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Sample records for brown trout embryos

  1. The male handicap: male-biased mortality explains skewed sex ratios in brown trout embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, P; Labbé, L; Garcia de Leaniz, C

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile sex ratios are often assumed to be equal for many species with genetic sex determination, but this has rarely been tested in fish embryos due to their small size and absence of sex-specific markers. We artificially crossed three populations of brown trout and used a recently developed genetic marker for sexing the offspring of both pure and hybrid crosses. Sex ratios (SR = proportion of males) varied widely one month after hatching ranging from 0.15 to 0.90 (mean = 0.39 ± 0.03). Families with high survival tended to produce balanced or male-biased sex ratios, but SR was significantly female-biased when survival was low, suggesting that males sustain higher mortality during development. No difference in SR was found between pure and hybrid families, but the existence of sire × dam interactions suggests that genetic incompatibility may play a role in determining sex ratios. Our findings have implications for animal breeding and conservation because skewed sex ratios will tend to reduce effective population size and bias selection estimates. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  3. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  4. Mink predation on brown trout in a Black Hills stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacob L.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000’s, declines in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) fishery in Rapid Creek, South Dakota, caused concern for anglers and fisheries managers. We conducted a radio telemetry study in 2010 and 2011 to identify predation mortality associated with mink, using hatchery-reared (2010) or wild (2011) brown trout. Estimated predation rates by mink (Mustela vison) on radio-tagged brown trout were 30% for hatchery fish and 32% for wild fish. Size frequency analysis revealed that the size distribution of brown trout lost to predation was similar to that of other, radio-tagged brown trout. In both years, a higher proportion of predation mortality (83–92%) occurred during spring, consistent with seasonal fish consumption by mink. Predation by mink appeared to be a significant source of brown trout mortality in our study.

  5. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout...... of the Ema stock (r(2)=0.96) and Laerdal stock (r(2)=0.96). The linear relationship between swimming speed and average EMG pulse intervals differed significantly among lake trout and the brown trout stocks. This successful calibration of EMGs to swimming speed opens the possibility of recording swimming...... speed of free swimming lake trout and brown trout in situ. EMGs can also be calibrated to oxygen consumption to record energy expenditure. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  6. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg......) or migratory populations (44.5-121.9 mg), after accounting for differences in body size. In Jorlandaan, some resident females even had a larger absolute mean egg weight than any of the migratory females found in the stream Resident trout had low absolute fecundity, and our data suggest that resident females...... in Jorlandan produce large eggs at the expense of their fecundity The extremely large relative egg size in resident Jorlandaan females suggests that the production of large offspring enhances fitness, possibly through increased fry survival....

  7. Brown trout and food web interactions in a Minnesota stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2007-01-01

    1. We examined indirect, community-level interactions in a stream that contained non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus), native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) and native slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus Richardson). Our objectives were to examine benthic invertebrate composition and prey selection of fishes (measured by total invertebrate dry mass, dry mass of individual invertebrate taxa and relative proportion of invertebrate taxa in the benthos and diet) among treatments (no fish, juvenile brook trout alone, juvenile brown trout alone, sculpin with brook trout and sculpin with brown trout). 2. We assigned treatments to 1 m2 enclosures/exclosures placed in riffles in Valley Creek, Minnesota, and conducted six experimental trials. We used three designs of fish densities (addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with unequal numbers of trout and sculpin; addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with equal numbers of trout and sculpin; and replacement of half the sculpin with an equal number of trout) to investigate the relative strength of interspecific versus intraspecific interactions. 3. Presence of fish (all three species, alone or in combined-species treatments) was not associated with changes in total dry mass of benthic invertebrates or shifts in relative abundance of benthic invertebrate taxa, regardless of fish density design. 4. Brook trout and sculpin diets did not change when each species was alone compared with treatments of both species together. Likewise, we did not find evidence for shifts in brown trout or sculpin diets when each species was alone or together. 5. We suggest that native brook trout and non-native brown trout fill similar niches in Valley Creek. We did not find evidence that either species had an effect on stream communities, potentially due to high invertebrate productivity in Valley Creek. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Estrogenic effects of phytoestrogens in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Marie; Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2010-01-01

    , the potential effect of the waterborne phytoestrogens on endemic fish species is largely unknown. In the present investigation, the estrogenic effect of biochanin A was tested in brown trout through water exposure experiments. Juvenile brown trout of both sexes were exposed to different concentrations...... of biochanin A. In a ten day exposure experiments, NOEC and LOEC for plasma vitellogenin induction in brown trout were found to be 0.8µg biochanin A/L and 1.2µg biochanin A/L, respectively. A six hour pulse experiment resulted in NOEC and LOEC for induction of plasma vitellogenin in brown trout of 48µg...... biochanin A/L and 186µg biochanin A/L, respectively. Investigations of the ability of genistein to induce vitellogenin synthesis in brown trout are ongoing....

  9. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter...... suggested that initiation of upstream migration was positively correlated with stream discharge. Individual sea trout performed repeated upstream migration 'initiations' (visits) to areas where they were detected by the automatic listening stations. The first and subsequent upstream migration 'initiations...

  10. Are brown trout replacing or displacing bull trout populations in a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Schmetterling, David A.; Clancy, Chris; Saffel, Pat; Kovach, Ryan; Nyce, Leslie; Liermann, Brad; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Pierce, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how climate change may facilitate species turnover is an important step in identifying potential conservation strategies. We used data from 33 sites in western Montana to quantify climate associations with native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance and population growth rates (λ). We estimated λ using exponential growth state space models and delineated study sites based on bull trout use for either Spawning and Rearing (SR) or Foraging, Migrating, and Overwintering (FMO) habitat. Bull trout abundance was negatively associated with mean August stream temperatures within SR habitat (r = -0.75). Brown trout abundance was generally highest at temperatures between 12 and 14°C. We found bull trout λ were generally stable at sites with mean August temperature below 10°C but significantly decreasing, rare, or extirpated at 58% of the sites with temperatures exceeding 10°C. Brown trout λ were highest in SR and sites with temperatures exceeding 12°C. Declining bull trout λs at sites where brown trout were absent suggests brown trout are likely replacing bull trout in a warming climate.

  11. Brook trout use of thermal refugia and foraging habitat influenced by brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Snook, Erin; Massie, Danielle L.

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in eastern North America is often limited by temperature and introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta), the relative importance of which is poorly understood but critical for conservation and restoration planning. We evaluated effects of brown trout on brook trout behavior and habitat use in experimental streams across increasing temperatures (14–23 °C) with simulated groundwater upwelling zones providing thermal refugia (6–9 °C below ambient temperatures). Allopatric and sympatric trout populations increased their use of upwelling zones as ambient temperatures increased, demonstrating the importance of groundwater as thermal refugia in warming streams. Allopatric brook trout showed greater movement rates and more even spatial distributions within streams than sympatric brook trout, suggesting interference competition by brown trout for access to forage habitats located outside thermal refugia. Our results indicate that removal of introduced brown trout may facilitate native brook trout expansion and population viability in downstream reaches depending in part on the spatial configuration of groundwater upwelling zones.

  12. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  13. Fall and winter survival of brook trout and brown trout in a north-central Pennsylvania watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweka, John A.; Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Stream-dwelling salmonids that spawn in the fall generally experience their lowest survival during the fall and winter due to behavioral changes associated with spawning and energetic deficiencies during this time of year. We used data from Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta implanted with radio transmitters in tributaries of the Hunts Run watershed of north-central Pennsylvania to estimate survival from the fall into the winter seasons (September 2012–February 2013). We examined the effects that individual-level covariates (trout species, size, and movement rates) and stream-level covariates (individual stream and cumulative drainage area of a stream) have on survival. Brook Trout experienced significantly lower survival than Brown Trout, especially in the early fall during their peak spawning period. Besides a significant species effect, none of the other covariates examined influenced survival for either species. A difference in life history between these species, with Brook Trout having a shorter life expectancy than Brown Trout, is likely the primary reason for the lower survival of Brook Trout. However, Brook Trout also spawn earlier in the fall than Brown Trout and low flows during Brook Trout spawning may have resulted in a greater risk of predation for Brook Trout compared with Brown Trout, thereby also contributing to the observed differences in survival between these species. Our estimates of survival can aid parameterization of future population models for Brook Trout and Brown Trout through the spawning season and into winter.

  14. Movement and survival of brown trout and rainbow trout in an ozark tailwater river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J.W.; Kwak, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the movement of adult brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to a catch-andrelease area in the White River downstream from Beaver Dam, Arkansas. Nine fish of each species were implanted with radio transmitters and monitored from July 1996 to July 1997. The 1.5- km river length of a catch-and-release area (closed to angler harvest) was greater than the total linear range of 72% of the trout (13 of 18 fish), but it did not include two brown trout spawning riffles, suggesting that it effectively protects resident fish within the catch-and-release area except during spawning. The total detected linear range of movement varied from 172 to 3,559 m for brown trout and from 205 to 3,023mfor rainbow trout. The movements of both species appeared to be generally similar to that in unregulated river systems. The annual apparent survival of both trout species was less than 0.40, and exploitation was 44%.Management to protect fish on spawning riffles may be considered if management for wild brown trout becomes a priority. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  15. Testing for local adaptation in brown trout using reciprocal transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelkens Rike B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local adaptation can drive the divergence of populations but identification of the traits under selection remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Reciprocal transplant experiments are ideal tests of local adaptation, yet rarely used for higher vertebrates because of the mobility and potential invasiveness of non-native organisms. Here, we reciprocally transplanted 2500 brown trout (Salmo trutta embryos from five populations to investigate local adaptation in early life history traits. Embryos were bred in a full-factorial design and raised in natural riverbeds until emergence. Customized egg capsules were used to simulate the natural redd environment and allowed tracking the fate of every individual until retrieval. We predicted that 1 within sites, native populations would outperform non-natives, and 2 across sites, populations would show higher performance at ‘home’ compared to ‘away’ sites. Results There was no evidence for local adaptation but we found large differences in survival and hatching rates between sites, indicative of considerable variation in habitat quality. Survival was generally high across all populations (55% ± 3%, but ranged from 4% to 89% between sites. Average hatching rate was 25% ± 3% across populations ranging from 0% to 62% between sites. Conclusion This study provides rare empirical data on variation in early life history traits in a population network of a salmonid, and large-scale breeding and transplantation experiments like ours provide powerful tests for local adaptation. Despite the recently reported genetic and morphological differences between the populations in our study area, local adaptation at the embryo level is small, non-existent, or confined to ecological conditions that our experiment could not capture.

  16. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  17. Brown Trout removal effects on short-term survival and movement of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Schisler, George J.; Davies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Following establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease) in Colorado, populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykissexperienced significant declines, whereas Brown Trout Salmo trutta densities increased in many locations across the state, potentially influencing the success of M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout reintroductions. We examined the effects of Brown Trout removal on the short-term (3-month) survival and movement of two crosses of reintroduced, M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Radio frequency identification passive integrated transponder tags and antennas were used to track movements of wild Brown Trout and stocked Rainbow Trout in reaches where Brown Trout had or had not been removed. Multistate mark–recapture models were used to estimate tagged fish apparent survival and movement in these sections 3 months following Brown Trout removal. A cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Colorado River Rainbow Trout strains exhibited similar survival and movement probabilities in the reaches, suggesting that the presence of Brown Trout did not affect its survival or movement. However, a cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Harrison Lake Rainbow Trout exhibited less movement from the reach in which Brown Trout had been removed. Despite this, the overall short-term benefits of the removal were equivocal, suggesting that Brown Trout removal may not be beneficial for the reintroduction of Rainbow Trout. Additionally, the logistical constraints of conducting removals in large river systems are substantial and may not be a viable management option in many rivers.

  18. Scale-dependent seasonal pool habitat use by sympatric Wild Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Sympatric populations of native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Brown Trout Salmo truttaexist throughout the eastern USA. An understanding of habitat use by sympatric populations is of importance for fisheries management agencies because of the close association between habitat and population dynamics. Moreover, habitat use by stream-dwelling salmonids may be further complicated by several factors, including the potential for fish to display scale-dependent habitat use. Discrete-choice models were used to (1) evaluate fall and early winter daytime habitat use by sympatric Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations based on available residual pool habitat within a stream network and (2) assess the sensitivity of inferred habitat use to changes in the spatial scale of the assumed available habitat. Trout exhibited an overall preference for pool habitats over nonpool habitats; however, the use of pools was nonlinear over time. Brook Trout displayed a greater preference for deep residual pool habitats than for shallow pool and nonpool habitats, whereas Brown Trout selected for all pool habitat categories similarly. Habitat use by both species was found to be scale dependent. At the smallest spatial scale (50 m), habitat use was primarily related to the time of year and fish weight. However, at larger spatial scales (250 and 450 m), habitat use varied over time according to the study stream in which a fish was located. Scale-dependent relationships in seasonal habitat use by Brook Trout and Brown Trout highlight the importance of considering scale when attempting to make inferences about habitat use; fisheries managers may want to consider identifying the appropriate spatial scale when devising actions to restore and protect Brook Trout populations and their habitats.

  19. Organic contaminants in thermal plume resident brown trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Bourne, S.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to identify possible contaminants accumulated by thermal plume-resident fish in Lake Michigan. Brown trout were maintained in tanks receiving intake and discharge (less than or equal to 21 0 C) water from a power plant and were fed a diet of frozen alewife. Fish were sampled over a period of 127 days in order to estimate uptake rates and equilibrium levels for toxic organic and inorganic materials occurring in Lake Michigan fish and water. Experimental fish and natural samples were analyzed to determine the distribution of contaminants in various tissues and the corresponding pollutant levels in similar size brown trout from Lake Michigan. The quantitative analyses for the major organic contaminants are summarized. Without exception, the pyloric caecum of brown trout contained the highest concentration of lipids, PCB's, and chlorinated pesticides. Gill and kidney samples contained lower concentrations of contaminants than the caecum, while liver and muscle values were lowest

  20. Growth of brown trout in acid and alkaline waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, R N

    1961-01-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the factors affecting the growth and maturity of brown trout in lochs in the Highlands of Scotland. Evidence has been found which supports the view that the growth rate depends more on the relation between the trout population and the food supply than on any direct influence of the chemical composition of the water. Details are given of the growth rate of trout in nine lochs with a wide range of alkalinities where spawning facilities are either very good or poor or non-existent.

  1. Diel resource partitioning among juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Brown Trout, and Rainbow Trout during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific partitioning of food and habitat resources has been widely studied in stream salmonids. Most studies have examined resource partitioning between two native species or between a native species and one that has been introduced. In this study we examine the diel feeding ecology and habitat use of three species of juvenile salmonids (i.e., Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, New York. Subyearling Brown Trout and Rainbow Trout fed more heavily from the drift than the benthos, whereas subyearling Atlantic Salmon fed more from the benthos than either species of trout. Feeding activity of Atlantic Salmon and Rainbow Trout was similar, with both species increasing feeding at dusk, whereas Brown Trout had no discernable feeding peak or trough. Habitat availability was important in determining site-specific habitat use by juvenile salmonids. Habitat selection was greater during the day than at night. The intrastream, diel, intraspecific, and interspecific variation we observed in salmonid habitat use in Grout Brook illustrates the difficulty of acquiring habitat use information for widespread management applications.

  2. Oxidative stress and partial migration in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    of oxidative status in migration biology, particularly in fish. Semi-anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta, Linnaeus 1758) exhibit partial migration, where some individuals smoltify and migrate to sea, and others become stream residents, providing us with an excellent model to investigate the link between...... oxidative stress and migration. Using the brown trout, we obtained blood samples from juveniles from a coastal stream in Denmark in the fall prior to peak seaward migration which occurs in the spring, and assayed for antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and oxidative stress levels...

  3. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-11-25

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalmonae from infected fish to the bryozoan Fredericella sultana was observed. Parasite load was determined in fish kidneys by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and parasite stages were detected in kidney, liver, and spleen tissues at different time points by immunohistochemistry. T. bryosalmonae was successfully transmitted from infected brown trout to F. sultana colonies but not from infected rainbow trout. Body length and weight of infected brown trout did not differ significantly from control brown trout during all time points, while length and weight of infected rainbow trout differed significantly compared to controls from 10 to 17 wpe. qRT-PCR revealed that parasite load was significantly higher in kidneys of brown trout compared with rainbow trout. Immunohistochemistry showed high numbers of intra-luminal stages (sporogonic stages) in kidneys of brown trout with low numbers of pre-sporogonic stages. Sporogonic stages were not seen in kidneys of rainbow trout; only high numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were detected. Numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were low in the spleen and liver of brown trout but high in rainbow trout. These data confirmed that there are differences in the development and infection progress of T. bryosalmonae between brown trout and rainbow trout.

  4. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalmonae from infected fish to the bryozoan Fredericella sultana was observed. Parasite load was determined in fish kidneys by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and parasite stages were detected in kidney, liver, and spleen tissues at different time points by immunohistochemistry. T. bryosalmonae was successfully transmitted from infected brown trout to F. sultana colonies but not from infected rainbow trout. Body length and weight of infected brown trout did not differ significantly from control brown trout during all time points, while length and weight of infected rainbow trout differed significantly compared to controls from 10 to 17 wpe. qRT-PCR revealed that parasite load was significantly higher in kidneys of brown trout compared with rainbow trout. Immunohistochemistry showed high numbers of intra-luminal stages (sporogonic stages) in kidneys of brown trout with low numbers of pre-sporogonic stages. Sporogonic stages were not seen in kidneys of rainbow trout; only high numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were detected. Numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were low in the spleen and liver of brown trout but high in rainbow trout. These data confirmed that there are differences in the development and infection progress of T. bryosalmonae between brown trout and rainbow trout. PMID:24270019

  5. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  6. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Hofstede, ter R.; Winter, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher

  7. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Radiocaesium turnover in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Norwegian lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forseth, T.; Ugedal, O.; Jonsson, B.; Langeland, A.; Njaastad, O.

    1991-01-01

    The radioactivity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) was monitored in a Norwegian lake from 1986 to 1989. A distinct difference was observed between brown trout and Arctic charr in the accumulation of radiocaesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout, and the study focused on the understanding of this difference. Brown trout had a large food consumption and a corresponding high intake of radiocaesium. Excretion was 20% faster in brown trout than Arctic charr as brown trout lived at high temperatures in epilimnic water. Arctic charr had a lower food consumption (less than one-third of trout) and lived in colder meta-and hypolimnic water. Arctic charr therefore had a lower intake and slower excretion of radiocaesium. Brown trout an Arctic charr had different diets. For brown trout zoobenthos was the dominant food item, whereas Artic charr mainly fed on zooplankton. The radioactivity in the stomach contents of the two species was different in 1986, but similar for the rest of the period. Higher levels of radiocaesium in brown trout than Arctic charr in 1986 were due to a higher food consumption and more radioactive food items in its diet. The parallel development in accumulated radiocaesium through summer 1987 was probably formed by brown trout balancing a higher intake with a faster excretion. The ecological half-lives of radiocaesium in brown trout (357 days) and Arctic charr (550 days) from Lake Hoeysjoeen indicated a slow removal of the isotopes from the food webs. (author)

  9. Animal welfare in brown trout farming: hematological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forneris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of stress resulting from fish farming has received considerable attention in this last period and fish welfare in aquaculture is a relevant topic, very important for the future of aquaculture (Watson et al., 2004; Klinger et al., 1996; Peres et al., 2004; Ron et al., 1995;Wagner et al., 1995;Watson et al., 1998. Brown trout farming is less developed then rainbow trout farming, but this kind of fish farming is increasing, mainly for fish conservation and restocking aquaculture.

  10. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; John A. Sweka,

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  11. A trial of two trouts: Comparing the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on a native galaxiid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Stephenson, J.F.; Terreau, A.; Thailly, A.F.; Gajardo, G.; de Leaniz, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are the world's two most widespread exotic fishes, dominate the fish communities of most cold-temperate waters in the southern hemisphere and are implicated in the decline and extirpation of native fish species. Here, we provide the first direct comparison of the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on populations of a native fish by quantifying three components of exotic species impact: range, abundance and effect. We surveyed 54 small streams on the island of Chilo?? in Chilean Patagonia and found that the rainbow trout has colonized significantly more streams and has a wider geographic range than brown trout. The two species had similar post-yearling abundances in allopatry and sympatry, and their abundances depended similarly on reach-level variation in the physical habitat. The species appeared to have dramatically different effects on native drift-feeding Aplochiton spp., which were virtually absent from streams invaded by brown trout but shared a broad sympatric range with rainbow trout. Within this range, the species' post-yearling abundances varied independently before and after controlling for variation in the physical habitat. In the north of the island, Aplochiton spp. inhabited streams uninvaded by exotic trouts. Our results provide a context for investigating the mechanisms responsible for apparent differences in rainbow and brown trout invasion biology and can help inform conservation strategies for native fishes in Chilo?? and elsewhere. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Zoological Society of London.

  12. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  13. Seasonal Variations in Relative Weight of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Rainbow Trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Midas, Madeline; Williams, Asia; Cooper, Cindy; Courtney, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Blue Mesa Reservoir is the largest body of water in Colorado and is located on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 7520 feet. Blue Mesa Reservoir contains recreationally important populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), rainbow trout (Onocorhynchus mykiss), and brown trout (Salmo trutta). A management challenge in recent years has been the overpopulation of lake trout, which has led to a steep decline in abundance of kokan...

  14. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ceola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta. Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region, for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90 are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  15. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region), for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90) are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  16. Use of microsatellite markers for identification of indigenous brown trout in a geographical region heavily influenced by stocked domesticated trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzner, N.G.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Madsen, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    Based on estimates of genetic differentiation between populations, assignment tests and analysis of isolation by distance, stocked populations of brown trout Salmo trutta of Funen Island, Denmark, had been genetically affected by domesticated trout, whereas the stocking of wild exogenous trout...... into one of the rivers had little or no impact. At the same time, there were clear indications of remaining indigenous gene pools in the Funen populations. The management implications of these findings are discussed and changes in trout release activity are recommended to avoid further mixing of trout gene...

  17. Influence of Didymosphenia geminata blooms on prey composition and associated diet and growth of Brown Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    We compared diet, stomach fullness, condition, and growth of Brown Trout Salmo trutta among streams with or without blooms of the benthic diatom Didymosphenia geminata in the Black Hills, South Dakota. In Rapid Creek, where D. geminata blooms covered ∼30% of the stream bottom, Brown Trout consumed fewer ephemeropterans (6–8% by weight) than individuals from two stream sections that have not had D. geminatablooms (Castle and Spearfish creeks; 13–39% by weight). In contrast, dipterans (primarily Chironomidae) represented a larger percentage of Brown Trout diets from Rapid Creek (D. geminata blooms present; 16–28% dry weight) compared with diets of trout from streams without D. geminata blooms (6–19% dry weight). Diets of small Brown Trout (100–199 mm TL) reflected the invertebrate species composition in benthic stream samples; in Rapid Creek, ephemeropterans were less abundant whereas dipterans were more abundant than in streams without D. geminata blooms. Stomach fullness and condition of Brown Trout from Rapid Creek were generally greater than those of Brown Trout from other populations. Linkages among invertebrate availability, diet composition, and condition of Brown Trout support the hypothesis that changes in invertebrate assemblages associated with D. geminata (i.e., more Chironomidae) could be contributing to high recruitment success for small Brown Trout in Rapid Creek.

  18. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  19. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  20. Diurnal stream habitat use of juvenile Atlantic salmon, brown trout and rainbow trout in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. H.; Douglass, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The diurnal winter habitat of three species of juvenile salmonids was examined in a tributary of Skaneateles Lake, NY to compare habitat differences among species and to determine if species/age classes were selecting specific habitats. A total of 792 observations were made on the depth, velocity, substrate and cover (amount and type) used by sympatric subyearling Atlantic salmon, subyearling brown trout and subyearling and yearling rainbow trout. Subyearling Atlantic salmon occurred in shallower areas with faster velocities and less cover than the other salmonid groups. Subyearling salmon was also the only group associated with substrate of a size larger than the average size substrate in the study reach during both winters. Subyearling brown trout exhibited a preference for vegetative cover. Compared with available habitat, yearling rainbow trout were the most selective in their habitat use. All salmonid groups were associated with more substrate cover in 2002 under high flow conditions. Differences in the winter habitat use of these salmonid groups have important management implications in terms of both habitat protection and habitat enhancement.

  1. Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow trout and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan

    2015-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.

  2. Feeding habits of the alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and the native brown trout Salmo trutta in Czech mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horká Petra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying patterns of prey resource use is fundamental to identify mechanisms enabling the coexistence of related fish species. Trophic interactions between the native brown trout, Salmo trutta, and the introduced brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were studied monthly from May to October in three mountain streams in Central Europe (Czech Republic. To evaluate whether the feeding habits differ between separated and coexisting populations of these species, one locality where both species coexist, and two allopatric populations of either species were studied. Across the study period, the mean stomach fullness of fish varied, being highest in spring and declining through autumn. The diet overlap (Schoener's overlap index between the species increased through the studied season (from 54.5% in July to 81.5% in October. In allopatry, both species had nearly the same feeding habits. However, in sympatry, brook trout consumed higher proportion of terrestrial invertebrates, while brown trout showed no changes either in the proportions of aquatic and terrestrial prey utilized or in the selectivity for prey categories in comparison to allopatric conditions. The dietary shift observed for brook trout, but not for brown trout, suggests that brown trout is a stronger competitor in the studied sympatric locality, leading the brook trout to change its feeding habits to reduce interspecific competition.

  3. An environmental DNA marker for detecting nonnative brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; T. M. Wilcox; M. Anderson; D. Lawrence; Michael Young; Kevin McKelvey; Michael Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta) are widely introduced in western North America where their presence has led to declines of several native species. To assist conservation efforts aimed at early detection and eradication of this species, we developed a quantitative PCR marker to detect the presence of brown trout DNA in environmental samples. The marker strongly...

  4. The Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L. at the Northeastern Border of the Species Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhrov Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of ecological and morphological plasticity as well as genetic diversity of brown trout at the northeastern border of its species area are about as high as in the central part, and the population structure is equally complex. Apparently, abiotic factors (competition with other salmonids rather than biotic ones prevent the brown trout area from expanding.

  5. Intercohort density dependence drives brown trout habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Daniel; Nicola, Graciela G.; Parra, Irene; Elvira, Benigno; Almodóvar, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection can be viewed as an emergent property of the quality and availability of habitat but also of the number of individuals and the way they compete for its use. Consequently, habitat selection can change across years due to fluctuating resources or to changes in population numbers. However, habitat selection predictive models often do not account for ecological dynamics, especially density dependent processes. In stage-structured population, the strength of density dependent interactions between individuals of different age classes can exert a profound influence on population trajectories and evolutionary processes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of fluctuating densities of both older and younger competing life stages on the habitat selection patterns (described as univariate and multivariate resource selection functions) of young-of-the-year, juvenile and adult brown trout Salmo trutta. We observed all age classes were selective in habitat choice but changed their selection patterns across years consistently with variations in the densities of older but not of younger age classes. Trout of an age increased selectivity for positions highly selected by older individuals when their density decreased, but this pattern did not hold when the density of younger age classes varied. It suggests that younger individuals are dominated by older ones but can expand their range of selected habitats when density of competitors decreases, while older trout do not seem to consider the density of younger individuals when distributing themselves even though they can negatively affect their final performance. Since these results may entail critical implications for conservation and management practices based on habitat selection models, further research should involve a wider range of river typologies and/or longer time frames to fully understand the patterns of and the mechanisms underlying the operation of density dependence on brown trout habitat

  6. Influence of small hydropower plants on brown trout (Salmo trutta L. population in Mislinja River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Cokan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown trout (Salmo trutta L. in the Mislinja River has been endangered for years because of small hydroelectric power plants. To find out how they are affecting the population of the brown trout in the Mislinja River, we conducted a sampling of the brown trout, using a generating set. We measured the length and weight of all caught specimens and analysed the obtained data. The results are presented in this paper, e.g., biomass, estimations of abundance, average weight, average length and number of captured brown trout. We discovered that the population of the brown trout has decreased in all the sections where water has been taken away for small hydroelectric power plants.

  7. Increased diversity of egg-associated bacteria on brown trout (Salmo trutta) at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Laetitia G E; Rogivue, Aude; Schütz, Frédéric; Fumagalli, Luca; Wedekind, Claus

    2015-11-27

    The taxonomic composition of egg-associated microbial communities can play a crucial role in the development of fish embryos. In response, hosts increasingly influence the composition of their associated microbial communities during embryogenesis, as concluded from recent field studies and laboratory experiments. However, little is known about the taxonomic composition and the diversity of egg-associated microbial communities within ecosystems; e.g., river networks. We sampled late embryonic stages of naturally spawned brown trout at nine locations within two different river networks and applied 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to describe their bacterial communities. We found no evidence for a significant isolation-by-distance effect on the composition of bacterial communities, and no association between neutral genetic divergence of fish host (based on 11 microsatellites) and phylogenetic distances of the composition of their associated bacterial communities. We characterized core bacterial communities on brown trout eggs and compared them to corresponding water samples with regard to bacterial composition and its presumptive function. Bacterial diversity was positively correlated with water temperature at the spawning locations. We discuss this finding in the context of the increased water temperatures that have been recorded during the last 25 years in the study area.

  8. Complex interaction between proliferative kidney disease, water temperature and concurrent nematode infection in brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Steiner, Pascale; Müller, Barbara; Casanova-Nakayama, Ayako

    2013-04-29

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a temperature-dependent disease caused by the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. It is an emerging threat to wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario populations in Switzerland. Here we examined (1) how PKD prevalence and pathology in young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout relate to water temperature, (2) whether wild brown trout can completely recover from T. bryosalmonae-induced renal lesions and eliminate T. bryosalmonae over the winter months, and (3) whether this rate and/or extent of the recovery is influenced by concurrent infection. A longitudinal field study on a wild brown trout cohort was conducted over 16 mo. YOY and age 1+ fish were sampled from 7 different field sites with various temperature regimes, and monitored for infection with T. bryosalmonae and the nematode Raphidascaris acus. T. bryosamonae was detectable in brown trout YOY from all sampling sites, with similar renal pathology, independent of water temperature. During winter months, recovery was mainly influenced by the presence or absence of concurrent infection with R. acus larvae. While brown trout without R. acus regenerated completely, concurrently infected brown trout showed incomplete recovery, with chronic renal lesions and incomplete translocation of T. bryosalmonae from the renal interstitium into the tubular lumen. Water temperature seemed to influence complete excretion of T. bryosalmonae, with spores remaining in trout from summer-warm rivers, but absent in trout from summer-cool rivers. In the following summer months, we found PKD infections in 1+ brown trout from all investigated river sites. The pathological lesions indicated a re-infection rather than a proliferation of remaining T. bryosalmonae. However, disease prevalence in 1+ trout was lower than in YOY.

  9. Relying on fin erosion to identify hatchery-reared brown trout in a Tennessee river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerbeek, Jonathan R.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2012-01-01

    Hatchery-induced fin erosion can be used to identify recently stocked catchable-size brown trout Salmo trutta during annual surveys to qualitatively estimate contributions to a fishery. However, little is known about the longevity of this mark and its effectiveness as a short-term (≤ 1 year) mass-marking technique. We evaluated hatchery-induced pectoral fin erosion as a mass-marking technique for short-term stocking evaluations by stocking microtagged brown trout in a tailwater and repeatedly sampling those fish to observe and measure their pectoral fins. At Dale Hollow National Fish Hatchery, 99.1% (228 of 230) of microtagged brown trout in outdoor concrete raceways had eroded pectoral fins 1 d prior to stocking. Between 34 and 68 microtagged and 26-35 wild brown trout were collected during eight subsequent electrofishing samples. In a blind test based on visual examination of pectoral fins at up to 322 d poststocking, one observer correctly identified 91.7% to 100.0% (mean of 96.9%) of microtagged brown trout prior to checking for microtags. In the laboratory, pectoral fin length and width measurements were recorded to statistically compare the fin measurements of wild and microtagged hatchery brown trout. With only one exception, all pectoral fin measurements on each date averaged significantly larger for wild trout than for microtagged brown trout. Based on the number of pectoral fin measurements falling below 95% prediction intervals, 93.7% (148 of 158) of microtagged trout were correctly identified as hatchery fish based on regression models up to 160 d poststocking. Only 72.2% (70 of 97) of microtagged trout were identified correctly after 160 d based on pectoral fin measurements and the regression models. We concluded that visual examination of pectoral fin erosion was a very effective way to identify stocked brown trout for up to 322 d poststocking.

  10. BIOMASS AND DENSITY OF BROWN AND RAINBOW TROUT IN NEW MEXICO STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srečko Lainer

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Mean stream numerical density of the brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario Linnaeus, 1758 and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 was 0.090 fish/m2 of which brown trout averaged 69% (72% in total biomass in 15 high-elevation New Mexico streams (1,661-2,560 m above sea level. Total trout density varied from 0.008/m2 in 1988 and 1989. Mean trout density ranged between 0.023-0.121 fish/m2 at site s open to public fishing. Considerably higher densities (0.142-0.409 fish/m2 were observed at sites closed for fishing. In the seven selected streams shared by both species, brown trout density exceeded rainbow trout density except at the two sites closed to fishing. Brown trout were stocked only as fingerlings (average 7,000 fish/stream/year while rainbow trout were stocked only in harvestable sizes (11,000 fish/stream/year. Reported total trout yield rates exceeded the total number of fish estimated to be in the stream by 1.01 to 11.63 in most small streams open to fishing. The proportional stock density (PSD ranged between O and 50 percent. Streams with low to moderate intensities of fishing had the highest PSD.

  11. Effects of host genetics and environment on egg-associated microbiotas in brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Laetitia G E; Fumagalli, Luca; Wedekind, Claus

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies found fish egg-specific bacterial communities that changed over the course of embryogenesis, suggesting an interaction between the developing host and its microbiota. Indeed, single-strain infections demonstrated that the virulence of opportunistic bacteria is influenced by environmental factors and host immune genes. However, the interplay between a fish embryo host and its microbiota has not been studied yet at the community level. To test whether host genetics affects the assemblage of egg-associated bacteria, adult brown trout (Salmo trutta) were sampled from a natural population. Their gametes were used for full-factorial in vitro fertilizations to separate sire from dam effects. In total, 2520 embryos were singly raised under experimental conditions that differently support microbial growth. High-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to characterize bacterial communities on milt and fertilized eggs across treatments. Dam and sire identity influenced embryo mortality, time until hatching and composition of egg-associated microbiotas, but no link between bacterial communities on milt and on fertilized eggs could be found. Elevated resources increased embryo mortality and modified bacterial communities with a shift in their putative functional potential. Resource availability did not significantly affect any parental effects on embryo performance. Sire identity affected bacterial diversity that turned out to be a significant predictor of hatching time: embryos associated with high bacterial diversity hatched later. We conclude that both host genetics and the availability of resources define diversity and composition of egg-associated bacterial communities that then affect the life history of their hosts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The physiological basis of the migration continuum in brown trout ( Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration is common in many animal taxa; however, the physiological variation underpinning migration strategies remains poorly understood. Among salmonid fishes, brown trout (Salmo trutta) is one of the species that exhibits the most complex variation in sympatric migration strategies......, expressed as a migration continuum, ranging from residency to anadromy. In looking at brown trout, our objective with this study was to test the hypothesis that variation in migration strategies is underpinned by physiological variation. Prior to migration, physiological samples were taken from fish...... in brown trout....

  13. Proliferative kidney disease in brown trout: infection level, pathology and mortality under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Hirschi, Regula; Schneider, Ernst

    2015-05-21

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease threatening wild salmonid populations. In temperature-controlled aquaria, PKD can cause mortality rates of up to 85% in rainbow trout. So far, no data about PKD-related mortality in wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario are available. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rates and pathology in brown trout kept in a cage within a natural river habitat known to harbor Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout, free of T. bryosalmonae, were exposed in the River Wutach, in the northeast of Switzerland, during 3 summer months. Samples of wild brown trout caught by electrofishing near the cage location were examined in parallel. The incidence of PKD in cage-exposed animals (69%) was not significantly different to the disease prevalence of wild fish (82 and 80% in the upstream and downstream locations, respectively). The mortality in cage-exposed animals, however, was as low as 15%. At the termination of the exposure experiment, surviving fish showed histological lesions typical for PKD regression, suggesting that many YOY brown trout survive the initial infection. Our results at the River Wutach suggest that PKD in brown trout does not always result in high mortality under natural conditions.

  14. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalm...

  15. Admixture analysis of stocked brown trout populations using mapped microsatellite DNA markers: indigenous trout persist in introgressed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2009-01-01

    , but resolution is low if genetic differentiation is weak. Here, we analyse stocked brown trout populations represented by historical (1943-1956) and contemporary (2000s) samples, where genetic differentiation between wild populations and stocked trout is weak (pair-wise F-ST of 0.047 and 0.053). By analysing...... a high number of microsatellite DNA markers (50) and making use of linkage map information, we achieve clear identification of admixed and non-admixed trout. Moreover, despite strong population-level admixture by hatchery strain trout in one of the populations (70.8%), non-admixed individuals...... nevertheless persist (7 out of 53 individuals). These remnants of the indigenous population are characterized by later spawning time than the majority of the admixed individuals. We hypothesize that isolation by time mediated by spawning time differences between wild and hatchery strain trout is a major factor...

  16. Pre-migratory differentiation of wild brown trout into migrant and resident individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C.; Aarestrup, Kim; Norum, U.

    2003-01-01

    In February to March, wild brown trout Salmo trutta were captured by electrofishing in a natural watercourse (tributaries of the River Lille Aa, Denmark), individually tagged (Passive Integrated Transponders), and released. Representatives of the tagged brown trout were recaptured on the release......+,K+-ATPase analysis. Based on repetitive gill enzyme analysis in individual fish, a retrospective analysis of the rate of development in individual brown trout ultimately classified as migrants or residents was performed. Two months prior to migration, a bimodal morphological and physiological (gill Na...... a smolt-like appearance before the onset of migration and had higher rate of change of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity than fish remaining residents. The rate of change of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was independent of the distance migrated to the trap (3-28 km). Thus in bimodal wild brown trout populations...

  17. Pre-migratory differentiation of wild brown trout Salmo trutta into migrant and resident individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Nørum, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    In February to March, wild brown trout Salmo trutta were captured by electrofishing in a natural watercourse (tributaries of the River Lille Aa, Denmark), individually tagged (Passive Integrated Transponders), and released. Representatives of the tagged brown trout were recaptured on the release......+,K+-ATPase analysis. Based on repetitive gill enzyme analysis in individual fish, a retrospective analysis of the rate of development in individual brown trout ultimately classified as migrants or residents was performed. Two months prior to migration, a bimodal morphological and physiological (gill Na...... a smolt-like appearance before the onset of migration and had higher rate of change of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity than fish remaining residents. The rate of change of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was independent of the distance migrated to the trap (3-28 km). Thus in bimodal wild brown trout populations...

  18. Marine migration and habitat use of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldøy, Sindre Håvarstein; Davidsen, Jan Grimsrud; Thorstad, Eva Bonsak

    2015-01-01

    The biology and ecology of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) at sea is poorly understood. This study provided information on spatial and temporal distribution of sea trout in the ocean. The behaviour of 115 individuals (veteran migrants, 270–700 mm) was tracked by using acoustic telemetry...

  19. Effects of density on foraging success and aggression in age-structured groups of brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersson, Rasmus; Höjesjö, Johan; Pedersen, Stig

    2010-01-01

    , as a consequence of, for example, age and/or body size. We used two age classes (i.e. size groups) of stream-living brown trout, Salmo trutta, to investigate this issue. While old (and large) trout are assumed to be superior during interference competition, younger individuals may be both numerically dominant...

  20. Admixture analysis and stocking impact assessment in brown trout ( Salmo trutta ), estimated with incomplete baseline data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    the populations contributing to admixture. We applied the method to analyse the genetic contribution of domesticated brown trout (Salmo trutta) in samples of anadromous trout from two stocked populations with no genetic data available before stocking. Further, we estimated population level admixture proportions...... by the mean of individual admixture coefficients. This method proved more informative than a multidimensional scaling analysis of individual-based genetic distances and assignment tests. The results showed almost complete absence of stocked, domesticated trout in samples of trout from the rivers. Consequently......, stocking had little effect on improving fisheries. In one population, the genetic contribution by domesticated trout was small, whereas in the other population, some genetic impact was suggested. Admixture in this sample of anadromous trout despite absence of stocked domesticated trout could be because...

  1. Genetic structure and demographic history of brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations from the southern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolidis, A.P.; Madeira, M.J.; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2008-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to characterize the genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from the southern Balkans and to assess the spread of non-native strains and their introgression into native trout gene pools. We analysed polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci...... in seven supposedly non-admixed and three stocked brown trout populations. 2. The analyses confirmed the absence of immigration and extraordinarily strong genetic differentiation among the seven non-introgressed populations in parallel with low levels of intrapopulation genetic variability. In contrast...

  2. Heavy metal contamination and hepatic toxicological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta from the Kerguelen Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jaffal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kerguelen Islands include various species of freshwater fish such as brown trout (Salmo trutta. These trout are among the most isolated from direct anthropogenic impact worldwide. This study was designed to analyse cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu concentrations in the liver of Kerguelen brown trout, and to assess the possible impacts of these metals on hepatic histopathology and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and glutathione levels. Trout were caught in the Château River, the Studer Lakes and the Ferme Pond, close to the scientific station of the Kerguelen Islands, corresponding to three morphotypes (river, lake and station. Kerguelen trouts’ hepatic concentrations of Cd and Cur were similar to those reported in previous studies in salmonids populations from areas under anthropological impacts. Clear hepatic disturbances (fibrosis, nuclear alteration, increased immune response, melanomacrophage centres [MMCs] were observed in all tested trout. A similar histo-pathological trend was observed among the trout from the three morphotypes but anti-oxidative responses were higher in the trout from the “station” morphotype. Hepatic alterations and the presence of MMCs in the livers of Kerguelen brown trout may be related to the high levels of Cd and Cu measured in this fish at all sampling sites.

  3. Juvenile competitive bottleneck in the production of brown trout in hydroelectric reservoirs due to intraspecific habitat segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegge, O.; Hesthagen, T.; Skurdal, J.

    1993-01-01

    Resource utilization and growth of brown trout were studied in four deep (mean depths 16.2 - 37.5 m) Norwegian hydroelectric reservoirs by benthic and pelagic gillnet sampling. In all the reservoirs supplementary stockings are carried out. The brown trout were spatially segregated according to size as the habitat use of small individuals (< 180-220 mm) was completely restricted to benthic habitats, whereas larger individuals mainly utilized the upper strata of pelagic waters. It is argued that the pelagic habitat is the more rewarding, and that small-sized brown trout are forced into the less favourable benthic habitat through social interactions with larger specimens. This is supported by an increase in growth of brown trout from their third to fifth year of life, which seems to be related to the shift from benthic to pelagic behaviour. It is also argued that the conditions for small-sized brown trout may be a bottleneck in the capacity to produce brown trout in hydroelectric reservoirs with limited benthic feeding conditions, despite ample access to food in pelagic habitats. When evaluating the possibility of increasing the yield of brown trout through supplementary stockings, it is therefore important to consider food and growth conditions for all age and size groups of brown trout. In reservoirs with poor benthic feeding conditions it may be necessary to stock with brown trout of sizes that are large enough to utilize pelagic habitat, to avoid the limiting benthic living stage. (Author)

  4. The abiotic environment of the interstitial of a small Swiss river in the foothills of the Alps and its influence on gravel spawning brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Yael; Michel, Christian; Holm, Patricia; Alewell, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The hyporheic zone can be characterized by multiple abiotic parameters (e.g. bulk density, texture, temperature, oxygen, ammonium, nitrate) which are all influenced directly or indirectly by the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater. These processes can vary both in time and space and are mainly driven by river discharge, ground water level and flow patterns. The input of fine sediment particles can change water-riverbed interactions through river bed clogging potentially affecting the embryonal development and survival of gravel spawning fish, such as brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). With our investigations we aim to understand these complex interactions spatially and temporally on a relevant small scale, i.e. within individual artificial brown trout redds. We designed an experimental field setup to directly investigate i) the influence of the abiotic river and redd environment on brown trout embryo development and ii) the hydrological dynamics affecting the abiotic environment in artificial brown trout. Additionally, our setup allows investigating the temporal dynamics of i) fine-sediment infiltration into the artificial redds and ii) embryo survival to two distinct developmental stages (i.e. eyed stage and hatch) The experiment was conducted in three sites of a typical Swiss river (Enziwigger, Canton of Luzern) with a strongly modified morphology. Individual sites represented a high, medium and low fine-sediment load. In each site, six artificial redds (18 in total) were built and data were collected during the entire incubation phase. Redds were located in places where natural spawning of brown trout is present. We adapted multiple established methods to the smaller scale of our river to study the dynamics of the most relevant abiotic parameters potentially affecting embryo development: Oxygen content and temperature was monitored continuously in different depths, fine sediment (bedload, suspended sediment load and its input in the river bed

  5. Phylogeographic structure and demographic patterns of brown trout in North-West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Aleš; Marić, Saša; Bajec, Simona Sušnik; Berrebi, Patrick; Janjani, Said; Schöffmann, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the phylogeographic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Morocco, elucidate their colonization patterns in North-West Africa and identify the mtDNA lineages involved in this process. We also aimed to resolve whether certain brown trout entities are also genetically distinct. Sixty-two brown trout from eleven locations across the Mediterranean and the Atlantic drainages in Morocco were surveyed using sequence analysis of the mtDNA control region and nuclear gene LDH, and by genotyping twelve microsatellite loci. Our study confirms that in Morocco both the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins are populated by Atlantic mtDNA lineage brown trout only, demonstrating that the Atlantic lineage (especially its southern clade) invaded initially not only the western part of the Mediterranean basin in Morocco but also expanded deep into the central area. Atlantic haplotypes identified here sort into three distinct groups suggesting Morocco was colonized in at least three successive waves (1.2, 0.4 and 0.2-0.1 MY ago). This notion becomes more pronounced with the finding of a distinct haplotype in the Dades river system, whose origin appears to coalesce with the nascent stage of the basal mtDNA evolutionary lineages of brown trout. According to our results, Salmo akairos, Salmo pellegrini and "green trout" from Lake Isli do not exhibited any character states that distinctively separate them from the other brown trout populations studied. Therefore, their status as distinct species was not confirmed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of differentially expressed genes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-03-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae Canning et al., 1999 (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids in Europe and North America. We have shown previously that the development and distribution of the European strain of T. bryosalmonae differs in the kidney of brown trout (Salmo trutta) Linnaeus, 1758 and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Walbaum, 1792, and that intra-luminal sporogonic stages were found in brown trout but not in rainbow trout. We have now compared transcriptomes from kidneys of brown trout and rainbow trout infected with T. bryosalmonae using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). The differentially expressed transcripts produced by SSH were cloned, transformed, and tested by colony PCR. Differential expression screening of PCR products was validated using dot blot, and positive clones having different signal intensities were sequenced. Differential screening and a subsequent NCBI-BLAST analysis of expressed sequence tags revealed nine clones expressed differently between both fish species. These differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR of kidney samples from both fish species at different time points of infection. Expression of anti-inflammatory (TSC22 domain family protein 3) and cell proliferation (Prothymin alpha) genes were upregulated significantly in brown trout but downregulated in rainbow trout. The expression of humoral immune response (immunoglobulin mu) and endocytic pathway (Ras-related protein Rab-11b) genes were significantly upregulated in rainbow trout but downregulated in brown trout. This study suggests that differential expression of host anti-inflammatory, humoral immune and endocytic pathway responses, cell proliferation, and cell growth processes do not inhibit the development of intra-luminal sporogonic stages of the European strain of T. bryosalmonae in brown trout but may suppress it in rainbow trout.

  7. Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae persists in brown trout Salmo trutta for five years post exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hatem; Kumar, Gokhlesh; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2018-01-31

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a malacosporean parasite and the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) that seriously impacts farmed and wild salmonids. The parasite's life cycle includes an invertebrate host, the bryozoan Fredericella sultana, and a vertebrate host, salmonid fish. The persistence of T. bryosalmonae in brown trout Salmo trutta for up to 2 yr following exposure is well documented. Results from the present study confirmed that one brown trout that had recovered from PKD did not completely clear the parasite from its tissues and that T. bryosalmonae could persist in brown trout for up to 5 yr post exposure. Furthermore, recovered infected brown trout can release viable T. bryosalmonae spores that are able to infect specific pathogen-free F. sultana colonies. T. bryosalmonae DNA was detected by PCR in every organ, and parasite stages were observed in the kidney, spleen and liver following immunohistochemistry. This finding indicates that T. bryosalmonae-infected brown trout can act as asymptomatic carriers and release the parasite for several years after the initial infection, acting as a reservoir of infection, and contributing to the dissemination of the parasite to new areas.

  8. Cannibalism in non-native brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss stream-dwelling populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musseau, C; Vincenzi, S; Jesenšek, D; Crivelli, A J

    2017-12-01

    Introduced and allopatric populations of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were sampled in Slovenia for stable isotope analysis to assess dietary niche shifts through ontogeny and estimate the propensity for cannibalism. Both S. trutta and O. mykiss are cannibals, with higher average relative contribution of conspecific assimilated energy for S. trutta (27·9%) compared with O. mykiss (7·7%). The smallest cannibal was 166 mm in the S. trutta population and 247 mm in the O. mykiss population. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. An experimental field evaluation of winter carryover effects in semi-anadromous Brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, Jonathan D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Boel, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    For semi-anadromous brown trout, the decision whether or not to smoltify and migrate to the sea is believed to be made at the end of the preceding summer in response to both local environmental conditions and individual physiological status. Stressors experienced during the fall may therefore...... that a fall stressor can reduce overwinter survival of juvenile brown trout, negatively impact growth of individuals that survive, and ultimately result in a reduction in the number of migratory trout. Carryover effects such as those documented here reveal the cryptic manner in which natural and anthropogenic...... influence their propensity to migrate as well as carry over into the winter resulting in mortality when fish face challenging environmental conditions. To evaluate this possibility, we artificially elevated cortisol levels in juvenile trout (via intracoelomic injection of cortisol in the fall) and used...

  10. Effects of turbidity on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow and brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan; Vaage, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Diet studies of rainbow and brown trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable depending on the physical conditions under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub changes in response to changes in turbidity. In overnight laboratory trials, we exposed hatchery-reared juvenile humpback chub and bonytail Gila elegans (a surrogate for humpback chub) to adult rainbow and brown trout at turbidities ranging from 0 to 1,000 formazin nephlometric units. We found that turbidity as low as 25 formazin nephlometric units significantly reduced predation vulnerability of bonytail to rainbow trout and led to a 36% mean increase in survival (24–60%, 95% CI) compared to trials conducted in clear water. Predation vulnerability of bonytail to brown trout at 25 formazin nephlometric units also decreased with increasing turbidity and resulted in a 25% increase in survival on average (17–32%, 95% CI). Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered humpback chub is important when evaluating management options aimed at preservation of native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park. This research suggests that relatively small changes in turbidity may be sufficient to alter predation dynamics of trout on humpback chub in the mainstem Colorado River and that turbidity manipulation may warrant further investigation as a fisheries management tool.

  11. Carotenoids of Red, Brown, and Black Specimens of Plectropomus leopardus, the Coral Trout (Suziara in Japanese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Nagai, Hidetada; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the carotenoids occurring in the integument of Plectropomus leopardus, the coral trout. For a red specimen, the major carotenoids included astaxanthin diester and monoester, as well as α-cryptoxanthin ester, tunaxanthin diester, adonixanthin diester, adonirubin ester, and adonirubin; for brown and black specimens, tunaxanthin diester was the main carotenoid. 1 H-NMR and MS spectral analyses showed that docosahexaenoic acid was the sole fatty acid esterified with xanthophylls in the coral trout.

  12. EFFECT OF CULTURE CONDITIONS ON REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF BROWN TROUT SALMO TRUTTA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANDÁK T.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Progeny from artificial propagation of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L. of the Blanice river, Czech Republic, were farmed to maturity and spawned at ages three, four and five during 2002-2004. Reproductive parameters and biological quality of eggs in this farmed population were compared to those of the original wild population. ANCOVA showed no differences between wild and farmed fish in weight of eggs per female, total fecundity, or relative fecundity in any year. Significantly higher egg diameter (4.57 mm, P = 0.001 and weight (69.3 mg, P = 0.0375 were found in the wild population in 2002 and conversely in 2004, the mean egg weight was higher in the farmed population (94.7 mg, P = 0.0021. Differences in egg diameter in this year (4.64 ± 0.06 and 4.82 ± 0.06 in wild and farmed trout, respectively were close to the level of significance (P = 0.079. Mutual correlations between length or weight and studied reproductive traits were similar in both populations. Fertilization rate, duration of incubation period, egg losses during incubation and mortality of starving hatched fry were monitored in embryos and larvae of farmed population only (FxF, crosses between farmed females and wild males (FxW and wild population only (WxW. Altogether 6.3%, 5.8% and 5.4% of eggs died during incubation period in FxF, FxW and WxW, respectively. There were also no significant differences in duration of incubation period and mortality of starving fry. It can be concluded that farming conditions did not significantly affect the reproductive parameters and quality of eggs in the first generation of farmed broodstock.

