WorldWideScience

Sample records for brown rot fungus

  1. Efficient xylose fermentation by the brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Kanawaku, Ryuichi; Masumoto, Masaru; Yanase, Hideshi

    2012-02-10

    The efficient production of bioethanol on an industrial scale requires the use of renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. A limiting factor in developing efficient processes is identifying microorganisms that are able to effectively ferment xylose, the major pentose sugar found in hemicellulose, and break down carbohydrate polymers without pre-treatment steps. Here, a basidiomycete brown rot fungus was isolated as a new biocatalyst with unprecedented fermentability, as it was capable of converting not only the 6-carbon sugars constituting cellulose, but also the major 5-carbon sugar xylose in hemicelluloses, to ethanol. The fungus was identified as Neolentinus lepideus and was capable of assimilating and fermenting xylose to ethanol in yields of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.34 g of ethanol per g of xylose consumed under aerobic, oxygen-limited, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. A small amount of xylitol was detected as the major by-product of xylose metabolism. N. lepideus produced ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, cellobiose, maltose, and lactose with yields ranging from 0.34 to 0.38 g ethanol per g sugar consumed, and also exhibited relatively favorable conversion of non-pretreated starch, xylan, and wheat bran. These results suggest that N. lepideus is a promising candidate for cost-effective and environmentally friendly ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report on efficient ethanol fermentation from various carbohydrates, including xylose, by a naturally occurring brown rot fungus. PMID:22226194

  2. EVIDENCE FOR CLEAVAGE OF LIGNIN BY A BROWN ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradation by brown-rot fungi is quantitatively one of the most important fates of lignocellulose in nature. It has long been thought that these fungi do not degrade lignin significantly, and that their activities on this abundant aromatic biopolymer are limited to minor oxidative modifications....

  3. Short read sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The practical capability of short read sequencing for whole genome gene prediction was investigated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant basidiomycete fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. Illumina GAIIX reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75 nt read length, 300 bp insert...

  4. Evidence of Subterranean Termite Feeding Deterrent Produced by Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto 1968 (Polyporales, Fomitopsidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, Nadia Nuraniya; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Shota; Fukunaga, Ayuko; Doi, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Horisawa, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    We found that decayed wood stakes with no termite damage collected from a termite-infested field exhibited a deterrent effect against the termite Reticulitermes speratus, Kolbe, 1885. The effect was observed to be lost or reduced by drying. After identification, it was found that the decayed stakes were infected by brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto, 1968. In a no-choice feeding test, wood blocks decayed by this fungus under laboratory condition deterred R. speratus feeding and n-hexane extract from the decayed stake and blocks induced termite mortality. These data provided an insight into the interaction between wood-rot fungi and wood-feeding termites. PMID:27548231

  5. Transcriptional profiles of laccase genes in the brown rot fungus Postia placenta MAD-R-698.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongde; Wei, Dongsheng; Xiao, Tingting

    2015-09-01

    One of the laccase isoforms in the brown rot fungus Postia placenta is thought to contribute to the production of hydroxyl radicals, which play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. However, the presence of at least two laccase isoforms in this fungus makes it difficult to understand the details of this mechanism. In this study, we systematically investigated the transcriptional patterns of two laccase genes, Pplcc1 and Pplcc2, by quantitative PCR (qPCR) to better understand the mechanism. The qPCR results showed that neither of the two genes was expressed constitutively throughout growth in liquid culture or during the degradation of a woody substrate. Transcription of Pplcc1 was upregulated under nitrogen depletion and in response to a high concentration of copper in liquid culture, and during the initial colonization of intact aspen wafer. However, it was subject to catabolite repression by a high concentration of glucose. Transcription of Pplcc2 was upregulated by stresses caused by ferulic acid, 2, 6-dimethylbenzoic acid, and ethanol, and under osmotic stress in liquid culture. However, the transcription of Pplcc2 was downregulated upon contact with the woody substrate in solid culture. These results indicate that Pplcc1 and Pplcc2 are differentially regulated in liquid and solid cultures. Pplcc1 seems to play the major role in producing hydroxyl radicals and Pplcc2 in the stress response during the degradation of a woody substrate. PMID:26231371

  6. Effect of biodegradation on thermogravimetric and chemical characteristics of hardwood and softwood by brown-rot fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenzhong; Fan, Qi; He, Zesen; Wang, Zhinan; Wang, Xiaobo; Sun, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The thermogravimetric and chemical characterization of hardwood Eucalyptus urophylla (Ep) and softwood Pinus massoniana (Mp) pretreated by brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum were investigated. The results indicated that the brown-rot fungus pretreatment can optimize the thermal decomposition and decrease the initiation temperatures (8-11°C lower) of both the Ep and Mp pyrolysis. The mean activation energy values of the bio-treated samples were 29.7kJ/mol (for Ep) and 42.3kJ/mol (for Mp) lower than that of the un-treated samples at the conversion rate from 0.1 to 0.7 based on Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method. After the bio-pretreatment, the required temperatures were lower (4-7°C) for the pyrolysis rates of hemicellulose and cellulose in Mp reaching maximum and termination. However, the situation was just the opposite for Ep. The variations in chemical properties of hydrogen bonding, as well as the relative changes in lignin/carbohydrate composition of both wood species were also examined. PMID:27035476

  7. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz;

    2012-01-01

    chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular...... the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matterprotein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism...... by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton...

  8. Enhancement of β-Glucosidase Activity from a Brown Rot Fungus Fomitopsis pinicola KCTC 6208 by Medium Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ah Reum; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Jang, Ji Yeon; Yu, Byung Jo; Um, Byung-Hwan; Yoon, Jeong-Jun

    2015-03-01

    β-Glucosidase, which hydrolyzes cellobiose into two glucoses, plays an important role in the process of saccharification of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we optimized the activity of β-glucosidase of brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola KCTC 6208 using the response surface methodology (RSM) with various concentrations of glucose, yeast extract and ascorbic acid, which are the most significant nutrients for activity of β-glucosidase. The highest activity of β-glucosidase was achieved 3.02% of glucose, 4.35% of yeast extract, and 7.41% ascorbic acid where ascorbic acid was most effective. The maximum activity of β-glucosidase predicted by the RSM was 15.34 U/mg, which was similar to the experimental value 14.90 U/mg at the 16th day of incubation. This optimized activity of β-glucosidase was 23.6 times higher than the preliminary activity value, 0.63 U/mg, and was also much higher than previous values reported in other fungi strains. Therefore, a simplified medium supplemented with a cheap vitamin source, such as ascorbic acid, could be a cost effective mean of increasing β-glucosidase activity. PMID:25892916

  9. Gene expression analysis of copper tolerance and wood decay in the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Juliet D; Parker, Leslie A; Perkins, Andy D; Sonstegard, Tad S; Schroeder, Steven G; Nicholas, Darrel D; Diehl, Susan V

    2013-03-01

    High-throughput transcriptomics was used to identify Fibroporia radiculosa genes that were differentially regulated during colonization of wood treated with a copper-based preservative. The transcriptome was profiled at two time points while the fungus was growing on wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ). A total of 917 transcripts were differentially expressed. Fifty-eight of these genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ was protecting the wood from strength loss and had putative functions related to oxalate production/degradation, laccase activity, quinone biosynthesis, pectin degradation, ATP production, cytochrome P450 activity, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. Sixty-one genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ lost its effectiveness (>50% strength loss) and had functions related to oxalate degradation; cytochrome P450 activity; H(2)O(2) production and degradation; degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin; hexose transport; membrane glycerophospholipid metabolism; and cell wall chemistry. Ten of these differentially regulated genes were quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR for a more in-depth study (4 time points on wood with or without MCQ treatment). Our results showed that MCQ induced higher than normal levels of expression for four genes (putative annotations for isocitrate lyase, glyoxylate dehydrogenase, laccase, and oxalate decarboxylase 1), while four other genes (putative annotations for oxalate decarboxylase 2, aryl alcohol oxidase, glycoside hydrolase 5, and glycoside hydrolase 10) were repressed. The significance of these results is that we have identified several genes that appear to be coregulated, with putative functions related to copper tolerance and/or wood decay. PMID:23263965

  10. Biomethanation of white rotted and brown rotted rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A.; Bhattacharyya, B.C. [Chemical Engineeringg Dept., Biotechnology Unit, IIT Kharagpur, (India)

    1999-04-01

    Biomethanation of white rotted and brown rotted rice straw was taken for the present investigation and their efficiency on biomethanation has been tested. Rice straw was treated with white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P{sub C}) and brown rot fungus Polyporus ostreiformis (P{sub O}). Biogas and methane production was increased by about 34.73% and 46.19% in P{sub C}-treated straw and 21.12% and 31.94% in P{sub O}-treated straw respectively. VFA production has also been increased in P{sub C} and P{sub O} treated straw compared to control straw which were 76.73% and 30.69% respectively. Reduction of COD has also been found during biomethanation. The rate of reduction of COD during the initial period of digestion was 59.01%, 55.55% and 26.00% in P{sub C}-treated, P{sub O}-treated and control straw respectively after 21 days of digestion. (orig.) With 12 figs., 3 tabs., 14 refs.

