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Sample records for brownsville-matamoros sister city

  1. Attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge on both sides of the US-Mexico border, 2005: the Brownsville-Matamoros Sister City Project for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Piña Carrizales, Leticia E; D'Angelo, Denise V; McDonald, Jill A; Foulkes, Hillary; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Gossman, Ginger L; Acuña, Juan; Erickson, Tracy; Clatanoff, Kathy; Lewis, Kayan; Mirchandani, Gita; Smith, Brian

    2008-10-01

    The US-Mexico border region has a growing population and limited health care infrastructure. Preventive health behaviors such as breastfeeding ease the burden on this region's health care system by reducing morbidity and health care costs. We examined correlates of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge on each side of the US-Mexico border and within the border region. The cross-sectional study included women who delivered a live infant in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico (n = 489), and Cameron County, Texas (n = 457), which includes Brownsville, Texas. We interviewed women before hospital discharge from August 21 through November 9, 2005. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge in Cameron County, Texas, the municipality of Matamoros, Mexico, and the 2 communities combined. Prevalence of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge was 81.9% in Matamoros compared with 63.7% in Cameron County. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge were 90% higher in Matamoros than in Cameron County (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.84 for the combined model). In the 2 communities combined, odds of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge were higher among women who had a vaginal delivery than among women who had a cesarean delivery (AOR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.43-2.75) and were lower among women who delivered infants with a low birth weight than among women who delivered infants with a normal birth weight (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.44). The rate of attempted breastfeeding in Matamoros was significantly higher than in Cameron County. Additional breastfeeding support and messages on the US side of the US-Mexico border are needed.

  2. Attempted Breastfeeding Before Hospital Discharge on Both Sides of the US-Mexico Border, 2005: The Brownsville-Matamoros Sister City Project for Women’s Health

    OpenAIRE

    Brian C. Castrucci, MA; Leticia E. Piña Carrizales, MD; Denise V. D’Angelo, MPH; Jill A. McDonald, PhD; Hillary Foulkes, MPH; Indu B. Ahluwalia, PhD; Ginger L. Gossman, PhD; Juan Acuña, MD, MSc; Tracy Erickson, RD, LD; Kathy Clatanoff, RN, MSN; Kayan Lewis, PhD; Gita Mirchandani, PhD; Brian Smith, MD

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The US-Mexico border region has a growing population and limited health care infrastructure. Preventive health behaviors such as breastfeeding ease the burden on this region's health care system by reducing morbidity and health care costs. We examined correlates of attempted breastfeeding before hospital discharge on each side of the US-Mexico border and within the border region. Methods The cross-sectional study included women who delivered a live infant in Matamoros, Tamaulipas...

  3. Sister Cities and Economic Development: A New Zeeland Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Brian CROSS

    2010-01-01

    Sister City relationships, originally built on cultural understanding and peace through citizen diplomacy, are evolving in today’s society. Politicians increasingly demand real returns where local government is actively involved. Meaningful sister city links are an asset for any community and its nation. However full utilisation requires skills and commitment talked about but often lacking in delivery. Increased emphasis on economic development as primary motivator for having sister cities pr...

  4. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  5. Sister Cities and Economic Development: A New Zeeland Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian CROSS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sister City relationships, originally built on cultural understanding and peace through citizen diplomacy, are evolving in today’s society. Politicians increasingly demand real returns where local government is actively involved. Meaningful sister city links are an asset for any community and its nation. However full utilisation requires skills and commitment talked about but often lacking in delivery. Increased emphasis on economic development as primary motivator for having sister cities provides opportunities, but also presents risks as policy emphasis shifts from relationship-building to pragmatic, shorter term goals. New Zealand’s portfolio of sister cities reflect its place on the Pacific Rim and its political/ economic positioning as “part of Asia”. An upsurge in interest from and in China as the place to do business has coincided with a levelling off of sister city activities when they should be increasing. The reasons are varied, but demonstrate the challenges New Zealand faces in continuing as a front-runner in the sister city movement. Sister city policies require honest assessment. Limited resources demand better investment where opportunities are identified or disassociation where they are not. Success requires robust policy development, professionalism and an effective public relations campaign informing communities concerned of the possibilities their international links can present.

  6. PENERAPAN PRINSIP PUBLIC GOOD GOVERNANCE DALAM HUBUNGAN INTERNASIONAL MELALUI PERJANJIAN SISTER CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Kartini, Ika Ariani

    2017-01-01

    AbstractThis research discusses on the implementation of public good governance principle in international  relations through the Sister City Agreement with Bandung as the example. The sister city program BandungBraunschweig is regarded as an example for other cities in Indonesia, meanwhile the sister city program of Bandung-Fort Worth is regarded as qualified to recommence the youth exchange since last year. This research of a literary nature. The research concludes that the Memorandum of Un...

  7. Not all paths lead to Rome: Analysing the network of sister cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Aragón, Pablo; Laniado, David; Volkovich, Yana

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This work analyses the practice of sister city pairing. We investigate structural properties of the resulting city and country networks and present rankings of the most central nodes in these networks. We identify different country clusters and find that the practice of sister city pairing is not influenced by geographical proximity but results in highly assortative networks.

  8. MODEL OF SISTER CITY COOPERATION IN ORDER TO IMPROVE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN BANYUMAS REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Indriyati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The world has entered an era of openness, the nation that choose to close from international relations will be excluded from modern civilization. Sister city is the concept of coupling of two different cities and political administration with the aim of establishing relationships of cultural and social contact between people. This paper used statutory approach, with a qualitative analysis of the juridical. Cooperation with overseas regions are snowball, which mean begins with one thematic cooperation and can be resume in other fields. Sister city cooperation can increase foreign exchange thereby increasing regional development. Cooperation in the Regency of Banyumas has yet to be realized, and reach new level of offerings to the country's area contact. Keywords: authority, Banyumas Regency, sister city

  9. MODEL OF SISTER CITY COOPERATION IN ORDER TO IMPROVE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN BANYUMAS REGENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Indriyati; Sanyoto .; Aryuni Yuliantiningsih; Agus Mardianto; Wismaningsih .

    2016-01-01

    The world has entered an era of openness, the nation that choose to close from international relations will be excluded from modern civilization. Sister city is the concept of coupling of two different cities and political administration with the aim of establishing relationships of cultural and social contact between people. This paper used statutory approach, with a qualitative analysis of the juridical. Cooperation with overseas regions are snowball, which mean begins with one thematic coo...

  10. Sister-City Relationships As a Form of Inter-Organizational Cooperation: Exploratory Case Studies in the Portuguese Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário FRANCO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify, characterize and understand sister-city relationships in Portuguese municipalities as a particular form of inter-organizational cooperation. There is however a great lack of research on this phenomenon, and a study on this subject was therefore carried out in three cities/municipalities. The instrument for data collection was the semi-structured interview with local authority representatives, and the data processing technique was content analysis. Based on the results obtained in this investigation, we can say that the kind of inter-organizational cooperation most widely used is sister-city relationships. Close relationships, friendship, exchange of experiences, sharing common needs, culture and economic interest are advantages achieved with this type of relationship between cities. The benefits allow better development of the municipalities involved. Some guidelines to be used as a basis for future research are also presented.

  11. The Role of Sister Cities' Staff Exchanges in Developing "Learning Cities": Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy

    2015-06-24

    In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building "learning cities" through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.

  12. Sister Cities: Border Crossings and Barriers in David Zoppetti's Ichegensanand John Warley's A Southern Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kamata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both Charleston, South Carolina, and Kyoto, Japan, are internationally popular tourist destinations rich in history and culture, which share an obsession with bloodlines, a heightened sense of decorum, and a pervasive nostalgia. Both cities are also home to an elite core of society, and both present formidable barriers to outsiders, reflective of deeply ingrained racial prejudices. In comparing the novels A Southern Girl by John Warley, the story of an international adoption in upper-crust Charleston, South Carolina, and Ichigensan, by Swiss writer David Zoppetti, about a foreign student of Japanese who falls in love with a young blind woman in Kyoto, these traits come to the fore. In this paper, I will illustrate these similarities in culture as portrayed in these two works of fiction, and also show that both novels cross borders and break with established literary tradition.

  13. Building International Relations for Children through Sister Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Carolyn B.

    1992-01-01

    Inspired by Sister Cities International and the NASSP's school-to-school exchange program, "sister school" pairings have proved to be workable educational programs with long-range impact on participants. Some post-cold war efforts include U.S.-USSR High School Academic Partnerships, Project Harmony, and Center for U.S.-USSR Initiatives.…

  14. The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article explores the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis. It reviews empirical literature about gender differences in behavioral, experimental, and neuro-economics as well as in other fields of behavioral research. It discusses gender differences along three dimensions of

  15. "Sister to the tailor"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Milliners, and their sisters, mantuamakers, modistes and marchandes de mode, were skilled artisans, businesswomen and tradeswomen. During the eighteenth century, they commandeered the high-class sewing that set fashion and created stars of their most famous, like Rose Bertrand, milliner to Marie ...... of confection in the next century....

  16. Two Nepali Sisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Diaspora is an expansion of a national or family network that can be activated for the benefit of the family and home nation in multiple ways. The argument is based on two life stories. Two Nepali sisters attended Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS) training courses in Japan...... at different times during the 1980s. The training was partly funded by official development assistance provided through the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). They used their training very differently, but between the two of them extended a family network from Japan and India...... still pursuing a career in a Japanese company. Their children have or are studying in Japan, India, and the USA. The Nepal-based sister is a key stakeholder in the regional cooperation in South Asia. By engaging network theories of weak ties and scaled networks, the life stories become templates...

  17. Friel and his "sisters"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Grene

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay, occasioned by a revival of Brian Friel's version of Chekhov's Three Sisters at the Abbey Theatre in 2008, considers the circumstances surrounding its first production by the Field Day Theatre Company in 1981, and the motivation behind the decision to translate Chekhov's text into a specifically Irish dialect of English. It also analyses how Friel's plays since that date, notably the award-winning Dancing at Lughnasa (1990, have changed our perspective on the play.

  18. Eurocities and Their "Sisters": How Are They Close to Each Other?

    OpenAIRE

    Tuzin Baycan Levent; Seda Kundak; Aliye Ahu Gulumser

    2006-01-01

    The globalization process has led to the emergence of network of cities in which the cities have become more integrated to the new world system. ‘Eurocities’ or ‘Sister Cities’ are among the well known examples of network of cities which provide interaction and cooperation of the cities at the regional and global level. The ‘sister city movement’ can be defined as a further step of international relationships of the cities at the municipality level which is based on understanding ...

  19. Geographic variance of cardiovascular risk factors among community women: the national Sister to Sister campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, Jennifer L; Johnson, Caitlin E; Wang, Yun; Wan, Yun; Aslam, Farhan; Athanasopoulos, Leonidas V; Pollin, Irene; Foody, JoAnne M

    2011-01-01

    There are substantial variations in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and outcomes among women. We sought to determine geographic variation in risk factor prevalence in a contemporary sample of U.S. women. Using 2008-2009 Sister to Sister (STS) free heart screening data from 17 U.S. cities, we compared rates of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m(2)), hypertension (HTN ≥140/90 mm Hg), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C cities had higher rates of hyperglycemia and low HDL-C. In a large, community-based sample of women nationwide, this comprehensive analysis shows remarkable geographic variation in risk factors, which provides opportunities to improve and reduce a woman's CVD risk. Further investigation is required to understand the reasons behind such variation, which will provide insight toward tailoring preventive interventions to narrow gaps in CVD risk reduction in women.

  20. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims.

  1. Where are Sedna's Sisters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D. F.

    2005-05-01

    Simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud from the Kuiper Belt typically are presented as an animated scatter diagram. Here the orbit of each object appears as a point of perihelion distance q and semi-major axis a. (eg. Levison, Morbidelli, & Dones 2004). These plots show a conspicuous void, bounded by the inequalities: q 50 AU, and a Bermuda Triangle". The only present occupant is Sedna (q=76 AU, a=501 AU). Brown, Trujillo, & Rabinowitz , the discovers of Sedna, have challenged others to explain how Sedna got inside the triangle and to predict where similar objects might be found. Sedna could not have simply formed in its current orbit by the accumulation of smaller objects (Stern 2005). Several authors have suggested that a passing star scattered Sedna into the triangle shortly after the birth of the solar system. Here I offer an alternative which uses the very strong galactic tidal forces of the Sinusoidal potential (Bartlett 2001, 2004). In this potential, the numerator of Newton's law is replaced by GM cos(ko r) where ko = 2 π / lambdao and the 'wavelength' λ o is 425 pc. The 20 radial oscillations between the sun and the center of the Galaxy give tidal forces that are 120 times as big as generally expected. I will show how this tidal force, acting over the lifetime of the solar system, could move the perihelion of Sedna from about 40 to 76 AU. Sedna's sisters are likely to have still larger q & a and to have perihelia in two specific quadrants of the ecliptic plane.

  2. Sisters Hope - the exposed self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna; Hallberg, Gry Worre

    Sisters Hope is an art-educational method and a practice-led research tool, rooted in the construction of a fictional parallel universe revolving around the twin sisters Coco and Coca Pebber. Our work is rooted in the ambition to democratize the aesthetic dimension through ‘affective engineering......’ and the establishment of fictional spaces outside the institutional art context. In the Unfolding Academia-context Sisters Hope investigates new forms of research and (re)presentation through the creation of interactive and affective learning-spaces. At Collective Futures Sisters Hope explored questions such as: How...... can we create a ‘learning space’ or a ‘research lab’, where the participants are inspired to approach their project in a new way with the outset in bodily and somatic experiences within the space? And how can we understand and distinguish what we understand to be the exposed self and the poetic self…...

  3. The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick Henry Buckley; Akio Takahashi; Amy Anderson

    2015-01-01

    ...” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges...

  4. All in the Family: The Sister Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues All in the Family: The Sister Study Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... in their daily lives. Want to Volunteer for the Sister Study? To volunteer or learn more about ...

  5. Holocentric plant meiosis: first sisters, then homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Stefan; Schubert, Veit; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a crucial process of sexual reproduction by forming haploid gametes from diploid precursor cells. It involves 2 subsequent divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II) after one initial round of DNA replication. Homologous monocentric chromosomes are separated during the first and sister chromatids during the second meiotic division. The faithful segregation of monocentric chromosomes is realized by mono-orientation of fused sister kinetochores at metaphase I and by bi-orientation of sister kinetochores at metaphase II. Conventionally this depends on a 2-step loss of cohesion, along chromosome arms during meiosis I and at sister centromeres during meiosis II.

  6. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is effective...

  7. Mentoring in Schools: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J.; McMaken, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring involved 1,139 9- to 16-year-old students in 10 cities nationwide. Youth were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (receiving mentoring) or a control group (receiving no mentoring) and were followed for 1.5 school years. At the end of the first school…

  8. Big Brothers/Big Sisters: A Study of Volunteer Recruitment and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaf, Phoebe A.; And Others

    Since 1988, Public/Private Ventures of Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) has been conducting a series of studies of mentoring programs for at-risk youth. As part of this effort, the recruitment and screening procedures used by Big Brother/Big Sister (BB/BS) agencies were studied in eight cities. Recruitment for the high-profile BB/BS agencies is not as…

  9. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  10. [Two Dutch sisters in analysis with Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeken, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The author provides persuasive or at least plausible data for the identity of two patients recorded by Freud in his working season of 1910/11. They were two sisters, living in The Hague/Leiden, who came from a rich banker's family, the van der Lindens. Whereas the treatment does not seem to have led to any decisive improvement for the older of the two, it may have encouraged the younger sister to seek divorce.

  11. Chinese CLS sister school relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstead, C M

    1998-01-01

    Establish a relationship with a Chinese CLS Program to foster cross-cultural diversity, provide for student and faculty cross-cultural exchange, scholarship, research, and improve the health care of both communities served by the colleges. Information needed to develop agreement strategy was gathered by literature review, personal interviews, and direct observation in China. Based upon literature review an original list of items for discussion was developed. Discussions were held between administrators of both schools and the teaching hospital. The Chief Laboratory Technologist of the associated Chinese teaching hospital was interviewed to establish the extent of CLS students' experiences. A form for the interview was developed and the results were used during the negotiation of the final agreement. A CLS faculty team member from the U.S. traveled to the Jingmen School of Nursing and Allied Medical Sciences, Jingmen City, China, Hubei Province, P.R. China to establish an agreement. Tours of six cities in China, the School, and Jingmen hospitals provided for a better understanding of the Chinese culture and the Chinese CLS program. Three major concerns for success of the relationship (language barriers, communication vehicles, and socialization issues) were determined and addressed in a final agreement. The components of the agreement may provide some insight for others considering such a collaborative venture. Outcomes will be more fully addressed when exchanges begin.

  12. 8 CFR 100.4 - Field offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Brownsville/Matamoros Bridge Falcon Heights, TX Hidalgo, TX Los Ebanos, TX Los Indios, TX Pharr, TX Progreso... Force Base Warwick, RI, T. F. Greene Airport Windsor Locks, CT, Bradley International Airport District...

  13. Sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of sister chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed—deprotected”—for sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection. PMID:23574717

  14. IMPLEMENTASI SISTER PROVINCE PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH DENGAN NEGARA BAGIAN QUEENSLAND AUSTRALIA DI BIDANG PERTANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Windiani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalization on national context has insisted the central government to work together and share duties and rights with the local government in order to achieve the national interest.  In Indonesia, UU 32/2004 about local government provide the chance for them to become more active in foreign policy, such as doing the cooperation in sister province/sister city program. The Central Java Province had done many sister province/sister city program with some partners aboard, such as Fujian province (China, Chungchoeng buk-do province (South Korea and the Queensland province (Australia.  The cooperation cover many sectors such as agriculture, city and village development, transportation and tourism, industry, trade and infestation, education, science and technology, and other sectors that will be confer in advance. From all of the cooperation that have been done between Central Java Province and Queensland, the author, is interested to have research on farming, because central government has had many cows imported from Australia.  This research is become important because central java province is one of the major of national fresh meat distributors. This research is using a qualitative method, with descriptive type of research.  This research has three research questions: How effective is the Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? What is the obstacle that holds the Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? How is the prospect of Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? This result of this research is to prove that the implementation of Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sectors is not effective.  Some of the implementation variables of this program have not been fulfilled. Communication, financial resources and bureaucracy structure are some of the variables that have weakness on this program.  Act of

  15. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Help when a brother or sister has cancer. Learn how families cope and find support when a sibling has cancer. Tips to help you talk with your friends, deal with stress, and take care of your mind and body are also shared.

  16. Sisters Hope - Protected by the Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna; Hallberg, Gry Worre

    2011-01-01

    In this article we will introduce the fictional and art-pedagogical universe of Sisters Hope and describe how it in different ways transcends into contexts beyond the art world and thus functions as a tool to democratize the aesthetic dimension and mode of being within high schools, academia and ...... and the virtual world of social media....

  17. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...

  18. The Lay Sister in Educational History and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Christine Trimingham

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the construction of lay sisters in a religious order and school setting using a poststructuralist orientation. Explains that in the study documents were examined and interviews were conducted with ex-students, choir nuns, and a lay sister at a small Catholic girls-preparatory boarding school. Explores the narrative of one lay sister.…

  19. The nursing legacy of the Korea Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockertsen, Jan-Thore; Fause, Åshild

    2018-01-01

    During the Korean War (1950-1953), the Norwegian government sent a Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) to support the efforts of the United Nations (UN) Army. During the war, 111 Norwegian nurses served in seven contingents, each 6 month, at the Norwegian Field Hospital in Korea. The nurses were nicknamed "The Korea Sisters". The aim of this study is to explore the impact and influence of their wartime nursing on Norwegian post-Korean-War nursing. Qualitative. The study uses several historical research approaches. Interview, archival search, search in nursing periodicals, contemporary magazines and nursing text books. The nursing legacy of The Korea Sisters can be found in changes in general nursing, uniform education of theatre nurses, uniform education of anaesthetist nurses and in humanitarian work.

  20. Targeted Sister Chromatid Cohesion by Sir2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Shyi; Chen, Yu-Fan; Gartenberg, Marc R.

    2011-01-01

    The protein complex known as cohesin binds pericentric regions and other sites of eukaryotic genomes to mediate cohesion of sister chromatids. In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cohesin also binds silent chromatin, a repressive chromatin structure that functionally resembles heterochromatin of higher eukaryotes. We developed a protein-targeting assay to investigate the mechanistic basis for cohesion of silent chromatin domains. Individual silencing factors were tethered to sites where pairing of sister chromatids could be evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. We report that the evolutionarily conserved Sir2 histone deacetylase, an essential silent chromatin component, was both necessary and sufficient for cohesion. The cohesin genes were required, but the Sir2 deacetylase activity and other silencing factors were not. Binding of cohesin to silent chromatin was achieved with a small carboxyl terminal fragment of Sir2. Taken together, these data define a unique role for Sir2 in cohesion of silent chromatin that is distinct from the enzyme's role as a histone deacetylase. PMID:21304892

  1. Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Johanna Taylor; Vellutini, Bruno Cossermelli; Smith, Julian; Ronquist, Fredrik; Jondelius, Ulf; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-02-04

    The position of Xenacoelomorpha in the tree of life remains a major unresolved question in the study of deep animal relationships. Xenacoelomorpha, comprising Acoela, Nemertodermatida, and Xenoturbella, are bilaterally symmetrical marine worms that lack several features common to most other bilaterians, for example an anus, nephridia, and a circulatory system. Two conflicting hypotheses are under debate: Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria (= Nephrozoa, namely protostomes and deuterostomes) or is a clade inside Deuterostomia. Thus, determining the phylogenetic position of this clade is pivotal for understanding the early evolution of bilaterian features, or as a case of drastic secondary loss of complexity. Here we show robust phylogenomic support for Xenacoelomorpha as the sister taxon of Nephrozoa. Our phylogenetic analyses, based on 11 novel xenacoelomorph transcriptomes and using different models of evolution under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, strongly corroborate this result. Rigorous testing of 25 experimental data sets designed to exclude data partitions and taxa potentially prone to reconstruction biases indicates that long-branch attraction, saturation, and missing data do not influence these results. The sister group relationship between Nephrozoa and Xenacoelomorpha supported by our phylogenomic analyses implies that the last common ancestor of bilaterians was probably a benthic, ciliated acoelomate worm with a single opening into an epithelial gut, and that excretory organs, coelomic cavities, and nerve cords evolved after xenacoelomorphs separated from the stem lineage of Nephrozoa.

  2. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young Hispanic women: findings from the national Sister to Sister campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fátima; Naderi, Sahar; Wang, Yun; Johnson, Caitlin E; Foody, JoAnne M

    2013-04-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population and have a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors as compared with non-Hispanic whites. Further data suggests that Hispanics have undiagnosed complications of metabolic syndrome, namely diabetes mellitus, at an earlier age. We sought to better understand the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in Hispanic women using data from a large, community-based health screening program. Using data from the Sister to Sister: The Women's Heart Health Foundation community health fairs from 2008 to 2009 held in 17 U.S. cities, we sought to characterize how cardiometabolic risk profiles vary across age for women by race and ethnicity. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines, which included three or more of the following: Waist circumference ≥35 inches, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) <50 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg, or a fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL. A total of 6843 community women were included in the analyses. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 35%. The risk-adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in Hispanic women versus white women was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4, 2.0). Dyslipidemia was the strongest predictor of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic women. This disparity appeared most pronounced for younger women. Additional predictors of metabolic syndrome included black race, increasing age, and smoking. In a large, nationally representative sample of women, we found that metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent among young Hispanic women. Efforts specifically targeted to identifying these high-risk women are necessary to prevent the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with metabolic syndrome.

  3. Sister chromatid exchanges induced by inhaled anesthetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White,A.E.; Takehisa, S.; Eger II, E.I.; Wolff, S.; Stevens, W.C.

    1970-05-01

    There is sufficient evidence that anesthetics may cause cancer to justify a test of their carcinogenic potential. Baden et al., using the Ames test, a rapid and inexpensive genetic indicator of carcinogenicity, have shown that among currently used anesthetics fluorxene alone caused bacterial mutations. The authors used the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) technique, another rapid assay of mutagenic-carcinogenic potential. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells increases when the cell cultures are exposed to mutagen-carcinogens, particulary in the presence of a metabolic activating system. With this test system a one-hour exposure to 1 MAC nitrous oxide, diethyl ether, trichloroethylene, halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, methoxyflurane, or chloroform did not increase SCE values. Divinyl ether, fluroxene and ethyl vinyl ether increased SCE values in the same circumstances. Results of this study of mammalian cells suggest that no currently used anesthetic is a mutagen-carcinogen. The results also suggest that anesthetics containing a vinyl moiety may be mutagen-carcinogens.

  4. Two Sisters with Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gencer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with unknown etiology. In the present report, the presentations of two sisters are described: one sister had IPH, eosinophilia and a high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE level; and the other had IPH, pneumothorax, eosinophilia and a high serum IgE level. Both cases had quite unusual presentations. The first patient was 23 years of age, and had suffered from dry cough and progressive dyspnea for four years. Her hemoglobin level was 60 g/L, total serum IgE level was 900 U/mL and eosinophilia was 9%. Her chest radiography revealed diffuse infiltration. She died due to respiratory failure. The second patient was 18 years of age. She had also suffered from dry cough and gradually increasing dyspnea for two years. She had partial pneumothorax in the right lung and diffuse infiltration in other pulmonary fields on chest radiography. Her hemoglobin level was 99 g/L, total serum IgE level was 1200 U/mL and eosinophilia was 8%. IPH was diagnosed by open lung biopsy. All these findings suggested that familial or allergic factors, as well as immunological factors, might have contributed to the etiology of IPH.

  5. Two sisters with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, Mehmet; Ceylan, Erkan; Bitiren, Muharrem; Koc, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with unknown etiology. In the present report, the presentations of two sisters are described: one sister had IPH, eosinophilia and a high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) level; and the other had IPH, pneumothorax, eosinophilia and a high serum IgE level. Both cases had quite unusual presentations. The first patient was 23 years of age, and had suffered from dry cough and progressive dyspnea for four years. Her hemoglobin level was 60 g/L, total serum IgE level was 900 U/mL and eosinophilia was 9%. Her chest radiography revealed diffuse infiltration. She died due to respiratory failure. The second patient was 18 years of age. She had also suffered from dry cough and gradually increasing dyspnea for two years. She had partial pneumothorax in the right lung and diffuse infiltration in other pulmonary fields on chest radiography. Her hemoglobin level was 99 g/L, total serum IgE level was 1200 U/mL and eosinophilia was 8%. IPH was diagnosed by open lung biopsy. All these findings suggested that familial or allergic factors, as well as immunological factors, might have contributed to the etiology of IPH. PMID:18060095

  6. EarthLabs Meet Sister Corita Kent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartini, E.; Ellins, K. K.; Cavitte, M. G.; Thirumalai, K.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Lynds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthLabs project provides a framework to enhance high school students' climate literacy and awareness of climate change. The project provides climate science curriculum and teacher professional development, followed by research on students' learning as teachers implement EarthLabs climate modules in the classroom. The professional development targets high school teachers whose professional growth is structured around exposure to current climate science research, data observation collection and analysis. During summer workshops in Texas and Mississippi, teachers work through the laboratories, experiments, and hand-on activities developed for their students. In summer 2013, three graduate students from the University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics with expertise in climate science participated in two weeklong workshops. The graduate students partnered with exemplary teacher leaders to provide scientific content and lead the EarthLabs learning activities. As an experiment, we integrated a visit to the Blanton Museum and an associated activity in order to motivate participants to think creatively, as well as analytically, about science. This exercise was inspired by the work and educational philosophy of Sister Corita Kent. During the visit to the Blanton Museum, we steered participants towards specific works of art pre-selected to emphasize aspects of the climate of Texas and to draw participants' attention to ways in which artists convey different concepts. For example, artists use of color, lines, and symbols conjure emotional responses to imagery in the viewer. The second part of the exercise asked participants to choose a climate message and to convey this through a collage. We encouraged participants to combine their experience at the museum with examples of Sister Corita Kent's artwork. We gave them simple guidelines for the project based on techniques and teaching of Sister Corita Kent. Evaluation results reveal that participants enjoyed the

  7. Heterochromatin and the cohesion of sister chromatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenberg, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Heterochromatin, once thought to be the useless junk of chromosomes, is now known to play significant roles in biology. Underlying much of this newfound fame are links between the repressive chromatin structure and cohesin, the protein complex that mediates sister chromatid cohesion. Heterochromatin-mediated recruitment and retention of cohesin to domains flanking centromeres promotes proper attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic and meiotic spindles. Heterochromatin assembled periodically between convergently transcribed genes also recruits cohesin, which promotes a novel form of transcription termination. Heterochromatin-like structures in budding yeast also recruit cohesin. Here the complex appears to regulate transcriptional silencing and recombination between repeated DNA sequences. The link between heterochromatin and cohesin is particularly relevant to human health. In Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome, heterochromatic cohesion is selectively lost due to mutation of the acetyltransferase responsible for cohesin activation. In this review I discuss recent work that relates to these relationships between heterochromatin and cohesin.

  8. 46 CFR 169.307 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Construction and Arrangement Plans § 169.307 Plans for sister vessels. Plans are not required for any vessel which is a sister ship to a vessel, provided that— (a) The approved plans for the original vessels are... new construction; (c) The regulations have not changed since the original plan approval; and (d) There...

  9. Uncoupling of Sister Replisomes during Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B.; Habuchi, Satoshi; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The duplication of eukaryotic genomes involves the replication of DNA from multiple origins of replication. In S phase, two sister replisomes assemble at each active origin, and they replicate DNA in opposite directions. Little is known about the functional relationship between sister replisomes.

  10. One sister and brother with mirror image myopic anisometropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Joon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Eung Suk; Kim, Ungsoo S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of one sister and brother with mirror image myopic anisometropia. One sister and brother complained visual disturbance. The sister was 10 years 11 months old, and brother was 8 years 4 months old. Full ophthalmic examinations were performed, including slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure, keratometry, anterior chamber depth, axial length, fundus examination and the cycloplegic refraction. The cycloplegic refractive power was -15.50 dpt cyl.+4.50 dpt Ax 85 degrees (right eye), -1.00 dpt cyl.+0.50 dpt Ax 90 degrees (left eye) in the sister; -1.75 dpt cyl.+2.25 dpt Ax 90 degrees (right eye), -9.50 dpt cyl.+4.00 dpt Ax 80 degrees (left eye) in the brother. The co-occurrence of severe myopic anisometropia in a sister and brother is extremely rare. The present case suggests that severe myopic anisometropia may be related by genetic inheritance.

  11. [Nutritional status of two generations of brothers and sisters Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Parra, Esmeralda; Ochoa-Díaz-López, Héctor; García-Miranda, Rosario; Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Morales, Helda; Estrada-Lugo, Erin Ingrid Jane; Solís-Hernández, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Mexico, in recent decades, has developed several programs to eradicate the problem of infant malnutrition obesity. Older brothers and sisters were evaluated in 2002-2003, for 2010-2011 younger brothers and sisters were evaluated, both groups were obesity increased significantly by 12 percentage points among brothers and sisters, from 24.8% in 2002-2003 to 36.8% in 2010-2011. Malnutrition among male children is lower than their brothers and sisters from the 2002-2003 generation (stunting p=obesity was 10.9 percentage points higher than their brothers and sisters (26.4% to 37.3%). Children beneficiaries from Opportunities have not yet overcome chronic malnutrition problems. This study shows that there is not a clear impact in improving the nutritional status of the study population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei analysis in lymphocytes of men exposed to simazine through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Susanna; Rubio, Arantxa; Sueiro, Rosa Ana; Garrido, Joaquín

    2003-06-06

    In some cities of the autonomous community of Extremadura (south-west of Spain), levels of simazine from 10 to 30 ppm were detected in tap water. To analyse the possible effect of this herbicide, two biomarkers, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN), were used in peripheral blood lymphocytes from males exposed to simazine through drinking water. SCE and MN analysis failed to detect any statistically significant increase in the people exposed to simazine when compared with the controls. With respect to high frequency cells (HFC), a statistically significant difference was detected between exposed and control groups.

  13. In the company of my sisters: sister circles as an anxiety intervention for professional African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal-Barnett, Angela M; Stadulis, Robert; Payne, Margaret Ralston; Crosby, Lori; Mitchell, Monica; Williams, Lakisha; Williams-Costa, Crystal

    2011-03-01

    Sister circles have been used within African American communities to raise awareness about physical health. The possibility exists that sister circles could be used to educate and teach women strategies about managing anxiety and panic. In this paper we examine professional Black women's conceptualization of panic attacks and other related anxiety issues. Then, we explore the feasibility of sister circles as a psycho-educational anxiety intervention for African American professional women. Four focus groups (n=37) were conducted. Focus group interviews were transcribed and were coded into three categories: (a) a major theme; (b) a minor theme; or (c) an off-topic comment. Specifically, we generate information regarding the key content and research components of a sister circle for African American female professionals. Focus group members saw a distinct difference between anxiety and panic. The number of African American women who experienced was seen as low. Women felt sister circles were a nice vehicle for helping African American women manage their anxiety and panic. Confidentially was a key component. Sister circles for anxiety and panic were seen as a natural outgrowth of African American women's professional networks. Limited data were collected on participant's anxiety levels. Overall, sister circles were seen as feasible interventions for African American professional women. The data from the focus groups were used to enhance the development of a sister circle intervention for anxious professional African American women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PRASYARAT KEBERHASILAN KERJA SAMA SISTER PROVINCE : STUDI KASUS SISTER PROVINCE ANTARA JAWA TENGAH DENGAN PROVINSI FUJIAN-CINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermini S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Indonesian local government autonomy gives many consequences. One of it is the augmentation of cooperation with foreign countries conducted by local government. One type of the cooperation is sister province. This cooperation still bring lack of success story and best practices. Rather brings clear profits, mostly sister province cooperation has no clear benefits. By using the case of sister province cooperation between Central Java province and Fujian, this research providing the answer why central java wants to cooperate with Fujian under the scheme sister province due to the massive criticism of Free Trade Area with China. By using Scholte’s Globalization approach, and Botenbal’s lowered politics issue this paper argue that the sister province cooperation between Central Java and Fujian is being conduct for the cause of spillover effect and due to long road historical demographic background between these two provinces.

  15. Developing skills in clinical leadership for ward sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Katherine; Phillips, Natasha

    The Francis report has called for a strengthening of the ward sister's role. It recommends that sisters should operate in a supervisory capacity and should not be office bound. Effective ward leadership has been recognised as being vital to high-quality patient care and experience, resource management and interprofessional working. However, there is evidence that ward sisters are ill equipped to lead effectively and lack confidence in their ability to do so. University College London Hospitals Foundation Trust has recognised that the job has become almost impossible in increasingly large and complex organisations. Ward sisters spend less than 40% of their time on clinical leadership and the trust is undertaking a number of initiatives to support them in this role.

  16. Linking Chromosome Duplication and Segregation via Sister Chromatid Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication during S phase generates two identical copies of each chromosome. Each chromosome is destined for a daughter cell, but each daughter must receive one and only one copy of each chromosome. To ensure accurate chromosome segregation, eukaryotic cells are equipped with a mechanism to pair the chromosomes during chromosome duplication and hold the pairs until a bi-oriented mitotic spindle is formed and the pairs are pulled apart. This mechanism is known as sister chromatid cohesion, and its actions span the entire cell cycle. During G1, before DNA is copied during S phase, proteins termed cohesins are loaded onto DNA. Paired chromosomes are held together through G2 phase, and finally the cohesins are dismantled during mitosis. The processes governing sister chromatid cohesion ensure that newly replicated sisters are held together from the moment they are generated to the metaphase–anaphase transition, when sisters separate. PMID:24906310

  17. Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangapani, Krishna K; Duro, Eris; Deng, Yi; Alves, Flavia de Lima; Ye, Qiaozhen; Opoku, Kwaku N; Ceto, Steven; Rappsilber, Juri; Corbett, Kevin D; Biggins, Sue; Marston, Adèle L; Asbury, Charles L

    2014-10-10

    Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I may underlie sister chromatid comigration in diverse organisms, but direct evidence for such fusion has been lacking. We used laser trapping and quantitative fluorescence microscopy to study native kinetochore particles isolated from yeast. Meiosis I kinetochores formed stronger attachments and carried more microtubule-binding elements than kinetochores isolated from cells in mitosis or meiosis II. The meiosis I-specific monopolin complex was both necessary and sufficient to drive these modifications. Thus, kinetochore fusion directs sister chromatid comigration, a conserved feature of meiosis that is fundamental to Mendelian inheritance. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Organization of Sisters of Mercy During World War One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribnaia Anna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the labour organization of Russian sisters of mercy during World War One. The author indicates two periods which took place before and after the February Revolution. Based on archive documents and offi cial publications the article describes general structure of Russian Red Cross Society institutions and basic principles of sisters of mercy communities’ work. It examines the rules of new sisters’ employment, their training, service assignment and professional duties. The emphasis is put on nurses’ work in wartime. During first years of war sisters’ position was stable. Due to specifi c hierarchy in the managing structure sisters’ work was productive and demanded. After the February Revolution the managing system changed drastically as well as the status of sisters of mercy and their reception in society. The author gives a thorough examination of sisters’ position after reorganization of Russian Red Cross Society. In time of political instability Russian sisters of mercy were able to organize themselves into one big organization thus creating All-Russian Union of Sisters of Mercy. This article for the first time ever implements into scientific research a huge amount of documents which allowed a signifi cant extension of views on Bolsheviks’ political approaches to Russian Red Cross Society and institution of sisters of mercy.

  19. 77 FR 13585 - Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Project would be located on the north pipe of the Three Sisters Irrigation District's Main Canal Pipeline... COMMISSION Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2012. d. Applicant: Three Sisters Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Three Sisters Irrigation...

  20. Mechanics of Sister Chromatids studied with a Polymer Model English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Isbaner, Sebastian; Heermann, Dieter

    2013-10-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion denotes the phenomenon that sister chromatids are initially attached to each other in mitosis to guarantee the error-free distribution into the daughter cells. Cohesion is mediated by binding proteins and only resolved after mitotic chromosome condensation is completed. However, the amount of attachement points required to maintain sister chromatid cohesion while still allowing proper chromosome condensation is not known yet. Additionally the impact of cohesion on the mechanical properties of chromosomes also poses an interesting problem. In this work we study the conformational and mechanical properties of sister chromatids by means of computer simulations. We model both protein-mediated cohesion between sister chromatids and chromosome condensation with a dynamic binding mechanisms. We show in a phase diagram that only specific link concentrations lead to connected and fully condensed chromatids that do not intermingle with each other nor separate due to entropic forces. Furthermore we show that dynamic bonding between chromatids decrease the Young's modulus compared to non-bonded chromatids.

  1. Mechanics of Sister Chromatids studied with a Polymer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eZhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion denotes the phenomenon that sister chromatids are initially attached to each other in mitosis to guarantee the error-free distribution into the daughter cells. Cohesion is mediated by binding proteins and only resolved after mitotic chromosome condensation is completed. However, the amount of attachement points required to maintain sister chromatid cohesion while still allowing proper chromosome condensation is not known yet. Additionally the impact of cohesion on the mechanical properties of chromosomes also poses an interesting problem. In this work we study the conformational and mechanical properties of sister chromatids by means of computer simulations. We model both protein-mediated cohesion between sister chromatids and chromosome condensation with a dynamic binding mechanisms. We show in a phase diagram that only specific link concentrations lead to connected and fully condensed chromatids that do not intermingle with each other nor separate due to entropic forces. Furthermore we show that dynamic bonding between chromatids decrease the Young's modulus compared to non-bonded chromatids.

  2. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  3. Teenage pregnancy: the impact of maternal adolescent childbearing and older sister's teenage pregnancy on a younger sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C

    2016-05-25

    Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is

  4. little sister: An Afro-Temporal Solo-Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berry, Misty

    2017-07-03

    little sister: An Afro-Temporal Solo-Play is at once a memory-scape and a mytho-biography set to poetry, movement, and mixed media. A performance poem spanning from the Antebellum South to present-moment Chicago, it tells the story of a nomadic spirit named little-she who shape-shifts through the memories and imaginings of her sister, the narrator. Through the characters little-she and the narrator, the solo-performance explores embodied ways to rupture and relieve the impact of macro forms of violence in the micro realm of the everyday. To this end, little sister witnesses and disrupts the legacy of violence in the lives of queer Black women through a trans-temporal navigation of everyday encounters within familial, small groups and intimate partner spaces.

  5. Sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II: deprotection through phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Katja

    2013-05-01

    Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of sister chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed--deprotected--for sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection.

  6. Improving patient flow: role of the orthopaedic discharge sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Beverley

    2016-03-01

    Timely and well-planned discharge improves the patient's experience, contributes to patient safety and reduces the length of hospital stays. The role of orthopaedic discharge sister was developed at James Cook University Hospital in 2007 to provide safe, timely and efficient discharge for patients from the trauma and theatre centre, and to improve patient experience and flow. This article gives an overview of the role and describes how the sister works with colleagues to plan patient discharges from pre-assessment and emergency department admission through their hospital stay until their departure.

  7. Sister Mary Joseph nodule: it does not bode well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sister Mary Joseph, the superintendent nurse and surgical assistant of Dr. William Mayo at St Mary’s Hospital (presently Mayo Clinic, was the first to note the association of umbilical nodules with intra-abdominal malignancy. Dr. Hamilton Bailey, a British surgeon, in his classic book Physical Signs in Clinical Surgery named the lesion for Sister Mary Joseph; the palpable bulging usually firm nodule distorting and invading into the umbilicus as a manifestation of metastatic malignancy from the abdomen or the pelvis.

  8. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Ariane C; Chaurasia, Soumya; McKee, Bruce D; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-04-01

    Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of sister centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain sister centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of sister centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in sister centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that sister centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase.

  9. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  10. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van D.