  13. Identifying footprints of selection in stocked brown trout populations: a spatio-temporal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Meier, Kristian; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2010-01-01

    Studies of interactions between farmed and wild salmonid fishes have suggested reduced fitness of farmed strains in the wild, but evidence for selection at the genic level is lacking. We studied three brown trout populations in Denmark which have been significantly admixed with stocked hatchery...... trout (19–64%), along with two hatchery strains used for stocking. The wild populations were represented by contemporary samples (2000–2006) and two of them by historical samples (1943–1956). We analysed 61 microsatellite loci, nine of which showed putative functional relationships [expressed sequence...... trout. In the most strongly admixed population, however, there was no evidence for selection, possibly because of immigration by stocked trout overcoming selection against hatchery-derived alleles or supportive breeding practices allowing hatchery strain trout to escape natural selection. To our...

  14. Genetic diversity of a Daugava basin brown trout (Salmo trutta brood stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetics play an increasingly important role in the conservation of threatened fish populations. We have examined twelve microsatellite markers to determine the genetic diversity of a brood stock of brown trout from the Latvian Daugava river basin, used in a local supportive breeding program and compared diversity values to other Baltic populations. Allelic data was further inspected for indications of increased inbreeding. Additionally, we have analyzed the mitochondrial control region to classify the population within a broader phylogenetic framework. We found that the genetic diversity was comparatively low, but there was no strong evidence of high inbreeding. A newly detected mitochondrial haplotype indicates unnoticed genetic diversity of “Atlantic lineage” brown trout in the Daugava basin region. Our study provides first genetic details on resident brown trout from the Baltic Daugava river basin to improve the regional conservation management of this valuable genetic resource and contributes phylogeographically useful information.

  15. Brown trout as an invader: A synthesis of problems and perspectives in western North America: Chapter 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Gaeta, Jereme W.; Lobón-Cerviá, Javier; Sanz, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Brown trout are one of the most pervasive and successful invaders worldwide and are ubiquitous across the Intermountain West, USA (IMW). This species is the foundation of extremely popular and economically significant sport fisheries despite well-established negative effects on native fishes and ecosystems, resulting in very challenging, and often opposing, conservation and management goals. Herein, we review the direct (e.g., competition and predation) and indirect (e.g., disease vectors) pathways through which brown trout across the IMW have posed a threat to native species. We discuss the importance of brown trout as economically and culturally important fisheries, especially in novel tailwater ecosystems created by damming. To this end, we surveyed 24 experts from eight states across the IMW to document the relevance of novel brown trout fisheries in 51 tailwaters and found brown trout are thriving in these novel ecosystems, which are often unsuitable for native fishes. We discuss the challenging interplay between protecting native species and managing novel brown trout fisheries. Notably, the future of exotic brown trout in the IMW is shifting as the prestige of native fisheries is growing and many non-native eradication efforts have occurred. The future of exotic brown trout in the IMW, will depend on the nexus of public sentiment and policy, the effectiveness of eradication efforts, and the effect of climate change on both the native fishes and exotic brown trout. Regardless, because brown trout are pervasive and have a broad distribution through the IMW, populations of this species will likely persist at least in some locations into the future.

  16. Reliable collection of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) sperm using a catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramli, M S; Golshahi, K; Banan, A; Sotoudeh, E

    2016-10-01

    The traditional stripping procedure for collecting fish semen is associated with the risk of urine contamination, which may significantly affect semen quality and quantity. The use of a catheter as an alternative method for semen collection may overcome this problem. Therefore, this study compared Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) semen parameters (i.e. sperm density, seminal plasma osmolality, motility parameters of spermatozoa analysed using computer-assisted sperm analysis and fertility) between the traditional stripping method and the use of a catheter. All parameter values of the semen collected with a catheter were significantly higher (p brown trout sperm. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The Influence of Fisheries Management on the Brown Trout Population in Moravice River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chalupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, an ichthyological investigation with focus on the population of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario in Moravice River above Slezská Harta dam reservoir in 6 localities of two salmonid fisheries was conducted (3 locations in fishery Moravice 7 and 3 locations in fishery Moravice 8. Ichthyological investigation in 2013 found abundance of brown trout in fishery Moravice 7 1,621 pcs/ha, in fishery Moravice 8 668 pcs/ha. These results were compared with the results of ichthyological investigations from 2004 (Spurný et al. 2006 and 2012 (unpublished data that were conducted in the same locations of salmonid fisheries of Moravice 7 and Moravice 8. Over 10 years the size structure of brown trout population has changed, which was shown as higher proportion of juvenile fish in size (TL to 15 cm. The average abundance of brown trout with TL up to 15 cm reached in fishery Moravice 7 in 2004 15 pcs/ha (Spurný et al. 2006, in 2013 1,039 pcs/ha, in fishery Moravice 8 in 2004 719 pcs/ha and in 2012 2,234 pcs/ha. Change in size structure of population of brown trout in monitored localities between 2004, 2012 and 2013 was evaluated as statistically significant (d. f. 10; F = 12.8; P < 0.05. Ichthyologic investigations in 2004 (Spurný et al. 2006, 2012 (unpublished data and 2013 determined also abundance of brown trout in fishing size (TL over 25 cm: 54 pcs/ha in 2004 (Spurný et al. 2006, in 2012 (unpublished data 41 pcs/ha, and in 2013 56 pcs/ha. These values were compared with catches of anglers, and according to the results we can say that the fishing pressure had no effect on the abundance of brown trout in fishing size. Abundance of brown trout in salmonid fisheries Moravice 7 and Moravice 8 is probably affected by drought and occurrence of piscivorous predators.

  18. Analysis of strontium-90 in the bones of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, C.G. Jr.; Kinney, R.M.; Lisk, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Radionuclides such as Sr-90, mainly from liquid effluent releases from nuclear power generating facilities, can contaminate water and biota. Lake Ontario ultimately receives the outflow from each of the other Great Lakes. In the work reported, brown trout (Salmo trutta) were captured from Lake Ontario and their entire skeletal bone material analyzed for Sr-90. They showed an average concentration of Sr-90 approximately four times greater than control brown trout captured from nearby Cayuga Lake in Central New York State which has no nuclear generating facilities. The results are discussed considering fallout and hydrographic considerations. (author)

  19. Interpopulation differences in expression of candidate genes for salinity tolerance in winter migrating anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Koed, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Background: Winter migration of immature brown trout (Salmo trutta) into freshwater rivers has been hypothesized to result from physiologically stressful combinations of high salinity and low temperature in the sea. Results: We sampled brown trout from two Danish populations entering different...... conditions in the sea drive sea-run brown trout into freshwater rivers in winter. However, our results also demonstrate intra-specific differences in expression of important stress and osmoregulative genes most likely reflecting adaptive differences between trout populations on a regional scale, thus...... was found in trout from the river entering high saline conditions, while a temperature independent up-regulation of both genes in full-strength seawater was found for trout entering marine conditions with lower salinities. Conclusion: Overall our results support the hypothesis that physiologically stressful...

  20. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoj Aleš

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one haplotype (ATcs1, found only in two individuals originating from two stocked rivers, corresponded to the Atlantic lineage and was considered introduced. Native haplotypes exhibited a strong geographic pattern of distribution: the Danubian haplotypes were strictly confined to the Danubian drainage, while the Adriatic haplotypes dominated in the Aegean and Adriatic drainages; most of the total molecular variance (69% was attributed to differences among the drainages. Phylogenetic reconstruction, supplemented with seven haplotypes newly described in this study, suggested a sister position of the Atlantic-Danubian and Adriatic-Mediterranean-marmoratus ("southern" phylogenetic group, and pointed to the existence of a distinct clade, detected within the "southern" group. The data obtained confirmed our expectation of the existence of high genetic diversity in Balkan trout populations, and we recommend more widespread surveys covering trout stocks from the region.

  1. Diel foraging and shelter use of large juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) under food satiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Jyde, M.; Filrup, K.

    2012-01-01

    The diel partitioning of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta foraging behaviour is controlled by a number of factors including predation risk, competition, temperature and food availability. The present study uses PIT-tagging and visual observation to asses the use of shelter and foraging behaviour...... of Danish wild juvenile brown trout (13.5-15.6 cm). The experiment was conducted in a fluvarium and the fish were fed to satiation. It was hypothesised that food satiation would promote nocturnal foraging and increase daytime shelter use. Our results showed a significant difference in diel shelter use...... between day and night with a significant increase in shelter use during daytime conditions. Visual observations showed a significant preference for nocturnal feeding. Together with the significantly reduced shelter use during the night, our results support the hypothesis that young stream living trout...

  2. Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.F.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Pertoldi, C.

    2008-01-01

    to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits...

  3. Performance of fast-absorbable suture and histo-glue in closing incisions in Brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Larsen, Martin Hage; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-01-01

    , growth, tag expulsion rate and incision healing was compared among three groups of dummy transmitter-tagged wild brown trout Salmo trutta where incisions were closed with two types of suture material (absorbable vs. fast absorbable) and Histo-glue. The tagged fish were kept in semi-natural ponds for 20...

  4. Fractional parentage analysis and a scale-free reproductive network of brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Hitoshi; Serbezov, Dimitar; Kishino, Hirohisa; Schweder, Tore

    2013-11-07

    In this study, we developed a method of fractional parentage analysis using microsatellite markers. We propose a method for calculating parentage probability, which considers missing data and genotyping errors due to null alleles and other causes, by regarding observed alleles as realizations of random variables which take values in the set of alleles at the locus and developing a method for simultaneously estimating the true and null allele frequencies of all alleles at each locus. We then applied our proposed method to a large sample collected from a wild population of brown trout (Salmo trutta). On analyzing the data using our method, we found that the reproductive success of brown trout obeyed a power law, indicating that when the parent-offspring relationship is regarded as a link, the reproductive system of brown trout is a scale-free network. Characteristics of the reproductive network of brown trout include individuals with large bodies as hubs in the network and different power exponents of degree distributions between males and females. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of chronological age and size on toxicity of zinc to juvenile brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of toxicity tests were conducted to investigate the role of chronological age and organism weight on zinc tolerance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Four different incubation temperatures were used to control the maturation of the juveniles prior to zinc exposure...

  6. Incidence of physical injury of mature male parr in a natural population of brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, M.M.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Dieperink, C.

    2000-01-01

    In a brown trout Salmo trutta population, there was a much higher frequency of injuries among mature male parr than among immature or female parr. The quantitative data are discussed in relation to spawning success and overall fitness. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  7. Sibship within samples of brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) and implications for supportive breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Jensen, L. F.

    2005-01-01

    We analysed family relationships among brown trout from two small tributary populations that have been suggested as a source of individuals for supportive breeding, using variation at eight microsatellite loci. As a control, we analysed a sample of supposedly unrelated individuals representing...

  8. Investigations into the temporal development of epitheliocystis infections in brown trout: a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Soto, M; Vidondo, B; Vaughan, L; Rubin, J-F; Segner, H; Samartin, S; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2017-06-01

    Epitheliocystis in Swiss brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a chlamydial infection, mainly caused by Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis and Candidatus Clavichlamydia salmonicola. To gain a better understanding of the temporal development of infections in wild brown trout, we investigated epitheliocystis infections during the course of the summer and autumn months of a single year (2015), and compared this to sampling points over the span of the years 2012-2014. The survey focused on tributaries (Venoge and Boiron) of the Rhone flowing in to Lake Geneva. When evaluated histologically, epitheliocystis infections were found throughout the period of investigation with the exception of the month of June. Fifty to 86 animals per sampling were investigated. Highest prevalence and infection intensities were seen in September. A correlation between epitheliocystis infection and water temperatures was not evident. Interyear comparison revealed consistent levels of prevalence and infection intensities in late summer. The absence of infections in June, combined with the consistent interyear results, indicates seasonal fluctuation of epitheliocystis infections in brown trout with a reservoir persisting during winter months from which infections can re-initiate each year. This could either be at levels below detection limits within the brown trout population itself or in an alternative host. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. If and when: Intrinsic differences and environmental stressors influence migration in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peiman, K. S.; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Midwood, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    Partial migration is a common phenomenon, yet the causes of individual differences in migratory propensity are not well understood. We examined factors that potentially influence timing of migration and migratory propensity in a wild population of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) by combining...

  10. Genetic monitoring of supportive breeding in brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.), using microsatellite DNA markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Ruzzante, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    loci in samples of wild and hatchery-reared brown trout (Salmo trutta) from three populations subject to supportive breeding. For calibrating statistical procedures, we included two test samples of reared offspring for which the precise number of parent fish was known and a sample from a further wild...

  11. The albumin of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, V J; Brennan, S O; Chambers, G K; George, P M

    1998-07-28

    The albumin from an Atlantic salmonid, the brown trout (Salmo trutta), is 1730 Da higher in molecular mass than the albumin from a Pacific salmonid, the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), at 65230 Da. Digestion with neuraminidase revealed that purified brown trout albumin contained sialic acid while chinook salmon albumin did not. Concanavalin A-sepharose affinity chromatography was used to purify a glycopeptide from a total tryptic digest of brown trout albumin. The mass of this glycopeptide (3815 Da) was determined by mass spectrometry, and the sequence largely confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. The identified sequence of IAHCCNQSYSM-, contains an Asn-Gln-Ser glycosylation site and is identical to residues 475-485 derived from the cDNA of the albumin from the Atlantic salmon, the closest relative of the brown trout. Glycosylation of albumin is very unusual, and has not been identified in either reptilian or mammalian albumins. The finding of a glycoalbumin in salmonids, ancient members of the teleost fish subclass, coupled with evidence of albumin glycosylation in the oldest vertebrates, agnathans, as well as amphibians, suggests that albumin was originally a glycoprotein, but lost this modification sometime between the divergence of amphibians and reptiles.

  12. Founder effects and genetic population structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Danish river system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1996-01-01

    The influence of founder effects on the genetic population structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was studied in a small Danish river system. Samples of trout from seven locations were analysed by allozyme electrophoresis and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis....... For comparison, allozyme data from other Danish trout populations and mtDNA data from two hatchery strains were included. Genetic differentiation among populations was found to be small but significant. Pairwise tests for homogeneity of allele and haplotype frequencies between samples showed that significance...... simulations of the influence of founder effects on mitochondrial DNA differentiation and variability showed that the observed divergence could be due either to natural founder effects or to a genetic contribution by hatchery trout. However, the allozyme results pointed towards natural founder effects...

  13. Estrogenic effect of the phytoestrogen biochanin A in zebrafish, Danio rerio, and brown trout, Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbech, Henrik; Schröder, Kristoffer D; Nielsen, Marie L; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Holbech, Bente Frost; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2013-11-15

    Isoflavones with estrogenic activity produced in Fabaceae plants are known to leach from agricultural areas to freshwater systems, but the effect of waterborne isoflavones in fish has not been thoroughly characterized. Therefore, the estrogenic effect of waterborne biochanin A was investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Exposure of juvenile brown trout to 10 μg biochanin AL(-1) or higher caused marked vitellogenin induction after 9-10 days of exposure and so did exposure to 186 μg biochanin AL(-1) for 6h. Following 8d of exposure, a NOEC for induction of vitellogenin production in male zebrafish was 70 and LOEC 114 μg biochanin AL(-1). Exposure to 209 μg biochanin AL(-1) from hatch to 60 days post hatch (dph) caused a skewing of the sex ratio toward more phenotypic female zebrafish, but did not cause induction of vitellogenin in male and undifferentiated fish. (1) biochanin A elicits estrogenic effects in trout at environmentally realistic concentrations, (2) brown trout plasma vitellogenin concentrations respond to lower biochanin A exposure concentrations than vitellogenin concentrations in zebrafish homogenates and (3) concerning vitellogenin induction, the hypothesis should be tested if short term tests with zebrafish may show a higher sensitivity than partial life cycle tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-wide methylation study of diploid and triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo-Soto, L; Leunda, P M; Pérez-Figueroa, A; Morán, P

    2015-06-01

    The induction of triploidization in fish is a very common practice in aquaculture. Although triploidization has been applied successfully in many salmonid species, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms implicated in the maintenance of the normal functions of the new polyploid genome. By means of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) techniques, genome-wide methylation changes associated with triploidization were assessed in DNA samples obtained from diploid and triploid siblings of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Simple comparative body measurements showed that the triploid trout used in the study were statistically bigger, however, not heavier than their diploid counterparts. The statistical analysis of the MSAP data showed no significant differences between diploid and triploid brown trout in respect to brain, gill, heart, liver, kidney or muscle samples. Nonetheless, local analysis pointed to the possibility of differences in connection with concrete loci. This is the first study that has investigated DNA methylation alterations associated with triploidization in brown trout. Our results set the basis for new studies to be undertaken and provide a new approach concerning triploidization effects of the salmonid genome while also contributing to the better understanding of the genome-wide methylation processes. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Productive characteristics of age-3 brood brown trout (Salmo trutta reared in the conditions industrial aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Haloyan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Study and analysis of productive and reproductive parameters of brood brown trout reared in the conditions of industrial aquaculture with the use of feeding with specialized artificial feeds. Methodology. Fish rearing was performed using a technology traditional for rainbow trout. Biological evaluation of fish was performed on live material according to the scheme developed by I.F. Pravdin (1966 for salmonids. Fish were anesthetized with “Propiscin”. Metric parameters were measured with the aid of a ruler and caliper. Fish weight was determined on electronic balances. Eggs were preserved in a 4% formalin solution, weight of individual eggs was determined with the aid of torsion balances, egg diameter with a caliper. The duration of spermatozoid motility in males was determined under a microscope under 10X40 magnification with the aid of a stopwatch, sperm concentration was determined in a Goriaev chamber. Multiple regression analysis was performed in JMP IN 4 (SAS Institute. The factor was considered significant if р <0.05. Findings. Brood brown trout reared on specialized artificial feeds had following productive parameters: mean body weight of age-3 fish was 458 g in males and 453 g in females. Mean working fecundity of age-3 fish as 1847 eggs, mean relative working fecundity was 3971 eggs, the mean qualitative parameters of which were: weight of 61.5 g, diameter of 74.7 mm. The reproductive characteristics of age-3 males was high – mean fecundity was 1391 million sperm cells, their motility was 35 sec. Originality. For the first time we reared a stock of brood brown trout in industrial conditions with the use of feeding with specialized artificial feeds. Practical value. The obtained results are a component of the development of a complex technology of salmonid fish rearing with an objective to broad the assortment of valuable gourmet products and to justify the measures on artificial reproduction of brown trout in rivers of

  16. Are brown trout Salmo trutta fario and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss two of a kind? A comparative study of salmonids to temperature-influenced Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, C; Schmidt-Posthaus, H; Segner, H; Wahli, T; Strepparava, N

    2018-02-01

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae causes high mortalities of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at elevated water temperatures. Here the aim was to compare the temperature-dependent modulation of T. bryosalmonae in the two salmonid host species, which display different temperature optima. We used a novel experimental set-up in which we exposed brown trout and rainbow trout to an identical quantified low concentration of T. bryosalmonae for a short time period (1 hr). We followed the development of the parasite in the fish hosts for 70 days. PKD prevalence and parasite kinetics were assessed using qPCR. Exposures were performed at temperatures (12°C and 15°C) that reflect an environmental scenario that may occur in the natural habitat of salmonids. T. bryosalmonae infection was confirmed earliest in brown trout kept at 15°C (day 7 post-exposure) while, in all other groups, T. bryosalmonae was not confirmed until day 15 post-exposure. Moreover, significantly greater infection prevalence and a faster increase of parasite intensity were observed in brown trout kept at 15°C than in all other groups. These results indicate that PKD is differentially modulated by water temperature in related host species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Differential modulation of host genes in the kidney of brown trout Salmo trutta during sporogenesis of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-10-04

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids in Europe and North America. In Europe, spores of T. bryosalmonae develop in the kidney of infected brown trout Salmo trutta and are released via urine to infect the freshwater bryozoan Fredericella sultana. The transcriptomes of kidneys of infected and non-infected brown trout were compared by suppressive subtractive hybridization. Differential screening and a subsequent NCBI BLAST analysis of expressed sequence tags revealed 21 transcripts with functions that included cell stress and cell growth, ribonucleoprotein, signal transduction, ion transporter, immune response, hemoglobin and calcium metabolisms. Quantitative real time PCR was used to verify the presence of these selected transcripts in brown trout kidney at sporogonic stages of T. bryosalmonae development. Expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, prothymosin alpha, transforming protein RhoA, immunoglobulin light chain and major histocompatibility complex class I were up-regulated significantly in infected brown trout. Expression of both the hemoglobin subunit beta and stanniocalcin precursor were down-regulated significantly in infected brown trout. This study suggests that cell stress and cell growth processes, signal transduction activities, erythropoiesis and calcium homeostasis of the host are modulated during sporogonic stages of parasite development, which may support the sporogenesis of T. bryosalmonae in the kidney of brown trout.

  18. Morphological, physiological and dietary covariation in migratory and resident adult brown trout ( Salmo trutta )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peiman, Kathryn S.; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    -category correlations but that trait relationships may change depending on the ecological conditions a population faces. We examined changes in mean values and correlations between traits in a partially migrant population of brown trout when migrant sea-run and resident stream forms were breeding sympatrically. Within...... from salt to freshwater; and determined oxidative status by measuring oxidative stress and antioxidants. We found that sea-run trout were larger and had higher values of stable isotopes, cortisol and oxidative stress compared to residents. Most groups showed some correlations between morphology...... (habitat use was related to oxidative status in male sea-run trout but not in either sex of residents). The differing patterns of covariation between the two life-history strategies and between the sexes suggest that the relationships among phenotypic traits are subjected to different selection pressures...

  19. The effects of medieval dams on genetic divergence and demographic history in brown trout populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Limborg, Morten; Ferchaud, A.-L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River......, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600-800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis of 44 microsatellite loci we investigated if the lake populations have been naturally...... genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Results: Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence...

  20. Brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) stocking impact assessment using microsatellite DNA markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2001-01-01

    , and for monitoring the genetic impact of stocking activity on wild populations of salmonid fishes. Brown trout from ten hatchery strains, one supportive breeding "strain," and five wild populations were screened for variation at eight loci. In most hatchery strains, genetic variation was comparable to that of wild...... between the wild and hatchery populations. We assessed whether wild populations were introgressed by stocked hatchery trout by performing assignment tests to determine population of origin and estimating maximum potential introgression rates. The results suggested that genetic introgression by hatchery...... trout had occurred for only two of the five populations potentially influenced by stocking. In one of these two rivers, microsatellite data obtained from a limited number of old scale samples indicated that individuals from the original population were genetically divergent from these of the present...

  1. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  2. The physiological basis of the migration continuum in brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik; Larsen, Torben; Søndergaard Madsen, Steffen; Malte, Hans; Skov, Christian; Svendsen, Jon C; Koed, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration is common in many animal taxa; however, the physiological variation underpinning migration strategies remains poorly understood. Among salmonid fishes, brown trout (Salmo trutta) is one of the species that exhibits the most complex variation in sympatric migration strategies, expressed as a migration continuum, ranging from residency to anadromy. In looking at brown trout, our objective with this study was to test the hypothesis that variation in migration strategies is underpinned by physiological variation. Prior to migration, physiological samples were taken from fish in the stream and then released at the capture site. Using telemetry, we subsequently classified fish as resident, short-distance migrants (potamodromous), or long-distance migrants (potentially anadromous). Our results revealed that fish belonging to the resident strategy differed from those exhibiting any of the two migratory strategies. Gill Na,K-ATPase activity, condition factor, and indicators of nutritional status suggested that trout from the two migratory strategies were smoltified and energetically depleted before leaving the stream, compared to those in the resident strategy. The trout belonging to the two migratory strategies were generally similar; however, lower triacylglycerides levels in the short-distance migrants indicated that they were more lipid depleted prior to migration compared with the long-distance migrants. In the context of migration cost, we suggest that additional lipid depletion makes migrants more inclined to terminate migration at the first given feeding opportunity, whereas individuals that are less lipid depleted will migrate farther. Collectively, our data suggest that the energetic state of individual fish provides a possible mechanism underpinning the migration continuum in brown trout.

  3. Recovery of Hafnia alvei from diseased brown trout, Salmo trutta L., and healthy noble crayfish, Astacus astacus (L.), in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozova, P; Sirakov, I; Chikova, V; Popova, R; Al-Harbi, A H; Crumlish, M; Austin, B

    2014-10-01

    Hafnia alvei was isolated in Bulgaria from healthy noble crayfish, Astacus astacus (L.), and then from farmed diseased brown trout, Salmo trutta L., with signs of haemorrhagic septicaemia. The isolates were identified initially with conventional phenotyping and commercial Merlin Micronaut and API 20E rapid identification systems, followed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Hafnia alvei Bt1, Bt2 and Aa4 were of low virulence to rainbow trout and brown trout, although cytotoxicity was demonstrated by Bt1 and Bt2, but not by Aa4. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Long-term species balance in sympatric populations: implications for Atlantic salmon and brown trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Horreo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The factors determining regional adaptation in salmonids are still unclear, but it is known that changes in their habitat imply changes in their population structure. In this preliminary study we integrate habitat data, molecular analyses (from both nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial loci and life-history traits (measured on archaeological vertebrae and modern scales of two sympatric salmonid species: Atlantic salmon and brown trout. We propose that water temperature and geological characteristics changed the biogeographic patterns of these species through asymmetric migration and different (but complementary population growth rates. As a consequence, differences in a life-history trait (mean number of years at sea and population sizes were detected between regions, suggesting a process of substitution of Atlantic salmon by brown trout.

  5. The significance of water ionic strength on aluminium toxicity in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstad, Nina E.W.; Kjelsberg, Birgitte M.; Voellestad, L. Asbjoern; Lydersen, Espen; Poleo, Antonio B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminium to fish is related to interactions between aluminium and the gill surface. We investigated the possible effect of water ionic strength on this interaction. The mortality of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed to three different degrees of Al polymerisation was compared in water with increased ionic strength (mean 7.31 x 10 -4 M) after additions of the base cations Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + or K + , and in water with no such addition (mean ionic strength 5.58 x 10 -4 M). Only a very slight ameliorating effect of increased ionic strength was observed, while the degree of Al polymerisation was of major importance in fish mortality. In addition, it was observed that smaller fish survived the Al exposures for a longer time than larger fish. We hypothesise that this is because larger fish are more susceptible to hypoxia than smaller fish. - Ionic strength has a slight ameliorating effect on Al toxicity in brown trout

  6. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta) in small lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Boegh, E.; Olsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7-20 cm) juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference...... was determined for the four variables; water velocity, water depth, substrate and cover, and the preferences for physical habitat selection were expressed in terms of habitat suitability indices (HSI's). The statistical confidence of HSI's was evaluated using power analysis. It was found that a minimum of 22...... fish observations was needed to have statistical confidence in the HSIs for water depth, and a minimum of 92 fish observations for water velocity during daytime summer conditions. Generally parr were utilising the deeper habitats, indicating preference for deeper water. Cover was also being selected...

  7. An experimental field evaluation of winter carryover effects in semi-anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwood, Jonathan D; Larsen, Martin H; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    For semi-anadromous brown trout, the decision whether or not to smoltify and migrate to the sea is believed to be made at the end of the preceding summer in response to both local environmental conditions and individual physiological status. Stressors experienced during the fall may therefore influence their propensity to migrate as well as carry over into the winter resulting in mortality when fish face challenging environmental conditions. To evaluate this possibility, we artificially elevated cortisol levels in juvenile trout (via intracoelomic injection of cortisol in the fall) and used passive integrated transponder tags to compare their overwinter and spring survival, growth, and migration success relative to a control group. Results suggest that overwinter mortality is high for individuals in this population regardless of treatment. However, survival rates were 2.5 times lower for cortisol-treated fish and they experienced significantly greater loss in mass. In addition, less than half as many cortisol-treated individuals made it downstream to a stationary antenna over the winter and also during the spring migration compared to the control treatment. These results suggest that a fall stressor can reduce overwinter survival of juvenile brown trout, negatively impact growth of individuals that survive, and ultimately result in a reduction in the number of migratory trout. Carryover effects such as those documented here reveal the cryptic manner in which natural and anthropogenic stressors can influence fish populations. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 645-654, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in brown trout populations in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Megha; Vasemägi, Anti

    2014-05-13

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a serious parasitic disease threatening both farmed and wild salmonid populations, but very little is currently known about the distribution of the parasite in the Baltic Sea region. In this study we (1) report the development of a novel multiplex PCR method for fast and reliable screening of T. bryosalmonae; (2) use this multiplex PCR method to show that the PKD agent T. bryosalmonae is widespread in natural brown trout Salmo trutta L. populations in Estonia; (3) evaluate monthly and yearly variation of T. bryosalmonae prevalence in juvenile trout; (4) assess T. bryosalmonae prevalence in different age-classes of fish (0+ vs. 1+ and older) and report the presence of the PKD agent in the kidneys of returning sea trout spawners; and (5) suggest the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa as a putative invertebrate host of T. bryosalmonae in Estonia. Our results demonstrate a highly heterogeneous distribution of T. bryosalmonae at the micro-geographic scale, indicating that PKD could have an important negative effect on recruitment in Estonian brown trout populations.

  9. Growth and Movement in Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in two Norwegian Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Skjellevik, Stine Marie

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, using stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta) as a model species, movement through the summer and autumn in two large Norwegian rivers, River Glomma and River Gudbrandsdalslågen, was observed. In addition fish from each river were sampled for age and growth analysis. The aim of the study was to test for which individual characteristics (sex, body mass, body condition factor, tagging site and cohort) that influenced movement and to test for correlations between grow...

  10. The volitional travel speed varies with reproductive state in mature female brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Dolby, Jes

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effect of reproduction on the volitional travel speed of mature female brown trout Salmo trutta L. The downstream travel speed in the pre-spawning state was 0·25 m s−1 (95% CI : 0·19, 0·34) while it increased significantly to 0·65 m s−1 (95% CI: 0·49, 0·87) in the post...

  11. Measurement of peroxisomal enzyme activities in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta, using spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende Albina D

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed primarily at testing in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta spectrophotometric methods previously used to measure the activities of catalase and hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases in mammals. To evaluate the influence of temperature on the activities of those peroxisomal enzymes was the second objective. A third goal of this work was the study of enzyme distribution in crude cell fractions of brown trout liver. Results The assays revealed a linear increase in the activity of all peroxisomal enzymes as the temperature rose from 10° to 37°C. However, while the activities of hydrogen peroxide producing oxidases were strongly influenced by temperature, catalase activity was only slightly affected. A crude fraction enriched with peroxisomes was obtained by differential centrifugation of liver homogenates, and the contamination by other organelles was evaluated by the activities of marker enzymes for mitochondria (succinate dehydrogenase, lysosomes (aryl sulphatase and microsomes (NADPH cytochrome c reductase. For peroxisomal enzymes, the activities per mg of protein (specific activity in liver homogenates were strongly correlated with the activities per g of liver and with the total activities per liver. These correlations were not obtained with crude peroxisomal fractions. Conclusions The spectrophotometric protocols originally used to quantify the activity of mammalian peroxisomal enzymes can be successfully applied to the study of those enzymes in brown trout. Because the activity of all studied peroxisomal enzymes rose in a linear mode with temperature, their activities can be correctly measured between 10° and 37°C. Probably due to contamination by other organelles and losses of soluble matrix enzymes during homogenisation, enzyme activities in crude peroxisomal fractions do not correlate with the activities in liver homogenates. Thus, total homogenates will be used in future seasonal and

  12. Persistence of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) in chronically infected brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Kumar, Gokhlesh; Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-08-21

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a widespread disease of farmed and wild salmonid populations in Europe and North America, caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Limited studies have been performed on the epidemiological role in spread of the disease played by fish that survive infection with T. bryosalmonae. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the persistence of T. bryosalmonae developmental stages in chronically infected brown trout Salmo trutta up to 2 yr after initial exposure to laboratory-infected colonies of the parasite's alternate host, the bryozoan Fredericella sultana. Kidney, liver, spleen, intestine, brain, gills and blood were sampled 24, 52, 78 and 104 wk post-exposure (wpe) and tested for T. bryosalmonae by PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cohabitation trials with specific pathogen free (SPF) F. sultana colonies were conducted to test the viability of T. bryosalmonae. PCR detected T. bryosalmonae DNA in all tissue samples collected at the 4 time points. Developmental stages of T. bryosalmonae were demonstrated by IHC in most samples at the 4 time points. Cohabitation of SPF F. sultana with chronically infected brown trout resulted in successful transmission of T. bryosalmonae to the bryozoan. This study verified the persistence of T. bryosalmonae in chronically infected brown trout and their ability to infect the bryozoan F. sultana up to 104 wpe.

  13. Effects of temperature and body size on radiocaesium retention in brown trout, Salmo trutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugedal, O.; Jonsson, B.; Njastad, O.; Naeumann, R.

    1992-01-01

    The elimination rate of radiocaesium in brown trout Salmo trutta L. was determined in the laboratory at four water temperatures (range 4.4 -15.6 0 C). In the experiments three or four homogeneous size-groups of fish (mean weights 23-496g) were studied at each temperature. The brown trout received acute oral doses of 134 Cs and were killed at intervals for radioactivity counting. The retention versus time curves were composed of two distinct exponential components. The long-lived component was quantitatively the most important for retention of radiocaesium. Elimination rate increased with increasing water temperature and decreased with increasing body weight. The biological half-life of 134 Cs (T b , days) was related to fresh body weight (W, g) and water temperature (t, 0 C) by the equation: T b = 290 x W 0.176 x e -0.106 x t . The elimination rate of Cs could be predicted from weight-specific metabolic rate as given by Elliott's equations for brown trout. (author)

  14. How climate change will affect sessile stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in mountain streams of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, José M.; Alonso, Carlos; García de Jalón, Diego; Solana, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    Streamflow and temperature regimes are determinant for the availability of suitable physical habitat for instream biological communities. Iberian brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations live in a climatic border in which summer water scarcity and raising temperatures will compromise their viability throughout the current century. Due to their impaired mobility, sessile stages of trout life cycle (i.e. eggs and larvae) are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changing conditions. At a given spawning redd, thermal habitat is limited by the length of the period at which suitable temperatures occur. At the same time, suitable physical habitat is limited by the instream flow regime during spawning and incubation of eggs and larvae. Temperature and flow do also interact, thus producing synergistic effects on both physical and thermal habitats. This study is aimed at quantitatively predicting thermal and physical habitat loss for the sessile stages of brown trout life cycle due to clime change, in mountain streams at the rear edge of the species natural distribution using high-resolution spatial-temporal simulations of the thermal and physical habitat. Two streams of Central Spain have been studied (Cega and Lozoya streams). Daily temperature and flow data from ad hoc downscaled IPCC (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) predictions were used as input variables. Physical habitat changes were simulated from previously predicted stream flow data by means of hydraulic simulation tools (River2D). By taking into account the thermal tolerance limits and the proportion of lost physical habitat, limiting factors for the reproduction of brown trout in the study area were determined. The general increase of mean temperatures shortens the duration of the early developmental stages. This reduction of the sessile period is rather similar in both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios by 2050. Differences between both scenarios become greater by 2099. The duration of sessile developmental is reduced

  15. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  16. Use of a seismic air gun to reduce survival of nonnative lake trout embryos: A tool for conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B.S.; Dux, A.M.; Quist, M.C.; Guy, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental impacts of nonnative lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the western USA have prompted natural resource management agencies in several states to implement lake trout suppression programs. Currently, these programs rely on mechanical removal methods (i.e., gill nets, trap nets, and angling) to capture subadult and adult lake trout. We conducted a study to explore the potential for using high-intensity sound from a relatively small (655.5 cm3 [40 in3]) seismic air gun to reduce survival of lake trout embryos. Lake trout embryos at multiple stages of development were exposed to a single discharge of the seismic air gun at two depths (5 and 15 m) and at two distances from the air gun (0.1 and 2.7 m). Control groups for each developmental stage, distance, and depth were treated identically except that the air gun was not discharged. Mortality in lake trout embryos treated at 0.1 m from the air gun was 100% at 74 daily temperature units in degrees Celsius (TU°C) at both depths. Median mortality in lake trout embryos treated at 0.1 m from the air gun at 207 TU°C (93%) and 267 °C (78%) appeared to be higher than that of controls (49% and 48%, respectively) at 15-m depth. Among the four lake trout developmental stages, exposure to the air gun at 0.1 m resulted in acute mortality up to 60% greater than that of controls. Mortality at a distance of 2.7 m did not appear to differ from that of controls at any developmental stage or at either depth. Our results indicate that seismic air guns have potential as an alternative tool for controlling nonnative lake trout, but further investigation is warranted.

  17. Brown trout in the Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River—Evaluation of causal hypotheses and potential interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Bair, Lucas S.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Valdez, Richard A.; Ellsworth, Craig; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Rogers, R. Scott; Trammell, Melissa A.; Young, Kirk L.

    2018-04-17

    Over the period 2014–2016, the number of nonnative brown trout (Salmo trutta) captured during routine monitoring in the Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River, downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, began increasing. Management agencies and stakeholders have questioned whether the increase in brown trout in the Lees Ferry reach represents a threat to the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sport fishery, or to other resources of concern. In this report, we evaluate the evidence for the expansion of brown trout in the Lees Ferry reach, consider a range of causal hypotheses for this expansion, examine the likely efficacy of several potential management interventions to reduce brown trout, and analyze the effects of those interventions on other resources of concern.The brown trout population at Lees Ferry historically consisted of a small number of large fish supported by low levels of immigration from downstream reaches. This population is now showing signs of sustained successful reproduction and is on the cusp of recruiting locally hatched fish into the spawning class, based on analysis with a new integrated population model. The proximate causes of this change in status are a large pulse of immigration in the fall of 2014 and higher reproductive rates in 2015–2017. The ultimate causes of this change are not clear. The pulse of immigrants from downstream reaches in fall 2014 may have been induced by three sequential high-flow releases from the dam in November of 2012–2014, but may also have been the result of a unique set of circumstances unrelated to dam operations. The increase in reproduction may have been the result of any number of changes, including an Allee effect, warmer water temperatures, a decrease in competition from rainbow trout, or fall high-flow releases. Correlations over space and time among predictor variables do not allow us to make a clear inference about the cause of the changes. Under a null causal

  18. Fertilization capacity with rainbow trout DNA-damaged sperm and embryo developmental success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cerezales, S; Martínez-Páramo, S; Beirão, J; Herráez, M P

    2010-06-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa undergo a strong selection process along the female tract to guarantee fertilization by good quality cells, but risks of fertilization with DNA-damaged spermatozoa have been reported. In contrast, most external fertilizers such as fish seem to have weaker selection procedures. This fact, together with their high prolificacy and external embryo development, indicates that fish could be useful for the study of the effects of sperm DNA damage on embryo development. We cryopreserved sperm from rainbow trout using egg yolk and low-density lipoprotein as additives to promote different rates of DNA damage. DNA fragmentation and oxidization were analyzed using comet assay with and without digestion with restriction enzymes, and fertilization trials were performed. Some embryo batches were treated with 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) to inhibit DNA repair by the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, which is an enzyme of the base excision repair pathway. Results showed that all the spermatozoa cryopreserved with egg yolk carried more than 10% fragmented DNA, maintaining fertilization rates of 61.1+/-2.3 but a high rate of abortions, especially during gastrulation, and only 14.5+/-4.4 hatching success. Furthermore, after 3AB treatment, hatching dropped to 3.2+/-2.2, showing that at least 10% DNA fragmentation was repaired. We conclude that trout sperm maintains its ability to fertilize in spite of having DNA damage, but that embryo survival is affected. Damage is partially repaired by the oocyte during the first cleavage. Important advantages of using rainbow trout for the study of processes related to DNA damage and repair during development have been reported.

  19. P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes: evidence of a detoxification mechanism in fish erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2013-12-05

    Blood is a site of physiological transport for a great variety of molecules, including xenobiotics. Blood cells in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish, are directly exposed to aquatic pollution. P-gp are ubiquitous "membrane detoxification proteins" implicated in the cellular efflux of various xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may be pollutants. The existence of this P-gp detoxification system inducible by benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), a highly cytotoxic PAH, was investigated in the nucleated erythrocytes of brown trout. Western blot analysis showed the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in trout erythrocytes. Primary cultures of erythrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of BaP showed no evidence of cell toxicity. Yet, in the same BaP-treated erythrocytes, P-gp expression increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Brown trout P-gp erythrocytes act as membrane defence mechanism against the pollutant, a property that can be exploited for future biomarker development to monitor water quality.

  20. Effects on water chemistry, benthic invertebrates and brown trout following forest fertilization in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethe, L.; Soederberg, H.; Sjoelander, E.

    1993-01-01

    Two coniferous forest drainage areas in central Sweden were partially fertilized with ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate respectively, both at a dose of 150 kg N per ha. During the following years observations were made on stream water chemistry, invertebrates and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Upstream stations were used as controls. Very high concentrations of inorganic N (up to 45 mg l -1 ) were recorded immediately after the fertilization. Thereafter, concentration decreased rapidly but remained elevated during the whole study period. Acidity conditions (pH, alkalinity, aluminium) were unaffected by both treatments. The only registered effect on the benthic fauna was a three- to five-fold increase of drifting invertebrates during the first four-five days after the treatment. However, this did not reduce the population density at the treated stations. No effects on population of trout were recorded. (22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.)

  1. Bioaccumulation, distribution and retention of 63Ni2+ in the brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjaelve, Hans; Gottofrey, James; Borg, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Brown trout, Salmo trutta, were exposed to water containing 0.1 or 10 μgl -1 of 63 Ni 2+ for 1 or 3 weeks. Additional trout were exposed to 0.1 or 10 μgl -1 of 63 Ni 2+ during 3 weeks followed by a 1- or 3-week period without exposure to the metal. At termination of the experimental periods the uptake and distribution of the 63 Ni 2+ in the fishes were determined by whole-body autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. The average whole-fish concentration of 63 Ni 2+ in the fishes was about 3 times higher than the concentration of 6 Ni 2+ in the water after 1 week's exposure and about 7-8 times higher than in the water after three weeks' exposure. Our results show that there is a moderate bioaccumulation of nickel by fishes from the water. (author)

  2. Dynamics of Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and Na+,K+-ATPase expression in the branchial epithelium of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen; Seidelin, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of branchial Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) expression were investigated in brown trout and Atlantic salmon during salinity shifts and the parr-smolt transformation, respectively. In the brown trout, Western blotting revealed that NKCC and NKA abundance...

  3. The effect of metal pollution on the population genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) residing in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Christopher J. [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Stevens, Jamie R. [University of Exeter, Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Geoffrey Pope Building, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Hogstrand, Christer [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Bury, Nicolas R., E-mail: nic.bury@kcl.ac.uk [King' s College London, Metals Metabolism Group, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The River Hayle in south-west England is impacted with metals and can be divided into three regions depending on the copper and zinc concentrations: a low-metal upper section; a highly-contaminated middle section and a moderately contaminated lower section. Hayle river water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout, but brown trout are found in the upper and lower regions. The study aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure of River Hayle brown trout and to determine if the highly-contaminated section acts as a chemical barrier to migration. Population genetic analysis indicated that metals were not a barrier to gene flow within the river, but there was a high level of differentiation observed between fish sampled at two sites in the upper region, despite being separated by only 1 km. The metal tolerance trait exhibited by this brown trout population may represent an important component of the species genetic diversity in this region. - Highlights: > River Hayle, Cornwall, UK, water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout. > Some brown trout populations resident in the River Hayle are tolerant of elevated metals (e.g. copper and zinc). > Elevated metals do not affect the gene flow between sites on the river. > The population genetic structure of the brown trout in the River Hayle appears unaffected by elevated metals. - Aquatic metal pollution does not affect the gene flow between brown trout resident below and above a metal mining waste discharge point in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK.

  4. Genetic restoration of a stocked brown trout Salmo trutta population using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte; Jensen, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    1. Gene flow from domesticated to wild populations is a major threat to wild salmonid fish. However, few studies have addressed how populations could be restored after admixture has occurred. We analysed the prospects for restoring the previously intensively stocked brown trout population...... of the Skjern River, Denmark, by identifying remaining non-admixed individuals to be used for supportive breeding. 2. We analysed microsatellite DNA markers in historical (1940-50s) and contemporary (1992-2004) samples from the Skjern River system, from the strain of domesticated trout previously used...... for stocking, and from the neighbouring Stora River. We analysed admixture proportions to estimate the genetic contribution by domesticated trout. We identified non-admixed trout using assignment tests, and further analysed the possible sources of indigenous trout by estimating contemporary migration among...

  5. Short-and long term niche segregation and individual specialization of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in species poor Faroese lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Jakob; Malmquist, Hilmar J.; Landkildehus, Frank

    2012-01-01

    fidelity to a niche may be variable both between and within populations. In order to study this complexity, relative simple systems with few species are needed. In this paper, we study how competitor presence affects the resource use of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in 11 species-poor Faroese lakes...... by comparing relative abundance, stable isotope ratios and diet in multiple habitats. In the presence of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a higher proportion of the trout population was found in the pelagic habitat, and trout in general relied on a more pelagic diet base as compared to trout...... living in allopatry or in sympatry with Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Diet analyses revealed, however, that niche-segregation may be more complex than described on a one-dimensional pelagic-littoral axis. Trout from both littoral and offshore benthic habitats had in the presence of sticklebacks...

  6. Effects of fine sediment, hyporheic flow, and spawning site characteristics on survival and development of bull trout embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Neilson, Bethany; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Successful spawning is imperative for the persistence of salmonid populations, but relatively little research has been conducted to evaluate factors affecting early life-stage survival for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a threatened char. We conducted a field experiment to assess the relationship between site-specific environmental factors and bull trout embryo survival and fry emergence timing. Survival from egg to hatch was negatively related to percent fine sediment (construction and selection of spawning sites with strong downwelling appear to enhance hyporheic flow rates and bull trout egg survival, but early life-stage success may ultimately be limited by intrusion of fine sediment into the incubation environment.

  7. Effects of fine sediment, hyporheic flow, and spawning site characteristics on survival and development of bull trout embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Neilson, Bethany; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Successful spawning is imperative for the persistence of salmonid populations, but relatively little research has been conducted to evaluate factors affecting early life-stage survival for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a threatened char. We conducted a field experiment to assess the relationship between site-specific environmental factors and bull trout embryo survival and fry emergence timing. Survival from egg to hatch was negatively related to percent fine sediment (bull trout egg survival, but early life-stage success may ultimately be limited by intrusion of fine sediment into the incubation environment.

  8. Application of heteroduplex analysis for detecting variation within the growth hormone 2 gene in Salmo trutta L. (brown trout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Nilsson, J

    1995-03-01

    A new method to detect variation at a single copy nuclear gene in brown trout, Salmo trutta L., is provided. The technique entails (i) selective gene amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), (ii) digestion of amplification products by restriction endonucleases to obtain fragments of suitable size, (iii) hybridization with heterologous DNA followed by denaturation and reannealing to obtain heteroduplex molecules, and (iv) screening for variation in polyacrylamide gels. Variation was studied within a growth hormone 2 gene 1489 bp segment and polymorphism was detected in two HinfI-digested fragments. Formation of different heteroduplex patterns in experimental mixtures of digested amplification products from brown trout and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., allowed us to determine the genotype of the brown trout. Polymorphism was observed in four out of six studied populations.

  9. Interpopulation differences in expression of candidate genes for salinity tolerance in winter migrating anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Dennis S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Winter migration of immature brown trout (Salmo trutta into freshwater rivers has been hypothesized to result from physiologically stressful combinations of high salinity and low temperature in the sea. Results We sampled brown trout from two Danish populations entering different saline conditions and quantified expression of the hsp70 and Na/K-ATPases α 1b genes following acclimation to freshwater and full-strength seawater at 2°C and 10°C. An interaction effect of low temperature and high salinity on expression of both hsp70 and Na/K-ATPase α 1b was found in trout from the river entering high saline conditions, while a temperature independent up-regulation of both genes in full-strength seawater was found for trout entering marine conditions with lower salinities. Conclusion Overall our results support the hypothesis that physiologically stressful conditions in the sea drive sea-run brown trout into freshwater rivers in winter. However, our results also demonstrate intra-specific differences in expression of important stress and osmoregulative genes most likely reflecting adaptive differences between trout populations on a regional scale, thus strongly suggesting local adaptations driven by the local marine environment.

  10. The effects of Medieval dams on genetic divergence and demographic history in brown trout populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael M; Limborg, Morten T; Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Pujolar, José-Martin

    2014-06-05

    Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600-800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis of 44 microsatellite loci we investigated if the lake populations have been naturally genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence times ca. 600-800 years bp, providing strong evidence for establishment of dams in the Medieval as the factor causing divergence. Bayesian cluster analysis showed influence of stocked trout in several reference populations, but not in the focal lake and anadromous populations. Estimates of effective population size using a linkage disequilibrium method ranged from 244 to > 1,000 in all but one anadromous population, but were lower (153 and 252) in the lake populations. We show that genetic divergence of lake-dwelling trout in two Danish lakes reflects establishment of water mills and impassable dams ca. 600-800 years ago rather than a natural genetic population structure. Although effective population sizes of the two lake populations are not critically low they may ultimately limit response to selection and thereby future adaptation. Our results demonstrate that populations may have been affected by anthropogenic disturbance over longer time scales than normally assumed.

  11. Genome specific PPARαB duplicates in salmonids and insights into estrogenic regulation in brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Pinheiro, Ivone; de Paula Freire, Rafaelle; Rocha, Eduardo; Castro, Luis Filipe; Urbatzka, Ralph

    2017-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key regulators of many processes in vertebrates, such as carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. PPARα, a member of the PPAR nuclear receptor gene subfamily (NR1C1), is involved in fatty acid metabolism, namely in peroxisomal β-oxidation. Two gene paralogues, pparαA and pparαB, were described in several teleost species with their origin dating back to the teleost-specific genome duplication (3R). Given the additional salmonid-specific genome duplication (4R), four genes could be theoretically anticipated for this gene subfamily. In this work, we examined the pparα gene repertoire in brown trout, Salmo trutta f. fario. Data disclosed two pparα-like sequences in brown trout. Phylogenetic analyses further revealed that the isolated genes are most likely genome pparαB duplicates, pparαBa and pparαBb, while pparαA is apparently absent in salmonids. Both genes showed a ubiquitous mRNA expression across a panel of 11 different organs. In vitro exposed primary brown trout hepatocytes strongly suggest that pparα gene paralogues are differently regulated by ethinylestradiol (EE2). PparαBb mRNA expression significantly decreased with dosage, reaching significance after exposure to 50μM EE2, while pparαBa mRNA increased, significant at 1μM EE2. The present data enhances the understanding of pparα function and evolution in teleost, and reinforces the evidence of a potential crosstalk between estrogenic and pparα signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ontogenetic shifts in terrestrial reliance of stream-dwelling brown trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez-Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on terrestrial reliance of brown trout (Salmo trutta and compared it to the potential prey available (macrozoobenthos and drifting invertebrates in three temperate rivers (Galicia, NW Spain, with special emphasis on variations in terrestrial energy intake through the ontogeny of brown trout. Additionally, we paid particular attention to individual variation of terrestrial resource use within and between age classes. Prey items were grouped in four categories: i aquatic invertebrates; ii imagoes of aquatic invertebrates; iii terrestrial invertebrates; and iv fish prey. Next, energy composition was measured according to dry weight-energy equations for each individual in line with above-mentioned prey categories. Our findings illustrate that terrestrial invertebrates appeared to be scarce in the environment, whereas aquatic food resources were rather abundant and accessible. The use of terrestrial invertebrates tended to increase with age, but with a high degree of inter-individual variation in resource use. In fact, the individual reliance of brown trout on terrestrial invertebrates may vary considerably (between 0% and 76.9%. Besides, the frequency of terrestrial foragers, i.e., individuals with terrestrial invertebrates in their stomachs, increased with age, except in one population which had the maximum value in the age-2 class. The acquisition of terrestrial invertebrates thus appears to be a process strongly dependent upon the actual food availability in the environment, but with a high degree of individual variance in resource use within the same age class. Finally, we discuss that terrestrial invertebrates may largely contribute to cover the energy intake of the species, highlighting the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thereby the importance of riparian canopy cover as a key factor for food supply of stream-dwelling salmonids species.