  11. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz; Smits, Mark; Johansson, Tomas; Canbäck, Björn; Olsen, Peter Bjarke; Persson, Per; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Lindquist, Erika; Grigoriev, Igor V; Lange, Lene; Tunlid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Soils in boreal forests contain large stocks of carbon. Plants are the main source of this carbon through tissue residues and root exudates. A major part of the exudates are allocated to symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi. In return, the plant receives nutrients, in particular nitrogen from the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matter–protein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes needed for metabolizing the released carbon. The saprotrophic activity has been reduced to a radical-based biodegradation system that can efficiently disrupt the organic matter–protein complexes and thereby mobilize the entrapped nutrients. We suggest that the released carbon then becomes available for further degradation and assimilation by commensal microbes, and that these activities have been lost in ectomycorrhizal fungi as an adaptation to symbiotic growth on host photosynthate. The interdependence of ectomycorrhizal symbionts and saprophytic microbes would provide a key link in the turnover of nutrients and carbon in forest ecosystems. PMID:22469289

  12. First report of brown rot on apple fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey, is the most devastating disease of stone fruits in North America resulting in significant economic losses. The fungus has been recently reported to cause pre and postharvest brown rot on apple fruit in Germany, Italy, and Serbia. However, M...

  13. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Civardi

    Full Text Available Recently introduced micronized copper (MC formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH2 nanoparticles (NPs, were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA. In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles.

  14. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles. PMID:26554706

  15. Comparative studies on thermochemical characterization of corn stover pretreated by white-rot and brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yelin; Yang, Xuewei; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Fuying

    2011-09-28

    The effects of white-rot and brown-rot fungal pretreatment on the chemical composition and thermochemical conversion of corn stover were investigated. Fungus-pretreated corn stover was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis to characterize the changes in chemical composition. Differences in thermochemical conversion of corn stover after fungal pretreatment were investigated using thermogravimetric and pyrolysis analysis. The results indicated that the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2 has great lignin-degrading ability, whereas the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis sp. IMER2 preferentially degrades the amorphous regions of the cellulose. The biopretreatment favors thermal decomposition of corn stover. The weight loss of IMER2-treated acid detergent fiber became greater, and the oil yield increased from 32.7 to 50.8%. After CD2 biopretreatment, 58% weight loss of acid detergent lignin was achieved and the oil yield increased from 16.8 to 26.8%.

  16. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi

  17. Hendersonia Creberrima, the cause of soft brown rot of mango in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft brown rot of mangoes in South Africa, is especially severe in export fruit kept in cold storage for prolonged periods. At present mangoes can be exported most economically by sea. This involves storage at 110C for approximately 21 days. Unfortunately, these appear to be ideal conditions for the development of soft brown rot. Losses as high as 80% were recorded. The South African fungus agrees in morphology and cultural characters with Hendersonia Creberrima

  18. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Brown rot on nuts of Castanea sativa Mill: an emerging disease and its causal agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresi G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of nut production are fundamental to the economic viability of chestnut cultivation, yet recent reports indicate that severe damage due to moulds represents a significant problem for growers. We carried out an investigation of the agents of chestnut rot and internal fruit damage in three orchards in Italy. Black and brown rot, as well as insect damage, were found in all the areas examined. Brown rot appeared to be the main cause of damage, affecting 8% to 49% and 2% to 24% of nuts collected from the ground and from burrs, respectively. With respect to morphology and DNA sequencing analyses, fungal isolates obtained from brown rot were homologous with Gnomoniopsis sp. obtained from Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu galls and with Gnomoniopsis castanea and Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi described on chestnut in Italy and Australia, respectively. The same fungus was also isolated from the bark of one- and two-years-old healthy shoots at each site, supporting the endophytic behaviour of this rot agent. Brown rot symptoms on nuts associated with Gnomoniopsis sp. corresponded with those previously described by several authors and referred to as Phoma or Phomopsis endogena, suggesting a relationship between these fungi and Gnomoniopsis sp. It is to notice that the escalation of brown rot damage in Italy followed several periods of drought and probably the recent invasion of D. kuriphilus, both stress factors for chestnut trees.

  20. Biodegradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in liquid broth by brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

    2013-11-01

    Dioxins are a class of extremely hazardous molecules that might pose a threat to the environment. This work evaluated the microbial degradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD), in liquid broth using three brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungi as control. A fast and reliable extraction method with recoveries of over 98% together with a validated GC-MS method was developed, and applied to quantify 1,2,3,4-TCDD in liquid broth, mycelia and reaction flask, with detection limits of 10 ppb. Among the four strains tested, brown-rot fungus Aspergillus aculeatus showed best results, removing up to 21% of dioxin after 30-day incubation. The results open both a path for biotechnological interest in bioremediation purposes and environmental behavior studies by using brown-rot fungus.

  1. Production of some extracellular enzymes by a lignin peroxidase-producing brown rot fungus, Polyporus ostreiformis, and its comparative abilities for lignin degradation and dye decolorization.

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, S.; Maiti, T K; Bhattacharyya, B C

    1994-01-01

    Polyporus ostreiformis produced Mn peroxidase, acid protease, alpha-amylase, and lignin peroxidase, with maximum activities of 40, 8,300, and 4,200 U liter-1 and 50 nkat liter-1, respectively, in nitrogen-limited liquid media. The fungus removed only 18.6% lignin from rice straw in 3 weeks but effected 99% decolorization of Congo red dye in 9 days.

  2. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol;

    2005-01-01

    wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward copper components, a soil block test was undertaken to clarify the effect of two copper based preservatives, copper citrate and ACQ......-D, on the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans compared to an alternative non-copper containing wood preservative. The extensive use of copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. The copper tolerance of S. lacrymans and other brown...... against the dry rot isolates. These wood preservatives are less toxic toward the environment than traditional copper based preservatives....

  3. Efficiency of fungicides in the control of brown rot in peaches and its relationship with physiological parameters of the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The brown rot, caused by the fungus Monilinia fructicola, is the main cause for losses in pre and postharvest of peaches. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of preharvest application of fungicides on the control of brown rot in the field and during cold storage, and its relation to parameters of maturation and fruit quality. Therefore, we evaluated the following active ingredients: [1] control (water application, [2] captan; [3] iprodione; [4] iminoctadine; [5] tebuconazole; [6] procymidone; [7 ] azoxystrobin; [8] difenoconazole; [9] azoxystrobin / difenoconazole; [10] trifloxystrobin / tebuconazole; [11] sequence iminoctadine + captan; [12] sequence iminoctadine + iprodione; [13] sequence of tebuconazole + captan; [14] sequence of tebuconazole + iprodione. All treatments were applied according recommended doses and grace period for culture. The fruits were evaluated at harvest and after 40 days storage at –0.5 ° C, plus six days at 20 º C. At harvest time, the best control of brown rot was obtained with difenoconazole, while the fungicide iminoctadine and its association with iprodione showed good results in controlling brown rot after 40 days of cold storage, plus six days shelf life at 20 º C. The preharvest application of captan cause skin browning. The fungicide azoxystrobin influences the fruit maturation by decreasing acidity and firmness at harvest. Good levels of control of brown rot of peach can be achieved with the use of iminoctadine and iprodione.