    2000-01-01

    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of

  11. Genetic relatedness to sisters' children has been underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan R

    2013-01-22

    Males of many species help in the care and provisioning of offspring, and these investments often correlate with genetic relatedness. For example, many human males invest in the children of sisters, and this is especially so where men are less likely to share genes with children of wives. Although this makes qualitative sense, it has been difficult to support quantitatively. The prevailing model predicts investment in children of sisters only when paternity confidence falls below 0.268. This value is often seen as too low to be credible; so investment in sisters' children represents an unsolved problem. I show here that the prevailing model rests on a series of restrictive assumptions that underestimate relatedness to sisters' children. For this reason, it understates the fitness payoff to men who invest in these children. This effect can be substantial, especially in societies with low confidence in paternity. But this effect cannot be estimated solely from confidence in paternity. One must also estimate the probability that two siblings share the same father.

  12. Sister broods in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davídková, Markéta; Doležal, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 405, DEC 01 (2017), s. 13-21 ISSN 0378-1127 Grant - others:Lesy ČR(CZ) 08/2009- 2015 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : re-emergence * sister broods * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112717309507

  13. Il progetto SISTER per il comune di Lignano Sabbiadoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Poli

    2005-10-01

    Bonelli ha presentato il progetto sperimentale di sistema informatico per la gestione del territorio, che è in corso da circa un anno. Ecco la sintesi della relazione del Sistema Informativo Integrato Territoriale (SISTER realizzato da Politecnica.

  14. El naturalismo americano: Theodore Dreiser y Sister Carrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores G. ALONSO MULAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Para situar a un escritor, como Theodore Dreiser, y especialmente su novela Sister Carrie dentro de un movimiento literario y de una etapa determinada de la historia americana, es necesario dar un breve repaso al naturalismo, llegado a América a través de Stephen Crane

  15. Geologic map of Three Sisters volcanic cluster, Cascade Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The cluster of glaciated stratovolcanoes called the Three Sisters—South Sister, Middle Sister, and North Sister—forms a spectacular 20-km-long reach along the crest of the Cascade Range in Oregon. The three eponymous stratocones, though contiguous and conventionally lumped sororally, could hardly display less family resemblance. North Sister (10,085 ft), a monotonously mafic edifice at least as old as 120 ka, is a glacially ravaged stratocone that consists of hundreds of thin rubbly lava flows and intercalated falls that dip radially and steeply; remnants of two thick lava flows cap its summit. Middle Sister (10,047 ft), an andesite-basalt-dacite cone built between 48 and 14 ka, is capped by a thick stack of radially dipping, dark-gray, thin mafic lava flows; asymmetrically glaciated, its nearly intact west flank contrasts sharply with its steep east face. Snow and ice-filled South Sister is a bimodal rhyolitic-intermediate edifice that was constructed between 50 ka and 2 ka; its crater (rim at 10,358 ft) was created between 30 and 22 ka, during the most recent of several explosive summit eruptions; the thin oxidized agglutinate that mantles its current crater rim protects a 150-m-thick pyroclastic sequence that helped fill a much larger crater. For each of the three, the eruptive volume is likely to have been in the range of 15 to 25 km³, but such estimates are fairly uncertain, owing to glacial erosion. The map area consists exclusively of Quaternary volcanic rocks and derivative surficial deposits. Although most of the area has been modified by glaciation, the volcanoes are young enough that the landforms remain largely constructional. Furthermore, twelve of the 145 eruptive units on the map are postglacial, younger than the deglaciation that was underway by about 17 ka. The most recent eruptions were of rhyolite near South Sister, about 2,000 years ago, and of mafic magma near McKenzie Pass, about 1,500 years ago. As observed by trailblazing volcanologist

  16. 76 FR 315 - Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Leader, Sisters Ranger District, Pine Street and Highway 20, POB 249, Sisters, Oregon 97759, or submit to... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Keown, Team Leader, Sisters Ranger District, Pine Street and Highway 20, POB 249... wildlife species and other ecological processes. These no treatment areas include nesting, roosting, and...

  17. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Heemst, van, D.

    2000-01-01

    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of which DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered particularly deleterious. The causative agents can be of endogenous origin, such as metabolically produced free radicals, and of exogenous origi...

  18. Southall Black Sisters. Hannana Siddiqui speaks to Rasna Warah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warah, R

    1994-01-01

    Southall Black Sisters, an organization for Asian and Afro-Caribbean women in Great Britain, was established in 1979 at the height of anti-racist protests to address the otherwise neglected issue of women's oppression. The group has campaigned against discriminatory immigration laws, illegal virginity tests at Heathrow airport, domestic violence, and other issues of particular concern to British Asian women. Women who migrate to England for an arranged marriage must remain with their husband at least 1 year or face deportation and denial of any public assistance, placing them at risk of unreported domestic violence. Southall Black Sisters has attempted to raise the public consciousness about domestic violence as a criminal issue and garner support for Asian women who leave abusive husbands. However, no support has been forthcoming from the anti-racist movement, which fears that publicity on domestic violence will create a racist backlash against Asian men. More support has been available for the group's campaign to protect battered women who kill their husbands by removing from the law on provocation the need for an immediate response. Another campaign has involved protests against "bounty hunters" hired by Asian families to return girls who have escaped from arranged marriages in their home country or sexual abuse within their family. Southall Black Sisters attributes many of the problems faced by its clients to a rise in religious fundamentalism and Muslim attempts to reverse the gains of the feminist movement.

  19. Paternity testing in case of brother-sister incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, Marijana; Uvodić, Petra; Botica, Vladimir

    2003-06-01

    We performed a paternity test in a case of incest between brother and sister. DNA from blood samples of the alleged parents and their two children was obtained with Chelex DNA extraction method and quantified with Applied Biosystems QuantiBlot quantitation kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA samples was performed with AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR amplification kit and GenePrint PowerPlex PCR amplification kit. The amplified products were separated and detected by using the Perkin Elmer's ABI PRISM trade mark 310 Genetic Analyser. DNA and data analysis of 17 loci and Amelogenin confirmed the suspicion of brother-sister incest. Since both children had inherited all of the obligate alleles from the alleged father, we could confirm with certainty of 99.999999% that the oldest brother in the family was the biological father of both children. Calculated data showed that even in a case of brother-sister incest, paternity could be proved by the analysis of Amelogenin and 17 DNA loci.

  20. Broad phylogenomic sampling and the sister lineage of land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Timme

    Full Text Available The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key colonization event, but wildly conflicting results have sparked a contentious debate over which lineage gave rise to land plants. The dominant view has been that 'stoneworts,' or Charales, are the sister lineage, but an alternative hypothesis supports the Zygnematales (often referred to as "pond scum" as the sister lineage. In this paper, we provide a well-supported, 160-nuclear-gene phylogenomic analysis supporting the Zygnematales as the closest living relative to land plants. Our study makes two key contributions to the field: 1 the use of an unbiased method to collect a large set of orthologs from deeply diverging species and 2 the use of these data in determining the sister lineage to land plants. We anticipate this updated phylogeny not only will hugely impact lesson plans in introductory biology courses, but also will provide a solid phylogenetic tree for future green-lineage research, whether it be related to plants or green algae.

  1. Enhancement of sister-chromatid exchanges by tumour promoters.

    OpenAIRE

    Ray-Chaudhuri, R.; Currens, M.; Iype, P. T.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the tumour promoters TPA, phenobarbitone and saccharin on the production of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) was studied. TPA produced a small but significant increase of SCE in Chinese hamster cell lines V-79 and CHO, and in a hybrid clone formed by fusion of CHO with rat liver epithelial cells. The enhancement of SCE by TPA was not affected by the type of culture medium, heat-inactivated bovine serum, or the batch of TPA. In the presence of exogenous L-cysteine the enhancement...

  2. Il progetto SISTER per il comune di Lignano Sabbiadoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Poli

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Il comune di Lignano è stato recentemente invitato a Roma in qualità di relatore alla conferenza nazionale dei sistemi informativi territoriali organizzata da Esri, il maggior produttore mondiale di software per la gestione delle cartografie informatizzate. In tale occasione l’assessore AngeloBonelli ha presentato il progetto sperimentale di sistema informatico per la gestione del territorio, che è in corso da circa un anno. Ecco la sintesi della relazione del Sistema Informativo Integrato Territoriale (SISTER realizzato da Politecnica.

  3. Beyond Sister City Agreements: Exploring the Challenges of Full International Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    U.S.-Mexican Relations,” ReVista (Fall 2013): 92, http://revista.drclas.harvard.edu/book/mexico%E2%80%99s-great-transformation- and-us-mexican...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 95 LIST OF REFERENCES Aguilera, Gabriel. “Mexico’s Great Transformation and U.S.-Mexican Relations.” ReVista (Fall 2013): 92–93

  4. Sister chromosome pairing maintains heterozygosity in parthenogenetic lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, Aracely A; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Diana P; Wiegraebe, Winfried; Baumann, Peter

    2010-03-11

    Although bisexual reproduction has proven to be highly successful, parthenogenetic all-female populations occur frequently in certain taxa, including the whiptail lizards of the genus Aspidoscelis. Allozyme analysis revealed a high degree of fixed heterozygosity in these parthenogenetic species, supporting the view that they originated from hybridization events between related sexual species. It has remained unclear how the meiotic program is altered to produce diploid eggs while maintaining heterozygosity. Here we show that meiosis commences with twice the number of chromosomes in parthenogenetic versus sexual species, a mechanism that provides the basis for generating gametes with unreduced chromosome content without fundamental deviation from the classic meiotic program. Our observation of synaptonemal complexes and chiasmata demonstrate that a typical meiotic program occurs and that heterozygosity is not maintained by bypassing recombination. Instead, fluorescent in situ hybridization probes that distinguish between homologues reveal that bivalents form between sister chromosomes, the genetically identical products of the first of two premeiotic replication cycles. Sister chromosome pairing provides a mechanism for the maintenance of heterozygosity, which is critical for offsetting the reduced fitness associated with the lack of genetic diversity in parthenogenetic species.

  5. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  6. Smart City

    OpenAIRE

    Perko, Matevž

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this graduation thesis, is to present the term »the idea of smart city« and to define, why a city is labeled as smart city. I explained the different areas in which new ideas for the advancement of cities are developed and explained, how new technologies and ideas are implemented in different areas of the city. Described are two approaches to the modernization of the city. I also showed different inovations and technologies, that have helped the cities become smarter and so tha...

  7. Telomere sister chromatid exchange and the process of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, Krastan B; Goodwin, Edwin H; Bailey, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    Telomeres are a hotspot for sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE). Any biological consequence of this form of instability remained obscure until quantitative modeling revealed a link between elevated T-SCE rates and accelerated cellular replicative senescence. This work strongly suggests that progressive telomere erosion is not the only determinant of replicative capacity; instead, T-SCE need to be considered as an independent factor controlling colony growth and senescence. Additionally high T-SCE rates have been observed in cells with deficiencies in WRN and BLM, the genes that are defective in Werner's and Bloom's syndromes, implying a connection to premature aging. In this Research Perspective we will explore some of the implications this recent work has for human health.

  8. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Khodashenas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  9. Improved light sources for induction of sister chromatid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J F; Lin, Y J

    1985-01-01

    Various light sources, including ultraviolet light, mercury, germicidal, fluorescent, and incandescent lamps, were studied for their ability to induce sister chromatid differentiation (SCD) in rat bone marrow cells. The light sources were used along with Hoechst 33258 and Giemsa stains for SCD induction. When those lamps which emit significant amounts of heat were used, 60 degrees C incubation in 2X SSC was found to be unnecessary for SCD induction. A high wattage lamp, a high ambient temperature, a short distance between the lamp and the slides, or a light with 360 nm wavelength, minimized the required exposure time to the light. The pH value of the mounting buffer was also a significant factor. Fluorescent black light and incandescent lamps were found to be ideal light sources for SCD induction.

  10. Narcolepsy with cataplexy mimicry: the strange case of two sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Franceschini, Christian; Bellucci, Claudia; Cipolli, Carlo; Ingravallo, Francesca; Natalini, Giuliana; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-06-15

    We report on two sisters, 17 and 12 years of age, with clinical features suggesting narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC): daytime sleepiness, spontaneous and emotionally triggered sudden falls to the ground, and overweight/obesity. MSLT showed borderline sleep latency, with 1 and 0 sleep onset REM periods. HLA typing disclosed the DQB1*0602 allele. Video-polygraphy of the spells ruled out NC diagnosis by demonstrating their easy elicitation by suggestion, with wake EEG, electromyographic persistence of muscle tone, and stable presence of tendon reflexes (i.e., pseudo-cataplexy), together with normal cerebrospinal hypocretin-1 levels. Our cases emphasize the need of a clear depiction of cataplexy pattern at the different ages, the usefulness of examining ictal neurophysiology, and collecting all available disease markers in ambiguous cases.

  11. Sisters in Science: Confronting Equity in Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Livingston, Beverly D.

    The Sisters in Science (SIS) program seeks to increase elementary school girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics, create a more positive learning climate for minority school girls and their families on academic and community/social levels, and increase the knowledge base and understanding of parents with respect to their influence in promoting girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics. This article reports on how 577 fourth grade girls changed their interest and achievement in science and mathematics during their involvement in year 1 of the program. Findings show that the girls started the program with positive attitudes and perceptions of science and about science career possibilities. The girls significantly (p < 0.001) increased their science and mathematics skill levels after having participated in the program. It could be stated that the girls' achievement scores on the skills test increased significantly because the girls' attitudes and perceptions were positive before program implementation.

  12. Cohesin SMC1 beta is required for meiotic chromosome dynamics, sister chromatid cohesion and DNA recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revenkova, E.; Eijpe, M.; Heyting, C.; Hodges, C.A.; Hunt, P.A.; Liebe, B.; Scherthan, H.; Jessberger, R.

    2004-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion ensures the faithful segregation of chromosomes in mitosis and in both meiotic divisions1, 2, 3, 4. Meiosis-specific components of the cohesin complex, including the recently described SMC1 isoform SMC15, were suggested to be required for meiotic sister chromatid cohesion

  13. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. 725.225 Section 725.225 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner...

  14. Having a Brother or Sister with Down Syndrome: Perspectives from Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotko, Brian G.; Levine, Susan P.; Goldstein, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study asks brothers and sisters about their feelings and perceptions toward their sibling with Down syndrome. We analyzed valid and reliable surveys from 822 brothers and sisters whose families were on the mailing lists of six non-profit Down syndrome organizations around the country. More than 96% of brothers/sisters that responded to the survey indicated that they had affection toward their sibling with Down syndrome; and 94% of older siblings expressed feelings of pride. Less than 10% felt embarrassed, and less than 5% expressed a desire to trade their sibling in for another brother or sister without Down syndrome. Among older siblings, 88% felt that they were better people because of their siblings with Down syndrome, and more than 90% plan to remain involved in their sibling’s lives as they become adults. The vast majority of brothers and sisters describe their relationship with their sibling with Down syndrome as positive and enriching. PMID:21910244

  15. Association of Older Sister's HPV Vaccination Status on HPV Vaccine Receipt by Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage rates in adolescents include finding ways to improve discussions between clinicians and parents. One potentially important piece of information for these discussions is the HPV vaccination status of older siblings. A nationally representative online panel was used to conduct a cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged 9 to 17 years in October 2012. Overall, 768 adolescents (35%) had ≥1 older sister aged 10 to 26 years. Male and female adolescents with an older sister who had received no HPV vaccine doses demonstrated higher rates of having no doses themselves, compared with those who had no older sister or those who had an older sister who had received ≥1 HPV vaccine dose. Discussing the HPV vaccination status of older sisters may be a useful strategy for providers to differentiate HPV vaccine messages to parents of unvaccinated younger siblings. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  16. Asymmetricity Between Sister Cells of Pluripotent Stem Cells at the Onset of Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shogo; Maruyama, Atsushi; Kondo, Yuki; Kano, Ayumu; De Sousa, Olga M; Iwahashi, Masahiro; Hexig, Bayar; Akaike, Toshihiro; Li, Jingyue; Hayashi, Yohei; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2018-02-21

    Various somatic stem cells divide asymmetrically; however, it is not known whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) divide symmetrically or asymmetrically, not only while maintaining an undifferentiated state but also at the onset of differentiation. In this study, we observed single ESCs using time-lapse imaging and compared sister cell pairs derived from the same mother cell in either the maintenance or differentiation medium. Mouse ESCs were cultured on E-cadherin-coated glass-based dishes, which allowed us to trace single cells. The undifferentiated cell state was detected by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Nanog promoter, which is active only in undifferentiated cells. Cell population analysis using flow cytometry showed that the peak width indicating distribution of GFP expression broadened when cells were transferred to the differentiation medium compared to when they were in the maintenance medium. This finding suggested that the population of ESCs became more heterogeneous at the onset of differentiation. Using single-cell analysis by time-lapse imaging, we found that although the total survival ratio decreased by changing to differentiation medium, the one-live-one-dead ratio of sister cell pairs was smaller compared with randomly chosen non-sister cell pairs, defined as an unsynchronized cell pair control, in both media. This result suggested that sister cell pairs were more positively synchronized with each other compared to non-sister cell pairs. The differences in interdivision time (the time interval between mother cell division and the subsequent cell division) between sister cells was smaller than that between non-sister cell pairs in both media, suggesting that sister cells divided synchronously. Although the difference in Nanog-GFP intensity between sister cells was smaller than that between non-sister cells in the maintenance medium, it was the same in differentiation medium, suggesting asymmetrical Nanog-GFP intensity. These

  17. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Brian L; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2014-03-07

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant sisters in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of sisters differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger sisters. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under 'budding' speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of sisters was significantly greater than that of sister-non-sister congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the sister pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, sister taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities.

  18. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  19. Sisters Helping Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Madeleine E.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the philosophy, organization, and management of a mentoring program for African American girls. It is based on a program sponsored by the Wheeler Avenue Baptist Church in Houston (Texas). This program matches between 25 and 50 young women with Christian women mentors. The program emphasizes Christian values,…

  20. Narrative research on mental health recovery: two sister paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector-Mersel, Gabriela; Knaifel, Evgeny

    2017-06-24

    Despite the breadth of narrative studies on individuals with severe mental illness, the suitability of narrative inquiry to exploring mental health recovery (MHR) has not been examined. (1) Examining the appropriateness of narrative inquiry to studying MHR; (2) assessing the extent to which narrative studies on MHR conform to the unique features of narrative research, as a distinctive form of qualitative inquiry. Review of empirical, theoretical and methodological literature on recovery and narrative inquiry. Considering the perspectives of recovery and narrative as paradigms, the similarity between their ontology and epistemology is shown, evident in 10 common emphases: meaning, identity, change and development, agency, holism, culture, uniqueness, context, language and giving voice. The resemblance between these "sister" paradigms makes narrative methodology especially fruitful for accessing the experiences of individuals in recovery. Reviewing narrative studies on MHR suggests that, currently, narrative research's uniqueness, centered on the holistic principle, is blurred on the philosophical, methodological and textual levels. Well-established narrative research has major implications for practice and policy in recovery-oriented mental health care. The narrative inquiry paradigm offers a possible path to enhancing the distinctive virtues of this research, realizing its potential in understanding and promoting MHR.

  1. Chloroplast Phylogenomics Indicates that Ginkgo biloba Is Sister to Cycads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Huang, Ya-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed. This study aimed to use the chloroplast phylogenomic approach to examine possible factors that lead to such disagreeing placements. We found the sequence types used in the analyses as the most critical factor in the conflicting placements of ginkgo. In addition, the placement of ginkgo varied in the trees inferred from nucleotide (NU) sequences, which notably depended on breadth of taxon sampling, tree-building methods, codon positions, positions of Gnetopsida (common name: gnetophytes), and including or excluding gnetophytes in data sets. In contrast, the trees inferred from amino acid (AA) sequences congruently supported the monophyly of a ginkgo and Cycadales (common name: cycads) clade, regardless of which factors were examined. Our site-stripping analysis further revealed that the high substitution saturation of NU sequences mainly derived from the third codon positions and contributed to the variable placements of ginkgo. In summary, the factors we surveyed did not affect results inferred from analyses of AA sequences. Congruent topologies in our AA trees give more confidence in supporting the ginkgo–cycad sister-group hypothesis. PMID:23315384

  2. The unforgotten sisters female astronomers and scientists before Caroline Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Taking inspiration from Siv Cedering’s poem in the form of a fictional letter from Caroline Herschel that refers to “my long, lost sisters, forgotten in the books that record our science”, this book tells the lives of twenty-five female scientists, with specific attention to astronomers and mathematicians. Each of the presented biographies is organized as a kind of "personal file" which sets the biographee’s life in its historical context, documents her main works, highlights some curious facts, and records citations about her. The selected figures are among the most representative of this neglected world, including such luminaries as Hypatia of Alexandra, Hildegard of Bingen, Elisabetha Hevelius, and Maria Gaetana Agnesi. They span a period of about 4000 years, from En HeduAnna, the Akkadian princess, who was one of the first recognized female astronomers, to the dawn of the era of modern astronomy with Caroline Herschel and Mary Somerville. The book will be of interest to all who wish to learn more ...

  3. Evolution of TWIN SISTER of FT (TSF Genes in Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyan Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FT and its homolog, TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF, act redundantly as integrators in floral transition pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. The evolution of these key flowering regulatory genes during Brassicaceae speciation has not been well studied; therefore, we investigated their evolution in 13 sequenced Brassicaceae species. While the phylogenetic analysis indicated that FT gene evolution has followed two independent lineage-specific routes, TSF evolution does not appear to have been completely consistent within the Brassicaceae lineage I and lineage II division. The two TSF copies in the Thellungiella genus were divided into A and B groups in the phylogenetic analysis. Examination of conserved non-coding sequences and conserved domains within a 5 kb region upstream of the TSF start codon revealed the same group division inferred by the phylogenetic analysis. In addition, TSF genes retained syntenic relationships among genes in the same group, but not between group A and group B. The two copies of the TSF gene in the Thellungiella species were syntenic to the TSF genes in group A and group B, respectively. We also identified TSF-A gene residues in the syntenic region of group B species, but no TSF-B residues could be found in the group A syntenic region. Therefore, we inferred that the TSF genes in lineage II species experienced a duplication event after diversification from lineage I. Following their split from Thellungiella, Brassica species lost the ancestral TSF gene and retained the duplicated copy.

  4. [Antigone: brother, sister and the tension in their relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, F; Rodenhuis, W

    2011-01-01

    Although about 2500 years have passed since the first performances of Sophocles' tragedy Antigone, the play is nevertheless still able to move and inspire a wide audience. To demonstrate whether erotism and erotic elements underlie the conflict between the private domain and the public domain. The relevant literature was studied and interpreted. Antigone can be read and interpreted in many different ways. The tragedy is often seen as a play about the position of women. In the most of the interpretations the central theme is seen as the conflict between loyalty to the state and loyalty to the family. In this essay it is argued that the conflict between the public domain and the private domain also occurs at an erotic level. Sexual feelings towards a brother make it difficult for a female sibling to make the move to a sexual partner outside the family. By focusing on the erotic conflict between brother and sister we can obtain a deeper understanding of the sexual relationship between siblings.

  5. Sororin actively maintains sister chromatid cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, Rene; Kreidl, Emanuel; Ivanov, Miroslav P; Ekker, Heinz; Idarraga-Amado, Maria Helena; Busslinger, Georg A; Wutz, Gordana; Cisneros, David A; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-03-15

    Cohesion between sister chromatids is established during DNA replication but needs to be maintained to enable proper chromosome-spindle attachments in mitosis or meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by cohesin, but also depends on cohesin acetylation and sororin. Sororin contributes to cohesion by stabilizing cohesin on DNA. Sororin achieves this by inhibiting WAPL, which otherwise releases cohesin from DNA and destroys cohesion. Here we describe mouse models which enable the controlled depletion of sororin by gene deletion or auxin-induced degradation. We show that sororin is essential for embryonic development, cohesion maintenance, and proper chromosome segregation. We further show that the acetyltransferases ESCO1 and ESCO2 are essential for stabilizing cohesin on chromatin, that their only function in this process is to acetylate cohesin's SMC3 subunit, and that DNA replication is also required for stable cohesin-chromatin interactions. Unexpectedly, we find that sororin interacts dynamically with the cohesin complexes it stabilizes. This implies that sororin recruitment to cohesin does not depend on the DNA replication machinery or process itself, but on a property that cohesin acquires during cohesion establishment. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  6. Enhancement of sister-chromatid exchanges by tumour promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Chaudhuri, R.; Currens, M.; Iype, P. T.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the tumour promoters TPA, phenobarbitone and saccharin on the production of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) was studied. TPA produced a small but significant increase of SCE in Chinese hamster cell lines V-79 and CHO, and in a hybrid clone formed by fusion of CHO with rat liver epithelial cells. The enhancement of SCE by TPA was not affected by the type of culture medium, heat-inactivated bovine serum, or the batch of TPA. In the presence of exogenous L-cysteine the enhancement of SCE was reduced. TPA also increase the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose by the cells, to an extent similar to that of the SCE enhancement. This enhancement of SCE by TPA may be explained partly through the formation of free radicals, and partly through alterations in the cell-surface membrane and/or a transient delay in the cell-cycle progression. The other tumour promoters, phenobarbitone and saccharin, also enhanced both SCE and the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose in V-79 cells. PMID:7082559

  7. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    emphasis has been laid on creating a vivid, and engaging social environment in order to create a lab for social, and architectural experi- ments. These goals challenge the city planning as well as the urban sce- nography. The article addresses the research questions: What kind of city life and social...... experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  8. The role of “network of cities” in construction of global urban culture

    OpenAIRE

    Tüzin Baycan-Levent; Seda Kundak; Aliye Ahu Gülümser

    2004-01-01

    The globalization process has led to an increased interaction between cities and to a new urban system/network in which they need to be competitive and complementary at the same time. “Network of cities”, such as World Cities, Eurocities or Sister Cities are among the well known examples of interaction and cooperation of the cities at the regional and global level. The cities of different regions and countries tend to share their experiences and their cultures within these networks in order...

  9. Effects of cigarette smoking and solvent exposure on sister chromatid exchange frequency in painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, K T; Wiencke, J K; Little, F F; Baker, E L; Little, J B

    1988-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of sister chromatid exchange frequency (SCE) in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 117 members of the International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Tradesman was conducted in union locals in two major U.S. cities. Chronic solvent exposure intensity and duration were estimated from interviewer-administered-questionnaire data. SCE for all of the workers in the study were scored by one reader. A second reader determined the SCE frequency from a random sample of 30 workers. No significant difference in SCE frequency was associated with reader or time of reading. Age, coffee and alcohol intake and chronic solvent exposure (both intensity and duration, estimated over the working lifetime and over the year prior to study for each worker) did not significantly elevate SCE. The effect of smoking on SCE frequency, assessed by analysis of variance controlling for other possible confounding factors, showed that smoking increased SCE frequency (P less than .0001). The SCE frequency in the smoking, solvent-exposed (estimated as lifetime exposure) painters was 6.75 SCE/cell; in the non-smoking, solvent-exposed workers the SCE frequency was 5.73 SCE/cell; the controls had SCE levels of 6.84 SCE/cell (smokers) and 5.90 SCE/cell (non-smokers), respectively. These observations are consistent with other work suggesting that chronic solvent exposure in the paint trade is not associated with an elevation in SCE in peripheral blood lymphocytes. However, further work is necessary to address adequately the question of the genotoxicity of acute solvent exposure in these workers.

  10. Solution Radioactivated by Hadron Radiation Can Increase Sister Chromatid Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Junko; Yurkon, Charles R; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Sayaka; Brents, Colleen A; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fujimori, Akira; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2015-01-01

    When energetic particles irradiate matter, it becomes activated by nuclear reactions. Radioactivation induced cellular effects are not clearly understood, but it could be a part of bystander effects. This investigation is aimed at understanding the biological effects from radioactivation in solution induced by hadron radiation. Water or phosphate buffered saline was activated by being exposed to hadron radiation including protons, carbon- and iron-ions. 1 mL of radioactivated solution was transferred to flasks with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells cultured in 5 mL of complete media. The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) was used to observe any increase in DNA damage responses. The energy spectrum and the half-lives of the radioactivation were analyzed by NaI scintillation detector in order to identify generated radionuclides. In the radioactivated solution, 511 keV gamma-rays were observed, and their half-lives were approximately 2 min, 10 min, and 20 min. They respectively correspond to the beta+ decay of 15O, 13N, and 11C. The SCE frequencies in CHO cells increased depending on the amount of radioactivation in the solution. These were suppressed with a 2-hour delayed solution transfer or pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Our results suggest that the SCE induction by radioactivated solution was mediated by free radicals produced by the annihilated gamma-rays. Since the SCE induction and DMSO modulation are also reported in radiation-induced bystander effects, our results imply that radioactivation of the solution may have some contribution to the bystander effects from hadron radiation. Further investigations are required to assess if radioactivation effects would attribute an additional level of cancer risk of the hadron radiation therapy itself.

  11. 2 SISTERS WITH MENTAL-RETARDATION, CATARACT, ATAXIA, PROGRESSIVE HEARING-LOSS, AND POLYNEUROPATHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEGEER, JH; SCHOLTE, FA; VANESSEN, AJ

    1991-01-01

    Two sisters are described with a disorder characterised by mental retardation, congenital cataract, progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and signs of peripheral neuropathy. Progressive hearing loss, ataxia, and polyneuropathy became evident in the third decade. The

  12. p53 gene discriminates two ecologically divergent sister species of pine voles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quina, A S; Bastos-Silveira, C; Miñarro, M; Ventura, J; Jiménez, R; Paulo, O S; da Luz Mathias, M

    2015-01-01

    ... (Microtus lusitanicus) and Mediterranean (M. duodecimcostatus) pine voles are two recently separated sister species with fossorial lifestyles whose different ecological, physiological and morphological phenotypes reflect the better adaptation of M...

  13. West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the West Sister Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  14. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st...

  15. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  16. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  17. The role of the sister in a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Salayi

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurses sometimes seem to think that nursing in rural hospitals is less stimulating than that in city hospitals with all their super-sophisticated equipment and modern intensive care units: on the other hand, if we consider the concept of health which visualises a state of physical, mental and socio-economic wellbeing for the individual, his family and the community in which he lives and not merely the absence of disease, then we see nursing in rural hospitals as a great challenge for the nurse. As in rural areas life is less busy than in cities, the number of patients in a hospital is usually manageable. Hence the nurse has the opportunity to treat her patients in their “ totality” - physically, mentally and spiritually.

  18. The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Henry Buckley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.

  19. The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met. PMID:26114245

  20. Memories of childhood neglect and abuse: corroboration in a series of sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, A; Brown, G W; Lillie, A; Jarvis, J

    1997-03-01

    Reports from 87 community-based sister-pairs, selected for high rates of neglect or abuse in childhood, have been used to establish validity of the CECA, a retrospective interview measure of childhood experience. Corroboration was based on independent assessments of sisters' accounts of what happened to each other in childhood. Corroboration of scales assessing parental neglect, physical abuse in the household and sexual abuse (either household or nonhousehold) was satisfactory, with a mean correlation for the three experiences of .60 (weighted kappa [Kw]). Concordance reflected the degree to which experience was shared and was judged by comparing the sisters' accounts of their own experience. Among sisters with shared (concordant) experience for neglect or abuse, corroboration was high (mean of .74), but for those with nonshared (nonconcordant) experience it was largely absent (mean of .01). The degree to which the experiences of neglect or abuse were concordant was related to whether the perpetrator was a member of the household. Neglect and physical abuse were by definition from household members (mainly parents) and involved high concordance of experience. Sexual abuse occurred from many sources and in practice was commonly from an adult living outside the household and such experiences were less likely to be shared by sisters. An overall index indicating the presence of at least one abusive experience before the age of 17 showed a concordance of .64 with corroboration between sisters as high as .70. Issues involving retrospective recall and measurement are discussed.

  1. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-12-15

    Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the sister group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has recently been challenged by analyses of the genomes of comb jellies (Ctenophora), which, instead, found ctenophores as the sister group to the remaining animals (the "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis). Because ctenophores are morphologically complex predators with true epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, and guts, this scenario implies these traits were either present in the last common ancestor of all animals and were lost secondarily in sponges and placozoans (Trichoplax) or, alternatively, evolved convergently in comb jellies. Here, we analyze representative datasets from recent studies supporting Ctenophora-sister, including genome-scale alignments of concatenated protein sequences, as well as a genomic gene content dataset. We found no support for Ctenophora-sister and conclude it is an artifact resulting from inadequate methodology, especially the use of simplistic evolutionary models and inappropriate choice of species to root the metazoan tree. Our results reinforce a traditional scenario for the evolution of complexity in animals, and indicate that inferences about the evolution of Metazoa based on the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis are not supported by the currently available data.

  2. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  3. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  4. IVF for premature ovarian failure: first reported births using oocytes donated from a twin sister.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian failure (POF) remains a clinically challenging entity because in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with donor oocytes is currently the only treatment known to be effective. METHODS: A 33 year-old nulligravid patient with a normal karyotype was diagnosed with POF; she had a history of failed fertility treatments and had an elevated serum FSH (42 mIU\\/ml). Oocytes donated by her dizygotic twin sister were used for IVF. The donor had already completed a successful pregnancy herself and subsequently produced a total of 10 oocytes after a combined FSH\\/LH superovulation regime. These eggs were fertilised with sperm from the recipient\\'s husband via intracytoplasmic injection and two fresh embryos were transferred to the recipient on day three. RESULTS: A healthy twin pregnancy resulted from IVF; two boys were delivered by caesarean section at 39 weeks\\' gestation. Additionally, four embryos were cryopreserved for the recipient\\'s future use. The sister-donor achieved another natural pregnancy six months after oocyte retrieval, resulting in a healthy singleton delivery. CONCLUSION: POF is believed to affect approximately 1% of reproductive age females, and POF patients with a sister who can be an oocyte donor for IVF are rare. Most such IVF patients will conceive from treatment using oocytes from an anonymous oocyte donor. This is the first report of births following sister-donor oocyte IVF in Ireland. Indeed, while sister-donor IVF has been successfully undertaken by IVF units elsewhere, this is the only known case where oocyte donation involved twin sisters. As with all types of donor gamete therapy, pre-treatment counselling is important in the circumstance of sister oocyte donation.

  5. IVF for premature ovarian failure: first reported births using oocytes donated from a twin sister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ovarian failure (POF remains a clinically challenging entity because in vitro fertilisation (IVF with donor oocytes is currently the only treatment known to be effective. Methods A 33 year-old nulligravid patient with a normal karyotype was diagnosed with POF; she had a history of failed fertility treatments and had an elevated serum FSH (42 mIU/ml. Oocytes donated by her dizygotic twin sister were used for IVF. The donor had already completed a successful pregnancy herself and subsequently produced a total of 10 oocytes after a combined FSH/LH superovulation regime. These eggs were fertilised with sperm from the recipient's husband via intracytoplasmic injection and two fresh embryos were transferred to the recipient on day three. Results A healthy twin pregnancy resulted from IVF; two boys were delivered by caesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. Additionally, four embryos were cryopreserved for the recipient's future use. The sister-donor achieved another natural pregnancy six months after oocyte retrieval, resulting in a healthy singleton delivery. Conclusion POF is believed to affect approximately 1% of reproductive age females, and POF patients with a sister who can be an oocyte donor for IVF are rare. Most such IVF patients will conceive from treatment using oocytes from an anonymous oocyte donor. This is the first report of births following sister-donor oocyte IVF in Ireland. Indeed, while sister-donor IVF has been successfully undertaken by IVF units elsewhere, this is the only known case where oocyte donation involved twin sisters. As with all types of donor gamete therapy, pre-treatment counselling is important in the circumstance of sister oocyte donation.

  6. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Three Sisters Region, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Iverson, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Three Sisters is one of three active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. The major composite volcanoes of this area are clustered near the center of the region and include South Sister, Middle Sister, and Broken Top. Additionally, hundreds of mafic volcanoes are scattered throughout the Three Sisters area. These range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North Sister and Belknap Crater. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the Cascade Range also contribute to volcano hazards in Central Oregon. Scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory created a geographic information system (GIS) data set which depicts proximal and distal lahar hazard zones as well as a regional lava flow hazard zone for Three Sisters (USGS Open-File Report 99-437, Scott and others, 1999). The various distal lahar zones were constructed from LaharZ software using 20, 100, and 500 million cubic meter input flow volumes. Additionally, scientists used the depositional history of past events in the Three Sisters Region as well as experience and judgment derived from the

  7. Investigating the etiology of multiple tooth agenesis in three sisters with severe oligodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, S; Bailleul-Forestier, I; Arte, S; Nieminen, P; Devriendt, K; Carels, C

    2008-02-01

    To describe the dentofacial phenotypes of three sisters with severe non-syndromic oligodontia, to report on the mutation analysis in three genes, previously shown to cause various phenotypes of non-syndromic oligodontia and in two other suspected genes. Based on the phenotypes in the pedigree of this family, the different possible patterns of transmission are discussed. Anamnestic data and a panoramic radiograph were taken to study the phenotype of the three sisters and their first-degree relatives. Blood samples were also taken to obtain their karyotypes and DNA samples. Mutational screening was performed for the MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, DLX1 and DLX2 genes. The probands' pedigree showed evidence for a recessive or multifactorial inheritance pattern. Normal chromosomal karyotypes were found and - despite the severe oligodontia present in all three sisters - no mutation appeared to be present in the five genes studied so far in these patients. In the three sisters reported, their common oligodontia phenotype is not caused by mutations in the coding regions of MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, DLX1 or DLX2 genes, but genetic factors most probably play a role as all three sisters were affected. Environmental and epigenetic factors as well as genes regulating odontogenesis need further in vivo and in vitro investigation to explain the phenotypic heterogeneity and to increase our understanding of the odontogenic processes.

  8. The management of professionals: the preferences of hospital sisters and charge nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D

    1995-05-01

    This analysis of the preferences of how sisters and charge nurses are managed is the result of a two centre descriptive study using theoretical models of professionalism, developing preferences and exercising situational leadership. It was conducted to determine if the management structure preferred by sisters and charge nurses, in a general acute hospital setting, supported the professionalism of nursing. The outcomes were intended to help develop a strategic plan for the future of nursing and the management of nurses. The research instruments were a self-completed questionnaire (19 were returned, a response rate of 31.1%) and four semi-structured interviews. The findings disclosed some dissatisfaction with the present management arrangements. The sisters and charge nurses felt that their priorities for practice and professional issues were better supported by clinically involved, ward-based senior nurses than by unit-based senior nurses with a general management function. However, sisters' and charge nurses' discussions with ward-based senior nurses were apparently less effective than discussions in peer groups which led to influential collegial autonomy. This preferred management style can be supported by the use of situational leadership theory which would enhance collegial autonomy and professional satisfaction. Recognition of the sisters and charge nurses preferences and adjustment of their management would therefore enable them to participate effectively in organizational decision-making.

  9. Building sister chromatid cohesion: smc3 acetylation counteracts an antiestablishment activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Benjamin D; Roig, Maurici B; Nishino, Tatsuya; Kurze, Alexander; Uluocak, Pelin; Mishra, Ajay; Beckouët, Frédéric; Underwood, Philippa; Metson, Jean; Imre, Richard; Mechtler, Karl; Katis, Vittorio L; Nasmyth, Kim

    2009-03-27

    Cohesin's Smc1, Smc3, and Scc1 subunits form a tripartite ring that entraps sister DNAs. Scc3, Pds5, and Rad61 (Wapl) are regulatory subunits that control this process. We describe here smc3, scc3, pds5, and rad61 mutations that permit yeast cell proliferation and entrapment of sister DNAs by cohesin rings in the absence of Eco1, an acetyl transferase normally essential for establishing sister chromatid cohesion. The smc3 mutations cluster around and include a highly conserved lysine (K113) close to Smc3's ATP-binding pocket, which, together with K112, is acetylated by Eco1. Lethality caused by mutating both residues to arginine is suppressed by the scc3, pds5, and rad61 mutants. Scc3, Pds5, and Rad61 form a complex and inhibit entrapment of sister DNAs by a process involving the "K112/K113" surface on Smc3's ATPase. According to this model, Eco1 promotes sister DNA entrapment partly by relieving an antiestablishment activity associated with Scc3, Pds5, and Rad61.

  10. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  11. Maternal age-dependent APC/C-mediated decrease in securin causes premature sister chromatid separation in meiosis II

    OpenAIRE

    Nabti, Ibtissem; Grimes, Rosanna; Sarna, Hema; Marangos, Petros; Carroll, John

    2017-01-01

    Sister chromatid attachment during meiosis II (MII) is maintained by securin-mediated inhibition of separase. In maternal ageing, oocytes show increased inter-sister kinetochore distance and premature sister chromatid separation (PSCS), suggesting aberrant separase activity. Here, we find that MII oocytes from aged mice have less securin than oocytes from young mice and that this reduction is mediated by increased destruction by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) during meiosis ...