  13. Winter feeding, growth and condition of brown trout Salmo trutta in a groundwater-dominated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, William E.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Dieterman, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter can be a stressful period for stream-dwelling salmonid populations, often resulting in reduced growth and survival. Stream water temperatures have been identified as a primary mechanism driving reductions in fitness during winter. However, groundwater inputs can moderate water temperature and may reduce winter severity. Additionally, seasonal reductions in prey availability may contribute to decreased growth and survival, although few studies have examined food webs supporting salmonids under winter conditions. This study employed diet, stable isotope, and mark-recapture techniques to examine winter (November through March) feeding, growth, and condition of brown troutSalmo trutta in a groundwater-dominated stream (Badger Creek, Minnesota, USA). Growth was greater for fish ≤ 150 mm (mean = 4.1 mg g−1 day−1) than for those 151–276 mm (mean = 1.0 mg g−1 day−1) during the winter season. Overall condition from early winter to late winter did not vary for fish ≤150 mm (mean relative weight (Wr) = 89.5) and increased for those 151–276 mm (mean Wr = 85.8 early and 89.4 late). Although composition varied both temporally and by individual, brown trout diets were dominated by aquatic invertebrates, primarily Amphipods, Dipterans, and Trichopterans. Stable isotope analysis supported the observations of the dominant prey taxa in stomach contents and indicated the winter food web was supported by a combination of allochthonous inputs and aquatic macrophytes. Brown trout in Badger Creek likely benefited from the thermal regime and increased prey abundance present in this groundwater-dominated stream during winter.

  14. Demographic changes following mechanical removal of exotic brown trout in an Intermountain West (USA), high-elevation stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, W. Carl; Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, Gary P.

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species present a great threat to native fish conservation; however, eradicating exotics is expensive and often impractical. Mechanical removal can be ineffective for eradication, but nonetheless may increase management effectiveness by identifying portions of a watershed that are strong sources of exotics. We used mechanical removal to understand processes driving exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Logan River, Utah. Our goals were to: (i) evaluate the demographic response of brown trout to mechanical removal, (ii) identify sources of brown trout recruitment at a watershed scale and (iii) evaluate whether mechanical removal can reduce brown trout densities. We removed brown trout from 2 km of the Logan River (4174 fish), and 5.6 km of Right Hand Fork (RHF, 15,245 fish), a low-elevation tributary, using single-pass electrofishing. We compared fish abundance and size distributions prior to, and after 2 years of mechanical removal. In the Logan River, immigration to the removal reach and high natural variability in fish abundances limited the response to mechanical removal. In contrast, mechanical removal in RHF resulted in a strong recruitment pulse, shifting the size distribution towards smaller fish. These results suggest that, before removal, density-dependent mortality or emigration of juvenile fish stabilised adult populations and may have provided a source of juveniles to the main stem. Overall, in sites demonstrating strong density-dependent population regulation, or near sources of exotics, short-term mechanical removal has limited effects on brown trout populations but may help identify factors governing populations and inform large-scale management of exotic species.

  15. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Paul C. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, 4051 Basel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: patricia.holm@unibas.ch; Giger, Walter [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: giger@eawag.ch

    2007-03-15

    The ranges of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from four Swiss rivers were 0.8-240 ng/g in the bile and 16-7400 ng/g lipid in the liver. PBDE concentrations varied within each river and among the various rivers. Female fish tended to have higher concentrations in the liver, while the male fish had higher concentrations in the bile. From the resulting PBDE concentrations in fish it could not be infered that these contaminants contribute to the causes of the observed fish catch decline in Swiss rivers. - PBDEs with the most abundant BDE-47 were determined in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers.

  16. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Paul C.; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Giger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The ranges of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from four Swiss rivers were 0.8-240 ng/g in the bile and 16-7400 ng/g lipid in the liver. PBDE concentrations varied within each river and among the various rivers. Female fish tended to have higher concentrations in the liver, while the male fish had higher concentrations in the bile. From the resulting PBDE concentrations in fish it could not be infered that these contaminants contribute to the causes of the observed fish catch decline in Swiss rivers. - PBDEs with the most abundant BDE-47 were determined in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

  17. Parasitofauna study of the brown trout, Salmo trutta (Pisces, Teleostei from Corsica (Mediterranean island rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quilichini Y.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Corsica is a mediterranean island characterised by a great number of rivers. Salmonides are the main fishes which populate these rivers. Very appreciated by fishermen, Salmonides are represented by three species in the insular hydrographical network, among which an autochthonous species, the brown trout (Salmo trutta. In the present work, we have analysed the parasitofauna of this species. According to our knowledge, this research has never been carried out in Corsica. In a first step, we drew up an inventory of the parasites found in this freshwater fish. In a second step, we studied the differences which appeared in the composition of parasite communities of this species.

  18. Allelic frequencies of two microsatellite loci in four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    OpenAIRE

    EDIT VARDHAMI; ANILA HODA; ADIOLA BIBA; MANUELA GUALTIERI; MASSIMO MECATTI; AGIM REXHEPI

    2014-01-01

    Two microsatellite loci, Str60Inra and Ssa197, were PCR amplified on 30 individuals for each populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta). A total of 120 individuals were selected from rivers of the Florence province (Italy), Valbona and Cen (Albania), Lepenci (Kosovo). There were identified 32 different alleles for Str60Inra and 41 for the locus Ssa197. Mean number of alleles ranged from 9 (Cen) to 20.5 (Florence). The mean observed and expected heterosygosities values were 0.329 and 0.755, res...

  19. Survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout kelts Salmo trutta during downstream migration in freshwater and at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik; Thorstad, EB

    2015-01-01

    The marine migration of post-spawning anadromous fish remains poorly understood. The present study examined survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. after spawning (kelts) during downriver, fjord, and sea migration. Kelts (n = 49) were captured in the Danish River...... completing the reach within 4 d, suggesting that the kelts spent limited time foraging after returning to the fjord. The total survival during the entire marine migration, including the fjord, was a minimum of 29%. Our study provides data that are important for management of anadromous brown trout...

  20. Genetic detection of sex-specific dispersal in historical and contemporary populations of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2004-01-01

    The study of sex-biased dispersal has attracted considerable attention in birds and mammals, but less in other taxa, including fishes. We analysed sex-specific dispersal in historical (1910s and 1950s) and contemporary (1990s) samples of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta. We tested the hypothesis...... that dispersal is unbiased using information from microsatellite DNA and applying an assignment index for 11 temporally and spatially separated samples. Our results are most consistent with brown trout dispersal being male biased, and provide no evidence of female bias. We found no evidence that dispersal...

  1. Effect of Maillard browning reaction on protein utilization and plasma amino acid response by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, S M; Lee, T C; Wolke, R E; Meade, T L

    1985-12-01

    The effect of the Maillard browning reaction in the diet of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on growth and amino acid availability was investigated. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis methods were applied for the detection of the losses of amino acids in a model protein browning system. Arginine and lysine exhibited the greatest losses in the mixture of fish protein isolate and glucose stored for 40 d at 37 degrees C. The apparent digestibility and absorption of individual amino acids, particularly lysine, was lower in trout fed browned protein than in those fed the control protein. Plasma lysine levels were significantly depressed, while the plasma levels of glucose and most other amino acids were elevated in relation to the loss in nutritive value of dietary protein after browning. The early Maillard reaction derivative of lysine, epsilon-deoxy-fructosyl-lysine, was recovered from browned protein (by using the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis procedure) and from the plasma of trout fed browned protein. Analysis of plasma free amino acids provided an indication of lysine bioavailability and identified lysine as the first-limiting amino acid in the diets containing browned protein.

  2. Adhesion to brown trout skin mucus, antagonism against cyst adhesion and pathogenicity to rainbow trout of some inhibitory bacteria against Saprolegnia parasitica .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-González, M T; Fregeneda-Grandes, J M; González-Palacios, C; Aller-Gancedo, J M

    2013-04-29

    Biological control of saprolegniosis with bacteria might be an alternative to the use of chemical compounds. Among criteria for the selection of such bacteria are their absence of pathogenicity to fish and their ability to prevent adhesion of the pathogen to the skin mucus. The pathogenicity to rainbow trout of 21 bacterial isolates with in vitro inhibitory activity against Saprolegnia parasitica was studied. Fifteen of the isolates, identified as Aeromonas sobria, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia fonticola, Xanthomonas retroflexus and Yersinia kristensenii, were non-pathogenic when injected into rainbow trout. Their capacity to adhere to the skin mucus of male and female brown trout and to reduce the adhesion of S. parasitica cysts under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions was tested. The 15 bacterial isolates showed a low adhesion rate, ranging between 1.7% (for an A. sobria isolate) and 15.3% (a P. fluorescens isolate). This adhesion was greater in the case of mucus from male brown trout than from females. Similarities in the adhesion to male mucus and other substrates and correlation to that observed to polystyrene suggest that adhesion to skin mucus does not depend on the substrate. A high percentage (88.9%) of the S. parasitica cysts adhered to the skin mucus of male brown trout. Almost all of the bacteria reduced this adhesion ratio significantly under exclusion and competition conditions. However, only half of the isolates displaced cysts from skin mucus, and more bacterial cells were necessary for this effect. A novel method to study the adhesion of S. parasitica cysts to skin mucus of trout and their interactions with inhibitory bacteria is described.

  3. Preference and avoidance pH of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta exposed to different holding pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fost, B A; Ferreri, C P

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if short-term exposure of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta to a lower pH than found in their source stream results in a shift in preference or avoidance pH. The lack of a shift in preference or avoidance pH of adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta suggests that these species can be held at a pH different from the source waterbody for a short period of time without altering preference or avoidance pH behaviour. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Stocking strategy for the rehabilitation of a regulated brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aass, P.

    1993-01-01

    Regulation of the catchment area of the Norwegian river Gudbrandsdalslaagen began in 1919. The lowermost power station on the main river was completed in 1964 and is situated about 10 km above the large Norwegian lake, Mjoesa. The lake is the foraging area of the Hunderstrain of brown trout, the fastest growing of all Norwegian trout. The running of the power plant has led to a severe reduction in water flows below the dam, and the most important spawning and nursery areas of the Hunder strain has been affected. The natural smolt production has been permanently reduced. The rehabilitation programme has included the construction of a fish ladder through the dam and a fixed minimum flow. A hatchery was built and a stocking programme using the local strain was implemented. The effect of stocking has been the easiest of the relief measures to evaluate. Hatchery reared fish constitute a growing share of the spawning population. During the last three years their share has been close to 60%. Reared fish constitute 30-40% of the trout caught in Lake Mjoesa. The average and best returns of tagged groups have been 25 and 50%, respectively, but return rates are highly dependent on release length and time and place of stocking. (Author)

  5. Radiocesium in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a subalpine lake ecosystem after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, J.E.; Storruste, Anders; Larsen, Elena

    1991-01-01

    After Chernobyl in April 1986, radioactive cesium has been measured in Oevre Heimdalsvatn, a Norwegian subalpine lake, situated in an area of high fallout. The lake is an important reference site and has been the subject of extensive ecosystem studies since the 1950s. Emphasis has been given to measuring long-term trends in the activity content of radioactive cesium in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) population. After ice-break in June 1986, the average total cesium activity content rose to 7000 Bq/kg wet weight. The activity content fell during 1987 and at ice-break in 1988 was 4000 Bq/kg. However, there was no further reduction during the summers of 1988 and 1989, possibly due to increased inputs from the catchment. There is considerable variation in the radiocesium activity content measured in individual fish. On the basis of the changes in cesium activity content in trout since 1986, an observed half-life for 137 Cs and 134 Cs in trout of 3.0 and 1.3 years, respectively, has been estimated. (author)

  6. pH preference and avoidance responses of adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fost, B A; Ferreri, C P

    2015-03-01

    The pH preferred and avoided by wild, adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta was examined in a series a laboratory tests using gradual and steep-gradient flow-through aquaria. The results were compared with those published for the observed segregation patterns of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams. The adult S. trutta tested showed a preference for pH 4·0 while adult S. fontinalis did not prefer any pH within the range tested. Salmo trutta are not found in Pennsylvania streams with a base-flow pH < 5·8 which suggests that S. trutta prefer pH well above 4·0. Adult S. trutta displayed a lack of avoidance at pH below 5·0, as also reported earlier for juveniles. The avoidance pH of wild, adult S. fontinalis (between pH 5·5 and 6·0) and S. trutta (between pH 6·5 and 7·0) did not differ appreciably from earlier study results for the avoidance pH of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta. A comparison of c.i. around these avoidance estimates indicates that avoidance pH is similar among adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in this study. The limited overlap of c.i. for avoidance pH values for the two species, however, suggests that some S. trutta will display avoidance at a higher pH when S. fontinalis will not. The results of this study indicate that segregation patterns of adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams could be related to pH and that competition with S. trutta could be mediating the occurrence of S. fontinalis at some pH levels. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Strong Effects of Temperature on the Early Life Stages of a Cold Stenothermal Fish Species, Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réalis-Doyelle, Emilie; Pasquet, Alain; De Charleroy, Daniel; Fontaine, Pascal; Teletchea, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is the main abiotic factor that influences the life cycle of poikilotherms. The present study investigated the thermal tolerance and phenotypic plasticity of several parameters (development time, morphometric measures, bioenergetics) for both embryos and fry of a cold stenothermal fish species, brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in order to allow for a holistic evaluation of the potential effects of temperature. Five temperatures (4°C, 6°C, 8°C, 10°C, and 12°C) were tested, and the effects of temperature were analyzed at three stages: hatching, emergence, and first food intake. A mean of 5,440 (S.E. ± 573) eggs, coming from seven females and seven males (seven families) captured close to Linkebeek (Belgium), were used for each temperature. Maximum survival of well-formed fry at first food intake and better use of energy budget were found at 6°C and 8°C, temperatures at which the possible contribution to the next generation should therefore be greatest. At 12°C, the experimental population fell dramatically (0.9% survival rate for well-formed fry at first food intake), and fry had almost no yolk sac at first food intake. The present results on survival at 12°C are in accordance with predictions of a sharp decrease in brown trout numbers in France over the coming decades according to climate change projections (1°C to 5°C temperature rise by 2100 for France). At 10°C, there was also a lower survival rate (55.4% at first food intake). At 4°C, the survival rate was high (76.4% at first food intake), but the deformity rate was much higher (22% at first food intake) than at 6°C, 8°C, and 10°C. The energetic budget showed that at the two extreme temperatures (4°C and 12°C) there was less energy left in the yolk sac at first food intake, suggesting a limited ability to survive starvation.

  8. The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) from water and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winpenny, K.; Knowles, J.F.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Brown trout were exposed to 32 P in their tank water (7.4 Bq l -1 ) and the uptake to muscle followed over 6 weeks. A steady-state concentration factor (C ss ) of 1.7 and a biological half-time for clearance (tb1/2)) of 45 days were calculated from the results. The low C ss ) indicates that uptake from water is not a major route of 32 P accumulation in these fish. Brown trout were given a single 32 P-spiked meal, and the uptake and clearance in muscle, liver and blood followed over 6 weeks. Assimilation of the isotope by these organs was low, the maximum activity in whole muscle reaching only 0.2-0.4% of that in the meal with lower values in the other two organs. There was no appreciable clearance of 32 P from muscle during the experiment. The slow clearance of 32 P after uptake from water and lack of any clearance after uptake from food indicates that the C ss for this isotope following uptake by either route is likely to depend on radioactive decay rather than intake rate and physiological clearance. (author)

  9. Experimental tests for heritable morphological color plasticity in non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A H Westley

    Full Text Available The success of invasive species is frequently attributed to phenotypic plasticity, which facilitates persistence in novel environments. Here we report on experimental tests to determine whether the intensity of cryptic coloration patterns in a global invader (brown trout, Salmo trutta was primarily the result of plasticity or heritable variation. Juvenile F1 offspring were created through experimental crosses of wild-caught parents and reared for 30 days in the laboratory in a split-brood design on either light or dark-colored gravel substrate. Skin and fin coloration quantified with digital photography and image analysis indicated strong plastic effects in response to substrate color; individuals reared on dark substrate had both darker melanin-based skin color and carotenoid-based fin colors than other members of their population reared on light substrate. Slopes of skin and fin color reaction norms were parallel between environments, which is not consistent with heritable population-level plasticity to substrate color. Similarly, we observed weak differences in population-level color within an environment, again suggesting little genetic control on the intensity of skin and fin colors. Taken as whole, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic plasticity may have facilitated the success of brown trout invasions and suggests that plasticity is the most likely explanation for the variation in color intensity observed among these populations in nature.

  10. Patterns of natural mortality in stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Budy, P.; Mortensen, E.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lifetime mortality patterns and their corresponding rates and causal factors differ among populations of stream-living salmonids. To this end, we examined the lifetime mortality patterns of several successive cohorts of two stream-living brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in Spain and Denmark. In the southern population, we observed a consistent two-phase pattern, in which mortality was negligible during the first half of the lifetime and severe during the rest of the lifetime. In contrast, the northern population demonstrated a three-phase pattern with an earlier phase varying from negligible to severe, followed by a second stage of weak mortality, and lastly by a third life stage of severe mortality. Despite substantial differences in the mortality patterns between the two populations, the combined effect of recruitment (as a proxy of the density-dependent processes occurring during the lifetime) and mean body mass (as a proxy of growth experienced by individuals in a given cohort) explained c. 89% of the total lifetime mortality rates across cohorts and populations. A comparison with other published data on populations of stream-living brown trout within its native range highlighted lifetime mortality patterns of one, two, three and four phases, but also suggested that common patterns may occur in populations that experience similar individual growth and population density. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta in small lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conallin J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7–20 cm juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference was determined for the four variables; water velocity, water depth, substrate and cover, and the preferences for physical habitat selection were expressed in terms of habitat suitability indices (HSI’s. The statistical confidence of HSI’s was evaluated using power analysis. It was found that a minimum of 22 fish observations was needed to have statistical confidence in the HSIs for water depth, and a minimum of 92 fish observations for water velocity during daytime summer conditions. Generally parr were utilising the deeper habitats, indicating preference for deeper water. Cover was also being selected for at all sites, but selection was inconsistent among sites for the variables substrate and velocity. The results indicate that during daytime summer conditions water depth is a significant variable for parr habitat selection in these small lowland streams, with cover also being important. Therefore, daytime refugia may be a critical limiting factor for parr in small lowland streams, and important for stream management actions under the Water Framework Directive.

  12. The significance of water ionic strength on aluminium toxicity in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstad, Nina E.W. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kjelsberg, Birgitte M. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Voellestad, L. Asbjoern [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Lydersen, Espen [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, P.O. Box 173 Kjelsaas, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: toni.poleo@bio.uio.no

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminium to fish is related to interactions between aluminium and the gill surface. We investigated the possible effect of water ionic strength on this interaction. The mortality of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed to three different degrees of Al polymerisation was compared in water with increased ionic strength (mean 7.31 x 10{sup -4} M) after additions of the base cations Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +} or K{sup +}, and in water with no such addition (mean ionic strength 5.58 x 10{sup -4} M). Only a very slight ameliorating effect of increased ionic strength was observed, while the degree of Al polymerisation was of major importance in fish mortality. In addition, it was observed that smaller fish survived the Al exposures for a longer time than larger fish. We hypothesise that this is because larger fish are more susceptible to hypoxia than smaller fish. - Ionic strength has a slight ameliorating effect on Al toxicity in brown trout.

  13. Factors affecting the recovery of fish populations in an industrial river. [Brown trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A W.M.; Williams, R

    1981-01-01

    The river Ebbw Fawr, an industrial river of South-East Wales, was investigated over a three-year period to follow the re-establishment of fish populations as a result of pollution control measures at coal washeries and a steelworks on the river. These measures were effective in reducing levels of toxic materials and restoring dissolved oxygen levels and pH values acceptable for fish. Five freshwater fish species became established in parts of the river during the study period (1974-77). The brown trout Salmo trutta l. was the first to enter, followed by eel Anguilla anguilla l., stoneloach Noemacheilus barbatulus l., stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus l. and bullhead Cottus gobio l., respectively. The flounder Platicthys flesus l., a euryhaline species, penetrated the river beyond the upper tidal limit. The minnow Phoxinus phoxinus l., a resident of other parts of the Ebbw system, did not recolonise during the study. Calculated toxicities and the results of fish caging tests indicated that water quality was satisfactory for fish populations throughout the river with the possible exception of a short reach immediately below the steelworks. The absence of fish from some upstream reaches with good water quality was due to the limited numbers of fish available for recolonisation and their restricted movements. Good growth and condition factors among the recolonising brown trout stock suggest that a sport fishery could be developed on the river, though constraints on spawning due to residual silt pollution indicate that stocking with hatchery reared fish will be necessary to maintain trout numbers.

  14. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies for the reduction of hormonal activity in effluents and connected surface water bodies by means of vitellogenin analyses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anja; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine effects in the aquatic environment are in the focus of scientists and media along with debates on the necessity of further steps in wastewater treatment. In the present study VTG responses were compared to evaluate upgrades at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We investigated several advanced sewage treatment technologies at two WWTPs connected to the Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, for the reduction of hormonal activity: (1) a powdered activated charcoal filter at the WWTP Langwiese; and (2) a combination of ozonation, sand filter, and granulated activated carbon filter at the WWTP Eriskirch. Rainbow trout and brown trout were either directly exposed to the effluents in aquaria or cages, or in a bypass system flown through by surface water of the Schussen. As a reference, trout were kept in bypass aquaria at the Argen River, which is less influenced by micropollutants. As a biomarker for estrogenicity, we analyzed the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin in immature rainbow trout and brown trout and in trout larvae (100 days post-fertilization) prior to and after the upgrade with the new technologies. Trout of different ages and species were used to detect differences in their sensitivity. At both bypass stations, larvae of brown trout showed significantly higher vitellogenin levels prior to the upgrade compared to negative control levels. Female brown trout exposed at the bypass station downstream of the WWTP showed decreased vitellogenin levels after the upgrade. In 1-year-old immature trout directly exposed to the respective effluents, no significant effects of the upgrades on vitellogenin levels were found. In general, larger effects were observed in brown trout than in rainbow trout, indicating that they are more sensitive test organisms.

  15. The accumulation of radioactive caesium from water by the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and its comparison with plaice and rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, C.J.; Jefferies, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    The patterns of accumulation of caesium-137 from water by the tissues and organs of the freshwater teleost, the brown trout (Salmo trutta) are described. Estimates of the biological half-times and steady-state concentrations are derived, using a simple exponential equation. In all tissues and organs examined, other than muscle, the rate processes of the trout fall between those of the plaice and the ray. It is concluded that most of the caesium accumulated by the brown trout from water enters other than by the gut, probably through the gills, but as with plaice and ray, the main source of the caesium, possibly 90%, must come from the food. Despite differences in the levels of accumulation, the ratios of the tissue to blood steady state concentrations were very similar in all three species. The steady state caesium concentration of the blood appeared to be directly related to the red blood cell count of the fish. (author)

  16. Patterns of cell proliferation and cell death in the developing retina and optic tectum of the brown trout.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candal, E.; Anadon, R.; Grip, W.J. de; Rodriguez-Moldes, I.

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the patterns of cell proliferation and cell death in the retina and optic tectum of the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) throughout embryonic and postembryonic stages. Cell proliferation was detected by immunohistochemistry with an antibody against the proliferating cell nuclear

  17. Short-term and long-term effects of transient exogenous cortisol manipulation on oxidative stress in juvenile brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, Kathryn S.; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    available for physiological functions like defence against oxidative stress. Using brown trout (Salmo trutta), we evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (4 months over winter) effects of exogenous cortisol manipulations (versus relevant shams and controls) on the oxidative status of wild juveniles...

  18. Parental genetic diversity of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario) brood stock affects offspring susceptibility to whirling disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eszterbauer, Edit; Forró, Barbara; Tolnai, Zoltán; Guti, Csaba Ferenc; Zsigmond, Gergely; Hoitsy, György; Kallert, Dennis Marc

    2015-03-03

    Whirling disease, caused by the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, has high economical and ecological importance worldwide. Susceptibility to the disease varies considerably among salmonid species. In brown trout (Salmo trutta) the infection is usually subclinical with low mortality, which increases the risk of parasite dissemination, especially when farm fish are used for stocking natural habitats. The influence of intraspecific genetic differences (especially the level of homozygosity) on susceptibility is unknown. Therefore, we examined the possible correlations between parental genetic diversity and offspring susceptibility of brown trout stocks to whirling disease. Two brown trout brood stocks from a German and a Hungarian fish farm were genetically characterized using microsatellite and lineage-specific genetic markers. The individual inbreeding coefficient f and pairwise relatedness factor r were estimated based on eight microsatellite markers. Brood stock populations were divided into groups according to low and high f and r value estimates and subjected to selective fertilization. The offspring from these separate groups were exposed to M. cerebralis actinospores, and the infection prevalence and intensity was measured and statistically analysed. The analysis of phylogeographic lineage heritage revealed high heterogeneity in the Hungarian brood stock since > 50% of individuals were Atlantic-Danubian hybrids, while only pure Atlantic-descending specimens were detected in the German population. Based on f msat and r msat estimations, classified non-inbred (NIB), inbred (IB) and a group of closely related fish (REL) were created. The susceptibility of their offspring varied considerably. Although there was no significant difference in the prevalence of M. cerebralis infection, the mean intensity of infection differed significantly between NIB and IB groups. In REL and IB groups, a high variability was observed in infection intensity. No external

  19. Uptake of 17β-estradiol and biomarker responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed to pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Jacob J.G.; Holbech, Henrik; Madsen, Steffen S.; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2011-01-01

    In streams, chemicals such as 17β-estradiol (E2) are likely to occur in pulses. We investigated uptake and biomarker responses in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) of 3- or 6-h pulses of concentrations up to 370 ng E2 L -1 . Uptake by the fish was estimated from disappearance of E2 from tank water. A single 6-h pulse of 370 ng E2 L -1 increased the plasma vitellogenin concentration, liver Erα- and vitellogenin-mRNA. Exposure to 150-160 ng E2 L -1 for 6 h increased vitellogenin in one experiment but not in another. Two 6-h pulses had a larger effect one pulse. Brown trout in the size range 24-74 g took up E2 linearly with time and exposure concentration with a concentration ratio rate of 20.2 h -1 . In conclusion, the threshold for induction of estrogenic effects in juvenile brown trout at short term pulse exposure appears to be in the range 150-200 ng E2 L -1 . - Highlights: → We investigated estrogenic effects of pulse exposure of 17β-estradiol in brown trout. → We used induction of vitellogenin and gene expression as biomarkers. → The threshold for effects after 6 h pulses ranges between 150 and 200 ng E2 L -1 . → E2 is taken up in ∼50 g fish linearly with time and concentration at 20 h -1 . - The threshold concentration for induction of estrogenic effects in brown trout upon short term (6 h) exposure is in the range 150-200 ng E2 L -1 .

  20. Assessing the suitable habitat for reintroduction of brown trout (Salmo trutta forma fario) in a lowland river: A modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Pieter; Gobeyn, Sacha; Dillen, Alain; Poelman, Eddy; Goethals, Peter L M

    2018-05-01

    Huge efforts have been made during the past decades to improve the water quality and to restore the physical habitat of rivers and streams in western Europe. This has led to an improvement in biological water quality and an increase in fish stocks in many countries. However, several rheophilic fish species such as brown trout are still categorized as vulnerable in lowland streams in Flanders (Belgium). In order to support cost-efficient restoration programs, habitat suitability modeling can be used. In this study, we developed an ensemble of habitat suitability models using metaheuristic algorithms to explore the importance of a large number of environmental variables, including chemical, physical, and hydromorphological characteristics to determine the suitable habitat for reintroduction of brown trout in the Zwalm River basin (Flanders, Belgium), which is included in the Habitats Directive. Mean stream velocity, water temperature, hiding opportunities, and presence of pools or riffles were identified as the most important variables determining the habitat suitability. Brown trout mainly preferred streams with a relatively high mean reach stream velocity (0.2-1 m/s), a low water temperature (7-15°C), and the presence of pools. The ensemble of models indicated that most of the tributaries and headwaters were suitable for the species. Synthesis and applications . Our results indicate that this modeling approach can be used to support river management, not only for brown trout but also for other species in similar geographical regions. Specifically for the Zwalm River basin, future restoration of the physical habitat, removal of the remaining migration barriers and the development of suitable spawning grounds could promote the successful restoration of brown trout.

  1. Uptake of 17{beta}-estradiol and biomarker responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) exposed to pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Jacob J.G.; Holbech, Henrik; Madsen, Steffen S. [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense (Denmark); Bjerregaard, Poul, E-mail: poul@biology.sdu.dk [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense (Denmark)

    2011-12-15

    In streams, chemicals such as 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) are likely to occur in pulses. We investigated uptake and biomarker responses in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) of 3- or 6-h pulses of concentrations up to 370 ng E2 L{sup -1}. Uptake by the fish was estimated from disappearance of E2 from tank water. A single 6-h pulse of 370 ng E2 L{sup -1} increased the plasma vitellogenin concentration, liver Er{alpha}- and vitellogenin-mRNA. Exposure to 150-160 ng E2 L{sup -1} for 6 h increased vitellogenin in one experiment but not in another. Two 6-h pulses had a larger effect one pulse. Brown trout in the size range 24-74 g took up E2 linearly with time and exposure concentration with a concentration ratio rate of 20.2 h{sup -1}. In conclusion, the threshold for induction of estrogenic effects in juvenile brown trout at short term pulse exposure appears to be in the range 150-200 ng E2 L{sup -1}. - Highlights: > We investigated estrogenic effects of pulse exposure of 17{beta}-estradiol in brown trout. > We used induction of vitellogenin and gene expression as biomarkers. > The threshold for effects after 6 h pulses ranges between 150 and 200 ng E2 L{sup -1}. > E2 is taken up in {approx}50 g fish linearly with time and concentration at 20 h{sup -1}. - The threshold concentration for induction of estrogenic effects in brown trout upon short term (6 h) exposure is in the range 150-200 ng E2 L{sup -1}.

  2. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The impact of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset...... began during the first weeks of embryonic development. Few consistent effects were found on the sex differentiation of the brown trout. Only one intersex fish (4.5%) was found among male fish at 400 dpf exposed to 500 ng E2/l. Females with male germ cells among the normally developing oocytes were...... observed in all groups (in up to 50% of the female fish, independently of exposure regime). The fact that exposure to 500 ng E2/l only caused subtle effects in a small number of individuals indicates that exposure during early life stages results in little to no induction of endocrine disruption in brown...

  3. Morphological, physiological and dietary covariation in migratory and resident adult brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiman, Kathryn S; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin H; Colborne, Scott F; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Aarestrup, Kim; Willmore, William G; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-08-01

    The causes and consequences of trait relationships within and among the categories of physiology, morphology, and life-history remain poorly studied. Few studies cross the boundaries of these categories, and recent reviews have pointed out not only the dearth of evidence for among-category correlations but that trait relationships may change depending on the ecological conditions a population faces. We examined changes in mean values and correlations between traits in a partially migrant population of brown trout when migrant sea-run and resident stream forms were breeding sympatrically. Within each sex and life-history strategy group, we used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to assess trophic level and habitat use; assessed morphology which reflects swimming and foraging ability; measured circulating cortisol as it is released in response to stressors and is involved in the transition from salt to freshwater; and determined oxidative status by measuring oxidative stress and antioxidants. We found that sea-run trout were larger and had higher values of stable isotopes, cortisol and oxidative stress compared to residents. Most groups showed some correlations between morphology and diet, indicating individual resource specialization was occurring, and we found consistent correlations between morphology and cortisol. Additionally, relationships differed between the sexes (cortisol and oxidative status were related in females but not males) and between life-history strategies (habitat use was related to oxidative status in male sea-run trout but not in either sex of residents). The differing patterns of covariation between the two life-history strategies and between the sexes suggest that the relationships among phenotypic traits are subjected to different selection pressures, illustrating the importance of integrating multiple phenotypic measures across different trait categories and contrasting life-history strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  4. P-gp expression levels in the erythrocytes of brown trout: a new tool for aquatic sentinel biomarker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valton, Emeline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Amblard, Christian; Combourieu, Bruno; Bayle, Marie-Laure; Desmolles, François; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2017-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a ubiquitous membrane detoxification pump involved in cellular defence against xenobiotics. Blood is a hub for the trade and transport of physiological molecules and xenobiotics. Our recent studies have highlighted the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in brown trout erythrocytes in primary cell culture and its dose-dependent response to Benzo[a]pyrene pollutant. The purpose of this study was focused on using P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes as a biomarker for detecting the degree of river pollution. abcb1 gene and P-gp expression level were analysed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blot, in the erythrocytes of brown trouts. The latter were collected in upstream and downstream of four rivers in which 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 348 varieties of pesticides micro-residues were analysed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The abcb1 gene and the 140-kDa P-gp were not expressed in trout erythrocytes from uncontaminated river. In contrast, they are clearly expressed in contaminated rivers, in correlation with the river pollution degree and the nature of the pollutants. This biological tool may offer considerable advantages since it provides an effective response to the increasing need for an early biomarker.

  5. The complete mitogenome of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and its phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prabhati K; Singh, Lalit; Sharma, Lata; Kumar, Rohit; Singh, Vijay K; Ali, S; Singh, Atul K; Barat, Ashoktaru

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Salmo trutta fario, commonly known as brown trout, was sequenced using NGS technology. The mitochondrial genome size was determined to be 16 677 bp and composed of 13 protein-coding gene (PCG), 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 putative control region. The overall mitogenome composition of S. trutta fario is A: 28.13%, G: 16.44%, C: 29.47%, and T: 25.96% with A + T content of 54.09% and G + C content of 45.91%. The gene arrangement and the order are similar to other vertebrates. The phylogenetic tree constructed using 42 complete mitogenomes of Salmonidae fishes confirmed the position of the present species under the genus Salmo of subfamily Salmoninae. NGS platform was proved to be a rapid and time-saving technology to reveal complete mitogenomes.

  6. Detecting Renibacterium salmoninarum in wild brown trout by use of multiple organ samples and diagnostic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guomundsdottir, S.; Applegate, Lynn M.; Arnason, I.O.; Kristmundsson, A.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2017-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease (BKD), is endemic in many wild trout species in northerly regions. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal R. salmoninarum sampling/testing strategy for wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations in Iceland. Fish were netted in a lake and multiple organs—kidney, spleen, gills, oesophagus and mid-gut—were sampled and subjected to five detection tests i.e. culture, polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pELISA) and three different PCR tests. The results showed that each fish had encountered R. salmoninarum but there were marked differences between results obtained depending on organ and test. The bacterium was not cultured from any kidney sample while all kidney samples were positive by pELISA. At least one organ from 92.9% of the fish tested positive by PCR. The results demonstrated that the choice of tissue and diagnostic method can dramatically influence the outcome of R. salmoninarum surveys.

  7. Differential metabolic profiles associated to movement behaviour of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Oromi

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that can contribute in the fish movement strategies and the associated behaviour can be complex and related to the physiology, genetic and ecology of each species. In the case of the brown trout (Salmo trutta, in recent research works, individual differences in mobility have been observed in a population living in a high mountain river reach (Pyrenees, NE Spain. The population is mostly sedentary but a small percentage of individuals exhibit a mobile behavior, mainly upstream movements. Metabolomics can reflect changes in the physiological process and can determine different profiles depending on behaviour. Here, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to find possible changes in the blood metabolomic profile of S. trutta related to its movement behaviour, using a minimally invasive sampling. Results showed a differentiation in the metabolomic profiles of the trouts and different level concentrations of some metabolites (e.g. cortisol according to the home range classification (pattern of movements: sedentary or mobile. The change in metabolomic profiles can generally occur during the upstream movement and probably reflects the changes in metabolite profile from the non-mobile season to mobile season. This study reveals the contribution of the metabolomic analyses to better understand the behaviour of organisms.

  8. Differential metabolic profiles associated to movement behaviour of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oromi, Neus; Jové, Mariona; Pascual-Pons, Mariona; Royo, Jose Luis; Rocaspana, Rafel; Aparicio, Enric; Pamplona, Reinald; Palau, Antoni; Sanuy, Delfi; Fibla, Joan; Portero-Otin, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that can contribute in the fish movement strategies and the associated behaviour can be complex and related to the physiology, genetic and ecology of each species. In the case of the brown trout (Salmo trutta), in recent research works, individual differences in mobility have been observed in a population living in a high mountain river reach (Pyrenees, NE Spain). The population is mostly sedentary but a small percentage of individuals exhibit a mobile behavior, mainly upstream movements. Metabolomics can reflect changes in the physiological process and can determine different profiles depending on behaviour. Here, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to find possible changes in the blood metabolomic profile of S. trutta related to its movement behaviour, using a minimally invasive sampling. Results showed a differentiation in the metabolomic profiles of the trouts and different level concentrations of some metabolites (e.g. cortisol) according to the home range classification (pattern of movements: sedentary or mobile). The change in metabolomic profiles can generally occur during the upstream movement and probably reflects the changes in metabolite profile from the non-mobile season to mobile season. This study reveals the contribution of the metabolomic analyses to better understand the behaviour of organisms.

  9. The problem of sampling families rather than populations: Relatedness among individuals in samples of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    1997-01-01

    In species exhibiting a nonrandom distribution of closely related individuals, sampling of a few families may lead to biased estimates of allele frequencies in populations. This problem was studied in two brown trout populations, based on analysis of mtDNA and microsatellites. In both samples mt......DNA haplotype frequencies differed significantly between age classes, and in one sample 17 out of 18 individuals less than 1 year of age shared one particular mtDNA haplotype. Estimates of relatedness showed that these individuals most likely represented only three full-sib families. Older trout exhibiting...

  10. Spatially and temporally fluctuating selection at non-MHC immune genes: evidence from TAP polymorphism in populations of brown trout ( Salmo trutta , L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.F.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2008-01-01

    Temporal samples of Danish brown trout (Salmo trutta) from populations representing varying geographical scales were analysed using eight putatively neutral microsatellite loci and two microsatellite loci embedded in TAP genes (Transporter associated with Antigen Processing). These genes encode m...

  11. Genetic variation in brown trout Salmo trutta across the Danube, Rhine, and Elbe headwaters: a failure of the phylogeographic paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerceteau-Köhler, Estelle; Schliewen, Ulrich; Kopun, Theodora; Weiss, Steven

    2013-08-26

    Brown trout Salmo trutta have been described in terms of five major mtDNA lineages, four of which correspond to major ocean basins, and one, according to some authors, to a distinct taxon, marbled trout Salmo marmoratus. The Atlantic and Danubian lineages of brown trout meet in a poorly documented contact zone in Central Europe. The natural versus human mediated origin of the Atlantic lineage in the upper Danube is a question of both theoretical and practical importance with respect to conservation management. We provide a comprehensive population genetic analysis of brown trout in the region with the aim of evaluating the geographic distribution and genetic integrity of these two lineages in and around their contact zone. Genetic screening of 114 populations of brown trout across the Danube/Rhine/Elbe catchments revealed a counter-intuitive phylogeographic structure with near fixation of the Atlantic lineage in the sampled portions of the Bavarian Danube. Along the Austrian Danube, phylogeographic informative markers revealed increasing percentages of Danube-specific alleles with downstream distance. Pure Danube lineage populations were restricted to peri-alpine isolates within previously glaciated regions. Both empirical data and simulated hybrid comparisons support that trout in non-glaciated regions north and northeast of the Alps have an admixed origin largely based on natural colonization. In contrast, the presence of Atlantic basin alleles south and southeast of the Alps stems from hatchery introductions and subsequent introgression. Despite extensive stocking of the Atlantic lineage, little evidence of first generation stocked fish or F1 hybrids were found implying that admixture has been established over time. A purely phylogeographic paradigm fails to describe the distribution of genetic lineages of Salmo in Central Europe. The distribution pattern of the Atlantic and Danube lineages is extremely difficult to explain without invoking very strong

  12. Relationship between gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and downstream movement in domesticated and first-generation offspring of wild anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Nielsen, C.; Madsen, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between smolt status and downstream movement following release was investigated in two stocks of hatchery- reared anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta). Yearlings from a domesticated stock (DS) and first-generation offspring (F1) of wild anadromous trout were held under identical...

  13. Genetic variation within and among Danish brown trout ( Salmo trutta L) hatchery strains, assessed by PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Rasmussen, Gorm

    1997-01-01

    Eleven Danish brown trout hatchery strains were studied by PCR- RFLP analysis of the ND-I and ND-5/6 segments of the mitochondrial genome. For comparison, data from wild trout representing three Danish river systems also were included. Reduced variability in terms of nucleon diversity and number...

  14. The effect of metal pollution on the population genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) residing in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Christopher J.; Stevens, Jamie R.; Hogstrand, Christer; Bury, Nicolas R.

    2011-01-01

    The River Hayle in south-west England is impacted with metals and can be divided into three regions depending on the copper and zinc concentrations: a low-metal upper section; a highly-contaminated middle section and a moderately contaminated lower section. Hayle river water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout, but brown trout are found in the upper and lower regions. The study aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure of River Hayle brown trout and to determine if the highly-contaminated section acts as a chemical barrier to migration. Population genetic analysis indicated that metals were not a barrier to gene flow within the river, but there was a high level of differentiation observed between fish sampled at two sites in the upper region, despite being separated by only 1 km. The metal tolerance trait exhibited by this brown trout population may represent an important component of the species genetic diversity in this region. - Highlights: → River Hayle, Cornwall, UK, water is toxic to metal-naive brown trout. → Some brown trout populations resident in the River Hayle are tolerant of elevated metals (e.g. copper and zinc). → Elevated metals do not affect the gene flow between sites on the river. → The population genetic structure of the brown trout in the River Hayle appears unaffected by elevated metals. - Aquatic metal pollution does not affect the gene flow between brown trout resident below and above a metal mining waste discharge point in the River Hayle, Cornwall, UK.

  15. On behavioural responses to smell and sight of alpine bullhead Cottus poecilopus Heckel for an allopatric and a sympatric population of brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Joakim

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater sculpins and salmonids coexist in many streams throughout the Northern hemisphere, and often constitute an important component of stream ecosystems. Alpine bullhead Cottus poecilopus Heckel have been known to predate eggs and fry of brown trout Salmo trutta L., and also to function as a competitor to older brown trout for habitat and prey items. This study was designed to examine possible behavioural differences in activity level and positioning between a sympatric and an allopatri...

  16. Influence of drought conditions on brown trout biomass and size structure in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of drought conditions on the biomass of brown trout Salmo trutta in Spearfish Creek, upper Rapid Creek, and lower Rapid Creek in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Stream discharge, mean summer water temperature, the biomass of juvenile and adult brown trout, and brown trout size structure were compared between two time periods: early (2000–2002) and late drought (2005–2007). Mean summer water temperatures were similar between the early- and late-drought periods in Spearfish Creek (12.4°C versus 11.5°C), lower Rapid Creek (19.2°C versus 19.3°C), and upper Rapid Creek (9.8°C in both periods). In contrast, mean annual discharge differed significantly between the two time periods in Spearfish Creek (1.95 versus 1.50 m3/s), lower Rapid Creek (2.01 versus 0.94 m3/s), and upper Rapid Creek (1.41 versus 0.84 m3/s). The mean biomass of adult brown trout in all three stream sections was significantly higher in the early-drought than in the late-drought period (238 versus 69 kg/ha in Spearfish Creek, 272 versus 91 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and 159 versus 32 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek). The biomass of juvenile brown trout was similar (43 versus 23 kg/ha) in Spearfish Creek in the two periods, declined from 136 to 45 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and increased from 14 to 73 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek. Size structure did not differ between the early- and late-drought periods in lower Rapid and Spearfish creeks, but it did in upper Rapid Creek. In addition to drought conditions, factors such as angler harvest, fish movements, and the nuisance algal species Didymosphenia geminata are discussed as possible contributors to the observed changes in brown trout biomass and size structure in Black Hills streams.

  17. Genetic Background and Population Genetics of Hungarian Brown Trout Populations Using PCR-RFLP and Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Ősz

    2015-12-01

    4 University of West Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár Vár 2., 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary Based on the analyses of the mitochondrial DNA of several European brown trout populations, five evolutionary lineages of brown trout were indentified (Atlantic, Danubian, Mediterranean, Adriatic, Marble. The species is bred primarily for stock enhancement of natural waters, however the most hatchery-maintained broodstocks originate from the Atlantic lineage. Due to the hydrogeography of Hungary our stocks should theoretically belong to the Danubian lineage; however, this has not been investigated earlier by genetic studies. For our genetic analysis, 702 fin clips were collected from two brown trout broodstocks (Lillafüred and Szilvásvárad as well as populations of natural streams (Bán, Jósva, Kemence, Apátkút, Bittva and Kölöntés in Hungary. Sequencing of the control region in mitochondrial DNA, three PCR-RFLP (mitochondrial DNA control region, lactate dehydrogenase and somatolactin genes and five microsatellite markers were used to distinguish between Danubian and Atlantic lineages of brown trout. The proportion of the mitochondrial haplotype of the Danubian lineage was low, with the exception of the Apátkúti, Kölöntés streams and Szilvásvárad broodstock. Analyses of nuclear PCR-RFLP and microsatellites markers showed various distributions of alleles characteristic of the Atlantic or Danubian lineages, although the Atlantic genotype has dominated in all population. In case of the analyses of microsatellites the polymorphism varied greatly at all locations. In addition we found several alleles that were not described earlier in other populations. Those alleles probably would be typical of Hungarian brown trout populations. Overall the populations were effectively in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both PCR-RFLP and microsatellite markers. The remarkably high proportion of allochthonous Atlantic alleles in the analyzed sites is a clear indicator of the import

  18. Climate and land-use changes affecting river sediment and brown trout in alpine countries--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Karin; Alewell, Christine; Bänninger, Dominik; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2009-03-01

    Catch decline of freshwater fish has been recorded in several countries. Among the possible causes, habitat change is discussed. This article focuses on potentially increased levels of fine sediments going to rivers and their effects on gravel-spawning brown trout. Indications of increased erosion rates are evident from land-use change in agriculture, changes in forest management practices, and from climate change. The latter induces an increase in air and river water temperatures, reduction in permafrost, changes in snow dynamics and an increase in heavy rain events. As a result, an increase in river sediment is likely. Suspended sediment may affect fish health and behaviour directly. Furthermore, sediment loads may clog gravel beds impeding fish such as brown trout from spawning and reducing recruitment rates. To assess the potential impact on fine sediments, knowledge of brown trout reproductive needs and the effects of sediment on brown trout health were evaluated. We critically reviewed the literature and included results from ongoing studies to answer the following questions, focusing on recent decades and rivers in alpine countries. Have climate change and land-use change increased erosion and sediment loads in rivers? Do we have indications of an increase in riverbed clogging? Are there indications of direct or indirect effects on brown trout from increased suspended sediment concentrations in rivers or from an increase in riverbed clogging? Rising air temperatures have led to more intensive precipitation in winter months, earlier snow melt in spring, and rising snow lines and hence to increased erosion. Intensification of land use has supported erosion in lowland and pre-alpine areas in the second half of the twentieth century. In the Alps, however, reforestation of abandoned land at high altitudes might reduce the erosion risk while intensification on the lower, more easily accessible slopes increases erosion risk. Data from laboratory experiments show

  19. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... period. Fish composition in the rivers before stocking was assessed by electrofishing. In River Trend, a typical trout river, the proportion of trout in the otter diet increased from 8% before stocking to 33% a few days after stocking. Moreover, trout lengths in the diet changed significantly towards...... the lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish...

  20. Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae infection affects the expression of genes involved in cellular signal transduction and iron metabolism in the kidney of the brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Sarker, Subhodeep; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is an enigmatic endoparasite which causes proliferative kidney disease in various species of salmonids in Europe and North America. The life cycle of the European strain of T. bryosalmonae generally completes in an invertebrate host freshwater bryozoan and vertebrate host brown trout (Salmo trutta) Linnaeus, 1758. Little is known about the gene expression in the kidney of brown trout during the developmental stages of T. bryosalmonae. In the present study, quantitative real-time PCR was applied to quantify the target genes of interest in the kidney of brown trout at different time points of T. bryosalmonae development. PCR primers specific for target genes were designed and optimized, and their gene expression levels were quantified in the cDNA kidney samples using SYBR Green Supermix. Expression of Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta, integral membrane protein 2B, NADH dehydrogenase 1 beta subcomplex subunit 6, and 26S protease regulatory subunit S10B were upregulated significantly in infected brown trout, while the expression of the ferritin M middle subunit was downregulated significantly. These results suggest that host genes involved in cellular signal transduction, proteasomal activities, including membrane transporters and cellular iron storage, are differentially upregulated or downregulated in the kidney of brown trout during parasite development. The gene expression pattern of infected renal tissue may support the development of intraluminal sporogonic stages of T. bryosalmonae in the renal tubular lumen of brown trout which may facilitate the release of viable parasite spores to transmit to the invertebrate host bryozoan.

  1. Impact of groundwater abstraction on physical habitat of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small Danish stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.; Bøgh, E.; Pedersen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of groundwater abstraction on stream discharge and physical habitat conditions for brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a small Danish stream. Stream discharge was simulated using a lumped hydrological model (NAM) and a scenario was set up for stream...... discharge reference conditions. Stream physical habitat conditions (WUA) were simulated for four life stages of trout using a hydraulic habitat model (RHYHABSIM). The impact of groundwater abstraction on WUA for trout was assessed by combined simulations from the NAM-model and the RHYHABSIM-model. The model...... predicted that groundwater abstraction reduced median annual discharge by 37 % and mean annual 90th percentile discharge by 82 %. Summer discharge was relatively most affected by groundwater abstraction (66 % reduction of median discharge) and WUA was therefore particularly affected by groundwater...

  2. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn

    2007-01-01

    Effects of artificial salmon lice infection and pharmaceutical salmon lice prophylaxis on survival and rate of progression of Atlantic salmon (n = 72) and brown trout post-smolts (n = 72) during their fjord migration, were studied by telemetry. The infected groups were artificially exposed...... to infective salmon lice larvae in the laboratory immediately before release in the inner part of the fjord to simulate a naturally high infection pressure. Groups of infected Atlantic salmon (n = 20) and brown trout (n = 12) were also retained in the hatchery to control the infection intensity and lice...... development during the study period. Neither salmon lice infection nor pharmaceutical prophylaxis had any effects on survival and rate of progression of fjord migrating Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to control fish. Atlantic salmon spent on average only 151.2 h (maximum 207.3 h) in passing the 80 km...

  3. The sexually dimorphic adipose fin is an androgen target tissue in the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisar, Olcay; Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Hisar, Şükriye Aras; Budak, Harun; Gültepe, Nejdet

    2013-04-01

    An investigation has been described on the relationship of body length, age and sex with adipose fin length and the number of androgen receptor (AR)-containing cells in the adipose fin as a secondary sexual characteristic for brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Firstly, body and adipose fin lengths of 2- to 5-year-old brown trout were measured. Thereafter, these fish were killed by decapitation, then their sexes were determined, and adipose fins were excised. The cellular bases of AR binding activities in the adipose fins were analyzed with an antibody against human/rat AR peptide. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting techniques were performed with this antibody. Analysis of morphological measurements indicated that body length and age had a linear relationship with adipose fin length. The coefficients of determination for the body length and age were 0.92 and 0.85 in the male fish and 0.76 and 0.73 in the female fish against the adipose fin length, respectively. At 2 years of age, cells in the adipose fin did not exhibit AR immunoreactivity. However, AR-immunopositive cells were abundant in the adipose fin of 3- to 5-year-old fish. Moreover, the number of AR-immunopositive cells was significantly (P brown trout is a probable target for androgen action and that tissue function or development may to some extent be androgen dependent. In addition, it is likely that such an effect will be mediated by specific androgen receptors.

  4. First record of proliferative kidney disease agent Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in wild brown trout and European grayling in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasemägi, Anti; Nousiainen, Ilkka; Saura, Ari; Vähä, Juha-Pekka; Valjus, Jorma; Huusko, Ari

    2017-06-19

    The myxozoan endoparasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae causes temperature-driven proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in salmonid fishes. Despite the economic and ecological importance of PKD, information about the distribution of the parasite is still scarce. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of T. bryosalmonae in wild brown trout Salmo trutta and European grayling Thymallus thymallus populations in Finland. We detected T. bryosalmonae at high prevalence in both brown trout and European grayling from the transboundary Finnish-Russian River Koutajoki system (Rivers Oulankajoki, Kuusinkijoki, Kitkajoki, Maaninkajoki, and Juumajoki) in north-eastern Finland. In southern Finland, T. bryosalmonae was detected in River Siuntionjoki young-of-the-year brown trout collected both in 2015 and 2016 (100% prevalence), while the parasite was not observed in fish from 3 other rivers (Ingarskila, Mustajoki, and Vantaanjoki) flowing to the Gulf of Finland. Our results, together with those from recent studies of Atlantic salmon, indicate that T. bryosalmonae is distributed over much higher latitudes in northern Europe than previously appreciated. We expect that increasing water temperatures will likely cause new PKD outbreaks in these more northerly regions in the future.