  4. Using a grass substrate to compare decay among two clades of brown rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Justin T; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2013-10-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of wood-degrading fungi has grown in tandem with lignocellulose bioconversion efforts, yet many potential biomass feedstocks are non-woody. Using corn stover (Zea mays) as a substrate, we tracked degradative capacities among brown rot fungi from the Antrodia clade, including Postia placenta, the first brown rot fungus to have its genome sequenced. Decay dynamics were compared against Gloeophyllum trabeum from the Gloeophyllum clade. Weight loss induced by P. placenta (6.2 %) and five other Antrodia clade isolates (average 7.4 %) on corn stalk after 12 weeks demonstrated inefficiency among these fungi, relative to decay induced by G. trabeum (44.4 %). Using aspen (Populus sp.) as a woody substrate resulted in, on average, a fourfold increase in weight loss induced by Antrodia clade fungi, while G. trabeum results matched those on stover. The sequence and trajectories of chemical constituent losses differed as a function of substrate but not fungal clade. Instead, chemical data suggest that characters unique to stover limit decay by the Antrodia clade, rather than disparities in growth rate or extractives toxicity. High p-coumaryl lignin content, lacking the methoxy groups characteristically cleaved during brown rot, is among potential rate-distinguishing characters in grasses. This ineptitude among Antrodia clade fungi on grasses was supported by meta-analysis of other unrelated studies using grass substrates. Concerning application, results expose a problem if adopting the strategy of the model decay fungus P. placenta to treat corn stover, a widely available plant feedstock. Overall, the results insinuate phylogenetically distinct modes of brown rot and demonstrate the benefit of using non-woody substrates to probe wood degradation mechanisms. PMID:23917637

  5. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade ...

  6. Releasing nitrogen from ammoniated lignin by white rot fungus cometabolizes environmental pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Lu; ZHAO De-qing; ZHOU Xian-tao; QIU Yu-gui; ZHANG Gan

    2003-01-01

    The nitrogen-modified lignocelluloses(NML) produced under oxic ammoniation was metabolized by white rot fungus, NH4+-N was released, NO3--N concentration was decreased and total nitrogen loss was blocked within incubation period. During releasing nitrogen from the metabolism of NML, white rot fungus cometabolized recalcitrant environmental pollutants and showed higher degradation capability. Results indicated that this NML complex colonized by white rot fungus might be effective with economic feasibility when they are applied into the vast field ecosystem, it might stabilize NH4+ nitrogen flux and bioremediate the polluted environmental sites.

  7. Eradicant and curative treatments of hexanal against peach brown rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silveira Baggio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp. , is one of the most important peach (Prunuspersica (L. Batsch diseases and the main cause of postharvest losses. Currently, alternative methods for postharvest disease control, such as the use of volatiles, are under investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hexanal on the in vitro development of Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa and on monocyclic components of brown rot on peaches. To evaluate the effect on pathogen development in vitro, a single dose of 215 µL of liquid hexanal was placed on glass jars in closed plastic containers (4.3 L at the moment of fungi transfer, 24 or 48 h after transferring to Petri dishes. After hexanal application, the Petri dishes were kept inside the containers that were closed for 24 h at 20 ºC. Mycelial growth was measured seven days after hexanal removal. For in vivo assays, inoculated fruits were kept in closed plastic containers, and hexanal was applied at the moment of fruit inoculation or 24 hours thereafter. The monocyclic components infection frequency, expressed as brown rot incidence, lesion diameter and lesion sporulation, were assessed daily for seven days. Overall, hexanal was more effective in inhibiting mycelial growth when applied at the moment of pathogen transfer. Hexanal did not prevent pathogen infection, but reduced lesion diameter and completely inhibited spore production on the fruit for both treatments. Hexanal provides a promising alternative for chemical control and can be used in postharvest handling systems.

  8. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A; Brown, Daren W; Nagy, Laszlo G; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Walton, Jonathan D; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-07-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

  9. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  10. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthracene and the ligninolytic indicator dye Poly R-478 by the white rot fungus, were studied. Two parameters were identified as the most important PAH oxidation rate-limiting factors: the hydrogen peroxide production r...

  12. Temporal changes in wood crystalline cellulose during degradation by brown rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, Caitlin; Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Goodell, Barry;

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of wood by brown rot fungi has been studied intensely for many years in order to facilitate the preservation of in-service wood. In this work we used X-ray diffraction to examine changes in wood cellulose crystallinity caused by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora...

  13. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  14. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  15. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHATETE CHRYSOSPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade's wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentall3 persistent organopollutants. he unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be dependent upon ...

  16. Monilinia species causing brown rot of peach in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jun Hu

    Full Text Available In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH, β-tubulin (TUB2 revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China.

  17. Peaches tree genetic divergence for brown rot reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the genetic divergence in peach genotypes for brown rot reaction. It was evaluated 26 and 29 peach genotypes in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 production cycle, respectively. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitossanidade, da UTFPR - Campus Dois Vizinhos. The experimental design was entirely randomized, considering each peach genotype a treatment, and it was use three replication of nine fruits. The treatment control use three replication of three peach. The fruit epidermis were inoculated individually with 0.15 mL of M. fructicola conidial suspension (1.0 x 10(5 spores mL-1. In the control treatment was sprayed with 0.15 mL of distilled water. The fruits were examined 72 and 120 hours after inoculation, and the incidence and severity disease were evaluated. These results allowed realized study for genetic divergence, used as dissimilarity measure the Generalized Mahalanobis distance. Cluster analysis using Tocher´s optimization method and distances in the plan were applied. There was smallest genetic divergence among peach trees evaluated for brown rot, what can difficult to obtain resistance in the genotypes.

  18. Evaluation of the bioremediation ability of the isolated white rot fungus on the textile effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Priyadarsini* R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Every one contributes to the environmental pollution by theiractivities either directly or indirectly and it is our moral responsibility to uncover a solution in order to come out of it also. Hence an attempt was made to isolate a white rot fungus with better remediation ability. The white rot fungus was isolated from decay wood sample and identified as Trametes hirsuta by molecular identification methods. The assessment of the bioremediation ability of the isolated organism was done with four textile effluent samples and the physico-chemical parameters namely colour, pH, TSS, TDS, COD, BOD, Total Hardness, level of Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride and Sulphate were evaluated. The change in the initial pH values of the four textile effluents after treatment with the isolated organism was not significant. All the other parameters were found to be reduced from their respective initial level after treatment with the isolated white rot fungus.

  19. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  20. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs. PMID:27178300

  1. Control of Ralstonia Solanacearum The Causal Agent of Brown Rot in Potato Using Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five essential oils, namely peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), caraway (Carium carvum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Staph.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), were used separately against Ralstonia solanacearum; the causal agent of brown rot in potato. The most two effective oils (peppermint and thyme) were used in vitro and in vivo after testing their effects on potato tubers buds germination. Peppermint inhibited buds germination but thyme have no effects on buds germination. In vivo, the control of brown rot using thyme oil in glass house experiment reduced the percentage of brown rot infection to 30.6% and reduced the severity of disease from 5 to 3.

  2. Ketahanan Komposit Kayu Plastik Polistirena terhadap Serangan Jamur Pelapuk Coklat Tyromyces palustris (Decay Resistance of Wood Polymer Composite (WPC Against Brown Rot Fungi Tyromyces palustris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G.K. Tapa Darma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood specimens, 50 x 25 x 15 mm were impregnated in styrene and vinil acetate solutions at four concentration levels, using tertbutyl hydroperoxide as acatalyst. The specimens were dried at 60OC for 48 hours after which the solution was polymerized in situ. All specimens, including untreated specimens as control and specimens impregnated with Impralit CKB, were exposed to monoculture a brown rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, a brown rot fungus for 3 months. All wood polymer composite (WPC specimens obviously showed higher resistance compared with the control. At four concentration levels, WPC of tusam showed excellent result with weight loss value less than specimens treated with Impralit CKB. WPC of karet (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg and sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria showed good resistance at high styrene concentration level.

  3. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  4. Potato brown rot incidence and severity under different management and amendment regimes in different soil types

    OpenAIRE

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Bruggen, van, C.; Diepeningen, van, A.D.; Vos; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, N.N.A.; Janse, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causative agent of potato brown rot (bacterial wilt), is an economically important disease in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In view of previous reports on suppression of the disease by organic amendments, and the expansion of organic agriculture, it was timely to compare the effects of organic and conventional management and various amendments on brown rot development in different soils (type: sand or clay; origin: Egypt ...