  12. Frequent and efficient use of the sister chromatid for DNA double-strand break repair during budding yeast meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Goldfarb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recombination between homologous chromosomes of different parental origin (homologs is necessary for their accurate segregation during meiosis. It has been suggested that meiotic inter-homolog recombination is promoted by a barrier to inter-sister-chromatid recombination, imposed by meiosis-specific components of the chromosome axis. Consistent with this, measures of Holliday junction-containing recombination intermediates (joint molecules [JMs] show a strong bias towards inter-homolog and against inter-sister JMs. However, recombination between sister chromatids also has an important role in meiosis. The genomes of diploid organisms in natural populations are highly polymorphic for insertions and deletions, and meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs that form within such polymorphic regions must be repaired by inter-sister recombination. Efforts to study inter-sister recombination during meiosis, in particular to determine recombination frequencies and mechanisms, have been constrained by the inability to monitor the products of inter-sister recombination. We present here molecular-level studies of inter-sister recombination during budding yeast meiosis. We examined events initiated by DSBs in regions that lack corresponding sequences on the homolog, and show that these DSBs are efficiently repaired by inter-sister recombination. This occurs with the same timing as inter-homolog recombination, but with reduced (2- to 3-fold yields of JMs. Loss of the meiotic-chromosome-axis-associated kinase Mek1 accelerates inter-sister DSB repair and markedly increases inter-sister JM frequencies. Furthermore, inter-sister JMs formed in mek1Δ mutants are preferentially lost, while inter-homolog JMs are maintained. These findings indicate that inter-sister recombination occurs frequently during budding yeast meiosis, with the possibility that up to one-third of all recombination events occur between sister chromatids. We suggest that a Mek1-dependent reduction in

  13. Subcortical laminar heterotopia in two sisters and their mother: MRI, clinical findings and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, P H; Snoeck, I; Meiners, L C; des Portes, V; Chelly, J; Pinard, J M; Ippel, P F; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Peters, A C

    1999-06-01

    MR imaging, clinical data and underlying pathogenesis of subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH), also known as band heterotopia, in two sisters and their mother are presented. On MR imaging a different degree of SCLH was found in all three affected family-members. The inversion recovery sequence was considered most useful in the demonstration of the heterotopic band of gray matter and the assessment of cortical thickness. The younger sister presented with epileptic seizures at the age of five months and a delayed achievement of developmental milestones. The older sister of seven years had epileptic seizures since the age of one year, and developmental delay. Their mother has only had one seizure-like episode at the age of 39. Her psychomotor development had been normal. Investigation of DNA samples of the three female family-members revealed a mutation in the X-linked doublecortin gene. Within families with band heterotopia, this gene has also been related to male family members with lissencephaly.

  14. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    with their relatively concrete dimensions are absent when the main question is one of values. Furthermore, when  the relatively straightforward identification and power structures of corporations and consumers are replaced by the more diversified structures of city government, their poplulations, and potential visitors......Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  15. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...... of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance...

  16. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning".......Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...

  17. RecA bundles mediate homology pairing between distant sisters during DNA break repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesterlin, Christian; Ball, Graeme; Schermelleh, Lothar; Sherratt, David J.

    2014-02-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination has evolved to maintain genetic integrity in all organisms. Although many reactions that occur during homologous recombination are known, it is unclear where, when and how they occur in cells. Here, by using conventional and super-resolution microscopy, we describe the progression of DSB repair in live Escherichia coli. Specifically, we investigate whether homologous recombination can occur efficiently between distant sister loci that have segregated to opposite halves of an E. coli cell. We show that a site-specific DSB in one sister can be repaired efficiently using distant sister homology. After RecBCD processing of the DSB, RecA is recruited to the cut locus, where it nucleates into a bundle that contains many more RecA molecules than can associate with the two single-stranded DNA regions that form at the DSB. Mature bundles extend along the long axis of the cell, in the space between the bulk nucleoid and the inner membrane. Bundle formation is followed by pairing, in which the two ends of the cut locus relocate at the periphery of the nucleoid and together move rapidly towards the homology of the uncut sister. After sister locus pairing, RecA bundles disassemble and proteins that act late in homologous recombination are recruited to give viable recombinants 1-2-generation-time equivalents after formation of the initial DSB. Mutated RecA proteins that do not form bundles are defective in sister pairing and in DSB-induced repair. This work reveals an unanticipated role of RecA bundles in channelling the movement of the DNA DSB ends, thereby facilitating the long-range homology search that occurs before the strand invasion and transfer reactions.

  18. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  19. Ukrainian and European Baroque in the Context of “Sister Arts” Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Shikirinskaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the “Sister Arts” tradition as the interrelationship of various art forms (poetry, fiction, painting, theatre, music etc. relative to the Baroque period. “Sister Arts” criticism, based on E.G. Lessing essay “Laocoön…” uses the inter-art analogies to appreciate the importance of literature in the Arts, as well as to comprehend aspects of the modern approach to the synthesis of the arts. The article presents the aesthetic concept of Baroque art and its realization in architecture, sculpture, decorative and applied arts, music and literature on the background of the European and Ukrainian cultural tradition.

  20. Synergistic convergence and split pons in horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis in two sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic convergence is an ocular motor anomaly where on attempted abduction or on attempted horizontal gaze, both the eyes converge. It has been related to peripheral causes such as congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM, congenital cranial dysinnervation syndrome, ocular misinnervation or rarely central causes like horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, brain stem dysplasia. We hereby report the occurrence of synergistic convergence in two sisters. Both of them also had kyphoscoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain and spine in both the patients showed signs of brain stem dysplasia (split pons sign differing in degree (younger sister had more marked changes.

  1. Saccharin-induced sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster and human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, S.; Rodin, B.

    1978-05-05

    Since the induction of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured cells has been shown to be the most sensitive mammalian system to detect the effects of mutagenic carcinogens, Chinese hamster ovary cells and human lymphocytes were exposed to the sodium saccharin found to induce bladder cancer in rats. Both that saccharin and a highly purified extract of it increased the yield of sister chromatid exchanges in both types of cells. The results, which were repeatable and statistically highly significant, indicated that the weak carcinogen, saccharin, is also mutagenic in the sense that it induces cytogenetic changes.

  2. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  3. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult......This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the paper, which concludes with a presentation of a new field of research that highlights the problems and the new opportunities with which "the experience city" is faced. Special...... attention is put on a new research project called "Experience City - hybrid cultural projects and performative urban spaces". The thesis and research themes are presented and related to the general framework of present cultural planning and post industrial urban transformation....

  4. Sister Mary Joseph Nodules on 99mTc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hongli; Zhang, Yingqiang; Li, Fang

    2015-02-01

    A Sister Mary Joseph nodule represents an umbilical metastasis, which is more commonly caused by a primary malignancy in gastrointestinal tract or from reproductive system. We report Sister Mary Joseph nodules caused by neuroendocrine tumor and revealed on Tc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy.

  5. Double-strand breaks are not the main cause of spontaneous sister chromatid exchange in wild-type yeast cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claussin, Clemence; Porubský, David; Spierings, Diana; Halsema, Nancy; Rentas, Stefan; Guryev, Victor; Lansdorp, Peter; Chang, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Homologous recombination involving sister chromatids is the most accurate, and thus most frequently used, form of recombination-mediated DNA repair. Despite its importance, sister chromatid recombination is not easily studied because it does not result in a change in DNA sequence, making

  6. Genome-wide mapping of sister chromatid exchange events in single yeast cells using Strand-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claussin, Clemence; Porubsky, David; Spierings, Diana C. J.; Halsema, Nancy; Rentas, Stefan; Guryev, Victor; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Chang, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Homologous recombination involving sister chromatids is the most accurate, and thus most frequently used, form of recombination-mediated DNA repair. Despite its importance, sister chromatid recombination is not easily studied because it does not result in a change in DNA sequence, making

  7. Teaching Sisters and Transnational Networks: Recruitment and Education Expansion in the Long Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the management of the education enterprise of teaching Sisters, with reference to their transnational networking. The article suggests that orders of women religious were the first all-female transnational networks, engaged constantly in work that was characterised by "movement, ebb and circulation". The mobility of…

  8. New insights on the sister lineage of percomorph fishes with an anchored hybrid enrichment dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornburg, Alex; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Brooks, Willa; Spriggs, Elizabeth; Eytan, Ron I; Moore, Jon A; Wainwright, Peter C; Lemmon, Alan; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Near, Thomas J

    2017-05-01

    Percomorph fishes represent over 17,100 species, including several model organisms and species of economic importance. Despite continuous advances in the resolution of the percomorph Tree of Life, resolution of the sister lineage to Percomorpha remains inconsistent but restricted to a small number of candidate lineages. Here we use an anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) dataset of 132 loci with over 99,000 base pairs to identify the sister lineage of percomorph fishes. Initial analyses of this dataset failed to recover a strongly supported sister clade to Percomorpha, however, scrutiny of the AHE dataset revealed a bias towards high GC content at fast-evolving codon partitions (GC bias). By combining several existing approaches aimed at mitigating the impacts of convergence in GC bias, including RY coding and analyses of amino acids, we consistently recovered a strongly supported clade comprised of Holocentridae (squirrelfishes), Berycidae (Alfonsinos), Melamphaidae (bigscale fishes), Cetomimidae (flabby whalefishes), and Rondeletiidae (redmouth whalefishes) as the sister lineage to Percomorpha. Additionally, implementing phylogenetic informativeness (PI) based metrics as a filtration method yielded this same topology, suggesting PI based approaches will preferentially filter these fast-evolving regions and act in a manner consistent with other phylogenetic approaches aimed at mitigating GC bias. Our results provide a new perspective on a key issue for studies investigating the evolutionary history of more than one quarter of all living species of vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking Shorebird Conservation and Education Along Flyways: An Overview of the Shorebird Sister Schools Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary Chapman; Heather Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The Shorebird Sister Schools Program (SSSP) is an internet-based environmental education program that provides a forum for students, biologists, and shorebird enthusiasts to track shorebird migration and share observations along flyways. The program?s vision is to engage public participation in the conservation of shorebirds and their wetland, grassland, and shoreline...

  10. Comparison of genome stability in two pig breeds by using the sister chromatid exchange (SCE test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sister chromatid exchange (SCE test has been used to detect genome stability in humans (Chaganti, 1974 and the main livestock species (Ciotola et al., 2004; Di Meo et al., 2000; Di Berardino et al., 1979, and to discover DNA damage caused by a variety of natural and artificial chemical compounds (Iannuzzi et al., 1990.

  11. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  12. Constraining volcanic inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Field in Oregon, USA, through microgravity and deformation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Jeffrey; William-Jones, Glyn; Johnson, Dan; Eggers, Al

    2012-10-01

    Microgravity data were collected between 2002 and 2009 at the Three Sisters Volcanic Complex, Oregon, to investigate the causes of an ongoing deformation event west of South Sister volcano. Three different conceptual models have been proposed as the causal mechanism for the deformation event: (1) hydraulic uplift due to continual injection of magma at depth, (2) pressurization of hydrothermal systems and (3) viscoelastic response to an initial pressurization at depth. The gravitational effect of continual magma injection was modeled to be 20 to 33 μGal at the center of the deformation field with volumes based on previous deformation studies. The gravity time series, however, did not detect a mass increase suggesting that a viscoelactic response of the crust is the most likely cause for the deformation from 2002 to 2009. The crust, deeper than 3 km, in the Three Sisters region was modeled as a Maxwell viscoelastic material and the results suggest a dynamic viscosity between 1018 to 5 × 1019 Pa s. This low crustal viscosity suggests that magma emplacement or stall depth is controlled by density and not the brittle ductile transition zone. Furthermore, these crustal properties and the observed geochemical composition gaps at Three Sisters can be best explained by different melt sources and limited magma mixing rather than fractional crystallization. More generally, low intrusion rates, low crustal viscosity, and multiple melt sources could also explain the whole rock compositional gaps observed at other arc volcanoes.

  13. Histone Chaperone NAP1 Mediates Sister Chromatid Resolution by Counteracting Protein Phosphatase 2A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Moshkin (Yuri); C.M. Doyen (Cécile); T.W. Kan (Tsung Wai); G.E. Chalkley (Gillian); K. Sap (Karen); K. Bezstarosti (Karel); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); Z. Özgür (Zeliha); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); C.P. Verrijzer (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractChromosome duplication and transmission into daughter cells requires the precisely orchestrated binding and release of cohesin. We found that the Drosophila histone chaperone NAP1 is required for cohesin release and sister chromatid resolution during mitosis. Genome-wide surveys revealed

  14. Bromodeoxyuridine does not contribute to sister chromatid exchange events in normal or Bloom syndrome cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wietmarschen, Niek; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are considered sensitive indicators of genome instability. Detection of SCEs typically requires cells to incorporate bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) during two rounds of DNA synthesis. Previous studies have suggested that SCEs are induced by DNA replication over

  15. SISTER-CHROMATID EXCHANGES IN CULTURED IMMATURE EMBRYOS OF WHEAT SPECIES AND REGENERANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1994-01-01

    Immature embryos of Triticum aestivum (ten cultivars and lines), T. durum, T. dicoccum and T. monococcum were cultured in vitro on MS medium supplemented with 1 or 2 mg/l of 2,4-D and 20 or 30g/l of sucrose for 3 days and processed to score sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) per chromosome. Media

  16. Food Yields and Nutrient Analyses of the Three Sisters: A Haudenosaunee Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mt.Pleasant

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have studied The Three Sisters, a traditional cropping system of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois, from multiple perspectives. However, there is no research examining food yields, defined as the quantities of energy and protein produced per unit land area, from the cropping system within Iroquoia. This article compares food yields and other nutrient contributions from the Three Sisters, comprised of interplanted maize, bean and pumpkin, with monocultures of these same crops. The Three Sisters yields more energy (12.25 x 106 kcal/ha and more protein (349 kg/ha than any of the crop monocultures or mixtures of monocultures planted to the same area. The Three Sisters supplies 13.42 people/ha/yr. with energy and 15.86 people/ha/yr. with protein. Nutrient contents of the crops are further enhanced by nixtamalization, a traditional processing technique where maize is cooked in a high alkaline solution. This process increases calcium, protein quality, and niacin in maize.

  17. Exploring Undergraduate Black Womyn's Motivations for Engaging in "Sister Circle" Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Natasha N.; Beatty, Cameron C.; Acker, Lorraine D.; Butler, Malika

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this critical qualitative inquiry was to explore what motivated undergraduate Black womyn (UBW) to engage in "Sister Circle"-type student organizations--or groups that center race and gender. Using a critical race feminist theoretical lens, data were collected through a combination of one-on-one interviews and focus…

  18. A REACTION TO SISTER MARY EDWARD DOLAN'S LINGUISTICS IN TEACHING READING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARNHART, CLARENCE L.

    A REACTION TO SISTER MARY EDWARD DOLAN'S ARTICLE, "EFFECTS OF A MODIFIED LINGUISTICS AND WORD RECOGNITION PROGRAM ON FOURTH-GRADE READING ACHIEVEMENT," WHICH APPEARED IN THE "READING RESEARCH QUARTERLY" AND WHICH DESCRIBES THE RESULTS OF A 3-YEAR EXPERIMENT IN TEACHING READING WITH A BASAL SYSTEM TO A CONTROL GROUP OF 10 CLASSROOMS AND TEACHING…

  19. Subcortical laminar heterotopia in two sisters and their mother : MRI, clinical findings and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, PHM; Snoeck, [No Value; Meiners, LC; des Portes, [No Value; Chelly, J; Pinard, JM; Ippel, PF; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    MR imaging, clinical data and underlying pathogenesis of subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH), also known as band heterotopia, in two sisters and their mother are presented. On MR imaging a different degree of SCLH was found in all three affected family-members. The inversion recovery sequence was

  20. Regulation of Sister Chromosome Cohesion by the Replication Fork Tracking Protein SeqA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mohan C.; Magnan, David; Montminy, Timothy P.; Lies, Mark; Stepankiw, Nicholas; Bates, David

    2013-01-01

    Analogously to chromosome cohesion in eukaryotes, newly replicated DNA in E. coli is held together by inter-sister linkages before partitioning into daughter nucleoids. In both cases, initial joining is apparently mediated by DNA catenation, in which replication-induced positive supercoils diffuse behind the fork, causing newly replicated duplexes to twist around each other. Type-II topoisomerase-catalyzed sister separation is delayed by the well-characterized cohesin complex in eukaryotes, but cohesion control in E. coli is not currently understood. We report that the abundant fork tracking protein SeqA is a strong positive regulator of cohesion, and is responsible for markedly prolonged cohesion observed at “snap” loci. Epistasis analysis suggests that SeqA stabilizes cohesion by antagonizing Topo IV-mediated sister resolution, and possibly also by a direct bridging mechanism. We show that variable cohesion observed along the E. coli chromosome is caused by differential SeqA binding, with oriC and snap loci binding disproportionally more SeqA. We propose that SeqA binding results in loose inter-duplex junctions that are resistant to Topo IV cleavage. Lastly, reducing cohesion by genetic manipulation of Topo IV or SeqA resulted in dramatically slowed sister locus separation and poor nucleoid partitioning, indicating that cohesion has a prominent role in chromosome segregation. PMID:23990792

  1. The role of the unit sister - emphasis on quality of care and accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bergman

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper includes three important concepts. They are: role of the unit sister (or head nurse, quality of care and accountability. Each of these will be dealt with briefly and an attempt made to show the interrelationship between them.

  2. Brother-Sister Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…

  3. 20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.380 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's...

  4. High-functioning autism spectrum disorder and fragile X syndrome: report of two affected sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaste Pauline

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability (ID, as well as the most frequent monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Men with FXS exhibit ID, often associated with autistics features, whereas women heterozygous for the full mutation are typically less severely affected; about half have a normal or borderline intelligence quotient (IQ. Previous findings have shown a strong association between ID and ASD in both men and women with FXS. We describe here the case of two sisters with ASD and FXS but without ID. One of the sisters presented with high-functioning autism, the other one with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified and low normal IQ. Methods The methylation status of the mutated FMR1 alleles was examined by Southern blot and methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction. The X-chromosome inactivation was determined by analyzing the methylation status of the androgen receptor at Xq12. Results Both sisters carried a full mutation in the FMR1 gene, with complete methylation and random X chromosome inactivation. We present the phenotype of the two sisters and other family members. Conclusions These findings suggest that autistic behaviors and cognitive impairment can manifest as independent traits in FXS. Mutations in FMR1, known to cause syndromic autism, may also contribute to the etiology of high-functioning, non-syndromic ASD, particularly in women. Thus, screening for FXS in patients with ASD should not be limited to those with comorbid ID.

  5. Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Nathan V; Kocot, Kevin M; Moroz, Leonid L; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2015-05-05

    Elucidating relationships among early animal lineages has been difficult, and recent phylogenomic analyses place Ctenophora sister to all other extant animals, contrary to the traditional view of Porifera as the earliest-branching animal lineage. To date, phylogenetic support for either ctenophores or sponges as sister to other animals has been limited and inconsistent among studies. Lack of agreement among phylogenomic analyses using different data and methods obscures how complex traits, such as epithelia, neurons, and muscles evolved. A consensus view of animal evolution will not be accepted until datasets and methods converge on a single hypothesis of early metazoan relationships and putative sources of systematic error (e.g., long-branch attraction, compositional bias, poor model choice) are assessed. Here, we investigate possible causes of systematic error by expanding taxon sampling with eight novel transcriptomes, strictly enforcing orthology inference criteria, and progressively examining potential causes of systematic error while using both maximum-likelihood with robust data partitioning and Bayesian inference with a site-heterogeneous model. We identified ribosomal protein genes as possessing a conflicting signal compared with other genes, which caused some past studies to infer ctenophores and cnidarians as sister. Importantly, biases resulting from elevated compositional heterogeneity or elevated substitution rates are ruled out. Placement of ctenophores as sister to all other animals, and sponge monophyly, are strongly supported under multiple analyses, herein.

  6. Interlinked Sister Chromosomes Arise in the Absence of Condensin during Fast Replication in B. subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Stephan; Veening, Jan-Willem; Bach, Juri; Blettinger, Martin; Bramkamp, Marc; Errington, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Condensin—an SMC-kleisin complex—is essential for efficient segregation of sister chromatids in eukaryotes. In Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, deletion of condensin subunits results in severe growth phenotypes and the accumulation of cells lacking nucleoids. In many other bacteria and under

  7. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Solutions of sharing that seeks to improve our cities and local communities in both urban and rural environments. 24 sharing economy organisations and businesses addressing urban and rural issues are being portrayed and seven Danish municipalities that have explored the potentials of sharing economy....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  8. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003......), urban design competitions are understudied mechanisms for bringing about field level changes. Drawing on actor network theory, this paper examines how urban design competitions may bring about changes within the professional field through the use of intermediaries such as a sustainable planning....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  9. Extensive range overlap between heliconiine sister species: evidence for sympatric speciation in butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Neil; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Phillimore, Albert B; Mallet, James

    2015-06-30

    Sympatric speciation is today generally viewed as plausible, and some well-supported examples exist, but its relative contribution to biodiversity remains to be established. We here quantify geographic overlap of sister species of heliconiine butterflies, and use age-range correlations and spatial simulations of the geography of speciation to infer the frequency of sympatric speciation. We also test whether shifts in mimetic wing colour pattern, host plant use and climate niche play a role in speciation, and whether such shifts are associated with sympatry. Approximately a third of all heliconiine sister species pairs exhibit near complete range overlap, and analyses of the observed patterns of range overlap suggest that sympatric speciation contributes 32%-95% of speciation events. Müllerian mimicry colour patterns and host plant choice are highly labile traits that seem to be associated with speciation, but we find no association between shifts in these traits and range overlap. In contrast, climatic niches of sister species are more conserved. Unlike birds and mammals, sister species of heliconiines are often sympatric and our inferences using the most recent comparative methods suggest that sympatric speciation is common. However, if sister species spread rapidly into sympatry (e.g. due to their similar climatic niches), then assumptions underlying our methods would be violated. Furthermore, although we find some evidence for the role of ecology in speciation, ecological shifts did not show the associations with range overlap expected under sympatric speciation. We delimit species of heliconiines in three different ways, based on "strict and " "relaxed" biological species concepts (BSC), as well as on a surrogate for the widely-used "diagnostic" version of the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). We show that one reason why more sympatric speciation is inferred in heliconiines than in birds may be due to a different culture of species delimitation in the two

  10. Sisters unbound is required for meiotic centromeric cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Badri; Thomas, Sharon E; Yan, Rihui; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Zhulin, Igor B; McKee, Bruce D

    2014-11-01

    Regular meiotic chromosome segregation requires sister centromeres to mono-orient (orient to the same pole) during the first meiotic division (meiosis I) when homologous chromosomes segregate, and to bi-orient (orient to opposite poles) during the second meiotic division (meiosis II) when sister chromatids segregate. Both orientation patterns require cohesion between sister centromeres, which is established during meiotic DNA replication and persists until anaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic cohesion is mediated by a conserved four-protein complex called cohesin that includes two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits (SMC1 and SMC3) and two non-SMC subunits. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, the meiotic cohesion apparatus has not been fully characterized and the non-SMC subunits have not been identified. We have identified a novel Drosophila gene called sisters unbound (sunn), which is required for stable sister chromatid cohesion throughout meiosis. sunn mutations disrupt centromere cohesion during prophase I and cause high frequencies of non-disjunction (NDJ) at both meiotic divisions in both sexes. SUNN co-localizes at centromeres with the cohesion proteins SMC1 and SOLO in both sexes and is necessary for the recruitment of both proteins to centromeres. Although SUNN lacks sequence homology to cohesins, bioinformatic analysis indicates that SUNN may be a structural homolog of the non-SMC cohesin subunit stromalin (SA), suggesting that SUNN may serve as a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit. In conclusion, our data show that SUNN is an essential meiosis-specific Drosophila cohesion protein. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Mutant analysis, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis B sister (ABS) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Kerstin; Anfang, Nicole; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter

    2005-09-01

    Recently, close relatives of class B floral homeotic genes, termed B(sister) genes, have been identified in both angiosperms and gymnosperms. In contrast to the B genes themselves, B(sister) genes are exclusively expressed in female reproductive organs, especially in the envelopes or integuments surrounding the ovules. This suggests an important ancient function in ovule or seed development for B(sister) genes, which has been conserved for about 300 million years. However, investigation of the first loss-of-function mutant for a B(sister) gene (ABS/TT16 from Arabidopsis) revealed only a weak phenotype affecting endothelium formation. Here, we present an analysis of two additional mutant alleles, which corroborates this weak phenotype. Transgenic plants that ectopically express ABS show changes in the growth and identity of floral organs, suggesting that ABS can interact with floral homeotic proteins. Yeast-two-hybrid and three-hybrid analyses indicated that ABS can form dimers with SEPALLATA (SEP) floral homeotic proteins and multimeric complexes that also include the AGAMOUS-like proteins SEEDSTICK (STK) or SHATTERPROOF1/2 (SHP1, SHP2). These data suggest that the formation of multimeric transcription factor complexes might be a general phenomenon among MIKC-type MADS-domain proteins in angiosperms. Heterodimerization of ABS with SEP3 was confirmed by gel retardation assays. Fusion proteins tagged with CFP (Cyan Fluorescent Protein) and YFP (Yellow Fluorescent Protein) in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that ABS is localized in the nucleus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a structurally deviant, but closely related, paralogue of ABS in the Arabidopsis genome. Thus the evolutionary developmental genetics of B(sister) genes can probably only be understood as part of a complex and redundant gene network that may govern ovule formation in a conserved manner, which has yet to be fully explored.

  12. Sister cities and easy passage: HIV, mobility and economies of desire in a Thai/Lao border zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Chris; Amarapibal, Amorntip

    2002-02-01

    It is recognised that people movement can increase potential risk of HIV transmission. In recent years, mobile populations moving across national borders have become a focus for HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. These programs generally target border "hot zones" that produce high levels of HIV vulnerability due to the degree of mobility and the risk behaviours fostered by these marginal environments. However, high degrees of movement and social exploitation need not be the only criteria for borders to exacerbate HIV vulnerability. The types of social interactions promoted by mobility take many forms. In this paper we consider a border zone between Thailand and Laos to show that the links between movement and HIV vulnerability are not confined to stereotypical instances of coercion and exploitation. Rather we demonstrate that HIV risk in this area is a product of both a sense of community and a sense of difference that together foster a range of interactions based on mobility back and forth across the border. As HIV/AIDS prevention programs increasingly control forms of sexual interaction, the border provides a practical and symbolic opportunity to establish new forms of sexual relationship falling outside these constraints. This tendency to move outside bounds is not limited to border areas but has implications for prevention programs everywhere.

  13. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city......-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships....

  14. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  15. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...

  16. The use of convent archival records in medical research: the School Sisters of Notre Dame archives and the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzwald, Gari-Anne; Wildt, Sister Carol Marie

    2004-01-01

    The School Sisters of Notre Dame (SSND) archives program in a cooperative system for the arrangement and preservation of the records of the SSND provinces in North America, including records of individual sisters. Archival records include autobiographies, school and college transcripts, employment histories, and family socioeconomic data. The Nun Study, a longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease and aging in 678 SSND sisters, compares data extracted from these records with data on late-life cognitive and physical function and postmortem brain neuropathology to explore early life factor that may affect late-life cognitive function and longevity.

  17. Umbilical metastasis (Sister Mary Joseph's nodule diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatomirović Željka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule is the eponym for metastatic involvement of the umbilicus. This less common entity is the sign of disseminated malignant disease, mainly of digestive and gynecologic origin, and is associated with a poor prognosis. A case of Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule in a 76-year-old woman in whom the umbilical metastasis was the first sign of malignant disease in presented. The diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma was established by fine needle aspiration cytology of the umbilical nodule. Radiological and ultrasonographic investigation disclosed carcinoma of the gallbladder with pancreas, stomach, and colon invasion as well as peritoneal dissemination. The diagnosis was confirmed by exploratory laparatomy and histological examination of the excised umbilical nodule.

  18. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of Apitol (cymiazole hydrochloride) in vitro by measurement of sister chromatid exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanimirovic, Zoran; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Jovanovic, Slobodan; Andjelkovic, Marko

    2005-12-30

    Apitol, with cymiazole hydrochloride as the active ingredient, is used in bee-keeping against the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. The preparation was evaluated for genotoxicity in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Sister chromatid exchange, the mitotic index and the cell proliferation index were determined for three experimental concentrations of Apitol (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml). All concentrations significantly (p < 0.001) increased the mitotic index (MI = 7.35+/-0.18%, 8.31+/-0.20% and 12.33+/-0.25%, respectively), the proliferative index (PI = 1.83+/-0.01, 1.84+/-0.01 and 1.88+/-0.02, respectively) and the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE = 8.19+/-1.81, 8.78+/-1.80 and 13.46+/-1.88, respectively), suggesting that cymiazole hydrochloride has genotoxic potential.

  19. The first record of a trans-oceanic sister-group relationship between obligate vertebrate troglobites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosanta Chakrabarty

    Full Text Available We show using the most complete phylogeny of one of the most species-rich orders of vertebrates (Gobiiformes, and calibrations from the rich fossil record of teleost fishes, that the genus Typhleotris, endemic to subterranean karst habitats in southwestern Madagascar, is the sister group to Milyeringa, endemic to similar subterranean systems in northwestern Australia. Both groups are eyeless, and our phylogenetic and biogeographic results show that these obligate cave fishes now found on opposite ends of the Indian Ocean (separated by nearly 7,000 km are each others closest relatives and owe their origins to the break up of the southern supercontinent, Gondwana, at the end of the Cretaceous period. Trans-oceanic sister-group relationships are otherwise unknown between blind, cave-adapted vertebrates and our results provide an extraordinary case of Gondwanan vicariance.

  20. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  1. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    upon qualitative interviews with residents as well as road network data and travel speed data collected with GPS to offer a combination of local testimony with GIS-based modelling of overall accessibility. It is argued that the use of digital network analysis enables planners to obtain a better......A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... knowledge of the spatial patterns of urban accessibility, while the analysis of mobility practices of residents enables a better understanding of the constraints people experience related to their livelihood strategies. Finally, the paper addresses how local residents engage in providing and improving...

  2. Elevated sister chromatid exchange phenotype of Bloom syndrome cells is complemented by human chromosome 15.

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, L. D.; Schultz, R A

    1992-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BSx) is a rare autosomal-recessive chromosome-instability disorder manifested by a constellation of clinical features including a significant predisposition to early onset of neoplasia. BSx cells display cytogenetic abnormalities, the pathognomonic feature being an increased rate of spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), 10- to 15-fold more frequent than SCEs seen in control cells. Identification of the primary biochemical defect in BSx and its relationship to SCE freq...

  3. The Biogeography of Adaptive Radiations and the Geographic Overlap of Sister Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontarp, Mikael; Ripa, Jörgen; Lundberg, Per

    2015-11-01

    The biogeography of speciation and what can be learned about the past mode of speciation from current biogeography of sister species are recurrent problems in evolution. We used a trait- and individual-based, eco-evolutionary model to simulate adaptive radiations and recorded the geographical overlap of species during and after evolutionary branching (speciation). We compared the spatial overlap among sister species in the fully saturated community with the overlap at the speciation event. The mean geographic overlap at speciation varied continuously from complete (sympatry) to none (allopatry), depending on local and regional environmental heterogeneity and the rate of dispersal. The distribution of overlap was, however, in some cases considerably bimodal. This tendency was most expressed at large values of regional heterogeneity, corresponding to sharp environmental contrasts. The mean geographic overlap also varied during the course of a radiation, sometimes with a consistent negative trend over time. The speciations that resulted in currently observable end community sister species were therefore not an unbiased sample of all speciations throughout the radiation. Postspeciation range shifts (causing increased overlap) occurred most frequently when dispersal was high or when local habitat heterogeneity was low. Our results help us understand how the patterns of geographic mode of speciation emerge. We also show the difficulty in inferring the geographical speciation mode from phylogenies and the biogeography of extant species.

  4. Testing plant barcoding in a sister species complex of pantropical Acacia (Mimosoideae, Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G, Newmaster; Subramanyam, Ragupathy

    2009-05-01

    Acacia species are quite difficult to differentiate using morphological characters. Routine identification of Acacia samples is important in order to distinguish invasive species from rare species or those of economic importance, particularly in the forest industry. The genus Acacia is quite abundant and diverse comprising approximately 1355 species, which is currently divided into three subgenera: subg. Acacia (c. 161 species), subg. Aculiferum (c. 235 species), and subg. Phyllodineae (c. 960 species). It would be prudent to utilize DNA barcoding in the accurate and efficient identification of acacias. The objective of this research is to test barcoding in discriminating multiple populations among a sister-species complex in pantropical Acacia subg. Acacia, across three continents. Based on previous research, we chose three cpDNA regions (rbcL, trnH-psbA and matK). Our results show that all three regions (rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA) can distinguish and support the newly proposed genera of Vachellia Wight & Arn. from Acacia Mill., discriminate sister species within either genera and differentiate biogeographical patterns among populations from India, Africa and Australia. A morphometric analysis confirmed the cryptic nature of these sister species and the limitations of a classification based on phenetic data. These results support the claim that DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for taxonomy and biogeography with utility for identifying cryptic species, biogeograhic patterns and resolving classifications at the rank of genera and species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Functional genomics identifies a requirement of pre-mRNA splicing factors for sister chromatid cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramoorthy, Sriramkumar; Vázquez-Novelle, María Dolores; Lekomtsev, Sergey; Howell, Michael; Petronczki, Mark

    2014-11-18

    Sister chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is essential for chromosome segregation during cell division. Using functional genomic screening, we identify a set of 26 pre-mRNA splicing factors that are required for sister chromatid cohesion in human cells. Loss of spliceosome subunits increases the dissociation rate of cohesin from chromatin and abrogates cohesion after DNA replication, ultimately causing mitotic catastrophe. Depletion of splicing factors causes defective processing of the pre-mRNA encoding sororin, a factor required for the stable association of cohesin with chromatin, and an associated reduction of sororin protein level. Expression of an intronless version of sororin and depletion of the cohesin release protein WAPL suppress the cohesion defect in cells lacking splicing factors. We propose that spliceosome components contribute to sister chromatid cohesion and mitotic chromosome segregation through splicing of sororin pre-mRNA. Our results highlight the loss of cohesion as an early cellular consequence of compromised splicing. This may have clinical implications because SF3B1, a splicing factor that we identify to be essential for cohesion, is recurrently mutated in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  6. Secret Sisters: Women Religious under European Communism Collection at the Catholic Theological Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent P. Tinerella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, Pope John Paul II asked Catholics around the world to assist members of the Church who had suffered under the yoke of communist oppression as a result of their commitment to Catholicism. Sr. Margaret Savoie, and Sr. Margaret Nacke, Sisters of St. Joseph, Concordia, Kansas, decided that the experiences of Catholic women in religious communities – “surviving sisters” – was an important story that needed to be documented, preserved, and made available for future generations and researchers. In 2003, Sisters Mary and Margaret began their research, recording the plight of Catholic sisters in eight countries, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and the Ukraine, from the rise of Stalin until the collapse of European communism. Over 200 testimonials now reside at the Paul Bechtold Library at the Catholic Theological Union in Chicago under the auspices of the library’s archivist, Dr. Kenneth O’Malley, C.P. , and their work has been made into a national and award-winning documentary film. .

  7. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  8. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report...

  9. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report...

  10. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report...

  11. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa, Cedar Point, West Sister Island NWR's): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, and West Sister Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report...

  12. Cyclin A2 Is Required for Sister Chromatid Segregation, But Not Separase Control, in Mouse Oocyte Meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Touati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In meiosis, two specialized cell divisions allow the separation of paired chromosomes first, then of sister chromatids. Separase removes the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together in a stepwise manner from chromosome arms in meiosis I, then from the centromere region in meiosis II. Using mouse oocytes, our study reveals that cyclin A2 promotes entry into meiosis, as well as an additional unexpected role; namely, its requirement for separase-dependent sister chromatid separation in meiosis II. Untimely cyclin A2-associated kinase activity in meiosis I leads to precocious sister separation, whereas inhibition of cyclin A2 in meiosis II prevents it. Accordingly, endogenous cyclin A is localized to kinetochores throughout meiosis II, but not in anaphase I. Additionally, we found that cyclin B1, but not cyclin A2, inhibits separase in meiosis I. These findings indicate that separase-dependent cohesin removal is differentially regulated by cyclin B1 and A2 in mammalian meiosis.

  13. Association of Perceived Racial Discrimination with Eating Behaviors and Obesity among Participants of the SisterTalk Study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Portia; Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M.; Kirtania, Usree; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of perceived racial discrimination with emotional eating behaviors, weight status, and stress levels among obese African-American women, who volunteered to enter a weight control study (SisterTalk) in the New England region of the United States. The sample of women was taken from the baseline data of participants in SisterTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a cable TV-delivered weight control program. Using the Krieger instrument, te...

  14. Professional burnout among Catholic religious sisters in Italy : an empirical enquiry exploring the protective role of quality of community life

    OpenAIRE

    Crea, Guiseppe; Francis, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    This study set out to examine three questions regarding the prevalence and correlates of burnout among a sample of 194 Catholic religious sisters in Italy who completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory alongside the Big Five Factor model of personality and the Index of Community Satisfaction. Regarding the prevalence of burnout, the data demonstrated that the mean scale scores of these sisters on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment all came within the normal rang...

  15. A proposal of a standardised nomenclature for terminal minute sister chromatid exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo E. Drets

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We described spontaneous minute sister chromatid exchanges (SCE in telomeric regions of human and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO chromosomes more than 10 years ago. These structures, which we called t-SCE, were detected by means of highly precise quantitative microphotometrical scanning and computer graphic image analysis. Recently, several authors using the CO-FISH method also found small SCEs in telomeric regions and called them T-SCE. The use of different terms for designating the same phenomenon should be avoided. We propose ter SCE as a uniform nomenclature for minute telomeric SCEs.

  16. Diagnosis and Management of True Thymic Hyperplasia; Description with Cases in Two Sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydogdu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thymic Hyperplasia is an extremely rare neoplasm of thymus which is localized in the anterior mediastinum. Generally it occurs secondary to the different diseases. Some of them occurs idiopathicly. Until today there are more than 50 cases reported and most of them are children between the ages of 1 and 17. A few cases are adults. But until today there is no reported case with the same brothers and sisters. Therefore we want to point on whether thymic hyperplasia can be hereditary or not.

  17. Dignum et justum est: Obamacare and Travail of the Little Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Murray Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This essay traces the Affordable Care Act from initiation through the bureaucratic unfolding of required preventive health services for women and presents the ethically reasoned objections to provision of certain services and compliance with regulations for implementation by the Little Sisters of the Poor, an international order of consecrated nuns dedicated to care of the elderly poor. The author's intent is to understand and intelligently convey the fundamental issues raised by their challenge. Copyright © 2016 by the National Legal Center for the Medically Dependent and Disabled, Inc.

  18. SPTLC1 mutation in twin sisters with hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, K; Coen, K; De Vriendt, E; Jacobs, A; Van Gerwen, V; Smouts, I; Pou-Serradell, A; Martin, J J; Timmerman, V; De Jonghe, P

    2004-03-23

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is an autosomal dominant ulceromutilating disorder of the peripheral nervous system characterized by progressive sensory loss. HSN I locus maps to chromosome 9q22.1-22.3 and is caused by mutations in the gene coding for serine palmitoyltransferase long-chain base subunit 1 (SPTLC1). A novel missense mutation in exon 13 of the SPTLC1 gene (c.1160G-->C; p.G387A) in twin sisters with a severe HSN I phenotype is reported.

  19. [Partial lipodystrophy in two HLA identical sisters with hypocomplementemia and nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R

    2002-01-01

    Partial lipodystrophy is a rare disorder with both autosomal recessive and familial forms. The cutaneous findings, which are often subtle, consist of gradual loss of subcutaneous fat from the face and upper body. Low levels of C3 and the presence of C3NeF help to identify these patients. Associated systemic abnormalities include the development of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, insulin resistance and an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. We report here two HLA identical sisters with the typical features of partial lipodystrophy associated with recurrent infections, low levels of C3, and nephropathy. Our data suggest an autosomal recessive transmission. We discuss the genetic and molecular basis of this rare association.

  20. Emergence of ethnochoreology internationally: The Janković sisters, Maud Karpeles, and Gertrude Kurath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunin Elsie Ivancich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fifty-year (1962-2012 period has been shown as a history of ethnochoreology supported by living memories of members of the International Council for Traditional Music (ICTM Study Group on Ethnochoreology. Recently uncovered and juxtapositioned correspondence of three predecessors within earlier years of the International Folk Music Council (IFMC broadens the history. This article reveals the emergence of ethnochoreology during the 1950s with publications of the two Janković sisters in Serbia with that of Gertrude Kurath in the United States, alongside correspondence with Maud Karpeles, the unheralded founder of the IFMC.

  1. A Regular City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Sharavina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the first plans of Chita, which served as the basis for the city development. It presents contribution to the city history made by the Decembrist Dmiry Zavalishin’s, who was the first author of the city development plan. Peculiarities of the quarter development of the realized city plan are also presented.

  2. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  3. Sister's fracture history may be associated with perimenopausal bone fragility and modifies the predictability of fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirola, J; Salovaara, K; Tuppurainen, M; Jurvelin, J S; Alhava, E; Kröger, H

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of first degree relatives' fractures on fracture incidence after the menopause. Sister's, but not other relatives', wrist or hip fracture history was associated with increased risk of fragility fractures after the menopause. This suggests genetic predisposition to bone fragility among postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between first degree relatives' fractures and perimenopausal bone fragility. The study sample of 971 perimenopausal women was extracted from randomly selected Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention cohort and measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry in femoral neck (FN) in baseline (1989-1991), in 5 years (1994-97), and in 10 years (1999-2001). All low-trauma energy fractures during the 10-year follow-up were recorded based on self-reports and validated from medical records. First degree relatives' history of life-time hip and wrist fractures (exact classification or trauma energy not specified) was questioned by postal inquiries. There was a significant correlation between fathers' vs. brothers' and mothers' vs. sisters' fractures (p fractures were associated with significantly lowered 10-year fragility fracture-free survival rate (HR = 0.56, p = 0.006). Sisters' or other relatives' fractures were not associated with FN bone loss rate or bone mineral density (BMD) in the follow-up measurements (p = NS in ANCOVA). The predictive power of BMD for fragility fractures differed according to sisters' fracture history: Baseline FN T score predicted fracture-free survival only among women without sisters' fracture history (HR 0.62, p fracture in Cox regression). In conclusion, sisters' fracture history is associated with 10-year fracture-free survival in perimenopausal women but not with BMD or its changes. Predictability of fragility fracture risk with BMD may depend on sister's fracture history. This may indirectly suggest genetic predisposition to bone

  4. Total energy intake and breast cancer risk in sisters: the Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; John, Esther M; Knight, Julia A; Kaur, Manleen; Daly, Mary; Buys, Saundra; Andrulis, Irene L; Stearman, Beth; West, Dee; Terry, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Energy restriction inhibits mammary tumor development in animal models. Epidemiologic studies in humans generally do not support an association between dietary energy intake and breast cancer risk, although some studies suggest a more complex interplay between measures of energy intake, physical activity, and body size. We examined the association between total energy intake jointly with physical activity and body mass index (BMI) and the risk of breast cancer among 1,775 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2006 and 2,529 of their unaffected sisters, enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry. We collected dietary data using the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort food frequency questionnaire. Using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) associated with total energy intake, we observed an overall 60-70 % increased risk of breast cancer among women in the highest quartile of total energy intake compared to those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 1.6, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.0; P (trend) total energy intake and breast cancer risk across different strata of physical activity and BMI. Our results suggest that within sisters, high energy intake may increase the risk of breast cancer independent of physical activity and body size. If replicated in prospective studies, then these findings suggest that reductions in total energy intake may help in modifying breast cancer risk.