  5. Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account.

  6. Food resources and trophic relationships of brown, rainbow trout and european grayling in different habitats of Shypit river of the Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruzhylina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study food resources, feeding conditions and trophic relationships of the brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha fario, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, and European grayling (Thymallus thymallus in a Transcarpatioan river. Methodology. The material on the food resources and feeding of the brown trout, rainbow trout, and European grayling was collected in summer period of 2012 on the Shypit river. The study was performed on two different sites of the river: the first one was located on the middle pre-mountain reach of the river (upstream of the Hydroelectric power plant, the second one – on the mountain reach of the river (near tourist base on typical biotopes: I – with boulders and riffles with fast current; II – with medium size stones and low riffles with moderate current; III – with small stones, sand and slow current. The material was collected and processed according to standard and unified hydrological, ichthyological, and trophological methods. Findings. We studied the level of macrozoobenthos development and obtained data on feeding and trophic relationships among brown trout, rainbow trout, and European grayling on different biotopes on pre-mountain and mountain reaches of the Shypit river. The number of “soft” macrozoobenthos on different biotopes varied from 972 to 2576 ind./m2 with biomasses from 6.3 to 121.8 g/m2. Total diet overlap index (DOI between brown trout and rainbow trout on the biotope with boulders and fast current in the pre-mountain reach was 32.4% by number and 20.3% by biomass, while that on the mountain reach was 49.6% and 52.9%, respectively. On the biotope with medium size stones and moderate current, the diet overlap index between rainbow trout and European grayling in the pre-mountain reach was 19.0% by number and 27.9% by biomass. Originality. First study of the diet and tropic relationships of the brown trout, rainbow trout, and еuropean grayling on different reached of the Shypit river

  7. Seasonal comparison of wild and farmed brown trout (Salmo trutta forma fario L., 1758): crude lipid, gonadosomatic index and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yalçin; Erdem, Mehmet Emіn

    2009-08-01

    Brown trout is one of the most preferred wild freshwater fish species in the east Black Sea region (Turkey) due to its nutritional value and palatable aroma as well as being popular for sport fishing. In this research, seasonal variations in the crude lipid, gonadosomatic index and fatty acid composition of wild and farmed brown trout were investigated. The spawning period of wild and farmed brown trout appears to be from August to October and from October to January, respectively. The mean crude lipid content in farmed brown trout (3.62%) was significantly higher (P≤0.05) than that of wild brown trout (2.80%). Significant seasonal differences (P≤0.05) in crude lipid content were observed in both fish. The percentage of total saturated fatty acids was similar (P≥0.05) in both fish. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids were higher (P≤0.05) in the wild brown trout compared with the farmed brown trout, while its total monounsaturated fatty acids content was lower (P≤0.05). The muscle lipids of wild fish contained significantly (P≤0.05) higher percentages of C16:1n-7, C17:1n-7, C18:3n-3, C20:2n-6, C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:2n-6 fatty acids and contained lower percentages of C14:0, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, C20:1n-9, C24:1n-9 and C22:6n-3 fatty acids than farmed fish. The total amounts of n-3 fatty acids in wild fish were higher than in farmed fish, but total amounts of n-6 fatty acids in farmed fish were higher than in wild fish. The n3/n6 proportion in wild fish was higher than that of farmed fish.

  8. Effects of temperature on feed intake and plasma chemistry after exhaustive exercise in triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Andrew C; Taylor, John F; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Hansen, Tom; Migaud, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    The physiological effect of temperature on feed intake and haematological parameters after exhaustive swimming in diploid and triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta) was investigated. Trout were exposed to an incremental temperature challenge (2 °C/day) from ambient (6 °C) to either 10 or 19 °C. Feed intake profiles did not differ between ploidy at 10 °C; however, triploids had a significantly higher total feed intake at 19 °C. After 24 days, each temperature-ploidy group was exposed to exhaustive swimming for 10 min. The haematological response differed between ploidy, with the magnitude of the response affected by temperature and ploidy. Post-exercise, acid-base and ionic differences were observed. Plasma lactate increased significantly from rest for both temperature and ploidy groups, but glucose increased significantly at higher temperature. Post-exercise, triploids at 19 °C had significantly higher osmolality and cholesterol than diploids, but differences were resumed within 4 h. Elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in fish at higher temperature suggested greater tissue damage; however, both ploidy responded similarly. Despite no significant differences in deformity prevalence, the type and location of deformities observed differed between ploidy (decreased intervertebral space with higher prevalence in tail area and fin regions for diploids, while vertebral compression, fusion in cranial and caudal trunks for triploids). These results suggest triploids have greater appetite than diploids at elevated temperature and that triploids suffer similar blood disturbances after exercise as diploids. These findings have implications for the management of freshwater ecosystems and suggest that stocking triploid brown trout may offer an alternative to diploid brown trout.

  9. Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Jason M; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) spills account for approximately 60% of ship-source oil spills and are up to 50 times more toxic than medium and light crude oils. Heavy fuel oils contain elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-PAHs, known to be toxic to fish; however, little direct characterization of HFO toxicity has been reported. An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO 7102 to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including toxicity, to isolate the groups of compounds most toxic to trout embryos. After each separation, toxicity tests directed the next phase of fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis correlated composition with toxicity, with a focus on PAHs. Low-temperature vacuum distillation permitted the separation of HFO into 3 fractions based on boiling point ranges. The most toxic of these fractions underwent wax precipitation to remove long-chain n-alkanes. The remaining PAH-rich extract was further separated using open column chromatography, which provided distinct fractions that were grouped according to increasing aromatic ring count. The most toxic of these fractions was richest in PAHs and alkyl-PAHs. The results of the present study were consistent with previous crude oil studies that identified PAH-rich fractions as the most toxic. © 2013 SETAC.

  10. Morphological Traits of Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta Fario from Fiad Trout Farm, Bistrița-Năsăud County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul UIUIU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this this study was to complete the data from the specialized literature regarding some morphological charactersof male and female breeders of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario, exploited in Fiad trout farm, Bistrița-Năsăud County, Romania. The body mass (Bm of males ranged from 0.67 kg to 1.39 kg with a mean value of 0.96 ±0.07 kg. The body mass of females (Bm ranged from 0.50 kg to 0.90 kg with a mean value of 0.73±0.04 kg. In terms of descriptive statistics, the values of variability of studied characters, both males and females, are low. This low variability, shows the existence of a good homogeneity of the breeding group from Fiad trout farm.The One-Way ANOVA analysis showed that there is no statistically significance difference for the means of studied characters, except for commercial length and small perimeter of fishes. The results of t-test for showed that there is a statistically significance difference between the measurements and the gender of the specimens.

  11. Population dynamics of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Spruce Creek Pennsylvania: A quarter-century perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gary D.; Carline, Robert F.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between density-independent and density-dependent factors on the demography of a dense, relatively unexploited population of brown trout in Spruce Creek Pennsylvania between 1985 and 2011.Individual PCAs of flow and temperature data elucidated groups of years with multiple high flow versus multiple low flow characteristics and high versus low temperature years, although subtler patterns of variation also were observed.Density and biomass displayed similar temporal patterns, ranging from 710 to 1,803 trout/ha and 76–263 kg/ha. We detected a significantly negative linear stock-recruitment relationship (R2 = .39) and there was no evidence that flow or water temperature affected recruitment.Both annual survival and the per-capita rate of increase (r) for the population varied over the study, and density-dependent mechanisms possessed the greatest explanatory power for annual survival data. Temporal trends in population r suggested it displayed a bounded equilibrium with increases observed in 12 years and decreases detected in 13 years.Model selection analysis of per-capita rate of increase data for age 1, and adults (N = eight interpretable models) indicated that both density-dependent (five of eight) and negative density-independent processes (five of eight, i.e. high flows or temperatures), affected r. Recruitment limitation also was identified in three of eight models. Variation in the per-capita rate of increase for the population was most strongly affected by positive density independence in the form of increasing spring–summer temperatures and recruitment limitation.Model selection analyses describing annual variation in both mean length and mass data yielded similar results, although maximum wi values were low ranging from 0.09 to 0.23 (length) and 0.13 to 0.22 (mass). Density-dependence was included in 15 of 15 interpretable models for length and all ten interpretable models for mass. Similarly, positive density

  12. Three brown trout Salmo trutta lineages in Corsica described through allozyme variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrebi, P

    2015-01-01

    The brown trout Salmo trutta is represented by three lineages in Corsica: (1) an ancestral Corsican lineage, (2) a Mediterranean lineage and (3) a recently stocked domestic Atlantic S. trutta lineage (all are interfertile); the main focus of this study was the ancestral Corsican S. trutta, but the other lineages were also considered. A total of 38 samples captured between 1993 and 1998 were analysed, with nearly 1000 individuals considered overall. The Corsican ancestral lineage (Adriatic lineage according to the mitochondrial DNA control region nomenclature, AD) mostly inhabits streams in the southern half of the island; the Mediterranean lineage (ME) is present more in the north, especially in Golu River, but most populations are an admixture of these lineages and the domestic Atlantic S. trutta (AT). Locations where the Corsican ancestral S. trutta is dominant are now protected against stocking and sometimes fishing is also forbidden. The presence of the Corsican S. trutta is unique in France. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Occurrence and variation of egg cannibalism in brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymes, Jean-Christophe; Larrieu, Maider; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Egg cannibalism is a common behavior among fish taxa and is largely studied in species with parental care. Heterocannibalism and filial cannibalism have both been reported in salmonids, a group with no extended parental care, but the topic remained somewhat under-documented, especially in brown trout ( Salmo trutta). In the present study, 83 spawning events were recorded finely with high-resolution video in three natural populations. Redd covering dynamics by females and the timing of cannibalism showed that eggs were vulnerable mainly during the first 120 s after spawning. Cannibalism occurred in 25% of spawnings and was principally perpetrated by peripherals but the sires also cannibalized their brood, especially after multiple mating. The probability of cannibalism increased with operational sex ratio but did not correlate with the date in spawning season. Occurrence of cannibalism also differed between populations. Our results suggest that such behavior is frequent and may reduce the fitness of parents. Its evolutionary implications for population ecology should be considered, since it appeared to be controlled by environmental and spatial factors.

  14. Ecotoxicological impact of highway runoff using brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) as an indicator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meland, Sondre; Salbu, Brit; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav

    2010-03-01

    The ecotoxicological impact of highway runoff on brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) was studied in an in situ experiment consisting of four 24 h simulated runoff episodes. Fish were maintained in 5 tanks and exposed to highway runoff from a sedimentation pond close to E6 outside the city of Oslo, Norway. The tanks had the following contaminant loadings during the episodes: stream water (control), pond inlet, pond outlet, pond inlet + stream water and pond outlet + stream water. Opposite to road salt and compared to earlier findings, the first two episodes had rather low concentrations of trace metals, hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A heavy rainfall before episode 3 increased the concentrations of all the contaminants except road salt which was diluted. In addition, lowered oxygen levels led to hypoxic conditions. Overall the fish exposed to highway runoff had, compared to the control fish, higher concentrations of trace metals in gills and liver, increased activity of the antioxidant defense system represented by superoxide dismutase, catalase and metallothionein, problems with the regulation of plasma Cl and Na, as well as increased levels of blood glucose and pCO(2). Finally, this seemed to affect the metabolism of the fish through reduced condition factor. The observed effects were likely caused by multiple stressors and not by a single contaminant. The sedimentation pond clearly reduced the toxicity of the highway runoff. But even in the least polluted exposure tank (pond outlet + stream water) signs of physiological disturbances were evident.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in brown trout: Interference of estrogenic and androgenic inputs in primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Célia; Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Ferreira, Nádia; Pinheiro, Ivone; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a pivotal regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism in vertebrates. Here, we isolated and characterized for the first time the PPARγ gene from brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario). Hormones have been reported to interfere with the regulatory function of PPARγ in various organisms, albeit with little focus on fish. Thus, primary hepatocytes isolated from juveniles of brown trout were exposed to 1, 10 and 50μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2) or testosterone (T). A significant (3 fold) decrease was obtained in response to 50μM of EE2 and to 10 and 50μM of T (13 and 14 folds), while a 3 fold increase was observed at 1μM of EE2. Therefore, trout PPARγ seems a target for natural/synthetic compounds with estrogenic or androgenic properties and so, we advocate considering PPARγ as another alert sensor gene when assessing the effects of sex-steroid endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Dense Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) Linkage Map Reveals Recent Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Salmo Genus and the Impact of Selection on Linked Neutral Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitwein, Maeva; Guinand, Bruno; Pouzadoux, Juliette; Desmarais, Erick; Berrebi, Patrick; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    High-density linkage maps are valuable tools for conservation and eco-evolutionary issues. In salmonids, a complex rediploidization process consecutive to an ancient whole genome duplication event makes linkage maps of prime importance for investigating the evolutionary history of chromosome rearrangements. Here, we developed a high-density consensus linkage map for the brown trout (Salmo trutta), a socioeconomically important species heavily impacted by human activities. A total of 3977 ddRAD markers were mapped and ordered in 40 linkage groups using sex- and lineage-averaged recombination distances obtained from two family crosses. Performing map comparison between S. trutta and its sister species, S. salar, revealed extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Strikingly, all of the fusion and fission events that occurred after the S. salar/S. trutta speciation happened in the Atlantic salmon branch, whereas the brown trout remained closer to the ancestral chromosome structure. Using the strongly conserved synteny within chromosome arms, we aligned the brown trout linkage map to the Atlantic salmon genome sequence to estimate the local recombination rate in S. trutta at 3721 loci. A significant positive correlation between recombination rate and within-population nucleotide diversity (π) was found, indicating that selection constrains variation at linked neutral sites in brown trout. This new high-density linkage map provides a useful genomic resource for future aquaculture, conservation, and eco-evolutionary studies in brown trout. PMID:28235829

  17. A Dense Brown Trout (Salmo trutta Linkage Map Reveals Recent Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Salmo Genus and the Impact of Selection on Linked Neutral Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeva Leitwein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High-density linkage maps are valuable tools for conservation and eco-evolutionary issues. In salmonids, a complex rediploidization process consecutive to an ancient whole genome duplication event makes linkage maps of prime importance for investigating the evolutionary history of chromosome rearrangements. Here, we developed a high-density consensus linkage map for the brown trout (Salmo trutta, a socioeconomically important species heavily impacted by human activities. A total of 3977 ddRAD markers were mapped and ordered in 40 linkage groups using sex- and lineage-averaged recombination distances obtained from two family crosses. Performing map comparison between S. trutta and its sister species, S. salar, revealed extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Strikingly, all of the fusion and fission events that occurred after the S. salar/S. trutta speciation happened in the Atlantic salmon branch, whereas the brown trout remained closer to the ancestral chromosome structure. Using the strongly conserved synteny within chromosome arms, we aligned the brown trout linkage map to the Atlantic salmon genome sequence to estimate the local recombination rate in S. trutta at 3721 loci. A significant positive correlation between recombination rate and within-population nucleotide diversity (π was found, indicating that selection constrains variation at linked neutral sites in brown trout. This new high-density linkage map provides a useful genomic resource for future aquaculture, conservation, and eco-evolutionary studies in brown trout.

  18. River Liffey survey. II. The food consumed by the brown trout (Salmo trutta. L. ) in acid and alkaline waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, W E

    1939-01-01

    The brown trout (Salmo trutta) of the fresh waters of Ireland may be divided roughly into two categories, small slow-growing fish found in acid waters derived from non-lime-bearing rocks and larger quick-growing fish found in alkaline waters derived from lime-bearing rocks. The food of the trout from two contrasting stations, one where the water is acid and the other where it is alkaline, has been investigated. The stations are on the R. Liffey; the acid water one, Ballysmuttan (pH 4.4 to 6.8, usually 5.6), and the alkaline station (pH 7.4 to 8.4, usually 7.8 to 8.0) at Straffan. The trout were caught by rod and line, 349 specimens from Ballysmuttan, 228 from Straffan. The food eaten at Ballysmuttan during the months of January to December and at Straffan during February to October is compared and contrasted. The stomach contents of the trout have been weighed and the ratio of the weight of food to the total body weight has been determined. The food organisms have been classified as surface, mid-water, and bottom food. On the whole a higher percentage of surface organisms and of surface feeding fish is found at Straffan than at Ballysmuttan, but at both stations the proportion of bottom food organisms and fish feeding on them is higher than that for surface organisms and feeders. The size of the trout in relation to the kind of food eaten is described for both stations. An account of the food eaten during the winter months (November, December, and January) by the Ballysmuttan trout is given. The question of food and its effect on the size and growth of trout from acid and alkaline waters is discussed in the light of the data obtained from Ballysmuttan and Straffan. The evidence from these two places suggests that probably some factor other than that of the amount of food conditions affects the difference of size and growth rate of the trout from the two stations.

  19. An Empirical Model of Gastric Evacuation Rates for Fish and an Analysis of Digestion in Piscivorous Brown Trout

    OpenAIRE

    He, E.; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1993-01-01

    The gastric evacuation rates of brown trout Salmo trutta (0.9–1.6 kg) feeding on fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (3.5–7.6 g) were measured in the laboratory at five temperatures (4.5, 9.0, 14.0, 19.0, and 22.5°C). Instantaneous gut evacuation rates (Re) increased exponentially with temperature (T): Re = 0.053se^0.073T, r^2 = 0.98; they varyied from 7%sh^–1 at 4.5°C to 29%sh^–1 at 22.5°C. Linear regressions described the relationship between time and qualitative measures of fish ...

  20. Temporal clumping of prey and coexistence of unequal interferers: experiments on social forager groups of brown trout feeding on invertebrate drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Mikael; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations have been proposed to enhance the coexistence of competing phenotypes. Evaluations are here presented on the effects of prey density and short-term temporal clumping of prey availability on the relative foraging success of unequal interferers in social forager groups...... of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta feeding on drifting invertebrate prey (frozen chironomids). Groups of three trout with established linear dominance hierarchies (dominant, intermediate and subordinate) were subjected to three different total numbers of prey, combined with three different levels...

  1. Age- and stage-dependent variations of muscle-specific gene expression in brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churova, Maria V; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Ruchev, Mikhail; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the features of muscle-specific genes expression during development of brown trout Salmo trutta inhabiting the river Krivoy ruchey (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Gene expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs - MyoD1 paralogs (MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MyoD1c), Myf5, myogenin), myostatin paralogs (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MSTN-2a), fast skeletal myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were measured in the white muscles of brown trout parr of ages 0+ (under-yearling), 1+ (yearling) and 2+ (two year old) and smolts of age 2+. Multidirectional changes in MyoD1 and MSTN paralogs expression along with myogenin, Myf 5 and MyHC expression levels in white muscles in parr of trout with age were revealed. The expression of MyoD1c, myogenin, MSTN-2a was the highest in 0+ parr and then decreased. MyoD1a/b expression levels didn't differ between age groups. The simultaneous elevation of MyHC, Myf5, MSTN-1a, and MSTN-1b was found in trout yearlings. In smolts, expression levels of MSTN paralogs, MyHC, Myf5, MyoD1a was lower than in parr. But in contrast, the MyoD1c and myogenin mRNA levels was higher in smolts. The study revealed that there are definite patterns in simultaneous muscle-specific genes expression in age groups of parr and smolts. As MyoD and MSTN paralogs expression changed differently in dependence on age and stage, it was suggested that paralogs of the same gene complementarily control myogenesis during development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A monoclonal antibody distinguishes between two IgM heavy chain isotypes in Atlantic salmon and brown trout: protein characterization, 3D modeling and epitope mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil, Atif; Falk, Knut; Sharma, Animesh; Raae, Arnt; Berven, Frode; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Hordvik, Ivar

    2011-09-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) possess two distinct subpopulations of IgM which can be separated by anion exchange chromatography. Accordingly, there are two isotypic μ genes in these species, related to ancestral tetraploidy. In the present work it was verified by mass spectrometry that IgM of peak 1 (subpopulation 1) have heavy chains previously designated as μB type whereas IgM of peak 2 (subpopulation 2) have heavy chains of μA type. Two adjacent cysteine residues are present near the C-terminal part of μB, in contrast to one cysteine residue in μA. Salmon IgM of both peak 1 and peak 2 contain light chains of the two most common isotypes: IgL1 and IgL3. In contrast to salmon and brown trout, IgM of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is eluted in a single peak when subjected to anion exchange chromatography. Surprisingly, a monoclonal antibody MAb4C10 against rainbow trout IgM, reacted with μA in salmon, whereas in brown trout it reacted with μB. It is plausible to assume that DNA has been exchanged between the paralogous A and B loci during evolution while maintaining the two sub-variants, with and without the extra cysteine. MAb4C10 was conjugated to magnetic beads and used to separate cells, demonstrating that μ transcripts residing from captured cells were primarily of A type in salmon and B type in brown trout. An analysis of amino acid substitutions in μA and μB of salmon and brown trout indicated that the third constant domain is essential for MAb4C10 binding. This was supported by 3D modeling and was finally verified by studies of MAb4C10 reactivity with a series of recombinant μ3 constructs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Late summer and fall use of stream margins by young-of year brown trout in a high-elevation stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Voie, W. J.; Hubert, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    We determined the relative abundance of young-of-year (YOY) brown trout (Salmo trutta) from late summer to fall during day and night in stream margin habitats of Douglas Creek, Wyoming. No significant differences in relative abundance were observed from August 14 through October 26. Few YOY brown trout were observed during the day over the entire sampling period, but significantly greater numbers were seen at night. Within stream margins, YOY brown trout of 36-75 mm total length primarily resided in concealment cover among interstices of cobbie during the day and emerged at night. Because no significant change in relative abundance was observed throughout the study period, we conclude that a shift to winter habitat did not occur up until three days prior to ice formation when the diurnal range in water temperature was 2.5-7.5??C.

  4. Ontogenetic profile of innate immune related genes and their tissue-specific expression in brown trout, Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Stefano; Paciolla, Mariateresa; Biffali, Elio; Borra, Marco; Ursini, Matilde V; Lioi, Maria B

    2013-09-01

    The innate immune system is a fundamental defense weapon of fish, especially during early stages of development when acquired immunity is still far from being completely developed. The present study aims at looking into ontogeny of innate immune system in the brown trout, Salmo trutta, using RT-PCR based approach. Total RNA extracted from unfertilized and fertilized eggs and hatchlings at 0, 1 h and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 weeks post-fertilization was subjected to RT-PCR using self-designed primers to amplify some innate immune relevant genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β and lysozyme c-type). The constitutive expression of β-actin was detected in all developmental stages. IL-1β and TNF-α transcripts were detected from 4 week post-fertilization onwards, whereas TGF-β transcript was detected only from 7 week post-fertilization onwards. Lysozyme c-type transcript was detected early from unfertilized egg stage onwards. Similarly, tissues such as muscle, ovary, heart, brain, gill, testis, liver, intestine, spleen, skin, posterior kidney, anterior kidney and blood collected from adult brown trout were subjected to detection of all selected genes by RT-PCR. TNF-α and lysozyme c-type transcripts were expressed in all tissues. IL-1β and TGF-β transcripts were expressed in all tissues except for the brain and liver, respectively. Taken together, our results show a spatial-temporal expression of some key innate immune-related genes, improving the basic knowledge of the function of innate immune system at early stage of brown trout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of sibling relationship reconstruction to complement traditional monitoring in fisheries management and conservation of brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerov, Mikhail; Jürgenstein, Tauno; Aykanat, Tutku; Vasemägi, Anti

    2015-08-01

    Declining trends in the abundance of many fish urgently call for more efficient and informative monitoring methods that would provide necessary demographic data for the evaluation of existing conservation, restoration, and management actions. We investigated how genetic sibship reconstruction from young-of-the-year brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) juveniles provides valuable, complementary demographic information that allowed us to disentangle the effects of habitat quality and number of breeders on juvenile density. We studied restored (n = 15) and control (n = 15) spawning and nursery habitats in 16 brown trout rivers and streams over 2 consecutive years to evaluate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities. Similar juvenile densities both in restored and control spawning and nursery grounds were observed. Similarly, no differences in the effective number of breeders, Nb(SA) , were detected between habitats, indicating that brown trout readily used recently restored spawning grounds. Only a weak relationship between the Nb(SA) and juvenile density was observed, suggesting that multiple factors affect juvenile abundance. In some areas, very low estimates of Nb(SA) were found at sites with high juvenile density, indicating that a small number of breeders can produce a high number of progeny in favorable conditions. In other sites, high Nb(SA) estimates were associated with low juvenile density, suggesting low habitat quality or lack of suitable spawning substrate in relation to available breeders. Based on these results, we recommend the incorporation of genetic sibship reconstruction to ongoing and future fish evaluation and monitoring programs to gain novel insights into local demographic and evolutionary processes relevant for fisheries management, habitat restoration, and conservation. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Protein degradation systems in the skeletal muscles of parr and smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantserova, Nadezda P; Lysenko, Liudmila A; Veselov, Alexey E; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-08-01

    Although protein degradation limits the rate of muscle growth in fish, the role of proteolytic systems responsible for degrading myofibrillar proteins in skeletal muscle is not well defined. The study herein aims to evaluate the role of calpains (calcium-activated proteases) and proteasomes (ATP-dependent proteases) in mediating muscle protein turnover at different life stages in wild salmonids. Protease activities were estimated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) parr and smolts from the Indera River (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Calpain and proteasome activities in Atlantic salmon skeletal muscles were lower in smolts as compared with parr. Reduced muscle protein degradation accompanying Atlantic salmon parr-smolt transformation appeared to provide intense muscle growth essential for a minimum threshold size achievement that is required for smoltification. Calpain and proteasome activities in brown trout parr and smolts at age 3+ did not significantly differ. However, calpain activity was higher in smolts brown trout 4+ as compared with parr, while proteasome activity was lower. Results suggest that brown trout smoltification does not correspond with intense muscle growth and is more facultative and plastic in comparison with Atlantic salmon smoltification. Obtained data on muscle protein degradation capacity as well as length-weight parameters of fish reflect differences between salmon and trout in growth and smoltification strategies.

  7. Motility and fertilizing ability of cryopreserved Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) sperm: Effect of post-thaw storage time and different sperm-to-egg ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Karim; Shabani, Nariman; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh; Noori, Elnaz

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to test the effect of post-thaw storage time on sperm motility parameters of Caspian brown trout (n=7). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of sperm-to-egg ratios of 100,000:1, 300,000:1 and 600,000:1 on fertility of cryopreserved Caspian brown semen. Quality was assessed by measuring sperm motility parameters and fertilization rates at the eyed and hatching stages. The percentage of post-thawed sperm motility, curvilinear velocity (VCL) and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) were not affected by 60 min of storage, whereas a decrease in straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP) and linearity (LIN) were found in cryopreserved semen. Thus, the cryopreserved sperm of Caspian brown trout could be stored up to 60 min without loss of the percentage of sperm motility. The fertilization rate was not affected by 60 min of post-thaw storage and was over 70% for sperm-to-egg ratios of both 300,000 and 600,000:1. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the high post-thaw fertilization ability of Caspian brown trout semen at a sperm-to-egg ratio as low as 300,000:1. This procedure after scaling up can be recommended for routine Caspian brown trout sperm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ontogenetic dynamics of infection with Diphyllobothrium spp. cestodes in sympatric Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) and brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Eirik H.; Knudsen, Rune; Kristoffersen, Roar; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Siwertsson, Anna; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2016-01-01

    The trophic niches of Arctic charr and brown trout differ when the species occur in sympatry. Their trophically transmitted parasites are expected to reflect these differences. Here, we investigate how the infections of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum and D. ditremum differ between charr and trout. These tapeworms use copepods as their first intermediate hosts and fish can become infected as second intermediate hosts by consuming either infected copepods or infected fish. We examined 767 charr and 368 trout for Diphyllobothrium plerocercoids in a subarctic lake. The prevalence of D. ditremum was higher in charr (61.5%) than in trout, (39.5%), but the prevalence of D. dendriticum was higher in trout (31.2%) than in charr (19.3%). Diphyllobothrium spp. intensities were elevated in trout compared to charr, particularly for D. dendriticum. Large fish with massive parasite burdens were responsible for the high Diphyllobothrium spp. loads in trout. We hypothesize that fish prey may be the most important source for the Diphyllobothrium spp. infections in trout, whereas charr predominantly acquire Diphyllobothrium spp. by feeding on copepods. Our findings support previous suggestions that the ability to establish in a second piscine host is greater for D. dendriticum than for D. ditremum.

  9. Morphological differences in the skin of marble trout Salmo marmoratus and of brown trout Salmo trutta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Sivka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being genetically very closely related, the marble trout Salmo marmoratus and the brown trout Salmo trutta exhibit marked phenotypic differences, particularly with regard to skin pigmentation. Histological analysis of skin from the head and gill cover of differently aged individuals of the two species was carried out in order to characterize differences in skin structure. The basic structure of skin of the individuals studied corresponded with that described for other salmonids, though the head epidermis was somewhat thicker in S. marmoratus than in S. trutta, thickening with age in both species. Numerous secretory goblet cells and sporadic secretory sacciform cells were observed in the upper and middle part of the epidermis in both species. Melanophores were present in both species only in the dermis, and were bigger in S. marmoratus and present at lower average density than in S. trutta, and more or less constant across all age classes. In adult S. marmoratus with fully established marble pigmentation, light areas at low density with small (i.e. aggregated melanophores were present, while in S. trutta melanophores were more uniformly distributed.

  10. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the green river downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-09

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At

  11. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At the

  12. Effects of nonylphenol on key hormonal balances and histopathology of the endangered Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdel, Iman; Kalbassi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) potentially pose a hazard to endangered species. Evaluation of the sensitivity of these species to EDCs could be helpful for protecting their populations. So, the present study investigated the adverse effects of nonylphenol, an EDC, on the endocrine hormones and histopathology of male and female juvenile Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) following 21 days of exposure to nominal concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 μg/l. The results showed that the HSI and plasma total calcium of male and female fishes exposed to 100 μg/l nonylphenol were significantly increased compared with the control groups (P0.05). No significant effect of nonylphenol exposure was observed on male plasma TSH levels (P>0.05), whereas, in females, nonylphenol at all concentrations significantly reduced TSH levels. A bell-shaped response was observed in male and female plasma GH levels. Moreover, various histopathological lesions were observed in gill and intestine tissues of fishes exposed to different nonylphenol concentrations. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of this endangered species to even environmentally relevant concentrations of nonylphenol. Furthermore, Caspian brown trout could be used as bioindicators reflecting the toxicity of nonylphenol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Evaluation of Molybdenum Toxicity to the Oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex, and Early-Life Stages of Brown Trout, Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Brett T; Quinteros, Claudio; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Elphick, James R

    2017-06-01

    Limited data are available describing the aquatic toxicity of molybdenum in freshwater environments, making it difficult to assess the aquatic risk to freshwater organisms. In order to increase available information on the aquatic toxicity of molybdenum, a 96-h LC50 test with the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and an 85-day development test using brown trout, Salmo trutta, were conducted. The T. tubifex test resulted in an LC50 value of 2782 mg/L. No adverse effects were observed on brown trout survival or length in the concentrations tested, however an IC10 value for growth (wet weight) was determined to be 202 mg/L. Whole body fish tissue concentrations for molybdenum increased in all treatment concentrations tested, although bioconcentration factors decreased at greater exposure concentrations, and ranged from 0.13 at an exposure concentration of 20 mg/L to 0.04 at an exposure of 1247 mg/L. A body burden of 26.0 mg/kg was associated with reduced wet weight.

  14. Comparative study of CXC chemokines modulation in brown trout (Salmo trutta) following infection with a bacterial or viral pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Zahran, Eman; Taylor, Nick G H; Feist, Stephen W; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    Chemokine modulation in response to pathogens still needs to be fully characterised in fish, in view of the recently described novel chemokines present. This paper reports the first comparative study of CXC chemokine genes transcription in salmonids (brown trout), with a particular focus on the fish specific CXC chemokines (CXCL_F). Adopting new primer sets, optimised to specifically target mRNA, a RT-qPCR gene screening was carried out. Constitutive gene expression was assessed first in six tissues from SPF brown trout. Transcription modulation was next investigated in kidney and spleen during septicaemic infection induced by a RNA virus (Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia virus, genotype Ia) or by a Gram negative bacterium (Yersinia ruckeri, ser. O1/biot. 2). From each target organ specific pathogen burden, measured detecting VHSV-glycoprotein or Y. ruckeri 16S rRNA, and IFN-γ gene expression were analysed for their correlation to chemokine transcription. Both pathogens modulated CXC chemokine gene transcript levels, with marked up-regulation seen in some cases, and with both temporal and tissue specific effects apparent. For example, Y. ruckeri strongly induced chemokine transcription in spleen within 24h, whilst VHS generally induced the largest increases at 3d.p.i. in both tissues. This study gives clues to the role of the novel CXC chemokines, in comparison to the other known CXC chemokines in salmonids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extended spawning in brown trout (Salmo trutta populations from the Southern Iberian Peninsula: the role of climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Larios-López

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive periods of brown trout (Salmo trutta populations in 12 rivers in the Baetic Mountains in southern Spain were studied from 2008 to 2013. This area is an ecological and geographical limit for the distribution of this species in Europe. We found that the spawning period has been markedly extended in these fish. The mean spawning dates in the studied populations are consistent with the European trend at this latitude, but our data suggest that females from most of the populations that we studied are able to produce eggs from early October through late April or early May, yielding a reproductive period of between 150 and 170 days, the longest and most delayed brown trout reproduction periods that have been reported in the literature. We believe that such expanded spawning periods result primarily from the unpredictability of the Mediterranean climate, although it is possible that other factors may have contributed to the development of this reproductive behaviour. This hypothesis is discussed in the context of a comparison of our results with those found for other European S. trutta populations.

  16. Northern reservoirs as sinks for Chernobyl cesium: sustained accumulation via introduced Mysis relicta in arctic char and brown trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, J.

    1991-01-01

    Fallout radiocesium from the Chernobyl accident caused extensive contamination in a region of previously well studied alpine lake ecosystems in northern Sweden. Levels of Cs-137 in the barren catchment basins reached 20-50 kBq/m 2 during 1986. The distribution and major transport mechanisms of radiocesium through the lake ecosystems have been studied during 1986-1990. Levels of Cs-137 in water, sediment, and different trophic levels of the food chains of Arctic char (Salvelinus alphinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were monitored in a series of natural lakes and lake reservoirs, with or without the introduced new fish food organisms, Mysis relicta. The reservoirs were found to act as sinks for radiocesium with extensive accumulation recorded in water, sediment, invertebrates and salmonids. The introduced Mysis relicta were enhancing the transport of Cs-137 from zooplankton and settling particles to Arctic char and brown trout. The results suggest a successive change in transport of radiocesium from water via zooplankton to planktivorous fish during the early summer of 1986 to post-depositional mobilization via benthic organisms to benthic fish in successive years. (au) (32 refs.)

  17. Maximum heart rate in brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) is not limited by firing rate of pacemaker cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverinen, Jaakko; Abramochkin, Denis V; Kamkin, Andre; Vornanen, Matti

    2017-02-01

    Temperature-induced changes in cardiac output (Q̇) in fish are largely dependent on thermal modulation of heart rate (f H ), and at high temperatures Q̇ collapses due to heat-dependent depression of f H This study tests the hypothesis that firing rate of sinoatrial pacemaker cells sets the upper thermal limit of f H in vivo. To this end, temperature dependence of action potential (AP) frequency of enzymatically isolated pacemaker cells (pacemaker rate, f PM ), spontaneous beating rate of isolated sinoatrial preparations (f SA ), and in vivo f H of the cold-acclimated (4°C) brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) were compared under acute thermal challenges. With rising temperature, f PM steadily increased because of the acceleration of diastolic depolarization and shortening of AP duration up to the break point temperature (T BP ) of 24.0 ± 0.37°C, at which point the electrical activity abruptly ceased. The maximum f PM at T BP was much higher [193 ± 21.0 beats per minute (bpm)] than the peak f SA (94.3 ± 6.0 bpm at 24.1°C) or peak f H (76.7 ± 2.4 at 15.7 ± 0.82°C) (P brown trout in vivo. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Who will become dominant? Investigating the roles of individual behaviour, body size, and environmental predictability in brown trout fry hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Näslund Joacim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study investigating performance of brown trout fry, with different behavioural characteristics, in environments differing in food predictability. Based on previous experimental findings, we hypothesised that more active individuals would be favoured by a predictable environment, as compared to an unpredictable environment, as a consequence of being more aggressive and likely to dominate the best feeding stations. This hypothesis was not supported, as more active individuals instead tended to perform better, in terms of growth and survival, in unpredictable environments. However, this effect may stem from initial size differences, as more active fish also tended to be larger. In predictable environments, no trends between activity (or size and performance were detected. Dominant individuals could be identified based on lighter body colouration in 9 out of 10 rearing tanks, but dominance appeared not to be related to activity score. The results highlight a potential advantage of more active and/or larger fry in unpredictable environments, while performance in predictable environments is likely depending on other phenotypic characteristics. Our general experimental approach can be useful for further developments in the investigation of performance of different ethotypes of brown trout fry.

  20. Shifts in the suitable habitat available for brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) under short-term climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mas, R; Lopez-Nicolas, A; Martínez-Capel, F; Pulido-Velazquez, M

    2016-02-15

    The impact of climate change on the habitat suitability for large brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) was studied in a segment of the Cabriel River (Iberian Peninsula). The future flow and water temperature patterns were simulated at a daily time step with M5 models' trees (NSE of 0.78 and 0.97 respectively) for two short-term scenarios (2011-2040) under the representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). An ensemble of five strongly regularized machine learning techniques (generalized additive models, multilayer perceptron ensembles, random forests, support vector machines and fuzzy rule base systems) was used to model the microhabitat suitability (depth, velocity and substrate) during summertime and to evaluate several flows simulated with River2D©. The simulated flow rate and water temperature were combined with the microhabitat assessment to infer bivariate habitat duration curves (BHDCs) under historical conditions and climate change scenarios using either the weighted usable area (WUA) or the Boolean-based suitable area (SA). The forecasts for both scenarios jointly predicted a significant reduction in the flow rate and an increase in water temperature (mean rate of change of ca. -25% and +4% respectively). The five techniques converged on the modelled suitability and habitat preferences; large brown trout selected relatively high flow velocity, large depth and coarse substrate. However, the model developed with support vector machines presented a significantly trimmed output range (max.: 0.38), and thus its predictions were banned from the WUA-based analyses. The BHDCs based on the WUA and the SA broadly matched, indicating an increase in the number of days with less suitable habitat available (WUA and SA) and/or with higher water temperature (trout will endure impoverished environmental conditions ca. 82% of the days). Finally, our results suggested the potential extirpation of the species from the study site during short time spans. Copyright © 2015

  1. Differential Accumulation of Mercury and Selenium in Brown Trout Tissues of a High-Gradient Urbanized Stream in Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S J; Nimmo, D R; Carsella, J S; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Turner, J A; Gregorich, J M; Heuvel, B D Vanden; Nehring, R B; Foutz, H P

    2016-02-01

    Total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in 11 internal and external tissues and stomach contents from 23 brown trout, Salmo trutta, of a 22.9-km reach of a high-gradient stream (upper Fountain Creek) in Colorado, USA, impacted by coal-fired power plants, shale deposits, and urbanization. Trout and water were sampled from four sites ranging from 2335 to 1818 m elevation. Lengths, weights, and ages of fish between pairs of the four sites were not significantly different. The dry weight (dw) to wet weight (ww) conversion factor for each tissue was calculated with egg-ovary highest at 0.379 and epaxial muscle fourth highest at 0.223. THg and Se in stomach contents indicated diet and not ambient water was the major source of Hg and Se bioaccumulated. Mean THg ww in kidney was 40.33 µg/kg, and epaxial muscle second highest at 36.76 µg/kg. None of the tissues exceeded the human critical threshold for Hg. However, all 23 trout had at least one tissue type that exceeded 0.02 mg/kg THg ww for birds, and four trout tissues exceeded 0.1 mg/kg THg ww for mammals, indicating that piscivorous mammals and birds should be monitored. Se concentrations in tissues varied depending on ww or dw listing. Mean Se dw in liver was higher than ovary at the uppermost site and the two lower sites. Liver tissue, in addition to egg-ovary, should be utilized as an indicator tissue for Se toxicity.

  2. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmill, Bonnie; Pleskach, Kerri; Peters, Lisa; Palace, Vince; Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad; Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno; McCrindle, Robert; Tomy, Gregg T.

    2011-01-01

    Technical 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane or tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) used primarily as an additive flame retardant in polystyrene foams, contains two diastereoisomers, α- and β- present in equimolar amounts. At temperatures in excess of 125 o C, isomerization to two other isoforms, δ- and γ- is possible. The recent detection of TBECH in the environment and studies suggesting that isomers are androgenic prompted us to examine the toxicokinetics and biochemical effects of one of the isomers, β-, in a controlled laboratory environment. Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different amounts of the β-isomer (low, medium and high) via the food followed by a period in which they were exposed to unfortified food. A fourth group of fish was exposed to unfortified food for the duration of the experiment. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 56, 63, 77, 91, 105, and 133, eight fish from each treatment group were euthanized and liver, plasma, lower jaw (i.e., thyroid tissue) and gonad were collected and the remaining tissue ('whole-fish') was retained. β-Isomer content was measured in whole-fish and in liver while estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were measured in plasma. Based on liver and gonad somatic indices, no apparent effects on liver or gonad development in fish from any of the treatment groups were observed. The bioaccumulation of β-isomer was similar in fish from all treatment groups with steady-state occurring before the end of the uptake phase. Depuration of the β-isomer from fish obeyed first order kinetics and there were no statistically significant differences in the depuration half life (t 1/2 ) among the treatment groups: 22.5 ± 10.4 (low), 13.5 ± 5.9 (med) and 13.8 ± 2.2 (high) days. Steady-state biomagnification factors were much smaller than 1 for fish in all treatment groups. Debrominated metabolites were not detected in composite liver or whole-fish extracts and there was no

  3. Toxicokinetics of tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and effects on plasma sex hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmill, Bonnie [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Pleskach, Kerri [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Peters, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Palace, Vince [Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Wautier, Kerry; Park, Brad [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environmental Science Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Darling, Colin; Rosenberg, Bruno [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); McCrindle, Robert [Wellington Laboratories Incorporated, Research Division, Guelph, ON N1G 3M5 (Canada); Tomy, Gregg T., E-mail: gregg.tomy@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Aquatic Research Division, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Technical 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane or tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH) used primarily as an additive flame retardant in polystyrene foams, contains two diastereoisomers, {alpha}- and {beta}- present in equimolar amounts. At temperatures in excess of 125 {sup o}C, isomerization to two other isoforms, {delta}- and {gamma}- is possible. The recent detection of TBECH in the environment and studies suggesting that isomers are androgenic prompted us to examine the toxicokinetics and biochemical effects of one of the isomers, {beta}-, in a controlled laboratory environment. Juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to three different amounts of the {beta}-isomer (low, medium and high) via the food followed by a period in which they were exposed to unfortified food. A fourth group of fish was exposed to unfortified food for the duration of the experiment. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, 35, 49, 56, 63, 77, 91, 105, and 133, eight fish from each treatment group were euthanized and liver, plasma, lower jaw (i.e., thyroid tissue) and gonad were collected and the remaining tissue ('whole-fish') was retained. {beta}-Isomer content was measured in whole-fish and in liver while estradiol (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) were measured in plasma. Based on liver and gonad somatic indices, no apparent effects on liver or gonad development in fish from any of the treatment groups were observed. The bioaccumulation of {beta}-isomer was similar in fish from all treatment groups with steady-state occurring before the end of the uptake phase. Depuration of the {beta}-isomer from fish obeyed first order kinetics and there were no statistically significant differences in the depuration half life (t{sub 1/2}) among the treatment groups: 22.5 {+-} 10.4 (low), 13.5 {+-} 5.9 (med) and 13.8 {+-} 2.2 (high) days. Steady-state biomagnification factors were much smaller than 1 for fish in all treatment groups. Debrominated metabolites were not

  4. GROWTH, MORTALITY AND PRODUCTION OF BROWN AND RAINBOW TROUT IN NEW MEXICO STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Leiner

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two representative trout sites in 15 high elevation New Mexico streams (1,661 - 2560 m above sea level were sampled in 1988 and 1989. Fish was captured by consecutive removal via electrofishing in net-blocked segments from 65 to 160 m long. Maximum estimated trout length (Lm.ax was related inversely to yield (r2 = 0.351; p = 0.055. Instantaneous rate of mortality was also marginally related to yield (r2 = 0.294. The production index ranged from 1,38 to 32.02 g/m2/year. Variation in production was highly correlated to trout biomass (r2 = 0.910. Trout growth and production were best defined by the relationships where: cover, stream width, water temperature, yield by anglers, LMAX, and nitrate-nitrogen concentration were included.

  5. Future migratory behaviour predicted from premigratory levels of gill Na+/K(+-)ATPase activity in individual wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C.; Aarestrup, Kim; Norum, U.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between premigratory gill Na+/K(+-)ATPase activity, determined at two dates during spring, and future migratory behaviour was investigated using non-lethal gill biopsies and PIT-tagging in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) from two tributaries. No significant relationship between......(-1)), with an average of 91 % of the predictions being correct. The present study shows that a non-lethal premigratory biochemical measurement can successfully select individual brown trout with high probability of migration...... was obtained. The ability of this regression model from the tributaries to predict future migratory behaviour in an independent group of trout caught in early April in the mainstream was evaluated. A threshold probability of migration was used to predict the behaviour of the mainstream individuals as either...

  6. Physiological effects of simultaneous, abrupt seawater entry and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation of wild, sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, A.; Grierson, C.E.; MacKenzie, M.A.; Russon, I.; Middlemiss, C.; Bjorn, P.A.; Finstad, B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Todd, C.D.; Hazon, N.

    2006-01-01

    For wild, sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts, the physiological consequences of abrupt transfer to seawater and simultaneous challenge with copepodid larvae of the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kr�yer, 1837), were investigated in the laboratory. Analysis of osmoregulatory, metabolic,

  7. Routes and survival of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. post-smolts during early marine migration through a Danish fjord system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Lykke; Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Aarestrup, Kim

    2018-01-01

    We examined the survival and progression rates of 101 anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. post-smolts from two Danish river systems, Karup and Simested, with acoustic telemetry as they migrated through a large Danish fjord system (the Limfjord). No fish were documented to residualize permanently...

  8. Regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity by nitric oxide in the kidney and gill of the brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Madsen, Steffen S

    2003-01-01

    In teleost fish, successful osmoregulation involves controlled ion transport mechanisms in kidney and gill epithelia. In this study, the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was investigated in vitro in these two tissues in brown trout (Salmo trutta) acclimated to freshwater...

  9. A comparison of the survival and migration of wild and F1-hatchery-reared brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts traversing an artificial lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwinn, Michael; Baktoft, Henrik; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-01-01

    rates from the sea of wild and 1-year old F1-hatchery-reared brown trout smolts in a Danish lowland stream that contains an artificial lake using passive integrated transponder telemetry in the years 2011–2013 and 2016. The majority of hatchery-reared smolts descended within 72 h after their release...

  10. Efficiency of fishways and impact of dams on the migration of grayling and brown trout in the Glomma river system, south-eastern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linloekken, A.

    1993-01-01

    During 1971-84 the migratory systems of salmonids in the Glomma river system in Norway were influenced by the construction of several dams in the area. To maintain the migrations, fishways were constructed in all the dams. This study, which began in 1985, was carried out to determine (1) the timing of migration of grayling and brown trout, (2) their migration distance and (3) the efficiency of fishways. The results show that migrations began in May or June. Spawning migration of grayling occurred in May. In late June or early July they migrate upstream to feed. Brown trout migrate during late spring, summer and autumn. The spawning migration takes place more or less during the whole summer, but mostly in late July and August. Immature brown trout also pass through the fishways, with a peak in October in three fishways. The efficiency of these fishways appears low, as the number of fish ascending was less than 2% of the estimated stock within the stretches were 90% of the recaptures occurred. The discharge in the fishway relative to the total discharge seemed to be of great importance, and to achieve efficient fishways they should be constructed for higher discharges, compared with river discharge, than the fishways in this area. The longest migration of grayling was 100 km, whereas the longest migration of brown trout was 122 km. (Author)

  11. Livestock and elk grazing effects on stream morphology, brown trout population dynamics, movement, and growth rate, Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate grazing in riparian areas has been shown to detrimentally impact stream morphology and fish populations. Goals of this research were to assess changes in stream morphology and responses of a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population to exclusion of cattle (Bos taurus) and elk (Cervus elaphus) from riparian...

  12. Effects of tag and suture type on survival and growth of brown trout with surgically implanted telemetry tags in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Mikkelsen, Jørgen Skole; Koed, Anders

    2008-01-01

    To test the effects of surgical implants with or without external antennae, 188 wild brown trout Salmo trutta, 150 - 290 mm, were tagged and released in a small river in May 2005. After 5 months, 103 of the fish were recaptured and examined. Thus, information on the relative survival, growth and ...

  13. Molecular and cellular effects of chemicals disrupting steroidogenesis during early ovarian development of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    a Marca Pereira, M L; Eppler, E; Thorpe, K L; Wheeler, J R; Burkhardt-Holm, P

    2014-02-01

    A range of chemicals found in the aquatic environment have the potential to influence endocrine function and affect sexual development by mimicking or antagonizing the effects of hormones, or by altering the synthesis and metabolism of hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effects of chemicals interfering with sex hormone synthesis may affect the regulation of early ovarian development via the modulation of sex steroid and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) systems. To this end, ex vivo ovary cultures of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) were exposed for 2 days to either 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD, a specific aromatase inhibitor), prochloraz (an imidazole fungicide), or tributyltin (TBT, a persistent organic pollutant). Further, juvenile female brown trout were exposed in vivo for 2 days to prochloraz or TBT. The ex vivo and in vivo ovarian gene expression of the aromatase (CYP19), responsible for estrogen production, and of IGF1 and 2 were compared. Moreover, 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) production from ex vivo ovary cultures was assessed. Ex vivo exposure to ATD inhibited ovarian E2 synthesis, while T levels accumulated. However, ATD did not affect ex vivo expression of cyp19, igf1, or igf2. Ex vivo exposure to prochloraz inhibited ovarian E2 production, but did not affect T levels. Further prochloraz up-regulated igf1 expression in both ex vivo and in vivo exposures. TBT exposure did not modify ex vivo synthesis of either E2 or T. However, in vivo exposure to TBT down-regulated igf2 expression. The results indicate that ovarian inhibition of E2 production in juvenile brown trout might not directly affect cyp19 and igf gene expression. Thus, we suggest that the test chemicals may interfere with both sex steroid and IGF systems in an independent manner, and based on published literature, potentially lead to endocrine dysfunction and altered sexual development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley

  14. Accumulation of lead (Pb) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a lake downstream a former shooting range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariussen, Espen; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Teien, Hans Christian; Pettersen, Marit Nandrup; Holth, Tor Fredrik; Salbu, Brit; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav

    2017-01-01

    An environmental survey was performed in Lake Kyrtjønn, a small lake within an abandoned shooting range in the south of Norway. In Lake Kyrtjønn the total water concentrations of Pb (14µg/L), Cu (6.1µg/L) and Sb (1.3µg/L) were elevated compared to the nearby reference Lake Stitjønn, where the total concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb were 0.76, 1.8 and 0.12µg/L, respectively. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Kyrtjønn had very high levels of Pb in bone (104mg/kg w.w.), kidney (161mg/kg w.w.) and the gills (137mg/kg d.w), and a strong inhibition of the ALA-D enzyme activity were observed in the blood (24% of control). Dry fertilized brown trout eggs were placed in the small outlet streams from Lake Kyrtjønn and the reference lake for 6 months, and the concentrations of Pb and Cu in eggs from the Lake Kyrtjønn stream were significantly higher than in eggs from the reference. More than 90% of Pb accumulated in the egg shell, whereas more than 80% of the Cu and Zn accumulated in the egg interior. Pb in the lake sediments was elevated in the upper 2-5cm layer (410-2700mg/kg d.w), and was predominantly associated with redox sensitive fractions (e.g., organic materials, hydroxides) indicating low potential mobility and bioavailability of the deposited Pb. Only minor amounts of Cu and Sb were deposited in the sediments. The present work showed that the adult brown trout, as well as fertilized eggs and alevins, may be subjected to increased stress due to chronic exposure to Pb, whereas exposure to Cu, Zn and Sb were of less importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lactococcus lactis subsp. tructae subsp. nov. isolated from the intestinal mucus of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Tania; Balcázar, José Luis; Peix, Alvaro; Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; de Blas, Ignacio; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol

    2011-08-01

    The species Lactococcus lactis currently includes three subspecies; L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, isolated from milk sources, and L. lactis subsp. hordniae, isolated from the leafhopper Hordnia circellata. In this study, three strains, designated L105(T), I3 and L101, were isolated from the intestinal mucus of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These strains were closely related to members of the species Lactococcus lactis. Strain L105(T) showed 99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to that of the type strains L. lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 604(T) and L. lactis subsp. hordniae NCDO 2181(T) and showed 99.9 % similarity to the type strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO 607(T). Analysis of two housekeeping genes, rpoB and recA, confirmed the close relationship between the novel strains and L. lactis subsp. cremoris with similarities of 99.3 and 99.7 %, respectively. The three strains could, however, be differentiated from their closest relatives on the basis of several phenotypic characteristics, as was the case for L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. hordniae, which were also closely related on the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB and recA gene sequence similarities. The strains isolated in this study represent a new subspecies, for which the name Lactococcus lactis subsp. tructae subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L105(T) ( = LMG 24662(T)  = DSM 21502(T)).