  5. Yeasts associated with plums and their potential for controlling brown rot after harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Jurick, Wayne M; Peter, Kari A; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial and yeast antagonists isolated from fruit surfaces have been effective in controlling various post-harvest diseases, and several microbial antagonists have been developed into commercial products. Our knowledge of the fruit microbial community, with the exception of grapes, apples and some citrus fruit, is rudimentary and the potential of the resident yeasts for biocontrol remains largely unknown. We determined the occurrence of yeasts on plum surfaces during fruit development from the pre-hardening stage until harvest for 2 years. A total of 16 species from 13 genera were isolated. Species from three genera, basidiomycetes Rhodotorula (29.5%) and Sporidiobolus (24.7%) and the dimorphic ascomycete genus Aureobasidium (24.7%), constituted 78.7% of all isolations and were recovered throughout fruit development, while Cryptococcus spp. constituted only 6.2% of the total plum isolates. The yeast community in the final sampling was significantly different from the first three samplings, reflecting a rapidly changing fruit habitat during the maturation of fruit. For example, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Zygosaccharomyces and Wickerhamomyces occurred only on the most mature fruit. Screening of the yeasts for antagonistic activity against Monilinia fructicola, a fungus that causes brown rot, revealed a range of biocontrol activities. Several isolates provided complete control of the decay on plums, challenged with a pathogen suspension of 10(3) conidia/ml and > 90% of control on fruit inoculated with the pathogen at a concentration 10 times higher. Some of the best antagonists included A. pullulans and R. phylloplana. Populations of both of these antagonists increased rapidly by several orders of magnitude in wounds of plums incubated at 24ºC and 4ºC. Our results indicate that plum surfaces harbour several yeast species, with excellent potential for use in biological control of brown rot of stone fruits. PMID:24687564

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the White-Rot Fungus Obba rivulosa 3A-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Otto; Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P; Hainaut, Matthieu; Hatakka, Annele; Henrissat, Bernard; Hildén, Kristiina; Kuo, Rita; LaButti, Kurt; Lipzen, Anna; Mäkelä, Miia R; Sandor, Laura; Spatafora, Joseph W; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hibbett, David S

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first genome sequence of the white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa (Polyporales, Basidiomycota), a polypore known for its lignin-decomposing ability. The genome is based on the homokaryon 3A-2 originating in Finland. The genome is typical in size and carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) content for wood-decomposing basidiomycetes. PMID:27634999

  7. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for improved enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal pretreatment can cause carbohydrate loss and it is, th...

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthra

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the White-Rot Fungus Obba rivulosa 3A-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Hainaut, Matthieu; Hatakka, Annele; Henrissat, Bernard; Kuo, Rita; LaButti, Kurt; Lipzen, Anna; Mäkelä, Miia R.; Sandor, Laura; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first genome sequence of the white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa (Polyporales, Basidiomycota), a polypore known for its lignin-decomposing ability. The genome is based on the homokaryon 3A-2 originating in Finland. The genome is typical in size and carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) content for wood-decomposing basidiomycetes. PMID:27634999

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the white-rot fungus Physisporinus vitreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, M; Stührk, C; Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R

    2013-11-01

    The biotechnologically important white-rot fungus Physisporinus vitreus was co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL-1 carrying plasmids with nourseothricin resistance as the selectable marker gene and red fluorescence protein as a visual marker. Mitotically stable transformed isolates were obtained showing red fluorescence protein activity.

  11. Anatomical changes in Willow Wood Decayed by the brown rot fungus Coriolellus malicola (Basidiomycota Modificaciones anatómicas en madera de sauce por acción Coriolellus malicola (Aphyllophorales agente de pudrición castaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A. Murace

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina, Salix wood is employed mainly in pulp and paper industry. In this country, the brown rotter C oriolellus malicola was found in association with willow plantations. The purpose of this work was to study the anatomical changes caused by C. malicola in willow wood in order to provide information on the effects of brown rot decay in the yield and quality of pulp. Two willow clones were employed: Salix nigra 4 and Salix babylonica x Salix alba cv I 131-25 . Two exposure times were used: 75 and 150 days. The percentages of weight loss produced by this fungus in both clones was ca. 30% at 75 days and ca. 60% at 150 days of decay. C. malicola degraded mainly fibre walls. Microscopically, the loss of cell shape, the presence of transwall fractures and the loss of birefringence were the main anatomical modifications observed. According to our observations decayed Salix wood by C. malicola seems to be inadequate for pulp industry.En la República Argentina la madera de Salix es empleada principalmente en la industria papelera. En este país el hongo de pudrición castaña C oriolellus malicola se encontró asociado a plantaciones comerciales de sauce. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar las modificaciones anatómicas causada por C. malicola en la madera de sauce con el fin de aportar información sobre los efectos de la pudrición castaña en los rendimientos y calidad de la pulpa para papel. Se emplearon dos clones: Salix nigra 4 y Salix babylonica x Salix alba cv I. 131-25 . Se trabajó con dos tiempos de exposición: 75 y 150 días. Las pérdidas de peso producidas por esta cepa en ambos clones fueron de ca. del 30% a los 75 días y de ca. del 60% a los 150 días de incubación. C. malicola degradó principalmente las paredes de las fibras. Microscópicamente, las principales modificaciones anatómicas observadas fueron: deformación del tejido, presencia de fracturas transversales en las paredes celulares y pérdida de

  12. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin;

    cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in correlation...

  13. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies.

  14. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Caminal i Saperas, Glòria; Sarrà i Adroguer, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradat...

  15. Detection of potato brown rot and ring rot by electronic nose: from laboratory to real scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, E; Blasioli, S; Galeone, A; Spinelli, F; Cellini, A; Lucchese, C; Braschi, I

    2014-11-01

    A commercial electronic nose (e-nose) equipped with a metal oxide sensor array was trained to recognize volatile compounds emitted by potatoes experimentally infected with Ralstonia solanacearum or Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, which are bacterial agents of potato brown and ring rot, respectively. Two sampling procedures for volatile compounds were tested on pooled tubers sealed in 0.5-1 L jars at room temperature (laboratory conditions): an enrichment unit containing different adsorbent materials (namely, Tenax(®) TA, Carbotrap, Tenax(®) GR, and Carboxen 569) directly coupled with the e-nose (active sampling) and a Radiello(™) cartridge (passive sampling) containing a generic Carbograph fiber. Tenax(®) TA resulted the most suitable adsorbent material for active sampling. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) correctly classified 57.4 and 81.3% total samples as healthy or diseased, when using active and passive sampling, respectively. These results suggested the use of passive sampling to discriminate healthy from diseased tubers under intermediate and real scale conditions. 80 and 90% total samples were correctly classified by LDA under intermediate (100 tubers stored at 4°C in net bag passively sampled) and real scale conditions (tubers stored at 4°C in 1.25 t bags passively sampled). Principal component analysis (PCA) of sensorial analysis data under laboratory conditions highlighted a strict relationship between the disease severity and the responses of the e-nose sensors, whose sensitivity threshold was linked to the presence of at least one tuber per sample showing medium disease symptoms. At intermediate and real scale conditions, data distribution agreed with disease incidence (percentage of diseased tubers), owing to the low storage temperature and volatile compounds unconfinement conditions adopted. PMID:25127615

  16. Comparing lignocellulose physiochemistry after decomposition by brown rot fungi with distinct evolutionary origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Justin T; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2015-12-01

    Among wood-degrading fungi, lineages holding taxa that selectively metabolize carbohydrates without significant lignin removal (brown rot) are polyphyletic, having evolved multiple times from lignin-removing white rot fungi. Given the qualitative nature of the 'brown rot' classifier, we aimed to quantify and compare the temporal sequence of carbohydrate removal among brown rot clades. Lignocellulose deconstruction was compared among fungi using distinct plant substrates (angiosperm, conifer, grass). Specifically, aspen, pine and corn stalk were harvested over a 16-week time series from microcosms containing Gloeophyllum trabeum, Fomitopsis pinicola, Ossicaulis lignatilis, Fistulina hepatica, Serpula lacrymans, Wolfiporia cocos or Dacryopinax sp. After quantifying plant mass loss, a thorough compositional analysis was complemented by a saccharification test to determine wood cell wall accessibility. Mass loss and accessibility varied depending on fungal decomposer and substrate, and trajectories of loss for hemicellulosic components and cellulose differed among plant tissue types. At any given stage of decomposition, however, lignocellulose accessibility and the fraction remaining of carbohydrates and lignin within a plant tissue type were generally the same, regardless of fungal isolate. This suggests that the sequence of plant component removal at this typical scale of characterization is shared among these brown rot lineages, despite their diverse genomes and secretomes. PMID:25181619

  17. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49. 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol pr

  18. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Mitsuteru; Ota, Yuko; Tsai, Isheng J; Hattori, Tsutomu; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands.

  19. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuteru Akiba

    Full Text Available Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands.

  20. Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD DECAY BY ROT FUNGI USING COLORIMETRY AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Mírian de Almeida Costa; Alexandre Florian da Costa; Tereza Cristina Monteiro Pastore; Jez Willian Batista Braga; Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez

    2011-01-01

    Wood samples of marupá (Simarouba amara) and andiroba (Carapa guianenis) were submitted to Trametes versicolor (white rot) and Gloeophylum trabeum (brown rot) fungi attack. Colorimetry was used to determine the color of the wood before and after wood decaying fungi. To evaluate the changes in chemical compounds levels in the wood samples, the diffuse reflectance medium infrared spectroscopy was used. Both wood were non resistant against white rot fungus, while with brown rot attack andiroba w...