  5. Different Parasite Faunas in Sympatric Populations of Sister Hedgehog Species in a Secondary Contact Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfäffle, Miriam; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Hulva, Pavel; Petney, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Providing descriptive data on parasite diversity and load in sister species is a first step in addressing the role of host-parasite coevolution in the speciation process. In this study we compare the parasite faunas of the closely related hedgehog species Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus from the Czech Republic where both occur in limited sympatry. We examined 109 hedgehogs from 21 localities within this secondary contact zone. Three species of ectoparasites and nine species of endoparasites were recorded. Significantly higher abundances and prevalences were found for Capillaria spp. and Brachylaemus erinacei in E. europaeus compared to E. roumanicus and higher mean infection rates and prevalences for Hymenolepis erinacei, Physaloptera clausa and Nephridiorhynchus major in E. roumanicus compared to E. europaeus. Divergence in the composition of the parasite fauna, except for Capillaria spp., which seem to be very unspecific, may be related to the complicated demography of their hosts connected with Pleistocene climate oscillations and consequent range dynamics. The fact that all parasite species with different abundances in E. europaeus and E. roumanicus belong to intestinal forms indicates a possible diversification of trophic niches between both sister hedgehog species. PMID:25469872

  6. Different parasite faunas in sympatric populations of sister hedgehog species in a secondary contact zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Pfäffle

    Full Text Available Providing descriptive data on parasite diversity and load in sister species is a first step in addressing the role of host-parasite coevolution in the speciation process. In this study we compare the parasite faunas of the closely related hedgehog species Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus from the Czech Republic where both occur in limited sympatry. We examined 109 hedgehogs from 21 localities within this secondary contact zone. Three species of ectoparasites and nine species of endoparasites were recorded. Significantly higher abundances and prevalences were found for Capillaria spp. and Brachylaemus erinacei in E. europaeus compared to E. roumanicus and higher mean infection rates and prevalences for Hymenolepis erinacei, Physaloptera clausa and Nephridiorhynchus major in E. roumanicus compared to E. europaeus. Divergence in the composition of the parasite fauna, except for Capillaria spp., which seem to be very unspecific, may be related to the complicated demography of their hosts connected with Pleistocene climate oscillations and consequent range dynamics. The fact that all parasite species with different abundances in E. europaeus and E. roumanicus belong to intestinal forms indicates a possible diversification of trophic niches between both sister hedgehog species.

  7. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: variable phenotypic expression in three affected sisters from Mexican ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, María E; Hunziker, Walter; Teo, Audrey S M; Hillmer, Axel M; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M

    2015-02-01

    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive renal disease caused by mutations in genes for the tight junction transmembrane proteins Claudin-16 (CLDN16) and Claudin-19 (CLDN19). We present the first case report of a Mexican family with three affected sisters carrying a p.Gly20Asp mutation in CLDN19 whose heterozygous mother showed evident hypercalciuria and normal low magnesemia without any other clinical, laboratory, and radiological symptoms of renal disease making of her an unsuitable donor. The affected sisters showed variable phenotypic expression including age of first symptoms, renal urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and eye symptoms consisting in retinochoroiditis, strabismus, macular scars, bilateral anisocoria, and severe myopia and astigmatism. End stage renal disease due to renal failure needed kidney transplantation in the three of them. Interesting findings were a heterozygous mother with asymptomatic hypercalciuria warning on the need of carefully explore clinical, laboratory, kidney ultrasonograpy, and mutation status in first degree asymptomatic relatives to avoid inappropriate kidney donors; an evident variable phenotypic expression among patients; the identification of a mutation almost confined to Spanish cases and a 3.5 Mb block of genomic homozygosis strongly suggesting a common remote parental ancestor for the gene mutation reported.

  8. Rtt101-Mms1-Mms22 coordinates replication-coupled sister chromatid cohesion and nucleosome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Shi, Di; Li, Xiaoli; Ding, Lin; Tang, Jun; Liu, Cong; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Cao, Qinhong; Lou, Huiqiang

    2017-08-01

    Two sister chromatids must be held together by a cohesion process from their synthesis during S phase to segregation in anaphase. Despite its pivotal role in accurate chromosome segregation, how cohesion is established remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that yeast Rtt101-Mms1, Cul4 family E3 ubiquitin ligases are stronger dosage suppressors of loss-of-function eco1 mutants than PCNA The essential cohesion reaction, Eco1-catalyzed Smc3 acetylation is reduced in the absence of Rtt101-Mms1. One of the adaptor subunits, Mms22, associates directly with Eco1. Point mutations (L61D/G63D) in Eco1 that abolish the interaction with Mms22 impair Smc3 acetylation. Importantly, an eco1LGpol30A251V double mutant displays additive Smc3ac reduction. Moreover, Smc3 acetylation and cohesion defects also occur in the mutants of other replication-coupled nucleosome assembly (RCNA) factors upstream or downstream of Rtt101-Mms1, indicating unanticipated cross talk between histone modifications and cohesin acetylation. These data suggest that fork-associated Cul4-Ddb1 E3s, together with PCNA, coordinate chromatin reassembly and cohesion establishment on the newly replicated sister chromatids, which are crucial for maintaining genome and chromosome stability. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Three Sisters Mountain Village development transformation of old coal mine properties into modern day use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, B. [Golder Paste Technology Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discussed the development of the Three Sisters Mountain Village, located close to Canmore, Alberta. The paper provided the history and background of the mining and development of the site. It discussed underground mining methodology and planned housing and industrial development. The village included plans for 10,000 residential homes, 2 golf courses, a wellness centre, a school, commercial buildings and wildlife corridors. Environmental concerns were also addressed, as Canmore contains a series of natural wildlife corridors, which act as migration and travelling routes for elk and deer as well as cougars, grizzly bears, and other animals. These routes are essential for the survival of the different herds and animal species. The development progress strategy was discussed. The Three Sisters Mountain Village Development commissioned Golder Associates Ltd. to study and address the environmental concerns of the stakeholders regarding the migrating routes of wildlife. Mining works mitigation, including mapping of the constraint zones, knowledge of subsidence issues and the effects of subsidence on structural stress and the ability to analysis field data to predict potential problems was also presented along with a methodology for mitigation and choice of backfill material to be used to fill the mine workings. The advantages of using concrete paste backfill were also identified.

  10. The ELG1 clamp loader plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Parnas

    Full Text Available Mutations in the ELG1 gene of yeast lead to genomic instability, manifested in high levels of genetic recombination, chromosome loss, and gross chromosomal rearrangements. Elg1 shows similarity to the large subunit of the Replication Factor C clamp loader, and forms a RFC-like (RLC complex in conjunction with the 4 small RFC subunits. Two additional RLCs exist in yeast: in one of them the large subunit is Ctf18, and in the other, Rad24. Ctf18 has been characterized as the RLC that functions in sister chromatid cohesion. Here we present evidence that the Elg1 RLC (but not Rad24 also plays an important role in this process. A genetic screen identified the cohesin subunit Mcd1/Scc1 and its loader Scc2 as suppressors of the synthetic lethality between elg1 and ctf4. We describe genetic interactions between ELG1 and genes encoding cohesin subunits and their accessory proteins. We also show that defects in Elg1 lead to higher precocious sister chromatid separation, and that Ctf18 and Elg1 affect cohesion via a joint pathway. Finally, we localize both Ctf18 and Elg1 to chromatin and show that Elg1 plays a role in the recruitment of Ctf18. Our results suggest that Elg1, Ctf4, and Ctf18 may coordinate the relative movement of the replication fork with respect to the cohesin ring.

  11. Opposing Functions of the N-terminal Acetyltransferases Naa50 and NatA in Sister-chromatid Cohesion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Ziye; Ouyang, Zhuqing; Magin, Robert S.; Marmorstein, Ronen; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    During the cell cycle, sister-chromatid cohesion tethers sister chromatids together from S phase to the metaphase-anaphase transition and ensures accurate segregation of chromatids into daughter cells. N-terminal acetylation is one of the most prevalent protein covalent modifications in eukaryotes and is mediated by a family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NAT). Naa50 (also called San) has previously been shown to play a role in sister-chromatid cohesion in metazoans. The mechanism by which Naa50 contributes to cohesion is not understood however. Here, we show that depletion of Naa50 in HeLa cells weakens the interaction between cohesin and its positive regulator sororin and causes cohesion defects in S phase, consistent with a role of Naa50 in cohesion establishment. Strikingly, co-depletion of NatA, a heterodimeric NAT complex that physically interacts with Naa50, rescues the sister-chromatid cohesion defects and the resulting mitotic arrest caused by Naa50 depletion, indicating that NatA and Naa50 play antagonistic roles in cohesion. Purified recombinant NatA and Naa50 do not affect each other's NAT activity in vitro. Because NatA and Naa50 exhibit distinct substrate specificity, we propose that they modify different effectors and regulate sister-chromatid cohesion in opposing ways. PMID:27422821

  12. Opposing Functions of the N-terminal Acetyltransferases Naa50 and NatA in Sister-chromatid Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Ziye; Ouyang, Zhuqing; Magin, Robert S; Marmorstein, Ronen; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-09-02

    During the cell cycle, sister-chromatid cohesion tethers sister chromatids together from S phase to the metaphase-anaphase transition and ensures accurate segregation of chromatids into daughter cells. N-terminal acetylation is one of the most prevalent protein covalent modifications in eukaryotes and is mediated by a family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NAT). Naa50 (also called San) has previously been shown to play a role in sister-chromatid cohesion in metazoans. The mechanism by which Naa50 contributes to cohesion is not understood however. Here, we show that depletion of Naa50 in HeLa cells weakens the interaction between cohesin and its positive regulator sororin and causes cohesion defects in S phase, consistent with a role of Naa50 in cohesion establishment. Strikingly, co-depletion of NatA, a heterodimeric NAT complex that physically interacts with Naa50, rescues the sister-chromatid cohesion defects and the resulting mitotic arrest caused by Naa50 depletion, indicating that NatA and Naa50 play antagonistic roles in cohesion. Purified recombinant NatA and Naa50 do not affect each other's NAT activity in vitro Because NatA and Naa50 exhibit distinct substrate specificity, we propose that they modify different effectors and regulate sister-chromatid cohesion in opposing ways. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Maternal age-dependent APC/C-mediated decrease in securin causes premature sister chromatid separation in meiosis II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabti, Ibtissem; Grimes, Rosanna; Sarna, Hema; Marangos, Petros; Carroll, John

    2017-05-18

    Sister chromatid attachment during meiosis II (MII) is maintained by securin-mediated inhibition of separase. In maternal ageing, oocytes show increased inter-sister kinetochore distance and premature sister chromatid separation (PSCS), suggesting aberrant separase activity. Here, we find that MII oocytes from aged mice have less securin than oocytes from young mice and that this reduction is mediated by increased destruction by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) during meiosis I (MI) exit. Inhibition of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) kinase, Mps1, during MI exit in young oocytes replicates this phenotype. Further, over-expression of securin or Mps1 protects against the age-related increase in inter-sister kinetochore distance and PSCS. These findings show that maternal ageing compromises the oocyte SAC-APC/C axis leading to a decrease in securin that ultimately causes sister chromatid cohesion loss. Manipulating this axis and/or increasing securin may provide novel therapeutic approaches to alleviating the risk of oocyte aneuploidy in maternal ageing.

  14. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  15. "Stretching their shadows far away" : weaving chekhov and the brontës on the stage through Blake Morrison's We are three sisters

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Henrique de Castro Fritsch

    2016-01-01

    This PhD dissertation analyzes the play We Are Three Sisters, written in 2011 by the poet and British playwright Philip Blake Morrison, in order to discuss the links between the instances of the fictional, the real, imagery and biography. Morrison uses as a backdrop for the elaboration of We Are Three Sisters the text Three Sisters (1900), by the Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. Morrison fills his play with data on the life of the Brontë sisters, as depicted by the historian and biographer J...

  16. The City at Stake:

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Esmann Andersen; Anne Ellerup Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing...

  17. Rapid discharge from hospital in the last days of life: an evaluation of key issues and the discharge sister role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan; Hamilton, Sharon; Nicholson, Alex

    2015-12-01

    When the time comes, most people wish to die at home. Nevertheless, many deaths occur in hospital, often because of delays in the discharge process. This study explored the issues surrounding rapid discharge from hospital in the final days of life, and evaluated the contribution of a discharge sister role. A qualitative design was used, incorporating focus groups and interviews with key stakeholders. A total of 75 staff and 7 carers participated. Participants highlighted the small window of opportunity available to facilitate a rapid but safe discharge from hospital. Early recognition of the last days of life was vital as was the availability of a skilled health professional, such as the discharge sister, to coordinate the patient's journey from hospital to preferred place of death. Rapid discharge is challenging and requires high levels of skill. The discharge sister navigated complex organisational systems to facilitate rapid discharge for those who might otherwise have died in hospital.

  18. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  19. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  20. Siblings' experiences of their brother's or sister's cancer death: a nationwide follow-up 2-9 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, Malin; Jalmsell, Li; Eilegård Wallin, Alexandra; Steineck, Gunnar; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine siblings' experiences of their brother's or sister's cancer death and if these experiences influenced levels of anxiety 2-9 years later. This nationwide survey was conducted in Sweden in 2009. All siblings who had a brother/sister who was diagnosed with cancer before the age of 17 years and who died before the age of 25 years during 2000-2007 were invited. Of those, 174 siblings participated (participation rate: 73%). Mixed data from the survey about the siblings' experiences of death were included as well as data from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. To examine the experiences, descriptive statistics and content analysis were used. Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted to investigate if the experiences influenced anxiety 2-9 years later. The siblings reported poor knowledge and experienced a lack of communication about their brother's/sister's death, for example, about the time frame, bodily changes near death, and about their own experiences. Siblings who reported that no one talked with them about what to expect when their brother/sister was going to die reported higher levels of anxiety 2-9 years after the loss. Seventy percent reported that they witnessed their brother/sister suffering in the last hours in life. Many of those who were not present during the illness period and at the time of death expressed regret. It is important to prepare siblings for their brother's/sister's illness and death as it may decrease anxiety and regrets later on. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cities spearhead climate action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.

  2. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  3. What Is Clean Cities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  4. Elevated sister chromatid exchange frequencies in New Zealand Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R E; Edwards, L A; Podd, J V

    2007-01-01

    From July 1965 until November 1971, New Zealand Defence Force Personnel fought in the Vietnam War. During this time more than 76,500,000 litres of phenoxylic herbicides were sprayed over parts of Southern Vietnam and Laos, the most common being known as 'Agent Orange'. The current study aimed to ascertain whether or not New Zealand Vietnam War veterans show evidence of genetic disturbance arising as a consequence of their now confirmed exposure to these defoliants. A sample group of 24 New Zealand Vietnam War veterans and 23 control volunteers were compared using an SCE (sister chromatid exchange) analysis. The results from the SCE study show a highly significant difference (P Vietnam War veterans studied here were exposed to a clastogenic substance(s) which continues to exert an observable genetic effect today, and suggest that this is attributable to their service in Vietnam. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in Vicia faba by arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Hernández-García, A; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1988-07-01

    Arsenic-contaminated drinking water from various towns of Comarca Lagunera, Coahuila, Mexico, was tested for its ability to induce sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba. 3-h treatments were applied and the differential staining technique of Tempelaar et al. (1982) was used. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed that the arsenic concentration in drinking water was 0.11-0.695 ppm, well over the maximum limit of 0.05 ppm (EPA, 1984). In all cases the SCE frequencies were significantly different from the controls. Some concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 ppm) of sodium arsenate (V) and potassium arsenite (III) were also applied to Vicia faba and all produced significant SCE frequencies, except 0.2 ppm of sodium arsenate.

  6. Long QT syndrome diagnosed in two sisters with propionic acidemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duras, Ensar; İrdem, Ahmet; Özkaya, Ozan

    2017-10-26

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). This disorder mostly progresses with episodes of metabolic acidosis. Cardiomyopathy is among the cardiac complications known to occur during metabolic decompensation episodes. However, several recent papers emphasized the association of PA and long QT syndrome (LQTS) which may lead to extremely serious and fatal consequences. In this report, we describe two sisters with PA who have prolonged QT duration that were incidentally detected in an outpatient setting. LQTS was verified by electrocardiogram, stress test and 24 h rhythm holter monitoring. By this report, we want to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of LQTS in asymptomatic patients with PA to prevent fatal complications.

  7. Creating a tenuous balance: siblings' experience of a brother's or sister's childhood cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A; Marsland, Anna L; Wright, Amanda; Hinds, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    More than 14,000 children are diagnosed with cancer in the United States each year. Prolonged, intensive treatment protocols disrupt the entire family, including siblings. Here, we employed grounded theory methodology to examine the experiences of 30 nonbereaved adolescent siblings of children receiving cancer treatment. The central organizing theme of the emergent data is "creating a tenuous balance." Contributing themes include (a) knowing something is seriously wrong, (b) figuring out the meaning of cancer, (c) adapting to changes in personal and family life, and (d) handling emotional reactions to cancer. Overall, findings suggest an ongoing, active process by which siblings notice and adapt to the many unexpected and taxing aspects of their brother's or sister's cancer diagnosis and treatment, including shifts in how the family system operates. Findings highlight the important role of siblings in family-centered cancer care. Future, larger scale research should develop targeted interventions for these siblings. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  8. Shigella strains are not clones of Escherichia coli but sister species in the genus Escherichia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guanghong; Xu, Zhao; Hao, Bailin

    2013-02-01

    Shigella species and Escherichia coli are closely related organisms. Early phenotyping experiments and several recent molecular studies put Shigella within the species E. coli. However, the whole-genome-based, alignment-free and parameter-free CVTree approach shows convincingly that four established Shigella species, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella felxneri and Shigella dysenteriae, are distinct from E. coli strains, and form sister species to E. coli within the genus Escherichia. In view of the overall success and high resolution power of the CVTree approach, this result should be taken seriously. We hope that the present report may promote further in-depth study of the Shigella-E. coli relationship. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The evolution of gene regulation underlies a morphological difference between two Drosophila sister species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangyun; Rebeiz, Mark; Andolfatto, Peter; Werner, Thomas; True, John; Carroll, Sean B

    2008-03-07

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the morphological divergence of species is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. Here, we analyze the genetic and molecular bases of the divergence of body pigmentation patterns between Drosophila yakuba and its sister species Drosophila santomea. We found that loss of pigmentation in D. santomea involved the selective loss of expression of the tan and yellow pigmentation genes. We demonstrate that tan gene expression was eliminated through the mutational inactivation of one specific tan cis-regulatory element (CRE) whereas the Tan protein sequence remained unchanged. Surprisingly, we identify three independent loss-of-function alleles of the tan CRE in the young D. santomea lineage. We submit that there is sufficient empirical evidence to support the general prediction that functional evolutionary changes at pleiotropic loci will most often involve mutations in their discrete, modular cis-regulatory elements.

  10. Early Development of Squamous Cell Carsinoma in Two Sister Cases with pidermodysplasia Verruciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (Lewandowsky-Lutz syndrome is an uncommon disease characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. Most commonly it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer found in patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Human papilloma virus 5, 8, and 47 are found in more than 90% of epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancers. Treatment for epidermodysplasia verruciformis consists largely of preventive measures. Photoprotection remains essential for management. In this report, two sister case of epidermodisplasia verruciformis with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of skin was presented for it is a rarely encountered disease and associated with early development of malignancy.

  11. Sister-chromatid exchange analysis in a rural population of Mexico exposed to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Noriega-Aldana, N; Osorio, A; Galicia, F; Ling, S; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1992-03-01

    Cytogenetic damage was evaluated by means of the analysis of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in a rural population of Tlaxcala, Mexico, in occupational contact with pesticides. We studied 170 men, 94 exposed and 76 not exposed. It was shown that SCE followed a normal distribution and Student's t test did not present differences between the two groups (P = 0.4). The frequency of SCE was not correlated with the duration of exposure of the rural workers (r = -0.06), the multiple covariance analysis applied to the data of duration of exposure, tobacco intake and alcohol ingestion demonstrated a lack of statistical significance. In the exposed people we observed no symptoms provoked by these compounds.

  12. Two sisters with macular dystrophy caused by the 3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gutiérrez, V; García-Montesinos, J; Pardo-Muñoz, A

    2016-05-01

    Two sisters of 54 and 60years old, with a history of diabetes and deafness, consulted for decreased visual acuity (VA). Funduscopic examination revealed patchy areas of chorioretinal atrophy with annular arrangement around the fovea. Genetic study identified the heteroplasmic mutation 3243A>G in mitochondrial DNA, which supports syndrome maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) or Ballinger-Wallace disease. The finding of such macular disorders, especially in the presence of diabetes mellitus and deafness, should suggest the performing of a mitochondrial genome screening to identify this unusual syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Chromosome Segregation in Budding Yeast: Sister Chromatid Cohesion and Related Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Studies on budding yeast have exposed the highly conserved mechanisms by which duplicated chromosomes are evenly distributed to daughter cells at the metaphase–anaphase transition. The establishment of proteinaceous bridges between sister chromatids, a function provided by a ring-shaped complex known as cohesin, is central to accurate segregation. It is the destruction of this cohesin that triggers the segregation of chromosomes following their proper attachment to microtubules. Since it is irreversible, this process must be tightly controlled and driven to completion. Furthermore, during meiosis, modifications must be put in place to allow the segregation of maternal and paternal chromosomes in the first division for gamete formation. Here, I review the pioneering work from budding yeast that has led to a molecular understanding of the establishment and destruction of cohesion. PMID:24395824

  14. Sororin pre-mRNA splicing is required for proper sister chromatid cohesion in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrin, Erwan; Demidova, Maria; Watrin, Tanguy; Hu, Zheng; Prigent, Claude

    2014-09-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion, which depends on cohesin, is essential for the faithful segregation of replicated chromosomes. Here, we report that splicing complex Prp19 is essential for cohesion in both G2 and mitosis, and consequently for the proper progression of the cell through mitosis. Inactivation of splicing factors SF3a120 and U2AF65 induces similar cohesion defects to Prp19 complex inactivation. Our data indicate that these splicing factors are all required for the accumulation of cohesion factor Sororin, by facilitating the proper splicing of its pre-mRNA. Finally, we show that ectopic expression of Sororin corrects defective cohesion caused by Prp19 complex inactivation. We propose that the Prp19 complex and the splicing machinery contribute to the establishment of cohesion by promoting Sororin accumulation during S phase, and are, therefore, essential to the maintenance of genome stability. © 2014 The Authors.

  15. Incestuous sisters: mate preference for brothers over unrelated males in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Loyau

    Full Text Available The literature is full of examples of inbreeding avoidance, while recent mathematical models predict that inbreeding tolerance or even inbreeding preference should be expected under several realistic conditions like e.g. polygyny. We investigated male and female mate preferences with respect to relatedness in the fruit fly D. melanogaster. Experiments offered the choice between a first order relative (full-sibling or parent and an unrelated individual with the same age and mating history. We found that females significantly preferred mating with their brothers, thus supporting inbreeding preference. Moreover, females did not avoid mating with their fathers, and males did not avoid mating with their sisters, thus supporting inbreeding tolerance. Our experiments therefore add empirical evidence for inbreeding preference, which strengthens the prediction that inbreeding tolerance and preference can evolve under specific circumstances through the positive effects on inclusive fitness.

  16. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN)

  17. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; Cahais, Vincent; Galtier, Nicolas; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2012-07-27

    The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. These results provide a phylogenetic framework

  18. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Ylenia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes, to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles, or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation

  19. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results

  20. EPRI/DOE High Burnup Fuel Sister Pin Test Plan Simplification and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanson, Brady [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billone, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Rose [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevard, Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The EPRI/DOE High Burnup Confirmatory Data Project (herein called the "Demo") is a multi-year, multi-entity confirmation demonstration test with the purpose of providing quantitative and qualitative data to show how high-burnup fuel ages in dry storage over a ten-year period. The Demo involves obtaining 32 assemblies of high-burnup PWR fuel of four common cladding alloys from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant, drying them according to standard plant procedures, and then storing them in an NRC-licensed TN-3 2B cask on the North Anna dry storage pad for ten years. After the ten-year storage time, the cask will be opened and the rods will be examined for signs of aging. Twenty-five rods from assemblies of similar claddings, in-reactor placement, and burnup histories (herein called "sister rods") have been shipped from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant and are currently being nondestructively tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After the non-destructive testing has been completed for each of the twenty-five rods, destructive analysis will be performed at ORNL, PNNL, and ANL to obtain mechanical data. Opinions gathered from the expert interviews, ORNL and PNNL Sister Rod Test Plans, and numerous meetings has resulted in the Simplified Test Plan described in this document. Some of the opinions and discussions leading to the simplified test plan are included here. Detailed descriptions and background are in the ORNL and PNNL plans in the appendices . After the testing described in this simplified test plan h as been completed , the community will review all the collected data and determine if additional testing is needed.

  1. Evolutionary comparison of prenylation pathway in kinetoplastid Leishmania and its sister Leptomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Indira Singh; Kaur, Jaspreet; Krishna, Shagun; Ghosh, Arpita; Singh, Prashant; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Singh, Neeloo

    2015-11-21

    Leptomonas is monogenetic kinetoplastid parasite of insects and is primitive in comparison to Leishmania. Comparative studies of these two kinetoplastid may share light on the evolutionary transition to dixenous parasitism in Leishmania. In order to adapt and survive within two hosts, Leishmania species must have acquired virulence factors in addition to mechanisms that mediate susceptibility/resistance to infection in the pathology associated with disease. Rab proteins are key mediators of vesicle transport and contribute greatly to the evolution of complexity of membrane transport system. In this study we used our whole genome sequence data of these two divergent kinetoplastids to analyze the orthologues/paralogues of Rab proteins. During change of lifestyle from monogenetic (Leptomonas) to digenetic (Leishmania), we found that the prenyl machinery remained unchanged. Geranylgeranyl transferase-I (GGTase-I) was absent in both Leishmania and its sister Leptomonas. Farnesyltransferase (FTase) and geranylgeranyl transferase-II (GGTase-II) were identified for protein prenylation. We predict that activity of the missing alpha-subunit (α-subunit) of GGTase-II in Leptomonas was probably contributed by the α-subunit of FTase, while beta-subunit (β-subunit) of GGTase-II was conserved and indicated functional conservation in the evolution of these two kinetoplastids. Therefore the β-subunit emerges as an excellent target for compounds inhibiting parasite activity in clinical cases of co-infections. We also confirmed that during the evolution to digenetic life style in Leishmania, the parasite acquired capabilities to evade drug action and maintain parasite virulence in the host with the incorporation of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR/MDR) superfamily in Rab genes. Our study based on whole genome sequences is the first to build comparative evolutionary analysis and identification of prenylation proteins in Leishmania and its sister Leptomonas. The information

  2. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified Southern hemisphere sister lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Bonito; Matthew E. Smith; Michael Nowak; Rosanne A. Healy; Gonzalo Guevara; Efren Cazares; Akihiko Kinoshita; Eduardo R. Nouhra; Laura S. Dominguez; Leho Tedersoo; Claude Murat; Yun Wang; Baldomero Arroyo Moreno; Donald H. Pfister; Kazuhide Nara; Alessandra Zambonelli; James M. Trappe; Rytas. Vilgalys

    2013-01-01

    In this study we reassessed the biogeography and origin of the Tuberaceae and their relatives using multiple loci and a global sampling of taxa. Multiple independent transitions from an aboveground to a belowground truffie fruiting body form have occurred in the Tuberaceae and in its newly recognized sister lineage...

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Areceaceae) identifies Syagrus as sister to the coconut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes have indicated an American ancestry for the coconut but with weak support and ambiguous sister relationships. We used primers d...

  4. 77 FR 66851 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... and other non- genetic factors to disease risk may be possible. Sisters of women with breast cancer... other hormonally- mediated diseases. From August 2003 through July 2009, we enrolled a cohort of 50,884.... Sandler, Chief, Epidemiology Branch, NIEHS, Rall Building A3-05, P.O. Box 12233, Research Triangle Park...

  5. 77 FR 48993 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... disease risk may be possible. ] Sisters of women with breast cancer are one group at increased risk for... diseases. From August 2003 through July 2009, we enrolled a cohort of 50,884 women who had not had breast... P. Sandler, Chief, Epidemiology Branch, NIEHS, Rall Building A3-05, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle...

  6. Two sisters with growth failure, microcephaly, peculiar facies and apical dystrophy: the presentation of brachymorphism-onychodysplasia-dysphalangism syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounap, K; Justus, I; Lipping-Sitska, M

    1998-01-01

    We report two sisters with growth failure, relative microcephaly, peculiar facies and apical dystrophy (brachydactyly type B). They had shortness and clinodactyly of the 5th fingers, aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanges of 5th fingers, short medial phalanges of the 2nd and 5th fingers, hypoplasia or aplasia of distal phalanges of 2-5th toes, with tiny toenails, and aplasia or nails of 5th fingers and right 5th toe in the younger sister. Dysmorphic facial features included high forehead, sparse hair, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, epicanthic folds, a low nasal bridge, a broad nasal tip and micrognathia. Their ears were low-set and malformed. The older sister additionally had a high-pitched voice and eczema on the face and limbs. In the younger sister a cardiac defect was diagnosed--ventricular and atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus. They had some clinical features of Coffin-Siris syndrome, but with a milder phenotype and much less severe mental handicap. Their clinical picture resembles more the brachymorphism-onychodysplasia-dysphalangism (BOD) syndrome.

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory's Sister Laboratory Collaborations on Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, D. L.; Sinkule, B. J.; Apt, K. E.

    2003-02-25

    The DOE/National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) ''Sister Laboratory'' program allows for bilateral technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy for developing nations. The program establishes a direct line of communication between U.S. scientists and the nuclear research and scientific communities in participating countries.

  8. The sister-group relationships of the largest family of lichenized fungi, Parmeliaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Divakar, Pradeep K; Dal Grande, Francesco; Otte, Jürgen; Parnmen, Sittiporn; Wedin, Mats; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-10-01

    Parmeliaceae is the largest family of lichen-forming fungi. In spite of its importance for fungal diversity, its relationships with other families in Lecanorales remain poorly known. To better understand the evolutionary history of the diversification of lineages and species richness in Parmeliaceae it is important to know the phylogenetic relationships of the closest relatives of the family. A recent study based on two molecular loci suggested that either Protoparmelia s. str. or a group consisting of Gypsoplaca and Protoparmelia s. str. were the possible sister-group candidates of Parmeliaceae, but that study could not distinguish between these two alternatives. Here, we used a four-locus phylogeny (nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7) to reveal relationships of Parmeliaceae with other potential relatives in Lecanorales. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that Protoparmelia is polyphyletic, with Protoparmelia s. str. (including Protoparmelia badia and Protoparmelia picea) being most closely related to Parmeliaceae s. str., while the Protoparmelia atriseda-group formed the sister-group to Miriquidica. Gypsoplaca formed the sister-group to the Parmeliaceae s. str. + Protoparmelia s. str. clade. Monophyly of Protoparmelia as currently circumscribed, and Gypsoplaca as sister-group to Parmeliaceae s. str. were both significantly rejected by alternative hypothesis testing. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. UBL5 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing and sister chromatid cohesion in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oka, Yasuyoshi; Varmark, Hanne; Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    UBL5 is an atypical ubiquitin-like protein, whose function in metazoans remains largely unexplored. We show that UBL5 is required for sister chromatid cohesion maintenance in human cells. UBL5 primarily associates with spliceosomal proteins, and UBL5 depletion decreases pre-mRNA splicing efficiency...

  10. Catholic Social Thought Bearing Fruit: The Case of Sister Cyril Mooney and Loreto Day School Sealdah, Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkow, Christopher; Creamer, David

    2015-01-01

    This article employs Catholic social thought as a lens to situate the work of Sister Cyril Mooney, Principal emerita at Loreto Day School Sealdah in Kolkata, India. Drawing on the Canadian authors' personal experiences of the school over several years, supplemented by a two day in-depth interview conducted at Loreto Convent in Altrincham, England…

  11. Using Ecological Niche Models and Niche Analyses to Understand Speciation Patterns: The Case of Sister Neotropical Orchid Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniel P.; Vilela, Bruno; De Marco, Paulo; Nemésio, André

    2014-01-01

    The role of past connections between the two major South American forested biomes on current species distribution has been recognized a long time ago. Climatic oscillations that further separated these biomes have promoted parapatric speciation, in which many species had their continuous distribution split, giving rise to different but related species (i.e., different potential distributions and realized niche features). The distribution of many sister species of orchid bees follow this pattern. Here, using ecological niche models and niche analyses, we (1) tested the role of ecological niche differentiation on the divergence between sister orchid-bees (genera Eulaema and Eufriesea) from the Amazon and Atlantic forests, and (2) highlighted interesting areas for new surveys. Amazonian species occupied different realized niches than their Atlantic sister species. Conversely, species of sympatric but distantly related Eulaema bees occupied similar realized niches. Amazonian species had a wide potential distribution in South America, whereas Atlantic Forest species were more limited to the eastern coast of the continent. Additionally, we identified several areas in need of future surveys. Our results show that the realized niche of Atlantic-Amazonian sister species of orchid bees, which have been previously treated as allopatric populations of three species, had limited niche overlap and similarity. These findings agree with their current taxonomy, which treats each of those populations as distinct valid species. PMID:25422941

  12. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  13. Sister chromatid cohesion defects are associated with chromosome instability in Hodgkin lymphoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chromosome instability manifests as an abnormal chromosome complement and is a pathogenic event in cancer. Although a correlation between abnormal chromosome numbers and cancer exist, the underlying mechanisms that cause chromosome instability are poorly understood. Recent data suggests that aberrant sister chromatid cohesion causes chromosome instability and thus contributes to the development of cancer. Cohesion normally functions by tethering nascently synthesized chromatids together to prevent premature segregation and thus chromosome instability. Although the prevalence of aberrant cohesion has been reported for some solid tumors, its prevalence within liquid tumors is unknown. Consequently, the current study was undertaken to evaluate aberrant cohesion within Hodgkin lymphoma, a lymphoid malignancy that frequently exhibits chromosome instability. Methods Using established cytogenetic techniques, the prevalence of chromosome instability and aberrant cohesion was examined within mitotic spreads generated from five commonly employed Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines (L-1236, KM-H2, L-428, L-540 and HDLM-2) and a lymphocyte control. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses were performed to evaluate the localization and expression of six critical proteins involved in the regulation of sister chromatid cohesion. Results We first confirmed that all five Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines exhibited chromosome instability relative to the lymphocyte control. We then determined that each Hodgkin lymphoma cell line exhibited cohesion defects that were subsequently classified into mild, moderate or severe categories. Surprisingly, ~50% of the mitotic spreads generated from L-540 and HDLM-2 harbored cohesion defects. To gain mechanistic insight into the underlying cause of the aberrant cohesion we examined the localization and expression of six critical proteins involved in cohesion. Although all proteins produced the expected nuclear localization pattern

  14. Testing hypotheses about the sister group of the passeriformes using an independent 30-locus data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Braun, Edward L; Kimball, Rebecca T

    2012-02-01

    Although many phylogenetic studies have focused on developing hypotheses about relationships, advances in data collection and computation have increased the feasibility of collecting large independent data sets to rigorously test controversial hypotheses or carefully assess artifacts that may be misleading. One such relationship in need of independent evaluation is the position of Passeriformes (perching birds) in avian phylogeny. This order comprises more than half of all extant birds, and it includes one of the most important avian model systems (the zebra finch). Recent large-scale studies using morphology, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequence data have generated very different hypotheses about the sister group of Passeriformes, and all conflict with an older hypothesis generated using DNA-DNA hybridization. We used novel data from 30 nuclear loci, primarily introns, for 28 taxa to evaluate five major a priori hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic position of Passeriformes. Although previous studies have suggested that nuclear introns are ideal for the resolution of ancient avian relationships, introns have also been criticized because of the potential for alignment ambiguities and the loss of signal due to saturation. To examine these issues, we generated multiple alignments using several alignment programs, varying alignment parameters, and using guide trees that reflected the different a priori hypotheses. Although different alignments and analyses yielded slightly different results, our analyses excluded all but one of the five a priori hypotheses. In many cases, the passerines were sister to the Psittaciformes (parrots), and taxa were members of a larger clade that includes Falconidae (falcons) and Cariamidae (seriemas). However, the position of Coliiformes (mousebirds) was highly unstable in our analyses of 30 loci, and this represented the primary source of incongruence among analyses. Mousebirds were united with passerines or parrots in some analyses

  15. SmartCityWare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities are becoming a reality. Various aspects of modern cities are being automated and integrated with information and communication technologies to achieve higher functionality, optimized resources utilization, and management, and improved quality of life for the residents. Smart cities...... rely heavily on utilizing various software, hardware, and communication technologies to improve the operations in areas, such as healthcare, transportation, energy, education, logistics, and many others, while reducing costs and resources consumption. One of the promising technologies to support...

  16. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  17. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  18. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of Anilofos with micronucleus, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyil, Dilek; Konuk, Muhsin; Eren, Yasin; Liman, Recep; Sağlam, Esra

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the mutagenic effect of Anilofos, organophosphate pesticide, by using Ames/Salmonella/microsome test. Its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were also determined by chromosome aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN) test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the Ames test, five different concentrations of Anilofos were examined on TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains in the absence and presence of S9 fraction. According to the results all concentrations of this pesticide have not shown any mutagenic activity on TA97, TA100 and TA102 strains in the absence and presence of S9 fraction. But, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/plate concentrations of Anilofos were determined to be mutagenic on TA98 strain without S9 fraction. Lymphocytes were treated with various concentrations (25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) of Anilofos for 24 and 48 h. The results of the assays showed that Anilofos did not induce SCE frequency, replication index and MN formation at all concentrations for both treatment periods. Anilofos significantly increased CA frequency at 100 and 200 µg/ml concentrations at 24 h treatment periods and at 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml concentrations in 48 h treatment periods. Additionally, it was determined that this pesticide decreased mitotic index and nuclear division index significantly. It was concluded that Anilofos has genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in human peripheral lymphocytes.

  19. Double effect, all over again: the case of Sister Margaret McBride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusak, Bernard G

    2011-08-01

    As media reports have made widely known, in November 2009, the ethics committee of St. Joseph's Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona, permitted the abortion of an eleven-week-old fetus in order to save the life of its mother. This woman was suffering from acute pulmonary hypertension, which her doctors judged would prove fatal for both her and her previable child. The ethics committee believed abortion to be permitted in this case under the so-called principle of double effect, but Thomas J. Olmsted, the bishop of Phoenix, disagreed with the committee and pronounced its chair, Sister Margaret McBride, excommunicated latae sententiae, "by the very commission of the act." In this article, I take the much discussed Phoenix case as an occasion to subject the principle of double effect to another round of philosophical scrutiny. In particular, I examine the third condition of the principle in its textbook formulation, namely, that the evil effect in question may not be the means to the good effect. My argument, in brief, is that the textbook formulation of the principle does not withstand philosophical scrutiny. Nevertheless, in the end, I do not claim that we should then "do away" with the principle altogether. Instead, we do well to understand it within the context of casuistry, the tradition of moral reasoning from which it issued.

  20. Sister chromatid exchanges and sperm abnormalities produced by antidepressant drug fluoxetine in mouse treated in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, H A S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the capacity of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drug fluoxetine (FLX) to induce genotoxic damage in somatic and germ cells. For this study, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow cells and sperm abnormalities assays in male mice were used. The animals were organized in four groups constituted by five mice. They were orally administered with the test substance as follows: a negative control group; three groups treated with FLX (2.6, 7.8 and 13.0 mg/kg b.wt.) for 5 consecutive days. Animals were sacrificed 24h after the last treatment for analysis SCE's and left for 35 days from the first treatment for analysis sperm-shape abnormalities. The results showed that the drug was SCE and sperm abnormalities inducer. The response of this compound was dose-dependent, and showed that the highest tested dose increased about two times SCE and four times the sperm abnormalities control level. The cellular proliferation kinetics was not affected by the chemical, and the mitotic indexes were slightly diminished with the highest dose. The percentage of sperm count and sperm motility decreased (p < 0.01) with increased the dose of treatment. These results indicate an in vivo genotoxic potential for the antidepressant drug FLX.