  16. The Genetic Architecture Underlying the Evolution of a Rare Piscivorous Life History Form in Brown Trout after Secondary Contact and Strong Introgression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Jacobs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the genetic basis underlying phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation is a longstanding problem in evolutionary biology. Genetic signals of adaptation and reproductive isolation are often confounded by a wide range of factors, such as variation in demographic history or genomic features. Brown trout (Salmo trutta in the Loch Maree catchment, Scotland, exhibit reproductively isolated divergent life history morphs, including a rare piscivorous (ferox life history form displaying larger body size, greater longevity and delayed maturation compared to sympatric benthivorous brown trout. Using a dataset of 16,066 SNPs, we analyzed the evolutionary history and genetic architecture underlying this divergence. We found that ferox trout and benthivorous brown trout most likely evolved after recent secondary contact of two distinct glacial lineages, and identified 33 genomic outlier windows across the genome, of which several have most likely formed through selection. We further identified twelve candidate genes and biological pathways related to growth, development and immune response potentially underpinning the observed phenotypic differences. The identification of clear genomic signals divergent between life history phenotypes and potentially linked to reproductive isolation, through size assortative mating, as well as the identification of the underlying demographic history, highlights the power of genomic studies of young species pairs for understanding the factors shaping genetic differentiation.

  17. Proposed standard-weight (Ws) equation and length-categorization standards for brown trout (Salmo trutta) in lentic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, M.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    We developed a standard-weight (Ws) equation for brown trout (Salmo trutta) in lentic habitats by applying the regression-line-percentile technique to samples from 49 populations in North America. The proposed Ws equation is log10 Ws = -5.422 + 3.194 log10 TL, when Ws is in grams and TL is total length in millimeters. The English-unit equivalent is log10 Ws = -3.592 + 3.194 log10 TL, when Ws is in pounds and TL is total length in inches. The equation is applicable for fish of 140-750 mm TL. Proposed length-category standards to evaluate fish within populations are: stock, 200 mm (8 in); quality, 300 mm (12 in); preferred, 400 mm (16 in); memorable, 500 mm (20 in); and trophy, 600 mm (24 in).

  18. Recovery of young brown trout (Salmo trutta) in acidified streams: What are the critical values for acid-neutralizing capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesthagen, T.; Fiske, P.; Saksgård, R.

    2016-12-01

    The recovery of young allopatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) grouped into YoY (age 0+) and older parr (age ≥1+) fish, was studied in acid-sensitive streams in a Norwegian watershed during a 24-year-period (1987-2010). Their abundance was assessed by electrofishing. Most sites typically had 5.0-5.5 in pH, 0.4-0.7 mg L-1 Ca, 10-20 μg L-1 inorganic toxic aluminum (Ali) and acid-neutralizing capacity adjusted for organic acids (ANCOAA) of - 15 to +25 μeq L-1. Densities of both YoY and older parr increased significantly during the study period. Water quality also improved in recent years with respect to pH (5.8-6.0), Ali (5-15 μg L-1) and ANCOAA (10-20 μeq L-1). However, some negative trends in both fish density and water chemistry were found during both the first (1987-1993) and last years (2004-2008) of the study. Initially, YoY densities remained at about 16-20 specimens 100 m-2 (1987-1990), declined to 10-15 specimens 100 m-2 in the early/mid 1990s, and rosed to 30-50 specimens 100 m-2 in recent years (1997-2010). Their densities correlated significantly with ANCOAA, and at least three stages in the recovery process were recognised: (i) Low density with 10-20 specimens 100 m-2 at -18 to -5 μeq L-1, (ii) medium and unstable density with 20-30 specimens 100 m-2 at -5 to 10 μeq L-1, and (iii) increasing density to 40-50 specimens 100 m-2 at 10-25 μeq L-1. The decline in brown trout density in the early-mid 1990s coincided with high sea salt depositions, which caused increased acidification. Component 1 in a PCA explained 51% of the variation in fish densities, including conductivity, Mg, Ca, Na, alkalinity and TOC. Component 2 explained an additional 31% of the variation, including pH, Ali and ANCOAA. Multiple regression analysis coefficients showed that the two components explained 41% of the variance in total fish density. Young brown trout suffered a high mortality during the initial phase of the study in spite of relative low levels of Ali. This is

  19. Effect of potassium ethylxanthate and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate on the accumulation and disposition of nickel in the brown trout (salmo trutta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottofrey, J.; Borg, K.; Jasim, S.; Tjaelve, H.

    1988-01-01

    Brown trouts, Salmo trutta, were exposed to water containing 0.1 or 10 μg/1 of 63 Ni 2+ , alone or with potassium ethylxanthate or sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. After one and three weeks the accumulation and disposition of the 63 Ni 2+ in the fish were examined by liquid scintillation spectrometry and whole-body autoradiography. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was found to greatly enhance the uptake of 63 Ni 2+ in several tissues of the trouts. Potassium ethylxanthate was without effect. Diethyldithiocarbamate is known to form lipophilic complexes with metals, including nickel, and a facilitated penetration of the complexed nickel over the cellular membranes of the gills and other tissues is a likely mechanism underlying our results. The ethylxanthate is also able to form a lipophilic nickel-chelate, although of a lower lipophilicity than the nickel-diethyldithiocarbamate-complex. This variance in lipophilicity may explain why the disposition of the 63 Ni 2+ was affected by the diethyldithiocarbamate, but not by the ethylxanthate. (author)

  20. Are hybrids between Atlantic salmon and brown trout suitable long-term hosts of Gyrodactylus salaris during winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, R; Henriksen, E H; Gjelland, K Ø; Hansen, H; Hendrichsen, D K; Kristoffersen, R; Olstad, K

    2017-10-01

    The monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus salaris poses serious threats to many Atlantic salmon populations and presents many conservation and management questions/foci and challenges. It is therefore critical to identify potential vectors for infection. To test whether hybrids of native Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) × brown trout (Salmo trutta) are suitable as reservoir hosts for G. salaris during winter, infected hybrid parr were released into a natural subarctic brook in the autumn. Six months later, 23.9% of the pit-tagged fish were recaptured. During the experimental period, the hybrids had a sixfold increase in mean intensity of G. salaris, while the prevalence decreased from 81% to 35%. There was high interindividual hybrid variability in susceptibility to infections. The maximum infrapopulation growth rate (0.018 day -1 ) of G. salaris throughout the winter was comparable to earlier laboratory experiments at similar temperatures. The results confirm that infrapopulations of G. salaris may reproduce on a hybrid population for several generations at low water temperatures (~1 °C). Wild salmon-trout hybrids are undoubtedly susceptible to G. salaris and represent an important reservoir host for the parasite independent of other co-occurring susceptible hosts. Consequently, these hybrids may pose a serious risk for G. salaris transmission to nearby, uninfected rivers by migratory individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Consistency in trophic magnification factors of cyclic methyl siloxanes in pelagic freshwater food webs leading to brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgå, Katrine; Fjeld, Eirik; Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-12-17

    Cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) concentrations were analyzed in the pelagic food web of two Norwegian lakes (Mjøsa, Randsfjorden), and in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) collected in a reference lake (Femunden), in 2012. Lakes receiving discharge from wastewater treatment plants (Mjøsa and Randsfjorden) had cVMS concentrations in trout that were up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those in Femunden, where most samples were close to the limit of quantification (LOQ). Food web biomagnification of cVMS in Mjøsa and Randsfjorden was quantified by estimation of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). TMF for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analyzed for comparison. Both decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) biomagnified with TMFs of 2.9 (2.1-4.0) and 2.3 (1.8-3.0), respectively. Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) was below the LOQ in the majority of samples and had substantially lower biomagnification than for D5 and D6. The cVMS TMFs did not differ between the lakes, whereas the legacy POP TMFs were higher in Mjøsa than inRandsfjorden. Whitefish had lower cVMS bioaccumulation compared to legacy POPs, and affected the TMF significance for cVMS, but not for POPs. TMFs of D5 and legacy contaminants in Lake Mjøsa were consistent with those previously measured in Mjøsa.

  2. Forest-stream linkages: effects of terrestrial invertebrate input and light on diet and growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta in a boreal forest stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Erős

    Full Text Available Subsidies of energy and material from the riparian zone have large impacts on recipient stream habitats. Human-induced changes, such as deforestation, may profoundly affect these pathways. However, the strength of individual factors on stream ecosystems is poorly understood since the factors involved often interact in complex ways. We isolated two of these factors, manipulating the flux of terrestrial input and the intensity of light in a 2×2 factorial design, where we followed the growth and diet of two size-classes of brown trout (Salmo trutta and the development of periphyton, grazer macroinvertebrates, terrestrial invertebrate inputs, and drift in twelve 20 m long enclosed stream reaches in a five-month-long experiment in a boreal coniferous forest stream. We found that light intensity, which was artificially increased 2.5 times above ambient levels, had an effect on grazer density, but no detectable effect on chlorophyll a biomass. We also found a seasonal effect on the amount of drift and that the reduction of terrestrial prey input, accomplished by covering enclosures with transparent plastic, had a negative impact on the amount of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift. Further, trout growth was strongly seasonal and followed the same pattern as drift biomass, and the reduction of terrestrial prey input had a negative effect on trout growth. Diet analysis was consistent with growth differences, showing that trout in open enclosures consumed relatively more terrestrial prey in summer than trout living in covered enclosures. We also predicted ontogenetic differences in the diet and growth of old and young trout, where we expected old fish to be more affected by the terrestrial prey reduction, but we found little evidence of ontogenetic differences. Overall, our results showed that reduced terrestrial prey inputs, as would be expected from forest harvesting, shaped differences in the growth and diet of the top predator, brown trout.

  3. Evaluation of architectural and histopathological biomarkers in the intestine of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) challenged with environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barišić, Josip; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Mijošek, Tatjana; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Kružlicová, Dáša; Erk, Marijana

    2018-06-14

    In the present study novel histopathological approach, using fish intestine as a sensitive bioindicator organ of pollution impact in the freshwater ecosystem, was proposed. Histopathological alterations were compared between native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) from the reference (Krka River spring) and pollution impacted location (influence of technological/municipal wastewaters and agricultural runoff near the Town of Knin) of the karst Krka River in Croatia. In brown trout from both locations, severe parasitic infestation with acanthocephalan species Dentitruncus trutae was found, enabling evaluation of acanthocephalan infestation histopathology, which indicated parasite tissue reaction in a form of inflammatory, necrotic and hyperplastic response that extended throughout lamina epithelialis mucosae, lamina propria, and lamina muscularis mucosae. New semi-quantitative histological approach was proposed in order to foresee alterations classified in three reaction patterns: control tissue appearance, moderate (progressive) tissue impairment and severe (regressive and inflammatory) tissue damage. The most frequent progressive alteration was hyperplasia of epithelium on the reference site, whereas the most frequent regressive alterations were atrophy and necrosis seen on the polluted site. Furthermore, histopathological approach was combined with micromorphological and macromorphological assessment as an additional indicator of pollution impact. Among 15 observed intestinal measures, two biomarkers of intestinal tissue damage were indicated as significant, height of supranuclear space (hSN) and number of mucous cells over 100 μm fold distance of intestinal mucosa (nM), which measures were significantly lower in fish from polluted area compared to the reference site. Obtained results indicated that combined histological and morphological approach on fish intestinal tissue might be used as a valuable biological tool for assessing pollution impact on

  4. Effective freezing rate for semen cryopreservation in endangered Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) inhabiting the Biferno river (South Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, Nicolaia; Di Iorio, Michele; Manchisi, Angelo; Esposito, Stefano; Gibertoni, Pier Paolo

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to determine: (i) the in vitro effects of different freezing rates on post-thaw semen quality of Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) from the Biferno river; and (ii) the in vivo fertilization and hatching percentage of freezing rate giving rise to the best post-thaw semen quality. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:3 (v:v) in a freezing extender composed of 300 mM glucose, 10% egg yolk and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The extended semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen surface (1, 5 or 10 cm) for 10 min to give three different freezing rates. Semen samples were thawed at 30°C for 10 s. The variables assessed after thawing were sperm motility, duration of motility and viability. Our results clearly indicate a significant effect of freezing rate on post-thaw semen quality. Semen frozen 5 cm above the liquid nitrogen surface showed the best quality after freezing/thawing. Based on these in vitro data, 2 groups of 200 eggs were fertilized with fresh semen or semen frozen 5 cm above the liquid nitrogen surface. Fertilization and hatching rates recorded for eggs fertilized with frozen semen were significantly lower (25.4% and 22.5%, respectively) than the ones obtained using fresh semen (87.8% and 75.5%, respectively). An effective freezing protocol will allow for the creation of a sperm cryobank to recover the original population of Mediterranean brown trout in the Biferno river.

  5. INTRACELLULAR ION CONCENTRATIONS IN BRANCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OF BROWN TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L.) DETERMINED BY X-RAY MICROANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan; Potts; Oates

    1994-09-01

    The intracellular concentrations of sodium, chloride, phosphorus and potassium under normal conditions in pavement epithelial (PE) cells of brown trout (Salmo trutta) gill were 66, 51, 87 and 88 mmol l-1 respectively. The concentrations of these elements under identical conditions in mitochondria-rich (MR) cells were not significantly different, except for that of chlorine, which was lower in MR cells (40 mmol l-1). The concentration of sodium in the PE cells decreased slightly after exposure of the fish to low external [Na+] (25 µmol l-1) for 7 days but increased greatly within 5 min of subsequent exposure to 1 mmol l-1 external Na+. These changes in external [Na+] had no significant effect on MR cells. Exposure of fish to low [Cl-] (25 µmol l-1) had no effect on PE or MR cells, but on exposure to 1 mmol l-1 Cl- the concentrations of chlorine, phosphorus and potassium in both types of cells increased, whilst the intracellular sodium concentration decreased only in MR cells. The PE cells were little affected by exposure of the fish to the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide. In contrast, 0.5 mmol l-1 external acetazolamide caused a significant decrease in intracellular phosphorus, chlorine and potassium concentrations in MR cells. This suggests that the PE cells are the sites of sodium uptake in the gills of the brown trout and that chloride uptake occurs via the MR cells. These results are discussed with respect to the sites and possible mechanisms of ionic exchange in freshwater vertebrates.

  6. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  7. The effects of overwinter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, A.K.; LaGory, K.E.; Hayse, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: (ge)400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  8. The relationship between young brown trout density and water quality in tributary streams to lakes in three acidic watersheds; Effekter av vannkvalitet og habitat paa tettheten av aureunger i tilloepsbekker til innsjoeer i tre forsuringsomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthagen, Trygve; Larsen, Bjoern M.; Berger, Hans M.; Forseth, Torbjoern

    1998-09-01

    This publication examines the relationship between young brown trout densities in lake tributaries, and water chemistry and habitat variables. The study was carried out during the autumn in three acidic, freshwater river systems in western and southwestern Norway. The variability in brown trout density in the three watersheds in relation to varying concentrations of calcium and inorganic Al, were investigated. Water chemistry variables seem to limit the density. 38 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Cross-interference of two model peroxisome proliferators in peroxisomal and estrogenic pathways in brown trout hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Pinheiro, Ivone; Malhão, Fernanda; Lopes, Célia; Urbatzka, Ralph; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Brown trout hepatocytes seem to be a low responder to model peroxisome proliferators. • Most peroxisomal targets were not affected by Wy-14,643 and clofibrate exposures. • Some estrogenic-related genes were up-regulated after 150 μM of Wy-14,643. • Wy-14,643 increase VtgA and ERα mRNA levels, while ICI 182,780 revert the effect. • Cross-interference in peroxisomal and estrogenic pathways should be more explored. - Abstract: Peroxisome proliferators cause species-specific effects, which seem to be primarily transduced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Interestingly, PPARα has a close interrelationship with estrogenic signaling, and this latter has already been promptly activated in brown trout primary hepatocytes. Thus, and further exploring this model, we assess here the reactivity of two PPARα agonists in direct peroxisomal routes and, in parallel the cross-interferences in estrogen receptor (ER) mediated paths. To achieve these goals, three independent in vitro studies were performed using single exposures to clofibrate – CLF (50, 500 and 1000 μM), Wy-14,643 – Wy (50 and 150 μM), GW6471 – GW (1 and 10 μM), and mixtures, including PPARα agonist or antagonist plus an ER agonist or antagonist. Endpoints included gene expression analysis of peroxisome/lipidic related genes (encoding apolipoprotein AI – ApoAI, fatty acid binding protein 1 – Fabp1, catalase – Cat, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 – 17β-HSD4, peroxin 11 alpha – Pex11α, PPARαBb, PPARαBa and urate oxidase – Uox) and those encoding estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A – VtgA). A quantitative morphological approach by using a pre-validated catalase immunofluorescence technique allowed checking possible changes in peroxisomes. Our results show a low responsiveness of trout hepatocytes to model PPARα agonists in direct target receptor pathways. Additionally, we unveiled interferences in estrogenic

  10. Cross-interference of two model peroxisome proliferators in peroxisomal and estrogenic pathways in brown trout hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira, E-mail: tvmadureira@icbas.up.pt [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto (U. Porto), Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto (U. Porto), Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Pinheiro, Ivone; Malhão, Fernanda; Lopes, Célia [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto (U. Porto), Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS), University of Porto (U. Porto), Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Urbatzka, Ralph [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto (U. Porto), Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C. [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto (U. Porto), Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos (Portugal); Faculty of Sciences (FCUP), University of Porto (U. Porto), Department of Biology, Rua do Campo Alegre, P 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Brown trout hepatocytes seem to be a low responder to model peroxisome proliferators. • Most peroxisomal targets were not affected by Wy-14,643 and clofibrate exposures. • Some estrogenic-related genes were up-regulated after 150 μM of Wy-14,643. • Wy-14,643 increase VtgA and ERα mRNA levels, while ICI 182,780 revert the effect. • Cross-interference in peroxisomal and estrogenic pathways should be more explored. - Abstract: Peroxisome proliferators cause species-specific effects, which seem to be primarily transduced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Interestingly, PPARα has a close interrelationship with estrogenic signaling, and this latter has already been promptly activated in brown trout primary hepatocytes. Thus, and further exploring this model, we assess here the reactivity of two PPARα agonists in direct peroxisomal routes and, in parallel the cross-interferences in estrogen receptor (ER) mediated paths. To achieve these goals, three independent in vitro studies were performed using single exposures to clofibrate – CLF (50, 500 and 1000 μM), Wy-14,643 – Wy (50 and 150 μM), GW6471 – GW (1 and 10 μM), and mixtures, including PPARα agonist or antagonist plus an ER agonist or antagonist. Endpoints included gene expression analysis of peroxisome/lipidic related genes (encoding apolipoprotein AI – ApoAI, fatty acid binding protein 1 – Fabp1, catalase – Cat, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 – 17β-HSD4, peroxin 11 alpha – Pex11α, PPARαBb, PPARαBa and urate oxidase – Uox) and those encoding estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A – VtgA). A quantitative morphological approach by using a pre-validated catalase immunofluorescence technique allowed checking possible changes in peroxisomes. Our results show a low responsiveness of trout hepatocytes to model PPARα agonists in direct target receptor pathways. Additionally, we unveiled interferences in estrogenic

  11. Measurement of total Zn and Zn isotope ratios by quadrupole ICP-MS for evaluation of Zn uptake in gills of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.E.; Todd, A.S.; Brinkman, S.; Lamothe, P.J.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential use of stable zinc isotopes in toxicity studies measuring zinc uptake by the gills of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The use of stable isotopes in such studies has several advantages over the use of radioisotopes, including cost, ease of handling, elimination of permit requirements, and waste disposal. A pilot study using brown trout was performed to evaluate sample preparation methods and the ability of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) system to successfully measure changes in the 67Zn/66Zn ratios for planned exposure levels and duration. After completion of the pilot study, a full-scale zinc exposure study using rainbow trout was performed. The results of these studies indicate that there are several factors that affect the precision of the measured 67Zn/66Zn ratios in the sample digests, including variations in sample size, endogenous zinc levels, and zinc uptake rates by individual fish. However, since these factors were incorporated in the calculation of the total zinc accumulated by the gills during the exposures, the data obtained were adequate for their intended use in calculating zinc binding and evaluating the influences of differences in water quality parameters.

  12. Sixty years of anthropogenic pressure: a spatio-temporal genetic analysis of brown trout populations subject to stocking and population declines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Fraser, Dylan J.; Meier, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of historical samples can provide invaluable information on changes to the genetic composition of natural populations resulting from human activities. Here, we analyse 21 microsatellite loci in historical (archived scales from 1927 to 1956) and contemporary samples of brown trout (Salmo...... trutta) from six neighbouring rivers in Denmark, to compare the genetic structure of wild populations before and after population declines and stocking with nonlocal strains of hatchery trout. We show that all populations have been strongly affected by stocking, with admixture proportions ranging from 14...... differences among populations in hatchery trout admixture proportions. Despite significant changes to the genetic composition within populations over time, dispersal rates among populations were roughly similar before and after stocking. We also assessed whether population declines or introgression...

  13. The relative absorption of fatty acids in brown trout (Salmo trutta fed a commercial extruded pellet coated with different lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Valfré

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the fatty acid absorption capabilities of brown trout (Salmo trut- ta fed commercial extruded diets. Five commercial extruded pellets, different only in the lipid sources used for fat coat- ing, were tested on juvenile brown trout for 45 days. The trout were reared in fresh water at 14.6 ± 0.4° C and 7.7 ± 0.3 mg/l, temperature and dissolved oxygen, respectively. The tested lipid sources were fish oil, canola oil, oleine oil, swine fat and poultry fat. After the adaptation period faeces were collected by gently stripping from anaesthetized fish. Fatty acid analysis was performed on experimental diets and on collected faeces to evaluate the relative absorption capabilities of the trout digestive system with respect to each detected fatty acid. The use of the relative absorption efficiency (rAE was opted to evaluate the intrinsic capability of each fatty acid to be absorbed. Brown trout showed a specific preferential order of absorption of the fatty acids, preferring shorter over longer chain fatty acids and prefer- ring the more unsaturated to the more saturated fatty acids. The fatty acid that showed the best relative absorbability was the C18:4n-3 (rAE = 5.14 ± 0.72, which has a fairly short carbon chain, but at the same time a high unsatura- tion level, followed by the C18:3n-3 (rAE = 3.38 ± 0.30. The fatty acid that showed the worst relative absorbability (rAE = 0.21 ± 0.02 was C24:1n-9.

  14. Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphism reveals life history dependent interbreeding between hatchery and wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2000-01-01

    The effects of stocking hatchery trout into wild populations were studied in a Danish river, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Baseline samples were taken from hatchery trout and wild trout assumed to be unaffected by previous stocking. Also, samples were taken from...... resident and sea trout from a stocked section of the river. Genetic differentiation between the hatchery strain and the local wild population was modest (microsatellite F-ST = 0.06). Using assignment tests, more than 90% of individuals from the baseline samples were classified correctly. Assignment tests...... involving samples from the stocked river section suggested that the contribution by hatchery trout was low among sea trout (trout. Hybrid index analysis and a high percentage of mtDNA haplotypes specific to indigenous trout observed among resident trout that were assigned...

  15. Elevation of plasma gonadotropin concentration in response to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone (GRH) treatment of the male brown trout as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crim, L.W.; Cluett, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Rapid increase of the plasma gonadotropin concentration as measured by radioimmunoassay has been demonstrated in response to GRH treatment of the sexually mature male brown trout. Peak gonadotropin values were observed within 15 minutes of GRH treatment, however, the return to baseline values was prolonged compared with the mammalian response. These data support the concept that the brain, operating via releasing hormones, plays a role in the control of pituitary hormone secretion in fish

  16. Does Habitat Restoration Increase Coexistence of Native Stream Fishes with Introduced Brown Trout: A Case Study on the Middle Provo River, Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Belk; Eric J. Billman; Craig Ellsworth; Brock R. McMillan

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of altered or degraded habitats is often a key component in the conservation plan of native aquatic species, but introduced species may influence the response of the native community to restoration. Recent habitat restoration of the middle section of the Provo River in central Utah, USA, provided an opportunity to evaluate the effect of habitat restoration on the native fish community in a system with an introduced, dominant predator—brown trout (Salmo trutta). To determine the ch...

  17. Encystment of parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) larvae coincides with increased metabolic rate and haematocrit in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipsson, Karl; Brijs, Jeroen; Näslund, Joacim; Wengström, Niklas; Adamsson, Marie; Závorka, Libor; Österling, E Martin; Höjesjö, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Gill parasites on fish are likely to negatively influence their host by inhibiting respiration, oxygen transport capacity and overall fitness. The glochidia larvae of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (FPM, Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)) are obligate parasites on the gills of juvenile salmonid fish. We investigated the effects of FPM glochidia encystment on the metabolism and haematology of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758). Specifically, we measured whole-animal oxygen uptake rates at rest and following an exhaustive exercise protocol using intermittent flow-through respirometry, as well as haematocrit, in infested and uninfested trout. Glochidia encystment significantly affected whole-animal metabolic rate, as infested trout exhibited higher standard and maximum metabolic rates. Furthermore, glochidia-infested trout also had elevated levels of haematocrit. The combination of an increased metabolism and haematocrit in infested fish indicates that glochidia encystment has a physiological effect on the trout, perhaps as a compensatory response to the potential respiratory stress caused by the glochidia. When relating glochidia load to metabolism and haematocrit, fish with low numbers of encysted glochidia were the ones with particularly elevated metabolism and haematocrit. Standard metabolic rate decreased with substantial glochidia loads towards levels similar to those of uninfested fish. This suggests that initial effects visible at low levels of encystment may be countered by additional physiological effects at high loads, e.g. potential changes in energy utilization, and also that high numbers of glochidia may restrict oxygen uptake by the gills.

  18. Cytochrome P4501A induction in brown trout exposed to small streams of an urbanised area: results of a five-year-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Anja; Segner, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    This case study examines the ability of the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) biomarker to distinguish the pollution status of two small streams, Kraehenbach and Koersch, receiving different levels of urban and agricultural impact, with low to moderate contamination by arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding PAHs and PCBs. Brown trout, Salmo trutta, exposed in enclosure restrictions, showed significant between-stream differences of hepatic CYP1A levels. EROD activities were the better discriminator than CYP1A protein levels. The CYP1A response was consistent and repeatable over the 5-year observation period from 1995 to 1999. In contrast to brown trout, hepatic CYP1A of stone loach, Barbatula barbatula, did not clearly distinguish the streams. The findings of this long-term study lend support to the use of CYP1A as a biomarker of degraded environmental conditions, provided that sufficiently long observation periods are used to average out confounding factors, that sufficiently sensitive detection methods are used, and that a responsive monitoring species is chosen. - The CYP1A biomarker in brown trout robustly ranks the chemical stress status of small streams

  19. Pex11α in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario): Expression dynamics during the reproductive cycle reveals sex-specific seasonal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L Filipe C; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Rocha, Maria J; Urbatzka, Ralph; Rocha, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    A negative correlation between female gonadal maturation kinetics and size variations of hepatic peroxisomes was earlier documented in brown trout, as a probable impact of serum estrogen changes during the reproductive cycle. Herein, we investigated whether the organelle volume/surface dynamics seen in female brown trout liver peroxisomes - without numerical changes within each hepatocyte - is followed by variations in the expression of the membrane peroxisome protein Pex11α gene. For comparison, we also studied males. We find in females a seasonal variation with the highest Pex11α expression in February, which was statistically different from all other tested periods. Overall, the expression of PEX11α had over a fivefold decrease from February to September. This period coincides with the reproductive transition between the earlier post-spawning gonadal remodeling and preparatory staging and the pre-spawning period. Males did not show changes. Our approach allowed the first characterization of a peroxin gene in a teleost, the Pex11α, while offering a correlation scenario were, as we hypothesized, the peroxisomal size kinetics is paralleled by membrane-related gene alterations (measured herein as proxy of Pex11α gene expression). Our data support and expand previous results on the regulation, function and morphology of peroxisome dynamics in brown trout, with a broader interest. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. SUPPLEMENTAL STOCKING OF EYED BROWN TROUT EGGS (SALMO TRUTTA M. FARIO L., 1758 WITH THE USE OF WHITLOCK–VIBERT BOXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Turković

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the Upper Kupa valley at three different locations–brooks, Lešnički potok, Lešnički jarak and Grčac. During the research efficiency of stocking with Whitlock Vibert boxes were studied. During the three month research period (January 2005 — April 2005 4000 eyed brown trout eggs from 3 different sources were placed in 14 Whitlock–Vibert boxes. During the research resultes from Grčac brook were excluded from the final analysis of efficiency of Whitlock–Vibert boxes because of technical problems, so resultes for the final analysis were used from 2800 eyed brown trout eggs that were placed in 10 Whitlock–Vibert boxes where 99,53% of the eggs had successfully hatched. The results have shown that the use of Whitlock–Vibert boxes with eyed brown trout eggs is prosperous and that the efficiency of Whitlock–Vibert boxes depends on the quality of eggs and choice of box burial in the stream bed. The research was conducted in the context of the regular management obligations of the fishing right owner on the research area.

  1. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Poleo, Antonio B.S.; Voellestad, Leif Asbjoern; Bishop, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated. - High levels of complexed aluminum, at pH levels below 5.0, predisposes brown trout to sulfur-caused damage in the spring

  2. Cytochrome P4501A induction in brown trout exposed to small streams of an urbanised area: results of a five-year-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Anja [Department of Chemical Ecotoxicology, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Segner, Helmut [Department of Chemical Ecotoxicology, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: helmut.segner@itpa.unibe.ch

    2005-07-15

    This case study examines the ability of the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) biomarker to distinguish the pollution status of two small streams, Kraehenbach and Koersch, receiving different levels of urban and agricultural impact, with low to moderate contamination by arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding PAHs and PCBs. Brown trout, Salmo trutta, exposed in enclosure restrictions, showed significant between-stream differences of hepatic CYP1A levels. EROD activities were the better discriminator than CYP1A protein levels. The CYP1A response was consistent and repeatable over the 5-year observation period from 1995 to 1999. In contrast to brown trout, hepatic CYP1A of stone loach, Barbatula barbatula, did not clearly distinguish the streams. The findings of this long-term study lend support to the use of CYP1A as a biomarker of degraded environmental conditions, provided that sufficiently long observation periods are used to average out confounding factors, that sufficiently sensitive detection methods are used, and that a responsive monitoring species is chosen. - The CYP1A biomarker in brown trout robustly ranks the chemical stress status of small streams.

  3. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudon, Hjalmar [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: hjalmar.laudon@sek.slu.se; Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Voellestad, Leif Asbjoern [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Bishop, Kevin [Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated. - High levels of complexed aluminum, at pH levels below 5.0, predisposes brown trout to sulfur-caused damage in the spring.

  4. Cross-interference of two model peroxisome proliferators in peroxisomal and estrogenic pathways in brown trout hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Pinheiro, Ivone; Malhão, Fernanda; Lopes, Célia; Urbatzka, Ralph; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferators cause species-specific effects, which seem to be primarily transduced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Interestingly, PPARα has a close interrelationship with estrogenic signaling, and this latter has already been promptly activated in brown trout primary hepatocytes. Thus, and further exploring this model, we assess here the reactivity of two PPARα agonists in direct peroxisomal routes and, in parallel the cross-interferences in estrogen receptor (ER) mediated paths. To achieve these goals, three independent in vitro studies were performed using single exposures to clofibrate - CLF (50, 500 and 1000μM), Wy-14,643 - Wy (50 and 150μM), GW6471 - GW (1 and 10μM), and mixtures, including PPARα agonist or antagonist plus an ER agonist or antagonist. Endpoints included gene expression analysis of peroxisome/lipidic related genes (encoding apolipoprotein AI - ApoAI, fatty acid binding protein 1 - Fabp1, catalase - Cat, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 - 17β-HSD4, peroxin 11 alpha - Pex11α, PPARαBb, PPARαBa and urate oxidase - Uox) and those encoding estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A - VtgA). A quantitative morphological approach by using a pre-validated catalase immunofluorescence technique allowed checking possible changes in peroxisomes. Our results show a low responsiveness of trout hepatocytes to model PPARα agonists in direct target receptor pathways. Additionally, we unveiled interferences in estrogenic signaling caused by Wy, leading to an up-regulation VtgA and ERα at 150μM; these effects seem counteracted with a co-exposure to an ER antagonist. The present data stress the potential of this in vitro model for further exploring the physiological/toxicological implications related with this nuclear receptor cross-regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing hydrodynamic space use of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a complex flow environment: a return to first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, James R; Manes, Costantino; Kemp, Paul S

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that stream-dwelling fish should select positions where they can reduce energetic costs relative to benefits gained and enhance fitness. However, the selection of appropriate hydrodynamic metrics that predict space use is the subject of recent debate and a cause of controversy. This is for three reasons: (1) flow characteristics are often oversimplified, (2) confounding variables are not always controlled and (3) there is limited understanding of the explanatory mechanisms that underpin the biophysical interactions between fish and their hydrodynamic environment. This study investigated the space use of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a complex hydrodynamic flow field created using an array of different sized vertically oriented cylinders in a large open-channel flume in which confounding variables were controlled. A hydrodynamic drag function (D) based on single-point time-averaged velocity statistics that incorporates the influence of turbulent fluctuations was used to infer the energetic cost of steady swimming. Novel hydrodynamic preference curves were developed and used to assess the appropriateness of D as a descriptor of space use compared with other commonly used metrics. Zones in which performance-enhancing swimming behaviours (e.g. Kármán gaiting, entraining and bow riding) that enable fish to hold position while reducing energetic costs (termed 'specialised behaviours') were identified and occupancy was recorded. We demonstrate that energy conservation strategies play a key role in space use in an energetically taxing environment with the majority of trout groups choosing to frequently occupy areas in which specialised behaviours may be adopted or by selecting low-drag regions. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Surface feeding and aggressive behaviour of diploid and triploid brown trout Salmo trutta during allopatric pair-wise matchings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, A C; Taylor, J F; Adams, C E; Migaud, H

    2014-09-01

    Diploid and triploid brown trout Salmo trutta were acclimated for 6 weeks on two feeding regimes (floating and sinking). Thereafter, aggression and surface feeding response were compared between pairs of all diploid, all triploid and diploid and triploid S. trutta in an experimental stream. In each pair-wise matching, fish of similar size were placed in allopatry and rank was determined by the total number of aggressive interactions recorded. Dominant individuals initiated more aggression than subordinates, spent more time defending a territory and positioned themselves closer to the surface food source (Gammarus pulex), whereas subordinates occupied the peripheries. In cross ploidy trials, diploid S. trutta were more aggressive than triploid, and dominated their sibling when placed in pair-wise matchings. Surface feeding, however, did not differ statistically between ploidy irrespective of feeding regime. Triploids adopted a sneak feeding strategy while diploids expended more time defending a territory. In addition, we also tested whether triploids exhibit a similar social dominance to diploids when placed in allopatry. Although aggression was lower in triploid pairs than in the diploid and triploid pairs, a dominance hierarchy was also observed between individuals of the same ploidy. Dominant triploid fish were more aggressive and consumed more feed items than subordinate individuals. Subordinate fish displayed a darker colour index than dominant fish suggesting increased stress levels. Dominant triploid fish, however, appeared to be more tolerant of subordinate individuals and did not display the same degree of invasive aggression as seen in the diploid and diploid or diploid and triploid matchings. These novel findings suggest that sterile triploid S. trutta feed similarly but are less aggressive than diploid trout. Future studies should determine the habitat choice of triploid S. trutta after release and the interaction between wild fish and triploids during

  7. Biotic interactions modify multiple-stressor effects on juvenile brown trout in an experimental stream food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Andreas; Salis, Romana K; Jones, Peter E; Matthaei, Christoph D

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural land use results in multiple stressors affecting stream ecosystems. Flow reduction due to water abstraction, elevated levels of nutrients and chemical contaminants are common agricultural stressors worldwide. Concurrently, stream ecosystems are also increasingly affected by climate change. Interactions among multiple co-occurring stressors result in biological responses that cannot be predicted from single-stressor effects (i.e. synergisms and antagonisms). At the ecosystem level, multiple-stressor effects can be further modified by biotic interactions (e.g. trophic interactions). We conducted a field experiment using 128 flow-through stream mesocosms to examine the individual and combined effects of water abstraction, nutrient enrichment and elevated levels of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on survival, condition and gut content of juvenile brown trout and on benthic abundance of their invertebrate prey. Flow velocity reduction decreased fish survival (-12% compared to controls) and condition (-8% compared to initial condition), whereas effects of nutrient and DCD additions and interactions among these stressors were not significant. Negative effects of flow velocity reduction on fish survival and condition were consistent with effects on fish gut content (-25% compared to controls) and abundance of dominant invertebrate prey (-30% compared to controls), suggesting a negative metabolic balance driving fish mortality and condition decline, which was confirmed by structural equation modelling. Fish mortality under reduced flow velocity increased as maximal daily water temperatures approached the upper limit of their tolerance range, reflecting synergistic interactions between these stressors. Our study highlights the importance of indirect stressor effects such as those transferred through trophic interactions, which need to be considered when assessing and managing fish populations and stream food webs in multiple-stressor situations

  8. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Jessie L.; McGeer, James C., E-mail: jmcgeer@wlu.ca

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Exposure to 18 nM waterborne Cd induced plasma Ca loss that recovered by day 30 for lake whitefish but not brown trout. • Ucrit measured after an initial swim to 85% of Ucrit and a 30 min rest period was reduced in 18 nM Cd exposed fish compared to controls. • Swimming to 85% of Ucrit resulted in decreased muscle glycogen and increased lactate that was not recovered in the 30 min recovery period. • Second swim impairment is not related to metabolic processes in white muscle. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18 nM) in moderately hard water (120 mg L{sup −1} CaCO{sub 3}) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (U{sub crit}) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the U{sub crit} of control fish, a 30 min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine U{sub crit}. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim U{sub crit} and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure

  9. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Jessie L.; McGeer, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exposure to 18 nM waterborne Cd induced plasma Ca loss that recovered by day 30 for lake whitefish but not brown trout. • Ucrit measured after an initial swim to 85% of Ucrit and a 30 min rest period was reduced in 18 nM Cd exposed fish compared to controls. • Swimming to 85% of Ucrit resulted in decreased muscle glycogen and increased lactate that was not recovered in the 30 min recovery period. • Second swim impairment is not related to metabolic processes in white muscle. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18 nM) in moderately hard water (120 mg L"−"1 CaCO_3) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (U_c_r_i_t) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the U_c_r_i_t of control fish, a 30 min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine U_c_r_i_t. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim U_c_r_i_t and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure where 31% and 38

  10. Estimating the long-term effects of stocking domesticated trout into wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations : an approach using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller

    2002-01-01

    . The study was based on analysis of two historical samples (194556), represented by old scale collections, and seven contemporary samples (1986-2000). In one population historical and contemporary samples were remarkably genetically similar despite more than a decade of intense stocking. Estimation...... of admixture proportions showed a small genetic contribution from domesticated trout (approximately 6%), and individual admixture analysis demonstrated a majority of nonadmixed individuals. The expected genetic contribution by domesticated trout was 64%, assessed from the number of stocked trout and assuming...... in samples from a broodstock thought to represent the indigenous population and in a sample of wild spawners. Survival of domesticated trout and admixture with indigenous fish in the broodstock and subsequent stocking into the river, combined with a low population size of native trout relative to the number...

  11. Climate change and decline in abundance of brown trout. Is there a link? Results from Switzerland; Klimawandel und Bachforellenrueckgang. Gibt es einen Zusammenhang? Resultate aus der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia [Basel Univ. (CH). Mensch-Gesellschaft-Umwelt (MGU)

    2009-04-15

    Background, aim, and scope: In response to a 60% decrease in brown trout catch between 1980 and 2000, a Swiss-wide search was initiated to investigate possible causes. The project, named 'Fischnetz' (fishing net), investigated 12 hypotheses. One of those suggested a detrimental effect of global climate change. I report here which parameters changed and what the possible consequences for native brown trout are. Materials and methods: The literature is critically analysed and results are synthesised to show the interactions between different climatic factors and their effects on fish. Results In the last 25 years, an increase in temperature by approximately 1 C was indicated in the rivers of Switzerland. This is associated with an earlier emergence of trout from the gravel. Warming results in an upward shift of the preferred thermal habitats. Furthermore, an increase in the clinical outbreak of the Proliferative Kidney Disease PKD (for which a temperature of 15 C for more than 2-4 weeks is necessary) can be recorded. The precipitation pattern changed and an intensification of high floods in winter results in higher erosion. This can in turn lead to an increased level of fine sediments which may affect health of juvenile brown trout and is assumed to reduce reproduction success. Discussion: The consequences of climate change are discussed in concert with other anthropogenic factors. Storage reservoirs, as well as water withdrawal (and return of heated water, respectively) affect temperature profiles and sediment load. Fragmentation, channelization and straightening of rivers accelerate clogging and restrain fish from upward migration and evacuation to more suitable habitats. Conclusions: With increasing temperatures a downsizing of habitats of cold-water fish species, as well as an increase of diseases which are temperature sensitive, is assumed. Recommendations and perspectives: Mitigation measures which lead to a morphological improvement of river systems

  12. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  13. Enhanced individual selection for selecting fast growing fish: the "PROSPER" method, with application on brown trout (Salmo trutta fario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeputte Marc

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growth rate is the main breeding goal of fish breeders, but individual selection has often shown poor responses in fish species. The PROSPER method was developed to overcome possible factors that may contribute to this low success, using (1 a variable base population and high number of breeders (Ne > 100, (2 selection within groups with low non-genetic effects and (3 repeated growth challenges. Using calculations, we show that individual selection within groups, with appropriate management of maternal effects, can be superior to mass selection as soon as the maternal effect ratio exceeds 0.15, when heritability is 0.25. Practically, brown trout were selected on length at the age of one year with the PROSPER method. The genetic gain was evaluated against an unselected control line. After four generations, the mean response per generation in length at one year was 6.2% of the control mean, while the mean correlated response in weight was 21.5% of the control mean per generation. At the 4th generation, selected fish also appeared to be leaner than control fish when compared at the same size, and the response on weight was maximal (≈130% of the control mean between 386 and 470 days post fertilisation. This high response is promising, however, the key points of the method have to be investigated in more detail.

  14. Short-term and long-term effects of transient exogenous cortisol manipulation on oxidative stress in juvenile brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, Kathryn S; Larsen, Martin H; Aarestrup, Kim; Willmore, William G; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-05-01

    In the wild, animals are exposed to a growing number of stressors with increasing frequency and intensity, as a result of human activities and human-induced environmental change. To fully understand how wild organisms are affected by stressors, it is crucial to understand the physiology that underlies an organism's response to a stressor. Prolonged levels of elevated glucocorticoids are associated with a state of chronic stress and decreased fitness. Exogenous glucocorticoid manipulation reduces an individual's ability to forage, avoid predators and grow, thereby limiting the resources available for physiological functions like defence against oxidative stress. Using brown trout ( Salmo trutta ), we evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (4 months over winter) effects of exogenous cortisol manipulations (versus relevant shams and controls) on the oxidative status of wild juveniles. Cortisol caused an increase in glutathione over a 2 week period and appeared to reduce glutathione over winter. Cortisol treatment did not affect oxidative stress levels or low molecular weight antioxidants. Cortisol caused a significant decrease in growth rates but did not affect predation risk. Over-winter survival in the stream was associated with low levels of oxidative stress and glutathione. Thus, oxidative stress may be a mechanism by which elevated cortisol causes negative physiological effects. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. A General Model of Distant Hybridization Reveals the Conditions for Extinction in Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S.; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as “distant hybridization,” the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action. PMID:25003336

  16. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S Quilodrán

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  17. Effects of hydropeaking on the spawning behaviour of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollset, K W; Skoglund, H; Wiers, T; Barlaup, B T

    2016-06-01

    An in situ camera set-up was used to study the spawning activity of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown trout Salmo trutta throughout two consecutive seasons in a spawning area affected by hydropower-related pulse flows due to hydropeaking. The purpose was to test whether the flow variation discouraged spawning in shallow areas or motivated spawning into areas with elevated risk of incubation mortality. There were more S. salar observed on the spawning ground during days with high discharge. The presence of S. salar in the spawning grounds was not affected by the hydropeaking cycles of the preceding night. Female S. salar were observed preparing nests within the first hour after water discharge had increased to levels suitable for spawning. In contrast, the number of S. trutta was not correlated with flow and nest preparation was also observed at a discharge corresponding to the lowest discharge levels during a hydropeaking cycle. Survival was generally high in nests excavated the following winter, with only 5·4% suffering mortality due to dewatering. The results suggest that S. salar may respond rapidly to variable-flow conditions and utilize short windows with suitable flows for spawning. Smaller S. trutta may utilize low-flow conditions to spawn in areas that are not habitable by larger S. salar during low flow. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Influence of parental life history on maturation and smoltification in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dȩbowski Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The developmental pathways of the offspring of three groups of trout, Salmo trutta L., with known life histories were compared: one group from a freshwater resident population and two groups from an anadromous population (fish that have smoltified and fish that have not. The fish were hybridized within a group, and 27 families were obtained and reared mixed in two tanks. Tracking fish specimens was possible thanks to individual passive integrated transponder (PIT tagging. All families followed different life pathways. Faster growth favored early smoltification and maturation at the age of 1+ in males that had not smoltified. In addition, both processes were clearly also influenced by inherited factors. Fish of freshwater resident origin smoltified more infrequently, and males matured earlier than did fish from the migratory population. The offspring of parents from the migratory population, which did smoltify during their individual histories, smoltified early (in the second year more often than offspring of non-smoltified members of the population.

  19. Phylogeography and taxonomic status of trout and salmon from the Ponto-Caspian drainages, with inferences on European Brown Trout evolution and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninua, Levan; Tarkhnishvili, David; Gvazava, Elguja

    2018-03-01

    Current taxonomy of western Eurasian trout leaves a number of questions open; it is not clear to what extent some species are distinct genetically and morphologically. The purpose of this paper was to explore phylogeography and species boundaries in freshwater and anadromous trout from the drainages of the Black and the Caspian Seas (Ponto-Caspian). We studied morphology and mitochondrial phylogeny, combining samples from the western Caucasus within the potential range of five nominal species of trout that are thought to inhabit this region, and using the sequences available from GenBank. Our results suggest that the genetic diversity of trout in the Ponto-Caspian region is best explained with the fragmentation of catchments. (1) All trout species from Ponto-Caspian belong to the same mitochondrial clade, separated from the other trout since the Pleistocene; (2) the southeastern Black Sea area is the most likely place of diversification of this clade, which is closely related to the clades from Anatolia; (3) The species from the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea drainages are monophyletic; (4) except for the basal lineage of the Ponto-Caspian clade, Salmo rizeensis , all the lineages produce anadromous forms; (5) genetic diversification within the Ponto-Caspian clade is related to Pleistocene glacial waves; (6) the described morphological differences between the species are not fully diagnostic, and some earlier described differences depend on body size; the differences between freshwater and marine forms exceed those between the different lineages. We suggest a conservative taxonomic approach, using the names S. rizeensis and Salmo labrax for trout from the Black Sea basin and Salmo caspius and Salmo ciscaucasicus for the fish from the Caspian basin.

  20. Global transcriptomic profiling demonstrates induction of oxidative stress and of compensatory cellular stress responses in brown trout exposed to glyphosate and Roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren Webster, Tamsyn M; Santos, Eduarda M

    2015-01-31

    Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup formulations, is the most widely used herbicide worldwide, and as a result contaminates surface waters and has been detected in food residues, drinking water and human urine, raising concerns for potential environmental and human health impacts. Research has shown that glyphosate and Roundup can induce a broad range of biological effects in exposed organisms, particularly via generation of oxidative stress. However, there has been no comprehensive investigation of the global molecular mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate and Roundup for any species. We aimed to characterise and compare the global mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate and Roundup in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta), an ecologically and economically important vertebrate species, using RNA-seq on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. To do this, we exposed juvenile female brown trout to 0, 0.01, 0.5 and 10 mg/L of glyphosate and Roundup (glyphosate acid equivalent) for 14 days, and sequenced 6 replicate liver samples from each treatment. We assembled the brown trout transcriptome using an optimised de novo approach, and subsequent differential expression analysis identified a total of 1020 differentially-regulated transcripts across all treatments. These included transcripts encoding components of the antioxidant system, a number of stress-response proteins and pro-apoptotic signalling molecules. Functional analysis also revealed over-representation of pathways involved in regulating of cell-proliferation and turnover, and up-regulation of energy metabolism and other metabolic processes. These transcriptional changes are consistent with generation of oxidative stress and the widespread induction of compensatory cellular stress response pathways. The mechanisms of toxicity identified were similar across both glyphosate and Roundup treatments, including for environmentally relevant concentrations. The significant alterations in transcript expression observed

  1. Modes of competition: adding and removing brown trout in the wild to understand the mechanisms of density-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Kaspersson

    Full Text Available While the prevalence of density-dependence is well-established in population ecology, few field studies have investigated its underlying mechanisms and their relative population-level importance. Here, we address these issues, and more specifically, how differences in body-size influence population regulation. For this purpose, two experiments were performed in a small coastal stream on the Swedish west coast, using juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta as a study species. We manipulated densities of large and small individuals, and observed effects on survival, migration, condition and individual growth rate in a target group of intermediate-sized individuals. The generality of the response was investigated by reducing population densities below and increasing above the natural levels (removing and adding large and small individuals. Reducing the density (relaxing the intensity of competition had no influence on the response variables, suggesting that stream productivity was not a limiting factor at natural population density. Addition of large individuals resulted in a negative density-dependent response, while no effect was detected when adding small individuals or when maintaining the natural population structure. We found that the density-dependent response was revealed as reduced growth rate rather than increased mortality and movement, an effect that may arise from exclusion to suboptimal habitats or increased stress levels among inferior individuals. Our findings confirm the notion of interference competition as the primary mode of competition in juvenile salmonids, and also show that the feedback-mechanisms of density-dependence are primarily acting when increasing densities above their natural levels.