  2. Resident bacteria of plums and their potential for controlling brown rot after harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit microflora has been the richest source of antagonists against fruit decays and the active ingredient in all currently available commercial biocontrol products. A comprehensive evaluation of plum bacteria for biocontrol activity against Monilinia fructicola, causing brown rot of stone fruit, w...

  3. Control of brown rot of stone fruits by brief heated water immersion treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of brief (30 or 60 s) immersion in water at 24, 50, 55, 60, 65, or 70 ºC was evaluated for the control of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, on California-grown peaches, nectarines, and plums. Inoculated fruits were treated and either stored at 20 ºC for 5 days or at 0 ºC f...

  4. Culturable bacteria from plum fruit surfaces and their potential for controlling brown rot after harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit microflora has been the richest source of antagonists against fruit decays and the active ingredient in all currently available commercial biocontrol products. A comprehensive evaluation of plum bacteria for biocontrol activity against Monilinia fructicola, causing brown rot of stone fruit, w...

  5. Potato brown rot incidence and severity under different management and amendment regimes in different soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, N.N.A.; Janse, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causative agent of potato brown rot (bacterial wilt), is an economically important disease in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In view of previous reports on suppression of the disease by organic amendments, and the expansion of or

  6. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: a new potential biocontrol agent of Ralstonia solanacearum, causal agent of potato brown rot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Farag, N.S.; Abdallah, S.A.; Janse, J.D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated from the rhizosphere of eggplant in the Nile Delta of Egypt, and its antagonistic potential against Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causal agent of potato brown rot, was in vitro evaluated on KB agar medium and in vivo on potato plants. In vitro,

  7. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Evidence from Serpula lacrymans that 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone Is a lignocellulolytic agent of divergent brown rot basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korripally, Premsagar; Timokhin, Vitaliy I; Houtman, Carl J; Mozuch, Michael D; Hammel, Kenneth E

    2013-04-01

    Basidiomycetes that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers in coniferous forest ecosystems and a major cause of failure in wooden structures. Recent work indicates that distinct lineages of brown rot fungi have arisen independently from ligninolytic white rot ancestors via loss of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Brown rot thus proceeds without significant lignin removal, apparently beginning instead with oxidative attack on wood polymers by Fenton reagent produced when fungal hydroquinones or catechols reduce Fe(3+) in colonized wood. Since there is little evidence that white rot fungi produce these metabolites, one question is the extent to which independent lineages of brown rot fungi may have evolved different Fe(3+) reductants. Recently, the catechol variegatic acid was proposed to drive Fenton chemistry in Serpula lacrymans, a brown rot member of the Boletales (D. C. Eastwood et al., Science 333:762-765, 2011). We found no variegatic acid in wood undergoing decay by S. lacrymans. We found also that variegatic acid failed to reduce in vitro the Fe(3+) oxalate chelates that predominate in brown-rotting wood and that it did not drive Fenton chemistry in vitro under physiological conditions. Instead, the decaying wood contained physiologically significant levels of 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone, a reductant with a demonstrated biodegradative role when wood is attacked by certain brown rot fungi in two other divergent lineages, the Gloeophyllales and Polyporales. Our results suggest that the pathway for 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone biosynthesis may have been present in ancestral white rot basidiomycetes but do not rule out the possibility that it appeared multiple times via convergent evolution. PMID:23377930

  9. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

  10. The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.), with special reference to Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van G.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The brown rot fungi of fruit crops ( Monilinia spp.) cause blossom blight, twig blight, and fruit rot in rosaceous fruit crops in the temperate regions of the world. Three species are distinguished, of which M. fructicola and M. laxa are predominant in stone fruit culture, whereas M. fructigena is i

  11. Biological Control Of The Egyptian Brown Rot In Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomonas fluorescence, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillus and streptomyces spp. Were used in control of Ralstonia solanacearum, the casual agent of brown rot in potato. In vitro, antagonistic activities showed that streptomyces spp. was the most antagonistic followed by P. fluorescence, Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa respectively. Also, in vivo, biological control of R. solanacearum showed that Streptomyces spp. was found to reduce the percentage of brown rot infection to 5% followed by P. fluorescence, Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa reducing the percentage of infection to 15 , 25 and 40%, respectively. Also, the disease severity when using Streptomyces spp. and P. fluorescence was reduced from 5 to 1 and reduced from 5 to 2 when using Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa.

  12. Lignin as a facilitator, not a barrier, during saccharification by brown rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Jonathan S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Tschirner, Ulrike [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Blanchette, Robert A [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Filley, Timothy [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2012-11-28

    This research focused on the biology of a group of wood-degrading fungi that cause brown rot in wood, with particular attention to the potential to mimic this biological approach ex situ for bioprocessing lignocellulosic biomass. Supported by the long-standing theory that these fungi use a two-step oxidative/enzymatic approach during brown rot, our team’s objectives were as follows: 1) to determine the discrete timing of lignin modifications, 2) to correlate these alterations with biocatalyst efficiency and ingress into plant cell walls, and 3) to reproduce modifications prior to saccharification for efficient bioprocessing. The core findings of our research were that 1) lignin modifications occur nearly coincident with enzyme secretion during brown rot and 2) there is no specificity to the benefit that a brown rot pretreatment has on the efficacy of cellulases – it is a general enhancement best predicted by chemical changes to lignin and side-chain hemicellulose sugars. In our work, this meant we could attain and predict broad improvements in saccharification using commercial cellulase cocktails, in some cases more than three-fold of that in untreated biomass. This project was completed with minimal variance from the original project management plan (PMP), resulting in fourteen presentations and posters, four peer-reviewed publications, and one additional publication now in review. The publications have been valuable to other scientists working toward similar goals and have been cited in thirteen peer-reviewed publications written by others since 2010. We are working with ADM to advance application options for industry, building on the lessons learned during this DOE award period.

  13. Lignin as a facilitator, not a barrier, during saccharification by brown rot fungi.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Jonathan S; Tschirner, Ulrike; Blanchette, Robert A; Filley, Timothy

    2012-11-30

    This research focused on the biology of a group of wood-degrading fungi that cause brown rot in wood, with particular attention to the potential to mimic this biological approach ex situ for bioprocessing lignocellulosic biomass. Supported by the long-standing theory that these fungi use a two-step oxidative/enzymatic approach during brown rot, our team’s objectives were as follows: 1) to determine the discrete timing of lignin modifications, 2) to correlate these alterations with biocatalyst efficiency and ingress into plant cell walls, and 3) to reproduce modifications prior to saccharification for efficient bioprocessing. The core findings of our research were that 1) lignin modifications occur nearly coincident with enzyme secretion during brown rot and 2) there is no specificity to the benefit that a brown rot pretreatment has on the efficacy of cellulases – it is a general enhancement best predicted by chemical changes to lignin and side-chain hemicellulose sugars. In our work, this meant we could attain and predict broad improvements in saccharification using commercial cellulase cocktails, in some cases more than three-fold of that in untreated biomass. This project was completed with minimal variance from the original project management plan (PMP), resulting in fourteen presentations and posters, four peer-reviewed publications, and one additional publication now in review. The publications have been valuable to other scientists working toward similar goals and have been cited in thirteen peer-reviewed publications written by others since 2010. We are working with ADM to advance application options for industry, building on the lessons learned during this DOE award period.

  14. Chlorophenols degradation in soil columns inoculated with the with-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor Immobilized on wheat grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, M. C.; Tortella, G.; Navia, R.; Bornhardt, C.

    2009-07-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white-rot fungus of southern chile, produces ligninolytic enzymes specially manganese peroxidase (MnP), and has been studied for its potential use on bioremediation of contaminated soils with chloro phenols. the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the chloro phenols degradation in soils columns inoculated with Anthracopyllum discolor immobilized on wheat grains. (Author)

  15. Application of genomic and quantitative genetic tools to identify candidate resistance genes for brown rot resistance in peach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Martínez-García

    Full Text Available The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a brown rot resistant introgression line, 'F8,1-42', derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity (ETI responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot.