  1. Sister Society Meeting on Global Education Development and Collaboration: Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Linus T; Randall, Thomas C; Denny, Lynette; Johnston, Carolyn M; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Covens, Allan L; Cibula, David; Bookman, Michael A; Rawal, Sudhir; DePetrillo, Denny; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Goodman, Annekathryn; Naik, Raj; Manchanda, Ranjit; Gaffney, David K; Small, William; Creutzberg, Carien; Rattray, Carole; Kesic, Vesna; Paraja, René; Eiken, Mary; Belleson, Kristin; Coleman, Robert L; Barakat, Richard R; Trimble, Edward L; Quinn, Michael

    2016-07-01

    To identify common barriers to teaching and training and to identify strategies that would be useful in developing future training programs in gynecologic oncology in low- and middle- income countries. There is a lack of overall strategy to meet the needs of education and training in gynecologic oncology in low- and middle- income countries, the leaderships of sister societies and global health volunteers met at the European Society of Gynecologic Oncology in October 23, 2015. The challenges of the training programs supported by gynecologic oncology societies, major universities and individual efforts were presented and discussed. Strategies to improve education and training were identified. Major challenges include language barriers, limited surgical equipment, inadequate internet access, lack of local support for sustainability in training programs, inadequate pathology and radiation oncology, finance and a global deficiency in identifying sites and personnel in partnering or developing training programs. The leaderships identified various key components including consultation with the local Ministry of Health, local educational institutions; inclusion of the program into existing local programs, a needs assessment, and the development of curriculum and regional centers of excellence. Proper preparation of training sites and trainers, the development of global curriculum, the establishment of centers of excellence, and the ability to measure outcomes are important to improve education and training in gynecologic oncology in low- and middle- income countries.

  2. Sister Mary Joseph nodule as the presenting sign of disseminated prostate carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sister Mary Joseph′s nodule is referred to as metastasis of visceral malignancy to the umbilicus. Most common primaries are in the gastrointestinal or genital tract, while other locations are rare. We recently encountered a 76-year-old male who was referred to the surgery clinic with an erythematous nodule in the umbilicus measuring 6 cm in diameter with complaints of painless profuse hematuria. History revealed severe obstructive voiding symptoms of 2-year duration, along with significant loss of weight and difficulty in walking. A detailed examination showed hard nodular hepatomegaly, along with grade IV prostatomegaly. Serum prostate-specific antigen was 3069 ng/ml. A pelvic radiograph displayed multiple osteolytic lesions, while ultrasonography showed multiple iso- and hypoechoic lesions in both lobes of the liver, suggestive of metastasis. Histopathology of a Tru-cut biopsy of the prostate confirmed an adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 9 with umbilical metastasis. The patient was on regular follow-up and died 3 months later.

  3. Taxonomy of Nephroselmis viridis sp. nov. (Nephroselmidophyceae, Chlorophyta), a sister marine species to freshwater N. olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Haruyo; Suda, Shoichiro; Nakayama, Takeshi; Pienaar, Richard N; Chihara, Mitsuo; Inouye, Isao

    2011-01-01

    The genus Nephroselmis (Nephroselmidophyceae), which had been placed in the Prasinophyceae, is one of the primitive green flagellates that are important to our understanding of the early evolution of green plants. We studied a new species of Nephroselmis isolated from Japan, Fiji and South Africa. This species has been known for a long time as undescribed species 'N. viridis.' N. viridis possesses some ultrastructural characters shared with only the freshwater type species N. olivacea, including a disc-like structure beneath the pyrenoid and bipolar spiny body scales with 1-5-8-5-1 spines. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA also supports a sister relationship between N. viridis and N. olivacea. However, N. viridis is distinguishable from N. olivacea by the shape of its starch sheath, its scales, its pigment composition and its habitat. In this paper, we designate the formal description of N. viridis sp. nov. We also describe variability in the 18S rDNA introns of various N. viridis strains. This detailed study of N. viridis provides some insights into the evolution of Nephroselmis.

  4. Phylogenomic Analyses of Echinodermata Support the Sister Groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Adrian; Dunn, Casey; Akasaka, Koji; Wessel, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary development. The internal relationships of Echinodermata have not been consistently supported across phylogenetic analyses, however, and this has hindered the study of other aspects of their biology. In order to test echinoderm phylogenetic relationships, we sequenced 23 de novo transcriptomes from all five clades of echinoderms. Using multiple phylogenetic methods at a variety of sampling depths we have constructed a well-supported phylogenetic tree of Echinodermata, including support for the sister groups of Asterozoa (sea stars and brittle stars) and Echinozoa (sea urchins and sea cucumbers). These results will help inform developmental and evolutionary studies specifically in echinoderms and deuterostomes in general. PMID:25794146

  5. Ringiculid bubble snails recovered as the sister group to sea slugs (Nudipleura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yasunori; Brenzinger, Bastian; Nützel, Alexander; Wilson, Nerida G.; Schrödl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Euthyneuran gastropods represent one of the most diverse lineages in Mollusca (with over 30,000 species), play significant ecological roles in aquatic and terrestrial environments and affect many aspects of human life. However, our understanding of their evolutionary relationships remains incomplete due to missing data for key phylogenetic lineages. The present study integrates such a neglected, ancient snail family Ringiculidae into a molecular systematics of Euthyneura for the first time, and is supplemented by the first microanatomical data. Surprisingly, both molecular and morphological features present compelling evidence for the common ancestry of ringiculid snails with the highly dissimilar Nudipleura—the most species-rich and well-known taxon of sea slugs (nudibranchs and pleurobranchoids). A new taxon name Ringipleura is proposed here for these long-lost sisters, as one of three major euthyneuran clades with late Palaeozoic origins, along with Acteonacea (Acteonoidea + Rissoelloidea) and Tectipleura (Euopisthobranchia + Panpulmonata). The early Euthyneura are suggested to be at least temporary burrowers with a characteristic ‘bubble’ shell, hypertrophied foot and headshield as exemplified by many extant subtaxa with an infaunal mode of life, while the expansion of the mantle might have triggered the explosive Mesozoic radiation of the clade into diverse ecological niches.

  6. Phylogenomic analyses of Echinodermata support the sister groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Reich

    Full Text Available Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary development. The internal relationships of Echinodermata have not been consistently supported across phylogenetic analyses, however, and this has hindered the study of other aspects of their biology. In order to test echinoderm phylogenetic relationships, we sequenced 23 de novo transcriptomes from all five clades of echinoderms. Using multiple phylogenetic methods at a variety of sampling depths we have constructed a well-supported phylogenetic tree of Echinodermata, including support for the sister groups of Asterozoa (sea stars and brittle stars and Echinozoa (sea urchins and sea cucumbers. These results will help inform developmental and evolutionary studies specifically in echinoderms and deuterostomes in general.

  7. Phylogenomic analyses of Echinodermata support the sister groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Adrian; Dunn, Casey; Akasaka, Koji; Wessel, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary development. The internal relationships of Echinodermata have not been consistently supported across phylogenetic analyses, however, and this has hindered the study of other aspects of their biology. In order to test echinoderm phylogenetic relationships, we sequenced 23 de novo transcriptomes from all five clades of echinoderms. Using multiple phylogenetic methods at a variety of sampling depths we have constructed a well-supported phylogenetic tree of Echinodermata, including support for the sister groups of Asterozoa (sea stars and brittle stars) and Echinozoa (sea urchins and sea cucumbers). These results will help inform developmental and evolutionary studies specifically in echinoderms and deuterostomes in general.

  8. Challenging stereotypes? The older woman in the TV series Brothers & Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2014-12-01

    The TV series, Brothers & Sisters, broadcast from 2006 to 2011 by ABC (USA) and a year later by Channel 4 (UK) with quite high audience rates, starts when the patriarchal figure, William Walker, dies of a heart attack and two female figures around their sixties come center stage: his wife, Nora Walker, and his long-term lover, Holly Harper. Once the patriarchal figure disappears, the female characters regain visibility by entering the labor market and starting relationships with other men. In that sense, both protagonists experience aging as a time in which they are increasingly freed from social and family constraints. However, their roles as nurturers keep on bringing them back to the domestic space in which they are safe from being involved in uncomfortable and unsuitable situations. Drawing on previous studies on the representation of the older woman in fictional media, this article intends to discern to what extent stereotypes related to the older woman are challenged through the two main protagonists of a contemporary TV series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bromodeoxyuridine does not contribute to sister chromatid exchange events in normal or Bloom syndrome cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wietmarschen, Niek; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2016-08-19

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are considered sensitive indicators of genome instability. Detection of SCEs typically requires cells to incorporate bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) during two rounds of DNA synthesis. Previous studies have suggested that SCEs are induced by DNA replication over BrdU-substituted DNA and that BrdU incorporation alone could be responsible for the high number of SCE events observed in cells from patients with Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare genetic disorder characterized by marked genome instability and high SCE frequency. Here we show using Strand-seq, a single cell DNA template strand sequencing technique, that the presence of variable BrdU concentrations in the cell culture medium and in DNA template strands has no effect on SCE frequency in either normal or BS cells. We conclude that BrdU does not induce SCEs and that SCEs detected in either normal or BS cells reflect DNA repair events that occur spontaneously. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. The evolution and expression of RBCL in holoparasitic sister-genera Harveya and Hyobanche (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Christopher P; Wolfe, Andrea D

    2005-09-01

    The evolution of holoparasitism decreases the adaptive value of genes maintaining the photosynthetic apparatus. These may become pseudogenes through insertion or deletion events resulting in frameshift mutations, or by the evolution of premature stop codons. The holoparasitic sister genera Harveya and Hyobanche have undergone alternate pathways of evolution and expression at the plastid locus rbcL. An open reading frame in all but a single species of Harveya is maintained by purifying selection and is expressed. However, the function of Rubisco in this putative holoparasite is unknown. Conversely, Hyobanche has undergone rbcL pseudogene formation, and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates of evolution indicates that selection has not played a role in its evolution. This is complicated by the following findings: multiple pseudogene copies of rbcL exist in tissues of Hyobanche, rbcL transcripts also encode pseudogenes, and the large subunit is present in some tissues of Hyobanche. We hypothesize that the rbcL operon is in a state of degradation as may be expected in a holoparasite and is not endogenously expressed. Rather, the large subunit may be taken up from the host plants, and accumulate in tissues as a result of transpiration.

  11. Human condensin function is essential for centromeric chromatin assembly and proper sister kinetochore orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Samoshkin

    Full Text Available Condensins I and II in vertebrates are essential ATP-dependent complexes necessary for chromosome condensation in mitosis. Condensins depletion is known to perturb structure and function of centromeres, however the mechanism of this functional link remains elusive. Depletion of condensin activity is now shown to result in a significant loss of loading of CENP-A, the histone H3 variant found at active centromeres and the proposed epigenetic mark of centromere identity. Absence of condensins and/or CENP-A insufficiency produced a specific kinetochore defect, such that a functional mitotic checkpoint cannot prevent chromosome missegregation resulting from improper attachment of sister kinetochores to spindle microtubules. Spindle microtubule-dependent deformation of both inner kinetochores and the HEC1/Ndc80 microtubule-capturing module, then results in kinetochore separation from the Aurora B pool and ensuing reduced kinase activity at centromeres. Moreover, recovery from mitosis-inhibition by monastrol revealed a high incidence of merotelic attachment that was nearly identical with condensin depletion, Aurora B inactivation, or both, indicating that the Aurora B dysfunction is the key defect leading to chromosome missegregation in condensin-depleted cells. Thus, beyond a requirement for global chromosome condensation, condensins play a pivotal role in centromere assembly, proper spatial positioning of microtubule-capturing modules and positioning complexes of the inner centromere versus kinetochore plates.

  12. Homozygous Inactivating Mutation in NANOS3 in Two Sisters with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing understanding of female reproduction, the molecular diagnosis of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is seldom obtained. The RNA-binding protein NANOS3 poses as an interesting candidate gene for POI since members of the Nanos family have an evolutionarily conserved function in germ cell development and maintenance by repressing apoptosis. We performed mutational analysis of NANOS3 in a cohort of 85 Brazilian women with familial or isolated POI, presenting with primary or secondary amenorrhea, and in ethnically-matched control women. A homozygous p.Glu120Lys mutation in NANOS3 was identified in two sisters with primary amenorrhea. The substituted amino acid is located within the second C2HC motif in the conserved zinc finger domain of NANOS3 and in silico molecular modelling suggests destabilization of protein-RNA interaction. In vitro analyses of apoptosis through flow cytometry and confocal microscopy show that NANOS3 capacity to prevent apoptosis was impaired by this mutation. The identification of an inactivating missense mutation in NANOS3 suggests a mechanism for POI involving increased primordial germ cells (PGCs apoptosis during embryonic cell migration and highlights the importance of NANOS proteins in human ovarian biology.

  13. Fear and loathing in Mississippi: the attack on cAMP sister spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kate

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY In 1993, the small rural community of Ovett, Miss., and a group of self-described radical lesbian feminists clashed over the establishment by the women of a feminist educational retreat known as Camp Sister Spirit. This dispute took the form of physical and psychological harassment of the women, wide-open public debate in the community, in the press, and on television, federal mediation efforts, and two lawsuits. This article analyzes this dispute using Mary Daly's seven patterns of the sado-ritual syndrome (Daly, 1978). The analysis examines the ideological and moral standpoints of the participants, the issues of "blaming the victim" and scapegoating, the development of the conflict from a dispute between neighbors to the involvement of international media, national activists and the Clinton Administration, the transformation of the conflict from a political to legal dispute, the representations of the groups within the community and the media, the effect of public opinion on the dispute, and the politics of the media in the dispute.

  14. Chromosomal differentiation and speciation in sister-species of Grammatidae (Perciformes) from the Western Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Wagner Franco; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos

    2012-09-01

    In the tropical Atlantic, the ichthyofauna between the coast of Brazil and the Caribbean regions, divided by the Amazon barrier, is very similar presenting several geminate species, including Gramma brasiliensis, endemic in Brazil, and its Caribbean counterpart Gramma loreto. Morphological and molecular studies have helped establish evolutionary patterns that sister-species of these two marine habitats are subjected to. However, their chromosomal characteristics are only beginning to be better characterized. Accordingly, a comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in G. brasiliensis and G. loreto, seeking evidence of cytotaxonomic markers implicated in the karyotypic diversification of these species and likely associated with speciation events. Heterochromatic regions and their affinity to fluorochromes GC- or AT-specific were identified, as well as the distribution of ribosomal DNA sites in chromosomes, either by silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs) or dual-color FISH mapping with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. While displaying the same diploid number, 2 n = 48 chromosomes, considered basal for Perciformes, the two species differed in karyotype structure, showing karyotypic formulas and species-specific heterochromatin pattern. The cytological characters found support the differentiating status of these species, possibly achieved under the conditions of allopatry due to the Amazon/Orinoco barrier, showing chromosomal peculiarities in Grammatidae species when compared to other groups of Perciformes.

  15. Analysis of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in familial and sporadic multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senécal-Quevillon, M; Duquette, P; Richer, C L

    1986-06-01

    The levels of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were calculated in 17 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients (14 familial and 3 sporadic cases) and 16 healthy controls matched for sex and age. The SCEs were significantly increased for MS patients (p = 0.0002), while there was no statistically significant difference between men and women and between younger and older subjects in both groups. Such factors as familial occurrence and severity of MS, smoking habits, and distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations were discussed. Although there was a significant difference between the MS patients taking medication and the patients taking none (p = 0.038), the latter were still significantly different from the controls (p = 0.035), supporting the fact that the disease itself increases SCEs. Our study, done with 2 doses of BrdU, also shows that the increased SCEs in MS patients are not due to a hypersensitivity to this substance known to be an inducer of SCEs. Thus we suggest that the increased SCEs found are probably disease-related.

  16. The impact of a sibling's life-limiting genetic condition on adult brothers and sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erica; Coad, Jane; Franklin, Anita

    2017-04-27

    It is estimated that rare diseases affect the lives of over three million people in the United Kingdom. Of these, a significant proportion are children and young people with genetic life-limiting or life-shortening conditions. This study used a qualitative approach with in-depth semi-structured interviews to explore the experiences of 10 adult siblings of a baby diagnosed with Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) or Trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome). Findings illustrate that parental grief from the time of their child's diagnosis onward is also experienced by siblings. Although young adults may have conflicting feelings as a bereaved sibling, there is evidence that the experience impacts on their world views and their attitudes about prospective and expectant parenthood. The study highlights the importance of providing siblings with short-term and long-term support from the time of their brother's or their sister's diagnosis onward and provides new understanding about benefit of professional and peer support in helping young adults develop resilience and coping strategies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations as parameters for human risk of cancer development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, K

    1987-04-01

    Chromosome alterations, which are directly visible changes in the DNA, have close associations to cancer development, non-specific ageing, and heritable genetic status. Human lymphocyte cultures can be used for cytogenetic monitoring of genetic health because many cancers and genetic effects are caused by long-term unhealthy life-styles. We have investigated the sensitivities of lymphocytes from inherited-cancer-prone diseases to the induction of the chromosome alterations by mutagens and carcinogens, and the correlations between the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in peripheral lymphocytes and life-styles or daily ways of living. Lymphocytes from patients with Down syndrome, Fanconi anemia, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia telangiectasia, and Bloom syndromes showed altered (usually enhanced) susceptibilities to the induction of chromosome aberrations and SCEs by mutagens and carcinogens in our environments. Mean frequencies of baseline SCEs in lymphocytes from normal men with poor life-styles have also been shown to be significantly higher than those in cells from men having good life-styles. The former cells have further been shown to have hyper sensitivities to the induction of SCEs by mitomycin-C' treatment compared to latter cells. Unhealthy life-styles also make the lymphocytes to be more sensitive to ara-C's enhancement of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations.

  18. Elevated sister chromatid exchange phenotype of Bloom syndrome cells is complemented by human chromosome 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, L D; Schultz, R A

    1992-09-01

    Bloom syndrome (BSx) is a rare autosomal-recessive chromosome-instability disorder manifested by a constellation of clinical features including a significant predisposition to early onset of neoplasia. BSx cells display cytogenetic abnormalities, the pathognomonic feature being an increased rate of spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), 10- to 15-fold more frequent than SCEs seen in control cells. Identification of the primary biochemical defect in BSx and its relationship to SCE frequency and neoplasia have been complicated by reports that BSx cell lines exhibit defects in the structure and/or activity of a number of different enzymes. The rare occurrence of the disorder and lack of informative families have precluded mapping of the primary defect by standard linkage analysis. We have utilized BSx cells as recipients for microcell-mediated chromosome transfer to map a locus that renders complementation of the elevated SCE phenotype. Studies with the BSx cell line GM08505 demonstrated a stable frequency of SCEs 10-fold higher than control values, offering a phenotype suitable for complementation studies. Transfer of different independent human chromosomes from somatic cell hybrids into BSx cells permitted identification of a single chromosome that dramatically reduced the SCE frequency to a level near that seen in control cells. Detailed characterization revealed this complementing element to be human chromosome 15.

  19. Sister chromatid exchanges and structural chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes in operating room personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husum, B; Niebuhr, E; Wulf, H C; Nørgaard, I

    1983-06-01

    Information on possible chromosomal damage in humans after long-term exposure to trace concentrations of waste anaesthetic gases is scarce. We examined peripheral lymphocytes in operating room personnel for both chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Following a standardized procedure of cultivation and staining, 30 cells from each person were scored for SCE and 100 cells from each person were examined for chromosome aberrations. A total of 45 persons were examined, representing anaesthetists (n = 15), operating room nurses assisting the surgeon (n = 10), nurses circulating in the operating room (n = 8) and healthy, unexposed controls (n = 12). The median duration of working in the operating room was 102 months, 66 months and 66 months, respectively. Time-weighted concentration levels of 2.5-4.3 p.p.m. of halothane and 25-400 p.p.m. of nitrous oxide were measured in the breathing zones of the anaesthetists during mask anaesthesia. Examination of SCE and chromosome aberrations yielded corresponding qualitative results. With both tests, no statistically significant difference was observed between the four groups of persons. It was concluded that by examination of both SCE and chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes in operating room personnel, no indication was found of a mutagenic effect of long-term exposure to trace concentrations of waste anaesthetic gases.

  20. BRCA1 and CtIP suppress long tract gene conversion between sister chromatids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Kwok, Amy; Huang, Bin; Willis, Nicholas A.; Xie, Anyong; Scully, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1 controls early steps of the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathway of homologous recombination, but has no known role following Rad51-mediated synapsis. Here we show that BRCA1 influences post-synaptic homologous recombination events, controlling the balance between short- (STGC) and long-tract gene conversion (LTGC) between sister chromatids. Brca1 mutant cells reveal a bias towards LTGC that is corrected by expression of wild type but not cancer-predisposing BRCA1 alleles. The LTGC bias is enhanced by depletion of CtIP but reversed by inhibition of 53BP1, implicating DNA end resection as a contributor to the STGC/LTGC balance. The impact of BRCA1/CtIP loss on the STGC/LTGC balance is abolished when the second (non-invading) end of the break is unable to support termination of STGC by homologous pairing (“annealing”). This suggests that BRCA1/CtIP-mediated processing of the second end of the break controls the annealing step that normally terminates SDSA, thereby suppressing the error-prone LTGC outcome. PMID:23994874

  1. BRCA1 and CtIP suppress long-tract gene conversion between sister chromatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouly, Gurushankar; Kwok, Amy; Huang, Bin; Willis, Nicholas A; Xie, Anyong; Scully, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1 controls early steps of the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathway of homologous recombination, but has no known role following Rad51-mediated synapsis. Here we show that BRCA1 influences post-synaptic homologous recombination events, controlling the balance between short- (STGC) and long-tract gene conversion (LTGC) between sister chromatids. Brca1 mutant cells reveal a bias towards LTGC that is corrected by expression of wild-type but not cancer-predisposing BRCA1 alleles. The LTGC bias is enhanced by depletion of CtIP but reversed by inhibition of 53BP1, implicating DNA end resection as a contributor to the STGC/LTGC balance. The impact of BRCA1/CtIP loss on the STGC/LTGC balance is abolished when the second (non-invading) end of the break is unable to support termination of STGC by homologous pairing (annealing). This suggests that BRCA1/CtIP-mediated processing of the second end of the break controls the annealing step that normally terminates SDSA, thereby suppressing the error-prone LTGC outcome.

  2. Tracking proliferative history in lymphocyte development with cre-mediated sister chromatid recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojun Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tracking and isolating live cells based on their proliferative history in live animals remains a technical challenge in animal studies. We have designed a genetic marking system for tracking the proliferative frequency and history of lymphocytes during their development and homeostatic maintenance. This system is based on activation of a fluorescent marker after Cre-dependent recombination between sister chromatids at a specially designed tandem loxP site, named Tlox. We have demonstrated the utility of the Tlox system in tracking proliferative windows of B and T lymphocyte development. We have further applied the Tlox system in the analysis of the proliferative behavior and homeostatic maintenance of Vγ1.1 positive γδ T cells. Our data show that Vγ1.1 T cells generated in neonatal but not adult life are able to expand in the thymus. The expanded Vγ1.1 T cells are preferentially maintained in the liver but not in lymphoid organs. It has been shown that numbers of Vγ1.1 T cells were dramatically increased in the lymphoid organs of Id3 deficient mice. By combining BrdU and Tlox assays we show that this phenotype is primarily due to enhanced neonatal expansion and subsequent retention of Vγ1.1 T cells. Thus, the Tlox system provides a new genetic tool to track clonal expansion within a defined cell population or tissue type in live animals.

  3. Very low sister-chromatid exchange rate in Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, H C; Iversen, A S; Husum, B; Niebuhr, E

    1986-08-01

    42 Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs) and 42 controls matched for sex, age and occupation had their sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This was done to examine if the SCE frequency was lower in this group of people, who are known to have a decreased cancer risk compared to the general population. The average SCE/cell in 30 cells from each person was 5.54 +/- 0.07 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) for the SDAs and 8.00 +/- 0.15 for the controls, the difference being statistically significant (p less than 0.00001). No difference in SCE frequency was found between SDAs eating only an ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet and those eating some fish or meat. The mitotic index (MI) was significantly higher and the replication index (RI) was significantly lower in SDAs than in controls. No correlation was found between gamma (a statistical transformation of SCEs/cell) and MI or RI within the groups of SDAs or controls. In the pooled data there was a negative correlation of gamma and MI and a positive correlation of gamma and RI. Of the interpersonal variation in gamma 8% and 14% could be explained by MI and RI. The finding of a lower SCE frequency in a group of SDAs who have a low risk of cancer might indirectly indicate a relation between SCE and cancer and encourages further studies of SCE and diet.

  4. Acute wood or coal exposure with carbon monoxide intoxication induces sister chromatid exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, S.; Vatansever, S.; Cefle, K.; Palanduz, S.; Guler, K.; Erten, N.; Erk, O.; Karan, M.A.; Tascioglu, C. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey). Istanbul Faculty of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effect of acute overexposure to combustion products originating from coal or wood stoves in patients presenting with acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The authors analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 20 consecutive patients without a history of smoking or drug use who had been treated in the Emergency Care Unit of Istanbul Medical Faculty due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. All of these cases were domestic accidents due to dysfunctioning coal or wood stoves. The results were compared with a control group of 20 nonsmoking, nondrug-using healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and absence of other chemical exposure. It was concluded that acute exposure to combustion products of wood or coal is genotoxic to DNA. Potential causes of genotoxicity include known mutagenic compounds present in coal or wood smoke and ash, oxygen radicals formed during combustion, as well as hypoxic and reperfusion injury mechanisms initiated by carbon monoxide intoxication.

  5. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  6. Preface (to Playable Cities)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    In this book, we address the issue of playfulness and playability in intelligent and smart cities. Playful technology can be introduced and authorized by city authorities. This can be compared and is similar to the introduction of smart technology in theme and recreational parks. However, smart

  7. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    in informing understandings and imaginings of the modern city. The author critically examines influential traditions in western Europe associated with such figures as Ebenezer Howard and Le Corbusier, uncovering the political interests, desires and anxieties that lay behind their ideal cities, and drawing out...

  8. Sustainability for Shrinking Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinking cities are widespread throughout the world despite the rapidly increasing global urban population. These cities are attempting to transition to sustainable trajectories to improve the health and well-being of urban residents, to build their capacity to adapt to changing...

  9. Feeding the Sustainable City

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , many Southern cities are now re-examining their attitude to urban agriculture. The challenge they face is how to control agricultural activity so that it can be integrated into the city environment for the benefit of the urban farmers and the rest of ...

  10. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  11. The accessible city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenburg, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    An accessible urban environment is crucial for a healthy, dynamic and economically vibrant city. It will not come as a surprise to anyone to learn that accessibility is a growing problem for many cities. In recent decades, the number of inhabitants has risen considerably, while economic activity has

  12. The City in Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van der Wouden; Erica de Bruijne

    2001-01-01

    Original title: De Stad in de omtrek. The healthy economic growth in recent years has not passed the major Dutch cities by. There has been a veritable wave of construction of new commercial and office premises in and around the four largest cities Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht,

  13. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...

  14. Less Smart More City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocco Papa; Carmela Gargiulo; Mario Cristiano; Immacolata Di Francesco; Andrea Tulisi

    2015-01-01

    ...: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape...

  15. Cities, knowledge and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107712741; Lambooy, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current theories and empirical research on cities and the knowledge economy. Two recent and interrelated streams of literature are discussed: the first focusing on agglomeration economies related to increasing returns and knowledge spillovers of firms in cities

  16. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It th...... as to theories of globalisation and inter-urban competition....

  17. in benin city, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CURRENT PRACTICES IN INFANT NUTRITION. IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA. U.H. Oparaocha, O.M.Ibadin, C.D. Muogbo. The Roding Medical Centre, Victoria Island, Lagos and Departments of Child Health,. University of Benin/Teaching Hospital, Benin City,. ABSTRACT. A community based prospective study was carried out ...

  18. HISTORICAL AND IDEOLOGICAL CONTEXT OF THE MARTYRDOM OF THE SISTERS OF ST. CATHERINE IN THE REGION OF WARMIA IN 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Zawadzki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the Red Army offensive in winter 1945 in the East Prussia, hundreds of thousands of Germans found themselves in a lap. A chaotic evacuation of troops and civilians began then, mostly by sea. In the course of the evacuation, where thousands of refugees were killed. A dramatic fate happened to the German civilians who got into the hands of the Red Army. In the occupied towns and villages, the Soviet soldiers committed individual and collective crimes against civilians. As victims of rapes and murders fell many women. Among the victims of the rapes and murders of Soviet soldiers were also sisters of the Congregation of the Sisters of St. Catherine Virgin and Martyr. The death of some of them may be treated as signs of martyrdom for the faith.

  19. Premature Sister Chromatid Separation Is Poorly Detected by the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint as a Result of System-Level Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo Mirkovic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by the cohesin complex, is essential for faithful mitosis. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that the surveillance mechanism that governs mitotic fidelity, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, is not robust enough to halt cell division when cohesion loss occurs prematurely. The mechanism behind this poor response is not properly understood. Using developing Drosophila brains, we show that full sister chromatid separation elicits a weak checkpoint response resulting in abnormal mitotic exit after a short delay. Quantitative live-cell imaging approaches combined with mathematical modeling indicate that weak SAC activation upon cohesion loss is caused by weak signal generation. This is further attenuated by several feedback loops in the mitotic signaling network. We propose that multiple feedback loops involving cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1 gradually impair error-correction efficiency and accelerate mitotic exit upon premature loss of cohesion. Our findings explain how cohesion defects may escape SAC surveillance.

  20. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    Innovation has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, with greater pressure on governments to do more with less, and expanding community expectations. Some are now calling this ‘social innovation’ – innovation that is related to creating new services......, are related to the innovations introduced by these cities. The volume maps and analyses the social networks of the three cities and examines boundary spanning within and outside of the cities. It also examines what leadership qualities are important for innovation. Innovation in City Governments: Structures...... that have value for stakeholders (such as citizens) in terms of the social and political outcomes they produce. Innovation in City Governments: Structures, Networks, and Leadership establishes an analytical framework of innovation capacity based on three dimensions: Structure - national governance...

  1. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  2. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  3. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden...... political will and leadership, supportive regulatory frameworks, realistic timetables/roadmaps, and a diverse set of stakeholders that can provide the right creative and innovative mix to make it possible....

  4. Seven Sisters: identità etnica, tribù e nazionalismo all’ombra del conteso confine Cina-India

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Beggiora

    2010-01-01

    The Seven Sisters states are a region in the North-eastern India frontier comprising the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura. After the 1962 Indo-Chinese war, China claimed territorial rights on this savage region, rich in resources and featured by a strategic position. Separated by the rest of the Subcontinent by the Bangladeshi border, the North-eastern frontier has suffered for decades a condition of administrative isolation from the rest ...

  5. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    OpenAIRE

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M.; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Met...

  6. Sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus frequency in human lymphocytes of 1,650 subjects in an Italian population: I. Contribution of methodological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barale, R; Marrazzini, A; Bacci, E; Di Sibio, A; Tessa, A; Cocchi, L; Scarcelli, V; Lubrano, V; Vassalle, C; Landi, S

    1998-01-01

    The influence of several methodological factors on mean values of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral lymphocytes of 1,650 subjects was analyzed. Donors belonged to a general healthy population living in Pisa and in two nearby small cities: Cascina and Navacchio (Ca-Na). Blood samples were collected over a period of 29 months and processed in three different laboratories of the some institute. Slides were analyzed by several scorers. Our data showed that lymphocyte proliferation indexes (PIs) and baseline mean values of SCEs were affected mainly by sampling period. This factor accounted for a percentage ranging from roughly 10% (Pisa) to 20% (Ca-Na) of total SCE variance and from roughly 10% (Pisa) to 13% (Ca-Na) of total PIs variance. A marginal effect was attributable to the different laboratories involved (maximum 3% for SCEs and 7% for PIs). The sampling period variable included many sources of variability such as culture media batches, fetal calf serum, PHA, BrdUrd, and seasonality. MN counts revealed a more marked dependence on processing laboratories. This factor accounted for a percentage of roughly 10% (Pisa and Ca-Na) of total variance, while the sampling period was marginally effective (about 1-4% of total variability). Because laboratories were equipped and supplied with the same materials and consumables and technicians were rotated constantly, the only variable ascertained was represented by the three different models of CO2 incubators used for lymphocyte culturing. When "month" and "incubator" variables were considered jointly, experimental variability accounted for 15-20% of total variance, both for PIs and mean values SCEs and MN. The variability due to slide scoring was reduced by assigning each slide to five different scorers and matching low with high scorers in each group. Present data show that when the study is performed under these controlled conditions, about 20% of total interdonor variability can be

  7. Design principles of the sparse coding network and the role of sister cells in the olfactory system of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danke eZhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensory systems face the challenge to represent sensory inputs in a way to allow easy readout of sensory information by higher brain areas. In the olfactory system of the fly drosopohila melanogaster, projection neurons (PNs of the antennal lobe (AL convert a dense activation of glomeruli into a sparse, high-dimensional firing pattern of Kenyon cells (KCs in the mushroom body (MB. Here we investigate the design principles of the olfactory system of drosophila in regard to the capabilities to discriminate odor quality from the MB representation and its robustness to different types of noise. We focus on understanding the role of highly correlated homotypic projection neurons (sister cells found in the glomeruli of flies. These cells are coupled by gap-junctions and receive almost identical sensory inputs, but target randomly different KCs in MB. We show that sister cells might play a crucial role in increasing the robustness of the MB odor representation to noise. Computationally, sister cells thus might help the system to improve the generalization capabilities in face of noise without impairing the discriminability of odor quality at the same time.

  8. Structure-based insights into self-cleavage by a four-way junctional twister-sister ribozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Luqian; Mairhofer, Elisabeth; Teplova, Marianna; Zhang, Ye; Ma, Jinbiao; Patel, Dinshaw J; Micura, Ronald; Ren, Aiming

    2017-10-30

    Here we report on the crystal structure and cleavage assays of a four-way junctional twister-sister self-cleaving ribozyme. Notably, 11 conserved spatially separated loop nucleotides are brought into close proximity at the ribozyme core through long-range interactions mediated by hydrated Mg2+ cations. The C62-A63 step at the cleavage site adopts a splayed-apart orientation, with flexible C62 directed outwards, whereas A63 is directed inwards and anchored by stacking and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Structure-guided studies of key base, sugar, and phosphate mutations in the twister-sister ribozyme, suggest contributions to the cleavage chemistry from interactions between a guanine at the active site and the non-bridging oxygen of the scissile phosphate, a feature found previously also for the related twister ribozyme. Our four-way junctional pre-catalytic structure differs significantly in the alignment at the cleavage step (splayed-apart vs. base-stacked) and surrounding residues and hydrated Mg2+ ions relative to a reported three-way junctional pre-catalytic structure of the twister-sister ribozyme.

  9. Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Osteomyelitis in Twin Sisters Related to STAT1 Gene Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjemaa, Sabah; Dainese, Linda; Héritier, Sébastien; Masserot, Caroline; Hachemane, Samia; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Coulomb, Aurore; Bustamante, Jacinta

    2017-06-01

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare syndrome characterized by severe clinical infections usually caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccines and environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria or more virulent mycobacteria as mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since 1996, 9 genes including 7 autosomal ( STAT1, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15, and IRF8) and 2 X-linked genes ( NEMO and CYBB) have been identified. Allelic heterogeneity leaded to recognize about 18 genetic diseases with variable clinical phenotypes, but sharing a same physiological mechanism represented by a defect in human IL-12-dependant-INF-γ-mediated immunity. We report here a case of multifocal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin osteomyelitis in a context Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease mimicking a metastatic neuroblastoma in a child presenting with delayed growth. The investigation of her twin sister showed the same disease. A heterozygous mutation in exon 22 of STAT1 gene was found in both sisters, another sister and the father being healthy and heterozygous for the same mutation.

  10. The cohesin subunit Rad21 is required for synaptonemal complex maintenance, but not sister chromatid cohesion, during Drosophila female meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Urban

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Replicated sister chromatids are held in close association from the time of their synthesis until their separation during the next mitosis. This association is mediated by the ring-shaped cohesin complex that appears to embrace the sister chromatids. Upon proteolytic cleavage of the α-kleisin cohesin subunit at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition by separase, sister chromatids are separated and segregated onto the daughter nuclei. The more complex segregation of chromosomes during meiosis is thought to depend on the replacement of the mitotic α-kleisin cohesin subunit Rad21/Scc1/Mcd1 by the meiotic paralog Rec8. In Drosophila, however, no clear Rec8 homolog has been identified so far. Therefore, we have analyzed the role of the mitotic Drosophila α-kleisin Rad21 during female meiosis. Inactivation of an engineered Rad21 variant by premature, ectopic cleavage during oogenesis results not only in loss of cohesin from meiotic chromatin, but also in precocious disassembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC. We demonstrate that the lateral SC component C(2M can interact directly with Rad21, potentially explaining why Rad21 is required for SC maintenance. Intriguingly, the experimentally induced premature Rad21 elimination, as well as the expression of a Rad21 variant with destroyed separase consensus cleavage sites, do not interfere with chromosome segregation during meiosis, while successful mitotic divisions are completely prevented. Thus, chromatid cohesion during female meiosis does not depend on Rad21-containing cohesin.

  11. Strategy for Fuel Rod Receipt, Characterization, Sample Allocation for the Demonstration Sister Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Warmann, Stephan A. [Portage, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    , inert gas backfilling, and transfer to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for multi-year storage. To document the initial condition of the used fuel prior to emplacement in a storage system, “sister ” fuel rods will be harvested and sent to a national laboratory for characterization and archival purposes. This report supports the demonstration by describing how sister rods will be shipped and received at a national laboratory, and recommending basic nondestructive and destructive analyses to assure the fuel rods are adequately characterized for UFDC work. For this report, a hub-and-spoke model is proposed, with one location serving as the hub for fuel rod receipt and characterization. In this model, fuel and/or clad would be sent to other locations when capabilities at the hub were inadequate or nonexistent. This model has been proposed to reduce DOE-NE’s obligation for waste cleanup and decontamination of equipment.

  12. Sister Mary Joseph's nodule as a presenting sign of internal malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodiuk-Gad, Roni; Ziv, Michael; Loven, David; Schafer, Jan; Shani-Adir, Ayelet; Dyachenko, Pavel; Rozenman, Dganit

    2006-01-01

    CASE 1: A 64-year-old, otherwise healthy woman was referred to the surgery clinic for a presumed umbilical hernia. On physical examination, a cutaneous nodule was noted on the umbilical region and the patient was referred to the dermatology clinic. The patient was reexamined and an erythematous nodule was observed in the umbilicus measuring 2.5 cm in diameter. The patient denied pain, change in bowel habits, or weight loss. There were no other abdominal masses, no sign of ascites, and no regional lymphadenopathy. A skin biopsy from the nodule showed mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for carcinoembryonic antigen, and negative for cytokeratin (CK)7 and CK20. These results were consistent with a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule and led to the diagnosis of an occult colon carcinoma. The patient had no risk factors for colorectal carcinoma. The patient underwent surgery in another hospital, and died 3 months after the initial diagnosis of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule. CASE 2: A 73-year-old woman was referred to the dermatology clinic for evaluation of a painful, ulcerated, 3-cm lesion in the umbilicus (Figure 1). She was otherwise asymptomatic. A skin biopsy showed neoplastic glandular cells infiltrating among collagen bundles (Figure 2). Stainings for mucin and for CK7 were positive, while staining for CK20 was negative. An abdominopelvic CT scan demonstrated a 3.5-cm space-occupying lesion in the liver. Results of gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest computed tomographic (CT) scan, and mammography were normal. Serum levels of the tumor-associated protein CA125 were elevated to 164 units, while those of CA 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen were within normal range. A gynecologic examination and a transvaginal ultrasound were normal. The patient had no personal or family history of any malignancy or any risk factors for developing a carcinoma. The patient was scheduled for a palliative resection of the umbilical nodule, combined with a laparoscopic

  13. The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and Sister Chromatid Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Suzuki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD groups from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area group were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64, and octaCDD (β = 0.65 were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34 and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42. The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38 was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents; R2 = 0.23. This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency.