  2. Local adaptation at the transcriptome level in brown trout: evidence from early life history temperature genomic reaction norms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Meier

    Full Text Available Local adaptation and its underlying molecular basis has long been a key focus in evolutionary biology. There has recently been increased interest in the evolutionary role of plasticity and the molecular mechanisms underlying local adaptation. Using transcriptome analysis, we assessed differences in gene expression profiles for three brown trout (Salmo trutta populations, one resident and two anadromous, experiencing different temperature regimes in the wild. The study was based on an F2 generation raised in a common garden setting. A previous study of the F1 generation revealed different reaction norms and significantly higher QST than FST among populations for two early life-history traits. In the present study we investigated if genomic reaction norm patterns were also present at the transcriptome level. Eggs from the three populations were incubated at two temperatures (5 and 8 degrees C representing conditions encountered in the local environments. Global gene expression for fry at the stage of first feeding was analysed using a 32k cDNA microarray. The results revealed differences in gene expression between populations and temperatures and population × temperature interactions, the latter indicating locally adapted reaction norms. Moreover, the reaction norms paralleled those observed previously at early life-history traits. We identified 90 cDNA clones among the genes with an interaction effect that were differently expressed between the ecologically divergent populations. These included genes involved in immune- and stress response. We observed less plasticity in the resident as compared to the anadromous populations, possibly reflecting that the degree of environmental heterogeneity encountered by individuals throughout their life cycle will select for variable level of phenotypic plasticity at the transcriptome level. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of transcriptome approaches to identify genes with different temperature reaction

  3. Temporal stability and rates of post-depositional change in geochemical signatures of brown trout Salmo trutta scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D; Shephard, S; Kelly, F L

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates temporal stability in the scale microchemistry of brown trout Salmo trutta in feeder streams of a large heterogeneous lake catchment and rates of change after migration into the lake. Laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify the elemental concentrations of Na, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ba and Sr in archived (1997-2002) scales of juvenile S. trutta collected from six major feeder streams of Lough Mask, County Mayo, Ireland. Water-element Ca ratios within these streams were determined for the fish sampling period and for a later period (2013-2015). Salmo trutta scale Sr and Ba concentrations were significantly (P < 0·05) correlated with stream water sample Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios respectively from both periods, indicating multi-annual stability in scale and water-elemental signatures. Discriminant analysis of scale chemistries correctly classified 91% of sampled juvenile S. trutta to their stream of origin using a cross-validated classification model. This model was used to test whether assumed post-depositional change in scale element concentrations reduced correct natal stream classification of S. trutta in successive years after migration into Lough Mask. Fish residing in the lake for 1-3 years could be reliably classified to their most likely natal stream, but the probability of correct classification diminished strongly with longer lake residence. Use of scale chemistry to identify natal streams of lake S. trutta should focus on recent migrants, but may not require contemporary water chemistry data. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Resource Partitioning in Food, Space and Time between Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) and European Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) at the Southern Edge of Their Continuous Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hallvard; Kiljunen, Mikko; Knudsen, Rune; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Arctic charr and European whitefish are considered to be strong competitors in lakes, with the latter usually being the superior species. However, high niche plasticity and lake morphometry may suggestively facilitate resource partitioning and coexistence between charr and whitefish. Here, we explore the trophic niche utilization (diet and habitat use) of charr and whitefish co-occurring with brown trout in the deep and oligotrophic Lake Fyresvatnet, southern Norway (59°05'N, 8°10'E). Using CPUE, stomach contents and stable isotope analyses, a distinct resource partitioning was revealed between brown trout and the other two species. Brown trout typically occupied the littoral zone, feeding on benthic invertebrates, surface insects and small-sized whitefish. In contrast, charr and whitefish were predominantly zooplanktivorous, but diverged somewhat in habitat utilization as charr shifted seasonally between the profundal and the littoral zone, whereas whitefish were found in the upper water layers (littoral and pelagic habitats). Accordingly, the stable isotope values of carbon (δ13C) reflected a pelagic orientated prey resource use for both charr and whitefish, whereas brown trout had elevated carbon and nitrogen (δ15N) signatures that reflected their benthivore and piscivore diet, respectively. The findings suggest that charr may not rely upon the profundal zone as a feeding habitat but as a refuge area, and may coexist with whitefish if a third competitive and predatory species like brown trout co-occur in the lake. The study indicates that a general high habitat plasticity of Arctic charr may be essential in the presently observed coexistence with a competitively superior fish species like whitefish, and that a third fish species like brown trout may facilitate this particular fish community structure.

  5. Habitat modeling for brown trout population in alpine region of Slovenia with focus on determination of preference functions, fuzzy rules and fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santl, Saso; Carf, Masa; Preseren, Tanja; Jenic, Aljaz

    2013-04-01

    Water withdrawals and consequently reduction of discharges in river streams for different water uses (hydro power, irrigation, etc.) usually impoverish habitat suitability for naturally present river fish fauna. In Slovenia reduction of suitable habitats resulting from water abstractions frequently impacts local brown trout (Salmo truta) populations. This is the reason for establishment of habitat modeling which can qualitatively and quantitatively support decision making for determination of the environmental flow and other mitigation measures. Paper introduces applied methodology for habitat modeling where input data preparation and elaboration with required accuracy has to be considered. For model development four (4) representative and heterogeneous sampling sites were chosen. Two (2) sampling sections were located within the sections with small hydropower plants and were considered as sections affected by water abstractions. The other two (2) sampling sections were chosen where there are no existing water abstractions. Precise bathymetric mapping for chosen river sections has been performed. Topographic data and series of discharge and water level measurements enabled establishment of calibrated hydraulic models, which provide data on water velocities and depths for analyzed discharges. Brief field measurements were also performed to gather required data on dominant and subdominant substrate size and cover type. Since the accuracy of fish distribution on small scale is very important for habitat modeling, a fish sampling method had to be selected and modified for existing river microhabitats. The brown trout specimen's locations were collected with two (2) different sampling methods. A method of riverbank observation which is suitable for adult fish in pools and a method of electro fishing for locating small fish and fish in riffles or hiding in cover. Ecological and habitat requirements for fish species vary regarding different fish populations as well as eco

  6. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jessie L; McGeer, James C

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18nM) in moderately hard water (120mgL(-1) CaCO3) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (Ucrit) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the Ucrit of control fish, a 30min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine Ucrit. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim Ucrit and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure where 31% and 38% reductions were observed for brown trout and lake whitefish respectively. Swimming to 85% Ucrit resulted in metabolic expenditure with little recovery after 30min. Few differences were observed between control and Cd exposed fish with the exception of a reduction in resting white muscle ATP stores of Cd exposed fish after 1 week of exposure. The results show that chronic sublethal Cd exposure results in an impairment of swimming ability in repeat swim challenges but this impairment is generally not related to metabolic processes

  7. Identification of the thiamin pyrophosphokinase gene in rainbow trout: Characteristic structure and expression of seven splice variants in tissues and cell lines and during embryo development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuge, Shinya; Richter, Catherine A.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Nicks, Diane; Saloka, Stephanie K.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Li, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphokinase (TPK) converts thiamin to its active form, thiamin diphosphate. In humans, TPK expression is down-regulated in some thiamin deficiency related syndrome, and enhanced during pregnancy. Rainbow trout are also vulnerable to thiamin deficiency in wild life and are useful models for thiamin metabolism research. We identified the tpk gene transcript including seven splice variants in the rainbow trout. Almost all cell lines and tissues examined showed co-expression of several tpk splice variants including a potentially major one at both mRNA and protein levels. However, relative to other tissues, the longest variant mRNA expression was predominant in the ovary and abundant in embryos. During embryogenesis, total tpk transcripts increased abruptly in early development, and decreased to about half of the peak shortly after hatching. In rainbow trout, the tpk transcript complex is ubiquitously expressed for all tissues and cells examined, and its increase in expression could be important in the early-middle embryonic stages. Moreover, decimated tpk expression in a hepatoma cell line relative to hepatic and gonadal cell lines appears to be consistent with previously reported down-regulation of thiamin metabolism in cancer.

  8. Impact of wastewater on fish health: a case study at the Neckar River (Southern Germany) using biomarkers in caged brown trout as assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Krisztina; Scheil, Volker; Kuch, Bertram; Köhler, Heinz R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-08-01

    The present work describes a field survey aiming at assessing the impact of a sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on fish health by means of biomarkers. Indigenous fish were absent downstream of the STP. To elucidate the reason behind this, brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) were exposed in floating steel cages up- and downstream of a STP located at the Neckar River near Tübingen (Southern Germany), for 10 and 30 days. A combination of biomarker methods (histopathological investigations, analysis of the stress protein Hsp70, micronucleus test, B-esterase assays) offered the possibility to investigate endocrine, geno-, proteo- and neurotoxic effects in fish organs. Biological results were complemented with chemical analyses on 20 accumulative substances in fish tissue. Even after short-term exposure, biomarkers revealed clear evidence of water contamination at both Neckar River sites; however, physiological responses of caged brown trout were more severe downstream of the STP. According to this, similar bioaccumulation levels (low μg/kg range) of DDE and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at both sampling sites, while up to fourfold higher concentrations of four PAHs, methyl-triclosan and two synthetic musks occurred in the tissues of downstream-exposed fish. The results obtained in this study suggest a constitutive background pollution at both sites investigated at the Neckar River and provided evidence for the additional negative impact of the STP Tübingen on water quality and the health condition of fish.

  9. The Effects of Florfenicol on the Values of Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Other Biochemical Markers in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Endotoxemia in Brown Trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Er

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of florfenicol on the expected changes in sTNF-α, damage markers of the liver and kidney, and the lipid metabolism parameters in endotoxemic brown trout. Ninety-six brown trout were included in this study. After six of the fish were reserved as the control group, the remaining 90 fish were divided equally into 3 groups as follows: LPS (2 mg/kg, IP, LPS (2 mg/kg, IP + florfenicol (40 mg/kg, IM, and florfenicol (40 mg/kg, IM. Blood samples were obtained from the tail of the fish at 1.5, 3, 6, 10, and 24 hours. The levels of sTNF-α were determined by ELISA and biochemical markers were evaluated with an autoanalyzer. A significant increase was observed in the values of sTNF-α in the LPS and LPS + florfenicol groups (P<0.05. Significant increases were found in the kidney and liver damage determinants in the LPS and LPS + florfenicol groups (P<0.05. Irregular changes in the lipid metabolism parameters were observed in all the subgroups. In conclusion, florfenicol does not affect the increases of sTNF-α caused by LPS and does not prevent liver or kidney damage; at least, it can be said that florfenicol does not have any evident positive effects on the acute endotoxemia of fish.

  10. Acyl-coenzyme A oxidases 1 and 3 in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario): Can peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation be regulated by estrogen signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A oxidases 1 (Acox1) and 3 (Acox3) are key enzymes in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Endogenous and exogenous factors can disrupt their normal expression/activity. This study presents for the first time the isolation and characterization of Acox1 and Acox3 in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario). Additionally, as previous data point to the existence of a cross-talk between two nuclear receptors, namely peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and estrogen receptors, it was here evaluated after in vitro exposures of trout hepatocytes the interference caused by ethynylestradiol in the mRNA levels of an inducible (by peroxisome proliferators) and a non-inducible oxidase. The isolated Acox1 and Acox3 show high levels of sequence conservation compared to those of other teleosts. Additionally, it was found that Acox1 has two alternative splicing isoforms, corresponding to 3I and 3II isoforms of exon 3 splicing variants. Both isoforms display tissue specificity, with Acox1-3II presenting a more ubiquitous expression in comparison with Acox1-3I. Acox3 was expressed in almost all brown trout tissues. According to real-time PCR data, the highest estrogenic stimulus was able to cause a down-regulation of Acox1 and an up-regulation of Acox3. So, for Acox1 we found a negative association between an estrogenic input and a directly activated PPARα target gene. In conclusion, changes in hormonal estrogenic stimulus may impact the mobilization of hepatic lipids to the gonads, with ultimate consequences in reproduction. Further studies using in vivo assays will be fundamental to clarify these issues.

  11. Partial nucleotide sequences, and routine typing by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) lactate dehydrogenase, LDH-C1*90 and *100 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeel, O M; Hoey, E M; Ferguson, A

    2001-01-01

    The cDNA nucleotide sequences of the lactate dehydrogenase alleles LDH-C1*90 and *100 of brown trout (Salmo trutta) were found to differ at position 308 where an A is present in the *100 allele but a G is present in the *90 allele. This base substitution results in an amino acid change from aspartic acid at position 82 in the LDH-C1 100 allozyme to a glycine in the 90 allozyme. Since aspartic acid has a net negative charge whilst glycine is uncharged, this is consistent with the electrophoretic observation that the LDH-C1 100 allozyme has a more anodal mobility relative to the LDH-C1 90 allozyme. Based on alignment of the cDNA sequence with the mouse genomic sequence, a local primer set was designed, incorporating the variable position, and was found to give very good amplification with brown trout genomic DNA. Sequencing of this fragment confirmed the difference in both homozygous and heterozygous individuals. Digestion of the polymerase chain reaction products with BslI, a restriction enzyme specific for the site difference, gave one, two and three fragments for the two homozygotes and the heterozygote, respectively, following electrophoretic separation. This provides a DNA-based means of routine screening of the highly informative LDH-C1* polymorphism in brown trout population genetic studies. Primer sets presented could be used to sequence cDNA of other LDH* genes of brown trout and other species.

  12. Small functional If current in sinoatrial pacemaker cells of the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) heart despite strong expression of HCN channel transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassinen, Minna; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2017-12-01

    Funny current ( I f ), formed by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN channels), is supposed to be crucial for the membrane clock regulating the cardiac pacemaker mechanism. We examined the presence and activity of HCN channels in the brown trout ( Salmo trutta fario ) sinoatrial (SA) pacemaker cells and their putative role in heart rate ( f H ) regulation. Six HCN transcripts (HCN1, HCN2a, HCN2ba, HCN2bb, HCN3, and HCN4) were expressed in the brown trout heart. The total HCN transcript abundance was 4.0 and 4.9 times higher in SA pacemaker tissue than in atrium and ventricle, respectively. In the SA pacemaker, HCN3 and HCN4 were the main isoforms representing 35.8 ± 2.7 and 25.0 ± 1.5%, respectively, of the total HCN transcripts. Only a small I f with a mean current density of -1.2 ± 0.37 pA/pF at -140 mV was found in 4 pacemaker cells out of 16 spontaneously beating cells examined, despite the optimization of recording conditions for I f activity. I f was not found in any of the 24 atrial myocytes and 21 ventricular myocytes examined. HCN4 coexpressed with the MinK-related peptide 1 (MiRP1) β-subunit in CHO cells generated large I f currents. In contrast, HCN3 (+MiRP1) failed to produce I f in the same expression system. Cs + (2 mM), which blocked 84 ± 12% of the native I f , reversibly reduced f H 19.2 ± 3.6% of the excised multicellular pacemaker tissue from 53 ± 5 to 44 ± 5 beats/min ( P brown trout heart is largely independent on I f . Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Distribution of individual inbreeding coefficients, relatedness and influence of stocking on native anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) population structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzante, D.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Meldrup, Dorte

    2001-01-01

    inbreeding coefficients do not differ among locations within rivers. Relatedness varies between sites within rivers indicating varied local dynamics at a very small geographical scale. Relatedness is sometimes lower than expected among an equal number of simulated individuals with randomized genotypes......, the proportion of locally assigned trout correlates with the populations' stocking histories, with rivers presently subjected to stocking (hatchery trout) showing low mean similar to0.73), and rivers where stocking was discontinued showing high (mean similar to0.84) proportions of local fish, probably reflecting...

  14. Effects of some chelating agents on the uptake and distribution of 54Mn(II) in the brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouleau, C.; Tjaelve, H.; Pelletier, E.; Gottofrey, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of humic acids, which are natural metal-complexing compounds, and potassium ethylxanthate, sodium diethyldithiophosphate, sodium dimethyldithicarbamate, which are sulphur-containing man-made chelating agents, on the uptake and tissue distribution of 54 Mn(II) were studied in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Fish were exposed for 7 days to 0.1 μg Mn(II)x. -2 as NmCl 2 (l μCia 54 Mnxl -1 ) with or without chelat agents. Examination of the partition of Mn between octanol and a Tris-HCl buffer in the presence of these compounds was also performed. Humic acids had only small effects on Mn uptake and distribution in trout, probably because of the low stability of Mn-humate complexes. Partition of Mn in the presence of potassium ethylxanthate, sodium diethyldithiophosphate, sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate, and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate between octanol and Tris-HCl buffer showed formation of lipophilic complex with the latter two compounds, but not with the former. However, these four chelating agents all decreased Mn uptake in the trout by 40-45%. These substances also changed the distribution of Mn within the fish, with a higher proportion of the metal being present in some visceral organs and a smaller proportion being localized in some non-parenchymateous tissues, such as skin, fins and bones. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. however, the interaction of chelating agents with the Mn, although weak, may have partially withdrawn the metal from the uptake process inthe gills. The redistribution of Mn in the fish may be due to the binding of the metal to complexing compounds which have reached the intestinal lumen. Previous studies with other metals have shown increased or unchanged metal levels in tissues of fish at exposure together with potasium ethylxanthate, sodium diethyldithiophosphate, sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate, and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, but decreased metal levels have not been observed before. (au) (37 refs.)

  15. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  16. Density-dependent effects of non-native brown trout Salmo trutta on the species-area relationship in stream fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, K; Mori, T; Yamazaki, C

    2017-01-01

    The spatial scale and density-dependent effects of non-native brown trout Salmo trutta on species richness of fish assemblages were examined at 48 study sites in Mamachi Stream, a tributary of Chitose River, Hokkaido, Japan. The density of age ≥1 year S. trutta was high in the upstream side of the main stem of Mamachi Stream. Fish species richness increased with increasing area of study sites (habitat size), but the increasing magnitude of the species richness with area decreased with increasing age of ≥1 year S. trutta density. The relationships between age ≥1 year S. trutta, however, and presence-absence of each species seemed to be different among species. Species richness was also determined by location and physical environmental variables, i.e. it was high on the downstream side and in structurally complex environments. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Expansion of Non-Native Brown Trout in South Europe May Be Inadvertently Driven by Stocking: Molecular and Social Survey in the North Iberian Narcea River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horreo, Jose L; Abad, David; Dopico, Eduardo; Oberlin, Maud; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-07-09

    The biological and anthropogenic (management) factors that may contribute to the expansion of non-native lineages in managed fish have been studied in this work taking brown trout (Salmo trutta) as a model species. The changes of users' opinion about stocking was studied employing social science methodology (surveys). The evolution of hatchery stocks together with the outcome of stocking were analysed with two genetic tools: the LDH-C1* locus (marker of non-native stocks) and six microsatellite loci (for assignment of wild trout to the natural population or putative hatchery stocks). Consulted stakeholders were convinced of the correctness of releasing only native stocks, although in practice the hatcheries managed by them contained important proportions of non-native gene carriers. Our results suggest that allochthonous individuals perform better and grow faster in hatchery conditions than the native ones. We also find a dilution of the impact of this kind of suplementation in wild conditions. The use of only native individuals as hatchery breeders tested for the presence of non-native alleles previously to the artificial crosses must be a priority. Surveys can help steer policy making toward decisions that will be followed by the public, but they should not be used to justify science.

  18. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, I.; Grimalt, J.O.; Ventura, M.; Catalan, J.; Rosseland, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log K ow > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants

  19. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, I. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Grimalt, J.O. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)]. E-mail: jgoqam@cid.csic.es; Ventura, M. [Limnology Group (CSIC-UB), Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc, 14, Blanes 17300, Catalonia (Spain); Catalan, J. [Limnology Group (CSIC-UB), Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Acces Cala St. Francesc, 14, Blanes 17300, Catalonia (Spain); Rosseland, B.O. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), P.O.B. 173 Kjelsaas, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Institute for Biology and Nature Conservation, The Agricultural University of Norway (NLH) (Norway)

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log K{sub ow} > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants.

  20. Expansion of Non-Native Brown Trout in South Europe May Be Inadvertently Driven by Stocking: Molecular and Social Survey in the North Iberian Narcea River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Horreo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The biological and anthropogenic (management factors that may contribute to the expansion of non-native lineages in managed fish have been studied in this work taking brown trout (Salmo trutta as a model species. The changes of users’ opinion about stocking was studied employing social science methodology (surveys. The evolution of hatchery stocks together with the outcome of stocking were analysed with two genetic tools: the LDH-C1* locus (marker of non-native stocks and six microsatellite loci (for assignment of wild trout to the natural population or putative hatchery stocks. Consulted stakeholders were convinced of the correctness of releasing only native stocks, although in practice the hatcheries managed by them contained important proportions of non-native gene carriers. Our results suggest that allochthonous individuals perform better and grow faster in hatchery conditions than the native ones. We also find a dilution of the impact of this kind of suplementation in wild conditions. The use of only native individuals as hatchery breeders tested for the presence of non-native alleles previously to the artificial crosses must be a priority. Surveys can help steer policy making toward decisions that will be followed by the public, but they should not be used to justify science.

  1. Viral and bacterial septicaemic infections modulate the expression of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors in brown trout immune organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Carpio, Yamila; Secombes, Christopher J; Taylor, Nick G H; Lugo, Juana María; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP-Related Peptide (PRP) are structurally similar peptides encoded in the same transcripts. Their transcription has been detected not only in the brain but also in a wide range of peripheral tissues, even including organs of the immune system. PACAP exerts pleiotropic activities through G-protein coupled membrane receptors: the PACAP-specific PAC-1 and the VPAC-1 and VPAC-2 receptors that exhibit similar affinities for the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and PACAP. Recent findings added PACAP and its receptors to the growing list of mediators that allow cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems in fish. In this study the expression of genes encoding for PACAP and PRP, as well as VIP/PACAP receptors was studied in laboratory-reared brown trout (Salmo trutta) after septicaemic infections. Respectively Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus (VHSV-Ia) or the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri (ser. O1 - biot. 2) were used in infection challenges. Kidney and spleen, the teleost main lymphopoietic organs, were sampled during the first two weeks post-infection. RT-qPCR analysis assessed specific pathogens burden and gene expression levels. PACAP and PRP transcription in each organ was positively correlated to the respective pathogen burden, assessed targeting the VHSV-glycoprotein or Y. ruckeri 16S rRNA. Results showed as the transcription of PACAP splicing variants and VIP/PACAP receptors is modulated in these organs during an acute viral and bacterial septicaemic infections in brown trout. These gene expression results provide clues as to how the PACAP system is modulated in fish, confirming an involvement during active immune responses elicited by both viral and bacterial aetiological agents. However, further experimental evidence is still required to fully elucidate and characterize the role of PACAP and PRP for an efficient immune response against pathogens. Copyright © 2015

  2. Ascent ability of brown trout, Salmo trutta, and two Iberian cyprinids − Iberian barbel, Luciobarbus bocagei, and northern straight-mouth nase, Pseudochondrostoma duriense − in a vertical slot fishway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Ronda, Fco. Javier; Bravo-Cordoba, F.J.; Fuentes-Perez, J.F.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Passage performance of brown trout (Salmo trutta), Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei), and northern straight-mouth nase (Pseudochondrostoma duriense) was investigated in a vertical slot fishway in the Porma River (Duero River basin, Spain) using PIT telemetry. We analysed the effects of different fishway discharges on motivation and passage success. Both cyprinid species ascended the fishway easily, performing better than the trout despite their theoretically weaker swimming performance. Fishway discharge affected fish motivation although it did not clearly influence passage success. Observed results can guide design and operation criteria of vertical slot fishways for native Iberian fish.

  3. 30 years of data reveal dramatic increase in abundance of brown trout following the removal of a small hydrodam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage; Nielsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    and spawning of fish. In the present study, we present thirty years of data from electrofishing surveys obtained at two sites, both prior to and following the removal of a small-scale hydropower dam in Central Jutland, Denmark. We demonstrate that the dam removal has led to a dramatic increase in trout density...

  4. Effects of sub-lethal levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene on in vitro steroid biosynthesis by ovarian follicles or steroid metabolism by embryos of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkam, Rakpong; Renaud, Rick; Lin, Lucy; Boermans, Herman; Leatherland, John

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the possibility that DDT and DDE, at sub-lethal exposure levels, exert direct effects on the biotransformation of gonadal steroids by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles and embryos. Ovarian follicles were co-incubated with DDT or DDE at 0.01 or 1 mg l -1 to examine effects of the pesticides on basal or cAMP-activated steroidogenesis. Ovarian preparations were incubated with radiolabelled [ 3 H]pregnenolone ([ 3 H]P 5 ), and the tritiated metabolites of [ 3 H]P 5 metabolism were separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) production were also measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Embryos were either exposed to the pesticides in ovo, or co-incubated in vitro with the pesticides. The effect of the pesticides on embryo steroid biotransformation was examined using a range of radioactively labelled substrates, including [ 3 H]P 5 , [ 3 H]progesterone ([ 3 H]P 4 ), [ 3 H]T and [ 3 H]E 2 . At the concentrations used, the pesticides had no significant effect on the relative amounts of unconjugated radiolabelled steroids formed by the biotransformation of [ 3 H]P 5 under conditions of basal or cAMP-stimulated ovarian steroidogenesis. However, DDT and DDE appeared to reduce the basal accumulation of androgen as a product of P 5 biotransformation by ovarian follicles. Basal or cAMP-stimulated total estrogen production was not affected. In addition, DDT at 1 mg l -1 and DDE at 0.01 mg l -1 significantly increased and decreased cAMP-stimulated T accumulation, respectively. Also DDT at 0.01 mg l -1 and DDE at 1 mg l -1 significantly increased and decreased basal E 2 accumulation, respectively. The steroid metabolites synthesized from the different substrates by embryos were essentially similar in both controls and pesticide-exposed groups, and the survival of embryos to hatch was not significantly affected by pesticide exposure, in ovo, with an approximately 90% hatchability in

  5. Effects of sub-lethal levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene on in vitro steroid biosynthesis by ovarian follicles or steroid metabolism by embryos of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkam, Rakpong [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); Renaud, Rick [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); Lin, Lucy [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); Boermans, Herman [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); Leatherland, John [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail: jleather@ovc.uoguelph.ca

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the possibility that DDT and DDE, at sub-lethal exposure levels, exert direct effects on the biotransformation of gonadal steroids by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles and embryos. Ovarian follicles were co-incubated with DDT or DDE at 0.01 or 1 mg l{sup -1} to examine effects of the pesticides on basal or cAMP-activated steroidogenesis. Ovarian preparations were incubated with radiolabelled [{sup 3}H]pregnenolone ([{sup 3}H]P{sub 5}), and the tritiated metabolites of [{sup 3}H]P{sub 5} metabolism were separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Testosterone (T) and 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) production were also measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Embryos were either exposed to the pesticides in ovo, or co-incubated in vitro with the pesticides. The effect of the pesticides on embryo steroid biotransformation was examined using a range of radioactively labelled substrates, including [{sup 3}H]P{sub 5}, [{sup 3}H]progesterone ([{sup 3}H]P{sub 4}), [{sup 3}H]T and [{sup 3}H]E{sub 2}. At the concentrations used, the pesticides had no significant effect on the relative amounts of unconjugated radiolabelled steroids formed by the biotransformation of [{sup 3}H]P{sub 5} under conditions of basal or cAMP-stimulated ovarian steroidogenesis. However, DDT and DDE appeared to reduce the basal accumulation of androgen as a product of P{sub 5} biotransformation by ovarian follicles. Basal or cAMP-stimulated total estrogen production was not affected. In addition, DDT at 1 mg l{sup -1} and DDE at 0.01 mg l{sup -1} significantly increased and decreased cAMP-stimulated T accumulation, respectively. Also DDT at 0.01 mg l{sup -1} and DDE at 1 mg l{sup -1} significantly increased and decreased basal E{sub 2} accumulation, respectively. The steroid metabolites synthesized from the different substrates by embryos were essentially similar in both controls and pesticide-exposed groups, and the survival of embryos to hatch

  6. Species interactions and response time to climate change: ice-cover and terrestrial run-off shaping Arctic char and brown trout competitive asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, A. G.; Palm Helland, I.; Jonsson, B.; Forseth, T.; Foldvik, A.; Hessen, D. O.; Hendrichsen, D. K.; Berg, O. K.; Ulvan, E.; Ugedal, O.

    2011-12-01

    There has been a growing recognition that single species responses to climate change often mainly are driven by interaction with other organisms and single species studies therefore not are sufficient to recognize and project ecological climate change impacts. Here, we study how performance, relative abundance and the distribution of two common Arctic and sub-Arctic freshwater fishes (brown trout and Arctic char) are driven by competitive interactions. The interactions are modified both by direct climatic effects on temperature and ice-cover, and indirectly through climate forcing of terrestrial vegetation pattern and associated carbon and nutrient run-off. We first use laboratory studies to show that Arctic char, which is the world's most northernmost distributed freshwater fish, outperform trout under low light levels and also have comparable higher growth efficiency. Corresponding to this, a combination of time series and time-for-space analyses show that ice-cover duration and carbon and nutrient load mediated by catchment vegetation properties strongly affected the outcome of the competition and likely drive the species distribution pattern through competitive exclusion. In brief, while shorter ice-cover period and decreased carbon load favored brown trout, increased ice-cover period and increased carbon load favored Arctic char. Length of ice-covered period and export of allochthonous material from catchments are major, but contrasting, climatic drivers of competitive interaction between these two freshwater lake top-predators. While projected climate change lead to decreased ice-cover, corresponding increase in forest and shrub cover amplify carbon and nutrient run-off. Although a likely outcome of future Arctic and sub-arctic climate scenarios are retractions of the Arctic char distribution area caused by competitive exclusion, the main drivers will act on different time scales. While ice-cover will change instantaneously with increasing temperature

  7. Combining Radio and PIT-Telemetry to Study the Large and Fine-Scale Movements of Stocked and Wild Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L.) in a Northeastern Stream, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Amílcar A. T.; Cortes, Rui M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-resident salmonid movements have been the subject of numerous studies and their behaviour is relatively well-known (Harcup et al., 1984; Heggenes, 1988). For example, brown trout (Salmo trutta) is described as a sedentary species based on the behaviour displayed, often associated to the strong site attachment to a territory or home range (Bridcut & Giller, 1993; Armstrong & Herbert, 1997). Other salmonids like brook (Salvelinus fontinalis) (Roghair & Dolloff, 2005) and c...

  8. Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Safari, Reza; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-01

    The effects of dietary administration of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) on Caspian brown trout fish (Salmo trutta caspius) were studied. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0% (control), 1%, 2% and 3% of peppermint extracts for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases in growth, immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin content), as well as in amylase activity and in the number of lactic acid bacteria on intestine were recorded in fish fed supplemented diets compared to control fish. However, the dietary peppermint supplements have different effects on the number of blood leucocytes depending on the leukocyte cell type. While no significant differences were observed in the number of blood monocytes and eosinophils, the number of lymphocytes was decreased, respectively, on fish fed peppermint enriched diets, respect to the values found in control fish. Furthermore, dietary peppermint supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters, enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum and total viable aerobic bacterial count on intestine of Caspian brown trout. Present results support that dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) and the number of the endogenous lactic acid bacteria of Caspian brown trout. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of peppermint to farmed fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia; Urbatzka, Ralph; Castro, L. Filipe C.; Rocha, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Evidence of crosstalk between estrogens and peroxisomal pathways in brown trout. • VtgA and ERα mRNA levels increased after 1, 10 and 50 μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2). • ERβ-1, catalase and urate oxidase mRNA levels decreased after estrogenic stimuli. • Estrogenic effects in VtgA, ERα and Uox mRNA levels were reverted by ICI 182,780. • Immunofluorescence/electron microscopy shows smaller peroxisomes after 50 μM of EE2. - Abstract: Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96 h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol—EE2) at 1, 10 and 50 μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50 μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I—10 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI; Mix II—1 μM EE2 and 10 μM ICI and Mix III—1 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A—VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase—Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4—17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α—Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50 μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα m

  10. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira, E-mail: tvmadureira@icbas.up.pt [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Urbatzka, Ralph [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C. [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Sciences (FCUP), U.Porto—University of Porto, Department of Biology, Rua do Campo Alegre, P 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo [Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), U.Porto—University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U.Porto (ICBAS)—University of Porto, Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Department of Microscopy, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, P 4050-313 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Evidence of crosstalk between estrogens and peroxisomal pathways in brown trout. • VtgA and ERα mRNA levels increased after 1, 10 and 50 μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2). • ERβ-1, catalase and urate oxidase mRNA levels decreased after estrogenic stimuli. • Estrogenic effects in VtgA, ERα and Uox mRNA levels were reverted by ICI 182,780. • Immunofluorescence/electron microscopy shows smaller peroxisomes after 50 μM of EE2. - Abstract: Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96 h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol—EE2) at 1, 10 and 50 μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50 μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I—10 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI; Mix II—1 μM EE2 and 10 μM ICI and Mix III—1 μM EE2 and 50 μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A—VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase—Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4—17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α—Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50 μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα m

  11. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic influences in cultured brown trout hepatocytes: Focus on the expression of some estrogen and peroxisomal related genes and linked phenotypic anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Malhão, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Ivone; Lopes, Célia; Ferreira, Nádia; Urbatzka, Ralph; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Estrogens, estrogenic mimics and anti-estrogenic compounds are known to target estrogen receptors (ER) that can modulate other nuclear receptor signaling pathways, such as those controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and alter organelle (inc. peroxisome) morphodynamics. By using primary isolated brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) hepatocytes after 72 and 96h of exposure we evaluated some effects in selected molecular targets and in peroxisomal morphological features caused by: (1) an ER agonist (ethinylestradiol-EE2) at 1, 10 and 50μM; (2) an ER antagonist (ICI 182,780) at 10 and 50μM; and (3) mixtures of both (Mix I-10μM EE2 and 50μM ICI; Mix II-1μM EE2 and 10μM ICI and Mix III-1μM EE2 and 50μM ICI). The mRNA levels of the estrogenic targets (ERα, ERβ-1 and vitellogenin A-VtgA) and the peroxisome structure/function related genes (catalase, urate oxidase-Uox, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4-17β-HSD4, peroxin 11α-Pex11α and PPARα) were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stereology combined with catalase immunofluorescence revealed a significant reduction in peroxisome volume densities at 50μM of EE2 exposure. Concomitantly, at the same concentration, electron microscopy showed smaller peroxisome profiles, exacerbated proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a generalized cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatocytes. Catalase and Uox mRNA levels decreased in all estrogenic stimuli conditions. VtgA and ERα mRNA increased after all EE2 treatments, while ERβ-1 had an inverse pattern. The EE2 action was reversed by ICI 182,780 in a concentration-dependent manner, for VtgA, ERα and Uox. Overall, our data show the great value of primary brown trout hepatocytes to study the effects of estrogenic/anti-estrogenic inputs in peroxisome kinetics and in ER and PPARα signaling, backing the still open hypothesis of crosstalk interactions between these pathways and calling for more mechanistic

  12. The effect of the combined feed "Aller Aqua" on the content of free amino acids in the muscles and liver of brown (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758 and rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Galoyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the level of amino acid assimilation from the protein of the combined feed and also to characterize the amino acid composition of proteins in muscles and liver of the brown and rainbow trout in conditions of feeding them with the specialized production combined feed manufactured by Aller Aqua. Methodology. The total amino acid composition of muscle and liver tissues was determined by ion-exchange liquid column chromatography. Findings. The amino acid composition of the investigated feed as a whole corresponds to the spectrum of amino acids in the tissues of muscles and liver of the brown and rainbow trout. Both a significant predominance of glutamine and glutamic acid was detected in the liver and in the muscles of fish. Among the essential amino acids in the muscles and liver of the fish studied, the largest share belongs to leucine, arginine and lysine. Originality. First investigated the effect of artificial feeding with specialized productional fodder «Aller Aqua» on the amino acid composition of tissues of brown and rainbow trout reared in conditions of industrial aquaculture. Practical value. Currently, studies devoted to a comprehensive assessment of the effect of mixed feeds on growth and development, and in particular on the amino acid composition of salmon fish tissues, acquire particular attention. This work makes it possible to investigate the degree of assimilation of protein components of the artificial feed for rainbow trout and discuss the perspectives of the adjustment of the imbalance and deficiency of amino acid composition in the feed.

  13. 30 years of data reveal dramatic increase in abundance of brown trout following the removal of a small hydrodam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Larsen, Martin Hage; Nielsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    and spawning of fish. In the present study, we present thirty years of data from electrofishing surveys obtained at two sites, both prior to and following the removal of a small-scale hydropower dam in Central Jutland, Denmark. We demonstrate that the dam removal has led to a dramatic increase in trout density......Humans and freshwater ecosystems have a long history of cohabitation. Today, nearly all major rivers of the world have an in-stream structure which changes water flow, substrate composition, vegetation, and fish assemblage composition. The realization of these effects and their subsequent impacts...... on population sustainability and conservation has led to a collective effort aimed to find ways to mitigate these impacts. Barrier removal has recently received greater interest as a potential solution to restore river connectivity, and reestablish high quality habitats, suitable for feeding, refuge...

  14. Phylogenetic status of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in five rivers from the southern Caspian Sea and two inland lake basins, Iran: a morphogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh Segherloo, I; Farahmand, H; Abdoli, A; Bernatchez, L; Primmer, C R; Swatdipong, A; Karami, M; Khalili, B

    2012-10-01

    Interrelationships, origin and phylogenetic affinities of brown trout Salmo trutta populations from the southern Caspian Sea basin, Orumieh and Namak Lake basins in Iran were analysed from complete mtDNA control region sequences, 12 microsatellite loci and morphological characters. Among 129 specimens from six populations, seven haplotypes were observed. Based on mtDNA haplotype data, the Orumieh and southern Caspian populations did not differ significantly, but the Namak basin-Karaj population presented a unique haplotype closely related to the haplotypes of the other populations (0·1% Kimura two-parameter, K2P divergence). All Iranian haplotypes clustered as a distinct group within the Danube phylogenetic grouping, with an average K2P distance of 0·41% relative to other Danubian haplotypes. The Karaj haplotype in the Namak basin was related to a haplotype (Da26) formerly identified in the Tigris basin in Turkey, to a Salmo trutta oxianus haplotype from the Aral Sea basin, and to haplotype Da1a with two mutational steps, as well as to other Iranian haplotypes with one to two mutational steps, which may indicate a centre of origin in the Caspian basin. In contrast to results of the mtDNA analysis, more pronounced differentiation was observed among the populations studied in the morphological and microsatellite DNA data, except for the two populations from the Orumieh basin, which were similar, possibly due to anthropogenic causes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Testosterone-induced modulation of peroxisomal morphology and peroxisome-related gene expression in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Célia; Malhão, Fernanda; Guimarães, Cláudia; Pinheiro, Ivone; Gonçalves, José F; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo; Madureira, Tânia V

    2017-12-01

    Disruption of androgenic signaling has been linked to possible cross-modulation with other hormone-mediated pathways. Therefore, our objective was to explore effects caused by testosterone - T (1, 10 and 50μM) in peroxisomal signaling of brown trout hepatocytes. To study the underlying paths involved, several co-exposure conditions were tested, with flutamide - F (anti-androgen) and ICI 182,780 - ICI (anti-estrogen). Molecular and morphological approaches were both evaluated. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), catalase and urate oxidase were the selected targets for gene expression analysis. The vitellogenin A gene was also included as a biomarker of estrogenicity. Peroxisome relative volumes were estimated by immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy was used for qualitative morphological control. The single exposures of T caused a significant down-regulation of urate oxidase (10 and 50μM) and a general up-regulation of vitellogenin. A significant reduction of peroxisome relative volumes and smaller peroxisome profiles were observed at 50μM. Co-administration of T and ICI reversed the morphological modifications and vitellogenin levels. The simultaneous exposure of T and F caused a significant and concentration-dependent diminishing in vitellogenin expression. Together, the findings suggest that in the tested model, T acted via both androgen and estrogen receptors to shape the peroxisomal related targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytosolic distributions of highly toxic metals Cd and Tl and several essential elements in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) analyzed by size exclusion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Kolar, Nicol; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Ivanković, Dušica; Erk, Marijana

    2018-05-15

    Cytosolic distributions of nonessential metals Cd and Tl and seven essential elements among compounds of different molecular masses were studied in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the karstic Krka River in Croatia. Analyses were done by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Common feature of Cd and Tl, as highly toxic elements, was their distribution within only two narrow peaks. The increase of cytosolic Cd concentrations was reflected in marked increase of Cd elution within low molecular mass peak (maximum at ∼15 kDa), presumably containing metallothioneins (MTs), which indicated successful Cd detoxification in brown trout liver under studied exposure conditions. Contrary, the increase of cytosolic Tl concentrations was reflected in marked increase of Tl elution within high molecular mass peak (maximum at 140 kDa), which probably indicated incomplete Tl detoxification. Common feature of the majority of studied essential elements was their distribution within more peaks, often broad and not well resolved, which is consistent with their numerous physiological functions. Among observed associations of essential metals/nonmetal to proteins, the following could be singled out: Cu and Zn association to MTs, Fe association to storage protein ferritin, and Se association to compounds of very low molecular masses (<5 kDa). The obtained results present the first step towards identification of metal-binding compounds in hepatic cytosol of brown trout, and thus a significant contribution to better understanding of metal fate in the liver of that important bioindicator species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) from the karstic Croatian river Krka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Valić, Damir; Žunić, Jakov; Kapetanović, Damir; Smrzlić, Irena Vardić; Redžović, Zuzana; Grgić, Ivana; Erk, Marijana

    2018-01-01

    Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) were studied in the period from April 2015 to May 2016 at two sampling sites on Croatian river Krka, to establish if river water contamination with metals/metalloids downstream of Knin town has influenced metal bioaccumulation in S. trutta liver. Differences were observed between two sites, with higher concentrations of several elements (Ag, As, Ca, Co, Na, Se, Sr, V) found downstream of Knin town, whereas few others (Cd, Cs, Mo, Tl) were, unexpectedly, increased at the Krka River spring. However, total metal/metalloid concentrations in the liver of S. trutta from both sites of the Krka River were still mainly below previously reported levels for pristine freshwaters worldwide. The analysis of seasonal changes of metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver and their association with fish sex and size mostly indicated their independence of fish physiology, making them good indicators of water contamination and exposure level. Metal/metalloid concentrations in the metabolically available hepatic cytosolic fractions reported in this study are the first data of that kind for S. trutta liver, and the majority of analyzed elements were present in the cytosol in the quantity higher than 50% of their total concentrations, thus indicating their possible availability for toxic effects. However, the special attention should be directed to As, Cd, Cs, and Tl, which under the conditions of increased exposure tended to accumulate more within the cytosol. Although metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver were still rather low, monitoring of the Krka River water quality and of the health status of its biota is essential due to a trend of higher metal/metalloid bioaccumulation downstream of Knin town, especially taking into consideration the proximity of National Park Krka and the need for its conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Metabolism of sn-1(3)-Monoacylglycerol and sn-2-Monoacylglycerol in Caecal Enterocytes and Hepatocytes of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keshuai; Olsen, Rolf Erik

    2017-01-01

    sn-2-Monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerol [1(3)-MAG] are important but yet little studied intermediates in lipid metabolism. The current study compared the metabolic fate of 2-MAG and 1(3)-MAG in isolated caecal enterocytes and hepatocytes of brown trout (Salmo trutta). 1(3)-Oleoyl [9,10-3H(N)]-glycerol and 2-Oleoyl [9,10-3H(N)]-glycerol were prepared by pancreatic lipase digestion of triolein [9,10-3H(N)]. The 1(3)-MAG and 2-MAG were efficiently absorbed by enterocytes and hepatocytes at similar rates. The 2-MAG was quickly resynthesized into TAG through the monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC: 2.3.1.22, MGAT) pathway in both tissues, whereas 1(3)-MAG was processed into TAG and phospholipids at a much slower rate, suggesting 2-MAG was the preferred substrates for MGAT. Further analysis showed that 1(3)-MAG was synthesized into 1,3-DAG, but there were no accumulation of 1,3-DAG in either enterocytes or hepatocytes, which contrasts that of mammalian studies. Some of the 1(3)-MAG may be acylated to 1,2(2,3)-DAG and then utilized for TAG synthesis. Alternatively, 1(3)-MAG can be hydrolyzed to free fatty acid and glycerol, and re-synthesized into TAG through the glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro-3-P) pathway. The overall data suggested that the limiting step of the intracellular 1(3)-MAG metabolism is the conversion of 1(3)-MAG itself.

  19. Plerocercoids of the cestode Diphyllobothrium ditremum in brown trout Salmo trutta: substantial increase in infection after establishment of European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgstrøm, R; Trømborg, J; Haugen, T O; Rosseland, B O

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on plerocercoids of the cestode Diphyllobothrium ditremum in brown trout Salmo trutta from the subalpine lake Øvre Heimdalsvatn in south-central Norway. Salmo trutta was the only fish species in this lake until European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus was registered in 1969. The P. phoxinus population increased substantially in the following years. In contrast with the 1969-1972 period, when plerocercoids of D. ditremum were practically absent in S. trutta, there was a high prevalence and intensity of infection in the 2013 S. trutta samples. Because the life cycle of D. ditremum involves two larval stages, in copepods and salmonids and mature worms in piscivorous birds, such as mergansers and loons, a change in feeding ecology of S. trutta or changes in population densities of copepods, fish or birds might have influenced the infection pattern. No relationships between D. ditremum infection and muscle-tissue δ 15 N signature or Hg concentration were found, indicating that infection is not a result of piscivory or cannibalism. Furthermore, consumption of copepods by S. trutta during summer and autumn was low. On the other hand, the number of piscivorous birds has increased, probably due to the presence of P. phoxinus as a new and numerous prey. An increased number of final D. ditremum hosts may have produced a higher output of cestode eggs, resulting in more infected copepods that in turn are consumed by S. trutta. Indirectly, P. phoxinus may therefore have caused the observed increased infection in S. trutta and thereby imposed further negative effects on S. trutta in high mountain areas. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Future migratory behaviour predicted from premigratory levels of gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity in individual wild brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Nørum, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between premigratory gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, determined at two dates during spring, and future migratory behaviour was investigated using non-lethal gill biopsies and PIT-tagging in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) from two tributaries. No significant relationship between...... future migrants or residents. The maximum percentage of correct predictions of future migratory behaviour in mainstream fish was observed at threshold probabilities between approximately 0.15 and 0.45 (corresponding to threshold gill Na+/K+-ATPase activities between 2.7 and 3.7 micromol ADP mg-1 protein...

  1. Effects of some chelating agents on the uptake and distribution of 203Hg2+ in the brown trout (Salmo trutta): Studies on ethyl- and isopropylxanthate diethyl- and diisopropyldithiophosphate, dimethyl- and diethyldithiocarbamate and pyridinethione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, K.; Gottofrey, J.; Tjaelve, H.

    1988-01-01

    Brown trout, Salmo trutta, were exposed to water containing 0.1 μg/l 203 Hg 2+ , alone or with potassium ethylxanthate (PEX), sodium isopropylxanthate (SIX), sodium diethyldithiophosphate (SEP), sodium diisopropyldithiophosphate (SIP), sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (SMC), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (SEC) or sodium pyridinethione (SPyr), respectively. After 1 week the uptake and distribution of the 203 Hg 2+ in the fish were examined by gamma spectrometry, SIX, SIP, SMC, SEC and SPyr induced 2-3 times higher 203 Hg 2+ concentrations in most tissues in comparison with trout exposed to 203 Hg 2+ only. In the trout exposed to PEX slightly enhanced 203 Hg 2+ levels were found only in some tissues, and after exposure to SEP a few tissues showed decreased 203 Hg 2+ concentrations. Determinations of chloroform/water partition coefficients showed that lipophilic chelates are formed between all the examined substances and the 203 Hg 2+ . However, SIX, SIP, SMC, SEC and SPyr, which induced markedly increased tissue levels of the metal, formed 203 Hg 2+ complexes with higher lipophilicities than SEX and SEP. A facilitated penetration of the lipophilic 203 Hg 2+ complexes over the gill membranes may underly the increment in the tissue levels of the metal, and the relative lipophilicity of the complexes may be of importance for this effect. In some instances, as with SEP, the 203 Hg 2+ chelated in complexes with low lipophilicity may even be less able to acumulate in some tissues than the non-complexed metal. (orig.)

  2. Net ground speed of downstream migrating radio-tagged Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) smolts in relation to environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Nielsen, C.; Koed, Anders

    2002-01-01

    tagged and released in the Danish River Lilleaa. The downstream migration of the different groups of fish was monitored by manual tracking and by three automatic listening stations. The downstream migration of radio tagged smolts of both species occurred concurrently with their untagged counterparts....... The diel migration pattern of the radio tagged smolts was predominantly nocturnal in both species. Wild sea trout smolt migrated significantly faster than both the F1 trout and the introduced salmon. There was no correlation between net ground speed, gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity or fish length in any...

  3. Genetic variation within and among Danish brown trout ( Salmo trutta L) hatchery strains, assessed by PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons; Rasmussen, Gorm

    1997-01-01

    differentiation among strains (Phi(ST) = 0.23) was of the same order of magnitude as that observed among wild Danish trout populations. However, minimal differentiation (Phi(ST) = 0.01) was observed among the four quantitatively most important strains, supplying 80% of all hatchery trout stocked in Denmark. (C...... of haplotypes was observed in most hatchery strains. However, computer simulations showed that even with relatively large numbers of female spawners considerable loss of haplotypes could take place over time. Therefore, reduced variability in some of the strains did not necessarily indicate a critical loss...

  4. Factors driving spatial and temporal variation in production and production/biomass ratio of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Cantabrian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    1.The objective was to identify the factors driving spatial and temporal variation in annual production (PA) and turnover (production/biomass) ratio (P/BA) of resident brown trout Salmo trutta in tributaries of the Rio Esva (Cantabrian Mountains, Asturias, north-western Spain). We examined annual production (total production of all age-classes over a year) (PA) and turnover (P/BA) ratios, in relation to year-class production (production over the entire life time of a year-class) (PT) and turnover (P/BT) ratio, over 14years at a total of 12 sites along the length of four contrasting tributaries. In addition, we explored whether the importance of recruitment and site depth for spatial and temporal variations in year-class production (PT), elucidated in previous studies, extends to annual production. 2.Large spatial (among sites) and temporal (among years) variation in annual production (range 1.9-40.3gm-2 per year) and P/BA ratio (range 0.76-2.4per year) typified these populations, values reported here including all the variation reported globally for salmonids streams inhabited by one or several species. 3.Despite substantial differences among streams and sites in all production attributes, when all data were pooled, annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) and annual (P/BA) and year-class P/BT ratios were tightly linked. Annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) were similar but not identical, i.e. PT=0.94 PA, whereas the P/BT ratios were 4+P/BA ratios. 4.Recruitment (Rc) and mean annual density (NA) were major density-dependent drivers of production and their relationships were described by simple mathematical models. While year-class production (PT) was determined (R2=70.1%) by recruitment (Rc), annual production (PA) was determined (R2=60.3%) by mean annual density (NA). In turn, variation in recruitment explained R2=55.2% of variation in year-class P/BT ratios, the latter attaining an asymptote at P/BT=6 at progressively higher levels of recruitment

  5. Metabolic fates and effects of nitrite in brown trout under normoxic and hypoxic conditions: blood and tissue nitrite metabolism and interactions with branchial NOS, Na+/K+-ATPase and hsp70 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo; Gerber, Lucie; Hansen, Marie Niemann

    2015-01-01

    were higher in hypoxia than normoxia, suggesting increased NOS activity. Nitrite exposure strongly elevated nitrite concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, heart tissue and white muscle, which was associated with an extensive metabolism of nitrite to nitrate and to iron-nitrosylated and S......Nitrite secures essential nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in hypoxia at low endogenous concentrations, whereas it becomes toxic at high concentrations. We exposed brown trout to normoxic and hypoxic water in the absence and presence of added ambient nitrite to decipher the cellular metabolism...... and effects of nitrite at basal and elevated concentrations under different oxygen regimes. We also tested hypotheses concerning the influence of nitrite on branchial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), Na+/K+-ATPase (nka) and heat shock protein (hsp70) mRNA expression. Basal plasma and erythrocyte nitrite levels...

  6. Thermal regimes, nonnative trout, and their influences on native Bull Trout in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Heltzel, Jeannie; Dunham, Jason B.; Heck, Michael; Banish, Nolan P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of fish species may be strongly influenced by a stream’s thermal regime (magnitude, frequency, variation, and timing). For instance, magnitude and frequency provide information about sublethal temperatures, variability in temperature can affect behavioral thermoregulation and bioenergetics, and timing of thermal events may cue life history events, such as spawning and migration. We explored the relationship between thermal regimes and the occurrences of native Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus and nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta across 87 sites in the upper Klamath River basin, Oregon. Our objectives were to associate descriptors of the thermal regime with trout occurrence, predict the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and estimate upper thermal tolerances of the trout species. We found that each species was associated with a different suite of thermal regime descriptors. Bull Trout were present at sites that were cooler, had fewer high-temperature events, had less variability, and took longer to warm. Brook Trout were also observed at cooler sites with fewer high-temperature events, but the sites were more variable and Brook Trout occurrence was not associated with a timing descriptor. In contrast, Brown Trout were present at sites that were warmer and reached higher temperatures faster, but they were not associated with frequency or variability descriptors. Among the descriptors considered, magnitude (specifically June degree-days) was the most important in predicting the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and model predictions were strengthened by including Brook Trout occurrence. Last, all three trout species exhibited contrasting patterns of tolerating longer exposures to lower temperatures. Tolerance limits for Bull Trout were lower than those for Brook Trout and Brown Trout, with contrasts especially evident for thermal maxima. Our results confirm the value of exploring a suite of thermal

  7. Studies on Some Productive and Reproductive Performance in Female Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss and Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta Fario at Four Years of Age, From Fiad-Telcişor Salmonids Complex, Bistriţa-Năsăud County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cocan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumer preferences regarding the various species of fish or aquatic organisms are highly variable. The criteria by which they orient are represented by: the price, organoleptic characteristics, healing and nutritional properties of meat. Today it is known that a high consumption of fish meat has a beneficial role in human health. Moreover, statistics indicates a high level of life expectancy in countries with tradition in terms of fish consumption, e.g. NorthEuropean and Asian countries. Statistics shows a high consumption of ocean fish and different species of salmonid family. The culture and intensive fish farming represents an alternative to the requirements of the fish market. The salmonids farmers focus their efforts to obtain high yields of high quality, in conditions of maximum economic efficiency. In Romania, the predominant specie encountered in salmonis farms is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. It is successfully reared because of its plasticity and resistance to changes in environmental conditions and disease, and efficient feed-conversion. For restocking mountain water with biological material, some trout farms operate successfully brown trout (Salmo trutta fario, a less effective specie for meat production, due to slow growth and development and low resistance to changing environmental factors. Profitability of fish production depends on the propagation processes, fish growth and developments, and supplying optimal environmental conditions for enhancement of the biological potential. The artificial reproduction of salmonids, involves several technological operations for achieving outstanding results on fisheries production. Of these operations, critical is the selection and improvement of breeding.