  16. Decoloration of Amaranth by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Part I. Statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavril, Mihaela; Hodson, Peter V; McLellan, Jim

    2007-02-01

    The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor decolorized the mono-azo-substituted naphthalenic dye Amaranth. The relationship between the amount of enzymes present in the system and the efficiency of the decoloration process was investigated. The two responses used to quantify the process of decoloration (i.e., initial decoloration rate, v0, and the percent concentration of dye decolorized in 1 h, %c) were correlated with the amount of three enzymes considered for the study (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase) and analyzed through stepwise regression analysis (forward, backward, and mixed). The results of the correlation analysis and those of the regression analysis indicated that lignin peroxidase is the enzyme having the greatest influence on the two responses.

  17. Molecular Detection of Monilinia fructigena as Causal Agent of Brown Rot on Quince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Hrustić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Monilinia are important causal agents of fruit rot on pome and stone fruits in Serbia. The pathogen is very harmful, especially on small properties and cottage plantations where intensive control measures are not applied. Quince is importanthost for the pathogens of this genus. During spring 2010, intensive occurrence of mummified fruits overwintering on branches of the quince was observed. The pathogen was isolated using standard phytopathological methods. Pathogenicity of eight obtained isolates was tested by artificial inoculation of injured apple fruits. Identification was performed according to pathogenic, morphological and ecological properties, and was confirmed by Multiplex polimeraze chain reaction, PCR. All the isolates studied caused brown rot on inoculated apple fruits. The isolates form light yellow colonies with lobate margins,with single-celled, transparent, elliptical or oval conidia in chains, regardless temperature or light presence. Sclerotia are observed in 14 days old cultures. The highest growth rate of most of the isolates is at 27°C and in dark. Based on studied pathogenic, morphological and ecological characteristics, it was found that the Monilinia fructigena is causal agent of brown rot of quince. Using specific primers (MO368-5, MO368-8R, MO368-10R, Laxa-R2for detection of Monilinia species in Multiplex PCR reaction, the expected fragment 402 bp in size was amplified, which confirmed that the studied isolates belonged to the speciesM. fructigena.

  18. Saccharification of Lignocelluloses by Carbohydrate Active Enzymes of the White Rot Fungus Dichomitus squalens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Rytioja

    Full Text Available White rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is an efficient lignocellulose degrading basidiomycete and a promising source for new plant cell wall polysaccharides depolymerizing enzymes. In this work, we focused on cellobiohydrolases (CBHs of D. squalens. The native CBHI fraction of the fungus, consisting three isoenzymes, was purified and it maintained the activity for 60 min at 50°C, and was stable in acidic pH. Due to the lack of enzyme activity assay for detecting only CBHII activity, CBHII of D. squalens was produced recombinantly in an industrially important ascomycete host, Trichoderma reesei. CBH enzymes of D. squalens showed potential in hydrolysis of complex lignocellulose substrates sugar beet pulp and wheat bran, and microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel. Recombinant CBHII (rCel6A of D. squalens hydrolysed all the studied plant biomasses. Compared to individual activities, synergistic effect between rCel6A and native CBHI fraction of D. squalens was significant in the hydrolysis of Avicel. Furthermore, the addition of laccase to the mixture of CBHI fraction and rCel6A significantly enhanced the amount of released reducing sugars from sugar beet pulp. Especially, synergy between individual enzymes is a crucial factor in the tailor-made enzyme mixtures needed for hydrolysis of different plant biomass feedstocks. Our data supports the importance of oxidoreductases in improved enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose saccharification.

  19. Saccharification of Lignocelluloses by Carbohydrate Active Enzymes of the White Rot Fungus Dichomitus squalens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkinen, Susanna; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Hatakka, Annele; Mäkelä, Miia R

    2015-01-01

    White rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is an efficient lignocellulose degrading basidiomycete and a promising source for new plant cell wall polysaccharides depolymerizing enzymes. In this work, we focused on cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) of D. squalens. The native CBHI fraction of the fungus, consisting three isoenzymes, was purified and it maintained the activity for 60 min at 50°C, and was stable in acidic pH. Due to the lack of enzyme activity assay for detecting only CBHII activity, CBHII of D. squalens was produced recombinantly in an industrially important ascomycete host, Trichoderma reesei. CBH enzymes of D. squalens showed potential in hydrolysis of complex lignocellulose substrates sugar beet pulp and wheat bran, and microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel. Recombinant CBHII (rCel6A) of D. squalens hydrolysed all the studied plant biomasses. Compared to individual activities, synergistic effect between rCel6A and native CBHI fraction of D. squalens was significant in the hydrolysis of Avicel. Furthermore, the addition of laccase to the mixture of CBHI fraction and rCel6A significantly enhanced the amount of released reducing sugars from sugar beet pulp. Especially, synergy between individual enzymes is a crucial factor in the tailor-made enzyme mixtures needed for hydrolysis of different plant biomass feedstocks. Our data supports the importance of oxidoreductases in improved enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose saccharification. PMID:26660105

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of the white rot fungus Polyporus brumalis provides insight into sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Myungkil; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Choi, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Object of this study was to identify genes and enzymes that are involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis in the wood rotting fungus, Polyporus brumalis. Sesquiterpenes, β-eudesmane and β-eudesmol, were produced by the mycelium of P. brumalis cultured in modified medium. However, theses final products were not observed when the fungus was grown in potato dextrose medium. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to terpene metabolism. This approach generated 25,000 unigenes and 127 metabolic pathways that were assigned to Kyoto Encyclopedia Genes Groups (KEGG). Further analysis of samples from modified medium indicated significant upregulation of 8 unigenes involved in the mevalonate (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) biosynthetic pathways. These pathways generate isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which are precursors for the synthesis of sesquiterpenes. Furthermore, genes encoding germacrene A synthase, which facilitate the cyclization of FPP, were only differentially expressed in mycelium from fungi grown in modified medium. Our data provide a resource for studying the molecular mechanisms underpinning sesquiterpene biosynthesis and terpene metabolism. PMID:26686622

  1. Aggregation and feeding behavior of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on wood decayed by three species of wood rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggregation and feeding behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was evaluated on wood decayed by three species of fungus that use different enzymatic pathways to degrade lignocellulose, the brown rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum and two white rot fungi, Phanero...

  2. The Genetic Structure of Phellinus noxius and Dissemination Pattern of Brown Root Rot Disease in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chia-Lin; Huang, Shun-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Ann, Pao-Jen; Tsai, Jyh-Nong; Yang, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Hsin-Han; Huang, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Hsin-Yu; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Lee, Hui-Lin; Liou, Ruey-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner) Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained a draft genome of ~40 Mb. By comparing the 12,217 simple sequence repeat (SSR) regions in Daxi42 with the low-coverage Illumina sequencing data for four additional P. noxius isolates, we identified 154 SSR regions with potential polymorphisms. A set of 13 polymorphic SSR markers were then developed and used to analyze 329 P. noxius isolates collected from 73 tree species from urban/agricultural areas in 14 cities/counties all around Taiwan from 1989 to 2012. The results revealed a high proportion (~98%) of distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and that none of the 329 isolates were genome-wide homozygous, which supports a possible predominant outcrossing reproductive mode in P. noxius. The diverse MLGs exist as discrete patches, so brown root rot was most likely caused by multiple clones rather than a single predominant strain. The isolates collected from diseased trees near each other tend to have similar genotype(s), which indicates that P. noxius may spread to adjacent trees via root-to-root contact. Analyses based on Bayesian clustering, FST statistics, analysis of molecular variance, and isolation by distance all suggest a low degree of population differentiation and little to no barrier to gene flow throughout the P. noxius population in Taiwan. We discuss the involvement of basidiospore dispersal in disease dissemination.

  3. The Genetic Structure of Phellinus noxius and Dissemination Pattern of Brown Root Rot Disease in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chung

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained a draft genome of ~40 Mb. By comparing the 12,217 simple sequence repeat (SSR regions in Daxi42 with the low-coverage Illumina sequencing data for four additional P. noxius isolates, we identified 154 SSR regions with potential polymorphisms. A set of 13 polymorphic SSR markers were then developed and used to analyze 329 P. noxius isolates collected from 73 tree species from urban/agricultural areas in 14 cities/counties all around Taiwan from 1989 to 2012. The results revealed a high proportion (~98% of distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs and that none of the 329 isolates were genome-wide homozygous, which supports a possible predominant outcrossing reproductive mode in P. noxius. The diverse MLGs exist as discrete patches, so brown root rot was most likely caused by multiple clones rather than a single predominant strain. The isolates collected from diseased trees near each other tend to have similar genotype(s, which indicates that P. noxius may spread to adjacent trees via root-to-root contact. Analyses based on Bayesian clustering, FST statistics, analysis of molecular variance, and isolation by distance all suggest a low degree of population differentiation and little to no barrier to gene flow throughout the P. noxius population in Taiwan. We discuss the involvement of basidiospore dispersal in disease dissemination.