  14. Chromosome number reduction in the sister clade of Carica papaya with concomitant genome size doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockinger, Alexander; Sousa, Aretuza; Carvalho, Fernanda A; Renner, Susanne S

    2016-06-01

    Caricaceae include six genera and 34 species, among them papaya, a model species in plant sex chromosome research. The family was held to have a conserved karyotype with 2n = 18 chromosomes, an assumption based on few counts. We examined the karyotypes and genome size of species from all genera to test for possible cytogenetic variation. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization using standard telomere, 5S, and 45S rDNA probes. New and published data were combined with a phylogeny, molecular clock dating, and C values (available for ∼50% of the species) to reconstruct genome evolution. The African genus Cylicomorpha, which is sister to the remaining Caricaceae (all neotropical), has 2n = 18, as do the species in two other genera. A Mexican clade of five species that includes papaya, however, has 2n = 18 (papaya), 2n = 16 (Horovitzia cnidoscoloides), and 2n = 14 (Jarilla caudata and J. heterophylla; third Jarilla not counted), with the phylogeny indicating that the dysploidy events occurred ∼16.6 and ∼5.5 million years ago and that Jarilla underwent genome size doubling (∼450 to 830-920 Mbp/haploid genome). Pericentromeric interstitial telomere repeats occur in both Jarilla adjacent to 5S rDNA sites, and the variability of 5S rDNA sites across all genera is high. On the basis of outgroup comparison, 2n = 18 is the ancestral number, and repeated chromosomal fusions with simultaneous genome size increase as a result of repetitive elements accumulating near centromeres characterize the papaya clade. These results have implications for ongoing genome assemblies in Caricaceae. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  15. Comparative Postembryonic Skeletal Ontogeny in Two Sister Lineages of Old World Tree Frogs (Rhacophoridae: Taruga, Polypedates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senevirathne, Gayani; Kerney, Ryan; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2017-01-01

    Rhacophoridae, a family of morphologically cryptic frogs, with many genetically distinct evolutionary lineages, is understudied with respect to skeletal morphology, life history traits and skeletal ontogeny. Here we analyze two species each from two sister lineages, Taruga and Polypedates, and compare their postembryonic skeletal ontogeny, larval chondrocrania and adult osteology in the context of a well-resolved phylogeny. We further compare these ontogenetic traits with the direct-developing Pseudophilautus silus. For each species, we differentially stained a nearly complete developmental series of tadpoles from early postembryonic stages through metamorphosis to determine the intraspecific and interspecific differences of cranial and postcranial bones. Chondrocrania of the four species differ in 1) size; 2) presence/absence of anterolateral and posterior process; and 3) shape of the suprarostral cartilages. Interspecific variation of ossification sequences is limited during early stages, but conspicuous during later development. Early cranial ossification is typical of other anuran larvae, where the frontoparietal, exoccipital and parasphenoid ossify first. The ossification sequences of the cranial bones vary considerably within the four species. Both species of Taruga show a faster cranial ossification rate than Polypedates. Seven cranial bones form when larvae near metamorphic climax. Ossification of all 18 cranial bones is initiated by larval Gosner stage 46 in T. eques. However, some cranial bone formation is not initiated until after metamorphosis in the other three species. Postcranial sequence does not vary significantly. The comparison of adult osteology highlights two characters, which have not been previously recorded: presence/absence of the parieto-squamosal plates and bifurcated base of the omosternum. This study will provide a starting point for comparative analyses of rhacophorid skeletal ontogeny and facilitate the study of the evolution of

  16. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: micronucleus and sister chromatid exchange evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Hoffman, Gary M; Gudi, Ramadevi; Clark, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Micronucleus and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests were performed for vapor condensate of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline with oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl tert butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), t-butyl alcohol (TBA), or ethanol (G/EtOH). Sprague Dawley rats (the same 5/sex/group for both endpoints) were exposed to 0, 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3) of each condensate, 6h/day, 5days/week over 4weeks. Positive controls (5/sex/test) were given cyclophosphamide IP, 24h prior to sacrifice at 5mg/kg (SCE test) and 40mg/kg (micronucleus test). Blood was collected from the abdominal aorta for the SCE test and femurs removed for the micronucleus test. Blood cell cultures were treated with 5μg/ml bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for SCE evaluation. No significant increases in micronucleated immature erythrocytes were observed for any test material. Statistically significant increases in SCE were observed in rats given BGVC alone or in female rats given G/MTBE. G/TAME induced increased SCE in both sexes at the highest dose only. Although DNA perturbation was observed for several samples, DNA damage was not expressed as increased micronuclei in bone marrow cells. Inclusion of oxygenates in gasoline did not increase the effects of gasoline alone or produce a cytogenetic hazard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring of sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of nurse-anesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husum, B; Wulf, H C; Niebuhr, E

    1985-04-01

    Cytogenetic methods are used increasingly for monitoring exposure to potential mutagens/carcinogens in the environment. By one such method, the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test, comparison of different groups of hospital personnel has not indicated any mutagenic effect of occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases. Since no information is available on repeated examinations of operating room personnel during a longer period of occupational exposure, the authors examined SCE in lymphocytes in a total number of 191 venous blood samples drawn from 14 previously unexposed nurses before and during up to 32 months of training as nurse-anesthetists. The initial SCE/cell ranged from 8.03 to 13.13 SCE/cell. Individual linear regressions were performed for the transformed variable, y = (sum SCE)1/2 + (sum SCE + 1)1/2, on time; and for the first 6-month period, the weighted mean of individual slopes was b0 = -0.119 +/- 0.088, not significantly different from zero. Calculated for the whole observation period, b0 = 0.030 +/- 0.014, P = 0.034 (two-tailed t test). Converted into SCE/cell, SCE would decrease 0.10 SCE/cell for each 6-month period of exposure (95% confidence limits 0.07-0.13 SCE/cell). The reason for this apparent decrease remains unknown. The results of the present study were in accord with previous studies of operating room personnel and of patients anesthetized with inhaled anesthetics. It was concluded that there is no indication, from the SCE test, of a mutagenic action due to exposure in vivo to currently used inhalation anesthetics.

  18. A novel mechanism for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion by the ECO1 acetyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guacci, Vincent; Stricklin, Jeremiah; Bloom, Michelle S; Guō, Xuánzōng; Bhatter, Meghna; Koshland, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Cohesin complex mediates cohesion between sister chromatids, which promotes high-fidelity chromosome segregation. Eco1p acetylates the cohesin subunit Smc3p during S phase to establish cohesion. The current model posits that this Eco1p-mediated acetylation promotes establishment by abrogating the ability of Wpl1p to destabilize cohesin binding to chromosomes. Here we present data from budding yeast that is incompatible with this Wpl1p-centric model. Two independent in vivo assays show that a wpl1∆ fails to suppress cohesion defects of eco1∆ cells. Moreover, a wpl1∆ also fails to suppress cohesion defects engendered by blocking just the essential Eco1p acetylation sites on Smc3p (K112, K113). Thus removing WPL1 inhibition is insufficient for generating cohesion without ECO1 activity. To elucidate how ECO1 promotes cohesion, we conducted a genetic screen and identified a cohesion activator mutation in the SMC3 head domain (D1189H). Smc3-D1189H partially restores cohesion in eco1∆ wpl1∆ or eco1 mutant cells but robustly restores cohesion in cells blocked for Smc3p K112 K113 acetylation. These data support two important conclusions. First, acetylation of the K112 K113 region by Eco1p promotes cohesion establishment by altering Smc3p head function independent of its ability to antagonize Wpl1p. Second, Eco1p targets other than Smc3p K112 K113 are necessary for efficient establishment. © 2015 Guacci et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. A comparison of leaf crystal macropatterns in the two sister genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Harry T; Wanke, Stefan; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2012-06-01

    This is the first large-scale study comparing leaf crystal macropatterns of the species-rich sister genera Piper and Peperomia. It focuses on identifying types of calcium oxalate crystals and their macropatterns in leaves of both genera. The Piper results are placed in a phylogenetic context to show evolutionary patterns. This information will expand knowledge about crystals and provide specific examples to help study their form and function. One example is the first-time observation of Piper crystal sand tumbling in chlorenchyma vacuoles. Herbarium and fresh leaves were cleared of cytoplasmic content and examined with polarizing microscopy to identify types of crystals and their macropatterns. Selected hydrated herbarium and fresh leaf punches were processed for scanning electron microscopy and x-ray elemental analysis. Vibratome sections of living Piper and Peperomia leaves were observed for anatomical features and crystal movement. Both genera have different leaf anatomies. Piper displays four crystal types in chlorenchyma-crystal sand, raphides, styloids, and druses, whereas Peperomia displays three types-druses, raphides, and prisms. Because of different leaf anatomies and crystal types between the genera, macropatterns are completely different. Crystal macropattern evolution in both is characterized by increasing complexity, and both may use their crystals for light gathering and reflection for efficient photosynthesis under low-intensity light environments. Both genera have different leaf anatomies, types of crystals and crystal macropatterns. Based on Piper crystals associated with photosynthetic tissues and low-intensity light, further study of their function and association with surrounding chloroplasts is warranted, especially active crystal movement.

  20. Dated phylogenies of the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae: congruence in historical biogeographic patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C van Welzen

    Full Text Available Molecular phylogenies and estimates of divergence times within the sister genera Macaranga and Mallotus were estimated using Bayesian relaxed clock analyses of two generic data sets, one per genus. Both data sets were based on different molecular markers and largely different samples. Per genus three calibration points were utilised. The basal calibration point (crown node of all taxa used was taken from literature and used for both taxa. The other three calibrations were based on fossils of which two were used per genus. We compared patterns of dispersal and diversification in Macaranga and Mallotus using ancestral area reconstruction in RASP (S-DIVA option and contrasted our results with biogeographical and geological records to assess accuracy of inferred age estimates. A check of the fossil calibration point showed that the Japanese fossil, used for dating the divergence of Mallotus, probably had to be attached to a lower node, the stem node of all pioneer species, but even then the divergence time was still younger than the estimated age of the fossil. The African (only used in the Macaranga data set and New Zealand fossils (used for both genera seemed reliably placed. Our results are in line with existing geological data and the presence of stepping stones that provided dispersal pathways from Borneo to New Guinea-Australia, from Borneo to mainland Asia and additionally at least once to Africa and Madagascar via land and back to India via Indian Ocean island chains. The two genera show congruence in dispersal patterns, which corroborate divergence time estimates, although the overall mode and tempo of dispersal and diversification differ significantly as shown by distribution patterns of extant species.

  1. Associations among personal care product use patterns and exogenous hormone use in the NIEHS Sister Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kyla W; Baird, Donna D; Herring, Amy H; Engel, Lawrence S; Nichols, Hazel B; Sandler, Dale P; Troester, Melissa A

    2017-09-01

    It is hypothesized that certain chemicals in personal care products may alter the risk of adverse health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to use a data-centered approach to classify complex patterns of exposure to personal care products and to understand how these patterns vary according to use of exogenous hormone exposures, oral contraceptives (OCs) and post-menopausal hormone therapy (HT). The NIEHS Sister Study is a prospective cohort study of 50,884 US women. Limiting the sample to non-Hispanic blacks and whites (N=47,019), latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify groups of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use based on responses to 48 survey questions. Personal care products were categorized into three product types (beauty, hair, and skincare products) and separate latent classes were constructed for each type. Adjusted prevalence differences (PD) were calculated to estimate the association between exogenous hormone use, as measured by ever/never OC or HT use, and patterns of personal care product use. LCA reduced data dimensionality by grouping of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use into mutually exclusive latent classes (three latent classes for beauty product use, three for hair, and four for skin care. There were strong differences in personal care usage by race, particularly for haircare products. For both blacks and whites, exogenous hormone exposures were associated with higher levels of product use, especially beauty and skincare products. Relative to individual product use questions, latent class variables capture complex patterns of personal care product usage. These patterns differed by race and were associated with ever OC and HT use. Future studies should consider personal care product exposures with other exogenous exposures when modeling health risks.

  2. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  3. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  4. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rojas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of  technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects  the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City,  creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  5. [Narrative report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge, Navarre Tract: Calendar year 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ottawa, Cedar Point, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year....

  6. Pride and the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S Morrison

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pride in one’s city is an individual, and collective as well as institutional response to urban conditions which may be harnessed in support of expanding urban facilities and services. Pride is likely to be felt most keenly by those who have a stake in the city and for this reason anecdotal reporting of urban pride in the media is subject to likely bias in favour of vested interests.  In practice however we know very little about urban pride.  The vast literature on urbanism does not appear to have identified any role for urban pride let alone indicating which cities gather pride or who among its inhabitants exhibit such pride This paper applies a multi-level statistical model to large random sample of residents in twelve New Zealand cities.  From the results we learn that, although financial stake holding is relevant,   urban pride is concentrated more broadly among those whose social and cultural identity is closely tied to the city. Where financial stake holding is most influential is when it is absent, for those experiencing financial difficulties are the most likely to disavow urban pride. Urban pride is a therefore a distributional property of cities in which the currencies are emotional and cultural as well as financial. Urban pride is relatively absent among those who fail to have a stake in the city as well as being weaker among those who live in relatively unattractive cities, and less attractive neighbourhoods.  As a barometer of rewards to living and investing in the city,  urban pride certainly warrants closer attention than it has received to date.

  7. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  8. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress......Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...

  9. Sustainable compact city concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Šulin Košar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The compact city concept has emerged at the end of the 20th century as one of the solutions for sustainable urban development. The concept brings development, which emphasizes urban density, while avoiding urban sprawl. The key features of the concept are mixed land use, construction of higher density (city intensification as well as better access for the entire population and most importantantly, development of the public transport system. The concept has advantages, but also disadvantages, because too much density affects the quality of life in the city.

  10. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 CHAPTER 3. Leading in the Community: Using City Assets, Policy, Partnerships, and Persuasion . . Case in Point: Returning to Green City Roots and Loving El...

  11. Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.

    2006-02-01

    Tumescence at the Three Sisters volcanic center began sometime between summer 1996 and summer 1998 and was discovered in April 2001 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Swelling is centered about 5 km west of the summit of South Sister, a composite basaltic-andesite to rhyolite volcano that last erupted between 2200 and 2000 yr ago, and it affects an area ˜20 km in diameter within the Three Sisters Wilderness. Yearly InSAR observations show that the average maximum displacement rate was 3-5 cm/yr through summer 2001, and the velocity of a continuous GPS station within the deforming area was essentially constant from June 2001 to June 2004. The background level of seismic activity has been low, suggesting that temperatures in the source region are high enough or the strain rate has been low enough to favor plastic deformation over brittle failure. A swarm of about 300 small earthquakes ( Mmax = 1.9) in the northeast quadrant of the deforming area on March 23-26, 2004, was the first notable seismicity in the area for at least two decades. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established tilt-leveling and EDM networks at South Sister in 1985-1986, resurveyed them in 2001, the latter with GPS, and extended them to cover more of the deforming area. The 2001 tilt-leveling results are consistent with the inference drawn from InSAR that the current deformation episode did not start before 1996, i.e., the amount of deformation during 1995-2001 from InSAR fully accounts for the net tilt at South Sister during 1985-2001 from tilt-leveling. Subsequent InSAR, GPS, and leveling observations constrain the source location, geometry, and inflation rate as a function of time. A best-fit source model derived from simultaneous inversion of all three datasets is a dipping sill located 6.5 ± 2.5 km below the surface with a volume increase of 5.0 × 10 6 ± 1.5 × 10 6 m 3/yr (95% confidence limits). The most likely cause of tumescence is a pulse of basaltic magma

  12. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    WE LOVE THE CITY Byen i bygningen, bygningen i byen Lasse Andersson, Ph.d., arkitekt maa, adjunkt ved Aalborg Universitet Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY vil vi formidle mødet mellem urban design oog arkitektur. Disciplinen ’at bygge by’ har de seneste 20 år ikke tændt hjerterne hos...... fjern og ’usexet’ for unge arkitekter in spe. Det kan fremtidens by ikke være tjent med, og WE LOVE THE CITY vil derfor gerne vise alle, der færdes i byen og bruger dens arkitektur, at her er et potentiale. Med udstillingen WE LOVE THE CITY ønsker Utzon Centeret, LasseVegas Kontoret ApS og ADEPT...

  13. The Sustainable City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  14. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  15. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  16. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  17. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  18. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...

  19. The Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Jensen, Ole B.; Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

      The article take its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. In the discussion of the transformation into the ‘experience economy' relevant to cities and urban areas we rarely find an analysis of the physical and spatial implications of this transformation. However, the physical, cultural and democratic consequences...... of this development are discussed in the paper, as well as the problems and the new opportunities with which the ‘Experience city' is faced. The article focus on the design of the Danish Experience City with special emphasis on hybrid cultural projects and on performative urban spaces. It present the first findings...

  20. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a mixed-method study of Denmark to investigate whether and how Richard Florida's creative class theory should be adapted to small welfare economies. First, we carry out an econometric analyses showing that like in North America, the Danish creative class propels economic growth...... and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  1. The accessible city

    OpenAIRE

    Woestenburg, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    An accessible urban environment is crucial for a healthy, dynamic and economically vibrant city. It will not come as a surprise to anyone to learn that accessibility is a growing problem for many cities. In recent decades, the number of inhabitants has risen considerably, while economic activity has also increased. It is only logical that the number of travel journeys has therefore also grown strongly. In many places, this has been to the detriment of the living environment, with congestion f...

  2. Keys to the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...

  3. The Joint Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The new connections, which high speed train allows to activate among the metropolitan systems, seem to be able to give life to new urban macro-structures for which the transfer time, among the main poles of the railway segment, becomes comparable to an inside moving into the city and therefore considered as an inter-functional mobility. The tunnel effect generated by the high speed connection seems to be able to allow a new temporal and functional joint among the metropolitan systems consequently supporting the possibility, for the users, to move themselves among the different urban functions belonging to the different cities. The birth of these urban aggregations seems to drive towards new megalopolis, which we can define for the first time with the term: joint-city. For this new metropolitan settlement it seems to be very interesting to investigate the constitutive peculiarities, the systemic articulation, its relational structures, the evolutionary scenarios, and so on. The urban functions (activities can be considered as structures of relationships between people that allows to define "organizational links" inside the community; the urban functions are located in specific places inside urban container or in open spaces. The urban functions represent the urban engines and the functional system can be thought as the “soul of the city", abstract but essential to its survival. In the definition set out here the analysis is carried out for many interconnected urban functional system points (specifically those in Rome and Naples. The new high speed railway has to be considered not only as a new channel of mobility between cities, but as a real possibility of joint between the functional systems of the two centres. A final consideration can be carried out in relation to the possibility of implementing new measures of governance of urban transformations considering the new macro-city: the "Joint City".

  4. Emplacement of Holocene silicic lava flows and domes at Newberry, South Sister, and Medicine Lake volcanoes, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jonathan H.; Anderson, Steven W.

    2017-07-19

    This field guide for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly 2017 focuses on Holocene glassy silicic lava flows and domes on three volcanoes in the Cascade Range in Oregon and California: Newberry, South Sister, and Medicine Lake volcanoes. Although obsidian-rich lava flows have been of interest to geologists, archaeologists, pumice miners, and rock hounds for more than a century, many of their emplacement characteristics had not been scientifically observed until two very recent eruptions in Chile. Even with the new observations, several eruptive processes discussed in this field trip guide can only be inferred from their final products. This makes for lively debates at outcrops, just as there have been in the literature for the past 30 years.Of the three volcanoes discussed in this field guide, one (South Sister) lies along the main axis defined by major peaks of the Cascade Range, whereas the other two lie in extensional tectonic settings east of the axis. These two tectonic environments influence volcano morphology and the magmatic and volcanic processes that form silicic lava flows and domes. The geomorphic and textural features of glass-rich extrusions provide many clues about their emplacement and the magma bodies that fed them.The scope of this field guide does not include a full geologic history or comprehensive explanation of hazards associated with a particular volcano or volcanic field. The geochemistry, petrology, tectonics, and eruption history of Newberry, South Sister, and Medicine Lake volcanic centers have been extensively studied and are discussed on other field excursions. Instead, we seek to explore the structural, textural, and geochemical evolution of well-preserved individual lava flows—the goal is to understand the geologic processes, rather than the development, of a specific volcano.

  5. Chiasmata promote monopolar attachment of sister chromatids and their co-segregation toward the proper pole during meiosis I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinobu Hirose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chiasma is a structure that forms between a pair of homologous chromosomes by crossover recombination and physically links the homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Chiasmata are essential for the attachment of the homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles (bipolar attachment and their subsequent segregation to the opposite poles during meiosis I. However, the overall function of chiasmata during meiosis is not fully understood. Here, we show that chiasmata also play a crucial role in the attachment of sister chromatids to the same spindle pole and in their co-segregation during meiosis I in fission yeast. Analysis of cells lacking chiasmata and the cohesin protector Sgo1 showed that loss of chiasmata causes frequent bipolar attachment of sister chromatids during anaphase. Furthermore, high time-resolution analysis of centromere dynamics in various types of chiasmate and achiasmate cells, including those lacking the DNA replication checkpoint factor Mrc1 or the meiotic centromere protein Moa1, showed the following three outcomes: (i during the pre-anaphase stage, the bipolar attachment of sister chromatids occurs irrespective of chiasma formation; (ii the chiasma contributes to the elimination of the pre-anaphase bipolar attachment; and (iii when the bipolar attachment remains during anaphase, the chiasmata generate a bias toward the proper pole during poleward chromosome pulling that results in appropriate chromosome segregation. Based on these results, we propose that chiasmata play a pivotal role in the selection of proper attachments and provide a backup mechanism that promotes correct chromosome segregation when improper attachments remain during anaphase I.

  6. Perception of emotion and bilateral advantage in women with eating disorders, their healthy sisters, and nonrelated healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Michal Hason; Latzer, Yael; Stein, Daniel; Eviatar, Zohar

    2011-11-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized not only by disordered eating, but also by other psychopathology. In this exploratory study, we examined the ability of women with different diagnoses of EDs, their unaffected sisters, and healthy unrelated controls to recognize their own and other's emotions. We also looked at interhemispheric integration of emotion recognition and its relationship with depression. Five groups of women participated: 1. anorexia nervosa restricting (AN-R) and 2. (AN-B/B) binge/purge, 3. bulimia nervosa binge/purge, (BN-B/P), 4. healthy sisters of women with ED, and 5. unrelated healthy controls. We used two questionnaires measuring alexithymia and depression, and two lateralized experimental tasks requiring recognition of facial emotion. Unilateral versus bilateral presentation allow the indexing of interhemispheric integration. Alexithymia: All the ED groups were found to be more alexithymic and depressed on the self report scales compared to the two healthy groups. Depression completely mediated alexithymia in the AN-R group but not in the AN-B/P and BN-B/P patients. Sisters of ED women were more alexithymic than unrelated controls. Lateralized facial emotion recognition: ED women showed no deficits in recognizing basic emotions. However, the clinical groups did not show a bilateral advantage whereas the two healthy groups did so. We present three conclusions: we show, for the first time, evidence for a deficit in hemispheric integration in EDs. This implies that EDs may be a disconnection syndrome; alexithymia characterizes women with EDs and members of their family; depression is manifested differently in AN-R, than in women who binge/purge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental Impact of Megacities - Results from CityZen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, M.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have increasingly important impacts on air quality and climate change on different spatial scales, owing to their high population densities and concentrated emission sources. The EU FP7 project CityZen (Megacity - Zoom for the Environment) ended in 2011 and was, together with its sister project MEGAPOLI, part of a major research effort within FP7 on megacities in Europe and worldwide. The project mainly focused on air pollution trends in large cities and emission hotspots, climate-chemistry couplings, future projections, and emission mitigation options. Both observational and modeling tools have been extensively used. This paper reviews some of the main results from CityZen regarding present air pollution in and around megacities, future scenarios and mitigation options to reduce air pollution and/or climate change, and the main policy messages from the project. The different observed trends over European and Asian hotspots during the last 10 to 15 years are shown. Results of source attribution of pollutants, which have been measured and calculated in and around the different selected hot spots in CityZen will be discussed. Another important question to be addressed is the extent to which climate change will affect air quality and the effectiveness of air quality legislation. Although projected emission reductions are a major determinate influencing the predictions of future air pollution, model results suggest that climate change has to be taken into account when devising future air quality legislation. This paper will also summarize some important policy messages in terms of ozone, particles and the observational needs that have been put forward as conclusions from the project.

  8. Primary peritoneal carcinoma presenting as a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn L. Schickler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sister Mary Joseph's nodule is sometimes the first sign of an internal malignancy, including gastrointestinal, gynecological, or malignancy of unknown primary. It is rarely the sole presentation of a primary peritoneal cancer. In this report, we present the case of a 70-year-old female with umbilical drainage and a computed tomography scan consistent with solitary umbilical nodule. Excision of the nodule revealed adenocarcinoma of likely müllerian origin. Surgical staging did not show any evidence of malignancy with the exception of pelvic washings. She was considered to have primary peritoneal adenocarcinoma and was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

  9. Sister mary joseph′s nodule: A case of umbilical cutaneous metastasis with signet ring cell histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh Valid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The metastasis of a visceral malignancy to the umbilicus is known as "Sister Mary Joseph′s nodule". It is a rare clinical sign indicating advanced, metastasizing intraabdominal cancer. We report a 50-year-old man who developed metastatic skin cancer in the form of semicircular indurated plaque on top of which was a firm mobile rounded nodule at the umbilical area. Histopathological examination demonstrated diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff and mucicarmine positive signet ring cells, suggesting gastric carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining showed that these cells were positive for cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen, suggesting epithelial origin.

  10. Super Mario brothers and sisters: Associations between coplaying video games and sibling conflict and affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Jensen, Alexander C; Smith, Nathan J; Erickson, Daniel H

    2016-02-01

    Video games can be played in many different contexts. This study examined associations between coplaying video games between siblings and levels of affection and conflict in the relationship. Participants were 508 adolescents (M age = 16.31 years of age, SD = 1.08) who completed questionnaires on video game use and sibling relationships. Participants were recruited from a large Northwestern city and a moderate city in the Mountain West of the United States. Video games played between siblings were coded by an independent sample to assess levels of physical aggression and prosocial behavior in each game. Playing video games with a sibling was associated with higher levels of sibling affection for both boys and girls, but higher levels of conflict for boys only. Playing a violent video game with a brother was associated with lower levels of conflict in the sibling relationship, whereas playing a prosocial video game was not related to any sibling outcome. The value of video games in sibling relationships will be discussed, with a focus on the type of game and the sex of the adolescent. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  12. Earth's City Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  13. Network cities and externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Boix Domènech

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

  14. Rosario, a grey city

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, Adolfo; Rainero, Carolina

    2002-06-01

    Our work deals with the color of the city. We propose the study of the urban built landscape chromaticity, here in Rosario, Argentina. We're trying to find out the reasons that make our city looks in gray. The project we're developing is based in the fact that urban environment has a color, that is to say that, a dominant color that makes the inhabitants feel the urban space that way. We think that it may be introduced into the traditional tools used to study the urban development dimensions like color at the time to interpret the urban environment. The research and survey let us show the great importance that color has as design instrument, even in the urban dn the building scale. It has been proposed a research model in order to consider the particularities of the city. The model is apply to different paradigmatic fragments so as to know the real color incidence in the perception of the city. The work it's been developed through the following topics: (1) Perceptive survey. (2) Downtown building survey. (3) Historic survey. Based in the interdiscipline work we try to contribute to the design and optimization of the tools that let professionals and researchers understand the complex urban environment so as to make supporting cities.

  15. Reproducing in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth

    2008-02-08

    Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower.

  16. Access to the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Manja Hoppe; Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    by the urban transport system. The paper draws upon qualitative interviews with residents in the periphery as well as recently collected travel speed data and offers a unique combination of testimony with GIS-based modelling of overall accessibility. A central finding is the overall importance of regular......This paper is concerned with access to the city for urban residents living in the periphery of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The paper presents an analysis of the mobility practices of residents and investigates the mobility constraints they experience in relation to the limited accessibility provided...... mobility and access to the city for residents in the periphery. Regular mobility is an ingrained part of residents' livelihood strategies. The majority of households rely on one or more members regularly travelling to central parts of the city in relation to their livelihood activities. The analysis...

  17. Glacial alteration of volcanic terrains: A chemical investigation of the Three Sisters, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Alicia; Horgan, Briony; Havig, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Glacial silica cycling is more efficient than previously reported, and in some settings, particularly glaciated mafic volcanics, can be the dominant weathering process. Based on field work at glaciated volcanic sites, we hypothesize that this is due to a combination of high rates of silica dissolution from mafic bedrock and reprecipitation of silica in the form of opaline silica coatings and other poorly crystalline silicate alteration phases. The high rate of bedrock comminution in subglacial environments results in high rates of both chemical and physical weathering, due to the increased reactive mineral surface area formed through glacial grinding. In most bedrock types, carbonate weathering is enhanced and silica fluxes are depressed in glacial outwash compared with global average riverine catchment runoff due to low temperatures and short residence times. However, in mafic systems, higher dissolved SiO2 concentrations have been observed. The major difference between observed glacial alteration of volcanic bedrock and more typical continental terrains is the absence of significant dissolved carbonate in the former. In the absence of carbonate minerals which normally dominate dissolution processes at glacier beds, carbonation of feldspar can become the dominant weathering process, which can result in a high proportion of dissolved silica fluxes in glacial outwash waters compared to the total cation flux. Mafic volcanic rocks are particularly susceptible to silica mobility, due to the high concentration of soluble minerals (i.e. plagioclase) as compared to the high concentration of insoluble quartz found in felsic rocks. To investigate melt-driven chemical weathering of mafic volcanics, water and rock samples were collected during July 2016 from glaciated volcanic bedrock in the Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon, U.S.A. (44°9'N, 121°46'W): Collier Glacier (basaltic andesite, andesite), Hayden Glacier (andesite, dacite), and Diller Glacier (basalt). Here we

  18. Colima and Manila: Two cities linked by history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Machuca Chávez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During more than two centuries, Colima and Manila had a close relationship, as a result of the transpacific voyages held by the Manila Galleon. In its voyage towards Acapulco, this ship stopped first in the port of Salagua (Manzanillo, Colima, in order to get food supply and to send the viceroy of the New Spain an official report about the status of the merchandise. In this context, many Asian people (known as "indios chinos" in the New Spain landed in Colima and established in the haciendas de palmas (Machuca, 2009a, very familiar to them because palm trees are native of Asia. Philippine people taught Spaniards and American indians how to use the coconut (Cocos nucifera L. to make beverages, dishes and tools, as well as to build houses known as “palapas”. This heritage survives nowadays, and it takes part in the Colima everyday life. I present ten evidences of the close relationship that existed between these two cities from the second half of the Sixteenth century up to the Independence phase. I consider that this information will be useful to promote a "sister cities"municipal project between Colima and Manila.

  19. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analyse...... elements of both the design process, the organisational, the political and technological contexts. They point to the role of researchers and designers in exploring and understanding digital elements of public space as not merely registering structures but also actively engaging in public discourse...

  20. Climate change and cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satterthwaite, David

    2006-10-15

    What is done, or not done, in cities in relation to climate change over the next 5-10 years will affect hundreds of millions of people, because their lives and livelihoods are at risk from global warming. What is done in cities will also have a major influence on whether the escalating risks for the whole planet will be reduced or eliminated. Climate change needs to be considered in all development plans and investments - local, regional, national and international. Urban growth must be made more climate-resilient and help reduce, rather than increase, greenhouse gas emissions. This will not be done by the market; it can only be done by governments.

  1. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  2. Pride and the city

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Pride in one’s city is an individual, and collective as well as institutional response to urban conditions which may be harnessed in support of expanding urban facilities and services. Pride is likely to be felt most keenly by those who have a stake in the city and for this reason anecdotal reporting of urban pride in the media is subject to likely bias in favour of vested interests.  In practice however we know very little about urban pride.  The vast literature on urbanism does not appear t...

  3. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...

  4. Wal-e-Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Schelings, Clémentine; Reiter, Sigrid; Teller, Jacques; Elsen, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    L’objectif du portefeuille FEDER Wal-e-Cities est le développement de villes intelligentes («Smart Cities») au sein d’un territoire wallon interconnecté. La technologie, vue ici comme un outil au service de la Smart Région Wallonne et de ses citoyens, permettra de répondre à cinq défis principaux identifiés: connectivité, mobilité, énergie et environnement, gouvernance et enfin bien-être en environnement urbain. Les partenaires de ce portefeuille (Universités et Centres de Recherche), et par...

  5. Evolution of the Three Sisters Volcanic Cluster, Oregon, over the past 100 ka—Animation of a Detailed Geologic Map (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, A. T.; Robinson, J. E.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Three Sisters volcanic cluster comprises three stratocones rising ˜1400m above abundant peripheral basalt to rhyolite vents to >3000m elevation along the Cascade crest in Oregon. Detailed 1:24,000-scale mapping (Hildreth et al., in press), along with comprehensive major and trace element chemistry illuminates significant differences between the stratovolcanoes. High-precision argon geochronology of 71 of the ˜130 pre-Holocene mapped volcanic units allows us to reconstruct the cluster’s eruptive history and chemical variation in space and time. Analytical errors of 1,000 to 3,000 years on most dated samples enables identification of eruptive episodes and intervening periods of quiescence. With this age information and map compilation in a GIS, we can animate the geologic map. Considered separately, the Three Sisters bear little family resemblance. South Sister (˜17 km3) erupted rhyolite early in its history (˜50 ka), followed by rhyolite and dacite domes and flows (38-30 ka). This silicic base was covered by a broad cone of andesite-dacite lavas (30-27 ka), followed by dacite lavas and pyroclastic ejecta (26-23 ka), and finally capped by a 22 ka basaltic andesite agglutinate. Stratigraphically deep portions of Middle Sister (˜10 km3) are composed of 180-160 ka basaltic andesite overlain by 46 ka, 37 ka and 22 ka andesite flows. The upper 2/3 of Middle Sister is composed of thin basaltic andesite flows erupted between 21-19 ka. North Sister, a ˜15 km3 pile of fairly uniform basaltic andesite, is the oldest of the three stratovolcanoes (˜120-50 ka). Peripheral, monogenetic mafic vents surround the Three Sisters and range in age from 375 to 1.5 ka. The high-silica Obsidian Cliff rhyolite coulee (˜0.4 km3) erupted 3 km west of Middle Sister at 38 ka and other peripheral rhyolites erupted at ˜35, ˜25, and 2 ka. Considered together, the volcanic cluster was very productive over the past 100 ka with episodes of basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite and

  6. Introgression and selection shaped the evolutionary history of sympatric sister-species of coral reef fishes (genus: Haemulon)

    KAUST Repository

    Bernal, Moisés A.

    2016-11-22

    Closely related marine species with large overlapping ranges provide opportunities to study mechanisms of speciation, particularly when there is evidence of gene flow between such lineages. Here, we focus on a case of hybridization between the sympatric sister-species Haemulon maculicauda and H. flaviguttatum, using Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci, as well as 2422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained via restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Mitochondrial markers revealed a shared haplotype for COI and low divergence for CytB and CR between the sister-species. On the other hand, complete lineage sorting was observed at the nuclear loci and most of the SNPs. Under neutral expectations, the smaller effective population size of mtDNA should lead to fixation of mutations faster than nDNA. Thus, these results suggest that hybridization in the recent past (0.174-0.263Ma) led to introgression of the mtDNA, with little effect on the nuclear genome. Analyses of the SNP data revealed 28 loci potentially under divergent selection between the two species. The combination of mtDNA introgression and limited nuclear DNA introgression provides a mechanism for the evolution of independent lineages despite recurrent hybridization events. This study adds to the growing body of research that exemplifies how genetic divergence can be maintained in the presence of gene flow between closely related species.

  7. Seven Sisters: identità etnica, tribù e nazionalismo all’ombra del conteso confine Cina-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Beggiora

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Seven Sisters states are a region in the North-eastern India frontier comprising the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura. After the 1962 Indo-Chinese war, China claimed territorial rights on this savage region, rich in resources and featured by a strategic position. Separated by the rest of the Subcontinent by the Bangladeshi border, the North-eastern frontier has suffered for decades a condition of administrative isolation from the rest of India, with particular reference to a chronic lack of development planning. Historically a region subject to inner tribal wars, the Seven Sisters host a number of separatist ethnic movements. The ethnical and cultural identity of indigenous minority groups has been often used to foster such pushes. Yet despite the exploitative nature of such efforts, indigenous tribes have managed to remain the only repositories of the local ancestral cultural heritage, including a form of archaic shamanism rooted in the most ancient forms of Indian religious tradition.

  8. Ancient fossil specimens of extinct species are genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi

    2008-01-01

    There exists a remarkable correlation between genetic distance as measured by protein or DNA dissimilarity and time of species divergence as inferred from fossil records. This observation has provoked the molecular clock hypothesis. However, data inconsistent with the hypothesis have steadily accumulated in recent years from studies of extant organisms. Here the published DNA and protein sequences from ancient fossil specimens were examined to see if they would support the molecular clock hypothesis. The hypothesis predicts that ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are. Also, two distinct ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant than their extant sister species are. The findings here do not conform to these predictions. Neanderthals are more distant to chimpanzees and gorillas than modern humans are. Dinosaurs are more distant to frogs than extant birds are. Mastodons are more distant to opossums than other placental mammals are. The genetic distance between dinosaurs and mastodons is greater than that between extant birds and mammals. Therefore, while the molecular clock hypothesis is consistent with some data from extant organisms, it has yet to find support from ancient fossils. Far more damaging to the hypothesis than data from extant organisms, which merely question the constancy of mutation rate, the study of ancient fossil organisms here challenges for the first time the fundamental premise of modern evolution theory that genetic distances had always increased with time in the past history of life on Earth.

  9. Basalt Weathering in a Cold and Icy Climate: Three Sisters, Oregon as an Analog for Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B.; Smith, R. J.; Scudder, N. A.; Rutledge, A. M.; Bamber, E.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    There is abundant evidence for liquid water on early Mars, but the debate remains whether early Mars was warm and wet or cold and icy with punctuated periods of melting. To further investigate the hypothesis of a cold and icy early Mars, we collected rocks and sediments from the Collier and Diller glacial valleys in the Three Sisters volcanic complex in Oregon. We analyzed rocks and sediments with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM, TEM, EDS), and visible, short-wave infrared (VSWIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) spectroscopies to characterize chemical weathering and sediment transport through the valleys. Here, we focus on the composition and mineralogy of the weathering products and how they compare to those identified on the martian surface. Phyllosilicates (smectite), zeolites, and poorly crystalline phases were discovered in pro- and supra-glacial sediments, whereas Si-rich regelation films were found on hand samples and boulders in the proglacial valleys. Most phyllosilicates and zeolites are likely detrital, originating from hydrothermally altered units on North Sister. TEM-EDS analyses of the cold and icy environment.

  10. Dendritic and Core-Shell-Corona Mesoporous Sister Nanospheres from Polymer-Surfactant-Silica Self-Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Yang, Tai-Qun; Shan, Bing-Qian; Liu, Peng-Cheng; Peng, Bo; Xue, Qing-Song; Yuan, En-Hui; Wu, Peng; Albela, Belén; Bonneviot, Laurent

    2018-01-09

    Mesoporous nanospheres are highly regarded for their applications in nanomedicine, optical devices, batteries, nanofiltration, and heterogeneous catalysis. In the last field, the dendritic morphology, which favors molecular diffusion, is a very important morphology known for silica, but not yet for carbon. A one-pot, easy, and scalable co-sol-gel route by using the triphasic resol-surfactant-silica system is shown to yield the topologies of dendritic and core-shell-corona mesoporous sister nanospheres by inner radial phase speciation control on a mass-transfer-limited process, depending on the relative polycondensation rates of the resol polymer and silica phases. The trick was the use of polyolamines with different catalytic activities on each hard phase polycondensation. The self-entanglement of phases is produced at the {O- , S+ , I- } organic-surfactant-inorganic interface. Mono- and biphasic mesoporous sister nanospheres of carbon and/or silica are derivatized from each mother nanospheres and called "syntaxic" because of similar sizes and mirrored morphologies. Comparing these "false twins", or yin and yang mesoporous nanospheres, functionalized by sulfonic groups provides evidence of the superiority of the dendritic topologies and the absence of a shell on the diffusion-controlled catalytic alkylation of m-cresol. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Phylogeny of salmonine fishes based on growth hormone introns: Atlantic (Salmo) and Pacific (Oncorhynchus) salmon are not sister taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, T H; Phillips, R B

    1999-04-01

    Though salmonid fishes are a well-studied group, phylogenetic questions remain, especially with respect to genus-level relationships. These questions were addressed with duplicate growth hormone (GH) introns. Intron sequences from each duplicate gene yielded phylogenetic trees that were not significantly different from each other in topology. Statistical tests supported validity of the controversial monotypic genus Parahucho, monophyly of Oncorhynchus, and inclusion of Acantholingua ohridana within Salmo. Suprisingly, GH1 intron C (GH1C) did not support the widely accepted hypothesis that Oncorhynchus (Pacific salmon and trout) and Salmo (Atlantic salmon and trout) are sibling genera; GH2C was ambiguous at this node. Previously published data were also examined for support of Salmo and Oncorhynchus as sister taxa and only morphology showed significant support. If not sister taxa, the independent evolution of anadromy-the migration to sea and return to freshwater for spawning-is most parsimonious. While there was incongruence with and among published data sets, the GH1C intron phylogeny was the best hypothesis, based on currently available molecular data. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Regulation of Centromere Localization of the Drosophila Shugoshin MEI-S332 and Sister-Chromatid Cohesion in Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Cristina; Kashevsky, Helena; Pinto, Belinda; Clarke, Astrid; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Shugoshin (Sgo) protein family helps to ensure proper chromosome segregation by protecting cohesion at the centromere by preventing cleavage of the cohesin complex. Some Sgo proteins also influence other aspects of kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Although many Sgo members require Aurora B kinase to localize to the centromere, factors controlling delocalization are poorly understood and diverse. Moreover, it is not clear how Sgo function is inactivated and whether this is distinct from delocalization. We investigated these questions in Drosophila melanogaster, an organism with superb chromosome cytology to monitor Sgo localization and quantitative assays to test its function in sister-chromatid segregation in meiosis. Previous research showed that in mitosis in cell culture, phosphorylation of the Drosophila Sgo, MEI-S332, by Aurora B promotes centromere localization, whereas Polo phosphorylation promotes delocalization. These studies also suggested that MEI-S332 can be inactivated independently of delocalization, a conclusion supported here by localization and function studies in meiosis. Phosphoresistant and phosphomimetic mutants for the Aurora B and Polo phosphorylation sites were examined for effects on MEI-S332 localization and chromosome segregation in meiosis. Strikingly, MEI-S332 with a phosphomimetic mutation in the Aurora B phosphorylation site prematurely dissociates from the centromeres in meiosis I. Despite the absence of MEI-S332 on meiosis II centromeres in male meiosis, sister chromatids segregate normally, demonstrating that detectable levels of this Sgo are not essential for chromosome congression, kinetochore biorientation, or spindle assembly. PMID:25081981

  13. Increased LOH due to Defective Sister Chromatid Cohesion Is due Primarily to Chromosomal Aneuploidy and not Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Sagi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss of heterozygosity (LOH is an important factor in cancer, pathogenic fungi, and adaptation to changing environments. The sister chromatid cohesion process (SCC suppresses aneuploidy and therefore whole chromosome LOH. SCC is also important to channel recombinational repair to sister chromatids, thereby preventing LOH mediated by allelic recombination. There is, however, insufficient information about the relative roles that the SCC pathway plays in the different modes of LOH. Here, we found that the cohesin mutation mcd1-1, and other mutations in SCC, differentially affect the various types of LOH. The greatest effect, by three orders of magnitude, was on whole chromosome loss (CL. In contrast, there was little increase in recombination-mediated LOH, even for telomeric markers. Some of the LOH events that were increased by SCC mutations were complex, i.e., they were the result of several chromosome transactions. Although these events were independent of POL32, the most parsimonious way to explain the formation of at least some of them was break-induced replication through the centromere. Interestingly, the mcd1-1 pol32Δ double mutant showed a significant reduction in the rate of CL in comparison with the mcd1-1 single mutant. Our results show that defects in SCC allow the formation of complex LOH events that, in turn, can promote drug or pesticide resistance in diploid microbes that are pathogenic to humans or plants.