  8. Stream pH as an abiotic gradient influencing distributions of trout in Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Carline, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Elevation and stream slope are abiotic gradients that limit upstream distributions of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta in streams. We sought to determine whether another abiotic gradient, base-flow pH, may also affect distributions of these two species in eastern North America streams. We used historical data from the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission's fisheries management database to explore the effects of reach elevation, slope, and base-flow pH on distributional limits to brook trout and brown trout in Pennsylvania streams in the Appalachian Plateaus and Ridge and Valley physiographic provinces. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to calculate a canonical axis that separated allopatric brook trout populations from allopatric brown trout populations and allowed us to assess which of the three independent variables were important gradients along which communities graded from allopatric brook trout to allopatric brown trout. Canonical structure coefficients from DFA indicated that in both physiographic provinces, stream base-flow pH and slope were important factors in distributional limits; elevation was also an important factor in the Ridge and Valley Province but not the Appalachian Plateaus Province. Graphs of each variable against the proportion of brook trout in a community also identified apparent zones of allopatry for both species on the basis of pH and stream slope. We hypothesize that pH-mediated interspecific competition that favors brook trout in competition with brown trout at lower pH is the most plausible mechanism for segregation of these two species along pH gradients. Our discovery that trout distributions in Pennsylvania are related to stream base-flow pH has important implications for brook trout conservation in acidified regions. Carefully designed laboratory and field studies will be required to test our hypothesis and elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the partitioning of brook trout and

  9. Brook trout movement within a high-elevation watershed: Consequences for watershed restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff L. Hansbarger; J. Todd Petty; Patricia M. Mazik

    2010-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to quantify brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) movements in the Shavers Fork of the Cheat River, West Virginia, and an adjacent second-order tributary (Rocky Run). Our objectives were to quantify the overall rate of trout movement, assess spatial and temporal variation in...

  10. The global impact of alien trout species — a review; with reference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brown trout, Salmo trutta, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were first introduced into South African waters as angling species in the later part of the nineteenth century, when environmental impact studies were neither considered nor undertaken. Trout have since been introduced mainly into the cooler upper ...

  11. Global climate change and fragmentation of native brook trout distribution in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1997-01-01

    Current distributions of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southern Appalachians are restricted to upper elevations by multiple factors, including habitat requirements, introduced rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown (Salmo trutta) trout, and other human activities. Present-day distribution of brook trout habitat is already fragmented. Increased...

  12. Influence of waterfalls on patterns of association between trout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish whether waterfalls in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, South Africa, are seasonally important in conserving indigenous Natal cascade frog Hadromophryne natalensis tadpole populations from the threat of predation by alien rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo ...

  13. Spatial and temporal consumption dynamics of trout in catch-and-release areas in Arkansas tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, John M.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Restrictive angling regulations in tailwater trout fisheries may be unsuccessful if food availability limits energy for fish to grow. We examined spatial and temporal variation in energy intake and growth in populations of Brown Trout Salmo trutta and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within three catch-and-release (C-R) areas in Arkansas tailwaters to evaluate food availability compared with consumption. Based on bioenergetic simulations, Rainbow Trout fed at submaintenance levels in both size-classes (≤400 mm TL, >400 mm TL) throughout most seasons. A particular bottleneck in food availability occurred in the winter for Rainbow Trout when the daily ration was substantially below the minimum required for maintenance, despite reduced metabolic costs associated with lower water temperatures. Rainbow Trout growth rates followed a similar pattern to consumption with negative growth rates during the winter periods. All three size-classes (400 mm TL) of Brown Trout experienced high growth rates and limited temporal bottlenecks in food availability. We observed higher mean densities for Rainbow Trout (47–342 fish/ha) than for Brown Trout (3–84 fish/ha) in all C-R areas. Lower densities of Brown Trout coupled with an ontogenetic shift towards piscivory may have allowed for higher growth rates and sufficient consumption rates to meet energetic demands. Brown Trout at current densities were more effective in maintaining adequate growth rates and larger sizes in C-R areas than were Rainbow Trout. Bioenergetic simulations suggest that reducing stocking levels of Rainbow Trout in the tailwaters may be necessary in order to achieve increased catch rates of larger trout in the C-R areas.

  14. Determination of the effects of fine-grained sediment and other limiting variables on trout habitat for selected streams in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Barbara C.; Selbig, J.W.; Waschbusch, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Two Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models, developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were used to evaluate the effects of fine-grained (less than 2 millimeters) sediment on brook trout (Salvelinusfontinalis, Mitchill) and brown trout (Salmo trutta, Linnaeus) in 11 streams in west-central and southwestern Wisconsin. Our results indicated that fine-grained sediment limited brook trout habitat in 8 of 11 streams and brown trout habitat in only one stream. Lack of winter and escape cover for fry was the primary limiting variable for brown trout at 61 percent of the sites, and this factor also limited brook trout at several stations. Pool area or quality, in stream cover, streambank vegetation for erosion control, minimum flow, thalweg depth maximum, water temperature, spawning substrate, riffle dominant substrate, and dissolved oxygen also were limiting to trout in the study streams. Brook trout appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of fine-grained sediment than brown trout. The models for brook trout and brown trout appeared to be useful and objective screening tools for identifying variables limiting trout habitat in these streams. The models predicted that reduction in the amount of fine-grained sediment would improve brook trout habitat. These models may be valuable for establishing instream sediment-reduction goals; however, the decrease in sediment delivery needed to meet these goals cannot be estimated without quantitative data on land use practices and their effects on sediment delivery and retention by streams.

  15. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor; Ionuţ Bogdan Pagu; Emanuel Magdici; Benone Pasarin

    2014-01-01

    Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by...

  16. The scotopic visual sensitivity of four species of trout: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel B. Rader; Timberley Belish; Michael K. Young; John Rothlisberger

    2007-01-01

    We compared the maximum scotopic visual sensitivity of 4 species of trout from twilight (mesotopic) to fully dark-adapted vision. Scotopic vision is the minimum number of photons to which a fully dark-adapted animal will show a behavioral response. A comparison of visual sensitivity under controlled laboratory conditions showed that brown trout (Salmo trutta...

  17. Use of wild trout for PBDE assessment in freshwater environments: Review and summary of critical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Ríos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain wild animals represent sentinels to address issues related to environmental pollution, since they can provide integrative data on both pollutant exposure and biological effects. Despite their technological benefits, PBDEs are considered a threat to environmental health due to their persistence, toxicity, and capacity to be accumulated. These pollutants have been found geographically widespread in fish, particularly in predator species such as trout. The aim of this work is to critically review the applicability and usefulness of wild trout for assessing PBDEs in freshwater environments. Reviewed reports include data from highly industrialized areas as well as areas from remote regions with relatively low human activity, including European and North American great lakes and freshwater environments in Europe, Greenland, subarctic areas and Patagonia, respectively. A summary of relevant factors were grouped into organism-specific factors (food habits, age, size, lipid content, sex and reproduction, tissue type, mechanism of contaminant uptake and metabolism, and PBDE levels in the surrounding environment (sediment. Five wild trout species [rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout (Salmo trutta, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush, arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus, and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis], collected worldwide within the 1994 to present time frame, were considered. Multivariate techniques (principal component analysis-PCA and mapping approach, showed clear differences in geographic distribution patterns of PBDE levels in trout depending on the region studied: wild trout from European and North American great lakes have the highest PBDE loads. This pattern could be due to high industrial activity at these locations. A correlational approach used to explore intraspecific relationships between PBDE levels and morphometry, showed positive relationships only for brown trout. Further, brown trout showed the highest trout

  18. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  19. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  20. Agonistic behavior among three stocked trout species in a novel reservoir fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Hafen, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of reservoirs to support sport fisheries has led to the stocking of species that did not co-evolve, creating novel reservoir fish communities. In Utah, the Bear Lake strain of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah and tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) are being more frequently added to a traditional stocking regimen consisting primarily of Rainbow TroutO. mykiss. Interactions between these three predatory species are not well understood, and studies evaluating community interactions have raised concern for an overall decrease of trout condition. To evaluate the potential for negative interactions among these species, we tested aggression in laboratory aquaria using three-species and pairwise combinations at three densities. Treatments were replicated before and after feeding. During the three-species trials Rainbow Trout initiated 24.8 times more aggressive interactions than Cutthroat Trout and 10.2 times more aggressive interactions than tiger trout, and tiger trout exhibited slightly (1.9 times) more aggressive initiations than Cutthroat Trout. There was no significant difference in behavior before versus after feeding for any species, and no indication of increased aggression at higher densities. Although Rainbow Trout in aquaria may benefit from their bold, aggressive behavior, given observations of decreased relative survival in the field, these benefits may be outweighed in reservoirs, possibly through unnecessary energy expenditure and exposure to predators.

  1. BASEMAP, BROWN COUNTY, WISCONSIN TROUT CREEK PMR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  2. Overwintering of sea trout (Salmo trutta) in freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dennis; Koed, Anders; Nielsen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta) show large phenotypic plasticity. Juveniles may reside in their native freshwater habitat until maturation or migrate into the ocean as 1- to 3-year-old smolts. Sea-going fish (sea trout) reside at sea for 2-3 years until migrating back to their native stream for reprod......Brown trout (Salmo trutta) show large phenotypic plasticity. Juveniles may reside in their native freshwater habitat until maturation or migrate into the ocean as 1- to 3-year-old smolts. Sea-going fish (sea trout) reside at sea for 2-3 years until migrating back to their native stream...... for reproduction. However, immature fish may leave the ocean during their first or second winter at sea and overwinter in freshwater. The question is why does this occur? We tested the hypothesis that hypo-osmoregulatory capacity is compromised by low temperature in two coastal sea trout populations, one...... representing high salinity and the other, low salinity. Immature sea-run trout were caught in lower parts of two rivers during winter and acclimated to laboratory conditions. Subgroups were challenged with high salinity or low water temperature or both, and their osmoregulatory performance was investigated...

  3. Can sea trout Salmo trutta compromise successful eradication of Gyrodactylus salaris by hiding from CFT Legumin (rotenone) treatments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, J. G.; Thorstad, E. B.; Baktoft, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 34 anadromous brown trout (sea trout) Salmo trutta were equipped with acoustic transmitters in order to examine whether they performed avoidance behaviour in response to a CFT Legumin (rotenone) treatment in the Norwegian River Vefsna. Migratory behaviour of the S. trutta was monit...

  4. Does dispersal from landlocked trout explain the coexistence of resident and migratory trout females in a small stream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, J.C.E.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Bohlin, T.

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis that stream-resident females of brown trout Salmo trutta occurring in sympatry with sea-migrant females in a small stream were immigrants from an up-stream allopatric landlocked population was rejected. Genetic differentiation was not detected between the sympatric forms whereas...

  5. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  6. Toxicity of quantum dots and cadmium to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss in early ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živilė Cibulskaitė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH quantum dots (QD and cadmium (Cd on biological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss in its early stages of development (embryos and larvae. It was found that short-term (24-, 96-hour exposure to sublethal concentrations of QD and Cd increased mortality of embryos and larvae, disturbed function of the cardio-respiratory system (gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and affected behavioural responses (individuals making nests in rainbow trout larvae. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD and Cd on rainbow trout larvae depended on the type of chemical substance, affected stage of development and exposure duration. Comparative studies of the effects of QD and Cd on rainbow trout in early stages of development showed that larvae were more sensitive to Cd and QD as compared to embryos. It was suggested that the chorion envelopes of eggs surround and protect the embryo from QD and Cd. Cadmium was more toxic to larvae than QD. Longer exposure (96-hour of QD and Cd induced more remarkable changes in test-parameters. This original study requires more investigations evaluating the mechanism of toxicity of QD to fish.

  7. TAILLE À 3 ANS DE LA TRUITE COMMUNE (SALMO TRUTTA L. DANS LES RIVIÈRES DES PYRÉNÉES FRANÇAISES : RELATIONS AVEC LES CARACTÉRISTIQUES MÉSOLOGIQUES ET INFLUENCE DES AMÉNAGEMENTS HYDROÉLECTRIQUES. TOTAL LENGTH OF AGE-3 BROWN TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. IN FRENCH PYRENEAN STREAMS : RELATIONSHIPS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND INFLUENCE OF HYDROELECTRIC FACILITIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAGARRIGUE T.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La croissance de populations de truite commune (Salmo trutta L. a été étudiée sur 84 cours d'eau répartis sur l'ensemble de la chaîne des Pyrénées. Pour cela, des échantillons d'écailles ont été récoltés dans 215 sites situés à des altitudes comprises entre 185 et 2000 m, pour des largeurs variant de 1,2 à 60 m. La croissance des individus a été déterminée par scalimétrie. La longueur totale moyenne atteinte par les individus à l'âge de 3 ans a été retenue comme variable biologique. La taille moyenne à 3 ans des individus est fortement structurée par l'altitude, ce gradient altitudinal représentant en grande partie un gradient thermique. Elle est corrélée négativement avec l'altitude et la densité totale en truites communes et positivement avec la largeur du cours d'eau et la conductivité estivale. La nature du débit joue également un rôle important sur la croissance puisqu'à altitude et à température moyenne estivale équivalentes, la taille moyenne à 3 ans est significativement plus faible en site soumis à un débit réservé qu'en site à débit naturel. Selon la nature du débit, deux modèles prédictifs de la taille moyenne à 3 ans (T3 en fonction de l'altitude (ALT et de la largeur du cours d'eau (L ont été établis par régression multiple pas à pas : - sites à débit naturel : Log (T3 = 2.457 - 0.007 x sgrt ALT + 0.066 x Log (L 65.5 % (p The growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta L. populations has been studied on 84 streams distributed over the whole range of the Pyrenees. Samples of scales were collected in 215 sites located at altitudes ranging between 185 and 2000 m, for width varying from 1,2 to 60 m. The growth of individuals was determined by scale reading. The mean total length of age-3 trout was selected as the biological variable. The mean total length of age-3 trout was strongly structured by altitude, this altitudinal gradient mainly representing a thermal gradient. It is

  8. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  9. The abundance of large, piscivorous Ferox Trout (Salmo trutta in Loch Rannoch, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Thorne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Ferox Trout are large, long-lived piscivorous Brown Trout (Salmo trutta. Due to their exceptionally large size, Ferox Trout are highly sought after by anglers while their life-history strategy, which includes delayed maturation, multiphasic growth and extended longevity, is of interest to ecological and evolutionary modelers. However, despite their recreational and theoretical importance, little is known about the typical abundance of Ferox Trout. Methods To rectify this situation a 16 year angling-based mark-recapture study was conducted on Loch Rannoch, which at 19 km2 is one of the largest lakes in the United Kingdom. Results A hierarchical Bayesian Jolly-Seber analysis of the data suggest that if individual differences in catchability are negligible the population of Ferox Trout in Loch Rannoch in 2009 was approximately 71 fish. The results also suggest that a single, often unaccompanied, highly-experienced angler was able to catch roughly 8% of the available fish on an annual basis. Discussion It is recommended that anglers adopt a precautionary approach and release all trout with a fork length ≥400 mm caught by trolling in Loch Rannoch. There is an urgent need to assess the status of Ferox Trout in other lakes.

  10. Earning their stripes: The potential of tiger trout and other salmonids as biological controls of forage fishes in a western reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Lisa K.; Budy, Phaedra; Thiede, Gary P.

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining a balance between predator and prey populations can be an ongoing challenge for fisheries managers, especially in managing artificial ecosystems such as reservoirs. In a high-elevation Utah reservoir, the unintentional introduction of the Utah Chub Gila atraria and its subsequent population expansion prompted managers to experimentally shift from exclusively stocking Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to also stocking tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and Bonneville Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii utah (hereafter, Cutthroat Trout) as potential biological control agents. We measured a combination of diet, growth, temperature, and abundance and used bioenergetic simulations to quantify predator demand versus prey supply. Utah Chub were the predominant prey type for tiger trout, contributing up to 80% of the diet depending on the season. Utah Chub represented up to 70% of the total diet consumed by Cutthroat Trout. Although Utah Chub dominated the fish biomass in the reservoir, we still estimated abundances of 238,000 tiger trout, 214,000 Cutthroat Trout, and 55,000 Rainbow Trout. Consequently, when expanded to the population level of each predator, tiger trout and Cutthroat Trout consumed large quantities of Utah Chub on an annual basis: tiger trout consumed 508,000 kg (2,660 g/predator) of the standing prey population, and Cutthroat Trout consumed an estimated 322,000 kg (1,820 g/predator). The estimated combined consumption by Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout exceeded the estimate of Utah Chub annual production. As such, our results suggest that the high rates of piscivory exhibited by Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout in artificial lentic ecosystems are likely sufficient to effectively reduce the overall abundance of forage fishes and to prevent forage fishes from dominating fish assemblages. Collectively, this research provides the first documented findings on tiger trout ecology and performance

  11. Spawning Behaviour and the Softmouth Trout Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Manu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, ecological and molecular data sets do not completely agree on the phylogenetic placement of the softmouth trout, Salmo (Salmothymus obtusirostris (Heckel. Molecules posit that softmouths are closely related to brown trout, Salmo trutta L. while some morphological, ecological and life history traits place them in the most basal position of the Salmoninae subfamily between grayling (Thymallus and lenok (Brachymystax. Here we add an additional source of data, behavioural characters based on the first reported observations of softmouth spawning. During spawning softmouth females present three important behaviours not found in the other Salmo members: they continually abandon their nests, rarely staying on them for periods over nine minutes; they expel different batches of eggs at the same nest at intervals of several minutes; and they do not cover their eggs immediately after spawning. These three behaviours are intriguing for two reasons: 1 they are possible homologous to behaviours found in grayling females; 2 when coupled to the nest digging behaviour-widespread in all the salmonines, including softmouths, they seem to be mal-adaptive.

  12. Browns Ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1986, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a ''watch list'' of power reactors requiring special attention which included the three BWR units at Brown's Ferry owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The reactors has been closed down voluntarily by the TVA in 1985 in order to deal with a backlog of maintenance and regulatory issues. Intended as short-term, the shutdown was indefinitely extended when the nature and extent of the design changes, accompanying documentation and retrofitting required to satisfy the NRC became apparent. The recovery programme for Unit 2 was completed by 1991 and the reactor returned to service under a dedicated operating staff. Meanwhile, a separate, dedicated, recovery team was set up to manage Unit 3 which was returned to service in December 1995. Browns Ferry 2 was removed from the NRC watch list in June 1992 and Units 1 and 3 in June 1996. Units 2 and 3 have both operated successfully since restart but Unit 1 is currently mothballed and TVA has no plans to bring it back into service. (UK)

  13. HABITAT USE BY NATIVE AND STOCKED TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. IN TWO NORTHEAST STREAMS, PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by stocked and native brown trout (Salmo trutta L. was assessed in two headwater streams of North-eastern Portugal. Underwater observations were made during the summer season in three successive years to evaluate the effect of supplemental trout stocking. Multivariate analysis techniques applied to data sets on microhabitat use were exploited to identify the focal elevation (distance of fish from the bottom, total depth and cover as the variables that contribute most to the discrimination between stocked and native trout. Preference curves computed for native and stocked trout of the same age (1+, showed a distinct pattern in their ability to explore the available microhabitat resources. Stocked trout tended to occupy deeper pools (total depth > 100 cm vs. 60-100 cm for native trout, holding higher focal elevations (140-160 cm vs. 22.5 cm and cover (combination of boulders and overhanging vegetation or undercut banks. Furthermore, a high poststocking movement of 80% hatchery-reared fish was verified just one month after their release, suggesting that stocking did not contribute to the sustainable populations in either stream, and is far from being an adequate management technique.

  14. Trout in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program

  15. Ecology and impacts of nonnative salmonids with special reference to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) in North Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Korsu, K. (Kai)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract My main objectives in this thesis were to explore general patterns and mechanisms driving salmonid invasions globally and, more specifically, to examine the invasion dynamics and impacts of the North American brook trout in North European stream systems. Non-native salmonids have often spread extensively and caused many harmful impacts on their native counterparts. Among the three globally introduced salmonids, the European brown trout appeared as the 'worst' alien species (st...

  16. Plump Cutthroat Trout and Thin Rainbow Trout in a Lentic Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Joshua; Abbott, Jessica; Schmidt, Kerri; Courtney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) interbreeding and outcompeting cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii). However, the specific mechanisms by which rainbow trout and their hybrids outcompete cutthroat trout have not been thoroughly explored, and the published data is limited to lotic ecosystems. Materials and Methods: Samples of rainbow trout and cutthroat trout were obtained from a lentic ecosystem by angling. The total length and weight of...

  17. Evaluating the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test for Pesticide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the numerous chemicals used in society, it is critical to develop tools for accurate and efficient evaluation of potential risks to human and ecological receptors. Fish embryo acute toxicity tests are 1 tool that has been shown to be highly predictive of standard, more resource-intensive, juvenile fish acute toxicity tests. However, there is also evidence that fish embryos are less sensitive than juvenile fish for certain types of chemicals, including neurotoxicants. The utility of fish embryos for pesticide hazard assessment was investigated by comparing published zebrafish embryo toxicity data from pesticides with median lethal concentration 50% (LC50) data for juveniles of 3 commonly tested fish species: rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, and sheepshead minnow. A poor, albeit significant, relationship (r2 = 0.28; p embryo and juvenile fish toxicity when pesticides were considered as a single group, but a much better relationship (r2 = 0.64; p embryo toxicity test endpoints are particularly insensitive to neurotoxicants. These results indicate that it is still premature to replace juvenile fish toxicity tests with embryo-based tests such as the Organisation for Economic Co-op

  18. [Assisted reproductive technologies and the embryo status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Y

    The status of the human embryo has always be a subject of philosophical and theological thoughts with major social consequences, but, until the 19th century, it has been mainly an abstraction. The arrival of the human embryo in vitro, materialized by Louise Brown's birth in 1978 and above all by the supernumerary embryos produced by the Australian team of Trounson and Wood following the introduction of ovarian stimulation, will turn theoretical thoughts into a reality. Nobody may ignore the hidden intentions behind the debate, as to recognise a status to a few days old embryo will immediately have a major impact on the status of a few weeks old foetus and therefore on the abortion rights. We will see that the embryo status, essentially based as well on a vision on the good and evil as on social order, cannot be based on a scientific analysis of the reproduction process but comes from a society's choice, by essence " arbitrary " and always disputable. This does not preclude the collectivity right and legitimacy to give a precise status and it is remarkable to observe the law is careful not to specify which status to give to the human embryo. It is more thru handling procedures and functioning rules that the law designed the embryo position, neither with a status of a person, nor of a thing. It nevertheless remains true that there is a constant risk that the legislation gives the embryo a status that would call into question it's unique characteristic of early reproductive stage, jeopardizing at once the hard-won reproductive freedom (reproductive choice) as well as freedom of research on embryonic stem cells, one of the most promising field of medical research.

  19. Low pH levels wipe out salmon and trout populations in southernmost Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K W; Snekvik, E

    1972-01-01

    A gradual decrease in pH has been documented for many Scandinavian rivers and lakes and there is little doubt that the main cause is acid precipitation (1-4). Eggs, fry, and alevins of salmon and brown trout are more susceptible to acid water than are the older fish. A gradually increasing acidity of trout biotopes will cause a reduction in the natural reproduction rate of trout, because eggs and fry succumb, while the older individuals in the population survive, at least until the pH level sinks low enough to affect them, as well. A study of the present situation and examination of the available data show that the salmon populations in a number of rivers in southernmost Norway have been nearly wiped out by low pH values. During the last twenty to thirty years, low pH levels have eliminated the brown trout populations in a great number of lakes and rivers in Norway's southernmost districts. This alarming development is continuing.

  20. Competition and predation as mechanisms for displacement of greenback cutthroat trout by brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. C. McGrath; W. M. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    Cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii frequently are displaced by nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, but the ecological mechanisms of displacement are not understood. Competition for food and predation between greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias and brook trout were investigated in montane streams of...

  1. Morphological differences in the skin of marble trout Salmo marmoratus and of brown trout Salmo trutta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sivka, U.; Halačka, Karel; Sušnik Bajec, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2012), s. 255-262 ISSN 0239-8508 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500450513 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : melanophore * epidermis * dermis * colour pattern * pigmentation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.101, year: 2012 http://czasopisma.viamedica.pl/fhc/article/view/14750

  2. Rearing environment influences boldness and prey acquisition behavior, and brain and lens development of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Pike, Martin M.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Schaller, Howard A.; Peterson, James T.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Animals reared in barren captive environments exhibit different developmental trajectories and behaviors than wild counterparts. Hence, the captive phenotypes may influence the success of reintroduction and recovery programs for threatened and endangered species. We collected wild bull trout embryos from the Metolius River Basin, Oregon and reared them in differing environments to better understand how captivity affects the bull trout Salvelinus confluentusphenotype. We compared the boldness and prey acquisition behaviors and development of the brain and eye lens of bull trout reared in conventional barren and more structurally complex captive environments with that of wild fish. Wild fish and captive reared fish from complex habitats exhibited a greater level of boldness and prey acquisition ability, than fish reared in conventional captive environments. In addition, the eye lens of conventionally reared bull trout was larger than complex reared captive fish or same age wild fish. Interestingly, we detected wild fish had a smaller relative cerebellum than either captive reared treatment. Our results suggest that rearing fish in more complex captive environments can create a more wild-like phenotype than conventional rearing practices. A better understanding of the effects of captivity on the development and behavior of bull trout can inform rearing and reintroduction programs though prediction of the performance of released individuals.

  3. Morphological and molecular confirmation of Myxobolus cerebralis myxospores infecting wild‑caught and cultured trout in North Carolina (SE USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Rash, Jacob M; Arias, Cova R; Besler, Doug A; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Womble, Matthew R; Roberts, Jackson R; Warren, Micah B; Ray, Candis L; Lafrentz, Stacey; Bullard, Stephen A

    2017-11-21

    We used microscopy and molecular biology to provide the first documentation of infections of Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), the etiological agent of whirling disease, in trout (Salmonidae) from North Carolina (USA) river basins. A total of 1085 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, 696 brown trout Salmo trutta, and 319 brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from 43 localities across 9 river basins were screened. Myxospores were observed microscopically in pepsin-trypsin digested heads of rainbow and brown trout from the Watauga River Basin. Those infections were confirmed using the prescribed nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR; 18S rDNA), which also detected infections in rainbow, brown, and brook trout from the French Broad River Basin and the Yadkin Pee-Dee River Basin. Myxospores were 9.0-10.0 µm (mean ± SD = 9.6 ± 0.4; N = 119) long, 8.0-10.0 µm (8.8 ± 0.6; 104) wide, and 6.0-7.5 µm (6.9 ± 0.5; 15) thick and had polar capsules 4.0-6.0 µm (5.0 ± 0.5; 104) long, 2.5-3.5 µm (3.1 ± 0.3; 104) wide, and with 5 or 6 polar filament coils. Myxospores from these hosts and rivers were morphologically indistinguishable and molecularly identical, indicating conspecificity, and the resulting 18S rDNA and ITS-1 sequences derived from these myxospores were 99.5-100% and 99.3-99.8% similar, respectively, to published GenBank sequences ascribed to M. cerebralis. This report comprises the first taxonomic circumscription and molecular confirmation of M. cerebralis in the southeastern USA south of Virginia.

  4. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  5. Patterns of hybridization of nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout with native redband trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen M.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the greatest threats to native fishes. Threats from hybridization are particularly important for native trout species as stocking of nonnative trout has been widespread within the ranges of native species, thus increasing the potential for hybridization. While many studies have documented hybridization between native cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, fewer have focused on this issue in native rainbow trout despite widespread threats from introductions of both nonnative cutthroat trout and hatchery rainbow trout. Here, we describe the current genetic (i.e., hybridization) status of native redband trout O. mykiss gairdneri populations in the upper Boise River, Idaho. Interspecific hybridization was widespread (detected at 14 of the 41 sampled locations), but high levels of hybridization between nonnative cutthroat trout and redband trout were detected in only a few streams. Intraspecific hybridization was considerably more widespread (almost 40% of sampled locations), and several local populations of native redband trout have been almost completely replaced with hatchery coastal rainbow trout O. mykiss irideus; other populations exist as hybrid swarms, some are in the process of being actively invaded, and some are maintaining genetic characteristics of native populations. The persistence of some redband trout populations with high genetic integrity provides some opportunity to conserve native genomes, but our findings also highlight the complex decisions facing managers today. Effective management strategies in this system may include analysis of the specific attributes of each site and population to evaluate the relative risks posed by isolation versus maintaining connectivity, identifying potential sites for control or eradication of nonnative trout, and long-term monitoring of the genetic integrity of remaining redband trout populations to track changes in their status.

  6. Reprodctive biology of trout in a thermally enriched environment: the Firehole River of Yellowstone National Park. Second annual progress report, April 1, 1974--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature recordings indicate that trout inhabiting the warmest section of the river live at temperatures averaging 11.5 C higher than those inhabiting the upstream, cold-water section above most of the thermal discharges. Daily maximum temperatures during summer occasionally exceed published lethal levels for trout, and daily means consistently exceed the 20 0 C upper limit considered favorable for growth. Brown trout at the cold-water station show a normal reproductive pattern and spawn in the late fall. Brown trout at the warmest water station show a similar seasonal pattern; however about half of the specimens examined were either not maturing or were undergoing massive atresia of ova. Rainbow trout also have a similar reproductive pattern and spawn in late fall, in contrast to the normal spring and early summer spawning period of this species. Both species grow considerably faster at the warm-water stations than they do at the cold-water stations, despite having their growth inhibited by high summer temperatures. Differences in diet are evident. Trout captured from both warm and cold areas have internal body temperatures closely similar to water temperatures, and thus provide no evidence for the existence of cooler microhabitats within the general stream

  7. Does cortisol manipulation influence outmigration behaviour, survival and growth of sea trout? A field test of carryover effects in wild fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, Jonathan D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Boel, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    For anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta), the transition from life in freshwater to the marine environment is an inherently challenging and dangerous period characterized by high levels of mortality. As such, smoltification is a relevant life-history phase to examine how physiological state, in ...

  8. Embryotoxicity of quantum dots in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during hatching period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Kazlauskienė

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on quantum dots (QD has become a major interdisciplinary area of science. Unique physic-chemical properties of QD significantly expanded areas of their application and increased the potential impact on hydrosystems. The objectives of complex study (using toxicological, physical, chemical methods were: to determine the toxicity of QD to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during ontogenesis (embryos, larvae depending on the duration of exposure; to estimate QD stability; to investigate QD uptake routes, distribution, accumulation, localization in tissues and different organs of embryos and larvae. This study examined the toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS-COOH at sublethal concentration. Bioassay testing was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. Short-term (24-, 96-hour and long-term toxicity tests (14-day on fish at early stages of development (starting from “eye-egg” embryos were performed under static conditions. Mortality, physiological parameters, blood circulatory system, development disorders, behavioural responses and growth parameters of larvae were investigated. The results indicated that toxic effects of QD to rainbow trout in early life stages of development depended on the duration of exposure. Long-term exposure of QD induced remarkable deleterious changes in various systems of the developing fish organism: increased mortality, alterations in cardio-respiratory system, disturbed behavioural responses, caused developmental disorders and adversely affected the growth of larvae. Using physical methods it was determined: QD stability, uptake routes, distribution, accumulation and localization in tissues as well as in different organs of embryos and larvae of rainbow trout. Fish toxicity tests results will help to understand ecotoxicity of nanoparticles and will be used as nanoparticle embryotoxicity model in humans and other organisms.

  9. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    . The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...

  10. Study of Some Morphological Characters of Three Trout Breed Farmed in Salmonid Exploitations from Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Emilian Nistor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Study of morphological characters at fish by means of biometry is a frequently utilized method and consists in determining the variability of characters in groups of individuals, by direct measurement, weighting and statistical processing of obtained data. Effectuation of body measurements and weighting is used to determine the increase in length of fish and to evaluate the general physiological condition. Brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout were the object of the current study by analyzing of 50 individuals, 10 individuals in each batch (F1, F2, C1 C2 and I1, from two trout farms from Moldova. After processing the obtained data were calculated the most representative indexes and maintenance coefficients. The obtained values were between 3.49 at batch F1 and 3.94 at batch I1 for profile index; 1.5 at batch I1 and 1.75 at batch F1 for Fulton coefficient; 1.47 at batch F2 and 1.6 at batch I1 for Kiselev index; 41.36 for batch F1 and 47.94 at batch C2 for thickness index; 19.94 C1 batch and 22.08 at F1 batch for fleshy index I, and 19.05 C2 batch and 21.2 at I1 batch for fleshy index II. Having in view the obtained results we can conclude that the analyzed fishes had a good state of maintenance.

  11. Growth, morphology, and developmental instability of rainbow trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout, and four hybrid generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Duda, J.J.; Graham, J.H.; Zhang, S.; Haywood, K. P.; Miller, B.; Lerud, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Hybridization of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii with nonindigenous rainbow trout O. mykiss contributes to the decline of cutthroat trout subspecies throughout their native range. Introgression by rainbow trout can swamp the gene pools of cutthroat trout populations, especially if there is little selection against hybrids. We used rainbow trout, Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. clarkii bouvieri, and rainbow trout × Yellowstone cutthroat trout F1 hybrids as parents to construct seven different line crosses: F1 hybrids (both reciprocal crosses), F2 hybrids, first-generation backcrosses (both rainbow trout and Yellowstone cutthroat trout), and both parental taxa. We compared growth, morphology, and developmental instability among these seven crosses reared at two different temperatures. Growth was related to the proportion of rainbow trout genome present within the crosses. Meristic traits were influenced by maternal, additive, dominant, overdominant, and (probably) epistatic genetic effects. Developmental stability, however, was not disturbed in F1 hybrids, F2 hybrids, or backcrosses. Backcrosses were morphologically similar to their recurrent parent. The lack of developmental instability in hybrids suggests that there are few genetic incompatibilities preventing introgression. Our findings suggest that hybrids are not equal: that is, growth, development, character traits, and morphology differ depending on the genomic contribution from each parental species as well as the hybrid generation.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Giant Embryo Rice Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Chao; Xie, Mi-Xue; Wang, Ying-Cun; Li, Jian-Yue

    2017-06-21

    To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds, we analyzed the expression levels of GABA metabolism genes and contents of GABA and GABA metabolic intermediates in developing grains and germinated brown rice of giant embryo rice 'Shangshida No. 5' and normal embryo rice 'Chao2-10' respectively. In developing grains, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were accompanied with upregulation of gene transcripts and intermediate contents in the polyamine pathway and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts, as compared with those in 'Chao2-10'. In germinated brown rice, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were parallel with upregulation of OsGAD and polyamine pathway gene transcripts and Glu and polyamine pathway intermediate contents and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts. These results are the first to indicate that polyamine pathway and GABA catabolic genes play a crucial role in GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds.

  13. Comparative toxicity of four crude oils to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, L.M.J.; Khan, C.W.; Akhtar, P.; Hodson, P.V.; Short, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Crude oil is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aquatic ecosystems. Fish that are chronically exposed to alkyl PAHs show dioxin-like toxicity characterized by the presence of blue sac disease (BSD) and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Light Crude, MESA, the synthetic Federated Crude, and Alaska North Slope Crude) to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The study examined the influence of the four crudes in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. Mortality in the direct exposure experiment increased as the oil concentration increased. The same trend was observed for the BSD prevalence. The study showed that Scotian Light Crude was the least toxic, with BSD increasing only at the highest concentration. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  15. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  16. γ-Oryzanol, tocol and mineral compositions in different grain fractions of giant embryo rice mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Toong Long; Shih, Yi Ju; Ho, Pei Tzu; Lai, Chia Chi; Lin, Yu Wen; Wang, Chang Sheng; Sung, Jih Min

    2012-05-01

    Rice embryo is concentrated with lipid, protein and some bioactive chemicals. Two rice mutants IR64-GE and TNG71-GE (M7 generation) were characterised by an enlarged embryo compared with their wild types. In the present study, distributions of protein, lipid, total phenolics, γ-oryzanol, tocols and some essential minerals in these two giant embryo mutants and their respective normal embryo wild types IR64 and TNG71 were compared. The embryo dry weights of giant embryo mutants IR64-GE and TNG71-GE were 0.92 and 1.32 mg per seed respectively. These values were higher than those of their respective normal embryo genotypes (0.50 and 0.62 mg per seed). Large variations in protein, lipid, phenolic, γ-oryzanol, tocol and minerals levels were found between mutant and wild-type pairs. The brown rice of TNG71-GE had higher total γ-oryzanol (average of 24% increase) and total tocol (average of 75% increase) levels than TNG71, IR64 and IR64-GE. The embryo and bran parts of giant embryo mutant TNG71-GE were found to be good sources of vitamin E and γ-oryzanol. Therefore it could be used to produce high-value by-products from milled embryo and bran parts and as a genetic resource for rice improvement programmes. TNG71-GE can also be used as a nutrient-fortified rice cultivar. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  18. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  19. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  20. Retinoblastoma protein functions as a molecular switch determining white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Jørgensen, Claus; Petersen, Rasmus K

    2004-01-01

    Adipocyte precursor cells give raise to two major cell populations with different physiological roles: white and brown adipocytes. Here we demonstrate that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) regulates white vs. brown adipocyte differentiation. Functional inactivation of pRB in wild-type mouse embryo...... fibroblasts (MEFs) and white preadipocytes by expression of simian virus 40 large T antigen results in the expression of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in the adipose state. Retinoblastoma gene-deficient (Rb-/-) MEFs and stem cells, but not the corresponding wild-type cells, differentiate...

  1. Hybridization dynamics between Colorado's native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Siegle, Matthew R; Martin, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    Newly formed hybrid populations provide an opportunity to examine the initial consequences of secondary contact between species and identify genetic patterns that may be important early in the evolution of hybrid inviability. Widespread introductions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) into watersheds with native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) have resulted in hybridization. These introductions have contributed to the decline of native cutthroat trout populations. Here, we examine the pattern of hybridization between introduced rainbow trout and 2 populations of cutthroat trout native to Colorado. For this study, we utilized 7 diagnostic, codominant nuclear markers and a diagnostic mitochondrial marker to investigate hybridization in a population of greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) and a population of Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus). We infer that cutthroat-rainbow trout hybrid swarms have formed in both populations. Although a mixture of hybrid genotypes was present, not all genotype combinations were detected at expected frequencies. We found evidence that mitochondrial DNA introgression in hybrids is asymmetric and more likely from rainbow trout than from cutthroat trout. A difference in spawning time of the 2 species or differences in the fitness between the reciprocal crosses may explain the asymmetry. Additionally, the presence of intraspecific cytonuclear associations found in both populations is concordant with current hypotheses regarding coevolution of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes.

  2. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroney, Joseph R. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-01

    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  3. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  4. A dysmorphology score system for assessing embryo abnormalities in rat whole embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cindy X; Danberry, Tracy; Jacobs, Mary Ann; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2010-12-01

    The rodent whole embryo culture (WEC) system is a well-established model for characterizing developmental toxicity of test compounds and conducting mechanistic studies. Laboratories have taken various approaches in describing type and severity of developmental findings of organogenesis-stage rodent embryos, but the Brown and Fabro morphological score system is commonly used as a quantitative approach. The associated score criteria is based upon developmental stage and growth parameters, where a series of embryonic structures are assessed and assigned respective scores relative to their gestational stage, with a Total Morphological Score (TMS) assigned to the embryo. This score system is beneficial because it assesses a series of stage-specific anatomical landmarks, facilitating harmonized evaluation across laboratories. Although the TMS provides a quantitative approach to assess growth and determine developmental delay, it is limited to its ability to identify and/or delineate subtle or structure-specific abnormalities. Because of this, the TMS may not be sufficiently sensitive for identifying compounds that induce structure or organ-selective effects. This study describes a distinct morphological score system called the "Dysmorphology Score System (DMS system)" that has been developed for assessing gestation day 11 (approximately 20-26 somite stage) rat embryos using numerical scores to differentiate normal from abnormal morphology and define the respective severity of dysmorphology of specific embryonic structures and organ systems. This method can also be used in scoring mouse embryos of the equivalent developmental stage. The DMS system enhances capabilities to rank-order compounds based upon teratogenic potency, conduct structure- relationships of chemicals, and develop statistical prediction models to support abbreviated developmental toxicity screens. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Mouse Embryo Compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M D; Bissiere, S; Alvarez, Y D; Plachta, N

    2016-01-01

    Compaction is a critical first morphological event in the preimplantation development of the mammalian embryo. Characterized by the transformation of the embryo from a loose cluster of spherical cells into a tightly packed mass, compaction is a key step in the establishment of the first tissue-like structures of the embryo. Although early investigation of the mechanisms driving compaction implicated changes in cell-cell adhesion, recent work has identified essential roles for cortical tension and a compaction-specific class of filopodia. During the transition from 8 to 16 cells, as the embryo is compacting, it must also make fundamental decisions regarding cell position, polarity, and fate. Understanding how these and other processes are integrated with compaction requires further investigation. Emerging imaging-based techniques that enable quantitative analysis from the level of cell-cell interactions down to the level of individual regulatory molecules will provide a greater understanding of how compaction shapes the early mammalian embryo. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  7. ABC transporters and xenobiotic defense systems in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Christian; Segner, Helmut; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout. Additionally, we investigated mRNA levels of phase I (cyp1a, cyp3a) and phase II (gstp, putative ugt1, putative ugt2) biotransformation enzymes. The study covered the developmental period from the eleuthero-embryo stage to the first-feeding larval stage (1-20days post-hatch, dph). At 1dph, transcripts of abcc2, abcc4, abcg2, cyp3a, gstp, putative mate1, and putative oatp2 occurred primarily in the yolk sac epithelium, whereas at later stages expression of these genes was predominantly observed in the abdominal viscera. The functional activity of ABC transporters in fish early life stages was assessed by rhodamine B accumulation assays. Finally, we investigated the potential impact of xenobiotics (clotrimazole, clofibric acid) on the ABC and biotransformation systems of trout early life stages. While clofibric acid had no effect, clotrimazole lead to an increased rhodamine B accumulation. The results provide evidence that the transition from the eleuthero-embryo to the larval stage is accompanied by a major alteration in tissue expression of ABC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  9. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  10. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    BREAD COLORING CHEESE SPREAD CHEMICAL REACTIONS FLAVOR OXIDATION DAIRY PRODUCTS...nutritional intake, and decrease waste due to non-consumption of sensory degraded ration components. 1.1 Maillard Browning Maillard browning, also

  11. Diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms for identifying westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, S T; Novak, B J; Drinan, D P; Jennings, R deM; Vu, N V

    2011-03-01

    We describe 12 diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays for use in species identification among rainbow and cutthroat trout: five of these loci have alleles unique to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), three unique to westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarkii lewisi) and four unique to Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri). These diagnostic assays were identified using a total of 489 individuals from 26 populations and five fish hatchery strains. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. impact on embryo quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Tandara

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: In men with poorer semen quality, evaluated by standard semen parameters, a higher proportion of sperm with damaged DNA can also be expected. Higher sperm DNA damage, established by Halosperm test, also had an impact on embryo quality in this group of patients.

  13. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming.

  14. Browns Ferry fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkleroad, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A synopsis of the March 22, 1975 fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is discussed. Emphasis is placed on events prior to and during the fire. How the fire started, fire fighting activities, fire and smoke development, and restoration activities are discussed

  15. The Effect of a GnRH Agonist Injection or Progesterone Implant at Diestrus in Cryopreserved Embryo Transferred Cows

    OpenAIRE

    KIRBAŞ, Mesut; BÜLBÜL, Bülent; KÖSE, Mehmet; DURSUN, Şükrü; ÇOLAK, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of a single dose of GnRH on d 13 or progesterone implant for 7 days between d 13 and 20 on plasma progesterone levels and pregnancy rates on cryopreserved embryo transferred cows were investigated. Synchronized 48 Brown Swiss recipient cows were used as animal material. Seven days after estrus detection, cryopreserved cattle embryos were transferred into recipients and cows were assigned randomly into three groups. In GnRH group (n=16), cows were intramuscularly inje...

  16. Toxicokinetics of PFOS in rainbow trout

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ScienceHub entry was developed for the published paper: Consoer et al., 2016, Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss),...

  17. Immunoelectron microscopy in embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, W D

    2001-05-01

    Immunogold labeling of proteins in sections of embryos embedded in acrylate media provides an important analytical tool when the resolving power of the electron microscope is required to define sites of protein function. The protocol presented here was established to analyze the role and dynamics of the activated protein kinase C/Rack1 regulatory system in the patterning and outgrowth of limb bud mesenchyme. With minor changes, especially in the composition of the fixative solution, the protocol should be easily adaptable for the postembedding immunogold labeling of any other antigen in tissues of embryos of diverse species. Quantification of the labeling can be achieved by using electron microscope systems capable of supporting digital image analysis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  19. Use of cover habitat by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in a laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., habitat, with bull trout using cover and bottom habitats more than lake trout. Habitat selection ratios indicated that bull trout avoided water column habitat in the presence of lake trout and that lake trout avoided bottom habitat. Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic interactions were infrequent, but approximately 10 times greater for intraspecific inter- actions between lake trout. Results from this study provide little evidence that juvenile bull trout and lake trout compete for cover, and that species-specific differences in habitat use and selection likely result in habitat partitioning between these species.

  20. Sensitivity of Trout to Chronic Acute Exposure to Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Nielsen, M. Gissel

    1978-01-01

    Trout were exposed to selenite (Na2SeO3) solutions of varying concentrations (0.1-100 ppm Se) for periods of up to 4 wk. A chronic exposure to 0.1 ppm Se or less is non-lethal to trout. Lethality at higher concentrations depends on the length of exposure. Trout that survive for 10 days in tap...

  1. Evaluation of dietary soy sensitivity in snake river cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchery-cultured cutthroat trout fed some commercially available rainbow trout feeds display slow growth and increased mortality. Feed characteristics such as buoyancy and texture alter feed acceptance in some fish species but their effects have not been adequately addressed in cutthroat trout. Th...

  2. Biology and management of threatened and endangered western trouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Behnke; Mark Zarn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses taxonomy, reasons for decline, life history and ecology, and suggestions for preservation and management of six closely related trouts native to western North America: Colorado River cutthroat, Salmo clarki pleuriticus; greenback trout, S. c. stomias; Lahontan cutthroat, S. c. henshawi; Paiute trout,...

  3. Molecular crosstalk between a chemical and a biological stressor and consequences on disease manifestation in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burki, Richard; Krasnov, Aleksei; Bettge, Kathrin; Rexroad, Caird E.; Afanasyev, Sergey; Antikainen, Miia; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Wahli, Thomas; Segner, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the molecular and organism reaction of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to the combined impact of two environmental stressors. The two stressors were the myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which is the etiological agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) and a natural stressor to salmonid populations, and 17β-estradiol (E2) as prototype of estrogen-active chemical stressors in the aquatic environment. Both stressors, the parasite and estrogenic contaminants, co-exist in Swiss rivers and are discussed as factors contributing to the decline of Swiss brown trout populations over the last decades. Using a microarray approach contrasting parasite-infected and non-infected rainbow trout at low or high estrogen levels, it was observed that molecular response patterns under joint exposure differed from those to the single stressors. More specifically, three major response patterns were present: (i) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are weakened by the presence of the second stressor; (ii) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are enhanced by the presence of the second stressor; (iii) expression responses of gene transcripts at joint treatment are dominated by one of the two stressors. Organism-level responses to concurrent E2 and parasite treatment – assessed through measuring parasite loads in the fish host and cumulative mortalities of trout – were dominated by the pathogen, with no modulating influence of E2. The findings reveal function- and level-specific responses of rainbow trout to stressor combinations, which are only partly predictable from the response to the single stressors.

  4. Molecular crosstalk between a chemical and a biological stressor and consequences on disease manifestation in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burki, Richard [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Krasnov, Aleksei [NOFIMA Marin, Postboks. 5010, 1432As (Norway); Bettge, Kathrin [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Rexroad, Caird E. [National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture, USDA-ARS, 11876 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Afanasyev, Sergey [Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, M. Toreza av. 44, Peterburg 194223 (Russian Federation); Antikainen, Miia [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio (Finland); Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia [Man-Society-Environment, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, CH-4051 Basel (Switzerland); Wahli, Thomas [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Segner, Helmut, E-mail: helmut.segner@vetsuisse.unibe.ch [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, Laenggassstrasse 122, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the molecular and organism reaction of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to the combined impact of two environmental stressors. The two stressors were the myxozoan parasite, Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which is the etiological agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) and a natural stressor to salmonid populations, and 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) as prototype of estrogen-active chemical stressors in the aquatic environment. Both stressors, the parasite and estrogenic contaminants, co-exist in Swiss rivers and are discussed as factors contributing to the decline of Swiss brown trout populations over the last decades. Using a microarray approach contrasting parasite-infected and non-infected rainbow trout at low or high estrogen levels, it was observed that molecular response patterns under joint exposure differed from those to the single stressors. More specifically, three major response patterns were present: (i) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are weakened by the presence of the second stressor; (ii) expression responses of gene transcripts to one stressor are enhanced by the presence of the second stressor; (iii) expression responses of gene transcripts at joint treatment are dominated by one of the two stressors. Organism-level responses to concurrent E2 and parasite treatment - assessed through measuring parasite loads in the fish host and cumulative mortalities of trout - were dominated by the pathogen, with no modulating influence of E2. The findings reveal function- and level-specific responses of rainbow trout to stressor combinations, which are only partly predictable from the response to the single stressors.

  5. Utilization of dietary urea in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S J; Dabrowski, K R; Dabrowska, H; Olah, E; Luquet, P

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the potential utilization of dietary urea by rainbow trout. A control diet and two diets supplemented with 1 and 3% of urea were fed to fish. Postprandial levels of urea and ammonia in blood plasma, and postprandial excretion of these metabolites were followed during 24 h. Apparent digestibility of urea in rainbow trout was very high (greater than 98%). Maximum values of urea levels in plasma were reached 6 h (32.3 +/- 10.2 micrograms/ml) after a meal in the control fish and respectively 6 h (83.4 +/- 18.4 micrograms/ml) and 8 h (250.3 +/- 96.1 micrograms/ml) after a meal in trout fed 1 and 3% urea diets. Peaks of urea excretion rates appeared 7-9 h after meal, coinciding with the highest circulating urea concentration. Total daily urea excretion amounted to 5.53, 10.43 and 33.80 mg urea N/100 mg N intake in trout fed the control, 1 and 3% urea diets, respectively. It is concluded that the dietary urea is readily absorbed in the digestive tract of trout but is totally excreted thus leading to no beneficial effect on nitrogen balance. This excretion of urea also takes place passively without any increase in energy demands.

  6. The trout fishery in Shenandoah National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    Populations of brook trout in streams of Shenandoah National Park were reduced drastically early in the past decade by a succession of unusually severe droughts and floods. The drying of stream beds, predation, and scouring were principal factors in the loss of fish. The park was closed to fishing in 1954 and 1955 to protect survivors. The small numbers of survivors quickly repopulated the streams after drought conditions abated. The stocking of hatchery-reared fingerling trout in selected waters failed to augment the recovery of populations. Survival and growth of young, wild trout were especially good. Their redistribution through miles of previously dry streams was rapid. The park was opened again to fishing in 1956 under regulations which restrict the take but afford an increase in sporting opportunity. Two streams were placed under fishing-for-fun-only regulations in 1961.The welfare of the trout populations is dependent mostly on the weather cycle . Fish may be abundant in wet years but very scarc e in dry ones. Thus, the stream must be managed a s marginal for trout.

  7. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  8. Immunity to VHS virus in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Koch, C.

    1999-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the rhabdovirus that causes most disease problems in farmed rainbow trout in Europe. Survivors of infection are usually immune to reinfection but as with other fish viruses, development of a modern recombinant vaccine has been complicated by the limited...... knowledge of the immune mechanisms and antigens involved in induction of immunity. Neutralizing and protective monoclonal antibodies recognize the envelope glycoprotein (G protein) which is the only viral protein known to be present on the surface of the virus particle. Immunoblotting analyses...... with monoclonal antibodies as well as with sera from immunized trout have indicated that protein conformation plays an important role in neutralization epitopes. The virus neutralizing activity often found in sera from convalescent trout is highly dependent on a poorly defined complementing activity in normal...