  4. A DNA based method to detect the grapevine root-rotting fungus Roesleria subterranea in soil and root samples

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhauser, Sigrid; Huber, Lars; Kirchmair, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roesleria subterranea causes root rot in grapevine and fruit trees. The fungus has long been underestimated as a weak parasite, but during the last years it has been reported to cause severe damages in German vineyards. Direct, observation-based detection of the parasite is time consuming and destructive, as large parts of the rootstocks have to be uprooted and screened for the tiny, stipitate, hypogeous ascomata of R. subterranea. To facilitate rapid detection in vineyards, protocols to extr...

  5. Bio-Treatment of Energetic Materials Using White-Rot Fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MM Shah

    1998-11-12

    The nitramine explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), is used by militaries around the world in high yield munitions and often in combination with hexahydro- 1,3,5-trirdtro- 1,3,5- triazine (RDX). Improper handling and disposal of manufacturing wastewater may lead to environmental contamination. In the past wastewater was collected in disposal lagoons where it evaporated, and deposited large amounts of explosives on the lagoon floor. Although lagoon disposal is no longer practiced, thousands of acres have been already contaminated. RDX and, to a lesser extent, HMX have leached through the soil subsurface and contaminated groundwater ( 1,2). Likewjse, burning of substandard material or demilitarization of out-of-date muriitions has also led to environmental contamination. The current stockpile of energetic materials at DOE sites requires resource recovery or disposition (RRD). A related challenge exists in the clean-up of the DOE sites where soil and ground water are contaminated with explosives. Current technologies such as incineration, molten salt process, supercritical water oxidation are expensive and have technical hurdles. Open burning and open detonation(OB/OD) is not encouraged by regulatory agencies for disposal of explosives. Hence, there is need for a safe . technology to degrade these contaminants. The fi.mgal process does not employ open burning or open detonation to destroy energetic materials. The fimgal process can be used by itself, or it can augment or support other technologies for the treatment of energetic materials. The proposed enzyme technology will not release any air pollutants and will meet the regulations of Clean Air Act amendments, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Federal. Facilities Compliance Act. The goal for this project was to test the ability of white-rot fungus to degrade HMX. In our study, we investigated the biodegradation of HMX using white-rot fungus in liquid and solid cultures

  6. Biochemical characterization and transcriptional analysis of the epoxide hydrolase from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Li; Yizheng Zhang; Hong Feng

    2009-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a model fungus used to investigate the sec-ondary metabolism and lignin degradation. Genomic sequencing reveals the presence of at least 18 genes encoding putative epoxide hydrolases (EHs). One cDNA encoding EH (designated as PchEHA) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the transcripts of PchEHA could be detected under the ligninolytic and nonligninolytic con-ditions as well as amended with anthracene. The recom-binant enzyme exhibits broad hydrolytic activity toward several racemic epoxides including styrene oxide, epichlorohydrin, and 1,2-epoxybutane, but with different specificity. Using racemic styrene oxide as the substrate, the optimal pH and temperature are pH 9.0 and 40℃, respectively. The enzyme is not sensitive to EDTA, and is inhibited by H2O2, and several metal ions including Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+ at various extents. Several organic cosoivents including acetone, dimethylsulfoxide, formamide, glycerol and ethanol at 10% (v/v) cause slight or no inhibition of the hydrolytic reaction. More importantly, the recombinant enzyme displays distinct enantioselective preference to several chiral epoxides. The enzyme showed good enantioselec-tivity toward chiral styrene oxide with preferential hydrolysis of (R)-enantiomer. PchEHA is likely a novel soluble EH based on the sequence analysis and catalytic properties, and is a great potential biocatalyst for the preparation of enantiopure styrene oxide in racemic kinetic resolution.

  7. Molecular characterization of manganese peroxidases from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Boyeong; Kim, Myungkil; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-03-01

    The cDNAs of six manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs) were isolated from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis. The MnP proteins shared similar properties with each other in terms of size (approximately 360-365 amino acids) and primary structure, showing 62-96 % amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR analysis indicated that these six genes were predominantly expressed in shallow stationary culture (SSC) in a liquid medium. Gene expression was induced by treatment with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and wood chips. Expression of pbmnp4 was strongly induced by both treatments, whereas that of pbmnp5 was induced only by DBP, while pbmnp6 was induced by wood chips only. Then, we overexpressed pbmnp4 in P. brumalis under the control of the GPD promoter. Overexpression of pbmnp4 effectively increased MnP activity; the transformant that had the highest MnP activity also demonstrated the most effective decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye. Identification of MnP cDNAs can contribute to the efficient production of lignin-degradation enzymes and may lead to utilization of basidiomycetous fungi for degradation of lignin and numerous recalcitrant xenobiotics. PMID:23828244

  8. Biodegradation of Gaseous Chlorobenzene by White-rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAN WANG; JIN-YING XI; HONG-YING HU; XIANG-HUA WEN

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on removal of gaseous chlorobenzene.Methods Fungal mycelium mixed with a liquid medium was placed into airtight bottles.A certain amount of chlorobenzene was injected into the headspace of the bottles under different conditions.At a certain interval,the concentrations in the headspace were analyzed to evaluate the degradation of chlorohenzene by P.chtysosporium.Results The degradation effects of P chrysosporium on chlorobenzene under different conditions were investigated.The difference in the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi and chlorobenzene degradation was observed.The data indicated that a lower temperature (28℃) would promote the degradation of chlorobenzene than the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi (37℃).A low nitrogen source concentration (30 mg N/L) had a better effect on degrading chlorohenzene than a high nitrogen source concentration (higher than 100 mg N/L).A high initial concentration (over 1100 mg/m3) of chlorobenzene showed an inhibiting effect on degradation by P.chrysosporium.A maximum removal efficiency of 95% was achieved at the initial concentration of 550 mg/m3.Conclusion P.chrysosporium has a rather good ability to remove gaseous chlorobenzene.A low nitrogen source concentration and a low temperature promote the removal of chlorohenzene by P.chrysosporium.However,a high initial chlorobenzene concentration can inhibit chlorobenzene degradation.

  9. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Armillaria sp.F022

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tony Hadibarata; Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff; Azmi Aris; Risky Ayu Kristanti

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria sp.F022,a white rot fungus isolated from tropical rain forest (Samarinda,Indonesia) was used to biodegrade naphthalene in cultured medium.Transformation of naphthalene by Armillaria sp.F022 which is able to use naphthalene,a two ring-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) as a source of carbon and energy was investigated.The metabolic pathway was elucidated by identifying metabolites,biotransformation studies and monitoring enzyme activities in cell-free extracts.The identification of metabolites suggests that Armillaria sp.F022 initiates its attack on naphthalene by dioxygenation at its C-1 and C-4 positions to give 1,4-naphthoquinone.The intermediate 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylic acid,and the characteristic of the meta-cleavage of the resulting diol were identified in the long-term incubation.A part from typical metabolites of naphthalene degradation known from mesophiles,benzoic acid was identified as the next intermediate for the naphthalene pathway of this Armillaria sp.F022.Neither phthalic acid,catechol and cis,cis-muconic acid metabolites were detected in culture extracts.Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase,lignin peroxidase,laccase,1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase) produced by Armillaria sp.F022 were detected during the incubation.

  10. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  11. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guoqi [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Wang, Lihai, E-mail: xu12nefu@sina.cn [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu, Junliang [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wu, Jinzhuo [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  12. Brown rot fungal early stage decay mechanism as a biological pretreatment for softwood biomass in biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Michael J.; Leak, David J.; Spanu, Pietro D.; Murphy, Richard J. [Division of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Porter Alliance, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    A current barrier to the large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuels is the cost associated with the energy and chemical inputs required for feedstock pretreatment and hydrolysis. The use of controlled partial biological degradation to replace elements of the current pretreatment technologies would offer tangible energy and cost benefits to the whole biofuel process. It has been known for some time from studies of wood decay that, in the early stages of growth in wood, brown rot fungi utilise a mechanism that causes rapid and extensive depolymerisation of the carbohydrate polymers of the wood cell wall. The brown rot hyphae act as delivery vectors to the plant cell wall for what is thought to be a combination of a localised acid pretreatment and a hydroxyl radical based depolymerisation of the cell wall carbohydrate polymers. It is this quality that we have exploited in the present work to enhance the saccharification potential of softwood forest residues for biofuel production. Here we show that after restricted exposure of pine sapwood to brown rot fungi, glucose yields following enzymatic saccharification are significantly increased. Our results demonstrate the potential of using brown rot fungi as a biological pretreatment for biofuel production. (author)

  13. Difference between chitosan and oligochitosan in growth of Monilinia fructicola and control of brown rot in peach fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan (CS) and oligochitosan (OCS), as natural antifungal agents, have been primarily used as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases of fruits. The effectiveness of these two agents on the growth of Monilinia fructicola to control brown rot has not yet been...