  14. The MCM-binding protein ETG1 aids sister chromatid cohesion required for postreplicative homologous recombination repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DNA replication process represents a source of DNA stress that causes potentially spontaneous genome damage. This effect might be strengthened by mutations in crucial replication factors, requiring the activation of DNA damage checkpoints to enable DNA repair before anaphase onset. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of the evolutionarily conserved minichromosome maintenance helicase-binding protein ETG1 of Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a stringent late G2 cell cycle arrest. This arrest correlated with a partial loss of sister chromatid cohesion. The lack-of-cohesion phenotype was intensified in plants without functional CTF18, a replication fork factor needed for cohesion establishment. The synergistic effect of the etg1 and ctf18 mutants on sister chromatid cohesion strengthened the impact on plant growth of the replication stress caused by ETG1 deficiency because of inefficient DNA repair. We conclude that the ETG1 replication factor is required for efficient cohesion and that cohesion establishment is essential for proper development of plants suffering from endogenous DNA stress. Cohesion defects observed upon knockdown of its human counterpart suggest an equally important developmental role for the orthologous mammalian ETG1 protein.

  15. A new role for Rrm3 in repair of replication-born DNA breakage by sister chromatid recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Muñoz-Galván

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Replication forks stall at different DNA obstacles such as those originated by transcription. Fork stalling can lead to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs that will be preferentially repaired by homologous recombination when the sister chromatid is available. The Rrm3 helicase is a replisome component that promotes replication upon fork stalling, accumulates at highly transcribed regions and prevents not only transcription-induced replication fork stalling but also transcription-associated hyper-recombination. This led us to explore the possible role of Rrm3 in the repair of DSBs when originating at the passage of the replication fork. Using a mini-HO system that induces mainly single-stranded DNA breaks, we show that rrm3Δ cells are defective in DSB repair. The defect is clearly seen in sister chromatid recombination, the major repair pathway of replication-born DSBs. Our results indicate that Rrm3 recruitment to replication-born DSBs is crucial for viability, uncovering a new role for Rrm3 in the repair of broken replication forks.

  16. Reducing HIV risk among transgender women in Thailand: a quasi-experimental evaluation of the sisters program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangta Pawa

    Full Text Available Transgender women are particularly at risk of HIV infection, but little evidence exists on effective HIV prevention strategies with this population. We evaluated whether Sisters, a peer-led program for transgender women, could reduce HIV risks in Pattaya, Thailand. The study used time-location sampling to recruit 308 transgender women in Pattaya into a behavioral survey in 2011. Coarsened exact matching was used to create statistically equivalent groups of program participants and non-participants, based on factors influencing likelihood of program participation. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated effects of any program participation and participation by delivery channel on: condom use at last sex; consistent condom and condom/water-based lubricant use in the past 3 months with commercial, casual, and regular partners; and receipt of HIV testing in the past 6 months. Program coverage reached 75% of the population. In a matched sub-sample (n = 238, participation in outreach was associated with consistent condom/water-based lubricant use with commercial partners (AOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.64-6.31. Attendance at the Sisters drop-in center was associated with receiving an HIV test (AOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.47-4.52. Dedicated transgender-friendly programs are effective at reducing HIV risks and require expansion to better serve this key population and improve HIV prevention strategies.

  17. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age.

  18. Sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus frequency in human lymphocytes of 1,650 subjects in an Italian population: II. Contribution of sex, age, and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barale, R; Chelotti, L; Davini, T; Del Ry, S; Andreassi, M G; Ballardin, M; Bulleri, M; He, J; Baldacci, S; Di Pede, F; Gemignani, F; Landi, S

    1998-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) analysis was carried out on 1,650 healthy individuals living in Pisa and in two nearby small cities, Cascina and Navacchio (Ca-Na). The effect of smoking on SCEs was linearly correlated with the number of cigarettes per day, and an increase of 7.3% SCEs was detectable for as few cigarettes as 1-10/day. Ex-smokers showed intermediate mean values of SCEs (8.09 +/- 1.88) in comparison with never smokers (7.54 +/- 1.61) and current smokers (8.45 +/- 1.94). Mean values of SCEs of ex-smokers decreased linearly with time of smoking cessation, reaching the mean values of never smokers within 8 years. The extent of SCE decrease was inversely proportional to the number of cigarettes previously smoked. No interaction between smoking habits and coffee or alcohol drinking on SCEs was observed. A borderline (P = 0.053) increase in mean SCE values in coffee drinkers (more than 3 cups/day) was found. The age effect on SCEs was remarkable in Ca-Na, but not in Pisa donors. Job type was not associated with significant modification of mean values of SCEs. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the proportion of high frequency cells (HCF) outliers and coffee consumption. Age and sex appeared to be by far the most important variables associated with modifications in MN frequency, which increased by 0.04 per thousand and 0.02 per thousand per year in males and females, respectively. Children and young donors (age < or = 40 years) showed lower MN frequency regardless of sex, whereas sex appeared to determine a significantly higher increase of MN only in females older than 40 years. In contrast, in males the MN rate by age tended to level off after the age of 30-50. MN frequencies of Pisa blue- and white-collar workers were statistically significantly higher than in students (+0.71 and +0.55 per thousand, respectively). Smoking did not determine any increase of MN frequency. A total

  19. City of Crystal City, Missouri - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of Crystal City, Missouri, a municipality located in Jefferson County, Missouri, 63019, for alleged violations associated with the City’s wastewater treatment progra

  20. WE LOVE THE CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    With a point of departure in amongst others the Danish office of ADEPT’s approach, ‘The city in the building and the building in the city’ (ADEPT 2012), it is consequently the aim of this article to show how workshops can help shape and develop a spatial and architectural approach to form finding...

  1. India's Cities in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  2. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  3. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  4. Smart Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    documents, e.g. policy areas, represented countries, etc.;. 3. Qualitative Analysis to analyze the policy documents based upon 13 Smart City attributes derived from the project's terms of reference and further study, the same as for the research literature review: 1). Innovations, 2) Technologies, 3) Drivers, 4) Challenges, ...

  5. That City is Mine!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijendijk, Cordula

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is about urban ideal images. It is about dreams - not fictitious beliefs, but dreams that humankind can realize tomorrow. It is about images from intellectuals, pastry cooks, urban planners and firemen. About people who deeply care about their cities, about their hopes, frustrations,

  6. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  7. Outlook City Logistics 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, E. den; Kok, R.; Ploos van Amstel, W.; Quak, H.J.; Wagter, H.

    2017-01-01

    When it comes to City Logistics, the need to innovate comes from multiple directions. Greenhouse gas emissions must be drastically reduced while at the same time maintaining a vibrant and healthy economy, demanding robust action from each and every sector, including transport. At the same time,

  8. Inequalities in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of inequalities in European cities are a big fear for many governments at the state and urban levels. Journalists, as well as many scholars who are dealing with urban issues, express their fears about the development of social, ethnic, and spatial divisions. Population categories

  9. Building the Bicycle City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Tokyo - Upcoming City of Cyclists Japan is often hit by natural disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, tsunamis and heavy rain- and snowfall. Earthquakes often causes break downs in electricity and communication lines and makes public transportation come to a halt. Stations are shut down and pa...

  10. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  11. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    , the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  12. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  13. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  14. Hackable Cities : From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.L.; de Waal, Martijn; Foth, Marcus; Verhoeff, Nanna; Martin, Brynskov

    2015-01-01

    The DC9 workshop takes place on June 27, 2015 in Limerick, Ireland and is titled "Hackable Cities: From Subversive City Making to Systemic Change". The notion of "hacking" originates from the world of media technologies but is increasingly often being used for creative ideals and practices of city

  15. Is beauty skin deep? The impact of "beautiful attributes" on life opportunities and interpersonal relationships: a tale of two sisters in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Helen E

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is the impact of culturally perceived beauty and its attributes on identity formation and interpersonal relationships. In South India skin color is perhaps the most important aspect of beauty. Socialization starts from infancy, as people talk openly about a child's skin color and other "beautiful attributes" from the time of a child's birth. Women with the cultural designation of beautiful are more assertive than those women designated unattractive. Moreover, the increased self-confidence associated with their beauty allows them greater leeway to shape their lives according to their own desires. I will discuss culturally relevant "beautiful attributes" and the developmental impact on two sisters. The older sister was regarded as beautiful while her younger sister was considered less attractive. Cultural validation provides a theater for assertiveness while denigration enhances vulnerability to depression.

  16. Arts, Crafts, and Rural Rehabilitation: the Sisters of Charity, Halifax, and Vocational Education in Terence Bay, Nova Scotia, 1938-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha MULLALLY

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Responding to rural poverty associated with the declining fishery, the rise of industrial capitalism, and the impact of the Great Depression, the Sisters of Charity, Halifax, implemented a vocational training program in weaving and carpentry in the small community of Terence Bay, Nova Scotia in 1938. Senator William Dennis, a proponent of the New Democracy Movement, financed the program. Because the Sisters based their claims to success on observed behavioural changes among the residents of Terence Bay, the program can be seen as an example of liberal therapeutics in education, a model that placed emphasis on achieving social goals rather than transferring discrete skills and capacities to pupils. Focusing on the years 1938-43, this paper outlines the rehabilitation efforts at Terence Bay, describes the programs the Sisters implemented, and evaluates the definitions of success ascribed to their training school just a few years later.

  17. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Aastrup, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge. A better understanding of the complex organizational processes with many actors and stakeholders in city logistics projects may prevent further...... failures. Design/methodology/approach: Theory on organizational change is applied to capture the processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is process analysis on a single longitudinal case. Findings: The emergence of the Copenhagen city logistics project can be understood....... The study aims at understanding the social processes towards reduced congestion and greenhouse gas emissions from goods transport in inner cities. Originality/value: By better understanding the organization processes leading to implementation of city logistics, other projects in other cities may learn from...

  18. Gymnosperm B-sister genes may be involved in ovule/seed development and, in some species, in the growth of fleshy fruit-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovisetto, Alessandro; Guzzo, Flavia; Busatto, Nicola; Casadoro, Giorgio

    2013-08-01

    The evolution of seeds together with the mechanisms related to their dispersal into the environment represented a turning point in the evolution of plants. Seeds are produced by gymnosperms and angiosperms but only the latter have an ovary to be transformed into a fruit. Yet some gymnosperms produce fleshy structures attractive to animals, thus behaving like fruits from a functional point of view. The aim of this work is to increase our knowledge of possible mechanisms common to the development of both gymnosperm and angiosperm fruits. B-sister genes from two gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba and Taxus baccata) were isolated and studied. The Ginkgo gene was also functionally characterized by ectopically expressing it in tobacco. In Ginkgo the fleshy structure derives from the outer seed integument and the B-sister gene is involved in its growth. In Taxus the fleshy structure is formed de novo as an outgrowth of the ovule peduncle, and the B-sister gene is not involved in this growth. In transgenic tobacco the Ginkgo gene has a positive role in tissue growth and confirms its importance in ovule/seed development. This study suggests that B-sister genes have a main function in ovule/seed development and a subsidiary role in the formation of fleshy fruit-like structures when the latter have an ovular origin, as occurs in Ginkgo. Thus, the 'fruit function' of B-sister genes is quite old, already being present in Gymnosperms as ancient as Ginkgoales, and is also present in Angiosperms where a B-sister gene has been shown to be involved in the formation of the Arabidopsis fruit.

  19. The Sisters of the Infant Jesus in Bembibre, León, Spain, in the second stage of Francoism: the school with no doors

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa BRUNO-JOFRÉ

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the intentionality and resignifications characterizing the mission of the Sisters of the Infant Jesus in Bembibre, León, and surrounding villages in the 1960s and 1970s during the second stage of Francoism. The Sisters played a public role by providing a testimony of a way to live the faith that can be traced to the origins of the congregation, the pedagogical imaginary of their founder, Nicholas Barré and the French spirituality of the seventeenth century. There was a tra...

  20. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  1. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the

  2. Smart mobility in smart cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucells, Aleta N.

    2016-07-01

    Cities are currently undergoing a transformation into the Smart concept, like Smartphones or SmartTV. Many initiatives are being developed in the framework of the Smart Cities projects, however, there is a lack of consistent indicators and methodologies to assess, finance, prioritize and implement this kind of projects. Smart Cities projects are classified according to six axes: Government, Mobility, Environment, Economy, People and Living. (Giffinger, 2007). The main objective of this research is to develop an evaluation model in relation to the mobility concept as one of the six axes of the Smart City classification and apply it to the Spanish cities. The evaluation was carried out in the 62 cities that made up in September 2015 the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI- Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes). This research is part of a larger project about Smart Cities’ evaluation (+CITIES), the project evaluates RECI’s cities in all the axes. The analysis was carried out taking into account sociodemographic indicators such as the size of the city or the municipal budget per inhabitant. The mobility’s evaluation in those cities has been focused in: sustainability mobility urban plans and measures to reduce the number of vehicles. The 62 cities from the RECI have been evaluated according to their degree of progress in several Smart Cities’ initiatives related to smart mobility. The applied methodology has been specifically made for this project. The grading scale has different ranks depending on the deployment level of smart cities’ initiatives. (Author)

  3. Smart City trends and ambitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wijs, Lisanne; Witte, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344107744; de Klerk, Daniel; Geertman, S.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072392924

    2017-01-01

    Research into smart city projects and applications has been increasing in recent years (Meijer & Bolivar, 2015). The smart city concept is mostly considered from a technology-oriented perspective that stresses the usage of data technologies, big data and ICT to ‘smarten up’ cities. In contrast,

  4. The city of the merchant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnow, Niels Finn

    2003-01-01

    The City of the Merchant deals with cities, towns and villages in the European medieval period - i.e. in post-antique and pre-industrial Europe. In actual fact, the book mainly deals with Denmark and Northern Italy (the City States), with digressions to other "feudal" localities in France on Sicily...

  5. Baseline frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals living in Turin (North-Western Italy): assessment of the effects of age, sex and GSTs gene polymorphisms on the levels of genomic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2016-05-01

    The increased exposure to environmental pollutants has led to the awareness of the necessity for constant monitoring of human populations, especially those living in urban areas. This study evaluated the background levels of genomic damage in a sample of healthy subjects living in the urban area of Turin (Italy). The association between DNA damage with age, sex and GSTs polymorphisms was assessed. One hundred and one individuals were randomly sampled. Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCEs) and Chromosomal Aberrations (CAs) assays, as well as genotyping of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes, were performed. Mean values of SCEs and CAs were 5.137 ± 0.166 and 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively. Results showed age and gender associated with higher frequencies of these two cytogenetic markers. The eldest subjects (51-65 years) showed significantly higher levels of genomic damage than younger individuals. GSTs polymorphisms did not appear to significantly influence the frequencies of either markers. The CAs background frequency observed in this study is one of the highest reported among European populations. Turin is one of the most polluted cities in Europe in terms of air fine PM10 and ozone and the clastogenic potential of these pollutants may explain the high frequencies of chromosomal rearrangements reported here.

  6. Mobilities, Futures & the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Kesselring, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The future of cities and regions will be strongly shaped by the mobilities of people, goods, modes of transport, waste and information. In many ways, the ‘why and ‘for what’ often get lost in discourses on planning and designing mobilities. The predominant planning paradigm still conceptualizes...... the future of cities and mobilities as a matter of rather more efficient technologies than of social cohesion, integration and connectivity. Sustainable mobility needs the mobilities of ideas and concepts and the reflexivity of policies. Communicative planning theory and the ‘argumentative turn’ have given...... this article, was to explicitly provide an intersection for reflexivity, interdisciplinarity and exchange, to foster the creation of such stories....

  7. The Emerging City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    milieu and how other meanings emerge. In the last example, Relocation of beer drinkers on Enghave Square, Copenhagen, I will highlight how a heterogeneous assemblages of architecture, urban design, artistic intervention and every day social life has constructed continuums of intensities over a period...... of time thus establishing an emergent urban space divergent from both the intentions of the planner, architect, artist and user. Through the examples, I suggest that each urban body or design deterritorialize connecting with the city. Broadening up the perspective, I ask whether philosophical aesthetics...... associated with architecture and design can be redefined in terms of an emergent urbanity. Here socio-material assemblages play an important role as milieus are created as temporary intensities as they constantly territorialize and deterritorialize urban space. According to this, I define the city close...

  8. Practicing the Generic (City)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    Flanagan proposes that most locative media artworks neglect the particularities of spaces, their historical and political layers. Koolhaas, on the other hand, states that all urban areas are alike, that we are facing a global Generic City. The paper analyses digital media artist Esther Polak’s No......’s NomadicMILK project in light of the generic and particular properties of space as laid out by Flanagan and Koolhaas in order to discuss the possible reconfiguring practices of locative media....

  9. Garden City, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Center pivot irrigation systems create red circles of healthy vegetation in this image of croplands near Garden City, Kansas. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on September 25, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using near infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  10. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013 ...... is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics.......We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013...... to 2017 for every citizen in Copenhagen receiving home care (27,775 citizens) show that prediction can achieve state of the art performance as reported in similar health related domains (AUC=0.715). We further find that competitive results can be obtained by using limited information for training, which...

  11. Sister chromatid exchanges in Vicia faba induced by arsenic-contaminated drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Armienta, M A; Cortés-Eslava, J; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1997-11-27

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba root tips were used to examine well water containing high levels of arsenic. The increased amount of arsenic was contained in well water from different towns of Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico. Treatments of 3 h were applied followed by the differential staining technique of Tempelaar et al. (Mutation Res. 103 (1982) 321-326). Concentrations of arsenic from 0.267 up to 1.070 mg/l were determined by colorimetry in the polluted samples used for this study. These values were above the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/l in drinking water. In all cases, except one in which the As concentration was 0.021, the arsenic-contaminated water produced significant increases of SCE compared with the control (p Comarca Lagunera and the results observed in Zimapan.

  12. Assessment of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange frequency in the petroleum industry workers in province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdjanović, Jasminka; Šolajić, Slavica; Dimitrijević, Sladjana; Đan, Igor; Nikolić, Ivan; Jurišić, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    Persons who work with petroleum and petroleum derivatives (PPD) are potentially at risk of developing cancer mostly due to the carcinogenity of benzene. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine in which degree occupational exposure of workers to PPD causes damage to DNA by analysis of micronuclei (MN), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and proliferation index (PI). 30 workers of refinery in Novi Sad, participated in the study as exposed and 30 volunteers as control group. Workers exposed to PPD had significantly higher values of MN and SCE in comparison to controls. Exposition time to PPD and type of working place have also significantly effects to DNA damage. The influence of confounding factor such as smoking and age were also evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Five year follow-up of two sisters with type II sialidosis: systemic and ophthalmic findings including OCT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rémi; Halimi, Emmanuel; Mention-Mulliez, Karine; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Holder, Muriel; Defoort-Dhellemmes, Sabine

    2013-07-02

    The authors report a 5-year follow-up examination of two sisters diagnosed as having a juvenile form of type II sialidosis. Diagnosis occurred during a routine ophthalmic examination when the girls were 5 and 3 years old after bilateral macular cherry-red spots were revealed. Main clinical findings were hypotonia, hepatosplenomegaly, hearing loss, dysostosis, and respiratory distress. Ophthalmic symptoms were low visual acuity and nystagmus. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography examination showed increased reflectivity of the retinal ganglion cells. Sialidosis may present as a mild form with slow progression. The cherry-red spots may be the first clue for proper diagnosis of storage disease. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography examination unveiled the accumulation of sialic acid in the retinal ganglion cells and could potentially be used to monitor the progression of storage diseases. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Variability in the frequency of sister-chromatid exchange in larvae of Mytilus edulis: Implications for field monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, I.M.; Harrison, F.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1987-12-15

    Striking variation in the frequency of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) was detected in progeny of different groups of field-collected and control Mytilus edulis adults from Tomales Bay, CA. Ability to detect SCE was accomplished by exposure of developing larvae to 5-bromodeoxyuridine. The results demonstrate that there is no intrinsic limit to the frequency of occurrence of SCE in mussel larvae. The results imply that the mussel larval SCE assay may have greater sensitivity than indicated by previous studies of SCE induction by direct exposures of larvae to SCE-inducing chemicoals. In addition, although the cause of the high SCE frequencies is unknown, the observations indicate that direct analysis of transgenerational transfer of genotoxic agents should be performed. It is concluded that, with further study, this assay may be useful in detecting environmental exposures to genotoxic contaminants. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Association of perceived racial discrimination with eating behaviors and obesity among participants of the SisterTalk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Portia; Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kirtania, Usree; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of perceived racial discrimination with emotional eating behaviors, weight status, and stress levels among obese African-American women, who volunteered to enter a weight control study (SisterTalk) in the New England region of the United States. The sample of women was taken from the baseline data of participants in SisterTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a cable TV-delivered weight control program. Using the Krieger instrument, telephone and in-person surveys were used to assess perceived discrimination, emotional eating behaviors, and stress. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI in order to assess weight status. ANOVA models were constructed to assess the association of discrimination with demographics. Correlations were calculated for discrimination, stress, emotional eating, and weight variables. ANOVA models were also constructed to assess discrimination with emotional eating, after adjusting for appropriate demographic variables. Perceived discrimination was associated with education and stress levels but was not associated with weight status (BMI). The frequency of eating when depressed or sad, and eating to manage stress, were both significantly higher among women who reported higher perceived discrimination and higher stress levels. Discrimination may contribute to stress that leads to eating for reasons other than hunger among African-American women, although the causal direction of associations cannot be determined with cross sectional data. Associations of discrimination with weight status were not found, although it is likely that emotional eating behaviors related to perceived discrimination are unhealthy. Future research should examine these relationships more closely in longitudinal studies.

  16. Global analysis of threat status reveals higher extinction risk in tropical than in temperate bird sister species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reif Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing pressures upon biodiversity, identification of species’ traits related to elevated extinction risk is useful for more efficient allocation of limited resources for nature conservation. Despite its need, such a global analysis was lacking in the case of birds. Therefore, we performed this exercise for avian sister species using information about their global extinction risk from IUCN Red List. We focused on 113 pairs of sister species, each containing a threatened and an unthreatened species to factor out the effects of common evolutionary history on the revealed relationship. We collected data on five traits with expected relationships to species’ extinction risk based on previous studies performed at regional or national levels: breeding habitat (recognizing forest, grassland, wetland and oceanic species, latitudinal range position (temperate and tropics species, migration strategy (migratory and resident species, diet (carnivorous, insectivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous species and body mass. We related the extinction risk using IUCN threat level categories to species’ traits using generalised linear mixed effects models expecting lower risk for forest, temperate, omnivorous and smaller-bodied species. Our expectation was confirmed only in the case of latitudinal range position, as we revealed higher threat level for tropical than for temperate species. This relationship was robust to different methods of threat level expression and cannot be explained by a simple association of high bird species richness with the tropical zone. Instead, it seems that tropical species are more threatened because of their intrinsic characteristics such as slow life histories, adaptations to stable environments and small geographic ranges. These characteristics are obviously disadvantageous in conditions of current human-induced environmental perturbations. Moreover, given the absence of habitat effects, our study indicates that such

  17. The relationship of psychosocial factors to mammograms, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption among sisters of breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman SJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sheri J Hartman1, Shira I Dunsiger1, Paul B Jacobsen21Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine, The Miriam Hospital and W Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI; 2Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: This study examined the relationship of psychosocial factors to health-promoting behaviors in sisters of breast cancer patients. One hundred and twenty sisters of breast cancer patients completed questionnaires assessing response efficacy of mammography screenings, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption on decreasing breast cancer risk, breast cancer worry, involvement in their sister’s cancer care, mammography screenings, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Results indicate that greater perceived effectiveness for mammograms was associated with a 67% increase in odds of yearly mammograms. Greater involvement in the patient’s care was associated with a 7% decrease in odds of yearly mammograms. Greater perceived effectiveness for physical activity was significantly related to greater physical activity. There was a trend for greater perceived effectiveness for fruits and vegetables to be associated with consuming more fruits and vegetables. Breast cancer worry was not significantly associated with the outcomes. While perceived effectiveness for a specific health behavior in reducing breast cancer risk was consistently related to engaging in that health behavior, women reported significantly lower perceived effectiveness for physical activity and fruits and vegetables than for mammograms. Making women aware of the health benefits of these behaviors may be important in promoting changes.Keywords: breast cancer risk, mammograms, physical activity, diet, perceived effectiveness

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Staphylococcus including Staphylococcus aureus and its newly described sister species Staphylococcus simiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus belongs to the Gram-positive low G + C content group of the Firmicutes division of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, and has developed important multidrug resistant forms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Staphylococcus simiae was isolated from South American squirrel monkeys in 2000, and is a coagulase-negative bacterium, closely related, and possibly the sister group, to S. aureus. Comparative genomic analyses of closely related bacteria with different phenotypes can provide information relevant to understanding adaptation to host environment and mechanisms of pathogenicity. Results We determined a Roche/454 draft genome sequence for S. simiae and included it in comparative genomic analyses with 11 other Staphylococcus species including S. aureus. A genome based phylogeny of the genus confirms that S. simiae is the sister group to S. aureus and indicates that the most basal Staphylococcus lineage is Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, followed by Staphylococcus carnosus. Given the primary niche of these two latter taxa, compared to the other species in the genus, this phylogeny suggests that human adaptation evolved after the split of S. carnosus. The two coagulase-positive species (S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius) are not phylogenetically closest but share many virulence factors exclusively, suggesting that these genes were acquired by horizontal transfer. Enrichment in genes related to mobile elements such as prophage in S. aureus relative to S. simiae suggests that pathogenesis in the S. aureus group has developed by gene gain through horizontal transfer, after the split of S. aureus and S. simiae from their common ancestor. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses across 12 Staphylococcus species provide hypotheses about lineages in which human adaptation has taken place and contributions of horizontal transfer in pathogenesis. PMID

  19. Both RAD5-dependent and independent pathways are involved in DNA damage-associated sister chromatid exchange in budding yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Fasullo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatids are preferred substrates for recombinational repair after cells are exposed to DNA damage. While some agents directly cause double-strand breaks (DSBs, others form DNA base adducts which stall or impede the DNA replication fork. We asked which types of DNA damage can stimulate SCE in budding yeast mutants defective in template switch mechanisms and whether PCNA polyubiquitination functions are required for DNA damage-associated SCE after exposure to potent recombinagens. We measured spontaneous and DNA damage-associated unequal sister chromatid exchange (uSCE in yeast strains containing two fragments of his3 after exposure to MMS, 4-NQO, UV, X rays, and HO endonuclease-induced DSBs. We determined whether other genes in the pathway for template switching, including UBC13, MMS2, SGS1, and SRS2 were required for DNA damage-associated SCE. RAD5 was required for DNA damage-associated SCE after exposure to UV, MMS, and 4-NQO, but not for spontaneous, X-ray-associated, or HO endonuclease-induced SCE. While UBC13, MMS2, and SGS1 were required for MMS and 4NQO-associated SCE, they were not required for UV-associated SCE. DNA damage-associated recombination between his3 recombination substrates on non-homologous recombination was enhanced in rad5 mutants. These results demonstrate that DNA damaging agents that cause DSBs stimulate SCE by RAD5-independent mechanisms, while several potent agents that generate bulky DNA adducts stimulate SCE by multiple RAD5-dependent mechanisms. We suggest that DSB-associated recombination that occurs in G2 is RAD5-independent.

  20. The City as a Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    century, the major tendency has been the population’s relocation from the country to the city. In developing countries, the development has clearly been towards major cities while growth in industrialised countries has spread out through the entire urban system, including minor urban developments. A key...... concentration of people in a smaller area, without necessarily being followed by increased interaction by way of increased infrastructure. Both situations are interdependent through globalisation and in the long term, neither situation is sustainable. The relevance of discussing linear city principles today...... concerns the need of flexible urban structures, saving land, transportation and energy. The ideas of linear cities can be seen as a compromise between concentrated cities and garden cities, making coherence between public transportation and the physical lay-out of the city. The paper will submit on two...

  1. Deconstructing Rotterdam's modern city centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van der Hoeven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century, the Dutch city of Rotterdam was radically transformed from a historic town into a modern city, becoming the selfacclaimed 'city of architecture', home to international architectural design offices, publishers and institutions. Although it is already 60 years after the destruction of the Rotterdam inner city, the city still struggles to be the vibrant, rigorous urban environment it needs to be in order to attract the so-called creative class.This article provides a contextual overview of the transformations of a number of key public spaces that are symbolic for the challenges the city faces. After the post-war reconstruction the city continue to transform itself beyond modernism.

  2. Towards what kind of city?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Coletta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The virtual city exists in “time” whereas the real city exists in “space”. The first one is an expression of our imagination, the second one of our ability to create. Time has articulated the images of cities as artisan philosophers, historians, artists, dreamers and even poets have given it to us. Space has generated cities which have been worked upon by geographers, geologists, surveyors, and finally urban planners. Space and time however live together in both cities, even if with alternating states of subordination. The culture of thinking, of decision making and of working is the unifying center of both the cities; it is the generating element both of the crises and the prosperity of the cities and it works towards an overcoming of the first and for the pursuit of the second (prosperity using the experience of the past for the making of a better future.

  3. Energy and the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Martinico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning should have a key role in creating urban environments that support less energy-intense lifestyles. A wise consideration of energy in urban land use policies should play an important role considering that, in spite of having a land occupation of 2% and accommodating 50% of the world population, cities produce 80% of GHG emissions and consume 80 % of the world’s resources.In the building industry, the green economy is already part of the designers’ approach. This has already produced several energy efficient buildings that also feature high architectural quality. Now is the turn of cities to take the same direction in developing the capacity of formulating sounded urban policies. This will contribute to develop adequate new tools for achieving the energy efficiency goal.Climate change concern, the dominating environmental paradigm, is permeating the political scenario worldwide, producing a plethora of formal documents. The most recent one is the COP21 agreed in Paris in December 2015, after the failure of the Copenhagen summit in 2009, and formally signed in April 2016 in New York. The challenge for land use planning now is to translate these general commitments into actions that modify planning practices at all levels, from cities to regions.In this field, the current situation is extremely varied. EU has issued several documents focussed mainly at building level but also sustainable transports are considered a key issue. However, a further step is needed in order to increase the level of integration among all land use approaches, including the idea of green infrastructure as a key component of any human settlement. (European Commission, 2013. The relationship between urbanisation and climate change has become key worldwide but looking at it from a Mediterranean perspective arises some specificities, considering also the political strain that this part of the world is facing. Both Southern Europe and Middle East and North

  4. Mobilising Mother Cabrini's Educational Practice: The Transnational Context of the London School of the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus 1898-1911

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maria Patricia

    2015-01-01

    A schoolteacher from Lombardy, Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini (1850-1917), founded the Institute of Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (MSC) in 1880. It was one of the 185 female religious institutes established in Italy in the nineteenth century. In the newly unified Italy, Cabrini found opportunities to formulate progressive Catholic…

  5. Adolescent Siblings of Individuals with and without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Reported Empathy and Feelings about Their Brothers and Sisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Siblings of brothers or sisters with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward…

  6. Rec8p, a meiotic recombination and sister chromatid cohesion phosphoprotein of the Rad21p family conserved from fision yeast to humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Parisi; M.J. McKay (Michael); M. Molnar; M.A. Thompson (Anne); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); E. van Drunen-Schoenmaker; R. Kanaar (Roland); E. Lehmann; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); J. Kohli

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOur work and that of others defined mitosis-specific (Rad21 subfamily) and meiosis-specific (Rec8 subfamily) proteins involved in sister chromatid cohesion in several eukaryotes, including humans. Mutation of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe rec8 gene was previously shown to

  7. Genome sequence and physiological analysis of Yamadazyma laniorum f.a. sp. nov. and a reevaluation of the apocryphal xylose fermentation of its sister species, Candida tenuis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylose fermentation is a rare trait that is immensely important to the cellulosic biofuel industry, and Candida tenuis is one of the few yeasts that has been reported with this trait. Here we report the isolation of two strains representing a candidate sister species to C. tenuis. Integrated analysi...

  8. The making of a new pathogen: Insights from comparative population genomics of the domesticated wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola and its wild sister species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stukenbrock, Eva H; Bataillon, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien Y

    2011-01-01

    The fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola emerged as a new pathogen of cultivated wheat during its domestication ~11,000 yr ago. We assembled 12 high-quality full genome sequences to investigate the genetic footprints of selection in this wheat pathogen and closely related sister species that infect...

  9. Playable cities the city as a digital playground

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. The contributions presented here examine various aspects of playable cities, including developments in pervasive and urban games, the use of urban data to design games and playful applications, architecture design and playability, and mischief and humor in playable cities. The smartness of digital cities can be found in the sensors and actuators that are embedded in their environment. This smartness allows them to monitor, anticipate and support our activities and increases the efficiency of the cities and our activities. These urban smart technologies can offer citizens playful interactions with streets, buildings, street furniture, traffic, public art and entertainment, large public displays and public events.

  10. Playable Cities: The City as a Digital Playground

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The first book to exhaustively review key recent research into playability in smart and digital cities. - Addresses pervasive games and the relation between gameful and gamified applications and the design of playful architecture - Includes special chapters on playful civic hacking applications and the use of urban data for playful applications This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. T...

  11. Snake City North

    OpenAIRE

    Johannesson, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    SkivproduktionJonas Kullhammar Quartet with Norrbotten Big Band – Snake City North, 2005Utgiven av Moserobie music production 2005Inspelad av Göran Stegborn och Tomas JohannessonMixad av Göran StegbornMastrad av Claes PerssonGrammisnominerad till årets jazzskiva 2005Musiker:Jonas Kullhammar: Tenor SaxophoneJonas Holgersson: DrumsTorbjörn Gulz: PianoTorbjörn Zetterberg: BassNorrbotten Big Band:Trumpets: Bo Strandberg, Magnus Ekholm, Tapio MaunuvaaraTrumpet & Fluegelhorn: Dan Johansson (2,5...

  12. Mapping the gendered city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2017-01-01

    Peninsula, where socio-cultural values and restrictions regulate men and women’s use and access to public spaces. The methodology used is a combination of movement tracking data using GPS technology and map-based workshops where participants can reflect on their walking behaviour and spatial preferences....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  13. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  14. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    In the midst of a global refugee crisis, the influx of refugees into Europe presents unique challenges. The large scale of the migration, the extent of the human suffering driving it, and the political complexities of resolving it come on top of substantial existing strains on the European project...... institutions, it is municipalities across Europe in general and Germany in particular who are responsible for planning, delivering, and, in some cases, financing the housing, education, and full integration of new arrivals. “Cities and Refugees: The European Response” is a collaboration of the Brookings...

  15. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test......-site, where 15 LED RGB Park lamps, controlled driven by a wind sensor, mobile phone applications or by thermal camera tracking. According to the specialists are the social and aesthetical dimensions more interesting than the energy use cases and efficiency. This motivates an interdisciplinary discussion...

  16. City of Epitaphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Hicks

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pavement lies like a ledger-stone on a tomb. Buried underneath are the remains of fertile landscapes and the life they once supported. Inscribed on its upper side are epitaphic writings. Whatever their ostensible purpose, memorial plaques and public artworks embedded in the pavement are ultimately expressions of civic bereavement and guilt. The pavement's role as both witness and accomplice to fatality is confirmed by private individuals who publicize their grief with death notices graffitied on the asphalt. To walk the city is to engage in a dialogue about death.

  17. Climate niches of milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae; Apocynaceae) and the milkweed sister group link ancient African climates and floral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshultz, Tatyana; Mead, Jerry V; Goyder, David J; Brannin, Michelle

    2011-12-01

    Climate change that increases mortality of plants and pollinators can create mate-finding Allee effects and thus act as a strong selective force on floral morphology. Milkweeds (Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae; Apocynaceae) are typically small plants of seasonally dry habitats, with pollinia and high pollen-transfer efficiency. Their sister group (tribe Baisseeae and Dewevrella) is mostly comprised of giant lianas of African rainforests, with pollen in monads. Comparison of the two groups motivated a new hypothesis: milkweeds evolved in the context of African aridification and the shifting of rainforest to dry forest. Pollinia and high pollen-transfer efficiency may have been adaptations that alleviated mate-finding Allee effects generated by high mortality during droughts. We formally tested whether milkweeds have a drier climate niche by comparing milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae) and the milkweed sister group in continental Africa. We georeferenced specimens of the milkweed sister group and Secamonoideae in continental Africa, extracted 19 climatic variables from the Worldclim model, conducted factor analysis to identify correlated suites of variables, and compared the frequency distributions of the two lineages relative to each factor. The distributions of Secamonoideae and the milkweed sister group differed significantly relative to four factors, each correlated with a distinct suite of climate parameters: (1) air temperature (Secamonoideae: cooler), (2) total and (3) summer precipitation (Secamonoideae: drier), and (4) temperature seasonality and isothermality (Secamonoideae: more seasonal and less isothermal). Secamonoideae in continental Africa inhabit drier, cooler sites than do the milkweed sister group, consistent with a shift from rainforests to dry forests in a cooling climate.

  18. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  19. 300 Cities - An Exploration in Characterizing US Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Metropolitan Area Name Proportion of Population Honolulu, HI MSA 5.9608% Flagstaff, AZ--UT MSA 3.6542% Jersey City, NJ PMSA 3.6026% Yuba City, CA MSA...Stamford--Norwalk, CT PMSA 4520 189 Louisville, KY--IN MSA 9340 189 Yuba City, CA MSA 2620 184 Flagstaff, AZ--UT MSA 8000 181 Springfield, MA MSA...5660 111 Newburgh, NY--PA PMSA 9340 111 Yuba City, CA MSA 4160 110 Lawrence, MA--NH PMSA 9240 109 Worcester, MA--CT PMSA 3560 108 Jackson, MS

  20. The Emergence of City Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – Many city logistics projects in Europe have failed. A better understanding of the complex organizational change processes in city logistics projects with many stakeholders may expand city logistics capabilities and thereby help prevent future failures. The purpose of this paper...... is therefore to increase understanding of how city logistics emerge, and secondarily, to investigate whether such processes can be managed at all. Design/methodology/approach: – A paradigm shift in urban planning creates new ways of involving stakeholders in new sustainability measures such as city logistics....... Organizational change theory is applied to capture the social processes leading to emergence of city logistics. The methodology is a qualitative processual analysis of a single longitudinal case. Findings: – The change process took different forms over time. At the time of concluding the analysis, positive...

  1. Biophilic Cities and Healthy Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Beatley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biophilia holds that as a species humans are innately drawn to nature and to living things. Mounting research confirms the many positive health benefits of contact with nature, and the need for daily (and hourly contact with the natural environment in order to live happy, healthy, meaningful lives. A new vision of Biophilic Cities is put forward here: cities that are nature-abundant, that seek to protect and grow nature, and that foster deep connections with the natural world. This article describes the emergence of this global movement, the new and creative ways that cities are restoring, growing and connecting with nature, and the current status and trajectory of a new global Biophilic Cities Network, launched in 2013. There remain open questions, and significant challenges, to advancing the Biophilic Cities vision, but it also presents unusual opportunities to create healthier, livable cities and societies.

  2. City project and public space

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The book aims at nurturing theoretic reflection on the city and the territory and working out and applying methods and techniques for improving our physical and social landscapes. The main issue is developed around the projectual dimension, with the objective of visualising both the city and the territory from a particular viewpoint, which singles out the territorial dimension as the city’s space of communication and negotiation. Issues that characterise the dynamics of city development will be faced, such as the new, fresh relations between urban societies and physical space, the right to the city, urban equity, the project for the physical city as a means to reveal civitas, signs of new social cohesiveness, the sense of contemporary public space and the sustainability of urban development. Authors have been invited to explore topics that feature a pluralism of disciplinary contributions studying formal and informal practices on the project for the city and seeking conceptual and operative categories capab...

  3. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-01-01

    A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cos...

  4. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the observed health effect estimate. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate whether previously developed residential infiltration-based city clusters can explain city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. In a prior paper 94 cities were clustered based on residential infiltration factors (e.g. home age/size, prevalence of air conditioning (AC)), resulting in 5 clusters. For this analysis, the association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality was first determined in 77 cities across the United States for 2001–2005. Next, a second stage analysis was conducted evaluating the influence of cluster assignment on heterogeneity in the risk estimates. Associations between a 2-day (lag 0–1 days) moving average of PM2.5 concentrations and non-accidental mortality were determined for each city. Estimated effects ranged from −3.2 to 5.1% with a pooled estimate of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.53) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. The second stage analysis determined that cluster assignment was marginally significant in explaining the city-to-city heterogeneity. The health effe

  5. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  6. Smart Cities and Sustainability Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In our age cities are complex systems and we can say systems of systems. Today locality is the result of using information and communication technologies in all departments of our life, but in future all cities must to use smart systems for improve quality of life and on the other hand for sustainable development. The smart systems make daily activities more easily, efficiently and represent a real support for sustainable city development. This paper analysis the sus-tainable development and identified the key elements of future smart cities.

  7. Continuing Inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, From GPS, InSAR, and Leveling Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C. W.