  9. Embryos, genes, and birth defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferretti, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    ... Structural anomalies The genesis of chromosome abnormalities Embryo survival The cause of high levels of chromosome abnormality in human embryos Relative parental risks - age, translocations, inversions, gonadal and germinal mosaics 33 33 34 35 36 44 44 45 4 Identification and Analysis of Genes Involved in Congenital Malformation Syndromes Peter J. Scambler Ge...

  10. Global gene expression in muscle from fasted/refed trout reveals up-regulation of genes promoting myofibre hypertrophy but not myofibre production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Le Cam, Aurelie; Rallière, Cécile; Montfort, Jérôme

    2017-06-07

    Compensatory growth is a phase of rapid growth, greater than the growth rate of control animals, that occurs after a period of growth-stunting conditions. Fish show a capacity for compensatory growth after alleviation of dietary restriction, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are unknown. To learn more about the contribution of genes regulating hypertrophy (an increase in muscle fibre size) and hyperplasia (the generation of new muscle fibres) in the compensatory muscle growth response in fish, we used high-density microarray analysis to investigate the global gene expression in muscle of trout during a fasting-refeeding schedule and in muscle of control-fed trout displaying normal growth. The compensatory muscle growth signature, as defined by genes up-regulated in muscles of refed trout compared with control-fed trout, showed enrichment in functional categories related to protein biosynthesis and maturation, such as RNA processing, ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis, ribosome biogenesis, translation and protein folding. This signature was also enriched in chromatin-remodelling factors of the protein arginine N-methyl transferase family. Unexpectedly, functional categories related to cell division and DNA replication were not inferred from the molecular signature of compensatory muscle growth, and this signature contained virtually none of the genes previously reported to be up-regulated in hyperplastic growth zones of the late trout embryo myotome and to potentially be involved in production of new myofibres, notably genes encoding myogenic regulatory factors, transmembrane receptors essential for myoblast fusion or myofibrillar proteins predominant in nascent myofibres. Genes promoting myofibre growth, but not myofibre formation, were up-regulated in muscles of refed trout compared with continually fed trout. This suggests that a compensatory muscle growth response, resulting from the stimulation of hypertrophy but not the stimulation of hyperplasia

  11. Microsatellite analyses of the trout of northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Sage, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    The trout of northwest Mexico represent an undescribed group of fish considered part of the Oncorhynchus mykiss (Pacific trout) complex of species and subspecies. Recent genetic studies have shown these fish to have important genetic diversity and a unique evolutionary history when compared to coastal rainbow trout. Increased levels of allelic diversity have been found in this species at the southern extent of its range. In this study we describe the trout in the Sierra Madre Occidental from the rios Yaqui, Mayo, Casas Grandes and de Bavispe, and their relationship to the more southern distribution of Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster) using 11 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite allelic diversity in Mexican trout was high with a mean of 6.6 alleles/locus, average heterozygosity = 0.35, and a mean Fst = 0.43 for all loci combined. Microsatellite data were congruent with previously published mtDNA results showing unique panmictic population structure in the Rio Yaqui trout that differs from Pacific coastal trout and Mexican golden trout. These data also add support for the theory of headwaters transfer of trout across the Continental Divide from tributaries of the Rio de Bavispe into the Rio Casas Grandes. Rio Mayo trout share a close genetic relationship to trout in Rio Yaqui, but sample sizes from the Rio Mayo prevent significant comparisons in this study. Microsatellite analyses show significant allelic frequency differences between Rio Yaqui trout and O. chrysogaster in Sinaloa and Durango Mexico, adding further support for a unique evolutionary status for this group of northwestern Mexican trout.

  12. Laboratory techniques for human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Sales, Liana; Sampaio, Marcos A C

    2002-01-01

    This review is concerned with laboratory techniques needed for assisted conception, particularly the handling of gametes and embryos. Such methods are being increasingly refined. Successive stages of fertilization and embryogenesis require especial care, and often involve the use of micromanipulative methods for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Embryologists must take responsibility for gamete collection and preparation, and for deciding on the means of insemination or ICSI. Embryos must be assessed in culture, during the 1-cell, cleaving and morula/blastocyst stages, and classified according to quality. Co-culture methods may be necessary. The best embryos for transfer must be selected and loaded into the transfer catheter. Embryos not transferred must be cryopreserved, which demands the correct application of current methods of media preparation, seeding and the correct speed for cooling and warming. Before too long, methods of detecting abnormal embryos and avoiding their transfer may become widespread.

  13. Viability of bovine demi embryo after splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo derived from in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Imron

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo embryo production was limited by number of donor, wide variability respond due to superovulation program and also immunoactifity of superovulation hormone (FSH. Splitting technology could be an alternative to increase the number of transferrable embryos into recipien cows. Splitting is done with cutting embryo becoming two equal pieces (called demi embrio base on ICM orientation. The objective of this research was to determine the viability of demi embryo obtained from embryo splitting of fresh and frozen thawed embryo. The results showed that demi embryos which performed blastocoel reexpansion 3 hours after embryo splitting using fresh and frozen thawed embryos were 76.9 and 76.2% respectively. Base on existention of inner cell mass (ICM, the number of demi embryos developed with ICM from fresh and frozen thawed embryos were not significantly different (90.6 and 85.7% respectively. The cell number of demi embryo from fresh embryos splitting was not different compared with those from frozen thawed embryos (36.1 and 35.9 respectively. These finding indicated that embryo splitting can be applied to frozen thawed embryos with certain condition as well as fresh embryos.

  14. Erosion of interspecific reproductive barriers resulting from hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout sympatric with cutthroat trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, Margaret F; Dale, Angie; Heath, Daniel D

    2003-12-01

    The frequency of hybridization between cutthroat (Onchorhynchus clarki clarki) and rainbow (O. mykiss irideus) trout from coastal habitats in British Columbia, Canada, was examined in seven populations where the two species are sympatric with no history of rainbow trout stocking and compared with areas where native rainbow trout populations have been supplemented with hatchery fish (three populations). Four nuclear markers were used to identify each species and interspecific hybrids and one mitochondrial marker showed the direction of gene exchange between species. The frequency of hybrids was significantly higher (Fisher exact test, P < 0.001) in river systems where hatchery rainbow trout have been introduced (50.6% hybrids) than in populations where the two species naturally co-occur without supplementation (9.9% hybrids).

  15. Characterizing early embryonic development of Brown Tsaiya Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos in comparison with Taiwan Country Chicken (Gallus gallus domestics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chompunut Lumsangkul

    Full Text Available Avian embryos are among the most convenient and the primary representatives for the study of classical embryology. It is well-known that the hatching time of duck embryos is approximately one week longer than that of chicken embryos. However, the key features associated with the slower embryonic development in ducks have not been adequately described. This study aimed to characterize the pattern and the speed of early embryogenesis in Brown Tsaiya Ducks (BTD compared with those in Taiwan Country Chicken (TCC by using growth parameters including embryonic crown-tail length (ECTL, primitive streak formation, somitogenesis, and other development-related parameters, during the first 72 h of incubation. Three hundred and sixty eggs from BTD and TCC, respectively, were incubated at 37.2°C, and were then dissected hourly to evaluate their developmental stages. We found that morphological changes of TCC embryos shared a major similarity with that of the Hamburger and Hamilton staging system during early chick embryogenesis. The initial primitive streak in TCC emerged between 6 and 7 h post-incubation, but its emergence was delayed until 10 to 13 h post-incubation in BTD. Similarly, the limb primordia (wing and limb buds were observed at 51 h post-incubation in TCC embryos compared to 64 h post-incubation in BTD embryos. The allantois first appeared around 65 to 68 h in TCC embryos, but it was not observed in BTD embryos. At the 72 h post-incubation, 40 somites were clearly formed in TCC embryos while only 32 somites in BTD embryos. Overall, the BTD embryos developed approximately 16 h slower than the chicken embryo during the first 72 h of development. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to describe two distinct developmental time courses between TCC and BTD, which would facilitate future embryogenesis-related studies of the two important avian species in Taiwan.

  16. Characterizing early embryonic development of Brown Tsaiya Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in comparison with Taiwan Country Chicken (Gallus gallus domestics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsangkul, Chompunut; Fan, Yang-Kwang; Chang, Shen-Chang; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2018-01-01

    Avian embryos are among the most convenient and the primary representatives for the study of classical embryology. It is well-known that the hatching time of duck embryos is approximately one week longer than that of chicken embryos. However, the key features associated with the slower embryonic development in ducks have not been adequately described. This study aimed to characterize the pattern and the speed of early embryogenesis in Brown Tsaiya Ducks (BTD) compared with those in Taiwan Country Chicken (TCC) by using growth parameters including embryonic crown-tail length (ECTL), primitive streak formation, somitogenesis, and other development-related parameters, during the first 72 h of incubation. Three hundred and sixty eggs from BTD and TCC, respectively, were incubated at 37.2°C, and were then dissected hourly to evaluate their developmental stages. We found that morphological changes of TCC embryos shared a major similarity with that of the Hamburger and Hamilton staging system during early chick embryogenesis. The initial primitive streak in TCC emerged between 6 and 7 h post-incubation, but its emergence was delayed until 10 to 13 h post-incubation in BTD. Similarly, the limb primordia (wing and limb buds) were observed at 51 h post-incubation in TCC embryos compared to 64 h post-incubation in BTD embryos. The allantois first appeared around 65 to 68 h in TCC embryos, but it was not observed in BTD embryos. At the 72 h post-incubation, 40 somites were clearly formed in TCC embryos while only 32 somites in BTD embryos. Overall, the BTD embryos developed approximately 16 h slower than the chicken embryo during the first 72 h of development. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to describe two distinct developmental time courses between TCC and BTD, which would facilitate future embryogenesis-related studies of the two important avian species in Taiwan. PMID:29742160

  17. Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

  18. Warm water temperatures and shifts in seasonality increase trout recruitment but only moderately decrease adult size in western North American tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2018-01-01

    Dams throughout western North America have altered thermal regimes in rivers, creating cold, clear “tailwaters” in which trout populations thrive. Ongoing drought in the region has led to highly publicized reductions in reservoir storage and raised concerns about potential reductions in downstream flows. Large changes in riverine thermal regimes may also occur as reservoir water levels drop, yet this potential impact has received far less attention. We analyzed historic water temperature and fish population data to anticipate how trout may respond to future changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river temperatures. We found that summer temperatures were inversely related to reservoir water level, with warm temperatures associated with reduced storage and with dams operated as run-of-river units. Variation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) recruitment was linked to water temperature variation, with a 5-fold increase in recruitment occurring at peak summer temperatures (18 °C vs. 7 °C) and a 2.5-fold increase in recruitment when peak temperatures occurred in summer rather than fall. Conversely, adult trout size was only moderately related to temperature. Rainbow and brown trout (Salmo trutta) size decreased by ~24 mm and 20 mm, respectively, as mean annual and peak summer temperatures increased. Further, rainbow trout size decreased by ~29 mm with an earlier onset of cold winter temperatures. While increased recruitment may be the more likely outcome of a warmer and drier climate, density-dependent growth constraints could exacerbate temperature-dependent growth reductions. As such, managers may consider implementing flows to reduce recruitment or altering infrastructure to maintain coldwater reservoir releases.

  19. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyan; Seay, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We construct a grid of brown dwarf model atmospheres spanning a wide range of atmospheric metallicity (0.3x ≤ met ≤ 100x), C/O ratios (0.25x ≤ C/O ≤ 2.5x), and cloud properties, encompassing atmospheres of effective temperatures 200 ≤ Teff ≤ 2400 K and gravities 2.5 ≤ log g ≤ 5.5. We produce the expected temperature-pressure profiles and emergent spectra from an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium. We can then compare our predicted spectra to observations and retrieval results to aid in their predictions and influence future missions and telescopic observations. In our poster we briefly describe our modeling methodology and present our progress on model grid construction, spanning solar and subsolar C/O and metallicity.

  20. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  1. Development of bull trout sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; J. W. Guzevich

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington in 2000 through Interagency Agreement #134100H002 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). The purpose of this agreement is to develop a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) sampling protocol by integrating...

  2. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, Bhimtal 263 ... Mir J. I., Ali S., Patiyal R. S. and Singh A. K. 2015 Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, ..... 5 × 106 MCMC repeats for final sampling of data. .... enhancing aquaculture productivity in the coldwater regions. ... simulation study.

  3. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O...

  4. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Online resources. Molecular characterization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) stocks in India. Ashoktaru Barat Prabhati K. Sahoo Rohit Kumar Javaid I. Mir Shahnawaz Ali Rabindar S. Patiyal Atul K. Singh. Volume 94 Online resources 2015 pp e13- ...

  5. Preparation and anatomical distribution study of 67Ga-alginic acid nanoparticles for SPECT purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidarieh Marzieh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergosan contains 1% alginic acid extracted from two brown sea weeds. Little is known about the target organs and anatomical distribution of Ergosan (alginic acid in fish. Therefore, feasibility of developing alginic acid nanoparticles to detect target organ in rainbow trout is interesting. To make nanoparticles, Ergosan extract (alginic acid was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Results from TEM images showed that particle sizes of irradiated alginic acid ranged from 30 to 70 nm. The FTIR results indicated that gamma irradiation had no significant influence on the basic structure of alginic acid. Later, alginic acid nanoparticles were successively labelled with 67Ga-gallium chloride. The biodistribution of irradiated Ergosan in normal rainbow trout showed highest uptake in intestine and kidney and then in liver and kidney at 4- and 24-h post injection, respectively. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images also demonstrated target specific binding of the tracer at 4- and 24-h post injection. In conclusion, the feed supplemented with alginic acid nanoparticles enhanced SPECT images of gastrointestinal morphology and immunity system in normal rainbow trout.

  6. Infectious pancreatic necrosis the trout farmers' dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, T.J.

    1965-01-01

    Induction of the innate immune pathways is critical for early anti-viral defense but there is limited understanding of how teleost fish recognize viral molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, Toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 8 bind single-stranded RNA of viral origin and are activated by synthetic anti-viral imidazoquinoline compounds. Herein, we identify and describe the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) TLR7 and TLR8 gene orthologs and their mRNA expression. Two TLR7/8 loci were identified from a rainbow trout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using DNA fingerprinting and genetic linkage analyses. Direct sequencing of two representative BACs revealed intact omTLR7and omTLR8a1 open reading frames (ORFs) located on chromosome 3 and a second locus on chromosome 22 that contains an omTLR8a2 ORF and a putative TLR7pseudogene. We used the omTLR8a1/2 nomenclature for the two trout TLR8 genes as phylogenetic analysis revealed that they and all the other teleost TLR8 genes sequenced to date are similar to the zebrafish TLR8a, but are distinct from the zebrafish TLR8b. The duplicated trout loci exhibit conserved synteny with other fish genomes extending beyond the tandem of TLR7/8 genes. The trout TLR7 and 8a1/2 genes are composed of a single large exon similar to all other described TLR7/8 genes. The omTLR7 ORF is predicted to encode a 1049 amino acid (aa) protein with 84% similarity to the Fugu TLR7and a conserved pattern of predicted leucine-rich repeats (LRR). The omTLR8a1 andomTLR8a2 are predicted to encode 1035- and 1034-aa proteins, respectively, and have 86% similarity to each other. omTLR8a1 is likely the ortholog of the only Atlantic salmonTLR8 gene described to date as they have 95% aa sequence similarity. The tissue expression profiles of omTLR7, omTLR8a1 and omTLR8a2 in healthy trout were highest in spleen tissue followed by anterior and then posterior kidney tissues. Rainbow trout anterior kidney leukocytes produced elevated levels of

  7. Egg cortisol exposure enhances fearfulness in larvae and juvenile rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colson, Violaine; Valotaire, Claudiane; Geffroy, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of an early boost of cortisol exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs during fertilisation on subsequent behavioural responses when exposed to a sudden stimulus in larvae and juveniles. At 55 d post-fertilisation (dpf), treatment had no effect on high...... accelerations occurring after a sudden event. At 146 dpf, these high accelerations were more frequent in cortisol-treated fish than in controls. At 146 dpf also, swimming activity was increased in cortisol-treated fish both before and after the sudden stimulus. This study underlines the important behavioural...... modifications in both larvae and juveniles, linked to a change in the surrounding environment of the embryo. Indeed, fish exposed to cortisol as eggs showed a higher level of fearfulness later in life. Our findings are of major interest for stress management in an aquaculture context and also allow for a better...

  8. Restricted gene flow at the micro- and macro-geographical scale in marble trout based on mtDNA and microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patarnello Tomaso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic structure of the marble trout Salmo trutta marmoratus, an endemic salmonid of northern Italy and the Balkan peninsula, was explored at the macro- and micro-scale level using a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and microsatellite data. Results Sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region showed the presence of nonindigenous haplotypes indicative of introgression from brown trout into marble trout. This was confirmed using microsatellite markers, which showed a higher introgression at nuclear level. Microsatellite loci revealed a strong genetic differentiation across the geographical range of marble trout, which suggests restricted gene flow both at the micro-geographic (within rivers and macro-geographic (among river systems scale. A pattern of Isolation-by-Distance was found, in which genetic samples were correlated with hydrographic distances. A general West-to-East partition of the microsatellite polymorphism was observed, which was supported by the geographic distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusion While introgression at both mitochondrial and nuclear level is unlikely to result from natural migration and might be the consequence of current restocking practices, the pattern of genetic substructuring found at microsatellites has been likely shaped by historical colonization patterns determined by the geological evolution of the hydrographic networks.

  9. Early fish myoseptal cells: insights from the trout and relationships with amniote axial tenocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoann Bricard

    Full Text Available The trunk muscle in fish is organized as longitudinal series of myomeres which are separated by sheets of connective tissue called myoseptum to which myofibers attach. In this study we show in the trout that the myoseptum separating two somites is initially acellular and composed of matricial components such as fibronectin, laminin and collagen I. However, myoseptal cells forming a continuum with skeletogenic cells surrounding axial structures are observed between adjacent myotomes after the completion of somitogenesis. The myoseptal cells do not express myogenic markers such as Pax3, Pax7 and myogenin but express several tendon-associated collagens including col1a1, col5a2 and col12a1 and angiopoietin-like 7, which is a secreted molecule involved in matrix remodelling. Using col1a1 as a marker gene, we observed in developing trout embryo an initial labelling in disseminating cells ventral to the myotome. Later, labelled cells were found more dorsally encircling the notochord or invading the intermyotomal space. This opens the possibility that the sclerotome gives rise not only to skeletogenic mesenchymal cells, as previously reported, but also to myoseptal cells. We furthermore show that myoseptal cells differ from skeletogenic cells found around the notochord by the specific expression of Scleraxis, a distinctive marker of tendon cells in amniotes. In conclusion, the location, the molecular signature and the possible sclerotomal origin of the myoseptal cells suggest that the fish myoseptal cells are homologous to the axial tenocytes in amniotes.

  10. Surgical manipulation of mammalian embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, I; Keino, H; Taniguchi, M

    1997-04-01

    Whole-embryo culture systems are useful in the fields of not only embryology but also teratology, toxicology, pharmacology, and physiology. Of the many advantages of whole-embryo culture, we focus here on the surgical manipulation of mammalian embryos. Whole-embryo culture allows us to manipulate mammalian embryos, similarly to fish, amphibian and avian embryos. Many surgical experiments have been performed in mammalian embryos in vitro. Such surgical manipulation alters the destiny of morphogenesis of the embryos and can answer many questions concerning developmental issues. As an example of surgical manipulation using whole-embryo culture systems, one of our experiments is described. Microsurgical electrocauterization of the deep preaxial mesodermal programmed cell death zone (fpp) in the footplate prevented the manifestation of polydactyly in genetic polydactyly mouse embryos (Pdn/Pdn), in which fpp was abolished.

  11. Oxygen diffusion in fish embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2002-01-01

    All vertebrate embryos pass through a developmental period of remarkably low morphological variability. This period has been called phylotypic period. During the phylotypic period, organogenesis takes place, including blood vessel development. Before the phylotypic

  12. [The destiny of cryopreserved embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel, L; Achour-Frydman, N; Frydman, R; Flis-Trèves, M

    2007-12-01

    To know the psychological motivations of couples who keep their embryos so long (five years and more) and do not make a decision about them. We studied 84 couples refrained from making a decision on their cryopreserved embryos for at least five years. They were invited to fill out a questionnaire focusing on three points: the reasons of the indecision, their own representation of the cryopreserved embryos and their choice for the future: donation to another couple, to research, pregnancy or no solution for the moment. Mean (S.D.) women's and men's age were respectively, 38.8 (2.5)- and 41.3 (2.5)-years old. On average, three (1-9) embryos are preserved since 7.5 (5-12) years. Most of couples are parents. Four major reasons explain their attitudes: feeling of being too aged (25%), fear of a multiple pregnancy (45%), disagreement between members of couple (20%) and fear of failure (42.5%). Multiple choices were given to the future of the embryos: 25% wanted a pregnancy, 8% wanted to give them to infertile couples, 20% to research and 27.5% did not find any solution. Twenty percent were hesitating. The representation of those embryos is more symbolic than material. Most of the time, they see them like a potential child, a hope for the future or a brother or sister of their alive children. Those embryos are symbolized. They are a proof of fertility, a hope for another child. So, whatever the legal statement, couples will be in a dilemma because it is never easy for an infertile person to renounce to embryos, and the hope for children.

  13. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in these...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl reduction in lake trout by irradiation and broiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, R.F.; Zabik, M.E.; Weaver, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental contaminants surveys (1974-1975) have concluded that excessive concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in a specific species of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Over 30 ppM of PCBs have been detected in the edible fillet of this fat trout. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation combined with broiling on the levels of PCBs in lake trout fillets

  16. The rat whole embryo culture assay using the Dysmorphology Score system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cindy; Panzica-Kelly, Julie; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The rat whole embryo culture (WEC) system has been used extensively for characterizing teratogenic properties of test chemicals. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for culturing rat embryos as well as a new morphological score system, the Dysmorphology Score (DMS) system for assessing morphology of mid gestation (gestational day 11) rat embryos. In contrast to the developmental stage focused scoring associated with the Brown and Fabro score system, this new score system assesses the respective degree of severity of dysmorphology, which delineates normal from abnormal morphology of specific embryonic structures and organ systems. This score system generates an approach that allows rapid identification and quantification of adverse developmental findings, making it conducive for characterization of compounds for teratogenic properties and screening activities.

  17. Radurization of brown shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.; Muenzner, R.

    1976-01-01

    Brown shrimps (Crangon vulgaris) from the North sea coast were blanched on board, and irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma-rays at a minimum dose of 130 krad either before or after peeling. Other samples were irradiated before and after peeling. Control samples remained untreated or were preserved with benzoic acid. Irradiation before peeling did not result in a lasting improvement of keeping quality. However, irradiation of the peeled shrimp meat resulted in a reduction of the total bacterial load by up to 4 orders of magnitude. Shelf life until the initial microbial count was reached was 9 days for chemically treated samples, 18 days for samples irradiated after peeling, and 20 days for samples irradiated before and after peeling. Sensory evaluation and determination of volatile basic nitrogen gave similar results. The obtained diminution of the counts of staphylococci, enterococci and enterobacteriaceae reduces the hygienic hazard. Radurization of shrimp meat proved to be a satisfactory means of preservation. Introduction of the product into the market and best presentation and packaging require further investigations. (orig.) [de

  18. Toxicity of potassium cyanide to trout. [Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, D W.M.; Merkens, J C

    1952-01-01

    The toxicity of KCN was tested on 50 rainbow trout using a flow through bioassay system. The system was designed to allow water conditions to remain constant throughout the test rather than change through metabolic activities of the fish. Results show: cyanide causes fish to loose equilibrium; cyanide resistance increases if the trout are allowed to acclimate to test temperatures before cyanides is added; young trout are more resistant to cyanide; and the distribution of trout survival times to cyanide concentration approximates a normal distribution. (14 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Paternal breed effects on expression of IGF-II, BAK1 and BCL2-L1 in bovine preimplantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Joupari, Morteza Daliri

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effects of the paternal breed on the early embryonic development and relative expression of the maternally imprinted gene, IGF-II, and the apoptosis-related genes BAK1 and BCL2-L1 in in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos derived from two unrelated paternal breeds (Holstein......Summary The effects of the paternal breed on early embryo and later pre- and postnatal development are well documented. Several recent studies have suggested that such paternal effects may be mediated by the paternally induced epigenetic modifications during early embryogenesis. The objective...... and Brown Swiss). The degree of correlation of IGF-II expression pattern with embryo developmental competence and apoptosis-related genes was also investigated. The relative abundance of IGF-II, BCL2-L1 and BAK1 transcripts in day 8 embryos was measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain...

  20. Lessons from Embryos: Haeckel's Embryo Drawings, Evolution, and Secondary Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellner, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, developmental biologist Michael Richardson compared his research team's embryo photographs to Ernst Haeckel's 1874 embryo drawings and called Haeckel's work "noncredible". "Science" soon published "Haeckel's Embryos: Fraud Rediscovered," and Richardson's comments further reinvigorated criticism of Haeckel by…

  1. Production and evaluation of YY-male Brook Trout to eradicate nonnative wild brook trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Patrick; Schill, Daniel J.; Meyer, Kevin A.; Campbell, Matthew R.; Vu, Ninh V.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis were introduced throughout western North America in the early 1900s, resulting in widespread self-sustaining populations that are difficult to eradicate and often threaten native salmonid populations. A novel approach for their eradication involves use of YY male (MYY) Brook Trout (created in the hatchery by feminizing XY males and crossing them with normal XY males). If MYY Brook Trout survive after stocking, and reproduce successfully with wild females, in theory this could eventually drive the sex ratio of the wild population to 100% males, at which point the population would not be able to reproduce and would be eradicated. This study represents the first successful development of a FYY and MYY salmonid broodstock, which was produced in four years at relatively low cost. Field trials demonstrated that stocked hatchery MYY Brook Trout survived and produced viable MYY offspring in streams, although reproductive fitness appeared to have been lower than their wild conspecifics. Even if reduced fitness is the norm in both streams and alpine lakes, our population simulations suggest that eradication can be achieved in reasonable time periods under some MYY stocking scenarios, especially when wild Brook Trout are simultaneously suppressed in the population.

  2. Embryo density may affect embryo quality during in vitro culture in a microwell group culture dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Adam; Kaszas, Zita; Murber, Akos; Rigo, Janos; Urbancsek, Janos; Fancsovits, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Culturing embryos in groups is a common practice in mammalian embryology. Since the introduction of different microwell dishes, it is possible to identify oocytes or embryos individually. As embryo density (embryo-to-volume ratio) may affect the development and viability of the embryos, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different embryo densities on embryo quality. Data of 1337 embryos from 228 in vitro fertilization treatment cycles were retrospectively analyzed. Embryos were cultured in a 25 μl microdrop in a microwell group culture dish containing 9 microwells. Three density groups were defined: Group 1 with 2-4 (6.3-12.5 μl/embryo), Group 2 with 5-6 (4.2-5.0 μl/embryo), and Group 3 with 7-9 (2.8-3.6 μl/embryo) embryos. Proportion of good quality embryos was higher in Group 2 on both days (D2: 18.9 vs. 31.5 vs. 24.7%; p Culturing 5-6 embryos together in a culture volume of 25 μl may benefit embryo quality. As low egg number, position, and distance of the embryos may influence embryo quality, results should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Bisphenol A accumulation in eggs disrupts the endocrine regulation of growth in rainbow trout larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birceanu, Oana; Servos, Mark R.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • BPA in eggs reduces growth and increases food conversion ratio in trout larvae. • BPA in eggs disrupts larval transcript abundance of genes involved in GH/IGF axis. • BPA in eggs disrupts thyroid hormone receptor mRNA levels. • BPA in eggs consistently suppressed IGF-1rb mRNA levels during early development. - Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer used in the production of plastics and epoxy resins, is ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. BPA is considered a weak estrogen in fish, but the effects of this chemical on early developmental events are far from clear. We tested the hypothesis that BPA accumulation in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, disrupts growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis function, leading to defects in larval growth in rainbow trout. Trout oocytes were exposed to 0 (control), 0.3, 3, and 30 μg ml{sup −1} BPA for 3 h, which led to an accumulation of around 0, 1, 4 and 40 ng BPA per egg, respectively. All treatment groups were fertilized with clean milt and reared in clean water for the rest of the experiment. The embryo BPA content declined over time in all groups and was completely eliminated by 42 days post-fertilization (dpf). Hatchlings from BPA accumulated eggs had higher water content and reduced total energy levels prior to first feed. There was an overall reduction in the specific growth rate and food conversion ratio in larvae reared from BPA-laden eggs. BPA accumulation disrupted the mRNA abundance of genes involved in GH/IGF axis function, including GH isoforms and their receptors, IGF-1 and -2 and IGF receptors, in a life stage-dependent manner. Also, there was a temporal disruption in the mRNA levels of thyroid hormone receptors in the larvae raised from BPA-laden eggs. Altogether, BPA accumulation in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, affects larval growth and the mode of action involves disruption of genes involved in the GH/IGF and thyroid axes function in trout.

  4. Bisphenol A accumulation in eggs disrupts the endocrine regulation of growth in rainbow trout larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birceanu, Oana; Servos, Mark R.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BPA in eggs reduces growth and increases food conversion ratio in trout larvae. • BPA in eggs disrupts larval transcript abundance of genes involved in GH/IGF axis. • BPA in eggs disrupts thyroid hormone receptor mRNA levels. • BPA in eggs consistently suppressed IGF-1rb mRNA levels during early development. - Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer used in the production of plastics and epoxy resins, is ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. BPA is considered a weak estrogen in fish, but the effects of this chemical on early developmental events are far from clear. We tested the hypothesis that BPA accumulation in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, disrupts growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis function, leading to defects in larval growth in rainbow trout. Trout oocytes were exposed to 0 (control), 0.3, 3, and 30 μg ml −1 BPA for 3 h, which led to an accumulation of around 0, 1, 4 and 40 ng BPA per egg, respectively. All treatment groups were fertilized with clean milt and reared in clean water for the rest of the experiment. The embryo BPA content declined over time in all groups and was completely eliminated by 42 days post-fertilization (dpf). Hatchlings from BPA accumulated eggs had higher water content and reduced total energy levels prior to first feed. There was an overall reduction in the specific growth rate and food conversion ratio in larvae reared from BPA-laden eggs. BPA accumulation disrupted the mRNA abundance of genes involved in GH/IGF axis function, including GH isoforms and their receptors, IGF-1 and -2 and IGF receptors, in a life stage-dependent manner. Also, there was a temporal disruption in the mRNA levels of thyroid hormone receptors in the larvae raised from BPA-laden eggs. Altogether, BPA accumulation in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, affects larval growth and the mode of action involves disruption of genes involved in the GH/IGF and thyroid axes function in trout

  5. Feminists on the inalienability of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carolyn; Baylis, Francoise

    2006-01-01

    The feminist literature against the commodification of embryos in human embryo research includes an argument to the effect that embryos are "intimately connected" to persons, or morally inalienable from them. We explore why embryos might be inalienable to persons and why feminists might find this view appealing. But, ultimately, as feminists, we reject this view because it is inconsistent with full respect for women's reproductive autonomy and with a feminist conception of persons as relational, embodied beings. Overall, feminists should avoid claims about embryos' being inalienable to persons in arguments for or against the commodification of human embryos.

  6. Estimation of uptake rate constants for PCB congeners accumulated by semipermeable membrane devices and brown treat (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Huckins, J.N.; Borsuk, F.A.; Carline, R.F.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) is a simple and effective method of assessing the presence of waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Uptake rate constants for individual chemicals are needed to accurately relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the SPMD to dissolved water concentrations. Brown trout and SPMDs were exposed to PCB- contaminated groundwater in a spring for 28 days to calculate and compare uptake rates of specific PCB congeners by the two matrixes. Total PCB congener concentrations in water samples from the spring were assessed and corrected for estimated total organic carbon (TOC) sorption to estimate total dissolved concentrations. Whole and dissolved concentrations averaged 4.9 and 3.7 ??g/L, respectively, during the exposure. Total concentrations of PCBs in fish rose from 0.06 to 118.3 ??g/g during the 28-day exposure, while concentrations in the SPMD rose from 0.03 to 203.4 ??g/ g. Uptake rate constants (k1) estimated for SPMDs and brown trout were very similar, with k1 values for SPMDs ranging from one to two times those of the fish. The pattern of congener uptake by the fish and SPMDs was also similar. The rates of uptake generally increased or decreased with increasing K(ow), depending on the assumption of presence or absence of TOC.The triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) is a simple and effective method of assessing the presence of waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Uptake rate constants for individual chemicals are needed to accurately relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the SPMB to dissolved water concentrations. Brown trout and SPMDs were exposed to PCB-contaminated groundwater in a spring for 28 days to calculate and compare uptake rates of specific PCB congeners by the two matrixes. Total PCB congener concentrations in water samples from the spring were assessed and corrected for estimated total organic carbon (TOC) sorption to estimate total dissolved concentrations. Whole and

  7. Sex reversal of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by 17α-methyltestosterone exposure: A serial experimental approach to determine optimal timing and delivery regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Shafaq; Adams, Mark; Wilkinson, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    Commercial culture of Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Tasmania was partly abandoned due to sexual maturation of male fish early on during the estuarine rearing phase. Maturation adversely affects body mass, flesh quality and immunocompetency effectively. Sex reversal techniques such as the in-feed addition of a synthetic androgen have proven difficult to adapt in brook trout. An appropriate timing, duration and delivery vehicle for administration of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) to produce phenotypic males (neomales) from genotypically female brook trout required further investigation. In this study, groups of brook trout eggs (n=1000) maintained at 9.5±0.15-10±0.14°C, were immersed in MT (400μgL -1 ) for four hours on two alternate days (two immersions/group) staggered over a two week period surrounding the hatch of embryos (control groups excluded). The groups were then split and half received MT-supplemented feed for 60days and the other a standard diet. Following an 11 month on-growing period sex phenotypes were determined by gross & histological gonad morphology. The highest proportion of male phenotypes (75%) was found in fish immersed six and four days pre-hatch and subsequently fed a normal diet. Fish fed a MT supplemented diet and immersed in MT showed significantly higher proportions of sterile fish. These data indicate that a pre-hatch immersion-only regime (4-6days pre-hatch at 9.5°C) should be pursued as a target for optimization studies to further refine the effective concentration and duration of exposure to MT for the successful production of neo-male brook trout. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Glucose metabolism ontogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the light of the recently sequenced genome: new tools for intermediary metabolism programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandel, Lucie; Véron, Vincent; Surget, Anne; Plagnes-Juan, Élisabeth; Panserat, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a carnivorous fish species, displays a 'glucose-intolerant' phenotype when fed a high-carbohydrate diet. The importance of carbohydrate metabolism during embryogenesis and the timing of establishing this later phenotype are currently unclear. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the poor ability of carnivorous fish to use dietary carbohydrates as a major energy substrate are not well understood. It has recently been shown in trout that duplicated genes involved in glucose metabolism may participate in establishing the glucose-intolerant phenotype. The aim of this study was therefore to provide new understanding of glucose metabolism during ontogenesis and nutritional transition, taking into consideration the complexity of the trout genome. Trout were sampled at several stages of development from fertilization to hatching, and alevins were then fed a non-carbohydrate or a high-carbohydrate diet during first feeding. mRNA levels of all glucose metabolism-related genes increased in embryos during the setting up of the primitive liver. After the first meal, genes rapidly displayed expression patterns equivalent to those observed in the livers of juveniles. g6pcb2.a (a glucose 6-phosphatase-encoding gene) was up-regulated in alevins fed a high-carbohydrate diet, mimicking the expression pattern of gck genes. The g6pcb2.a gene may contribute to the non-inhibition of the last step of gluconeogenesis and thus to establishing the glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout fed a high-carbohydrate diet as early as first feeding. This information is crucial for nutritional programming investigations as it suggests that first feeding would be too late to programme glucose metabolism in the long term. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Spawning migration of brown trout, Salmo trutta in the Morávka reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piecuch, J.; Lojkásek, B.; Lusk, Stanislav; Marek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2007), s. 201-212 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093105; GA AV ČR 1QS500450513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : reproductive migration * tributary * trap * diel activity * environmental factors Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.376, year: 2007 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/56/2/201-212_MS1292.pdf

  10. Investigating the phenology of seaward migration of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in two European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, E R.; Tummers, J. S.; Aarestrup, Kim

    2016-01-01

    , evidence that spring migrants were of better condition, travelled faster (autumn: 11.0 km day-1; spring: 24.3 km day-1) and were more likely to leave the Deerness suggests that autumn and spring migrant conspecifics respond to different behavioural motivations. Further investigation into the sex of autumn...

  11. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic origin of brown trout Salmo trutta populations in eastern Balkans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Jan; Šedivá, Alena; Apostolou, A.; Stefanov, T.; Marić, S.; Gaffaroglu, M.; Šlechta, Vlastimil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2013), s. 1229-1237 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500450513 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Danube * microsatellites * mitochondrial DNA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013

  12. Relationship between oxidative stress and circulating testosterone and cortisol in pre-spawning female brown trout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; de Vries, Bonnie; Costantini, David

    Reproduction in vertebrates is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by endogenous hormones and potentially results in oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between oxidative stress parameters (antioxidant capacity and levels of reactive oxygen

  13. Density-dependent interactions in an Arctic char - brown trout system: competition, predation, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, L.; Amundsen, P.A.; de Roos, A.M.; Knudsen, R.; Primicerio, R.; Klemetsen, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the study of mechanisms structuring fish communities, mixed competition-predation interactions where large predators feed on prey fish versus those in which small predators compete with prey fish for a shared prey have been the focus of substantial research. We used a long-term data set from a

  14. Population and family structure of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a Mediterranean stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Manuel; Sanz, Nuria; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    The physical arrangement of closely related individuals is expected to significantly influence the pattern of population genetic structure. For example, if related individuals are non-randomly distributed and included in samples, this may lead to exaggerated conclusions about genetic differentiat...

  15. Recovery of brown trout populations in streams exposed to atmospheric acidification in the Bohemian Forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěna, Josef; Matěnová, V.; Blabolil, Petr; Kopáček, Jiří; Peltanova, J.; Šorf, M.; Žaloudík, Jiří; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-10 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/1200; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Czech Republic * streams * longitudinal gradients * Salmo trutta s.l. * Cottus gobio Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  16. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  17. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  18. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  19. Demographic and habitat requirements for conservation of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Rieman; John D. Mclntyre

    1993-01-01

    Elements in bull trout biology, population dynamics, habitat, and biotic interactions important to conservation of the species are identified. Bull trout appear to have more specific habitat requirements than other salmonids, but no critical thresholds of acceptable habitat condition were found. Size, temporal variation, and spatial distribution are likely to influence...

  20. Greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias): A technical conservation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young

    2009-01-01

    Greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias) was once presumably distributed throughout the colder waters of the South Platte and Arkansas River basins in Colorado and southeastern Wyoming. Primarily a fluvial species, greenback cutthroat trout may have occupied 10,614 to 13,231 km of streams above 1,800 m in these basins. Nevertheless,...

  1. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  2. Single-embryo transfer versus multiple-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerris, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the progress made in assisted reproductive technology, live birth rates remain disappointingly low. Multiple-embryo transfer has been an accepted practice with which to increase the success rate. This has led to a higher incidence of multiple-order births compared with natural conception, which not only increase the risk of mortality and morbidity to both mother and children but are also associated with social and economic consequences. Elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) was developed in an effort to increase singleton pregnancies in assisted reproduction. Studies comparing eSET with multiple-embryo transfer highlight the benefit of this approach and suggest that, with careful patient selection and the transfer of good-quality embryos, the risk of a multiple-order pregnancy can be reduced without significantly decreasing live birth rates. Although the use of eSET has gradually increased in clinical practice, its acceptance has been limited by factors such as availability of funding and awareness of the procedure. An open discussion of eSET is warranted in an effort to enable a broader understanding by physicians and patients of the merits of this approach. Ultimately, eSET may provide a more cost-effective, potentially safer approach to patients undergoing assisted reproduction technology.

  3. Browns Ferry charcoal adsorber incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews the temperature excursion in the charcoal adsorber beds of the Browns Ferry Unit 3 off-gas system that occurred on July 17, 1977. Significant temperature increases were experienced in the charcoal adsorber beds when charcoal fines were ignited by the ignition of a combustible mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the off-gas system. The Browns Ferry off-gas system is described, and events leading up to and surrounding the incident are discussed. The follow-up investigation by Tennessee Valley Authority and General Electric Company personnel and their recommendations for system and operational modifications are summarized

  4. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e.

  5. Mechanistic dissection of plant embryo initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radoeva, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Land plants can reproduce sexually by developing an embryo from a fertilized egg cell, the zygote. After fertilization, the zygote undergoes several rounds of controlled cell divisions to generate a mature embryo. However, embryo formation can also be induced in a variety of other cell types in

  6. Untwisting the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ryan Patrick; Bokinsky, Alexandra; Santella, Anthony; Wu, Yicong; Marquina-Solis, Javier; Guo, Min; Kovacevic, Ismar; Kumar, Abhishek; Winter, Peter W; Tashakkori, Nicole; McCreedy, Evan; Liu, Huafeng; McAuliffe, Matthew; Mohler, William; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Bao, Zhirong; Shroff, Hari

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans possesses a simple embryonic nervous system with few enough neurons that the growth of each cell could be followed to provide a systems-level view of development. However, studies of single cell development have largely been conducted in fixed or pre-twitching live embryos, because of technical difficulties associated with embryo movement in late embryogenesis. We present open-source untwisting and annotation software (http://mipav.cit.nih.gov/plugin_jws/mipav_worm_plugin.php) that allows the investigation of neurodevelopmental events in late embryogenesis and apply it to track the 3D positions of seam cell nuclei, neurons, and neurites in multiple elongating embryos. We also provide a tutorial describing how to use the software (Supplementary file 1) and a detailed description of the untwisting algorithm (Appendix). The detailed positional information we obtained enabled us to develop a composite model showing movement of these cells and neurites in an 'average' worm embryo. The untwisting and cell tracking capabilities of our method provide a foundation on which to catalog C. elegans neurodevelopment, allowing interrogation of developmental events in previously inaccessible periods of embryogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10070.001 PMID:26633880

  7. Untwisting the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ryan Patrick; Bokinsky, Alexandra; Santella, Anthony; Wu, Yicong; Marquina-Solis, Javier; Guo, Min; Kovacevic, Ismar; Kumar, Abhishek; Winter, Peter W; Tashakkori, Nicole; McCreedy, Evan; Liu, Huafeng; McAuliffe, Matthew; Mohler, William; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Bao, Zhirong; Shroff, Hari

    2015-12-03

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans possesses a simple embryonic nervous system with few enough neurons that the growth of each cell could be followed to provide a systems-level view of development. However, studies of single cell development have largely been conducted in fixed or pre-twitching live embryos, because of technical difficulties associated with embryo movement in late embryogenesis. We present open-source untwisting and annotation software (http://mipav.cit.nih.gov/plugin_jws/mipav_worm_plugin.php) that allows the investigation of neurodevelopmental events in late embryogenesis and apply it to track the 3D positions of seam cell nuclei, neurons, and neurites in multiple elongating embryos. We also provide a tutorial describing how to use the software (Supplementary file 1) and a detailed description of the untwisting algorithm (Appendix). The detailed positional information we obtained enabled us to develop a composite model showing movement of these cells and neurites in an 'average' worm embryo. The untwisting and cell tracking capabilities of our method provide a foundation on which to catalog C. elegans neurodevelopment, allowing interrogation of developmental events in previously inaccessible periods of embryogenesis.

  8. Agaricus bisporus browning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolivet, S.; Arpin, N.; Wichers, H.J.; Pellon, G.

    1998-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus browning is a common and economically detrimental phenomenon, in which melanogenic phenols are enzymically processed into quinones, which evolve eventually to melanins. This review deals with the two fundamental sides of this process, enzyme(s) and phenolic substrates. Mushroom

  9. Cleanup at Browns Ferry 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Brad; Janvrin, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    When major work had to be done in the drywell of Browns Ferry 3, the utility, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), decided that it made sense to make it ''street clothes clean'' for workers. This not only made work easier, it saved time and millions of dollars. (author)

  10. The effect of Cu2+ on osmoregulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) assayed by changes in plasma salinity and gill lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Rosenkilde, Per

    1993-01-01

    Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.......Zoofysiologi, Osmoregulation, Lipid metabolism, Ecotoxicology, Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  11. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to...

  12. Embryo density and medium volume effects on early murine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco, R S; Sparks, A E; Pearson, R E; Gwazdauskas, F C

    1992-10-01

    One-cell mouse embryos were used to determine the effects of drop size and number of embryos per drop for optimum development in vitro. Embryos were collected from immature C57BL6 female mice superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and mated by CD1 males. Groups of 1, 5, 10, or 20 embryos were cultured in 5-, 10-, 20-, or 40-microliters drops of CZB under silicon oil at 37.5 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air. Development score for embryos cultured in 10 microliters was higher than that of embryos cultured in 20 or 40 microliters. Embryos cultured in groups of 5, 10, or 20 had higher development scores than embryos cultured singly. The highest development score was obtained by the combination of 5 embryos per 10-microliters drop. The percentage of live embryos in 20 or 40 microliters was lower than that of embryos cultured in 10 microliters. Additionally, the percentage of live embryos cultured singly was lower than that of embryos cultured in groups. Our results suggest that a stimulatory interaction occurs among embryos possibly exerted through the secretion of growth factors. This effect can be diluted if the embryos are cultured in large drops or singly.

  13. The brown dwarf kinematics project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jackie K.

    2010-10-01

    Brown dwarfs are a recent addition to the plethora of objects studied in Astronomy. With theoretical masses between 13 and 75 MJupiter , they lack sustained stable Hydrogen burning so they never join the stellar main sequence. They have physical properties similar to both planets and low-mass stars so studies of their population inform on both. The distances and kinematics of brown dwarfs provide key statistical constraints on their ages, moving group membership, absolute brightnesses, evolutionary trends, and multiplicity. Yet, until my thesis, fundamental measurements of parallax and proper motion were made for only a relatively small fraction of the known population. To address this deficiency, I initiated the Brown Dwarf Kinematics (BDKP). Over the past four years I have re-imaged the majority of spectroscopically confirmed field brown dwarfs (or ultracool dwarfs---UCDs) and created the largest proper motion catalog for ultracool dwarfs to date. Using new astrometric information I examined population characteristics such as ages calculated from velocity dispersions and correlations between kinematics and colors. Using proper motions, I identified several new wide co-moving companions and investigated binding energy (and hence formation) limitations as well as the frequency of hierarchical companions. Concurrently over the past four years I have been conducting a parallax survey of 84 UCDs including those showing spectral signatures of youth, metal-poor brown dwarfs, and those within 20 pc of the Sun. Using absolute magnitude relations in J,H, and K, I identified overluminous binary candidates and investigated known flux-reversal binaries. Using current evolutionary models, I compared the MK vs J-K color magnitude diagram to model predictions and found that the low-surface gravity dwarfs are significantly red-ward and underluminous of predictions and a handful of late-type T dwarfs may require thicker clouds to account for their scatter.

  14. NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout and other fish species can serve as 'sentinel' species for the assessment of ecological status and the presence of certain environmental contaminants. As such they act as bioindicators of exposure. Here we present seminal data regarding dose-response and toxicokinetics of trout hemoglobin adduct formation from exposure to nitro musks that are frequently used as fragrance ingredients in formulations of personal care products. Hemoglobin adducts serve as biomarkers of exposure of the sentinel species as we have shown in previous studies of hemoglobin adducts formed in trout and environmental carp exposed to musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK). Gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) employing selected ion monitoring is used to measure 4-amino-MX (4-AMX), 2-amino-MX (2-AMX), and 2-amino-MK (2-AMK) released by alkaline hydrolysis from the sulfinamide adducts of hemoglobin. Dose-response and toxicokinetics were investigated using this sensitive method for analysis of these metabolites. In the dose-response investigation, the concentrations of 4-AMX and 2-2AMX are observed to pass through a maximum at 0.10 mg/g. In the case of 2-AMK, the adduct concentration is almost the same at dosages in the range of 0.030 to 0.10 mg/g. For toxicokinetics, the concentration of the metabolites in the Hb reaches a maximum in the 3-day sample after administration of MX or MK. Further elimination of the metabo

  15. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  16. Seasonal changes in hepatocytic lipid droplets, glycogen deposits, and rough endoplasmic reticulum along the natural breeding cycle of female ohrid trout (Salmo letnica Kar.)-A semiquantitative ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Malhão, Fernanda; Rocha, Maria J; Rocha, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    This study on wild female Ohrid trout was primarily designed to provide a general overview of the breeding cycle influence upon selected aspects of hepatocytes. According with a semiquantitatively evaluation, some of these cell's structural compartments change during the breeding cycle. Structural modifications were disclosed in the relative occurrence of lipid, glycogen, and RER content during breeding cycle. The relative amount of lipid deposits in the hepatocytes was much greater in previtellogenesis, and decreased postspawning. So, while the seasonal changes in RER were positively related with the ovary maturation status, those of the lipid droplets followed an opposite trend. The hepatocytic glycogen occurred rarely, mainly in late-vitellogenesis and spawning, suggesting that in this species such kind of energy storage is comparatively unimportant. Lipid accumulation and later usage is, probably, the relevant biochemical pathway for Ohrid trout in the wild. While glycogen and RER contents were positively correlated with the gonadosomatic index, lipids were negatively correlated. Additionally, glycogen inclusions were positively correlated with the plasma estradiol levels. When comparing seasonal patterns from wild Ohrid trout with those from well-studied rainbow and brown trout (specimens studied were from aquaculture), there are contradicting results as to lipid and glycogen reserves, and also as to RER loads. The differences among the mentioned trout can result from intrinsic interspecies differences or may be associated with natural feeding conditions versus feeding with commercially prepared diets, or other factors. This study offers new data useful as standard to access liver pathology in wild and aquacultured Ohrid trout. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:700-706, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-03-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass. © 2015 Poultry Science

  18. Vertebral column deformities in farmed rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets with either different levels of vitamin C, or diets enriched with glucan or chitin, from feeding start and 6 months onwards. At an average weight of 100 g, the trout were X-rayed to determine the deformity level. The investigations showed...... of deformities (4.8%). In all groups examined, the deformities were spread over the whole vertebral column. The deformities in the group fed the low vitamin C diet were more severe than those found in the other groups. An outbreak of the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) caused by the bacterium...

  19. Ice processes affect habitat use and movements of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in a Wyoming foothills stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, J.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat use and movements of 25 adult cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and 25 adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from fall through winter 2002-2003 were assessed by means of radiotelemetry in a 7-km reach of a Rocky Mountains foothills stream. Temporal dynamics of winter habitat conditions were evaluated by regularly measuring the features of 30 pools and 5 beaver Castor canadensis ponds in the study reach. Groundwater inputs at three locations raised mean daily water temperatures in the stream channel during winter to 0.2-0.6??C and kept at least 250 m of the downstream channel free of ice, but the lack of surface ice further downstream led to the occurrence of frazil ice and anchor ice in pools and unstable habitat conditions for trout. Pools in segments that were not affected by groundwater inputs and beaver ponds tended to be stable and snow accumulated on the surface ice. Pools throughout the study reach tended to become more stable as snow accumulated. Both cutthroat trout and brook trout selected beaver ponds as winter progressed but tended to use lateral scour pools in proportion to their availability. Tagged fish not in beaver ponds selected lateral scour pools that were deeper than average and stable during winter. Movement frequencies by tagged fish decreased from fall through winter, but some individuals of both species moved during winter. Ice processes affected both the habitat use and movement patterns of cutthroat trout and brook trout in this foothills stream.

  20. Noninvasive embryo assessment technique based on buoyancy and its association with embryo survival after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Cara; Penrose, Lindsay; Ahmad, Khaliq; Prien, Samuel

    2017-11-01

    Embryo cryopreservation offers many benefits by allowing genetic preservation, genetic screening, cost reduction, global embryo transport and single embryo transfer. However, freezing of embryos decreases embryo viability, as intracellular ice crystal formation often damages embryos. Success rates of frozen embryo transfer are expected to be 15-20% less than fresh embryo transfer. We have developed a noninvasive embryo assessment technique (NEAT) which enables us to predict embryo viability based on buoyancy. The purpose of this research was twofold. First was to determine if a NEAT, through a specific gravity device can detect embryo survival of cryopreservation. Second, it was to relate embryo buoyancy to embryo viability for establishing pregnancies in sheep. Blastocysts descent times were measured on one-hundred sixty-nine mice blastocysts before cryopreservation, according to standard protocol and post-thawing blastocysts descent times were measured again. There was a significant difference in blastocyst post-thaw descent times with NEAT in those blastocysts which demonstrated viability from those that did not (P embryos. Further studies on a larger scale commercial setting will evaluate the efficacy of NEAT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...

  2. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Walker, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF. 30 refs

  3. Factors influencing the distribution of native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in western Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana