, 2 in Slovakia, 1 in Finland, 1 in France and 1 in the United-States. 13 reactors have been firmly ordered and 12 reactors will have to be decommissioned by the end of 2012 (5 in Germany, 4 in United Kingdom, 1 in France, 1 in Japan and 1 in Slovakia). (A.C.)

  15. Third-generation site characterization: Cryogenic core collection, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaalhosseini, Saeed

    In modern contaminant hydrology, management of contaminated sites requires a holistic characterization of subsurface conditions. Delineation of contaminant distribution in all phases (i.e., aqueous, non-aqueous liquid, sorbed, and gas), as well as associated biogeochemical processes in a complex heterogeneous subsurface, is central to selecting effective remedies. Arguably, a factor contributing to the lack of success of managing contaminated sites effectively has been the limitations of site characterization methods that rely on monitoring wells and grab sediment samples. The overarching objective of this research is to advance a set of third-generation (3G) site characterization methods to overcome shortcomings of current site characterization techniques. 3G methods include 1) cryogenic core collection (C3) from unconsolidated geological subsurface to improve recovery of sediments and preserving key attributes, 2) high-throughput analysis (HTA) of frozen core in the laboratory to provide high-resolution, depth discrete data of subsurface conditions and processes, 3) resolution of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) distribution within the porous media using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method, and 4) application of a complex resistivity method to track NAPL depletion in shallow geological formation over time. A series of controlled experiments were conducted to develop the C 3 tools and methods. The critical aspects of C3 are downhole circulation of liquid nitrogen via a cooling system, the strategic use of thermal insulation to focus cooling into the core, and the use of back pressure to optimize cooling. The C3 methods were applied at two contaminated sites: 1) F.E. Warren (FEW) Air Force Base near Cheyenne, WY and 2) a former refinery in the western U.S. The results indicated that the rate of core collection using the C3 methods is on the order of 30 foot/day. The C3 methods also improve core recovery and limits potential biases associated with flowing sands

  16. Michelangelo initiative. The next generation of reactors. Safety and competitiveness. Innovative Nuclear Reactor Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zero, S. [Framatome, Paris (France); Von Lensa, W. [Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik ISR, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The MICHELANGELO initiative was launched by the European nuclear industry and by many different research and development (R and D) organizations. It is open to any organization or company that shares a belief in its contents and end purposes. Under the aegis of the European Commission and in the context of the 5th Framework Programme, it aims to encourage a strong partnership of research and industry in the nuclear energy field, with the goal of supporting the safety and competitiveness of future European reactors. This initiative is complemented by the Concerted Action on `Safety-related Innovative Nuclear Reactor Technology Elements - R and D (SINTER) Network` aiming at a similar synergetic approach towards a work-shared European R and D Network. All European R and D actors are invited to submit their proposals for future R and D topics as a bottom-up for a systematic R and D programme configuration. Close interaction between the industry and the R and D side is foreseen to respond effectively on future public and industrial requirements on a European level

  17. Accelerated development of Zr-containing new generation ferritic steels for advanced nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sridharan, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys that can be fabricated using conventional steelmaking methods. The new alloys are expected to have superior high-temperature creep performance and excellent radiation resistance as compared to Grade 91. The designed alloys were fabricated using arc-melting and drop-casting, followed by hot rolling and conventional heat treatments. Comprehensive experimental studies have been conducted on the developed alloys to evaluate their hardness, tensile properties, creep resistance, Charpy impact toughness, and aging resistance, as well as resistance to proton and heavy ion (Fe2+) irradiation.

  18. TopWorx/GO switch new generation nuclear qualified proximity position sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrifield, G. [TopWorx/Emerson Process Control, Louisville, Kentucky (United States)

    2011-07-01

    An overview of the benefits of installing TopWorx/GO Nuclear Qualified Proximity Position Sensors instead of traditional mechanical switches. Mechanical switches have been the standard for the nuclear industry for years, but that is only because of lack of competition. Because of multiple moving parts, three-piece design, and new low current control systems, mechanical switches are susceptible to a host of environmental factors that cause them to break and/or fail. TopWorx/GO Switch is a smaller, rugged, dependable, one-piece Stainless Steel proximity position sensor that that exceeds CANDU and Global Qualification Levels, easily replacing mechanical switches. It is the only position sensor to meet or exceed Westinghouse AP 1000 specifications as well. Nuclear facilities save money in maintenance reductions, extended PM's and reduction in 'Man REM' hours. This is achieved by not having to service and replace GO Switch position sensors as often as mechanical switches, since their qualified life is 100 years +1 Post Accident submerged. Plant safety is increased due to less switch failure, higher qualification testing levels, repeatability and longer qualified life. (author)

  19. Triple nuclear reactions (d, n) in laser-generated plasma from deuterated targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2017-06-01

    Measurements performed at Prague Asterix Laser System laboratory have permitted to study nuclear reactions in plasma produced by high intensity laser pulses (1016 W/cm2) accelerating high energetic ions. In particular, the laser irradiation of deuterated polyethylene (CD2) primary target, as thin foils, has produced the ion acceleration of C and D ions, and the presence of a thick LiD secondary target has produced nuclear reaction events due to the deuteron-deuteron, deuterons-lithium, and deuteron-carbon interactions. Fast and slow neutrons have been obtained mainly from the nuclear reactions 7Li(d, n)8Be, 2H(d, n)3He, and 12C(d, n)13N. Plasma monitoring and measurements of kinetic energies of produced particles in different directions were obtained using many detectors. The analyses were based on a semiconductor time-of-flight technique, an electric and magnetic ion deflection in a Thomson spectrometer, and ion track detectors. The maximum yields of neutrons produced in the used experimental conditions were evaluated to be about 4 × 108 and 3 × 108 neutrons/laser shot at energies of 14 MeV and 2.4 MeV, from the D-Li and D-D reactions, respectively, while the production of low energy neutrons from the third D-C reaction was negligible.

  20. Random Process Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Address: Professor Bruce W. Schmeiser School of Industrial Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 UjDISTIUMUTIO" TTMJ Approved for...algorithms developed under this contract are about twice as fast as the best alternatives available today. Peter Lewis at the Naval Postgraduate School ...generating bivariate gazua vectors. These algorithms are the only methods available which are valid for an gaia marginal distributions and j 6 -. . 4

  1. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications.

  2. Perspectives on Entangled Nuclear Particle Pairs Generation and Manipulation in Quantum Communication and Cryptography Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Dănilă

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entanglement between two quantum elements is a phenomenon which presents a broad application spectrum, being used largely in quantum cryptography schemes and in physical characterisation of the universe. Commonly known entangled states have been obtained with photons and electrons, but other quantum elements such as quarks, leptons, and neutrinos have shown their informational potential. In this paper, we present the perspective of exploiting the phenomenon of entanglement that appears in nuclear particle interactions as a resource for quantum key distribution protocols.

  3. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Vijay [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Carroll, Laura [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sham, Sam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  4. Advanced cycle efficiency: Generating 40% more power from the nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, Romney B.; Leung, Laurence

    2010-09-15

    The introduction of supercritical water (SCW) nuclear power plants (NPPs) would improve the overall plant efficiency significantly compared to currently deployed systems. This improvement is attributed to the increase in plant operating conditions. In addition, the implementation of the reheat-channel option into the CANDU SCW NPPs would further enhance the efficiency. Overall, the combination of higher operating conditions and reheat-channel option would lead to overall plant efficiency of about 50% for the CANDU SCW NPPs, compared to 33--35% for currently deployed systems. This represents a whopping 40% improvement in efficiency.

  5. A strategy for improving public confidence of nuclear energy based on the segmentation of stake holders -Focused on Univ. Students, the Opinion Leader in the Next Generation-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jenam [Korea Nuclear Energy Promotion Agency, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Korea Nuclear Energy Promotion Agency(hereafter, referred as KONEPA) is a public institution established in March, 1992 to improve correct understanding of nuclear energy through development and dissemination of objective, scientific knowledge on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. KONEPA divided the targeted group into four large groups? opinion leaders, civil-social group, LOCA governments, general public/next-generation students/teachers? according to the knowledge levels of nuclear power and involvements in nuclear power plants, and implemented 'customized strategy' suited to the own characteristic of each group. Of these four groups, the next generation, focused on the 'Univ. students' will be discussed with their activities and future plans in this paper.

  6. Generation of cross section data of heat pipe working fluids for compact nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slewinski, Anderson; Ribeiro, Guilherme B. [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: anderson_sle@live.com, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAv), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisão de Energia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    For compact nuclear power plants, such as the nuclear space propulsion proposed by the TERRA project, aspects like mass, size and efficiency are essential drivers that must be managed during the project development. Moreover, for high temperature reactors, the use of liquid metal heat pipes as the heat removal mechanism provides some important advantages as simplicity and reliability. Considering these aforementioned aspects, this paper aims the development of the procedure necessary to calculate the microscopic absorption cross section data of several liquid metal to be used as working fluids with heat pipes; which will be later compared with the given data from JEF Report ⧣14. The information necessary to calculate the cross section data will be obtained from the latest ENDF library version. The NJOY system will be employed with the following modules: RECONR, BROADR, UNRESR and GROUPR, using the same specifications used to calculate the cross section data encountered in the JEF Report ⧣14. This methodology allows a comparison with published values, verifying the procedure developed to calculate the microscopic absorption cross section for selected isotopes using the TERRA reactor spectrum. Liquid metals isotopes of Sodium (Na), Lithium (Li), Thallium (TI) and Mercury (Hg) are part of this study. (author)

  7. Application of Numerical Simulation on the Manufacturing Process Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator Tube-sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shao Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant key parts-steam generator (SG tube sheet forging operate in harsh environment, so it has high requirements for internal quality. According to RCC-M specification requirements (take CPR1000 reactor type for example, the manufacturer should carry out workshop qualification and part process qualification before delivery product manufacturing. It is commonly used that centre compaction process and conical plate upsetting process regard as two kinds of large forging upsetting ways. The numerical analogue simulation has been carried out on nuclear power large tube sheet forgings using France Forge simulation software. The results show that: when the same pressure size, 3-direction compressive stress in the core of the billet always exist in the process of upsetting using centre pressing process, and the strain create in the central of the billet, but stagnant zone exist on the bottom and end plane; tensile stress in the core of the billet always exist in the process of upsetting using conical plate upsetting process, it will force the billet that contact with conical plate to deform, so eliminate stagnant zone, but effective deformation don’t produce in the central of the billet. The conical plate continue press for conical plate upsetting process, tensile stress in the core of the billet disappear, and then gradually change into pressure stress, then tensile stress is generated at the bottom, finally tensile stress disappear and 3-direction compressive stress exist in the core of the billet.

  8. White spots on Smoke rings by Bruce Nauman: a case study on contemporary art conservation using microanalytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafalda, Ana Cardeira; da Câmara, Rodrigo Bettencourt; Strzelec, Patrick; Schiavon, Nick; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Manso, Marta

    2015-02-01

    The artwork "Smoke Rings: Two Concentric Tunnels, Non-Communicating" by Bruce Nauman represents a case study of corrosion of a black patina-coated Al-alloy contemporary artwork. The main concern over this artwork was the widespread presence of white spots on its surface. Alloy substrate, patina, and white spots were characterized by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Alloy substrate was identified as an aluminum alloy 6,000 series Al-Si-Mg. Patina's identified composition confirmed the documentation provided by the atelier. Concerning the white spots, zircon particles were found on patina surface as external elements.

  9. New technology for purging the steam generators of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budko, I. O.; Kutdjusov, Yu. F.; Gorburov, V. I. [Scientific-Research Center for Energy Technology ' NICE Centrenergo' (Russian Federation); Rjasnyj, S. I. [JSC ' The All-Rissia Nuklear Power Engineering Research and Development Institute' (VNIIAM) (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    A technology for removal of undissolved impurities from a horizontal steam generator using purge water is developed on the basis of a theoretical analysis. A purge with a maximal flow rate is drawn off from the zone with the highest accumulation of sludge in the lower part of the steam generator after the main circulation pump of the corresponding loop is shut off and the temperatures of the heat transfer medium at the inlet and outlet of the steam generator have equilibrated. An improved purge configuration is used for this technology; it employs shutoff and regulator valves, periodic purge lines separated by a cutoff fixture, and a D{sub y} 100 drain union as a connector for the periodic purge. Field tests show that the efficiency of this technology for sludge removal by purge water is several times that for the standard method.

  10. Safety insurance of disposal of low level radioactive waste generated from decommissioned nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Noriyuki; Ohma, Tomoyuki; Miyauchi, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Akio; Kozawa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yasutoshi [Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The basis technique to affect the safety design of radioactive waste disposal facility is supported by the long-term stability examination for the characterization (the water permeability, absorption and so on) of the various barrier material, development of analysis code to use for the estimation of the material movement and the chemical environment change, and the acquisition of the natural analog data which is used to confirm its validity. It is thought that the effectivity of this basis technique depends on the kind of the waste, but in the field of LLW, it is possible to apply the technique. It this report, it confirmed the basis technique, which is possible to apply to the safety design of the disposal facilities about decommissioning waste from nuclear power plant. For example, activated metal is possible to evaluate using corrosion speed. And the basic data exists to argue about the long-term stability of cement and bentonite as engineered barrier. (author)

  11. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  12. Missile generated load effects in nuclear facilities; Missilgenererade lasteffekter i kaerntekniska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovall, Ola; Larsson, Jan-Anders; Thunell, Bjoern [Scanscot Technology AB, Ideon Research Park, Lund (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    Analysis of impact load effects to be accounted for in nuclear power plant engineering includes several complicated issues. During the expansive build up of the Swedish nuclear power plants in the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s, no rational computer based analysis methods were available to handle these types of events. Simplified empirical methods, based on experiences from ballistic experiments within the American military industry, constituted the basic analysis tools. Modern analysis methods based on the finite element technique have during recent years been used more often within the nuclear power plant industry. These methods have made it possible to eliminate several of the shortages associated with the traditional methods of analysis. On behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate, Scanscot Technology has performed a review of the traditional and modern analysis methods aimed at handling missile impact in nuclear power plants. Emphasis has been put on the advantages and possibilities that can be achieved by using modern analysis methods, but also to identify and define new uncertainties that may arise. Acceptance criteria regarding dynamic load effects have traditionally been focused on safety-related systems and components. Generally, corresponding demands on safety-related structures have been overlooked or treated on the basis of other acceptance criteria. Therefore, another aim of this commission is to create a comprehensive perspective for safety-related systems, components and structures regarding the acceptance criteria to be applied for evaluation of dynamic load effects in the case of accidental events. In this report the various types of impact loads, which should be regarded within the scope of postulated accidental events in nuclear power plants, are described. Furthermore, special issues regarding load effects and acceptance criteria for safety-related systems and structures are treated. The traditional methods of determining impact load

  13. Thermochemical investigation of molten fluoride salts for Generation IV nuclear applications - an equilibrium exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the Molten Salt Reactor, one of the so-called Generation IV future reactors, is that the fuel, a fissile material, which is dissolved in a molten fluoride salt, circulates through a closed circuit. The heat of fission is transferred to a second molten salt coolant loop, the heat of

  14. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a course concerning the need, environmental costs, and benefits of electrical power generation. Each chapter of this guide corresponds to a chapter in the course text, and includes the following: a list of behavioral objectives for the corresponding chapter, a list of suggested activities, recommended audio-visual…

  15. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, Baofu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-06-03

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 September 2004. Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance.Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. Development of advanced signal processing methods using

  16. Nuclear design manual for generation of cross section and heterogeneous formfunction for CASMO-3/MASTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Cho, Byung Oh; Song, Jae Seong; Lee, Chung Chan

    1996-12-01

    A three-dimensional reactor core simulation code, MASTER, has been developed as a part of the ADONIS project in KAERI. CASMO-3 prepares various two-group cross sections for the constituents of a reactor core such as fuel assembly, radial and axial reflectors, control rod and detector for MASTER. This report includes the standard design procedure for generation of two-group cross sections and heterogeneous formfunction by CASMO-3/FORM for MASTER. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs.

  17. Multiobjective genetic algorithm strategies for electricity production from generation IV nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Adrien; Pibouleau, Luc; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Domenech, Serge [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, 31700 Toulouse Cedex 1 (France); Latge, Christian [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/DIR, Bat. 710, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Haubensack, David [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DER/SESI/LCSI, Bat. 212, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2010-04-15

    Development of a technico-economic optimization strategy of cogeneration systems of electricity/hydrogen, consists in finding an optimal efficiency of the generating cycle and heat delivery system, maximizing the energy production and minimizing the production costs. The first part of the paper is related to the development of a multiobjective optimization library (MULTIGEN) to tackle all types of problems arising from cogeneration. After a literature review for identifying the most efficient methods, the MULTIGEN library is described, and the innovative points are listed. A new stopping criterion, based on the stagnation of the Pareto front, may lead to significant decrease of computational times, particularly in the case of problems involving only integer variables. Two practical examples are presented in the last section. The former is devoted to a bicriteria optimization of both exergy destruction and total cost of the plant, for a generating cycle coupled with a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The second example consists in designing the heat exchanger of the generating turbomachine. Three criteria are optimized: the exchange surface, the exergy destruction and the number of exchange modules. (author)

  18. Review of nuclear electricity generation and desalination plants and evaluation of SMART application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Ok; Kang, Hyung Suk; Cho, Bong Hyun; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Lee, Young Jin; Kim, Joo Pyung; Lee, Doo Jeong; Chang, Moon Hee

    1998-03-01

    KAERI are developing a new advanced integral reactor named SMART for dual application purpose of the electric power generation and seawater desalination. This report are describing the general desalting methods with its technology development and the coupling schemes between electricity generation system and desalting system. Though MSF takes the most part of currently operating seawater desalination plants, MED and RO has been preferred in the past decade. MED has a advantage over MSF with the view to investment costs and energy efficiency. The coupling between electricity generation system and desalination system can be realized by using one of back pressure cycle, extraction cycle, and multi-shaft cycle. New design and operating strategy has to be established for various environment and load conditions. To evaluate the candidate desalination systems of SMART and the coupling method of it with other secondary systems, the desalted water and electricity were calculated through the several options. The result shows that back pressure cycle is preferred at the high water/power ratio and extraction cycle at the low value. If energy efficiency are only considered, RO will be best choice. (author). 17 refs., 12 tabs., 31 figs

  19. Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

    2002-12-27

    The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

  20. The European Research on Severe Accidents in Generation-II and -III Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Van Dorsselaere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three organisations from 22 countries network their capacities of research in SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork of excellence to resolve the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues on severe accidents in existing and future water-cooled nuclear power plants (NPP. After a first project in the 6th Framework Programme (FP6 of the European Commission, the SARNET2 project, coordinated by IRSN, started in April 2009 for 4 years in the FP7 frame. After 2,5 years, some main outcomes of joint research (modelling and experiments by the network members on the highest priority issues are presented: in-vessel degraded core coolability, molten-corium-concrete-interaction, containment phenomena (water spray, hydrogen combustion…, source term issues (mainly iodine behaviour. The ASTEC integral computer code, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS to predict the NPP SA behaviour, capitalizes in terms of models the knowledge produced in the network: a few validation results are presented. For dissemination of knowledge, an educational 1-week course was organized for young researchers or students in January 2011, and a two-day course is planned mid-2012 for senior staff. Mobility of young researchers or students between the European partners is being promoted. The ERMSAR conference is becoming the major worldwide conference on SA research.

  1. D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Torrisi L.; Cutroneo M.; Cavallaro S.; Ullschmied J.

    2015-01-01

    Deuterium-Deuterium fusion processes were generated by focusing the 3 TW PALS Laser on solid deuterated polyethylene targets placed in vacuum. Deuterium ion acceleration of the order of 4 MeV was obtained using laser irradiance Iλ2 ∼ 5 × 1016 W μm2/cm2 on the target. Thin and thick targets, at low and high density, were irradiated and plasma properties were monitored “on line” and “off line”. The ion emission from plasma was monitored with Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, track detectors and io...

  2. Contrast generation in the nuclear-spin tomography by pulsed ultrasound; Kontrasterzeugung in der Kernspintomographie durch gepulsten Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehms, Ole Benjamin

    2009-07-10

    In the framework of this thesis a combined method of ultrasound and nuclear-spin tomography is presented. Via ultrasound pulses by the sound-radiation force in liquids and tissue phantoms motions are generated, which depend on ther viscoelastic properties. This motions are made visible by a motion-sensitive tomograph sequence in the phase image of the tomograph in form of a phase change. The first measurements on simple phantoms and liquids are presented. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird eine kombinierte Methode aus Ultraschall und Kernspintomographie vorgestellt. Ueber Ultraschallpulse werden durch die Schallstrahlungskraft in Fluessigkeiten und Gewebephantomen Bewegungen erzeugt, die von den viskoelastischen Eigenschaften abhaengen. Diese Bewegungen werden mit einer bewegungssensitiven Tomographensequenz im Phasenbild des Tomographen in Form einer Phasenaenderung sichtbar gemacht. Die ersten Messungen an einfachen Phantomen und Fluessigkeiten werden praesentiert. (orig.)

  3. Not from my world. Responsibility for future generations in the final disposal of nuclear waste; Nicht von meiner Welt. Zukunftsverantwortung bei der Endlagerung von radioaktiven Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Konrad [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Philosophisches Seminar; Semper, Franziska [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Rechtswissenschaften

    2017-09-01

    In Germany the decision on a final repository for nuclear wastes is intended for 2031. The consequences of this decision will concern many generations in the future. Today there is a contradiction between the request of reversibility of all measures and the avoidance of the necessity of continuous activities for future generations. There is no way for a simple solution. The interests of future generations have to be considered as well as the interests of the actual living society.

  4. Risk perception & strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system.

  5. Fundamental reasons for the good performance of Alloy 800 in nuclear steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coull, Z.L.; Newman, R.C.; Carcea, A.G.; Artymowicz, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    It is hypothesized that the good performance of Alloy 800 in steam generator service is due to its relative immunity to two distinct mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking; the argument also applies to intergranular corrosion. One mechanism operates in the high-nickel region (Alloy 600 and nearby model alloys) and is due to internal intergranular oxidation. The other operates in the low-nickel (stainless steel) region and is due to de-alloying of Fe and/or Cr. This latter mechanism may, under special conditions, operate in high-Ni, high-Cr alloys such as 690. Some essential features of the de-alloying mechanism are demonstrated using strong caustic solutions, and the prospect of extending this approach to dilute high-temperature environments is discussed. (author)

  6. New generation medium power nuclear station with VPBER-600 passive safety reactor plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitenkov, F.M.; Antonovsky, G.M.; Panov, Yu.K.; Runov, B.I. [OKB Mech. Eng., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Design principles and the main technical characteristics of a new generation medium size atomic station with passive safety VPBER-600 reactor plant (RP) are considered in the report. RP safety concept, design of the integral reactor and of the reactor unit, description of the principal diagram and plant safety system, layout decisions on reactor building and the concept of architectural-arrangement decisions on the site are given. The results of safety analysis show that the atomic station with VPBER-600 RP is an environmentally clean source of power supply with a minimal radiation impact on the environment. Information is given on the soundness of design solutions and data are presented concerning the respective cost and possible time schedule for the plant construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  7. Impact of the High Flux Isotope Reactor HEU to LEU Fuel Conversion on Cold Source Nuclear Heat Generation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration, staff members at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducting studies to determine whether the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) can be converted from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. As part of these ongoing studies, an assessment of the impact that the HEU to LEU fuel conversion has on the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source system and its moderator vessel was performed and is documented in this report. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions and few-group neutron fluxes in the cold source moderator were also estimated. Neutronics calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle code to determine the nuclear heat generation rates in regions of the HFIR cold source and its vessel for the HEU core operating at a full reactor power (FP) of 85 MW(t) and the reference LEU core operating at an FP of 100 MW(t). Calculations were performed with beginning-of-cycle (BOC) and end-of-cycle (EOC) conditions to bound typical irradiation conditions. Average specific BOC heat generation rates of 12.76 and 12.92 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the hemispherical region of the cold source liquid hydrogen (LH2) for the HEU and LEU cores, and EOC heat generation rates of 13.25 and 12.86 W/g, respectively, were calculated for the HEU and LEU cores. Thus, the greatest heat generation rates were calculated for the EOC HEU core, and it is concluded that the conversion from HEU to LEU fuel and the resulting increase of FP from 85 MW to 100 MW will not impact the ability of the heat removal equipment to remove the heat deposited in the cold source system. Silicon production rates in the cold source aluminum regions are estimated to be about 12.0% greater at BOC and 2.7% greater at EOC for the LEU core in comparison to the HEU core. Silicon is aluminum s major transmutation product and

  8. J-resistance curves for Inconel 690 and Incoloy 800 nuclear steam generators tubes at room temperature and at 300 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, Marcos A.; Yawny, Alejandro A.; Perez Ipiña, Juan E.