    2007-12-01

    Uplift of a broad area centered ~5 km west of South Sister volcano in central Oregon started sometime after fall 1996, accelerated after fall 1998, and was continuing when last surveyed with GPS and leveling in fall 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since 2001 with GPS and leveling campaigns, and with a continuous GPS station since 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR was 3 to 5 cm/yr during 1998--2001 and ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004--2006. The other three datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface dilation and uplift rates decreased over time but deformation continued through 2006. Our best-fit model is a spherical point pressure (Mogi) source located 6.0--6.5 km below the surface and 4.5--5 km west-southwest of the summit of South Sister volcano. Any marginal improvement gained by using a more complicated source shape is not constrained by the data. This same model fits the deformation data for 2001--2003 and 2003--2006 equally well, so there is no indication that the location or shape of the source has changed. However, the source inflation rate has decreased exponentially since 2001 with a 1/e decay time of about 4 years. The net increase in source volume from the beginning of the episode (~1997) through 2006 was 60 × 106 m3 ± 10 × 106 m3. The only unusual seismicity near the deforming area was a swarm of about 300 small earthquakes on March 23- -26, 2004 ---the first notable seismicity for at least two decades. Timing of the swarm generally coincides with slowing of surface deformation, but any link between the two, if one exists, is not understood. Similar episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most were small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

  8. Inner-city station areas in Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Redevelopments of Chinese inner-­?city station areas introduced both new transport infrastructures (high speed railway, urban mass transit system, etc.) and real estate projects to station vicinities during the past decades. However, existing station areas are isolated from the rest of the city, and

  9. Nature in the city or the city in nature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on urban green spaces opens up the old paradigmatic question on the relationship between the city and nature. At the common sense level, the answers are simple and one-dimensional, but a more elaborate analysis necessarily runs into the archetypical conflict relationship between “nature and culture”. The present text deals with different, more or less successful examples how to reconcile this relationship. In modern societies, people’s dissatisfaction with the mere symbolic presence of nature in the cities has had a substantial impact on suburbanisation processes, which are themselves environmentally rather problematic. The conclusion argues that the question of nature in the city should be replaced by that of the city in nature. Urban green spaces should be treated as part of the ecosystem at the regional level, not as an exclusively internal city problem.

  10. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  11. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  12. Cities and peripheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Swati

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses a methodological problem of urban history faced with the current environmental crisis that urges us to think of humans as ‘geological’ agents. It suggests that the concept of the uncanny that pushes our understanding of spatio-temporality may be a useful device for approaching the methodological need to reconcile what we can and cannot experience/visualize. Viewing the mapping projects around Calcutta in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries through the lens of the uncanny offers us the possibility of such a reconciliation. It enables us to see the landscape as a product of multiple spatio-temporal modes, and loosens the grip of the current urban vocabulary on our imagination of cities.

  13. Biometeorology for cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M.; Balling, Robert C.; Andrade, Riley; Scott Krayenhoff, E.; Middel, Ariane; Urban, Aleš; Georgescu, Matei; Sailor, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Improvements in global sustainability, health, and equity will largely be determined by the extent to which cities are able to become more efficient, hospitable, and productive places. The development and evolution of urban areas has a significant impact on local and regional weather and climate, which subsequently affect people and other organisms that live in and near cities. Biometeorologists, researchers who study the impact of weather and climate on living creatures, are well positioned to help evaluate and anticipate the consequences of urbanization on the biosphere. Motivated by the 60th anniversary of the International Society of Biometeorology, we reviewed articles published in the Society's International Journal of Biometeorology over the period 1974-2017 to understand if and how biometeorologists have directed attention to urban areas. We found that interest in urban areas has rapidly accelerated; urban-oriented articles accounted for more than 20% of all articles published in the journal in the most recent decade. Urban-focused articles in the journal span five themes: measuring urban climate, theoretical foundations and models, human thermal comfort, human morbidity and mortality, and ecosystem impacts. Within these themes, articles published in the journal represent a sizeable share of the total academic literature. More explicit attention from urban biometeorologists publishing in the journal to low- and middle-income countries, indoor environments, animals, and the impacts of climate change on human health would help ensure that the distinctive perspectives of biometeorology reach the places, people, and processes that are the foci of global sustainability, health, and equity goals.

  14. Tourism and City. Reflections about Tourist Dimension of Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of the future seems to be necessarily “intelligent” both in its physical and in functional features.This paper starts from the consideration that the diffusion of new communication technologies (ICTs is significantly changing the urban supply system of tourist services giving rise to new ways of enjoying the city.As tourism can be assumed as an urban activity, by a town planning point of view, the study of tourism is meaningful to identify development trajectories of the present cities targeted to sustainable and smarter models.As a matter of fact, almost all the projects to get a “smart city” are based on the idea of joining the potentialities of ICTs and the needs of urban management through people living or using the city.In such a vision, “tourist dimension” of the city becomes fundamental in promoting urban image as well as in improving efficiency of the city. This efficiency also depends on the capability of each city to share historical and cultural heritage as “common good”.As tourist demand has deeply changed also driven by technological development, this paper tries to investigate how the urban supply will change in order to meet the rising demand of quality and efficiency. The transition to smart tourist destination currently seems to be strongly connected with the number and the variety of apps to improve the “experiential component”. A lack of interest there seems to be in finding strategies and policies oriented to plan the urban supply of services tourist or not.This consideration, if shared, opens up new perspectives for research and experimentation in which city planning could have a key-role also in proposing an holistic approach to city development towards smart city.

  15. The mitochondrial genome of Paraspadella gotoi is highly reduced and reveals that chaetognaths are a sister-group to protostomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Vanjani, Rohit G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-01

    We report the first complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence from a member of the phylum Chaetognatha (arrow worms). The Paraspadella gotoi mtDNA is highly unusual, missing 23 of the genes commonly found in animal mtDNAs, including atp6, which has otherwise been found universally to be present. Its 14 genes are unusually arranged into two groups, one on each strand. One group is punctuated by numerous non-coding intergenic nucleotides, while the other group is tightly packed, having no non-coding nucleotides, leading to speculation that there are two transcription units with differing modes of expression. The phylogenetic position of the Chaetognatha within the Metazoa has long been uncertain, with conflicting or equivocal results from various morphological analyses and rRNA sequence comparisons. Comparisons here of amino acid sequences from mitochondrially encoded proteins gives a single most parsimonious tree that supports a position of Chaetognatha as sister to the protostomes studied here. From this, one can more clearly interpret the patterns of evolution of various developmental features, especially regarding the embryological fate of the blastopore.

  16. Genome-Wide Survey Reveals Transcriptional Differences Underlying the Contrasting Trichome Phenotypes of Two Sister Desert Poplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes, which are widely used as an important diagnostic characteristic in plant species delimitation, play important roles in plant defense and adaptation to adverse environments. In this study, we used two sister poplar species, Populus pruinosa and Populus euphratica—which have, respectively, dense and sparse trichomes—to examine the genetic differences associated with these contrasting phenotypes. The results showed that 42 and 45 genes could be identified as candidate genes related to trichomes in P. pruinosa and P. euphratica, respectively; most of these genes possessed high degrees of diversification in their coding sequences, but they were similar in intron/exon structure in the two species. We also found that most of the candidate trichome genes were expressed at higher levels in P. pruinosa, which has dense trichomes, than in P. euphratica, where there are few trichomes. Based on analyses of transcriptional profiles, a total of 195 genes, including many transcription factors, were found to show distinct differences in expression. The results of gene function annotation suggested that the genes identified as having contrasting levels of expression level are mainly associated with trichome elongation, ATPase activity, and hormone transduction. Changes in the expression of these and other related genes with high sequence diversification may have contributed to the contrast in the pattern of trichome phenotypes between the two species.

  17. Continuing inflation at Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.

    2009-12-01

    Uplift of a broad area centered ~6 km west of the summit of South Sister volcano started in September 1997 (onset estimated from model discussed in this paper) and was continuing when surveyed in August 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since August 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since August 2001 with GPS and leveling surveys, and with continuous GPS since May 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR decreased from 3-5 cm/yr during 1998-2001 to ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004-2006. The other datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface uplift and extension rates decreased over time but deformation continued through August 2006. Our best-fit model to the deformation data is a vertical, prolate, spheroidal point-pressure source located 4.9-5.4 km below the surface. The source inflation rate decreased exponentially during 2001-2006 with a 1/ e decay time of 5.3 ± 1.1 years. The net increase in source volume from September 1997 to August 2006 was 36.5-41.9 x 106 m3. A swarm of ~300 small ( M max = 1.9) earthquakes occurred beneath the deforming area in March 2004; no other unusual seismicity has been noted. Similar deformation episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most are small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

  18. Sibling Supporters' Experiences of Giving Support to Siblings Who Have a Brother or a Sister With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt; Nilsson, Stefan

    Siblings of a child with a life-threatening disease, such as cancer, have a right to measures that promote their health and welfare. Siblings may find it hard to understand what is happening to the sick child with cancer and why he or she reacts as he or she does. The aim of the study was to explore sibling supporters' thoughts about the experiences they had in providing support for siblings with a brother or a sister with a life-threatening disease such as cancer. All the 12 sibling supporters currently working in Sweden participated in a qualitative, descriptive study from which 5 categories emerged, showing that the sibling supporters supported siblings from diagnosis until possible death. They enabled siblings who were in the same situation to meet each other and arranged activities suited to their ages, as well as offering an encouraging environment. To help the siblings, the sibling supporters found it necessary to interact with both the parents and the ward staff. The sibling supporters felt that their support was important and necessary in helping siblings promote their own health both when the sick child was alive and also after his or her death. The experience of the sibling supporters was that they listened to the siblings' stories and met them when they were in their crisis. The study confirms that sibling supporters should be a part of the health care team that treat and support the family when a child has cancer.

  19. Immune gene expression in Bombus terrestris: signatures of infection despite strong variation among populations, colonies, and sister workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska S Brunner

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology relies on variation in resistance to parasites. Colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris vary in their susceptibility to the trypanosome gut parasite Crithidia bombi, which reduces colony fitness. To understand the possible origin of this variation in resistance we assayed the expression of 28 immunologically important genes in foraging workers. We deliberately included natural variation of the host "environment" by using bees from colonies collected in two locations and sampling active foraging workers that were not age controlled. Immune gene expression patterns in response to C. bombi showed remarkable variability even among genetically similar sisters. Nevertheless, expression varied with parasite exposure, among colonies and, perhaps surprisingly, strongly among populations (collection sites. While only the antimicrobial peptide abaecin is universally up regulated upon exposure, linear discriminant analysis suggests that the overall exposure effect is driven by a combination of several immune pathways and further immune functions such as ROS regulation. Also, the differences among colonies in their immune gene expression profiles provide clues to the mechanistic basis of well-known inter-colony variation in susceptibility to this parasite. Our results show that transcriptional responses to parasite exposure can be detected in ecologically heterogeneous groups despite strong background noise.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of two Plectus mitochondrial genomes (Nematoda: Plectida) supports a sister group relationship between Plectida and Rhabditida within Chromadorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kern, Elizabeth; Kim, Taeho; Sim, Mikang; Kim, Jaebum; Kim, Yuseob; Park, Chungoo; Nadler, Steven A; Park, Joong-Ki

    2017-02-01

    Plectida is an important nematode order with species that occupy many different biological niches. The order includes free-living aquatic and soil-dwelling species, but its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of two members of this order, Plectus acuminatus and Plectus aquatilis and compared them with those of other major nematode clades. The genome size and base composition of these species are similar to other nematodes; 14,831 and 14,372bp, respectively, with AT contents of 71.0% and 70.1%. Gene content was also similar to other nematodes, but gene order and coding direction of Plectus mtDNAs were dissimilar from other chromadorean species. P. acuminatus and P. aquatilis are the first chromadorean species found to contain a gene inversion. We reconstructed mitochondrial genome phylogenetic trees using nucleotide and amino acid datasets from 87 nematodes that represent major nematode clades, including the Plectus sequences. Trees from phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods depicted Plectida as the sister group to other sequenced chromadorean nematodes. This finding is consistent with several phylogenetic results based on SSU rDNA, but disagrees with a classification based on morphology. Mitogenomes representing other basal chromadorean groups (Araeolaimida, Monhysterida, Desmodorida, Chromadorida) are needed to confirm their phylogenetic relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogeny of Syndermata (syn. Rotifera): Mitochondrial gene order verifies epizoic Seisonidea as sister to endoparasitic Acanthocephala within monophyletic Hemirotifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielaff, Malte; Schmidt, Hanno; Struck, Torsten H; Rosenkranz, David; Mark Welch, David B; Hankeln, Thomas; Herlyn, Holger

    2016-03-01

    A monophyletic origin of endoparasitic thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala) and wheel-animals (Rotifera) is widely accepted. However, the phylogeny inside the clade, be it called Syndermata or Rotifera, has lacked validation by mitochondrial (mt) data. Herein, we present the first mt genome of the key taxon Seison and report conflicting results of phylogenetic analyses: while mt sequence-based topologies showed monophyletic Lemniscea (Bdelloidea+Acanthocephala), gene order analyses supported monophyly of Pararotatoria (Seisonidea+Acanthocephala) and Hemirotifera (Bdelloidea+Pararotatoria). Sequence-based analyses obviously suffered from substitution saturation, compositional bias, and branch length heterogeneity; however, we observed no compromising effects in gene order analyses. Moreover, gene order-based topologies were robust to changes in coding (genes vs. gene pairs, two-state vs. multistate, aligned vs. non-aligned), tree reconstruction methods, and the treatment of the two monogonont mt genomes. Thus, mt gene order verifies seisonids as sister to acanthocephalans within monophyletic Hemirotifera, while deviating results of sequence-based analyses reflect artificial signal. This conclusion implies that the complex life cycle of extant acanthocephalans evolved from a free-living state, as retained by most monogononts and bdelloids, via an epizoic state with a simple life cycle, as shown by seisonids. Hence, Acanthocephala represent a rare example where ancestral transitional stages have counterparts amongst the closest relatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of low /sup 60/Co dose rates on sister chromatid exchange incidence in the benthic worm. Neanthes arenaceodentata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-10-13

    The usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as a measure of low-level radiation effect was examined in a benthic marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Larvae were exposed to /sup 60/Co radiation for 12 to 24 h at total doses ranging from 0.5 to 309 R and at dose rates from 0.04 to 13 R/h. Animals exposed at intermediate dose rates (0.5, 0.6, 1.25, 2.0, and 2.5 R/h) had SCE frequencies per chromosome about twice that of those receiving no radiation (controls), whereas those exposed at the higher dose rates (7.0 and 13 R/h) had SCE frequencies lower than the controls. Animals exposed at the lower dose rates (0.04 and 0.1 R/h) had lower SCE frequencies than those exposed at intermediate dose rates (and higher SCE frequencies than controls). The length of chromosome pair number one differed among metaphase spreads and was used as an index of chromosome condensation in a given metaphase. Because there is a possibility that chromosome morphology may affect the ability to resolve SCEs, morphology will be monitored in future studies. A preliminary experiment was performed to assess the effects of 2.2 and 11.5 R/h for 24 h on growth and development. Larvae observed at 6 and 17 d after irradiation did not have significantly different numbers of abnormal larvae or survival rates.

  3. Are youth mentoring programs good value-for-money? An evaluation of the Big Brothers Big Sisters Melbourne Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Marjory L; Fisher, Jane

    2009-01-30

    The Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) program matches vulnerable young people with a trained, supervised adult volunteer as mentor. The young people are typically seriously disadvantaged, with multiple psychosocial problems. Threshold analysis was undertaken to determine whether investment in the program was a worthwhile use of limited public funds. The potential cost savings were based on US estimates of life-time costs associated with high-risk youth who drop out-of-school and become adult criminals. The intervention was modelled for children aged 10-14 years residing in Melbourne in 2004. If the program serviced 2,208 of the most vulnerable young people, it would cost AUD 39.5 M. Assuming 50% were high-risk, the associated costs of their adult criminality would be AUD 3.3 billion. To break even, the program would need to avert high-risk behaviours in only 1.3% (14/1,104) of participants. This indicative evaluation suggests that the BBBS program represents excellent 'value for money'.

  4. Sister chromatid exchanges among workers occupationally exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnainmaa, K.

    1983-01-01

    The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) was studied in the peripheral lymphocytes of workers spraying foliage in forestry with phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) or their mixtures. In order to follow possible exposure-related changes in the frequencies of SCEs, three successive blood samples were taken from 50 male sprayers during the spraying season of July-October, 1981. In addition, 15 control subjects not working with herbicides were included in the study. The actual exposure levels of the exposed subjects were estimated by measuring the concentrations of 2,4-D and MCPA in the urine of the sprayers. Enough cells for the SCE analysis were obtained from 35 herbicide workers and 15 control subjects. The concentrations of 2,4-D and MCPA in the urine samples after exposure varied from 0.00 to 10.99 mg/l. No significant differences in the frequencies of SCEs were observed in samples taken before, during, or after the exposure. Furthermore, the means of SCEs in a nonexposed control group of 15 subjects fell in the same range as those of the exposed subjects. A difference in the means of SCEs was observed between nonsmokers and smokers, smokers having significantly higher mean values than nonsmokers. The results of the present study add support to the earlier data indicating that 2,4-D and MCPA do not act as direct DNA-damaging agents.

  5. Nature and role of high sister chromatid exchanges in Bloom syndrome cells. Some cytogenetic and immunological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Y

    1990-12-01

    The phenomenon of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is an interesting genetic event in metaphase chromosomes, even though its exact mechanism remains unknown. The fact that SCE can take place, whether "spontaneously" or induced by various agents, is in itself important, for such an event, involving damage and possible repair of bilateral loci in chromosomes, presents opportunities for modification of the chromosomal structure and/or function (e.g., oncogene activation). It has been assumed that under "normal" circumstances, SCE does not lead to any change in the functional genome, although this may not apply to abnormal conditions. The latter may be produced by a number of chemical agents (including various carcinogens) that lead to a significantly increased incidence of SCE in normal and malignant cells either in vitro or in vivo. In fact, SCE has been recognized and advocated as a most sensitive test for potentially mutagenic and/or carcinogenic agents. Thus, the broad field of SCE studies becomes of direct interest for and subject to exploration by those involved with cancer causation and biology. In this review, a synopsis of our experiences with high SCE mechanisms in Bloom syndrome cell lines will be presented, in connection with high SCE mutant cell line derived from ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and/or malignant transformation.

  6. Variations in dysfunction of sister chromatid cohesion in esco2 mutant zebrafish reflect the phenotypic diversity of Roberts syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Stefanie M; Thomas, Holly R; Amsterdam, Adam; Carroll, Andrew J; Lees, Jacqueline A; Yost, H Joseph; Parant, John M

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in ESCO2, one of two establishment of cohesion factors necessary for proper sister chromatid cohesion (SCC), cause a spectrum of developmental defects in the autosomal-recessive disorder Roberts syndrome (RBS), warranting in vivo analysis of the consequence of cohesion dysfunction. Through a genetic screen in zebrafish targeting embryonic-lethal mutants that have increased genomic instability, we have identified an esco2 mutant zebrafish. Utilizing the natural transparency of zebrafish embryos, we have developed a novel technique to observe chromosome dynamics within a single cell during mitosis in a live vertebrate embryo. Within esco2 mutant embryos, we observed premature chromatid separation, a unique chromosome scattering, prolonged mitotic delay, and genomic instability in the form of anaphase bridges and micronuclei formation. Cytogenetic studies indicated complete chromatid separation and high levels of aneuploidy within mutant embryos. Amongst aneuploid spreads, we predominantly observed decreases in chromosome number, suggesting that either cells with micronuclei or micronuclei themselves are eliminated. We also demonstrated that the genomic instability leads to p53-dependent neural tube apoptosis. Surprisingly, although many cells required Esco2 to establish cohesion, 10-20% of cells had only weakened cohesion in the absence of Esco2, suggesting that compensatory cohesion mechanisms exist in these cells that undergo a normal mitotic division. These studies provide a unique in vivo vertebrate view of the mitotic defects and consequences of cohesion establishment loss, and they provide a compensation-based model to explain the RBS phenotypes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. SA1 binds directly to DNA through its unique AT-hook to promote sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Kamlesh K; Daniloski, Zharko; Smith, Susan

    2013-08-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion relies on cohesin, a complex comprising a tri-partite ring and a peripheral subunit Scc3, which is found as two related isoforms SA1 and SA2 in vertebrates. There is a division of labor between the vertebrate cohesin complexes; SA1-cohesin is required at telomeres and SA2-cohesin at centromeres. Depletion of SA1 has dramatic consequences for telomere function and genome integrity, but the mechanism by which SA1-cohesin mediates cohesion at telomeres is not well understood. Here we dissect the individual contribution of SA1 and the ring subunits to telomere cohesion and show that telomeres rely heavily on SA1 and to a lesser extent on the ring for cohesion. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we show that SA1 is highly enriched at telomeres, is decreased at mitosis when cohesion is resolved, and is increased when cohesion persists. Overexpression of SA1 alone was sufficient to induce cohesion at telomeres, independent of the cohesin ring and dependent on its unique (not found in SA2) N-terminal domain, which we show binds to telomeric DNA through an AT-hook motif. We suggest that a specialized cohesion mechanism may be required to accommodate the high level of DNA replication-associated repair at telomeres.

  8. E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1 couples sister chromatid cohesion establishment to DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yeung, Clarence Hue Lok; Wu, Liwen; Yuen, Karen Wing Yee

    2017-10-23

    Bre1, a conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, together with its interacting partner Lge1, are responsible for histone H2B monoubiquitination, which regulates transcription, DNA replication, and DNA damage response and repair, ensuring the structural integrity of the genome. Deletion of BRE1 or LGE1 also results in whole chromosome instability. We discovered a novel role for Bre1, Lge1 and H2Bub1 in chromosome segregation and sister chromatid cohesion. Bre1's function in G1 and S phases contributes to cohesion establishment, but it is not required for cohesion maintenance in G2 phase. Bre1 is dispensable for the loading of cohesin complex to chromatin in G1, but regulates the localization of replication factor Mcm10 and cohesion establishment factors Ctf4, Ctf18 and Eco1 to early replication origins in G1 and S phases, and promotes cohesin subunit Smc3 acetylation for cohesion stabilization. H2Bub1 epigenetically marks the origins, potentially signaling the coupling of DNA replication and cohesion establishment.

  9. SNW1 enables sister chromatid cohesion by mediating the splicing of sororin and APC2 pre-mRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lelij, Petra; Stocsits, Roman R; Ladurner, Rene; Petzold, Georg; Kreidl, Emanuel; Koch, Birgit; Schmitz, Julia; Neumann, Beate; Ellenberg, Jan; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2014-11-18

    Although splicing is essential for the expression of most eukaryotic genes, inactivation of splicing factors causes specific defects in mitosis. The molecular cause of this defect is unknown. Here, we show that the spliceosome subunits SNW1 and PRPF8 are essential for sister chromatid cohesion in human cells. A transcriptome-wide analysis revealed that SNW1 or PRPF8 depletion affects the splicing of specific introns in a subset of pre-mRNAs, including pre-mRNAs encoding the cohesion protein sororin and the APC/C subunit APC2. SNW1 depletion causes cohesion defects predominantly by reducing sororin levels, which causes destabilisation of cohesin on DNA. SNW1 depletion also reduces APC/C activity and contributes to cohesion defects indirectly by delaying mitosis and causing "cohesion fatigue". Simultaneous expression of sororin and APC2 from intron-less cDNAs restores cohesion in SNW1-depleted cells. These results indicate that the spliceosome is required for mitosis because it enables expression of genes essential for cohesion. Our transcriptome-wide identification of retained introns in SNW1- and PRPF8-depleted cells may help to understand the aetiology of diseases associated with splicing defects, such as retinosa pigmentosum and cancer. © 2014 The Authors.

  10. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and high-frequency cells (HFC) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy Tunisian smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Ghada; Kamoun, Hassen; Rebai, Ahmed; Ben Youssef, Achraf; Ayadi, Hajer; Belghith-Mahfoudh, Neila; Fourati, Amine; Ayadi, Hamadi; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2011-02-03

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem in Tunisia as it concerns up to 30-35% of the adult population, raising important national issues on tobacco-related disease. The aim of this study was to establish whether cigarette smoking increases sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of smokers (n=14) compared with non-smokers (n=15) in Sfax, Tunisia. The smokers were subdivided in two subgroups according to the duration of the smoking habit: heavy smokers (>10 years) and light smokers (≤10 years). After signing a consent form, volunteers provided a blood sample (5ml) to establish cell cultures during 72h. For SCE analysis, 30 second-division metaphases were examined from each subject. We determined the frequency of SCE, the percentage of high-frequency cells (HFC) and that of the high-frequency cell individual (HFI). The results show a significantly higher SCE frequency in smokers (8.65±1.43) than in non-smokers (7.16±1.3; p0.05). The percentages of HFC and HFI were significantly higher in smokers (11.2±7.8% and 78.6%, respectively) than in non-smokers (4±2.2% and 20%, respectively, pscientific evidence to urge the prevention of tobacco consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. New York City's Education Battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When Bloomberg gave his first State of the City address, in January, 2002, he announced his intention to seek mayoral control of the schools and abolish the infamous New York City Board of Education, which he called "a rinky-dink candy store." He joined a long list of New York mayors, educators, and business leaders who believed that the…

  12. City And Its Open Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramayana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The city requires open spaces of sufficient breadth to maintain a balance between the regions. The city has a circulatory system that brings together the various regions and provides facilities to carry trade goods from farm to distribution centers in the city. Cities have many shortcomings in service to its population. Cities can be too dense too many houses are less worthy the unemployment center and has its government. Taxes tend to be high while the service is inadequate. Even so the cities will still be there. The task for planners at all levels both government and private sectors are seeking to be important elements in our social system is more comfortable to live in especially when it is in the city found many open spaces that can neutralize the possibility of air pollution. Formation and good urban planning is the dream of society. With a good arrangement the city will be more comfortable as a residence. Urban and open space are two things that can not be separated from one another. Although it has different functions and benefits remains a single entity. It really should be understood by all urban communities.

  13. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  14. Building the food secure city

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    Seen on a map, the four arterial roads that connect Dar es. Salaam's city centre to the urban fringe and the hinterland beyond resemble a giant spider's web. The vast majority of the city's inhabitants — seven out of every 10 — live in a warren of unplanned settlements that are scattered between the principal byways outside ...

  15. Chicago, Illinois: The Windy City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2008-01-01

    Once famous mainly for stockyards and steel mills, Chicago now boasts more top-rated five-star restaurants than any other city in the United States and has been voted by various publications as one of the "Top 10 U.S. Destinations," one of the "Best Walking Cities" in the United States, and one of the "Ten Best Places to…

  16. Educating cities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  17. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in

  18. Cities Farming for the Future

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban agriculture can be defined as the growing of plants and the raising of animals for food and other uses within and around cities and towns, and related activities such as the production and delivery of inputs, and the processing and marketing of products. Urban Agriculture is located within or on the fringe of a city and ...

  19. Malmo: A city in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Tessa Kate

    2014-01-01

    become a multicultural city with vibrant neighbourhoods and successful new developments such as the Western Harbour. The Øresund bridge has increased its linkages with Denmark and Europe providing easy access for employment and residential opportunities. The success of the city will be measured in its...

  20. Participatory prototyping for future cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waart, P.; Mulder, I.J.; De Bont, C.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because

  1. Participatory Prototyping for Future Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Waart; I.J. Mulder; C.J.P.M. Bont

    2015-01-01

    Emerging pervasive technologies such as the Internet of Things and Open Data will have severe impact on the experience, interactions and wellbeing of citizens in future smart cities. Local governments are concerned how to engage and embed citizens in the process of smart city development because

  2. Magical Landscapes and Designed Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    from the point of view of the city, where order, design, planning and commerce are important cityscape qualities. The article deals with the way in which these two parts of the city, landscape and brandscape are complementary parts of the city-web. Analytical points made by Mauss, Lévi......Abstract  Based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighbourhoods in the outskirts of Århus, Denmark, this article focusses on how landscapes are perceived. Local residents describe and use the landscapes of Skåde Bakker and Fedet as endowed...... with “something special,” a feel-good, (almost spiritual) healing power (just moments away from the bustling city). In Melanesia, such a spiritual force goes by the name of “mana”. Århus’ mana landscapes are only invested with this huge, floating quality because they are near the city. Furthermore, they are seen...

  3. The Right to the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Lefebvre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a new proposition of thinking about such categoriesas a city, the urban, urban strategy and social practices connected with analyticalscience of the city, which is only at the outline stage, but also projected by Lefebvrehimself. This turn seems necessary due to the death of traditional city and oldhumanism. The article is also a passionate and utopian (in positive sense of termmanifesto for democratization of right to the city consisting of cry and demand ofthe dispossessed from such a prerogative. The author argues that an urban strategybased on a new science of the city needs social support and political force. They willbe provided by the working class, putting an end to the urban segregation.

  4. In vitro antigenotoxicity of Ulva rigida C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae) extract against induction of chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange and micronuclei by mutagenic agent MMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikler, Serap; Yildiz, Gamze; Vatan, Ozgur; Bilaloglu, Rahmi

    2008-12-01

    To determine the in vitro possible clastogenic and cytotoxic activities of Ulva rigida crude extracts (URE), and identify their antigenotoxic and protective effects on chemotherapeutic agent mitomycine-C (MMC). Anti-clastogenic and anti-genotoxic activities of Ulva rigida crude extracts (URE) were studied using chromosome aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and micronuclei (MN) tests in human lymphocytes cultured in vitro. The chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange or micronuclei tests showed that URE at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 microg/mL had no clastogenic activity in human lymphocyte cell culture. Three doses of URE significantly decreased the number of chromosomal aberrations and the frequencies of SCE and MN when compared with the culture treated with MMC (P MMC in vitro.

  5. The Sisters of the Infant Jesus in Bembibre, León, Spain, in the second stage of Francoism: the school with no doors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa BRUNO-JOFRÉ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the intentionality and resignifications characterizing the mission of the Sisters of the Infant Jesus in Bembibre, León, and surrounding villages in the 1960s and 1970s during the second stage of Francoism. The Sisters played a public role by providing a testimony of a way to live the faith that can be traced to the origins of the congregation, the pedagogical imaginary of their founder, Nicholas Barré and the French spirituality of the seventeenth century. There was a trans-temporal re-appropriation of the original inspiration of the founder. The mission with its openness and creative involvement with the community and commitment to their needs created a unique space in the town and region during repressive political times and regional socio-economic challenges.

  6. Siblings' farewell to a stillborn sister or brother and parents' support to their older children: a questionnaire study from the parents' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Kerstin; Avelin, Pernilla; Säflund, Karin; Wredling, Regina; Rådestad, Ingela

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to capture parental descriptions of how siblings take leave of and mourn a stillborn brother or sister and how their parents support them. Data were collected by questionnaires from 16 parents of siblings to a stillborn child one year after the stillbirth. Data were analysed numerically for the multiple-choice questions and content analysis was used for parental comments and descriptions. The results describe siblings' farewell to a stillborn brother or sister and how their parents in the midst of their own grief were involved in supporting siblings' wellbeing, and observed their mourning reactions. Although the findings need to be interpreted with caution, they may provide insight that enables staff to become more sensitive to the whole family experience in the practice of their profession. Further research into siblings' grief and parental support after stillbirth is crucial so that further light may be shed on their situation.

  7. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Salt Lake City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Since its designation as a national Clean City in 1994, Salt Lake Clean Cities has put more than 2,600 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) on community streets. The 82 business, nonprofit, and government agencies that comprise the coalition are all dedicated to cleaning the air by reducing vehicle exhaust. Salt Lake Clean Cities has the third largest compressed natural gas and propane-refueling infrastructure in the country, with 98 locations available. They sponsor an annual ''Spring Soiree'' to increase public awareness about the program and educate the public about the benefits of alternative fuel and AFVs.

  8. CITIES: Centre for IT-Intelligent Energy Systems in Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; O'Connell, Niamh; Heller, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This extended abstract provides an introduction to an interdisciplinary strategic research project, CITIES which has been funded with an excess of € 7 million from a wide range of industrial and academic partners, and the Danish Council for Strategic Research. CITIES was launched January 1, 2014...... between operations and planning. This extended abstract outlines the challenges to be met by city and energy planning bodies in an energy efficient future. The necessity of novel, data driven and IT intelligent solutions is stressed. A focus is placed on energy system planning in systems with high...

  9. Different mutations are responsible for the elevated sister-chromatid exchange frequencies characteristic of Bloom's syndrome and hamster EM9 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, J H; Louie, E; German, J

    1987-01-01

    Experimental hybridization of cultured cells was employed to determine whether the strikingly elevated rates of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) exhibited by Bloom's syndrome (BS) and hamster cell line EM9 have the same or different bases. Seventeen cell lines were developed from polyethylene glycol-treated mixtures of BS and EM9 cells. Cytogenetic analysis proved the hybrid nature of 12 of the lines; 9 of those 12 exhibited low (normal) numbers of SCEs, signifying complementation. The parenta...

  10. 2016 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  11. 2015 Resident Survey (City and County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The purpose of the annual City/County survey: To objectively assess citizen satisfaction with the delivery of City/County servicesTo set a baseline for future...

  12. Applications of big data to smart cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al Nuaimi, Eiman; Al Neyadi, Hind; Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela

    2015-01-01

    Many governments are considering adopting the smart city concept in their cities and implementing big data applications that support smart city components to reach the required level of sustainability...

  13. Cities Changing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    The Rule of Halves (RoH), stating that half of those with diabetes are diagnosed, half of those diagnosed receive care, half of those receiving care achieve treatment targets, and finally that half of those achieving targets also achieve desired outcomes, has not previously been assessed for diab......The Rule of Halves (RoH), stating that half of those with diabetes are diagnosed, half of those diagnosed receive care, half of those receiving care achieve treatment targets, and finally that half of those achieving targets also achieve desired outcomes, has not previously been assessed...... for diabetes in Copenhagen. As part of the quantitative mapping phase of the Cities Changing Diabetes project in Copenhagen, a RoH analysis was conducted. The results of this analysis are summarized below. The figure shows that the ‘Halves’ rule does not generally apply for Copenhagen. On most of the levels......, Copenhagen is doing better than simple halves. For example, the results indicate that almost three quarters of the true diabetes population are diagnosed and that almost all of those diagnosed with diabetes receive some form of care. Although the analysis indicates that Copenhagen is doing better than...

  14. Cities Changing Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Clare Kristensen, Elisabeth; Malling, Gritt Marie Hviid

    The overall objectives of the Vulnerability Assessmentis to gain in-depth information on what attributes the most to vulnerability seen from the perspectives of vulnerable diabetes patients and citizens at risk. In Copenhagen, we focused on how everyday life influences the perceptions and experie......The overall objectives of the Vulnerability Assessmentis to gain in-depth information on what attributes the most to vulnerability seen from the perspectives of vulnerable diabetes patients and citizens at risk. In Copenhagen, we focused on how everyday life influences the perceptions...... and experiences of health risks and illness among fifty vulnerable patients and citizens at risk in the city. We aimed at investigating how the local environment and practices influence individual practices and behavior, and how the management of diabetes is influenced by social factors. Also, the analysis...... of diabetes or health issues in general. Vulnerability was closely associated with the Danish term “manglende overskud”, in English ‘lack of reserves of energy’. Due to a range of issues and worries in everyday life, such as comorbidity, unemployment, economic problems, major life events and loneliness...

  15. A lack of coordination between sister-chromatids segregation and cytokinesis in the oocytes of B6.YTIR (XY) sex-reversed female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Qiao; Tan, Seang Lin; Taketo, Teruko

    2017-04-19

    The B6.YTIR (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defective in their cytoplasm, resulting in a failure in the second meiotic division after activation or fertilization in vitro. However, the mechanism of meiotic failure or the cause of infertility remained to be clarified. In the present study, we obtained mature oocytes from XY females by superovulation and confirmed that these oocytes also fail in zygotic development. By using confocal microscopy 3D-analysis, we demonstrated that meiotic spindles were properly positioned and oriented in the MII-oocytes from XY females. After parthenogenic activation, fewer oocytes from XY females extruded the second polar body, and in those oocytes, sister-chromatids were often separated but neither set entered the second polar body. ARP2, F-actin, and ORC4, known to play roles in asymmetric meiotic division, were initially localized along the ooplasmic membrane and concentrated over the MII-spindle but lost their cortical polarity after activation while the sister-chromatids moved away from the oolemma in the oocytes from XY females. Our results indicate that the second polar body extrusion is uncoupled from the sister-chromatids separation in the oocytes from XY female mouse.

  16. Analysis of city buses operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Papírník

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of city buses operation. This analysis is focused on the energy balance of propulsion system of these buses. The energy balance gives an overview about necessary amount of energy for city buses in pure city operation. The operation of city buses is divided for this analysis into three basic modes: stop state, drive and deceleration. The fleet of the same 19 city buses was chosen for collection of all operation data. These city buses are located in one city. The buses were changing all bus routes and were driven by all bus drivers. These conditions are necessary for elimination of bus route topology and bus driver behaviour. The required operation data were saved into engines and transmissions control units. The saved data were uploaded from control units for data processing. The aim of the analysis is determination of the energy for each drive mode. The energy for individual mode gives an overview about possible energy savings when hybrid drive system is used for these buses. The energy balance is groundwork for correct design of hybrid drive system and for hybrid drive system control.

  17. Divergence of brain and retinal anatomy and histology in pelagic antarctic notothenioid fishes of the sister taxa Dissostichus and Pleuragramma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    The neutrally buoyant Antarctic fishes of the sister taxa Dissostichus (D. eleginoides and D. mawsoni) and Pleuragramma antarcticum diverged early in the notothenioid radiation and filled different niches in the pelagic realm of the developing Southern Ocean. To assess the influence of phylogenetic and ecological factors in shaping neural morphology in these taxa, we studied the anatomy and histology of the brains and retinae, and determined the proportional weights of brain regions. With the brain of the non-Antarctic sister taxon Eleginops maclovinus as plesiomorphic, statistically significant departures in the brains of the two Antarctic taxa include reduction of the corpus cerebelli and expansion of the mesencephalon and medulla. Compared to Eleginops, both species also have a relatively smaller telencephalon, although this is significant only in Dissostichus. There are a number of apomorphic features in the brain of Pleuragramma including reduced olfactory nerves and bulbs, an extremely small corpus cerebelli and an expanded mesencephalon. Although there is not a significant difference in the relative weights of the medulla in the two taxa, the prominence of the eminentia granularis and bulging cap-like appearance of the crista cerebellaris are distinctive in Pleuragramma. Brain histology of Dissostichus and Pleuragramma reflects typical perciform patterns and the two species of Dissostichus are histologically identical. Lateral compression in Pleuragramma and notable lobation in Dissostichus also contribute to differences between the taxa. Compression in Pleuragramma is attributable to convergence on an anchovy/herring body shape and to the relatively large brain in this small fish. The less prominent pattern of lobation of the telencephalon, inferior lobes and corpus cerebelli in Pleuragramma probably reflects underlying histology, specifically a reduction in cellularity of the neuropil in the nuclei and lobes. The retinal histology of Dissostichus and

  18. City positioning method based on streetlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan; Jiang, Youyi; Yang, Yongchong; Lou, Ning

    2008-10-01

    The relation between city positioning and people's life & production is very close. City positioning method can reflect the city's management level and the city's modernization degree. By virtue of the example of digital city management system, the author first analyzed the traditional method of city positioning, then aiming at the characteristics of streetlight which distributes regular and neatly in city, put forward the method of city positioning based on streetlight. In this paper, the author mainly discussed the streetlight's encoding method, positioning method based on streetlight and its application requests.

  19. Excision and crosslink repair of DNA and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human fibroblasts with different repair capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Kano, Y.; Paul, P.; Goto, K.; Yamamoto, K. (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) groups A to G lacked the initial stage of ultraviolet (UV) excision repair in the order of A = G > C > D > E asymptotically equals F, while the XP variant was weakly defective in the later repair steps. Killing sensitivities were in the orders of A >= G > D > C > E asymptotically equals F asymptotically equals variant > normal to UV, A = G > D > F > C = E > variant > normal to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), and A > C > D = E = F = variant > G = normal to decarbamoyl mitomycin-C(DCMC). The induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency was unrelated to the extent of repair deficiency. The SCE induction rate was consistently 3 - 6 fold higher by these UV-like mutagens in XP group A cells than in normal cells. However, repair-proficient Cockayne's syndrome (CS) cells showed a higher SCE induction by UV, which was normalized by NAD/sup +/, suggesting that chromatin lesions as well as DNA damage contribute to SCE. Two-step crosslink repair involves a first rapid half-excision and a second slow nucleotide-excision repair. Fanconi's anemia (FA) cells had an impaired first half-excision and were supersensitive to MC, but not to UV and DCMC. The SCE frequency induced by MC (1 hr) was higher in FA cells than in normal cells despite their normal response to DCMC, and vice versa in XP cells. FA cells lacked the first rapid decline and showed higher remaining SCEs. Thus, part of the crosslink seems to lead to SCE formation. Caffeine synergistically elevated UV-induced SCEs, but not UV induced mutations in V79 cells, implying that SCE may not necessarily involve mutation.

  20. Contrasting genetic diversity patterns in two sister kelp species co-distributed along the coast of Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuchon, Marine; Le Gall, Line; Mauger, Stéphane; Valero, Myriam

    2014-06-01

    We investigated patterns of genetic structure in two sister kelp species to explore how distribution width along the shore, zonation, latitudinal distribution and historical factors contribute to contrasting patterns of genetic diversity. We implemented a hierarchical sampling scheme to compare patterns of genetic diversity and structure in these two kelp species co-distributed along the coasts of Brittany (France) using a total of 12 microsatellites, nine for Laminaria hyperborea and 11 for Laminaria digitata, of which eight amplified in both species. The genetic diversity and connectivity of L. hyperborea populations were greater than those of L. digitata populations in accordance with the larger cross-shore distribution width along the coast and the greater depth occupied by L. hyperborea populations in contrast to L. digitata populations. In addition, marginal populations showed reduced genetic diversity and connectivity, which erased isolation-by-distance patterns in both species. As L. digitata encounters its southern range limit in southern Brittany (SBr) while L. hyperborea extends down to mid-Portugal, it was possible to distinguish the effect of habitat continuity from range edge effects. We found that L. digitata did not harbour high regional diversity at its southern edge, as expected in a typical rear edge, suggesting that refuges from the last glacial maximum for L. digitata were probably not located in SBr, but most likely further north. For both species, the highest levels of genetic diversity were found in the Iroise Sea and Morlaix Bay, the two regions in which they are being currently harvested. Preserving genetic diversity of these two foundation species in these areas should, thus, be a priority for the management of this resource in Brittany. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.