    2017-04-01

    The structural integrity of steam generator tubes is a relevant issue concerning nuclear plant safety. In the present work, J-resistance curves of Inconel 690 and Incoloy 800 nuclear steam generator tubes with circumferential and longitudinal through wall cracks were obtained at room temperature and 300 °C using recently developed non-standard specimens' geometries. It was found that Incoloy 800 tubes exhibited higher J-resistance curves than Inconel 690 for both crack orientations. For both materials, circumferential cracks resulted into higher fracture resistance than longitudinal cracks, indicating a certain degree of texture anisotropy introduced by the tube fabrication process. From a practical point of view, temperature effects have found to be negligible in all cases. The results obtained in the present work provide a general framework for further application to structural integrity assessments of cracked tubes in a variety of nuclear steam generator designs.

  9. 1990 results of German nuclear power plant operation. Pt. 1. Nuclear generating units of up to 1000 MW power. Betriebsergebnisse der westdeutschen Kernkraftwerke 1990. T. 1. Kernkraftwerksbloecke bis 1000 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-05-01

    The twenty nuclear generating units with an aggregate gross installed capacity of 22,365 MWe in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 converted 147,243 GWh of nuclear power into electricity; this is 1.5% less than the 1989 production of 149,453 GWh. The seven units of 1000 MWe maximum rated power with an aggregate gross 5152 MWe supplied 28,746 GWh in 1990 at an average availability in terms of time of 69.9% and a net capacity utilization of 63.4%. No accident occured in the nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 which could have endangered personnel in the plants or the population in the vicinity. The operating performance data of the nuclear generating units of up to 1000 MW power are published in Part 1 of the article as excerpts from the 1990 Annual Report by the Operating Experiences Committee (ABE Committee) of the Technical Association of Operators of Large Power Plants (VGB). Part 2 of the article, which will be published at a later date, will contain the performance data of nuclear generating units of more than 1000 MW power. (orig.).

  10. Evolution of the collective radiation dose of nuclear reactors from the 2nd through to the 3rd generation and 4th generation sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidez, Joel; Saturnin, Anne

    2017-11-01

    During the operation of a nuclear reactor, the external individual doses received by the personnel are measured and recorded, in conformity with the regulations in force. The sum of these measurements enables an evaluation of the annual collective dose expressed in man·Sv/year. This information is a useful tool when comparing the different design types and reactors. This article discusses the evolution of the collective dose for several types of reactors, mainly based on publications from the NEA and the IAEA. The spread of good practices (optimization of working conditions and of the organization, sharing of lessons learned, etc.) and ongoing improvements in reactor design have meant that over time, the doses of various origins received by the personnel have decreased. In the case of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), the compilation and summarizing of various documentary resources has enabled them to be situated and compared to other types of reactors of the second and third generations (respectively pressurized water reactors in operation and EPR under construction). From these results, it can be seen that the doses received during the operation of SFR are significantly lower for this type of reactor.

  11. Integrity assurance of the secondary side of steam generator in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Lim, Yun Soo; Hwang, Seong Sik; Yi, Yong Sun; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Sung Soo; Jung, Man Gyo

    2005-09-15

    Residual stresses on the expansion transition regions of steam generator tubes expanded by explosive and hydraulic expansion techniques were measured using several different methods such as strain gauge, XRD, electrolytic polishing, and stress corrosion cracking methods. The SCC method was applied by measuring the cracking time using C-ring specimens to which precisely measured stress had been imposed and comparing the cracking time of the expanded tube specimens in order to estimate the magnitude of residual stress developed on the expansion transition regions. Axial residual stress on the outer surface of both, Inconel 600 and 690 tubes was measured to be mainly compressive, which can not induce circumferential ODSCC on the expansion transition regions. According to SCC test results, SCC was not observed to occur on the expansion transition regions of the expanded model specimen tubes, which means that the residual stresses developed on the expansion transition regions by the explosive and the hydraulic expansion methods are not big enough to induce SCC. However, sludge piled up on the top of tubesheet during operation of NPPs might change the stress state on the expansion transition regions, which can result in occurring SCC.

  12. NOMAGE4 activities 2011. Part I, Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors: Status and activities in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nieuwenhove, R. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway))

    2012-01-15

    A network for materials issues has been initiated in 2009 within the Nordic countries. The original objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) were to form the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen-IV issues, especially focusing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Over the last years, other issues such as reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, safety and waste have gained in importance (within the network) and therefore the scope of the forum has been enlarged and a more appropriate and more general name, NORDIC-GEN4, has been chosen for the forum. Further, the interaction with non-Nordic countries (such as The Netherlands (JRC, NRG) and Czech Republic (CVR)) will be increased. Within the NOMAGE4 project, a seminar was organized by IFE-Halden during 31 October - 1 November 2011. The seminar attracted 65 participants from 12 countries. The seminar provided a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research reactor needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. The participants could also visit the Halden reactor site and the workshop. (Author)

  13. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal

  14. Granular flow in pebble-bed nuclear reactors: Scaling, dust generation, and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H., E-mail: chr@seas.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dehbi, Abdel, E-mail: abdel.dehbi@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lind, Terttaliisa, E-mail: terttaliisa.lind@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Güntay, Salih, E-mail: salih.guentay@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The scaling properties of granular flow in pebble-bed reactors have been analyzed. • Simulations in a full-size reactor are compared to those scaled down by 3:1 and 6:1. • For some features, the scaled-down behavior is complex due to pebble packing effects. • Pebble stresses and dust generation due to pebble wear are analyzed in detail. • Approximate scaling laws for pebble stress and wear are developed. - Abstract: In experimental prototypes of pebble-bed reactors, significant quantities of graphite dust have been observed due to rubbing between pebbles as they flow through the core. At the typical operating conditions in these reactors, which feature high temperatures, pressures, and a helium atmosphere, limited data is available on the frictional properties of the pebble surfaces, and as a result, a conceptual design of a scaled-down version of a pebble-bed reactor has been proposed to investigate this issue in detail. However, this raises general questions about how the granular flow in a scaled facility will emulate that in a full-size reactor. To address this, simulations of granular flow in pebble-bed reactors using the discrete-element method (DEM) have been carried out in a full-size geometry (using 440,000 pebbles) and compared to those in geometries scaled down by factors of 3:1 and 6:1. Differences in velocity profiles, pebble ordering, pebble wear, and stresses are examined, and the effect of friction is discussed. The results show complex behavior due to discrete pebble packing effects, although several simple scaling rules can be derived.

  15. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 4. Radiological emergency response planning for nuclear power plants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, W.W.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews the state of emergency response planning for nuclear power plants in California. Attention is given to the role of Federal agencies, particularly the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in planning for both on and off site emergency measures and to the role of State and local agencies for off site planning. The relationship between these various authorities is considered. Existing emergency plans for nuclear power plants operating or being constructed in California are summarized. The developing role of the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission is examined.

  16. 1991 results of German nuclear power plant operation. Pt. 1. Nuclear generating units of up to 1000 MW power. Deutsche Kernkraftwerke: Betriebsergebnisse 1991. T. 1. Kernkraftwerksbloecke bis 1000 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-05-01

    This first part of the survey lists the operating performance data of the eight German nuclear generating units of up to 1000 MW power. The various reactors are reviewd separately, and the operating diagram of the year 1991 presents the general survey. (UA).

  17. An Investigation of the Application of the Gas Generator-Free Turbine Cycle to a Nuclear Powered Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvis, J. H.; Chessman, S. R.

    1957-08-01

    This study has investigated the feasibility of installing a gas generator-free turbine type power plant in the R3Y aircraft, using a circulating fuel reactor as a power source. Two variations of the cycle were considered. The split flow cycle bleeds high temperature, high pressure air from the gas generator directly to the free turbine in the wing. The through flow cycle partially expands the high temperature, high pressure air through the compressor turbine of the gas generator then directs the compressor-turbine exhaust air to the free turbine in the wing. Design parameters of pressure ratio, radiator depth, radiation flow density, and hot gas duct size were optimized to give minimum weight per shaft horsepower of the complete power plant. The weight of a split flow power plant capable of supplying 22,000 shaft horsepower was found to be 116,600 pounds. The weight of a similar through flow power plant was found to be 119,900 pounds. The reactor power required in both cases was 70 megawatts. The nominal gross weight of the R3Y airplane is 175,000 pounds. With pay loads of approximately 20,000 pounds, either nuclear conversion will have a gross weight of 200,000 pounds. It was found that either cycle could be installed in the R3Y aircraft; however, the installation of either would require major structural redesign. The split flow cycle with its smaller hot air ducts required the least amount of redesign. A comparison of existing aircraft engines with a preliminary design of the split flow turbo-components indicated that the compressor and possibly the free turbine could be adapted from current engine components.

  18. The Bruce Report and social welfare leadership in the politics of Toronto’s “Slums”, 1934–1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Slum clearance and rebuilding first became a serious political project in Toronto during the 1930s. Following the release of a systematic housing survey known as the Bruce Report (1934), a set of actors distinguished by their planning authority with respect to social agencies, influence over social work education, coordination of social research, and role as spokespersons of religious bodies inaugurated a political struggle over state power. While the campaign failed, it called forth a reaction from established authorities and reconfigured the local political field as it related to low-income housing. This article gives an account of these processes by drawing upon correspondence and minutes of meetings of city officials and the campaign’s organizers, newspaper clippings, and published materials.

  19. Redescription and genetic characterization of Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from marine fishes in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2013-08-01

    Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990, was redescribed using light microscopy and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy based on newly collected specimens from the marine fishes Priacanthus tayenus Richardson and Pricanthus macracanthus Cuvier (Perciformes: Priacanthidae) in the South China Sea. Previously unreported or inaccurately described morphological features of taxonomic significance are described, including the number and morphology of paracloacal and postcloacal papillae, the morphology of the vulva, and the presence of small phasmids in the both sexes. Moreover, specimens of H. thalassini collected from the 2 hosts were characterized by sequencing and analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. The ITS region of H. thalassini was compared with Hysterothylacium spp. in GenBank, and the results seem to support the validity of the incompletely known species.

  20. Identity as Fleeting Fashion? Revealing the Background of Popularity Through Bosniaherzegovina’s Adoption of Bruce Lee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Bartulović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the background to popular research on identification processes in modern ethnology and cultural or social anthropology. By discussing themes closely connected to identity (national and popular culture, and the construction of Others, the author reveals that identity is not merely a redundant trend that researchers recklessly pursue, but that it reflects the need to reveal existing uncertainties and is an attempt to revise errors made to date, as well as lapses of the discipline we work in. The author primarily focuses on national identity and its situational transformations and intertwining with other existing identities. Bosnia-Herzegovina is placed at the center of interest. This theoretically oriented text concludes by analyzing the idea of erecting a monument to Bruce Lee in Mostar, which reveals the full complexity of identity processes around a world marked by intense and unique global and transnational currents.

  1. Amplitude and frequency changes in surface EMG of biceps femoris during five days Bruce Protocol treadmill test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, Fauzani N; Ahmad, Siti A; Noor, Samsul Bahari Mohd; Hassan, Wan Zuha Wan; Yaakob, Azhar; Adam, Yunus; Ali, Sawal H M

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is one of the indirect tools in indexing fatigue. Fatigue can be detected when there are changes on amplitude and frequency. However, various outcomes from literature make researchers conclude that EMG is not a reliable tool to measure fatigue. This paper investigates EMG behavior of biceps femoris in median frequency and mean absolute value during five days of Bruce Protocol treadmill test. Before that, surface EMG signals are filtered using band pass filter cut-off at 20-500Hz and are de-noised using db45 1-decimated wavelet transform. Five participants achieved more than 85% of their maximal heart rate during the running activity. The authors also consider other markers of fatigue such as performance, muscle soreness and lethargy as indicators to adaptation and maladaptation conditions. Result shows that turning points of median frequency and mean absolute value are very significant in indexing fatigue and indicators to adaptation of resistive training.

  2. Reconsidering the generation time hypothesis based on nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence comparisons in annual and perennial angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Hernanz, David F; Fiz-Palacios, Omar; Braverman, John M; Hamilton, Matthew B

    2008-12-29

    Differences in plant annual/perennial habit are hypothesized to cause a generation time effect on divergence rates. Previous studies that compared rates of divergence for internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) in angiosperms have reached contradictory conclusions about whether differences in generation times (or other life history features) are associated with divergence rate heterogeneity. We compared annual/perennial ITS divergence rates using published sequence data, employing sampling criteria to control for possible artifacts that might obscure any actual rate variation caused by annual/perennial differences. Relative rate tests employing ITS sequences from 16 phylogenetically-independent annual/perennial species pairs rejected rate homogeneity in only a few comparisons, with annuals more frequently exhibiting faster substitution rates. Treating branch length differences categorically (annual faster or perennial faster regardless of magnitude) with a sign test often indicated an excess of annuals with faster substitution rates. Annuals showed an approximately 1.6-fold rate acceleration in nucleotide substitution models for ITS. Relative rates of three nuclear loci and two chloroplast regions for the annual Arabidopsis thaliana compared with two closely related Arabidopsis perennials indicated that divergence was faster for the annual. In contrast, A. thaliana ITS divergence rates were sometimes faster and sometimes slower than the perennial. In simulations, divergence rate differences of at least 3.5-fold were required to reject rate constancy in > 80 % of replicates using a nucleotide substitution model observed for the combination of ITS1 and ITS2. Simulations also showed that categorical treatment of branch length differences detected rate heterogeneity > 80% of the time with a 1.5-fold or greater rate difference. Although rate homogeneity was not rejected in many comparisons, in cases of significant rate

  3. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In

  4. Bruce's Magnificent Quartet: Inquiry, Community, Technology and Literacy--Implications for Renewing Qualitative Research in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Bruce and Bishop's community informatics work brings forward four critical concepts: inquiry, community, technology, and literacy. These four terms serve as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research in the twenty-first century--what is lacking and what is needed. The author suggests that to resolve the tensions or challenges…

  5. Evaluation of a Multiplex PCR Assay (Bruce-ladder) for Molecular Typing of All Brucella Species, Including the Vaccine Strains▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Goñi, I.; García-Yoldi, D.; Marín, C. M.; de Miguel, M. J.; Muñoz, P. M.; Blasco, J. M.; Jacques, I.; Grayon, M.; Cloeckaert, A.; Ferreira, A. C.; Cardoso, R.; Corrêa de Sá, M. I.; Walravens, K.; Albert, D.; Garin-Bastuji, B.

    2008-01-01

    An evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay (Bruce-ladder) was performed in seven laboratories using 625 Brucella strains from different animal and geographical origins. This robust test can differentiate in a single step all of the classical Brucella species, including those found in marine mammals and the S19, RB51, and Rev.1 vaccine strains. PMID:18716225

  6. Validation of a methodology for the study of generation cost of electric power for nuclear power plants; Validacion de una metodologia para el estudio de costos de generacion de electricidad de plantas nucleares de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega C, R.F.; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rfortega@mexis.com

    2004-07-01

    It was developed a model for the calculation of costs of electric generation of nuclear plants. The developed pattern was validated with the one used by the United States Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in studies of comparison of alternatives for electric generation of nuclear plants and fossil plants with base of gas and of coal in the United States described in the guides calls Technical Assessment Guides of EPRI. They are mentioned in qualitative form some changes in the technology of nucleo electric generation that could be included in the annual publication of Costs and Parameters of Reference for the Formulation of Projects of Investment in the Electric Sector of the Federal Commission of Electricity. These changes are in relation to the advances in the technology, in the licensing, in the construction and in the operation of the reactors called advanced as the A BWR built recently in Japan. (Author)

  7. Efficient generation of P53 biallelic knockout Diannan miniature pigs via TALENs and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfeng Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs have many features that make them attractive as biomedical models for various diseases, including cancer. P53 is an important tumor suppressor gene that exerts a central role in protecting cells from oncogenic transformation and is mutated in a large number of human cancers. P53 mutations occur in almost every type of tumor and in over 50% of all tumors. In a recent publication, pigs with a mutated P53 gene were generated that resulted in lymphoma and renal and osteogenic tumors. However, approximately 80% of human tumors have dysfunctional P53. A P53-deficient pig model is still required to elucidate. Methods Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs were designed to target porcine P53 exon 4. The targeting activity was evaluated using a luciferase SSA recombination assay. P53 biallelic knockout (KO cell lines were established from single-cell colonies of fetal fibroblasts derived from Diannan miniature pigs followed by electroporation with TALENs plasmids. One cell line was selected as the donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT for the generation of P53 KO pigs. P53 KO stillborn fetuses and living piglets were obtained. Gene typing of the collected cloned individuals was performed by T7EI assay and sequencing. Fibroblast cells from Diannan miniature piglets with a P53 biallelic knockout or wild type were analyzed for the P53 response to doxorubicin treatment by confocal microscopy and western blotting. Results The luciferase SSA recombination assay revealed that the targeting activities of the designed TALENs were 55.35-fold higher than those of the control. Eight cell lines (8/19 were mutated for P53, and five of them were biallelic knockouts. One of the biallelic knockout cell lines was selected as nuclear donor cells for SCNT. The cloned embryos were transferred into five recipient gilts, three of them becoming pregnant. Five live fetuses were obtained from one surrogate by caesarean

  8. Efficient generation of P53 biallelic knockout Diannan miniature pigs via TALENs and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youfeng; Xu, Kaixiang; Yuan, Zaimei; Guo, Jianxiong; Zhao, Heng; Zhang, Xuezeng; Zhao, Lu; Qing, Yubo; Li, Honghui; Pan, Weirong; Jia, Baoyu; Zhao, Hong-Ye; Wei, Hong-Jiang

    2017-11-03

    Pigs have many features that make them attractive as biomedical models for various diseases, including cancer. P53 is an important tumor suppressor gene that exerts a central role in protecting cells from oncogenic transformation and is mutated in a large number of human cancers. P53 mutations occur in almost every type of tumor and in over 50% of all tumors. In a recent publication, pigs with a mutated P53 gene were generated that resulted in lymphoma and renal and osteogenic tumors. However, approximately 80% of human tumors have dysfunctional P53. A P53-deficient pig model is still required to elucidate. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were designed to target porcine P53 exon 4. The targeting activity was evaluated using a luciferase SSA recombination assay. P53 biallelic knockout (KO) cell lines were established from single-cell colonies of fetal fibroblasts derived from Diannan miniature pigs followed by electroporation with TALENs plasmids. One cell line was selected as the donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for the generation of P53 KO pigs. P53 KO stillborn fetuses and living piglets were obtained. Gene typing of the collected cloned individuals was performed by T7EI assay and sequencing. Fibroblast cells from Diannan miniature piglets with a P53 biallelic knockout or wild type were analyzed for the P53 response to doxorubicin treatment by confocal microscopy and western blotting. The luciferase SSA recombination assay revealed that the targeting activities of the designed TALENs were 55.35-fold higher than those of the control. Eight cell lines (8/19) were mutated for P53, and five of them were biallelic knockouts. One of the biallelic knockout cell lines was selected as nuclear donor cells for SCNT. The cloned embryos were transferred into five recipient gilts, three of them becoming pregnant. Five live fetuses were obtained from one surrogate by caesarean section after 38 days of gestation for genotyping

  9. Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

  10. 75 FR 4426 - Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... action will be performed inside existing plant buildings. No changes will be made to plant buildings or... Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Jason C. Paige, Project Manager, Plant Licensing Branch II-2, Division of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  11. 78 FR 32278 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... information located in Table 3.3-1, ``Definition of Wall Thicknesses for Nuclear Island Buildings, Turbine Buildings, and Annex Building,'' which describes wall and floor thicknesses in the plant. The granting of... Thicknesses for Nuclear Island Buildings, Turbine Buildings, and Annex Building'' (LAR 12-008). For the...

  12. Estimating cancer risk in relation to tritium exposure from routine operation of a nuclear-generating station in Pickering, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigaratne, S; Holowaty, E; Jiang, H; Norwood, T A; Pietrusiak, M A; Brown, P

    2013-09-01

    Evidence suggests that current levels of tritium emissions from CANDU reactors in Canada are not related to adverse health effects. However, these studies lack tritium-specific dose data and have small numbers of cases. The purpose of our study was to determine whether tritium emitted from a nuclear-generating station during routine operation is associated with risk of cancer in Pickering, Ontario. A retrospective cohort was formed through linkage of Pickering and north Oshawa residents (1985) to incident cancer cases (1985-2005). We examined all sites combined, leukemia, lung, thyroid and childhood cancers (6-19 years) for males and females as well as female breast cancer. Tritium estimates were based on an atmospheric dispersion model, incorporating characteristics of annual tritium emissions and meteorology. Tritium concentration estimates were assigned to each cohort member based on exact location of residence. Person-years analysis was used to determine whether observed cancer cases were higher than expected. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine whether tritium was associated with radiation-sensitive cancers in Pickering. Person-years analysis showed female childhood cancer cases to be significantly higher than expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.38). The issue of multiple comparisons is the most likely explanation for this finding. Cox models revealed that female lung cancer was significantly higher in Pickering versus north Oshawa (HR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.23-4.46) and that tritium was not associated with increased risk. The improved methodology used in this study adds to our understanding of cancer risks associated with low-dose tritium exposure. Tritium estimates were not associated with increased risk of radiationsensitive cancers in Pickering.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 2: Accident and Thermal Fluids Analysis PIRTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Corradini, M. [University of Wisconsin; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Gauntt, R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Geffraye, G. [CEA, France; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Hassan, Y. [Texas A& M University; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL; Schultz, R. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Wei, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2008-03-01

    An accident, thermal fluids, and reactor physics phenomena identification and ranking process was conducted by a panel of experts on the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design (consideration given to both pebble-bed and prismatic gas-cooled reactor configurations). Safety-relevant phenomena, importance, and knowledge base were assessed for the following event classes: (1) normal operation (including some reactor physics aspects), (2) general loss of forced circulation (G-LOFC), (3) pressurized loss-of-forced circulation (P-LOFC), (4) depressurized loss-of-forced circulation (D-LOFC), (5) air ingress (following D-LOFC), (6) reactivity transients - including anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), (7) processes coupled via intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) (IHX failure with molten salt), and (8) steam/water ingress. The panel's judgment of the importance ranking of a given phenomenon (or process) was based on the effect it had on one or more figures of merit or evaluation criteria. These included public and worker dose, fuel failure, and primary (and other safety) system integrity. The major phenomena of concern that were identified and categorized as high importance combined with medium to low knowledge follow: (1) core coolant bypass flows (normal operation), (2) power/flux profiles (normal operation), (3) outlet plenum flows (normal operation), (4) reactivity-temperature feedback coefficients for high-plutonium-content cores (normal operation and accidents), (5) fission product release related to the transport of silver (normal operation), (6)emissivity aspects for the vessel and reactor cavity cooling system (G-LOFC), (7) reactor vessel cavity air circulation and heat transfer (G-LOFC), and (8)convection/radiation heating of upper vessel area (P-LOFC).

  14. Efficient generation of GGTA1-null Diannan miniature pigs using TALENs combined with somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenmin Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GGTA1 is essential for the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and therefore a simple and effective target for disrupting the expression of galactose α-1,3-galactose epitopes, which mediate hyperacute rejection (HAR in xenotransplantation. Miniature pigs are considered to have the greatest potential as xenotransplantation donors. A GGTA1-knockout (GTKO miniature pig might mitigate or prevent HAR in xenotransplantation. Methods Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs were designed to target exon 6 of porcine GGTA1 gene. The targeting activity was evaluated using a luciferase SSA recombination assay. Biallelic GTKO cell lines were established from single-cell colonies of fetal fibroblasts derived from Diannan miniature pigs following transfection by electroporation with TALEN plasmids. One cell line was selected as donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT for the generation of GTKO pigs. GTKO aborted fetuses, stillborn fetuses and live piglets were obtained. Genotyping of the collected cloned individuals was performed. The Gal expression in the fibroblasts and one piglet was analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS, confocal microscopy, immunohistochemical (IHC staining and western blotting. Results The luciferase SSA recombination assay revealed that the targeting activities of the designed TALENs were 17.1-fold higher than those of the control. Three cell lines (3/126 showed GGTA1 biallelic knockout after modification by the TALENs. The GGTA1 biallelic modified C99# cell line enabled high-quality SCNT, as evidenced by the 22.3 % (458/2068 blastocyst developmental rate of the reconstructed embryos. The reconstructed GTKO embryos were subsequently transferred into 18 recipient gilts, of which 12 became pregnant, and six miscarried. Eight aborted fetuses were collected from the gilts that miscarried. One live fetus was obtained from one surrogate by caesarean

  15. Electron-Nuclear Dynamics on Amplitude and Frequency Modulation of Molecular High-Order Harmonic Generation from H2+ and its Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Feng, Liqiang

    2017-09-01

    Electron-nuclear dynamics of molecular high-order harmonic generation from H2+ and its isotopes has been theoretically investigated beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximations. The results show that (i) due to the different ionisation probabilities and the harmonic emission times, the intensities of the harmonics from H2+ and its isotopes are very sensitive to the initial vibrational state, the pulse duration, and the pulse intensity. (ii) Due to the nonadiabatic effects in molecular high-order harmonic generation, the red-shifts of the harmonics can be found in the lower pulse intensity. With the increase of the pulse intensity, the harmonics are from the red-shifts to the blue-shifts. Moreover, as the pulse duration increases, the blue-shifts of the harmonics can be enhanced. As the initial vibrational state increases, the red-shifts of the harmonics can be decreased, whereas the blue-shifts of the harmonics can be enhanced. However, the shifts of the harmonics are decreased as the nuclear mass increases. (iii) Due to the coupled electron-nuclear dynamics in molecules, the spatial symmetry of the system is broken. As a result, non-odd harmonics can be generated at the larger internuclear distance. With the increase of the initial vibrational state or the nuclear mass, the generation of the non-odd harmonics can be enhanced and reduced, respectively. As the pulse duration or the pulse intensity increase, the generation of the non-odd harmonics can be enhanced. However, the intensities of the non-odd harmonics are decreased when using the longer pulse duration with the much higher laser intensity.

  16. Nuclear as the sixth-fuel diversification policy for the electricity generation program in Malaysia : a way forward (using the message case study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Shamsul Amri

    2009-02-15

    A study of the long-term electricity demand using multiple technologies and anticipated CO{sub 2} emissions for the Malaysia power sector was conducted for a period between 2008 and 2030. The IAEA's user-friendly energy planning tool, MESSAGE-V, was employed in this study due to its flexibility in establishing a model for a power system in the quest for optimum total installed capacity and generation mix expansion path consonant with user-defined constraints in the intermediate to long-term period. This paper demonstrates the necessity for Malaysia to gazette nuclear as its newly proposed Sixth-Fuel Diversification Policy, which is a replacement for the current Five-Fuel Diversification Policy, as part of the national strategic approach for ensuring fuel supply security, sustainability and availability. Using the model developed in this study, many possible future scenarios ranging from business-as-usual or base-case to incorporation of nuclear power plants under many assumptions, bounds and restrictions were simulated, analyzed and compared. The forecasted total installed capacity, generation mix, objective function (total discounted energy system cost) and projected CO{sub 2} emissions were computed, plotted, tabled and discussed for each scenario. It was discovered that the nuclear generating option was indeed attractive and played active role in the MESSAGE optimization process for most of the scenarios, excluding scenarios in which nuclear power was intentionally made absent. Based on the findings of this study and some other pertinent points, the importance of incorporated nuclear energy as a strategic and essential part of Malaysia's future energy policy was discussed with emphasis on the problems faced by the existing fuels in meeting the requirement of a sustainable long term energy security as well as compliance with anticipated future environmental obligations for Malaysia's post Kyoto Protocol 2012 regime.

  17. Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov. and H. tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the Chinese marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-06-01

    A new species of ascaridoid nematode, Hysterothylacium gibsoni sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the intestine of the slender lizardfish Saurida elongata (Temminck et Schlegel) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) in the Yellow Sea, China. The new species differs from its congeners by its small body size (12.8-13.2 mm), the absence of cervical alae, a very short intestinal caecum (representing 8.86-9.52% of oesophageal length) and a long ventricular appendix (intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix ratio 1:15.3-20.0), short spicules (0.38-0.41 mm, representing 2.97-3.11% of body length), the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae (25-28 pairs arranged as follows: 18-22 pairs precloacal, 3 pairs paracloacal, and 3-4 pairs postcloacal). In addition, Hysterothylacium tetrapteri (Bruce et Cannon, 1989) is also redescribed based on the material collected from the striped marlin Kajikia audax (Philippi) (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the South China Sea.

  18. Safety and feasibility of regadenoson use for suboptimal heart rate response during symptom-limited standard Bruce exercise stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Sara L; Lanka, Viswanatha; Hainer, Jon; Blankstein, Ron; Skali, Hicham; Forman, Daniel E; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2012-10-01

    Regadenoson during exercise stress test (ETT) can provide maximal hyperemia for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), along with exercise information. Our aim was to study the feasibility and safety of regadenoson injection at peak ETT for submaximal heart rate (HR) response. Consecutive patients who underwent SPECT MPI with standard Bruce ETT or supine-regadenoson (Supine-Reg) were analyzed. ETT patients were grouped as ETT-Max [maximal HR > 0.85 * (220 - age), N = 1,522], ETT-Submax (submaximal HR no regadenoson, N = 504), ETT-Reg (submaximal HR and regadenoson, N = 211). The HR during ETT was submaximal in 715 (32%) patients. Of these, 211 patients (30%) underwent ETT-Reg (mean exercise duration: 5.5 ± 2.5 minutes). ETT-Reg patients had a higher frequency of hypertension, diabetes, smoking and beta-blocker use, similar rest systolic blood pressure (SBP), but lower rest and peak HR and peak SBP compared to ETT-Max patients. There were no serious complications with regadenoson. Side effects (49% vs 6%, P < .0001) were fewer and aminophylline use was lower with ETT-Reg compared to Supine-Reg (0.5% vs 8.1%, P = .001). Submaximal HR response to ETT is common. ETT-Reg is safe, feasible, and well-tolerated. ETT-Reg facilitates a diagnostic MPI with reporting of functional capacity, exercise ECG/hemodynamic changes and MPI at maximal hyperemia.

  19. Determination of activity by gamma spectrometry of radionuclides present in drums of residues generated in nuclear centrals; Determinacion de actividad por espectrometria gamma de radionucleidos presentes en tambores de residuos generados en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.C.; Fernandez, J. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: jaguiar@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The generation of radioactive residuals in nuclear centrals as CNA I (Atucha I Nuclear Central) and CNE (Embalse Nuclear Central) makes that the measurement of those radionuclides has been a previous stage to the waste management. A method used in those nuclear centrals it is the gamma spectrometry with HPGe detectors, previous to the immobilization of the residual in a cemented matrix, with this the contact with the external agents and its possible dispersion to the atmosphere in the short term is avoided. The ARN (Nuclear Regulatory Authority) of Argentina it carries out periodically intercomparisons and evaluations of the measurement and procedures systems used in the nuclear power stations for the correct measurement and determination of activity of radioactive residuals by gamma spectrometry. In this work an independent method of measurement is exposed to the nuclear power stations. To determine the activity of the residuals by gamma spectrometry deposited in drums, it is required of the precise knowledge of the efficiency curve for such geometry and matrix. Due to the RNA doesn't have a pattern of these characteristics, a mathematical model has been used to obtain this efficiency curve. For it, it is necessary to determine previously: 1) the geometric efficiency or solid angle sustained by the source-detector system (drum-detector) applying a mathematical model described in this work. 2) To estimate the auto-attenuation factor that present the photons in the cemented matrix, these calculations are carried out with a simple equation and its are verified with the Micro Shield 6.10 program. The container commonly used by these nuclear power stations its are drums for 220 liters constructed with SAE 1010 steel and with a thickness of 0.127 cm, with an approximate weight 7.73 Kg., internal diameter of 57.1 cm, and height: 87 cm. The results obtained until the moment register a discrepancy from 5 to 10% with relationship to the measurements carried out by the

  20. Report to the NRC on guidance for preparing scenarios for emergency preparedness exercises at nuclear generating stations. Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G. F.; Hickey, E. E.; Moeller, M. P.; Schultz, D. H.; Bethke, G. W.

    1986-03-01

    A scenario guidance handbook was prepared to assist emergency planners in developing scenarios for emergency preparedness exercises at nuclear power plants. The handbook provides guidance for the development of the objectives of an exercise, the descriptions of scenario events and responses, and the instructions to the participants. Information concerning implementation of the scenario, critiques and findings, and generation and format of scenario data are also included. Finally, examples of manual calculational techniques for producing radiological data are included as an appendix.

  1. Two new species of the stenopodidean shrimp genus Spongiocaris Bruce & Baba, 1973 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Spongicolidae) from the Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Grave, Sammy De; Saito, Tomomi

    2016-05-17

    Two new species of the deep-water spongicolid genus Spongiocaris Bruce & Baba, 1973, are described and illustrated from two localities in the Indo-West Pacific. Spongiocaris panglao n. sp. is described on the basis of material from the Bohol Sea, the Philippines, at depths of 220-731 m. Spongiocaris tuerkayi n. sp. is described on the basis of material from Atlantis Bank in the southwestern Indian Ocean at depths of 743-1053 m. Among eight known congeners, both new species appear close to S. semiteres Bruce & Baba, 1973, differing in the rostral length and armature, shape of the carapace, telsonal armature, development of the grooming apparatus of the first pereopod and shape of the third pereopod chela. An identification key to the species currently assigned to Spongiocaris is presented.

  2. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca

  3. Activation cross sections of $\\alpha$-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of $^{178}$W/$^{178m}$Ta generator

    CERN Document Server

    Tárk'anyi, F; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of $^{178m}$Ta through $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,xn)$^{178}$W-$^{178m}$Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,x)$^{179,177,176,175}$W, $^{183,182,178g,177,176,175}$Ta, $^{179m,177m,175}$Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the $^{nat}$Ta(d,xn)$^{178}$W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ($^3$He,x)) production routes for $^{178}$W.

  4. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.

  5. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Tanabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.

  6. Permission of change of limits in the vapor generators of the Atucha I Nuclear Central; Permiso de cambio de limites en los GVs de la CNA-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Libertador 8250 (1429), Capital Federal (Argentina)]. e-mail: mventura@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    In the mark of the modification of the Atucha-I Nuclear Central Installation (CNA-I) as consequence of the Introduction of the System 'Second Drain of Heat' (SSC), the Entity Responsible for the CNA-I (NASA) requested authorization to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) to modify the value of the minimum level of water in the secondary side in the Steam generators (GVs) to activate the signal 'shoot of the Cut of the Reactor' (RESA-LLV). As the level in the GVs is one of those parameters that are used to shoot the Emergency Feeding System (RX), component of the SSC System, also was analyzed the change in the activation of the shoot signal of the 'Second Drain of Heat' (2SSC-LLV). The ARN uses for the study of the nuclear safety of nuclear power plants, the series of prediction programs RELAP5/MOD3.X. It participates of the evaluation and maintenance activities of these codes through specific agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC). It is necessary to account with programs of this type since the ARN it licenses the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and other outstanding facilities and it inquires its operation according to its own standards. With these tools its are auditing the calculations that the Responsible Entities of the operation make to guarantee the operability of the NPPs assisting the mentioned standards. The analysis with computational codes is used as a tool to achieve the best understanding in the behavior of the plant in union with the engineering approach, the manual calculations, the data analysis and the experience in the operation of the machine. (Author)

  7. Nuclear systems of the future - generation 4. Proposals of strategic orientations for the nuclear systems of the future; Les systemes nucleaires du futur - generation 4. Propositions d'orientations strategiques pour les systemes nucleaires du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Several points, specific to France, must be taken into consideration for the long term strategic choice of future nuclear systems, in particular: taking the best profit of the progress potentialities of water reactors, optimizing the opportunities offered by the renewal of power plants in operation, integrating the consequences and the implementation of a strategy of optimized management of radioactive wastes, and looking for improvements that would make nuclear energy an active contributor to sustainable development. The prospective researches carried out by the CEA and its industrial partners have led to propose a R and D strategy with 3 complementary goals: search for innovations for water reactors, development of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycle (sodium fast reactor (SFR), gas fast reactor (GFR)), and development of key-technologies for nuclear hydrogen production (very high temperature reactor (VHTR)). The R and D effort concerns also the subcritical systems devoted to transmutation, the new cycle processes for a global management of actinides, and some other nuclear systems like the molten salt reactors (MSR) and the supercritical water reactors (SCWR). This paper presents the R and D strategy for each technology with its priorities, steps, financial means and collaborations. (J.S.)

  8. An analysis of the thermodynamic cycles with high-temperature nuclear reactor for power generation and hydrogen co-production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, numerical analysis of the thermodynamic cycle with the high-temperature nuclear gas reactor (HTGR for electricity and hydrogen production have been done. The analysed system consists of two independent loops. The first loop is for HTGR and consists of a nuclear reactor, heat exchangers, and blower. The second loop (Rankine cycle consist of up-to four steam turbines, that operate in heat recovery system. The analysis of the system shows that it is possible to achieve significantly higher efficiency than could be offered by traditional nuclear reactor technology (PWR and BWR. It is shown that the thermal efficiency about 52.5% it is possible to achieve when reactor works at standard conditions and steam is superheated up to 530oC. For the cases when the steam has supercritical conditions the value of thermal efficiency is still very high and equal about 50%.

  9. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  10. Use of self-organizing maps for classification of defects in the tubes from the steam generator of nuclear power plants; Classificacao de defeitos em tubos de gerador de vapor de plantas nucleares utilizando mapas auto-organizaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Roberto Navarro de

    2002-07-01

    This thesis obtains a new classification method for different steam generator tube defects in nuclear power plants using Eddy Current Test signals. The method uses self-organizing maps to compare different signal characteristics efficiency to identify and classify these defects. A multiple inference system is proposed which composes the different extracted characteristic trained maps classification to infer the final defect type. The feature extraction methods used are the Wavelet zero-crossings representation, the linear predictive coding (LPC), and other basic signal representations on time like module and phase. Many characteristic vectors are obtained with combinations of these extracted characteristics. These vectors are tested to classify the defects and the best ones are applied to the multiple inference system. A systematic study of pre-processing, calibration and analysis methods for the steam generator tube defect signals in nuclear power plants is done. The method efficiency is demonstrated and characteristic maps with the main prototypes are obtained for each steam generator tube defect type. (author)

  11. 75 FR 53985 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al., Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... release, hydrogen concentration, and cladding oxidation from the metal- water reaction. The temporary...\\TM\\. The underlying purpose of 10 CFR part 50, Appendix K, Section I.A.5, ``Metal-Water Reaction Rate..., regulations, and orders of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) now or hereafter in effect...

  12. 75 FR 63213 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ..., ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors'', and 10 CFR.... ML081840311). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant... consulted with the Minnesota State official, Mr. Stephen Rakow of the Minnesota Office of Energy Security...

  13. 78 FR 50455 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Changes to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... the Chemical Volume Control System AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Exemption and..., located in Burke County, Georgia. The amendment requests changes that modify the Chemical and Volume Control System (CVS), including changes to information located in Tier 1 Tables 2.3.2- 1 and 2.3.2-2, and...

  14. Power generation, operation, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Allen J

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive text on the operation and control of power generation and transmission systems In the ten years since Allen J. Wood and Bruce F. Wollenberg presented their comprehensive introduction to the engineering and economic factors involved in operating and controlling power generation systems in electric utilities, the electric power industry has undergone unprecedented change. Deregulation, open access to transmission systems, and the birth of independent power producers have altered the structure of the industry, while technological advances have created a host of new opportunities

  15. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2014-01-01

    Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence expensive compared to the generation of iPSC. Even with the latest SCNT technology, we are not sure whether one can make therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cell from any patient's somatic cells or by using oocytes from any donor. Combining iPSC technology with SCNT, that is, by using the nucleus of the candidate somatic cell which got reprogrammed to pluripotent state instead that of the unmodified nucleus of the candidate somatic cell, would boost the efficiency of the technique, and we would be able to generate therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell nuclear transfer (iPSCNT) combines the efficiency of iPSC generation with the speed and natural reprogramming environment of SCNT. The new technique may be called iPSCNT. This technique could prove to have very revolutionary benefits for humankind. This could be useful in generating organs for transplantation for patients and for reproductive cloning, especially for childless men and women who cannot have children by any other techniques. When combined with advanced gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas system) this technique might also prove useful to those who want to have healthy children but suffer from inherited diseases. The current code of ethics may be against reproductive cloning. However, this will change with time as it happened with most of the revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. After all, it is the right of every human to have healthy offspring and it is the question of

  16. Instruction by virtual reality to operation and security of a nuclear power plant of IV generation; Instruccion por realidad virtual a la operacion y seguridad de una central nuclear de generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri O, J. C.; Baltasar M, J.; Valle H, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Campus Morelos, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)], e-mail: neriunam@ieee.org

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of LaNuVi project which is developing in the Engineering Faculty of National Autonomous University of Mexico, to have a virtual laboratory of nuclear reactors as tool of multidisciplinary education at basic and advanced levels in nuclear engineering area, involves training resources in audio visual and interactive form that allow to form a comprehension more realistic of operation of different systems and components. In this work is proposed to use educational resources, as the employees in the U.S. Army and in some centers of advanced education of medicine, where have been come proving concepts like projected reality, increased reality, tele transparency and others that present big benefits to learning-education process. The proposal here is to include the resource knew as serious game based learning. The focal point of stage that is presented is of a nuclear reactor PBMR like desalination and generator of controlled alternating energy and efficient that should put on in operation to allow the subsistence of a community in a desolated region of beginning second quarter of X XI century. For this purpose the designs are initiated and programmed several subsystems that allow the three-dimensional modeling of main components of a PBMR as well as of surrounding facilities. The obtained results and reaches of this design are presented. The product is in tests for a first version and it is hope to achieve a free and integral resource of national distribution for different cultural groups, interested in this type of advanced technology. (Author)

  17. D-D nuclear fusion induced by laser-generated plasma at 1016 W cm-2 intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo; Cavallaro, Salvatore; Cutroneo, Maria; Krasa, Josef; Klir, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Deuterated polyethylene targets (CD2-monomer), as thin and thick films, were laser irradiated in a vacuum at 1016 W cm-2 intensity. The produced plasma was monitored in situ using the Thomson parabola spectrometer, ion collectors and SiC semiconductor detectors. For thin targets irradiated under target-normal-sheath-acceleration conditions, laser accelerated deuterons with energies higher than 3.0 MeV were measured along the normal to the target surface. Characteristic emissions at 3.0 and 2.5 MeV for protons and neutrons, respectively, have been detected confirming the production of nuclear fusion events. The evidence of nuclear fusion effects was evaluated and discussed.

  18. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation, and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  19. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  20. Proceedings of the 2. MIT international conference on the next generation of nuclear power technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to try to attract a variety of points of view from well-informed people to debate issues concerning nuclear power. Hopefully from that process a better understanding of what one should be doing will emerge. In organizing the conference lessons learned from the previous one were applied. A continuous effort was made to see to it that the arguments for the alternatives to nuclear power were given abundant time for presentation. This is ultimately because nuclear power is going to have to compete with all of the energy technologies. Thus, in discussing energy strategy all of the alternatives must be considered in a reasonable fashion. The structure the conference used has seven sessions. The first six led up to the final session which was concerned with what the future nuclear power strategy should be. Each session focused upon a question concerning the future. None of these questions has a unique correct answer. Rather, topics are addressed where reasonable people can disagree. In order to state some of the important arguments for each session`s question, the combination of a keynote paper followed by a respondent was used. The respondent`s paper is not necessarily included to be a rebuttal to the keynote; but rather, it was recognized that two people will look at a complex question with different shadings. Through those two papers the intention was to get out the most important arguments affecting the question for the session. The purpose of the papers was to set the stage for about an hour of discussion. The real product of this conference was that discussion.

  1. Evaluation of two processes of hydrogen production starting from energy generated by high temperature nuclear reactors; Evaluacion de dos procesos de produccion de hidrogeno a partir de energia generada por reactores nucleares de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle H, J., E-mail: jvalle@upmh.edu.mx [Universidad Politecnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo, Boulevard Acceso a Tolcayuca 1009, Ex-Hacienda San Javier, 43860 Tolcayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this work an evaluation to two processes of hydrogen production using energy generated starting from high temperature nuclear reactors (HTGR's) was realized. The evaluated processes are the electrolysis of high temperature and the thermo-chemistry cycle Iodine-Sulfur. The electrolysis of high temperature, contrary to the conventional electrolysis, allows reaching efficiencies of up to 60% because when increasing the temperature of the water, giving thermal energy, diminishes the electric power demand required to separate the molecule of the water. However, to obtain these efficiencies is necessary to have water vapor overheated to more than 850 grades C, temperatures that can be reached by the HTGR. On the other hand the thermo-chemistry cycle Iodine-Sulfur, developed by General Atomics in the 1970 decade, requires two thermal levels basically, the great of them to 850 grades C for decomposition of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and another minor to 360 grades C approximately for decomposition of H I, a high temperature nuclear reactor can give the thermal energy required for the process whose products would be only hydrogen and oxygen. In this work these two processes are described, complete models are developed and analyzed thermodynamically that allow to couple each hydrogen generation process to a reactor HTGR that will be implemented later on for their dynamic simulation. The obtained results are presented in form of comparative data table of each process, and with them the obtained net efficiencies. (author)

  2. Application of perturbation methods for sensitivity analysis for nuclear power plant steam generators; Aplicacao da teoria de perturbacao a analise de sensibilidade em geradores de vapor de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurjao, Emir Candeia

    1996-02-01

    The differential and GPT (Generalized Perturbation Theory) formalisms of the Perturbation Theory were applied in this work to a simplified U-tubes steam generator model to perform sensitivity analysis. The adjoint and importance equations, with the corresponding expressions for the sensitivity coefficients, were derived for this steam generator model. The system was numerically was numerically solved in a Fortran program, called GEVADJ, in order to calculate the sensitivity coefficients. A transient loss of forced primary coolant in the nuclear power plant Angra-1 was used as example case. The average and final values of functionals: secondary pressure and enthalpy were studied in relation to changes in the secondary feedwater flow, enthalpy and total volume in secondary circuit. Absolute variations in the above functionals were calculated using the perturbative methods, considering the variations in the feedwater flow and total secondary volume. Comparison with the same variations obtained via direct model showed in general good agreement, demonstrating the potentiality of perturbative methods for sensitivity analysis of nuclear systems. (author) 22 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Generation IV nuclear energy system initiative. Large GFR core subassemblydesign for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, E. A.; Kulak, R. F.; Therios, I. U.; Wei, T. Y. C.

    2006-07-31

    Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) designs are being developed to meet Gen IV goals of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and proliferation resistance and physical protection as part of an International Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Research Initiative effort. Different organizations are involved in the development of a variety of GFR design concepts. The current analysis has focused on the evaluation of low-pressure drop, pin-core designs with favorable passive cooling properties. Initial evaluation of the passive cooling safety case for the GFR during depressurized decay heat removal accidents with concurrent loss of electric power have resulted in requirements for a reduction of core power density to the 100 w/cc level and a low core pressure drop of 0.5 bars. Additional design constraints and the implementation of their constraints are evaluated in this study to enhance and passive cooling properties of the reactor. Passive cooling is made easier by a flat radial distribution of the decay heat. One goal of this study was to evaluate the radial power distribution and determine to what extent it can be flattened, since the decay heat is nearly proportional to the fission power at shutdown. In line with this investigation of the radial power profile, an assessment was also made of the control rod configuration. The layout provided a large number of control rod locations with a fixed area provided for control rods. The number of control rods was consistent with other fast reactor designs. The adequacy of the available control rod locations was evaluated. Future studies will be needed to optimize the control rod designs and evaluate the shutdown system. The case for low pressure drop core can be improved by the minimization of pressure drop sources such as the number of required fuel spacers in the subassembly design and by the details of the fuel pin design. The fuel pin design is determined by a number of neutronic, thermal-hydraulic (gas dynamics

  4. X-ray comb generation from nuclear-resonance-stabilized x-ray free-electron laser oscillator for fundamental physics and precision metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Adams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as ^{57}Fe as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as ^{181}Ta or ^{45}Sc.

  5. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  6. Evolution of the collective radiation dose of nuclear reactors from the 2nd through to the 3rd generation and 4th generation sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidez Joel

    2017-01-01

    In the case of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs, the compilation and summarizing of various documentary resources has enabled them to be situated and compared to other types of reactors of the second and third generations (respectively pressurized water reactors in operation and EPR under construction. From these results, it can be seen that the doses received during the operation of SFR are significantly lower for this type of reactor.

  7. Operational safety of turbine-generators at Loviisa nuclear power plant; Turbiini-generaattoreiden kaeyttoeturvallisuus Loviisan ydinvoimalaitoksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virolainen, T.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the operational safety of the turbine-generators at the Loviisa NPP. The lay-out, operation, control, monitoring and testing of turbine-generators have been studied. Taking these findings into consideration and by using operational data of Loviisa and other power plants, the most significant safety issues of the turbine-generator system have been identified. The frequencies for initiating events and possible consequences have been determined based on plant operational experience and related literature. (58 refs.).

  8. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER FINAL RECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1, 1999 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2002 REV. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH, RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy [1-1,1-2]. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties [1-3,1-4]. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily

  9. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of 137Cs generated from Nuclear Spent Fuel under Hypothetic Accidental Condition in the BNPP Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkuk; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yook, Daesik; Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the results of atmosphere dispersion modeling using CALPUFF code that are based on computational simulation to evaluate the environmental characteristics of the Barakah nuclear power plant (BNPP) in west area of UAE. According to meteorological data analysis (2012~2013), the winds from the north(7.68%) and west(9.05%) including NNW(41.63%), NW(28.55%), and WNW(6.31%) winds accounted for more than 90% of the wind directions. East(0.2%) and south(0.6%) direction wind, including ESE(0.31%), SE(0.38%), and SSE(0.38%) were rarely distributed during the simulation period. Seasonal effects were not showed. However, a discrepancy in the tendency between daytime and night-time was observed. Approximately 87% of the wind speed was distributed below 5.4m/s (17%, 47% and 23% between the speeds of 0.5-1.8m/s 1.8-3.3m/s and 3.3-5.4m/s, respectively) during the annual period. Seasonal wind speed distribution results presented very similar pattern of annual distribution. Wind speed distribution of day and night, on the other hand, had a discrepancy with annual modeling results than seasonal distribution in some sections. The results for high wind speed (more than 10.8m/s) showed that this wind blew from the west. This high wind speed is known locally as the 'Shamal', which occurs rarely, lasting one or two days with the strongest winds experienced in association with gust fronts and thunderstorms. Six variations of cesium-137 (137Cs) dispersion test were simulated under hypothetic severe accidental condition. The 137Cs dispersion was strongly influenced by the direction and speed of the main wind. From the test cases, east-south area of the BNPP site was mainly influenced by 137Cs dispersion. A virtual receptor was set and calculated for observation of the 137Cs movement and accumulation. Surface roughness tests were performed for the analysis of topographic conditions. According to the surface condition, there are various surface roughness length. Four types

  10. Nuclear energy data 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Publishing, OECD

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time.  It presents the reader with a comprehensive overview on the status and trends in nuclear electricity generation in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  11. Distributed fibre optic temperature measurement system for the safety monitoring of the next generation of large nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto; Brichard, Benoit [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center (Belgium); Hartog, Arthur H.; Hughes, Paul [SENSA, a Schlumberger Company (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The use of optical fibre distributed sensors for temperature sensing is a powerful way of monitoring, quasi simultaneously, thousands of points avoiding the requirement of optimum positioning of discrete temperature sensors. Their range of applications is rapidly expanding in the industry, and nowadays this fibre optic sensing technology is mature for industrial applications such as fire detection inside buildings and tunnels, process vessel monitoring, leak detection in cryogenic storage vessels (liquid natural gas (LNG), ammonia, ethylene) or oil wells and the measurement of energy cable thermal distribution for the power supply industry. These applications rely on the well known immunity of fibre optic sensors to electromagnetic interference and the ability of fibre sensors to be operated in hazardous environments. The nuclear industry shows a growing interest for the possibilities offered for temperature sensing applications. Fibre optic sensing technology could be considered as an alternative to classical measurements techniques in a wide range of applications. The potential of distributed temperature measurements for the monitoring of large nuclear infrastructures such as reactor containment buildings, nuclear waste repositories and reactor primary circuitry have already been shown. However, a major problem in the application of optical fibres in nuclear environments is the presence of ionizing radiation fields that induce an increase of the optical fibre attenuation. This radiation-induced degradation of the measurement signal could be critical since most commercially available distributed temperature sensors derive the temperature profile from the measurement of the Raman backscattered light intensity along the fibre, using optical time domain reflectometry techniques. The Raman signal comprises two elements: the Stokes and anti-Stokes lines. The longer wavelength Stokes line is only weakly temperature sensitive but the intensity of the backscattered light

  12. Wavelets transforms and fuzzy logic in the eddy-current inspection of nuclear power plants steam generator tubes; Transformadas de wavelets e logica fuzzy na inspecao por eddy-current em tubos de geradores de vapor de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Luiz Antonio Negro Martin

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear power plants steam generators around the world have presented early damage history in their tubes, caused either by design errors or by inappropriate operation, which besides reducing the availability and the safety of the nuclear power plants it also generates heavy economical burden. To monitor the steam generators operational condition, the Eddy Current testing of their tubes is the non destructive method used to detect, localize, classify and to size the defects. The inspection is performed by inserting probes with coils in the tubes generating a signal correlated to the defect. These signals produced by the probe electric circuit are composed by the resistance and the inductive components which can be combined to produce a Lissajous figure in the complex plane. However, Eddy-Current signals contain noise which induce subjectivity inducing to errors in the inspector diagnosis. It is not uncommon to have different diagnosis from two inspectors about the same signal. The present work has the objective of supplying a methodology to analyze the signals which could help the inspector in the difficult task of interpreting the Eddy Current signals. It is proposed a method to remove the noise based on Wavelets Transforms. It is also proposed a normalization in the signal phase angle measurements. Furthermore, two additional characteristics are also studied, namely: the signal amplitudes and the widths of the Lissajous petals. The use of a Fuzzy Logic based inference engine is also developed and its use is demonstrated to be viable. The defects studied in this work are those which produces volumetric changes in the material. In order to test the proposed methodology, several artificial defects were produced in tubes using different types of materials like: brass, 316L stainless steel and Inconel 600 to produce a experimental data base. An Eddy-Current inspection equipment, the MIZ-17ET was used. Around 1000 time series signals of defects were acquired through

  13. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  14. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV

  15. Comparing parallel working conditions of steam superheater-separators in fourth and fifth generating facilities of Novovoronezhskiy nuclear electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, V.N.; Kreydin, I.L.; Kreydin, B.L.

    1984-05-01

    An intermediate steam superheating and separation (ISSS) system is used to improve reliability and economy of operation in most saturated-steam turbine units of nuclear electric power plants. Steam superheater-separators (SSS) are the principal components of these systems. The purpose of these devices is to dry and superheat the main flow of steam prior to delivery to the low-pressure or intermediate-pressure cylinder after it has left the high-pressure cylinder. A characteristic fracture of the SSS that distinguishes this piece of equipment from other heat exchangers of the regenerative cycle is that the SSS, being an integral part of the turbine unit, operates almost continuously. This places stringent demands on reliability of the ISSS system as a whole, and on the technical level of its operation. The operation of the ISSS system is described.

  16. Safety assessment for electricity generation failure accident of gas cooled nuclear power plant using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The power production failure happens in the loss of coolant of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The air ingress is a serious accident in gas cooled NPPs. The quantification of the study performed by the system dynamics (SD) method which is processed by the feedback algorithms. The Vensim software package is used for the simulation, which is performed by the Monte-Carlo method. Two kinds of considerations as the economic and safety properties are important in NPPs. The result shows the stability of the operation when the power can be decided. The maximum value of risk is the 11.77 in 43rd and the minimum value is 0.0 in several years. So, the success of the circulation of coolant is simulated by the dynamical values. (orig.)

  17. Ion acceleration and D-D nuclear fusion in laser-generated plasma from advanced deuterated polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-23

    Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser shot was calculated.

  18. Ion Acceleration and D-D Nuclear Fusion in Laser-Generated Plasma from Advanced Deuterated Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser shot was calculated.

  19. Fabrication, characterization, and irradiation of an austenitic oxide dispersion strengthened steel suited for next generation nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Adam J.

    As nuclear energy systems become more advanced, the materials encompassing them need to perform at higher temperatures for longer periods of time. In this Master's thesis we experiment with an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) austenitic steel that has been recently developed. ODS materials have a small concentration of nano oxide particles dispersed in their matrix, and typically have higher strength and better extreme temperature creep resistance characteristics than ordinary steels. However, no ODS materials have ever been installed in a commercial power reactor to date. Being a newer research material, there are many unanswered phenomena that need to be addressed regarding the performance under irradiation. Furthermore, due to the ODS material traditionally needing to follow a powder metallurgy fabrication route, there are many processing parameters that need to be optimized before achieving a nuclear grade material specification. In this Master's thesis we explore the development of a novel ODS processing technology conducted in Beijing, China, to produce solutionized bulk ODS samples with 97% theoretical density. This is done using relatively low temperatures and ultra high pressure (UHP) equipment, to compact the mechanically alloyed (MA) steel powder into bulk samples without any thermal phase change influence or oxide precipitation. By having solutionized bulk ODS samples, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of nano oxide precipitation within the steel material can be studied by applying post heat treatments. These types of samples will be very useful to the science and engineering community, to answer questions regarding material powder compacting, oxide synthesis, and performance. Subsequent analysis performed at Queen's University included X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Additional TEM in-situ 1MeV Kr2+ irradiation experiments coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX

  20. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudana Girija Sanal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC, we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence expensive compared to the generation of iPSC. Even with the latest SCNT technology, we are not sure whether one can make therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cell from any patient’s somatic cells or by using oocytes from any donor. Combining iPSC technology with SCNT, that is, by using the nucleus of the candidate somatic cell which got reprogrammed to pluripotent state instead that of the unmodified nucleus of the candidate somatic cell, would boost the efficiency of the technique, and we would be able to generate therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell nuclear transfer (iPSCNT combines the efficiency of iPSC generation with the speed and natural reprogramming environment of SCNT. The new technique may be called iPSCNT. This technique could prove to have very revolutionary benefits for humankind. This could be useful in generating organs for transplantation for patients and for reproductive cloning, especially for childless men and women who cannot have children by any other techniques. When combined with advanced gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas system this technique might also prove useful to those who want to have healthy children but suffer from inherited diseases. The current code of ethics may be against reproductive cloning. However, this will change with time as it happened with most of the revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. After all, it is the right of every human to have healthy offspring and it is

  1. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability.

  2. 75 FR 76051 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... equation be used to predict the rates of energy release, hydrogen concentration, and cladding oxidation..., ``Metal-Water Reaction Rate,'' is to ensure that cladding oxidation and hydrogen generation are... (NRC, the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. The facility consists of two pressurized-water...

  3. The Enviornmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil. A Minicourse for Secondary Schools and Adult Education. Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, John J., Ed.

    This course, developed for use in secondary and adult education, is an effort to describe the cost-benefit ratio of the various methods of generation of electrical power in an era when the requirement for additional sources of power is growing at an ever-increasing rate and environmental protection is a major concern. This course was written and…

  4. Energy from nuclear fission(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripani M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main features of nuclear fission as physical phenomenon will be revisited, emphasizing its peculiarities with respect to other nuclear reactions. Some basic concepts underlying the operation of nuclear reactors and the main types of reactors will be illustrated, including fast reactors, showing the most important differences among them. The nuclear cycle and radioactive-nuclear-waste production will be also discussed, along with the perspectives offered by next generation nuclear assemblies being proposed. The current situation of nuclear power in the world, its role in reducing carbon emission and the available resources will be briefly illustrated.

  5. TestDose: A nuclear medicine software based on Monte Carlo modeling for generating gamma camera acquisitions and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule, E-mail: marie-paule.garcia@univ-brest.fr; Villoing, Daphnée [UMR 1037 INSERM/UPS, CRCT, 133 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); McKay, Erin [St George Hospital, Gray Street, Kogarah, New South Wales 2217 (Australia); Ferrer, Ludovic [ICO René Gauducheau, Boulevard Jacques Monod, St Herblain 44805 (France); Cremonesi, Marta; Botta, Francesca; Ferrari, Mahila [European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, Milano 20141 (Italy); Bardiès, Manuel [UMR 1037 INSERM/UPS, CRCT, 133 Route de Narbonne, Toulouse 31062 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The TestDose platform was developed to generate scintigraphic imaging protocols and associated dosimetry by Monte Carlo modeling. TestDose is part of a broader project (www.dositest.com) whose aim is to identify the biases induced by different clinical dosimetry protocols. Methods: The TestDose software allows handling the whole pipeline from virtual patient generation to resulting planar and SPECT images and dosimetry calculations. The originality of their approach relies on the implementation of functional segmentation for the anthropomorphic model representing a virtual patient. Two anthropomorphic models are currently available: 4D XCAT and ICRP 110. A pharmacokinetic model describes the biodistribution of a given radiopharmaceutical in each defined compartment at various time-points. The Monte Carlo simulation toolkit GATE offers the possibility to accurately simulate scintigraphic images and absorbed doses in volumes of interest. The TestDose platform relies on GATE to reproduce precisely any imaging protocol and to provide reference dosimetry. For image generation, TestDose stores user’s imaging requirements and generates automatically command files used as input for GATE. Each compartment is simulated only once and the resulting output is weighted using pharmacokinetic data. Resulting compartment projections are aggregated to obtain the final image. For dosimetry computation, emission data are stored in the platform database and relevant GATE input files are generated for the virtual patient model and associated pharmacokinetics. Results: Two samples of software runs are given to demonstrate the potential of TestDose. A clinical imaging protocol for the Octreoscan™ therapeutical treatment was implemented using the 4D XCAT model. Whole-body “step and shoot” acquisitions at different times postinjection and one SPECT acquisition were generated within reasonable computation times. Based on the same Octreoscan™ kinetics, a dosimetry

  6. Automated in-core image generation from video to aid visual inspection of nuclear power plant cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Paul, E-mail: paul.murray@strath.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Technology and Innovation Centre, 99 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1RD (United Kingdom); West, Graeme; Marshall, Stephen; McArthur, Stephen [Dept. Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Royal College Building, 204 George Street, Glasgow G1 1XW (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • A method is presented which improves visual inspection of reactor cores. • Significant time savings are made to activities on the critical outage path. • New information is extracted from existing data sources without additional overhead. • Examples from industrial case studies across the UK fleet of AGR stations. - Abstract: Inspection and monitoring of key components of nuclear power plant reactors is an essential activity for understanding the current health of the power plant and ensuring that they continue to remain safe to operate. As the power plants age, and the components degrade from their initial start-of-life conditions, the requirement for more and more detailed inspection and monitoring information increases. Deployment of new monitoring and inspection equipment on existing operational plant is complex and expensive, as the effect of introducing new sensing and imaging equipment to the existing operational functions needs to be fully understood. Where existing sources of data can be leveraged, the need for new equipment development and installation can be offset by the development of advanced data processing techniques. This paper introduces a novel technique for creating full 360° panoramic images of the inside surface of fuel channels from in-core inspection footage. Through the development of this technique, a number of technical challenges associated with the constraints of using existing equipment have been addressed. These include: the inability to calibrate the camera specifically for image stitching; dealing with additional data not relevant to the panorama construction; dealing with noisy images; and generalising the approach to work with two different capture devices deployed at seven different Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor nuclear power plants. The resulting data processing system is currently under formal assessment with a view to replacing the existing manual assembly of in-core defect montages. Deployment of the

  7. Constraints on silicates formation in the Si-Al-Fe system: Application to hard deposits in steam generators of PWR nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gilles; Million-Picallion, Lisa; Lefevre, Grégory; Delaunay, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: The hydrothermal crystallization of silicates phases in the Si-Al-Fe system may lead to industrial constraints that can be encountered in the nuclear industry in at least two contexts: the geological repository for nuclear wastes and the formation of hard sludges in the steam generator of the PWR nuclear plants. In the first situation, the chemical reactions between the Fe-canister and the surrounding clays have been extensively studied in laboratory [1-7] and pilot experiments [8]. These studies demonstrated that the high reactivity of metallic iron leads to the formation of Fe-silicates, berthierine like, in a wide range of temperature. By contrast, the formation of deposits in the steam generators of PWR plants, called hard sludges, is a newer and less studied issue which can affect the reactor performance. Experiments: We present here a preliminary set of experiments reproducing the formation of hard sludges under conditions representative of the steam generator of PWR power plant: 275°C, diluted solutions maintained at low potential by hydrazine addition and at alkaline pH by low concentrations of amines and ammoniac. Magnetite, a corrosion by-product of the secondary circuit, is the source of iron while aqueous Si and Al, the major impurities in this system, are supplied either as trace elements in the circulating solution or by addition of amorphous silica and alumina when considering confined zones. The fluid chemistry is monitored by sampling aliquots of the solution. Eh and pH are continuously measured by hydrothermal Cormet© electrodes implanted in a titanium hydrothermal reactor. The transformation, or not, of the solid fraction was examined post-mortem. These experiments evidenced the role of Al colloids as precursor of cements composed of kaolinite and boehmite, and the passivation of amorphous silica (becoming unreactive) likely by sorption of aqueous iron. But no Fe-bearing was formed by contrast to many published studies on the Fe

  8. Development of elements of the condition monitoring system of turbo generators of thermal power stations and nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumenko, A. I.; Kostyukov, V. N.; Kuz'minykh, N. Yu.; Boichenko, S. N.; Timin, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    The rationale is given for the improvement of the regulatory framework for the use of shaft sensors for the in-service condition monitoring of turbo generators and the development of control systems of shaft surfacing and misalignments of supports. A modern concept and a set of methods are proposed for the condition monitoring of the "shaft line-thrust bearing oil film-turbo generator supports" system elements based on the domestic COMPACS® technology. The system raw data are design, technology, installation, and operating parameters of the turbo generator as well as measured parameters of the absolute vibration of supports and mechanical quantities, relative displacements and relative vibration of the rotor teeth in accordance with GOST R 55263-2012. The precalculated shaft line assembly line in the cold state, the nominal parameters of rotor teeth positions on the dynamic equilibrium curve, the static and dynamic characteristics of the oil film of thrust bearings, and the shaft line stiffness matrix of unit support displacements have been introduced into the system. Using the COMPACS-T system, it is planned to measure positions and oscillations of rotor teeth, to count corresponding static and dynamic characteristics of the oil film, and the static and dynamic loads in the supports in real time. Using the obtained data, the system must determine the misalignments of supports and corrective alignments of rotors of coupling halves, voltages in rotor teeth, welds, and bolts of the coupling halves, and provide automatic conclusion if condition monitoring parameters correspond to standard values. A part of the methodological support for the proposed system is presented, including methods for determining static reactions of supports under load, the method for determining shaft line stiffness matrices, and the method for solving the inverse problem, i.e., the determination of the misalignments of the supports by measurements of rotor teeth relative positions in bearing

  9. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  10. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for Action...

  11. 77 FR 8904 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee) is the...

  12. The Number of Point Mutations in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer Embryonic Stem Cells Depends on the Method and Somatic Cell Type Used for Their Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ryoko; Mizutani, Eiji; Hoki, Yuko; Sunayama, Misato; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Kasama, Yasuji; Nakamura, Miki; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Abe, Masumi

    2017-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine but point mutations have been identified in these cells and have raised serious concerns about their safe use. We generated nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (ntESCs) from both mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs) and by whole genome sequencing found fewer mutations compared with iPSCs generated by retroviral gene transduction. Furthermore, TTF-derived ntESCs showed only a very small number of point mutations, approximately 80% less than the number observed in iPSCs generated using retrovirus. Base substitution profile analysis confirmed this greatly reduced number of point mutations. The point mutations in iPSCs are therefore not a Yamanaka factor-specific phenomenon but are intrinsic to genome reprogramming. Moreover, the dramatic reduction in point mutations in ntESCs suggests that most are not essential for genome reprogramming. Our results suggest that it is feasible to reduce the point mutation frequency in iPSCs by optimizing various genome reprogramming conditions. We conducted whole genome sequencing of ntES cells derived from MEFs or TTFs. We thereby succeeded in establishing TTF-derived ntES cell lines with far fewer point mutations. Base substitution profile analysis of these clones also indicated a reduced point mutation frequency, moving from a transversion-predominance to a transition-predominance. Stem Cells 2017;35:1189-1196. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Procedure of calculation of the spatial distribution of temperatures and heat fluxes in the steam generator of a nuclear power installation with an RBEC fast-neutron reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, A. A.; Sedov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    A method for combined 3D/1D-modeling of thermohydraulics of a once-through steam generator (SG) based on the joint analysis of three-dimensional thermo- and hydrodynamics of a single-phase heating coolant in the intertube space and one-dimensional thermohydraulics of steam-generating channels (tubes) with the use of well-known friction and heat-transfer correlations under various boiling conditions is discussed. This method allows one to determine the spatial distribution of temperatures and heat fluxes of heat-exchange surfaces of SGs with a single-phase heating coolant in the intertube space and with steam generation within tubes. The method was applied in the analytical investigation of typical operation of a once-through SG of a nuclear power installation with an RBEC fast-neutron heavy-metal reactor that is being designed by Kurchatov Institute in collaboration with OKB GIDROPRESS and Leipunsky Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. Flow pattern and temperature fields were obtained for the heavy-metal heating coolant in the intertube space. Nonuniformities of heating of the steam-water coolant in different heat-exchange tubes and nonuniformities in the distribution of heat fluxes at SG heat-exchange surfaces were revealed.

  14. Improvement of Sodium Neutronic Nuclear Data for the Computation of Generation IV Reactors; Contribution a l'amelioration des donnees nucleaires neutroniques du sodium pour le calcul des reacteurs de generation IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archier, P.

    2011-09-14

    The safety criteria to be met for Generation IV sodium fast reactors (SFR) require reduced and mastered uncertainties on neutronic quantities of interest. Part of these uncertainties come from nuclear data and, in the particular case of SFR, from sodium nuclear data, which show significant differences between available international libraries (JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-4.0). The objective of this work is to improve the knowledge on sodium nuclear data for a better calculation of SFR neutronic parameters and reliable associated uncertainties. After an overview of existing {sup 23}Na data, the impact of the differences is quantified, particularly on sodium void reactivity effects, with both deterministic and stochastic neutronic codes. Results show that it is necessary to completely re-evaluate sodium nuclear data. Several developments have been made in the evaluation code Conrad, to integrate new nuclear reactions models and their associated parameters and to perform adjustments with integral measurements. Following these developments, the analysis of differential data and the experimental uncertainties propagation have been performed with Conrad. The resolved resonances range has been extended up to 2 MeV and the continuum range begins directly beyond this energy. A new {sup 23}Na evaluation and the associated multigroup covariances matrices were generated for future uncertainties calculations. The last part of this work focuses on the sodium void integral data feedback, using methods of integral data assimilation to reduce the uncertainties on sodium cross sections. This work ends with uncertainty calculations for industrial-like SFR, which show an improved prediction of their neutronic parameters with the new evaluation. (author) [French] Les criteres de surete exiges pour les reacteurs rapides au sodium de Generation IV (RNR-Na) se traduisent par la necessite d'incertitudes reduites et maitrisees sur les grandeurs neutroniques d'interet. Une part

  15. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program (NERI) Quarterly Progress Report; New Design Equations for Swelling and Irradiation Creep in Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfer, W G; Surh, M P; Garner, F A; Chrzan, D C; Schaldach, C; Sturgeon, J B

    2003-02-13

    The objectives of this research project are to significantly extend the theoretical foundation and the modeling of radiation-induced microstructural changes in structural materials used in Generation IV nuclear reactors, and to derive from these microstructure models the constitutive laws for void swelling, irradiation creep and stress-induced swelling, as well as changes in mechanical properties. The need for the proposed research is based on three major developments and advances over the past two decades. First, new experimental discoveries have been made on void swelling and irradiation creep which invalidate previous theoretical models and empirical constitutive laws for swelling and irradiation creep. Second, recent advances in computational methods and power make it now possible to model the complex processes of microstructure evolution over long-term neutron exposures. Third, it is now required that radiation-induced changes in structural materials over extended lifetimes be predicted and incorporated in the design of Generation IV reactors. Our approach to modeling and data analysis is a dual one in accord with both the objectives to simulate the evolution of the microstructure and to develop design equations for macroscopic properties. Validation of the models through data analysis is therefore carried out at both the microscopic and the macroscopic levels. For the microstructure models, we utilize the transmission electron microscopy results from steels irradiated in reactors and from model materials irradiated by neutrons as well as ion bombardments. The macroscopic constitutive laws will be tested and validated by analyzing density data, irradiation creep data, diameter changes of fuel elements, and post-irradiation tensile data. Validation of both microstructure models and macroscopic constitutive laws is a more stringent test of the internal consistency of the underlying science for radiation effects in structural materials for nuclear reactors.

  16. Long-Term Modeling of Coupled Processes in a Generic Salt Repository for Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste: Analysis of the Impacts of Halite Solubility Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Battistelli, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Rock salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, such as its ability to creep and heal fractures and its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state. In this research, we focus on disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste and we consider a generic salt repository with in-drift emplacement of waste packages and crushed salt backfill. As the natural salt creeps, the crushed salt backfill gets progressively compacted and an engineered barrier system is subsequently created [1]. The safety requirements for such a repository impose that long time scales be considered, during which the integrity of the natural and engineered barriers have to be demonstrated. In order to evaluate this long-term integrity, we perform numerical modeling based on state-of-the-art knowledge. Here, we analyze the impacts of halite dissolution and precipitation within the backfill and the host rock. For this purpose, we use an enhanced equation-of-state module of TOUGH2 that properly includes temperature-dependent solubility constraints [2]. We perform coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical modeling and we investigate the influence of the mentioned impacts. The TOUGH-FLAC simulator, adapted for large strains and creep, is used [3]. In order to quantify the importance of salt dissolution and precipitation on the effective porosity, permeability, pore pressure, temperature and stress field, we compare numerical results that include or disregard fluids of variable salinity. The sensitivity of the results to some parameters, such as the initial saturation within the backfill, is also addressed. References: [1] Bechthold, W. et al. Backfilling and Sealing of Underground Repositories for Radioactive Waste in Salt (BAMBUS II Project). Report EUR20621 EN: European Atomic Energy Community, 2004. [2] Battistelli A. Improving the treatment of saline brines in EWASG for the simulation of hydrothermal systems. Proceedings, TOUGH Symposium 2012

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Development of Horse Cloned Embryos Generated with iPSCs, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Fetal or Adult Fibroblasts as Nuclear Donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Olivera

    Full Text Available The demand for equine cloning as a tool to preserve high genetic value is growing worldwide; however, nuclear transfer efficiency is still very low. To address this issue, we first evaluated the effects of time from cell fusion to activation (<1h, n = 1261; 1-2h, n = 1773; 2-3h, n = 1647 on in vitro and in vivo development of equine embryos generated by cloning. Then, we evaluated the effects of using different nuclear donor cell types in two successive experiments: I induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs vs. adult fibroblasts (AF fused to ooplasts injected with the pluripotency-inducing genes OCT4, SOX2, MYC and KLF4, vs. AF alone as controls; II umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs vs. fetal fibroblasts derived from an unborn cloned foetus (FF vs. AF from the original individual. In the first experiment, both blastocyst production and pregnancy rates were higher in the 2-3h group (11.5% and 9.5%, respectively, respect to <1h (5.2% and 2%, respectively and 1-2h (5.6% and 4.7%, respectively groups (P<0.05. However, percentages of born foals/pregnancies were similar when intervals of 2-3h (35.2% or 1-2h (35.7% were used. In contrast to AF, the iPSCs did not generate any blastocyst-stage embryos. Moreover, injection of oocytes with the pluripotency-inducing genes did not improve blastocyst production nor pregnancy rates respect to AF controls. Finally, higher blastocyst production was obtained using UC-MSC (15.6% than using FF (8.9% or AF (9.3%, (P<0.05. Despite pregnancy rates were similar for these 3 groups (17.6%, 18.2% and 22%, respectively, viable foals (two were obtained only by using FF. In summary, optimum blastocyst production rates can be obtained using a 2-3h interval between cell fusion and activation as well as using UC-MSCs as nuclear donors. Moreover, FF line can improve the efficiency of an inefficient AF line. Overall, 24 healthy foals were obtained from a total of 29 born foals.

  18. Nuclear energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  19. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on

  20. REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N.

    2010-11-05

    Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste

  1. Scientific-technical cooperation with foreign (esp. Europe and INSC partner countries) nuclear regulatory authorities and their technical support organizations in the fields of nuclear safety of operating nuclear power plants and on the concept evaluation of generation 3+ plants. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit (WTZ) mit auslaendischen (insbesondere in Europa und INSC-Partnerstaaten) atomrechtlichen Behoerden und deren Sachverstaendigenorganisationen zur nuklearen Sicherheit in Betrieb befindlicher Kernkraftwerke und zur Konzeptbewertung von Generation-3+-Anlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Holger

    2016-09-15

    The BMUB/BfS-Project 3614I01512 forms the frame of the GRS for the scientific-technical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety in operating NPPs and for the concept evaluation of generation 3{sup +} plants in Europe and INSC Partner Countries. In the present final project report results are described which were gained within the project duration 15.10.2014 up to the 30.09.2016 in the following working packages: Investigations following the catastrophe of Fukushima Daiichi, Evaluation of selected National Action Plans, DBA and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000), cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3{sup +} and building NRA and safety evaluation capacities and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste. The results are preceded by an outline on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  2. The University of Toronto's lasting contribution to war surgery: how Maj. L. Bruce Robertson fundamentally transformed thinking toward blood transfusion during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Abigail; Beckett, Andrew; Pannell, Dylan

    2017-06-01

    During the Great War, Canadian military surgeons produced some of the greatest innovations to improve survival on the battlefield. Arguably, the most important was bringing blood transfusion practice close to the edge of the battlefield to resuscitate the many casualties dying of hemorrhagic shock. Dr. L. Bruce Robertson of the Canadian Army Medical Corps was the pioneering surgeon from the University of Toronto who was able to demonstrate the benefit of blood transfusions near the front line and counter the belief that saline was the resuscitation fluid of choice in military medicine. Robertson would go on to survive the Great War, but would be taken early in life by influenza. Despite his life and career being cut short, Robertson's work is still carried on today by many military medical organizations who strive to bring blood to the wounded in austere and dangerous settings. This article has an Appendix, available at canjsurg.ca.

  3. Experimental verification of proton beam monitoring in a human body by use of activity image of positron-emitting nuclei generated by nuclear fragmentation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Teiji; Miyatake, Aya; Inoue, Kazumasa; Gomi-Miyagishi, Tomoko; Kohno, Ryosuke; Kameoka, Satoru; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ogino, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Proton therapy is a form of radiotherapy that enables concentration of dose on a tumor by use of a scanned or modulated Bragg peak. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the proton-irradiated volume accurately. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed by detection of pair-annihilation gamma rays from positron-emitting nuclei generated by the nuclear fragmentation reaction of the incident protons on target nuclei using a PET apparatus. The activity of the positron-emitting nuclei generated in a patient was measured with a PET-CT apparatus after proton beam irradiation of the patient. Activity measurement was performed in patients with tumors of the brain, head and neck, liver, lungs, and sacrum. The 3-D PET image obtained on the CT image showed the visual correspondence with the irradiation area of the proton beam. Moreover, it was confirmed that there were differences in the strength of activity from the PET-CT images obtained at each irradiation site. The values of activity obtained from both measurement and calculation based on the reaction cross section were compared, and it was confirmed that the intensity and the distribution of the activity changed with the start time of the PET imaging after proton beam irradiation. The clinical use of this information about the positron-emitting nuclei will be important for promoting proton treatment with higher accuracy in the future.

  4. Generator. Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedler, R.; Bossmann, H.P.

    1992-03-12

    The invention refers to a thermo-electric generator, whose main part is a sodium concentration cell. In conventional thermo-electric generators of this kind, the sodium moving from a hot space to a colder space must be transported back to the hot space via a circulation pipe and a pump. The purpose of the invention is to avoid the disadvantages of this return transport. According to the invention, the thermo-electric generator is supported so that it can rotate, so that the position of each space relative to its propinquity to the heat source can be changed at any time.

  5. One-step generation of cytoplasmic male sterility by fusion of mitochondrial-inactivated tomato protoplasts with nuclear-inactivated Solanum protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, G; Mohri, Y; Watanabe, K; Wakabayashi, S; Harada, K

    1992-08-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts of Lycopersicon esculentum were treated with iodoacetamide to inactivate mitochondria, and protoplasts of Solanum acaule and Solanum tuberosum were irradiated with gamma- or x-rays to inactivate nuclei. Mixtures of protoplasts thus modified were treated with Ca2+ and polyethylene glycol to obtain heterologous fusion products. Among the fusion products were some tomato plants that were indistinguishable from the original cultivars with respect to morphology, physiology, and chromosome number (2N = 24) but exhibited various degrees of male sterility (MS): complete lack or malformation of anthers, shrunken pollen, and normal-looking stainable pollen that could not germinate. The MS thus induced in five cultivars of different growth types, including one of subspecies L. esculentum cerasiforme, was inherited maternally over several generations and is, therefore, cytoplasmically determined MS (CMS). Analysis of mitochondrial DNA revealed that the mitochondrial genome of the CMS hybrids does not contain all elements of the mitochondrial DNA of either parent but includes sequences of a recombinational nature not present in either parent. The CMS hybrids, therefore, possess a true hybrid mitochondrial genome. The same procedure applied to fusion of tomato with Solanum lycopersicoides and Nicotiana tabacum cells did not produce CMS phenotypes. The advantages of this method over others for generating MS are as follows: (i) only one step is required; (ii) the nuclear genotype of the cultivar is unaffected; (iii) the prospect that cytoplasmic determination allows generation of 100% CMS progenies. The normal-appearing but nonfunctional pollen of certain CMS types might render them attractive to pollinating bumblebees that thus would facilitate production of hybrid seed.

  6. Regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by nuclear respiratory factor 1: implication in the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2012-11-23

    NRF-1 regulates mediators of neuronal activity and energy generation. NRF-1 transcriptionally regulates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits α1 and β1. NRF-1 functionally regulates mediators of energy consumption in neurons. NRF-1 mediates the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption at the molecular level. Energy generation and energy consumption are tightly coupled to neuronal activity at the cellular level. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, a major energy-consuming enzyme, is well expressed in neurons rich in cytochrome c oxidase, an important enzyme of the energy-generating machinery, and glutamatergic receptors that are mediators of neuronal activity. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that the coupling extends to the molecular level, whereby Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits are regulated by the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), found recently by our laboratory to regulate all cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes and some NMDA and AMPA receptor subunit genes. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, and real-time quantitative PCR, NRF-1 was found to functionally bind to the promoters of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 genes but not of the Atp1a3 gene in neurons. The transcripts of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 subunit genes were up-regulated by KCl and down-regulated by tetrodotoxin. Atp1b1 is positively regulated by NRF-1, and silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA blocked the up-regulation of Atp1b1 induced by KCl, whereas overexpression of NRF-1 rescued these transcripts from being suppressed by tetrodotoxin. On the other hand, Atp1a1 is negatively regulated by NRF-1. The binding sites of NRF-1 on Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 are conserved among mice, rats, and humans. Thus, NRF-1 regulates key Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits and plays an important role in mediating the tight coupling between

  7. Asymmetric hybridization between non-native winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), and native Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata, in the Northeastern United States, assessed with novel microsatellites and SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.P. Havill; J. Elkinton; J.C. Andersen; S.B. Hagen; Hannah J. Broadley; G.J. Boettner; A. Caccone

    2017-01-01

    The European winter moth, Operophtera brumata, is a non-native pest in the Northeastern USA causing defoliation of forest trees and crops such as apples and blueberries. This species is known to hybridize with O. bruceata, the Bruce spanworm, a native species across North America, although it is not known if there are hybrid...

  8. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  9. Estimation of requirements of eolic energy equivalent to the electric generation of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Estimacion de requerimientos de energia eolica equivalente a la generacion electrica de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A.; Hernandez M, I.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: maiki27@yahoo.com; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The advantages are presented that have the nuclear and eolic energy as for their low environmental impact and to the human health. An exercise is presented in the one that is supposed that the electric power generated by the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant (CNLV), with capacity of 1365 M W, it should be produced by eolic energy when in the years 2020 and 2025 the units 1 and 2 of the CNLV reach its useful life and be moved away. It is calculated the number of aero generators that would produce the electric power average yearly of the CNLV, that which is equal to install eolic parks with capacity of 2758 M W, without considering that it will also be invested in systems of back generation to produce electricity when the aero generators stops for lack of wind. (Author)

  10. Report of the generation of the nuclear bank Presto-Hot for the SVEA-96 fuel with the FMS codes; Reporte de generacion del banco nuclear PRESTO-HOT para el combustible SVEA-96 con los codigos del FMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-12-15

    In this work it is described in a general way the form in that was generated the database of the SVEA-96 fuel for Laguna Verde. The formation of the bank it was carried out with the ECLIPSE 86-2D, RECORD 89-1A and POLGEN 88-lB codes of the FMS package installed in the VAX system of the offices of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in Mexico, D.F. The formed bank is denominated 'LlPG9102'. All this was carried out following the '6F3/I/CN029/90/P1' procedure. By means of the MERGE code of the FMS package installed in the VAX system of the offices of the Federal Commission of Electricity in Mexico, D.F., it was annex this information to the contained bank 'LlPG3314' being generated the one bank 'LlPG9701'. This contains the information of the 5 fuel types of the initial load of the unit 1 and of the first reload of Laguna Verde as well as the information corresponding to the SVEA-96 fuel. The results obtained during the formation of the data bank of the fuel as for the behavior of those different cell parameters regarding the burnt of the fuel and the variation of vacuums in the coolant channel is compared with those reported in the documents of fuel design provided by ABB-ATOM. These comparisons, although they are not exhaustive they show the general tendency of the results the which is quite favorable. The generated database contains the enough information in terms of constant in two dependent groups of burnt and instantaneous vacuums, for the different arrangements of present fuel bars in the one assemble as well as those coefficients that take into account the presence of the control bar, the variation in the fuel temperature and the one effect of the 'historical' vacuums. All this included in that is knows as SUPER option of the bank for PRESTO with the options PRCOEF and POLRAM. Also, in the Annex G of this report its were provided for separate the M-Factor, the coefficients of Xenon and the

  11. Generator. Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, H.P.; Knoedler, R.

    1992-03-12

    The invention refers to a thermo-electric generator, which contains sodium as the means of heat transport. The sodium moves from the space of higher temperature through a space into the space of lower temperature. One can do without a pump for transporting the sodium back from the space of lower temperature to the space of higher temperature, as the thermo-electric generator can rotate around an axis. It is therefore possible to interchange the position of the two spaces relative to the heat source.

  12. Prediction and modeling of the two-dimensional separation characteristic of a steam generator at a nuclear power station with VVER-1000 reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchevsky, V. M.; Guryanova, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    A computational and experimental procedure for construction of the two-dimensional separation curve (TDSC) for a horizontal steam generator (SG) at a nuclear power station (NPS) with VVER-reactors. In contrast to the conventional one-dimensional curve describing the wetness of saturated steam generated in SG as a function of the boiler water level at one, usually rated, load, TDSC is a function of two variables, which are the level and the load of SGB that enables TDSC to be used for wetness control in a wide load range. The procedure is based on two types of experimental data obtained during rated load operation: the nonuniformity factor of the steam load at the outlet from the submerged perforated sheet (SPS) and the dependence of the mass water level in the vicinity of the "hot" header on the water level the "cold" end of SG. The TDSC prediction procedure is presented in the form of an algorithm using SG characteristics, such as steam load and water level as the input and giving the calculated steam wetness at the output. The zoneby-zone calculation method is used. The result is presented in an analytical form (as an empirical correlation) suitable for uploading into controllers or other controls. The predicted TDSC can be used during real-time operation for implementation of different wetness control scenarios (for example, if the effectiveness is a priority, then the minimum water level, minimum wetness, and maximum turbine efficiency should be maintained; if safety is a priority, then the maximum level at the allowable wetness and the maximum water inventory should be kept), for operation of NPS in controlling the frequency and power in a power system, at the design phase (as a part of the simulation complex for verification of design solutions), during construction and erection (in developing software for personnel training simulators), during commissioning tests (to reduce the duration and labor-intensity of experimental activities), and for training.

  13. KPT-8602, a second-generation inhibitor of XPO1-mediated nuclear export, is well tolerated and highly active against AML blasts and leukemia-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchin, J; Berezovskaya, A; Conway, A S; Galinsky, I A; Stone, R M; Baloglu, E; Senapedis, W; Landesman, Y; Kauffman, M; Shacham, S; Wang, J C Y; Look, A T

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal hematologic malignant disease of developing myeloid cells that have acquired aberrant survival, uncontrolled proliferation and a block in normal hematopoietic cell differentiation. Standard chemotherapy often induces remissions in AML patients, but the disease frequently relapses due to incomplete targeting of leukemia-initiating cells (LICs), emphasizing the need for novel effective treatments. Exportin 1 (XPO1)-mediated nuclear export, which is inhibited by the drug selinexor, is an attractive new therapeutic target in AML. Selinexor has shown impressive activity in Phase I/II clinical trials for AML. Here we report the anti-leukemic efficacy and tolerability of KPT-8602, a second-generation XPO1 inhibitor. KPT-8602 demonstrates substantially reduced brain penetration compared to selinexor, with resultant attenuation of the central nervous system mediated side effects of anorexia and weight loss. Due to its improved tolerability profile, KPT-8602 can be given daily compared to the two or three times weekly regimen of selinexor, and exhibits greater anti-leukemic efficacy against both leukemic blasts and LICs in AML patient-derived xenograft models. Importantly, normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) frequency is not significantly reduced by KPT-8602, providing a therapeutic window for elimination of relapse-driving LICs while sparing normal HSPCs. These findings strongly endorse clinical testing of KPT-8602 in patients with relapsed and refractory AML.

  14. Generation of a WIMS-D/4 multigroup constants library based on the JENDL-3.2 nuclear data and its validation through some benchmark experiments analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh); Takano, Hideki

    1996-11-01

    A new 69 group library of multigroup constants for the lattice code WIMS-D/4 has been generated with an improved resonance treatment, processing nuclear data from JENDL-3.2 by NJOY91.108. A parallel ENDF/B-VI based library has also been constructed for intercomparison of results. Benchmark calculations for a number of thermal reactor critical assemblies of both uranium and plutonium fuels have been performed with the code WIMS-D/4.1 with its three different libraries: the original WIMS library (NEA-0329/10) and the new ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.2 based libraries. The results calculated with both ENDF and JENDL based libraries show similar tendency and are found in better agreement with the experimental values. Benchmark parameters are further calculated with the comprehensive lattice code SRAC95. The results from SRAC95 and WIMS-D/4.1 (both with JENDL-3.2 based libraries) agrees well to each other as well as to the other previously published values. (author)

  15. MHD Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  16. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  17. Nuclear energy; Le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  18. Negative sequence relay applied to generator 1 of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Aplicacion de un relevador de secuencia negativa en el generador 1 de la central de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz de la Serna P, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    The rotor of a synchronous generator can be dangerously heated in a short time by stator current unbalance, therefore it must be protected with a specific relay. This article discusses the protection and the adjustments selected for Unit 1 of the Comision Federal de Electricidad Laguna Verde Nuclear Nuclear Power Station. [Espanol] El rotor de un generador sincrono puede calentarse peligrosamente en un tiempo corto debido a desbalance de corrientes en el estator, por lo que debe protegerse con un relevador especifico. En este articulo se describen la proteccion y los ajustes seleccionados para la unidad 1, de la central nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde de la Comision Federal de Electricidad.

  19. Development of Nuclear Microsatellite Loci and Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for the Natterjack Toad, Bufo (Epidalea) calamita (Bufonidae), Using Next Generation Sequencing and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Leslie; Godé, Cécile; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing a major decline worldwide and the steady increase in the number of threatened species in this particular taxa highlights the need for conservation genetics studies using high-quality molecular markers. The natterjack toad, Bufo (Epidalea) calamita, is a vulnerable pioneering species confined to specialized habitats in Western Europe. To provide efficient and cost-effective genetic resources for conservation biologists, we developed and characterized 22 new nuclear microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing. We also used sequence data acquired from Sanger sequencing to develop the first mitochondrial markers for KASPar assay genotyping. Genetic polymorphism was then analyzed for 95 toads sampled from 5 populations in France. For polymorphic microsatellite loci, number of alleles and expected heterozygosity ranged from 2 to 14 and from 0.035 to 0.720, respectively. No significant departures from panmixia were observed (mean multilocus F IS = -0.015) and population differentiation was substantial (mean multilocus F ST = 0.222, P < 0.001). From a set of 18 mitochondrial SNPs located in the 16S and D-loop region, we further developed a fast and cost-effective SNP genotyping method based on competitive allele-specific PCR amplification (KASPar). The combination of allelic states for these mitochondrial DNA SNP markers yielded 10 different haplotypes, ranging from 2 to 5 within populations. Populations were highly differentiated (G ST = 0.407, P < 0.001). These new genetic resources will facilitate future parentage, population genetics and phylogeographical studies and will be useful for both evolutionary and conservation concerns, especially for the set-up of management strategies and the definition of distinct evolutionary significant units. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Characterizing source fingerprints and ageing processes in laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols using proton-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis and HPLC HULIS determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Nicola; Lambe, Andrew T.; Massoli, Paola; Paglione, Marco; Croasdale, David R.; Parmar, Yatish; Tagliavini, Emilio; Gilardoni, Stefania; Decesari, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    The study of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in laboratory settings has greatly increased our knowledge of the diverse chemical processes and environmental conditions responsible for the formation of particulate matter starting from biogenic and anthropogenic volatile compounds. However, characteristics of the different experimental setups and the way they impact the composition and the timescale of formation of SOA are still subject to debate. In this study, SOA samples were generated using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor using α-pinene, naphthalene and isoprene as precursors. The PAM reactor facilitated exploration of SOA composition over atmospherically relevant photochemical ageing timescales that are unattainable in environmental chambers. The SOA samples were analyzed using two state-of-the-art analytical techniques for SOA characterization - proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy and HPLC determination of humic-like substances (HULIS). Results were compared with previous Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements. The combined 1H-NMR, HPLC, and AMS datasets show that the composition of the studied SOA systems tend to converge to highly oxidized organic compounds upon prolonged OH exposures. Further, our 1H-NMR findings show that only α-pinene SOA acquires spectroscopic features comparable to those of ambient OA when exposed to at least 1 × 1012 molec OH cm-3 × s OH exposure, or multiple days of equivalent atmospheric OH oxidation. Over multiple days of equivalent OH exposure, the formation of HULIS is observed in both α-pinene SOA and in naphthalene SOA (maximum yields: 16 and 30 %, respectively, of total analyzed water-soluble organic carbon, WSOC), providing evidence of the formation of humic-like polycarboxylic acids in unseeded SOA.

  1. Nuclear energy for electricity generation: historical analysis, nowadays situation and future; Geracao nucleo-eletrica: retrospectiva, situacao atual e perspectivas futuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongelli, Sara Tania

    2006-07-01

    On December 2, 1942, man first initiated a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, and controlled it. Since then, nuclear energy development, firstly stimulated by military goals, was fast. But nuclear energy use for electricity production grew too, until becoming a very important energy source in the world energy mix. In 1987 there were in the world 418 nuclear reactors capable of producing commercially useful supplies of electricity. Over two thirds were in just seven countries: United States, Soviet Union, France, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada and Japan. In the 90's, nuclear energy development slowed down as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident and of the more optimistic evaluations of world oil resources. In 2005 the number of nuclear reactors commercially producing electricity amounted to 441, not much more than the 418 reactors operating in 1987. From this point of view, the primary scope of this work is to analyze the world pattern and the state of the art of nuclear power production focusing on the countries above mentioned. Brazil case is analyzed too, since this work has been developed there. Once this international outlook is concluded, the next step passes through the analyses of new technologies, tendencies and initiatives for the future development of nuclear energy. Since feelings run high in the debate about nuclear energy, some fundamental and fervent points are raised: security, environment, proliferation and sustainable development. Nevertheless, it is important to point out that effort has been made in this work not to take sides, but to be impartial in selecting materials and giving data. The scope is not to convert the reader to a pro-nuclear view but to inform and, in doing so, to provide a volume that is a textbook and not a piece of polemic. (author)

  2. Cation-selective extraction column study for the conception of nuclear medical radionuclide generators; Untersuchung kationenselektiver Extraktionssaeulen zur Konzeption nuklearmedizinischer Radionuklidgeneratoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streng, Roman

    2012-07-09

    The topic of the present work is the conception of a Yttrium-90 radionuclide generator for nuclear medicine applications. Due to its physical properties Yttrium-90 is considered as one of the most useful nuclides for radiotherapeutic cancer treatment. The parent nuclide Strontium-90 is gained during reprocessing of fission products. Thus, the sustained availability of large quantities of Yttrium-90 is limited to a number of research facilities. A radionuclide generator provides an independent Yttrium-90 source and enhances the capacities for radiopharmaceutical research and biomedical applications. The present work focussed on the identification of appropriate column materials for the separation of Strontium and Yttrium. The results for two materials are reported: AnaLig {sup registered} Sr-01 and crystalline antimonic acid. Based on the mode of operation of the Technetium-99m generator the aim was to enable the construction of a compact, enclosed apparatus. The projected device comprises a reservoir for the eluant, the ion-exchange column, pipings and radiation shielding. Elution of Yttrium-90 could then be easily performed by connecting evacuated vials to the outlet tube. The prospected concept involves physical and chemical confinements that exclude most of the known processes for Strontium-Yttrium separation. For example no ligands, no oxidizing reactants (e.g. nitric acid) and no organic solvents are to be used, but small volumes of isotonic or buffer solutions and dilute acids respectively. AnaLig {sup registered} Sr-01 is a commercially available resin used in extraction chromatography. Its high selectivity for Strontium cations results from the strictly defined cavity of the imbedded cryptand. Determination of weight distribution coefficients, elution studies and pre-generator experiments were carried out. Quantitative separation of Yttrium from Strontium and Zirconium is possible using small volumes of 0,05 M hydrochloric acid as eluant. Furthermore, high

  3. Observations on the symbiotic relationship between the caridean shrimp Odontonia sibogae (Bruce, 1972 and its ascidian host Herdmania momus (Savigny, 1816.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya'arit Levitt-Barmats

    Full Text Available Symbiotic relationships between shrimps and other invertebrates are a very common phenomenon in tropical environments. Although the caridean shrimp-ascidian association has been known for many years, the nature of this relationship is still unclear. The current study investigated the association between the caridean shrimp Odontonia sibogae (Bruce, 1972 and solitary ascidians. A combination of field work conducted along the Red Sea coast of Israel and laboratory experiments, conducted during 2015-2016, revealed a clear preference of the shrimps for the ascidian species Herdmania momus (Savigny, 1816, with a low survival ability of the shrimp outside their host's body. The shrimps usually inhabit their host as pairs of male and female or pair of females, but never as pairs of males. Out of the 53 studied females, 51% were observed to bear between 156-1,146 embryos, throughout the course of the year. As these ascidian hosts are known to create large aggregates, we suggest that males may possibly wander among the ascidians occupied by females in order to increase their reproductive success. To date, this is the first study to record the shrimp Dactylonia ascidicola (Borradaile, 1898 inhabiting the ascidian H. momus; and the first study to investigate in depth the ascidian-shrimp association in the Red Sea. It thus provides a platform for future research into the physiological and behavioral adaptations required for such a unique association.

  4. Observations on the symbiotic relationship between the caridean shrimp Odontonia sibogae (Bruce, 1972) and its ascidian host Herdmania momus (Savigny, 1816).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt-Barmats, Ya'arit; Shenkar, Noa

    2018-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships between shrimps and other invertebrates are a very common phenomenon in tropical environments. Although the caridean shrimp-ascidian association has been known for many years, the nature of this relationship is still unclear. The current study investigated the association between the caridean shrimp Odontonia sibogae (Bruce, 1972) and solitary ascidians. A combination of field work conducted along the Red Sea coast of Israel and laboratory experiments, conducted during 2015-2016, revealed a clear preference of the shrimps for the ascidian species Herdmania momus (Savigny, 1816), with a low survival ability of the shrimp outside their host's body. The shrimps usually inhabit their host as pairs of male and female or pair of females, but never as pairs of males. Out of the 53 studied females, 51% were observed to bear between 156-1,146 embryos, throughout the course of the year. As these ascidian hosts are known to create large aggregates, we suggest that males may possibly wander among the ascidians occupied by females in order to increase their reproductive success. To date, this is the first study to record the shrimp Dactylonia ascidicola (Borradaile, 1898) inhabiting the ascidian H. momus; and the first study to investigate in depth the ascidian-shrimp association in the Red Sea. It thus provides a platform for future research into the physiological and behavioral adaptations required for such a unique association.

  5. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  6. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. A Drosophila model for mito-nuclear diseases generated by an incompatible interaction between tRNA and tRNA synthetase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa A. Holmbeck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes is vital for cellular function. The assembly of mitochondrial enzyme complexes, which produce the majority of cellular energy, requires the coordinated expression and translation of both mitochondrially and nuclear-encoded proteins. The joint genetic architecture of this system complicates the basis of mitochondrial diseases, and mutations both in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA- and nuclear-encoded genes have been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction. Previously, in a set of mitochondrial-nuclear introgression strains, we characterized a dual genome epistasis in which a naturally occurring mutation in the Drosophila simulans simw501 mtDNA-encoded transfer RNA (tRNA for tyrosine (tRNATyr interacts with a mutation in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrially localized tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase from Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we show that the incompatible mitochondrial-nuclear combination results in locomotor defects, reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS enzyme activity and severe alterations in mitochondrial morphology. Transgenic rescue strains containing nuclear variants of the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase are sufficient to rescue many of the deleterious phenotypes identified when paired with the simw501 mtDNA. However, the severity of this defective mito-nuclear interaction varies across traits and genetic backgrounds, suggesting that the impact of mitochondrial dysfunction might be tissue specific. Because mutations in mitochondrial tRNATyr are associated with exercise intolerance in humans, this mitochondrial-nuclear introgression model in Drosophila provides a means to dissect the molecular basis of these, and other, mitochondrial diseases that are a consequence of the joint genetic architecture of mitochondrial function.

  10. Nuclear power data; Kernenergie in Zahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The report ''nuclear power data'' includes data on the following issues: nuclear power plants in Germany including their operational characteristics, gross data on electricity generation in Germany, primary energy consumption in Germany, nuclear power plants worldwide, top ten nuclear power plants worldwide with respect to electricity generation in 2012.

  11. Nuclear Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    Down by Lengthy Outages,” Nucleonics Week, April 1, 2010, p. 1. Totals are for gross generation, including electricity used for reactor operation. 5...would 7World Nuclear Performance in 2009 Pushed Down by Lengthy Outages,” Nucleonics Week... Nucleonics Week, April 15, 2010, p. 1. 12 ESBWR: Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; APWR: Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor. Nuclear Energy

  12. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. [Strive, plan and reach the "Summit": the Faculty Development Program at the Ruth & Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Orit Cohen; Nave, Rachel; Ganor, Margalit; Hasson-Gilad, Dalia R; Brika, Riva

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, faculty development has turned into a central component of medical education and a primary instrument in qualifying physicians to be teachers and educators. The faculty development program at the Ruth & Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine ("Summit" program) was established in order to improve teaching of the clinical professions, to create a community of medical teachers and educators and to develop leadership in medical education within the Faculty of Medicine. This article aims to describe the design, implementation and evaluation of the faculty development program in the Technion's Faculty of Medicine. The program was designed for a group of 20 clinical teachers, of various clinical professions, who had gained at least one year of undergraduate teaching experience and wished to develop a career in medical education. The program included seven monthly, eight-hour meetings throughout the academic year. Learning was based on small group discussions, interactive exercises, role-plays and simulations, self-directed reading and reflective writing. At the end of the final meeting, participants completed an evaluation form. Seventeen of the 20 participants (85%) graduated and received certificates. Learners' overall satisfaction was high. Graduates expressed high motivation to practice medical education within the Faculty of Medicine and reported that they gained new knowledge in medical education and skills regarding various aspects of teaching and learning, such as formulation of learning objectives, designing role plays, and providing effective feedback. The "Summit" program is an innovative initiative in the field of medical education in Israel. The program had a significant impact on participants' knowledge, teaching skills and attitudes. In order to ensure implementation of the acquired tools and skills, its shortterm and long-term effects on teaching behavior and the learning climate have yet to be demonstrated. In addition, it is necessary to

  14. AVALIAÇÃO DO PERFIL LIPÍDICO SANGUÍNEO DE ATLETAS CORREDORES NO ENSAIO ERGOESPIROMÉTRICO DE BRUCE UTILIZANDO ESPECTROSCOPIA NO INFRAVERMELHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Pasqualotti Meinhardt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Os constituintes do perfil lipídico são importantes marcadores bioquímicos de doenças cardiovasculares (grande causa de morbidade e mortalidade. Para um diagnóstico de alterações do perfil lipídico se apresenta o método da espectroscopia no infravermelho (FT-IR. Este estudo avalia a aplicação da FT-IR na obtenção de dados do perfil lipídico de atletas corredores. Trata-se de um estudo analítico observacional comparativo, tendo como método de referência os ensaios enzimáticos baseados na reação de Trinder, comparados à espectroscopia no infravermelho por reflectância difusa com Transformada de Fourier (DRIFTS, com auxílio das ferramentas quimiométricas de análise exploratória por agrupamento hierárquico (HCA e análise preditiva por mínimos quadrados parciais (PLS para previsão destes marcadores bioquímicos. Foram sujeitos 14 atletas da equipe de Atletismo da UNISC, de 18 a 30 anos, de ambos os sexos, avaliados em repouso e após o teste ergoespirométrico de Bruce. Os resultados apontam que, na avaliação de atletas, a técnica de infravermelho (DRIFTS juntamente com o PLS, foi adequada para a construção de modelos de calibração e na definição da correlação entre testes bioquímicos padrões no perfil lipídico e na determinação pelo infravermelho.

  15. New nuclear power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear electric-power generation sources for the future include two viable candidates as viewed now: the fast breeder and the nuclear fusion reactors. Breeder reactors, which produce more radioactive fuels than they consume, are in the realm of existing technology. They are also categorized as potentially most harmful to the environment. Nuclear fusion reactors, on the other hand, will not be available in this century, based on current levels of development. However, they will be categorized as inherently much safer and thus potentially least harmful to the environment of all fueled electric-power generators.

  16. Review of light--water reactor safety studies. Volume 3 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Farnaam, M.R.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes and compares important studies of light-water nuclear reactor safety, emphasizing the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Safety Study, work on risk assessment funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Report of the American Physical Society study group on light-water reactor safety. These reports treat risk assessment for nuclear power plants and provide an introduction to the basic issues in reactor safety and the needs of the reactor safety research program. Earlier studies are treated more briefly. The report includes comments on the Reactor Safety Study. The manner in which these studies may be used and alterations which would increase their utility are discussed.

  17. Analysis of the financial task generated by the construction of a nuclear power plant in Mexico; Analisis de la carga financiera generada por la construccion de una central nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Palacios, J.; Delfin, A., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The construction of new nuclear reactors requires of a high investment making them intensive projects in capital and that require as minimum of 5 years for its construction. The financial task that represents for the electric company is of vital importance, since in the case of privates in other countries prevents them of entering in this type of projects if they do not have its Government support. In the case of Mexico, being an electric company integrated vertically can have financing to carry out this investment type. In this study is analyzed the construction viability of new nuclear reactors in Mexico based on the financial task that represents for the Electric Company its construction. (Author)

  18. Carsten Niebuhr and James Bruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2013-01-01

    of the controversial voyages on the Red Sea are mostly briefly mentioned and shown on maps as facts. George Annesley suggested that the descriptions of the contended voyages, published in 1790, might have been based on a British chart of the Red Sea from 1781, with sources of information ranging from the Portuguese...... naval officer João de Castro’s voyage on the Red Sea in 1540-1541 to Niebuhr’s chart and travel accounts. This suggestion is re-examined here: there is striking agreements between the British chart from 1781 and Bruce’s accounts and maps, even with regard to factual errors in the former. A letter dated......”) and that he had invented conversation long after it had taken place and thereby made serious mistakes. Privately, Niebuhr held more stern and critical opinions of Bruce’s work: two of the described voyages on the Red Sea were fictitious. George Annesley, in 1809, and Henry Salt, in 1814, published even...

  19. Innovation and knowledge generation in cooperation nets: challenges for regulations in the nuclear safety area in Brazil; Inovacao e geracao de conhecimento nas redes de cooperacao: desafios para a regulacao na area de seguranca nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The importance of inter-organisational cooperation within the innovation process has been increasingly recognized. In fact, all organisations, at some point, need to look to external sources for inputs to the process of building up technological competence. In this sense, through a detailed case study, this thesis examine theoretical and empirically how collaborative initiatives have supported the Brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the development and implementation of innovations, in order to verify the positive relationship between the collaboration and the organisational innovation performance. Emphasizing the importance of both internal sources of knowledge and external participation, the study encompasses documentary analysis, a preliminary survey and semi-structured interviews with the regulatory body employers in charge of controlling medical and research facilities and activities involving radiation sources. The thesis demonstrates that innovations developed and implemented in the Brazilian nuclear safety and security area are associated with collaborative initiatives, in order to improve the organizational capability to fulfill safety obligations, providing some important implications for regulatory body managers concerned with the management of innovation. The findings also identified actors with a significant degree of influence in the innovation process. The result reveals that the support provided by these actors has a significant influence on the innovation performance of the Brazilian nuclear regulatory body, suggesting that Brazil should adopt more interactive models of innovation and knowledge transfer. In addition, the findings show that these key actors can play a very distinctive role in the context of sectoral systems of innovation information regime. (author)

  20. Preliminary analysis of an hydrogen generator system based on nuclear energy in the Laguna Verde site; Analisis preliminar de un sistema generador de hidrogeno basado en energia nuclear en el sitio de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores y Flores, A. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: alain_fyf@yahoo.com

    2003-07-01

    The shortage of fossil fuels in the next future, as well as the growing one demand of energetics and the high cost of the production of alternating fuels, it forces us to take advantage of to the maximum the fossil fuel with the one which we count and to look for the form of producing alternating fuels at a low cost and better even if these supply sources are reliable and non pollutants. It is intended a solution to the shortage of fuel; to use the thermal energy liberated of some appropriate nuclear reactor to be able to obtain a fuel but clean and relatively cheap as it is the hydrogen. In the first place the methods were looked for to produce hydrogen using thermal energy, later it was analyzed the temperature liberated by the existent nuclear reactors as well as the advanced designs, according to this liberated temperature settled down that the methods but feasible to produce hydrogen its were the one of reformed with water stream of the natural gas (methane) and the other one of the S-I thermochemical cycle, and the nuclear reactors that give the thermal energy for this production they are those of gas of high temperature. Once established the processes and the appropriate reactors, it was analyzed the site of Laguna Verde, with relationship to the free space to be able to place the reactor and the plant producer of hydrogen, as well as the direction in which blow the dominant winds and the near towns to the place, it was carried out an analysis of some explosion of tanks that could store hydrogen and the damage that its could to cause depending from the distance to which its were of the fire. Finally it was carried out an evaluation of capital and of operation costs for those two methods of hydrogen production. (Author)

  1. Paralogues of nuclear ribosomal genes conceal phylogenetic signals within the invasive Asian fish tapeworm lineage: evidence from next generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Jan; Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rRNA operons of eight geographically distinct isolates of the Asian fish tapeworm Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (syn. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi), representing the parasite's global diversity spanning four continents, were fully characterised using an Illumina sequencing platform. This cestode species represents an extreme example of a highly invasive, globally distributed pathogen of veterinary importance with exceptionally low host specificity unseen elsewhere within the parasitic flatworms. In addition to eight specimens of S. acheilognathi, we fully characterised its closest known relative and the only congeneric species, Schyzocotyle nayarensis, from cyprinids in the Indian subcontinent. Since previous nucleotide sequence data on the Asian fish tapeworm were restricted to a single molecular locus of questionable phylogenetic utility-the nuclear rRNA genes-separating internal transcribed spacers-the mitogenomic data presented here offer a unique opportunity to gain the first detailed insights into both the intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and population genetic structure of the parasite, providing key baseline information for future research in the field. Additionally, we identify a previously unnoticed source of error and demonstrate the limited utility of the nuclear rRNA sequences, including the internal transcribed spacers that has likely misled most of the previous molecular phylogenetic and population genetic estimates on the Asian fish tapeworm. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation cross sections of α-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of ¹⁷⁸W/(178m)Ta generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-09-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of (178m)Ta through (nat)Hf(α,xn)(178)W-(178m)Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions (nat)Hf(α,x)(179,177,176,175)W, (183,182,178g,177,176,175)Ta, (179m,177m,175)Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and γ-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the (nat)Ta(d,xn)(178)W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ((3)He,x)) production routes for (178)W. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine: daughter nuclide build-up optimisation, elution-purification-concentration integration, and effective control of radionuclidic purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van So; Do, Zoe Phuc-Hien; Le, Minh Khoi; Le, Vicki; Le, Natalie Nha-Truc

    2014-06-10

    Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of "early elution schedule" was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement certainty with respect to

  4. Quality control of 99Mo/99Tcm generators: results of a survey of the Radiopharmacy Working Group of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, M; Aprile, C; Bagnara, C; Bolzati, C; Bonada, C; Candini, G; Casati, R; Civollani, S; Colombo, F R; Compagnone, G; Del Dottore, F; Di Guglielmo, E; Ferretti, P P; Lazzari, S; Minoia, C; Pancaldi, D; Ronchi, A; Sanità di Toppi, G; Saponaro, R; Torregiani, T; Uccelli, L; Vecchi, F; Piffanelli, A

    1999-11-01

    A multicentre survey of the quality control of 99Tcm generators has been completed: 245 generators from seven different commercial sources were tested over a period of 2 years. The results indicate that the mean pH of the eluates was 5.8 +/- 0.6; the aluminium contents were typically radiopharmacy procedures are currently being compiled.

  5. Computer code analysis of steam generator in thermal-hydraulic test facility simulating nuclear power plant; Ydinvoimalaitosta kuvaavan koelaitteiston hoeyrystimien analysointi tietokoneohjelmilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, E.

    1995-12-31

    In the study three loss-of-feedwater type experiments which were preformed with the PACTEL facility has been calculated with two computer codes. The purpose of the experiments was to gain information about the behaviour of horizontal steam generator in a situation where the water level on the secondary side of the steam generator is decreasing. At the same time data that can be used in the assessment of thermal-hydraulic computer codes was assembled. The purpose of the work was to study the capabilities of two computer codes, APROS version 2.11 and RELAP5/MOD3.1, to calculate the phenomena in horizontal steam generator. In order to make the comparison of the calculation results easier the same kind of model of the steam generator was made for both codes. Only the steam generator was modelled, the rest of the facility was given for the codes as a boundary condition. (23 refs.).

  6. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  7. Nuclear power economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, Ian; Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in providing energy security of supply, reducing import dependence and reducing greenhouse gas and polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized or deregulated power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability in these markets on commercial criteria as well as their lifecycle advantages. Nuclear plants are operating more efficiently than in the past and unit operating costs are low relative to those of alternative generating technologies. The political risk facing the economic functioning of nuclear in a number of countries has increased with the imposition of nuclear-specific taxes that in some cases have deprived operators of the economic incentive to continue to operate existing plants.

  8. Security culture for nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deeksha; Bajramovic, Edita

    2017-01-01

    Natural radioactive elements are part of our environment and radioactivity is a natural phenomenon. There are numerous beneficial applications of radioactive elements (radioisotopes) and radiation, starting from power generation to usages in medical, industrial and agriculture applications. But the risk of radiation exposure is always attached to operational workers, the public and the environment. Hence, this risk has to be assessed and controlled. The main goal of safety and security measures is to protect human life, health, and the environment. Currently, nuclear security considerations became essential along with nuclear safety as nuclear facilities are facing rapidly increase in cybersecurity risks. Therefore, prevention and adequate protection of nuclear facilities from cyberattacks is the major task. Historically, nuclear safety is well defined by IAEA guidelines while nuclear security is just gradually being addressed by some new guidance, especially the IAEA Nuclear Security Series (NSS), IEC 62645 and some national regulations. At the overall level, IAEA NSS 7 describes nuclear security as deterrence and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear, other radioactive substances and their associated facilities. Nuclear security should be included throughout nuclear facilities. Proper implementation of a nuclear security culture leads to staff vigilance and a high level of security posture. Nuclear security also depends on policy makers, regulators, managers, individual employees and members of public. Therefore, proper education and security awareness are essential in keeping nuclear facilities safe and secure.

  9. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  10. Adenosine-stress dynamic myocardial perfusion imaging with second-generation dual-source CT: comparison with conventional catheter coronary angiography and SPECT nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yining; Qin, Ling; Shi, Ximin; Zeng, Yong; Jing, Hongli; Schoepf, U Joseph; Jin, Zhengyu

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the feasibility of adenosine-stress dynamic myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with 128-MDCT dual-source CT for detecting myocardial ischemia in comparison with conventional catheter coronary angiography and nuclear MPI. Thirty patients (21 men and nine women; mean [± SD] age, 59.2 ± 7.6 years) prospectively underwent a combined stress CT perfusion and CT angiography (CTA) examination. Complete time-attenuation curves of the myocardium were acquired with prospectively ECG-triggered axial images at two alternating positions. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified according to dynamic CT perfusion, and MBF values of normal and abnormal segments were compared. Findings on CT perfusion were compared with those for stress and rest SPECT. Perfusion defects according to CT were correlated to flow-obstructing stenosis detected on CTA and catheter coronary angiography. On stress CT perfusion, 19 patients (63%) and 83 of 504 segments (16%) had perfusion abnormalities. There was a significant difference in MBF values between normal (142.9 ± 30.6 mL/100 mL/min) and hypoperfused (90.0 ± 22.8 mL/100 mL/min) segments (p stress CT perfusion detects myocardial perfusion defects in good correlation with nuclear MPI. CT perfusion combined with CTA improves the diagnostic accuracy for identifying flow-obstructing stenosis compared with CTA alone.

  11. 78 FR 68100 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant...

  12. 78 FR 70964 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Combined license... for four consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company...

  13. 78 FR 69710 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant...

  14. 78 FR 66785 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of receipt... consecutive weeks of ] a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant...

  15. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  16. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  17. Study of a fuel assembly for the nuclear reactor of IV generation cooled with supercritical water; Estudio de un ensamble de combustible para el reactor nuclear de generacion IV enfriado con agua supercritica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan M, A.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: albrm29@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (MX)

    2011-11-15

    In this work a neutron study is presented about a square assembly design of double line of fuel rods, with moderator box to the center of the arrangement, for a nuclear reactor cooled with supercritical water (SCWR). The SCWR reactor was chosen by the characteristics of its design, mainly because is based in light water reactors (PWR and BWR), and the operational experience that has of them allow to use models and similar programs to simulate the fuel and the nucleus of this type of reactors. To develop the necessary models and to carry out the design and analysis of the SCWR reactor, the neutron codes MCNPX and Helios were used. The reason of using both codes, is because the code MCNPX used thoroughly in the neutron simulation of these reactors, it has been our reference code to analyze the results obtained with the Helios code which results are more efficient because its calculation times are minors. In the nucleus design the same parameters for both codes were considered. The results show that the design with Helios is a viable option to simulate these reactors since their values of the neutrons multiplication factor are very similar to those obtained with MCNPX. On the other hand, it could be corroborated that the CASMO-4 code is inadequate to simulate the fuel to the temperature conditions and water pressure in the SCWR. (Author)

  18. Investigation on the use digital controls instead of PID analog controls in the level control of steam generators of nuclear power PWR; Investigacao sobre o uso de controladores digitais em substituicao aos controladores analogicos PID para o controle de nivel de geradores de vapor de centrais nucleares PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to identify current alternatives for the implementation of digital controllers in the level control of steam generators of nuclear power PWR (Pressurized Water Reaetor). It is intended to identify the types of digital controls that are available from the theoretical and conceptual viewpoints for this purpose. We investigate the advantages and disadvantages of each controller model. From this assessment are pointed the most suitable models in hierarchical scale. This evaluation also serves to suggest possible types of control installation as a whole, where the level control of the steam generators becomes just one of many controls that are part of the plant. In this case, the use of digital controls allows the non-linear and multivariable treatment which is characteristic of complex systems, such as the nuclear power generation. The treatment of nonlinearities and multivariable aspects allows a more detailed study of the stability of these plants when they are subject to transients or several accidents, such as the case of losing external power of transients. In the specific case of steam generators, the instabilities result from the emergence of the shrink and swell phenomenas, depending on the load variations of thermonuclear plant. The application of several types and digital controllers, considering these inherent characteristics of the level control of steam generators, allows to infer which types of controllers are more appropriate to treat instabilities of this type and to make conjectures in its use for the cases of more complex instabilities, considering the integration of all nucleus-plant controls.

  19. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  20. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Development, Nuclear Power Plant, Uranium, Missiles, Space Firm Protested, Satellite, Rocket Launching, Nuclear Submarine, Environmental, Radioactivity, Nuclear Plant...

  1. The development of radiation hardened robot for nuclear facility; development of ultrasonic guided wave evaluation technology for the in-service/post-repair inspection of steam generator tubings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Youn Ho [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The Potential of Ultrasonic Guided Waves which can propagate along the geometry of structures was explored for the inspection of such various components of nuclear power plants as tubings, pipings and plate-like structures etc. In this project, the fundamental research on the various aspects of guided wave modal characteristics was carried out to provide physically based guidelines which are essential to implement the guided waves as a promising inspection tool in the near future. The efforts for guided wave research include both theoretical and experimental works to make it possible to transfer the technology to power industry beyond the scope of pure academic subject. In the theoretical works, the softwares for the dispersion curves and wave structures of both layered structures and cylindrical ones were developed in the aims of mode identification and determination of probe design parameters. 40 refs., 92 figs., 14 tabs. (Author)

  2. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part B focuses on the ways in which experimental data may be analyzed to furnish information about nuclear parameters and nuclear models in terms of which the data are interpreted.This book discusses the elastic and inelastic potential scattering amplitudes, role of beta decay in nuclear physics, and general selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. The nuclear shell model, fundamental coupling procedure, vibrational spectra, and empirical determination of the complex potential are also covered. This publication is suitable for graduate students preparing for exper

  3. A reagentless technology to prevent biofouling on the surfaces of equipment at nuclear and thermal power stations using generators of OH radicals and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izyumov, S. V.; Shchekotov, E. Yu.; Shchekotov, D. E.; Krutskikh, D. A.

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained from the development and tests of a reagentless method to prevent biofouling in water cooling systems of equipment using generators of OH radicals and ozone constructed on the basis of impulse ultraviolet xenon lamps producing light with a wavelength of 172 nm.

  4. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  5. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  6. Economic risks of the capacity expansion of electric power generation: impact of the nuclear energy; Riesgos economicos de la expansion de la capacidad de generacion de energia electrica: impacto de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva G, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Uncertainty and risks are inherent to the electric systems planning. The long period of construction that is characteristic of the electric sector works, as well as the long useful life of the generation assets and electric power transmission, they force to plan the expansion of the electric systems along horizons from 10 to 25 years. In periods so long of time it is impossible to predict with certainty the elements of the environment that could influence in the taking of decisions, like they are: the growth and the distribution of the electric power demand, the readiness and fuel prices; the investment costs of the technological options of generation and transmission, as well as the duration of the construction of future projects of new capacity addition. All expansion plan that will be propose, will be exposed to the uncertainty of the environment, gives place to risks or undesirable consequences. The nature of the risks, the strategies to delimit them and the outlines to assign them between the different interested parts and the diverse economic agents, depend in great measure of the legal and normative mark of the sector. In this work these topics are approached inside the reference mark of the Mexican public service of electric power. (Author)

  7. Radionuclides for nuclear medicine: a nuclear physicists' view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantone, M.; Haddad, F.; Harissopoulos, S.

    2013-01-01

    NuPECC (the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, an expert committee of the European Science Foundation) has the mission to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics and its trans-disciplinary use and application. NuPECC is currently...... working on a report on “Nuclear Physics for Medicine” and has set up a working group to review the present status and prospects of radionuclides for nuclear medicine. An interim report will be presented to seek comments and constructive input from EANM members. In particular it is investigated how nuclear...... physics Methods and nuclear physics facilities are supporting the development and supply of medical radionuclides and how this support could be further strengthened in future. Aspects that will be addressed: •In recent years, the reactor-based supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc generators was repeatedly...

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward for 750–800°C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Collins

    2009-08-01

    This document presents the NGNP Critical PASSCs and defines their technical maturation path through Technology Development Roadmaps (TDRMs) and their associated Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). As the critical PASSCs advance through increasing levels of technical maturity, project risk is reduced and the likelihood of within-budget and on-schedule completion is enhanced. The current supplier-generated TRLs and TDRMs for a 750–800°C reactor outlet temperature (ROT) specific to each supplier are collected in Appendix A.

  9. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Modeling nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  11. Survey for the presence of Naegleria fowleri amebae in lake water used to cool reactors at a nuclear power generating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamerson, Melissa; Remmers, Kenneth; Cabral, Guy; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2009-04-01

    Water from Lake Anna in Virginia, a lake that is used to cool reactors at a nuclear power plant and for recreational activities, was assessed for the presence of Naegleria fowleri, an ameba that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This survey was undertaken because it has been reported that thermally enriched water fosters the propagation of N. fowleri and, hence, increases the risk of infection to humans. Of 16 sites sampled during the summer of 2007, nine were found to be positive for N. fowleri by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. However, total ameba counts, inclusive of N. fowleri, never exceeded 12/50 mL of lake water at any site. No correlation was obtained between the conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH of water and presence of N. fowleri. To date, cases of PAM have not been reported from this thermally enriched lake. It is postulated that predation by other protozoa and invertebrates, disturbance of the water surface from recreational boating activities, or the presence of bacterial or fungal toxins, maintain the number N. fowleri at a low level in Lake Anna.

  12. Earthquake engineering for nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kuno, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of earthquake- and tsunami-related technologies and knowledge for the design and construction of nuclear facilities. As such, it covers a wide range of fields including civil engineering, architecture, geotechnical engineering, mechanical engineering, and nuclear engineering, for the development of new technologies providing greater resistance against earthquakes and tsunamis. It is crucial both for students of nuclear energy courses and for young engineers in nuclear power generation industries to understand the basics and principles of earthquake- and tsunami-resistant design of nuclear facilities. In Part I, "Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants", the design of nuclear power plants to withstand earthquakes and tsunamis is explained, focusing on buildings, equipment's, and civil engineering structures. In Part II, "Basics of Earthquake Engineering", fundamental knowledge of earthquakes and tsunamis as well as the dynamic response of structures and foundation ground...

  13. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  14. Effect on vein graft intimal hyperplasia of nuclear factor-kB decoy transfection using the second generation of HVJ vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, N; Azuma, N; Nishikawa, T; Hirata, S; Morishita, R; Kaneda, Y; Sasajima, T

    2007-08-01

    Vein graft stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia (IH) is the main cause of graft failure. We examined possibilities of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) expression in vein grafts, and inhibitive effects of NF-kB decoy on the gene expression and subsequent vein graft IH. Fifteen mongrel dogs underwent femoral artery replacement with autogenous vein grafts. Group I: grafts were retrieved at a predetermined time and subjected to NF-kB binding activity assay; Groups II and III: grafts were transfected with scrambled (II-a, III-a) or NF-kB (II-b, III-b) decoy using hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope before implantation. Grafts were retrieved 7 days after implantation for evaluation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA expression (Group II) and 4 weeks after implantation for comparison of IH by morphometric analysis (Group III). NF-kB binding activity was increased in a time-dependent manner, with a peak 2 days after implantation. The ratio between ICAM-1 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA expression in II-b was significantly lower than that in II-a (0.347 +/- 0.07 versus 0.612+/-0.08; P = 0.047). The ratio of intimal cross-section area to luminal cross-section area of III-b was significantly lower than that of the III-a (0.096+/-0.03 versus 0.461+/-0.11; P = 0.048). NF-kB binding activity in vein grafts increases after implantation, and transfection of NF-kB decoy before implantation may reduce IH through the inhibition of ICAM-1 expression.

  15. Modeling of Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes for Bentonite in a Clay-rock Repository for Heat-generating Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Rutqvist, J.; Zheng, L.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) that include a bentonite-based buffer are designed to isolate the high-level radioactive waste emplaced in tunnels in deep geological formations. The heat emanated from the waste can drive the moisture flow transport and induce strongly coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes within the bentonite buffer and may also impact the evolution of the excavation disturbed zone and the sealing between the buffer and walls of an emplacement tunnel The flow and contaminant transport potential along the disturbed zone can be minimized by backfilling the tunnels with bentonite, if it provides enough swelling stress when hydrated by the host rock. The swelling capability of clay minerals within the bentonite is important for sealing gaps between bentonite block, and between the EBS and the surrounding host rock. However, a high temperature could result in chemical alteration of bentonite-based buffer and backfill materials through illitization, which may compromise the function of these EBS components by reducing their plasticity and capability to swell under wetting. Therefore, an adequate THMC coupling scheme is required to understand and to predict the changes of bentonite for identifying whether EBS bentonite can sustain higher temperatures. More comprehensive links between chemistry and mechanics, taking advantage of the framework provided by a dual-structure model, named Barcelona Expansive Model (BExM), was implemented in TOUGHREACT-FLAC3D and is used to simulate the response of EBS bentonite in in clay formation for a generic case. The current work is to evaluate the chemical changes in EBS bentonite and the effects on the bentonite swelling stress under high temperature. This work sheds light on the interaction between THMC processes, evaluates the potential deterioration of EBS bentonite and supports the decision making in the design of a nuclear waste repository in light of the maximum allowance

  16. New measurements of excitation functions of 186W(p,x) nuclear reactions up to 65 MeV. Production of a 178W/178mTa generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.

    2017-01-01

    New experimental excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natW are presented in the 32-65 MeV energy range. The cross-sections for natW(p,xn)186,184m,184g,183, 182m,182g,181Re, natW(p,x)178W, natW(p,x)183,182, 180m, 177,176,175Ta, 175Hf and 177Lu were measured via an activation method by using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The results were compared with predicted values obtained with the nuclear reaction code TALYS (results taken from the TENDL 2014 and TENDL 2015 on-line libraries). Production routes of the medically relevant radionuclides 186Re, the 178W → 178Ta generator and 181W are discussed.

  17. New measurements of excitation functions of {sup 186}W(p,x) nuclear reactions up to 65 MeV. Production of a {sup 178}W/{sup 178m}Ta generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, (VUB), Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-01-15

    New experimental excitation functions for proton induced reactions on {sup nat}W are presented in the 32–65 MeV energy range. The cross-sections for {sup nat}W(p,xn){sup 186,184m,184g,183,} {sup 182m,182g,181}Re, {sup nat}W(p,x){sup 178}W{sup ,} {sup nat}W(p,x){sup 183,182,} {sup 180m,} {sup 177,176,175}Ta, {sup 175}Hf and {sup 177}Lu were measured via an activation method by using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The results were compared with predicted values obtained with the nuclear reaction code TALYS (results taken from the TENDL 2014 and TENDL 2015 on-line libraries). Production routes of the medically relevant radionuclides {sup 186}Re, the {sup 178}W → {sup 178}Ta generator and {sup 181}W are discussed.

  18. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  19. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  20. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  1. 78 FR 37591 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 2, LLC, Issuance of Director...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 2, LLC, Issuance of Director's... (ADAMS) Accession No. ML12108A052), concerns the operation of Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2 (Indian Point 2), owned by Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC, and operated by Entergy Nuclear Operations...

  2. The ``Nuclear Renaissance'' and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Edwin S.

    2007-05-01

    As interest grows around the world in nuclear power as an energy source that could help control greenhouse gas emissions, some have proclaimed the arrival of a ``nuclear renaissance.'' But can the increased risks of more nuclear power be managed? The political crisis surrounding Iran's pursuit of uranium enrichment has exposed weaknesses in the nuclear nonproliferation regime. Also, al Qaeda's declared interest in weapons of mass destruction raises the concern that terrorists could acquire nuclear weapons by stealing materials from poorly secured facilities. Growth of nuclear energy would require the construction of many additional uranium enrichment plants. And the generation of more spent nuclear fuel without a credible waste disposal strategy would increase political support for reprocessing, which separates large quantities of weapon-usable plutonium from spent fuel. There is little evidence that the various institutional arrangements and technical schemes proposed to mitigate the security risks of a major nuclear expansion would be effective. This talk will focus on the measures necessary to allow large-scale global growth of nuclear power without resulting in an unacceptably high risk of nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism, and will discuss the feasibility of such measures. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.E1.2

  3. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  4. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  5. The nuclear energy outlook--a new book from the OECD nuclear energy agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Uichiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the key points of a report titled Nuclear Energy Outlook, published in 2008 by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which has 30 member nations. The report discusses the commitment of many nations to increase nuclear power generating capacity and the potential rate of building new electricity-generating nuclear plants by 2030 to 2050. The resulting decrease in carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion resulting from an increase in nuclear power sources is described. Other topics that are discussed include the need to develop non-proliferative nuclear fuels, the importance of developing geological disposal facilities or reprocessing capabilities for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, and the requirements for a larger nuclear workforce and greater cost competitiveness for nuclear power generation. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  6. Generation and interrogation of a pure nuclear spin state by parahydrogen-enhanced NMR spectroscopy: a defined initial state for quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazina, D; Duckett, S B; Halstead, T K; Kozak, C M; Taylor, R J K; Anwar, M S; Jones, J A; Carteret, H A

    2005-03-01

    We describe a number of studies used to establish that parahydrogen can be used to prepare a two-spin system in a pure state, which is suitable for implementing NMR quantum computation. States are generated by pulsed and continuous-wave (CW) UV laser initiation of a chemical reaction between Ru(CO)(3)(L(2)) [where L(2) = dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane or L(2) = dpae = 1,2-bis(diphenylarsino)ethane] with pure parahydrogen (generated at 18 K). This process forms Ru(CO)(2)(dppe)(H)(2) and Ru(CO)(2)(dpae)(H)(2) on a sub-microsecond time-scale. With the pulsed laser, the spin state of the hydride nuclei in Ru(CO)(2)(dppe)(H)(2) has a purity of 89.8 +/- 2.6% (from 12 measurements). To achieve comparable results by cooling would require a temperature of 6.6 mK, which is unmanageable in the liquid state, or an impractical magnetic field of 0.44 MT at room temperature. In the case of CW initiation, reduced state purities are observed due to natural signal relaxation even when a spin-lock is used to prevent dephasing. When Ru(CO)(3)(dpae) and pulsed laser excitation are utilized, the corresponding dihydride product spin state purity was determined as 106 +/- 4% of the theoretical maximum. In other words, the state prepared using Ru(CO)(3)(dpae) as the precursor is indistinguishable from a pure state. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Nuclear Power and the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1969-01-01

    Increasing concern is being expressed about the environmental effects of electrical generating plants, both conventional and nuclear. The AEC has prepared this booklet to discuss for nuclear power plants those matters that appear to be the basis for this concern, and, in the process, hopefully to put them into better perspective. This report concentrates on a discussion of the radiological and thermal aspects of the environmental effects of nuclear power plants; on the procedures followed by the AEC to minimize the impact of nuclear plants on man and his environment; and on the research conducted by the AEC and others to further expand our knowledge.

  8. Nuclear Energy in Space Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear space programs under development by the Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed including the Rover Program, systems for nuclear rocket propulsion and, the SNAP Program, systems for generating electric power in space. The letters S-N-A-P stands for Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power. Some of the projected uses of nuclear systems in space are briefly discussed including lunar orbit, lunar transportation from lunar orbit to lunar surface and base stations; planetary exploration, and longer space missions. The limitations of other sources of energy such as solar, fuel cells, and electric batteries are discussed. The excitement and visionary possibilities of the Age of Space are discussed.

  9. Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Alessandro

    2005-04-01

    The activity of the Italian nuclear physicists community in the field of Nuclear Astrophysics is reported. The researches here described have been performed within the project "Fisica teorica del nucleo e dei sistemi a multi corpi", supported by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca.

  10. Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Langanke, K

    1999-01-01

    The manuscript reviews progress achieved in recent years in various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear aspects of supernova collapse and explosion, neutrino-induced reactions and their possible role in the supernova mechanism and nucleosynthesis, explosive hydrogen burning in binary systems, and finally the observation of gamma-rays from supernova remnants.

  11. Nuclear Energy's Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadak, Andrew C.

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear energy is about to enter its renaissance. After almost 30 years of new plant construction dormancy, utilities are seriously preparing for ordering new plants in the next two years. This resurgence in interest is based on improved plant performance, new Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing processes, significant incentives introduced by Congress in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to encourage new orders, and new technologies that are competitive, simpler to operate and safer. These new evolutionary light water reactors will pave the way to more advanced high temperature gas reactors such as the pebble bed or prismatic reactors that will provide improved efficiency and safety leading to more process heat applications in oil extraction or hydrogen production. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) also authorized by the Energy Policy act will provide the fundamental technical basis for the future of these technologies. Progress continues on the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste disposal site enabling this expansion. When coupled with the long term strategy of waste minimization through reprocessing and actinide destruction as proposed in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, the future of nuclear energy as part of this nation's energy mix appears to be assured.

  12. Generation of a 3D atlas of the nuclear division of the thalamus based on histological sections of primate: Intra- and intersubject atlas-to-MRI warping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauguet, J.; Conde, F.; Hantraye, P.; Delzescaux, T. [CEA-CNRS, MIRCen, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Frouin, V. [CEA-DSV-IRCM-SCSR-LEFG, 2, place Gaston-Cremieux, 91057 Evry (France)

    2009-07-01

    We describe a framework to generate a 3D digital atlas of the thalamus based on a series of stained histological sections of a primate. The contours of the thalamus were first drawn on the stained histological slices. The series of histological sections were then aligned and mapped onto the in vivo MRI of the same animal acquired prior to the sacrifice following a methodology described in Dauguet et al. (2007) using the block face photographs as an intermediary modality. By applying the series of transformations previously estimated for the histological volume, the contours of the digital atlas were mapped onto the MRI data. The protocol was tested on two baboon brains for which the full series of slices were available, and a macaque brain for which a subset only of the histological slices were available demonstrating the ability of building digital atlases in the MRI geometry without mounting and staining all the brain slices. We then studied the accuracy of mapping the digital atlas of one baboon onto the MRI of the other baboon by comparing the overlapping with its original digital atlas. We finally used the digital atlas of one of the baboons to study the individual kinetic of the main thalamus nuclei on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images providing a novel and accurate way of measuring very fine and local functional differences. (authors)

  13. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  14. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1991-01-01

    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  15. Nuclear war and nuclear peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, G.; Moreton, E.; Freedman, L.; Baylis, J.

    1983-01-01

    This book is an in-depth examination of East-West tactical and strategic nuclear weapons policy. The contributors explore such issues as the history and implications of tactical weapons in Europe, the general conflicts that have characterized US and Soviet interaction, the development of British nuclear weapons policy, and arms control including SALT I and II and the START talks.

  16. Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD is making good progress toward calculating the structure and properties of light nuclei and the forces between nucleons. These calculations will ultimately refine the nuclear forces, particularly in the three- and four-nucleon sector and the short-distance interactions of nucleons with electroweak currents, and allow for a reduction of uncertainties in nuclear many-body calculations of nuclei and their reactions. After highlighting their importance, particularly to the Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics experimental programs, I discuss the progress that has been made toward achieving these goals and the challenges that remain.

  17. Sustainable and safe nuclear fission energy technology and safety of fast and thermal nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Unlike existing books of nuclear reactor physics, nuclear engineering and nuclear chemical engineering this book covers a complete description and evaluation of nuclear fission power generation. It covers the whole nuclear fuel cycle, from the extraction of natural uranium from ore mines, uranium conversion and enrichment up to the fabrication of fuel elements for the cores of various types of fission reactors. This is followed by the description of the different fuel cycle options and the final storage in nuclear waste repositories. In addition the release of radioactivity under normal and possible accidental conditions is given for all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle and especially for the different fission reactor types.

  18. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  19. The nuclear fuel cycle associated with the operation of nuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electric power generation in Ghana is presently achieved through hydro and fossil fuel energy sources. However, recent energy crisis due to sporadic rainfall patterns has mandated the search for alternate and more secure electricity generating technologies. The nuclear power option has been mentioned as an alternative ...

  20. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  1. Nuclear Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Parashar, S. K. S; Aslan, Necdet; Aslaninejad, Morteza; Salar Elahi, A

    2014-01-01

    ... in both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion, with attendees from major fusion energy research centers worldwide. It is one of the most important issues in this field. Nuclear fusion continues t...

  2. Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Angela

    2003-04-01

    An account of recent studies in the field of theoretical nuclear structure is reported. These studies concern essentially research activities performed under the Italian project "Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi". Special attention is addressed to results obtained during the last two years as regards the development of new many-body techniques as well as the interpretation of new experimental aspects of nuclear structure.

  3. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  4. New approaches to nuclear power

    KAUST Repository

    Dewan, Leslie

    2018-01-21

    The world needs a cheap, carbon-free alternative to fossil fuels to feed its growing electricity demand. Nuclear power can be a good solution to the problem, but is hindered by issues of safety, waste, proliferation, and cost. But what if we could try a new approach to nuclear power, one that solves these problems? In this lecture, the CEO of Transatomic Power will talk about how their company is advancing the design of a compact molten salt reactor to support the future of carbon-free energy production. Can the designs of new reactor push the boundaries of nuclear technology to allow for a safe, clean, and affordable answer to humanityメs energy needs? Nuclear power involves capturing the energy produced in nuclear fission reactions, which emerges as heat. This heat is most frequently used to boil water into steam, which then drives a turbine to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. Worldwide, there is a renaissance of new nuclear technology development -- a new generation of young engineers are racing to develop more advanced nuclear reactors for a better form of power generation. Transatomic Power, specifically, is advancing the design of an easily contained and controlled, atmospheric pressure, high power density molten salt reactor that can be built at low cost. The road to commercialization is long, and poses many challenges, but the benefits are enormous. These new reactors push the boundaries of technology to allow for better, safer ways to power the world.

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  8. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  11. The criterion for blanking-off heat-transfer tubes in the steam generators at VVER-based nuclear power plants based on the results of eddy-current examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, V. P.; Zhdanov, A. G.; Chegodaev, V. V.; Stolyarov, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The problem of defining the criterion for blanking off heat-transfer tubes in the steam generators at nuclear power plants on the basis of signals obtained from the standard multifrequency eddy-current examination is considered. The decision about blanking off one or another tube is presently made with reference to one parameter of the relevant signal at the working frequency, namely, with reference to its phase, which directly depends on the depth of the flaw being detected, i.e., a crack in the tube. The crack depth equal to 60% of the tube wall thickness is regarded to be the critical one, at which a decision about withdrawing such a tube out from operation (blanking off) must be taken. However, since mechanical tensile rupture tests of heat-transfer tubes show the possibility of their further use with such flaws, the secondary parameter of the signal, namely, its amplitude, must be used for determining the blanking-off criterion. The signals produced by the standard flow-type transducers in response to flaws in the form of a longitudinal crack having the depth and length within the limits permitted by the relevant regulations were calculated using 3D finite-element modeling. Based on the obtained results, the values of the eddy-current signal amplitude were determined, which, together with the signal phase value, form a new amplitude-phase criterion for blanking off heat-transfer tubes. For confirming the effectiveness of this technique, the algorithm for revealing the signal indications satisfying the proposed amplitude-phase criterion was tested on real signals obtained from operational eddy-current examination of the state of steam generator heat-transfer tubes carried out within the framework of planned preventive repair.

  12. Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Alex Ince-Cushman, John deGrassie, Lars-Goran Eriksson, Yoshiteru Sakamoto, Andrea Scarabosio and Yuri Podpaly, as well as the other coauthors. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to Earl Marmar, Martin Greenwald and Miklos Porkolab at MIT for continued support of this work, as well as to the entire C-Mod team. This award was made possible due to the insight of Mitsuru Kikuchi and the support of the IAEA through Werner Burkhart, and I am truly grateful to both of them. Many thanks as well to the outstanding staff at Nuclear Fusion. It is a distinct honor to be included in the group of previous winners: Tim Luce, Clemente Angioni, Todd Evans and Steve Sabbagh. It is also a great honor to be considered alongside the 2010 nominees: Phil Snyder, Sibylle Guenter, Maiko Yoshida, Hajime Urano, Fulvio Zonca, Erik Garcia, Costanza Maggi, Hartmut Zohm, Thierry Loarer and Bruce Lipschultz. Finally, I would like to thank the readers of Nuclear Fusion for the many citations. John Rice 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award winner Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA

  13. Speciation process of Salvia isensis (Lamiaceae), a species endemic to serpentine areas in the Ise-Tokai district, Japan, from the viewpoint of the contradictory phylogenetic trees generated from chloroplast and nuclear DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmono; Okada, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    To understand the speciation process of Salvia isensis (Lamiaceae), a species endemic to a special environment (serpentine areas in the Ise-Tokai district, central Honshu, Japan), chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) were employed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of S. isensis with related species in Japan. Allozymic polymorphisms were also used to analyze genetic relationships among Salvia species. A contradiction in the phylogenetic positions of species studied was detected when phylogenetic trees were constructed using cpDNA or nrDNA, i.e., S. isensis was a sister to the other species in phylogenetic trees generated from cpDNA, while S. japonica was a sister to the other species in the case of nrDNA. Genetic relationships between Salvia species estimated from allozymic polymorphisms did not contradict to the topology for nrDNA. Using the present results, the speciation process of S. isensis is discussed with regard to introgressive gene exchanges between related species.

  14. The Adoption of Nuclear Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Sommers

    1980-01-01

    This article develops a model of the innovation adoption decision. The model allows the economic situation of a utility and its perception of uncertainty associated with an innovation to affect the probability of adopting it. This model is useful when uncertainties affecting decisions about adoption persist throughout the diffusion process, thereby making the usual adoption model implicit in rate-of-diffusion studies inappropriate. An empirical test of the model finds that firm size, power po...

  15. Is electricity generated by nuclear power cheaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, H.

    1983-04-01

    The author critically discusses the contents of the book written by Traube and Ullrich. He criticizes mainly the arbitrary use of quotations and the polemic presentation. The four postulates by Traube and Ullrich, stating that by intensified energy conservation we could do without atomic energy are examined for their validity.

  16. Why Should Poland Go Nuclear?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marecki, J.; Duda, M.; Kerner, A.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents an outcome of the optimisation analysis to showing the advantages of nuclear power development in Poland. The arguments, justifying the necessity to start the nuclear programme in Poland, are related to the energy security, economic generation and environmental features of the nuclear option. The energy security aspect means the necessity to cover the increasing demand for electricity with increasing diversification of fuels for power plants, also in the context of the growing domination of the main supplier of natural gas to Europe. The economic aspect means the necessity to achieve a structure of the electricity sources which would assure least generation costs in the conditions of limited potential of domestic fossil fuels. The environmental aspect means not only the necessity to ensure a structure of electricity generation sources which allows for compliance with the legally binding environmental requirements, but also which allows a minimal level of the environment pollution at the given stage of the development of electricity generation technologies. Additionally, the external costs of electricity generation by different fossil-fuelled and nuclear plants, as additional arguments in favour of nuclear option, are presented. (auth)

  17. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  18. Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-08-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  19. Nuclear power (Breaking the Climate Deadlock Briefing Paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, S.J.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    This paper explores the role of nuclear energy, the research and development and initial steps desirable to secure the viability of its full potential. It covers: The potential of nuclear power; Benefits and barriers in connection with nuclear energy; Costs of nuclear energy; Prospects for supporting new generation technologies; and the role of international initiatives and of governments.

  20. Nuclear enthalpies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozynek Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Even small departures from a nuclear equilibrium density with constant nucleon masses require an increase of a nucleon enthalpy. This process can be described as volume corrections to a nucleon rest energy, which are proportional to pressure and absent in a standard Relativistic Mean Field (RMF with point-like nucleons. Bag model and RMF calculations show the modifications of nucleon mass, nucleon radius and a Parton Distribution Function (PDF of Nuclear Matter (NM above the saturation point originated from the pressure correction.

  1. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part A deals with the experimental and theoretical techniques involved in nuclear spectroscopy.This book discusses the interactions of charged particles with matter, gaseous ionization detectors, and particular mass attenuation coefficients. The magnetic gamma-ray spectrometers for photo or internal-conversion electrons, general characteristics of cross-section variation with energy, and measurement of fast neutron spectra are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the elastic scattering of photons by nuclei and measurement of widths of gamma-radiating levels.This pub

  2. A sidelight on the history Korea nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ik Su

    1999-12-15

    It deals with a sidelight on the history of Korea nuclear energy through debate. It includes a lot of debates, which are about opinions on agreement of nuclear energy, three people's debates on agreement of nuclear energy between Korea and U.S.A development of nuclear energy and revolution of technology, introduction of reactor for generation of electricity, discuss over business of Korea nuclear power, the system of nuclear power plants, the issues on administration for nuclear power and radiation safety, the important things of Korea nuclear power business and Let's keep the first reactor; TRIGA-MARK-II and III.

  3. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  4. World nuclear performance report 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    World Nuclear Association recently published the 2017 edition of the World Nuclear Performance Report. The report presents key metrics that illustrate current performance, both of reactors currently operating and those under construction. The article highlights some of the most important findings of the report. The pace of new build will need to accelerate if nuclear energy is going to make a growing contribution to the global electricity generation mix, a requirement of many projections of future scenarios that aim to meet the objective of limiting the rise average temperatures to below two degrees Celsius, while at the same time meeting the growing worldwide demand for electricity.

  5. Accident tolerant composite nuclear fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpunar Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated accident tolerant nuclear fuels are fuels with enhanced thermal conductivity, which can withstand the loss of coolant for a longer time by allowing faster dissipation of heat, thus lowering the centerline temperature and preventing the melting of the fuel. Traditional nuclear fuels have a very low thermal conductivity and can be significantly enhanced if transformed into a composite with a very high thermal conductivity components. In this study, we analyze the thermal properties of various composites of mixed oxides and thoria fuels to improve thermal conductivity for the next generation safer nuclear reactors.

  6. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  7. Nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  8. Report of generation of the nuclear bank Presto-Hot for the CAORSO 3.29 fuel with the FMS codes; Reporte de generacion del banco nuclear Presto-Hot para el combustible CAORSO 3.29 con los codigos del FMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1992-10-15

    Prior to the CAORSO 3.26 fuel data bank had been generated whose active longitude was of 144 inches, longitude that not this in agreement with the used assemblies in the unit 1 of Laguna Verde, of 150 inches of active longitude. When realizing this difference, it was speak with the personnel of the CAORSO plant to verify if there was some error in the sent information. The CAORSO personnel, when verifying it, point out that they sent us information of another fuel and that the appropriate one for our plant is that of the CAORSO 3.29 fuel, that which made necessary the generation of this bank. In this work in a general way the form in that was generated the data bank of the CAORSO 3.29 fuel to analyze their use in a future reload for Laguna Verde is described. The formation of the bank was carried out with the ECLIPSE 86-2D, RECORD 89-1A and POLGEN 88-1B of the FMS package installed in the VAX system of the offices of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in Mexico D.F and in the Electric Investigations Institute in Cuernavaca, Morelos. The formed bank is denominated 'L1PG9110' and was carried out following the '6F3/I/CN029/90/P1' procedure. The generated data bank contains the enough information in terms of constant in two groups of burnt dependent and instantaneous vacuums, for the different arrangements of fuel bars present in the assemble, as well as those coefficients that take into account the presence of the control bar, the variation in the fuel temperature and the effect of the 'historical' vacuums. All this is included in that is known as SUPER option of the bank for PRESTO with the options PRCOEF and POLRAM. Also, in the Annex G of this report, is provided by separate the M-FACTOR, the Xenon coefficients and the burnt parameters of the control bar for PRESTO. Its are also presented charts and comparative graphic of the obtained results in the BURNT series of the cell for three vacuum percentages in the

  9. Essential infrastructure: national nuclear regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperiello, Carl J

    2011-01-01

    In order for nuclear power to expand to many countries that do not currently have it, it will be essential for these countries to have laws, regulations, guidance and organizations that can license or permit nuclear power plants and support nuclear facilities, ensure compliance by inspection, and enforce nuclear regulations. The viability of nuclear power worldwide depends on an extremely high level of safety everywhere, and compliance with a number of international treaties is required before supplier nations will provide the material, both hardware and software, to build and operate nuclear power plants. While infrastructure support can be obtained from the IAEA and other countries, an essential core of expertise must exist in the country seeking to establish domestic nuclear power generation. While some reliance can be placed on the safety reviews of standard reactor designs by the nuclear regulators in supplier nations, the certification of fuel design, the quality of instruments, and the matching of a new reactor to a proposed site in the importing nation will require site-specific reviews. National arrangements are also needed for emergency preparedness, environmental protection, fuel transportation and the storage, transportation and disposal of radioactive waste. If foreign contractors and consultants are engaged to perform much of the technical work for the regulatory body(s) that has to be performed by the importing nation, that nation must have a core cadre of technically knowledgeable regulators and an organization to provide management and oversight of the contractors and consultants. Consistency in national nuclear regulations, the deployment of standardized nuclear power plant designs and standardized supporting material infrastructure can promote the safe and secure worldwide growth in nuclear power. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  10. Development of nuclear energetics in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelsons, Karlis; Ekmanis, Juris; Gavars, Valdis; Tomsons, Elmars; Zeltins, Namejs

    2010-09-15

    A scientific nuclear reactor was launched in 1961, and a critical test assembly - in 1965. A unique gamma-ray source was created, and it was proposed to form an industrial production plant of radiation chemistry at Ignalina NPP. In order to supply Latvia with electricity, a site was chosen in the 1980-ties for a base-power nuclear power plant. After the restoration of independence the scientists of Latvia continue taking part in international projects of nuclear fusion and the 4th generation nuclear reactors. The supply of Latvia with electricity in a more distant period will be possible by using nuclear energy.

  11. Study Of Thorium As A Nuclear Fuel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Humane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional fuel sources for power generation are to be replacing by nuclear power sources like nuclear fuel Uranium. But Uranium-235 is the only fissile fuel which is in 0.72 found in nature as an isotope of Uranium-238. U-238 is abundant in nature which is not fissile while U-239 by alpha decay naturally converted to Uranium- 235. For accompanying this nuclear fuel there is another nuclear fuel Thorium is present in nature is abundant can be used as nuclear fuel and is as much as safe and portable like U-235.

  12. Proliferation risks from nuclear power infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    Certain elements of nuclear energy infrastructure are inherently dual-use, which makes the promotion of nuclear energy fraught with uncertainty. Are current restraints on the materials, equipment, and technology that can be used either to produce fuel for nuclear electricity generation or material for nuclear explosive devices adequate? Technology controls, supply side restrictions, and fuel market assurances have been used to dissuade countries from developing sensitive technologies but the lack of legal restrictions is a continued barrier to permanent reduction of nuclear proliferation risks.

  13. Report of generation of the nuclear bank Presto-Hot for the CAORSO 3.26 fuel with the FMS codes; Reporte de generacion del banco nuclear Presto-Hot para el combustible CAORSO 3.26 con los codigos del FMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-03-15

    In this work it is described in a general way the form in that it was generated the database of the CAORSO 3.26 fuel for to analyze their use in a future reload for Laguna Verde. The formation of the bank was carries out with the ECLIPSE 86-2D, RECORD 89-1A and POLGEN 88-1B codes of the FMS package installed in the VAX system of the offices of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards in Mexico City. The formed bank is denominated 'L1PG9105'. All this one carries out following the '6F3/I/CN029/90/P1' procedure. The generated database contains the enough information in terms of constant in two dependent groups of burnt and instantaneous holes, for the different arrangements of bars present in the one assemble as well as those coefficients that take into account the presence of the control bar, the variation in the fuel temperature and the effect of the 'historical' holes. All this is included in it that one knows as SUPER option of the bank for PRESTO with those options PRCOEF and POLRAM. Also, in the Annex G of this report, the M-FACTOR, the Xenon coefficients and the burnt parameters of the control bar for PRESTO its are by separate provided. They are also presented charts and comparative graphic of the obtained results in the BURNT cell series for three percentages of holes in the moderator, 0%, 40% and 70%, for each one of the five cells identified in the one assemble. (Author)

  14. Nuclear rocket engine reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Covers a new technology of nuclear reactors and the related materials aspects. Integrates physics, materials science and engineering Serves as a basic book for nuclear engineers and nuclear physicists. The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  15. Screening somatic cell nuclear transfer parameters for generation of transgenic cloned cattle with intragenomic integration of additional gene copies that encode bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Li, Hejuan; Wang, Ying; Yan, Xingrong; Sheng, Xihui; Chang, Di; Qi, Xiaolong; Wang, Xiangguo; Liu, Yunhai; Li, Junya; Ni, Hemin

    2017-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is frequently used to produce transgenic cloned livestock, but it is still associated with low success rates. To our knowledge, we are the first to report successful production of transgenic cattle that overexpress bovine adipocyte-type fatty acid binding proteins (A-FABPs) with the aid of SCNT. Intragenomic integration of additional A-FABP gene copies has been found to be positively correlated with the intramuscular fat content in different farm livestock species. First, we optimized the cloning parameters to produce bovine embryos integrated with A-FABP by SCNT, such as applied voltage field strength and pulse duration for electrofusion, morphology and size of donor cells, and number of donor cells passages. Then, bovine fibroblast cells from Qinchuan cattle were transfected with A-FABP and used as donor cells for SCNT. Hybrids of Simmental and Luxi local cattle were selected as the recipient females for A-FABP transgenic SCNT-derived embryos. The results showed that a field strength of 2.5 kV/cm with two 10-μs duration electrical pulses was ideal for electrofusion, and 4-6th generation circular smooth type donor cells with diameters of 15-25 μm were optimal for producing transgenic bovine embryos by SCNT, and resulted in higher fusion (80%), cleavage (73%), and blastocyst (27%) rates. In addition, we obtained two transgenic cloned calves that expressed additional bovine A-FABP gene copies, as detected by PCR-amplified cDNA sequencing. We proposed a set of optimal protocols to produce transgenic SCNT-derived cattle with intragenomic integration of ectopic A-FABP-inherited exon sequences.

  16. Power generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Breeze

    2005-07-01

    Contents: Introduction to electricity generation; Environmental considerations; Coal-fired power plants - Types of coal; Traditional coal-burning power plant technology; Emission control for traditional coal-burning plants; Advanced coal-burning power plant technology; Environmental effects of coal combustion; Financial risks associated with coal-fired power generation; The cost of coal-fired electricity generation; Gas turbines and combined cycle power plants; Combined heat and power; Piston-engine-based power plants; Fuel cells; Hydropower; Tidal power; Storage technologies; Wind power; Geothermal power; Solar power; Ocean power; Biomass-based power generation; Power from waste; Nuclear power.

  17. Current challenges for education of nuclear engineers. Beyond nuclear basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, Christian [AREVA GmbH, Offenbach (Germany). Training Center

    2014-07-15

    In past decades, curricula for the education of nuclear engineers (either as a major or minor subject) have been well established all over the world. However, from the point of view of a nuclear supplier, recent experiences in large and complex new build as well as modernization projects have shown that important competences required in these projects were not addressed during the education of young graduates. Consequently, in the past nuclear industry has been obliged to either accept long periods for job familiarization, or to develop and implement various dedicated internal training measures. Although the topics normally addressed in nuclear engineering education (like neutron and reactor physics, nuclear materials or thermohydraulics and the associated calculation methods) build up important competences, this paper shows that the current status of nuclear applications requires adaptations of educational curricula. As a conclusion, when academic nuclear engineering curricula start taking into account current competence needs in nuclear industry, it will be for the benefit of the current and future generation of nuclear engineers. They will be better prepared for their future job positions and career perspectives, especially on an international level. The recommendations presented should not only be of importance for the nuclear fission field, but also for the fusion community. Here, the Horizon 2020 Roadmap to Fusion as published in 2012 now is focusing on ITER and on a longer-term development of fusion technology for a future demonstration reactor DEMO. The very challenging work program is leading to a strong need for exactly those skills that are described in this article.

  18. Nuclear politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, John

    2009-04-01

    The sentiments expressed by Sidney Drell in his forum article "The nuclear threat: a new start" (February pp16-17) are laudable, but it was disappointing to find this almost entirely political story in isolation. The article, which outlined the prospects for reducing weapons stockpiles under the new US administration, would have been more pertinent as an introduction to a series describing the technology used in detecting nuclear-testing activity. It would have been interesting to discuss the specific equipment and methods used, together with the analysis and correlation techniques - along with an indication of how sensitive and reliable they are (if the information is not classified). It is far easier to detect an explosive event than it is to detect and quantify weapons stores, which is a key factor for any negotiated solution. Apart from deductions based on actual inspection and satellite surveillance, are there other techniques that can be applied to this issue?

  19. Nuclear eclectic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, D J

    1974-04-19

    The uranium and thorium resources, the technology, and the social impacts all seem to presage an even sharper increase in nuclear power for electric generation than had hitherto been predicted. There are more future consequences. The "hydrogen economy." Nuclear power plants operate best at constant power and full load. Thus, a largely nuclear electric economy has the problem of utilizing substantial off-peak capacity; the additional energy generation can typically be half the normal daily demand. Thus, the option of generating hydrogen as a nonpolluting fuel receives two boosts: excess nuclear capacity to produce it, plus much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the so-called "hydrogen economy" must await the excess capacity, which will not occur until the end of the century. Nonelectric uses. By analyses similar to those performed here, raw nuclear heat can be shown to be cheaper than heat from many other fuel sources, especially nonpolluting ones. This will be particularly true as domestic natural gas supplies become more scarce. Nuclear heat becomes attractive for industrial purposes, and even for urban district heating, provided (i) the temperature is high enough (this is no problem for district heating, but could be for industry; the HTGR's and breeders, with 600 degrees C or more available, have the advantage); (ii) there is a market for large quantities (a heat rate of 3800 Mw thermal, the reactor size permitted today, will heat Boston, with some to spare); and (iii) the social costs become more definitely resolved in favor of nuclear power. Capital requirements. Nuclear-electric installations are very capital-intensive. One trillion dollars for the plants, backup industry, and so forth is only 2 percent of the total gross national product (GNP) between 1974 and 2000, at a growth rate of 4 percent per year. But capital accumulation tends to run at about 10 percent of the GNP, so the nuclear requirements make a sizable perturbation. Also

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is ...