  14. Effects of soil type, management type and soil amendments on the survival of the potato brown rot bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N. A S; van Bruggen, A. H C; Franz, E.; Janse, J. D.; Schoeman-Weerdesteijn, M. E.; Termorshuizen, A. J.; van Diepeningen, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    Potato brown rot disease (Ralstonia solanacearum) is a serious economic problem in Egypt, partly due to an European Union requirement that potatoes for export to the EU should be grown in so-called pest free area's (PFA's), where fields are tested and infested fields are put under quarantine measure

  15. Biological soil disinfestation (BSD), a new control method for potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Wenneker, M.; Beuningen, van A.R.; Janse, J.D.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Blok, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    The potential of Biological Soil Disinfestation (BSD) to control potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, was investigated. BSD involves the induction of anaerobic soil conditions by increasing microbial respiration through incorporation of fresh organic amendments (here:

  16. Candida pruni sp. nov. is a new yeast species with antagonistic potential against brown rot of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dian-peng; Lu, Cai-ge; Zhang, Tao-tao; Spadaro, Davide; Liu, De-wen; Liu, Wei-cheng

    2014-07-01

    Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is among the most important postharvest diseases of commercially grown stone fruits, and application of antagonistic yeasts to control brown rot is one promising strategy alternative to chemical fungicides. In this research, new yeast strains were isolated and tested for their activity against peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Three yeast strains were originally isolated from the surface of plums (cv Chinese Angelino) collected in the north of China. In artificially wounded inoculation tests, the yeast reduced the brown rot incidence to 20 %. The population of the yeast within inoculated wounds on peaches significantly increased at 25 °C from an initial level of 5.0×10(6) to 4.45×10(7) CFU per wound after 1 day. The antagonistic strains were belonging to a new species of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26 S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region. The strains are most closely related to C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus on the basis of the phylogenetic trees based on the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. However, the strains are notably different from C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus, in morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the name Candida pruni is proposed for the novel species, with sp-Quan (=CBS12814T=KCTC 27526T=GCMC 6582T) as the type strain. Our study showed that Candida pruni is a novel yeast species with potential biocontrol against brown rot caused by M. fructicola on peaches. PMID:24908073

  17. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Masís-Mora, Mario; Corcellas, Cayo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Sarrà, Montserrat; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2014-12-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradation of the four tested agrochemicals, at rates that followed the pattern IP>OTC>CP>CBF. In vitro assays with laccase-mediator systems showed that this extracellular enzyme participates in the transformation of IP but not in the cases of CBF and OTC. On the other hand, in vivo studies with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 revealed that this intracellular system plays an important role in the degradation of IP, OTC and CBF, but not for CP. The compounds 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) were detected as transformation products of CP, as a result of the breakdown of the molecule. Meanwhile, 3-hydroxycarbofuran was detected as a transformation product of CBF; this metabolite tended to accumulate during the process, nonetheless, the toxicity of the system was effectively reduced. Simultaneous degradation of CBF and OTC showed a reduction in toxicity; similarly, when successive additions of OTC were done during the slower degradation of CBF, the fungal pellets were able to degrade both compounds. The simultaneous degradation of the four compounds successfully took place with minimal inhibition of fungal activity and resulted in the reduction of the global toxicity, thus supporting the potential use of T. versicolor for the treatment of diverse agrochemicals. PMID:25217998

  18. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance the resistance of peach fruit to brown rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zengxin; Yang, Lingyu; Yan, Haixia; Kennedy, John F; Meng, Xianghong

    2013-04-15

    The effects of chitosan and oligachitosan on resistance induction of peach fruit against brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola were investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan showed significant effect on controlling this disease. Moreover, chitosan and oligochitosan delayed fruit softening and senescence. The two antifungal substances enhanced antioxidant and defense-related enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), β-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHI), and they also stimulated the transcript expression of POD and GLU. These findings suggest that the effects of chitosan and oligochitosan on disease control and quality maintenance of peach fruit may be associated with their antioxidant property and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. PMID:23544538

  19. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  20. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol. A.;

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated...... for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi. This was done by treating copper citrate (CC)-treated Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood with a CaCl2 solution and estimating the decay rate and amount of soluble oxalic acid in an ASTM soil block test. Decay by S. lacrymans was found...... to be significantly inhibited by treatment with CaCl2 in the presence of copper. In addition, calcium showed no effect on two strains of S. lacrymans and one Serpula himantioides strain in non-copper-treated SYP wood blocks. The growth rate of S. lacrymans was not affected on malt extract agar containing CaCl2...

  1. Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes by White-Rot Fungus Datronia sp. KAPI0039 and Their Application for Reactive Dye Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat; Oncheera Petchoy; Jirawate Chedchant

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on decolorization of 2 reactive dyes; Reactive Blue 19 (RBBR) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5), by selected white-rot fungus Datronia sp. KAPI0039. The effects of reactive dye concentration, fungal inoculum size as well as pH were studied. Samples were periodically collected for the measurement of color unit, Laccase (Lac), Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), and Lignin Peroxidase (LiP) activity. Eighty-six percent of 1,000 mg L−1 RBBR decolorization was achieved by 2% (w/v) Datronia sp....

  2. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06

    OpenAIRE

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk’s basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhanc...

  3. Decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on synthetic dye bath effluent containing Amido black 10B

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, S.; M. Perumalsamy; H. Janardhana Prabhu

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic azo dyes are extensively used in textile industry and are not easily degraded into the environment due to their complex structure. Due to the low degree of fixation of these dyes to fabrics, more than 10–15% of the dye does not bind to fabrics during colour processing and release into water bodies as effluent cause serious environmental pollution. White-rot fungus is found to be capable of degrading lignin which has a complex structure similar to azo dyes. In this study, the decolou...

  4. Conidioma production of the white root rot fungus [Rosellinia] in axenic culture under near-ultraviolet light radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conidiomata of the white root rot fungus were produced in axenic culture under near-ultraviolet light radiation. Pieces of sterilized Japanese pear twigs were placed on 7-day-old oatmeal agar culture in plates. The plates were further incubated for 5 days and then illuminated by near-ultraviolet light. Synnemata developed on the twigs within 5 weeks in 19 of 20 isolates tested, and conidia were observed in 12 of the 19 isolates. The synnemata and conidia produced were morphologically identical to those of Dematophora necatrix

  5. Decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on synthetic dye bath effluent containing Amido black 10B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthilkumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic azo dyes are extensively used in textile industry and are not easily degraded into the environment due to their complex structure. Due to the low degree of fixation of these dyes to fabrics, more than 10–15% of the dye does not bind to fabrics during colour processing and release into water bodies as effluent cause serious environmental pollution. White-rot fungus is found to be capable of degrading lignin which has a complex structure similar to azo dyes. In this study, the decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which is capable of decolourizing synthetic dye bath effluent, was investigated. Maximum decolourization of 98% was achieved on the third day under normal conditions. The rate of decolourization carried out at different concentrations revealed that the increase in dye effluent concentration suppresses the percentage decolourization. The optimized amounts of nutrients were found to be 0.5%, 0.1% and 0.5% of glucose, manganese sulphate and ammonium salts, respectively. The addition of inducers such as starch and lignin increased enzyme production and the rate of decolourization.

  6. Bioremediation of the heavy metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by white rot fungus Irpex lacteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalpana, Duraisamy [Department of Forest Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Senthil, Kalaiselvi [Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam University for Women, Tamil Nadu (India); Lee, Yang Soo, E-mail: ysoolee@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Forest Science and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of the White rot fungus Irpex lacteus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal (Cr) conjugated dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Economic, easy, and rapid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non toxic nature of the degraded products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decolorization and degradation at higher concentrations. - Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the decolorization and degradation of the chromium metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by Irpex lacteus, a white rot lignolytic fungus. I. lacteus effectively decolorized the sulphonated reactive dye at a high concentration of 250 mg/l over a wide range of pH values of 5-9 and temperatures between 20 and 35 Degree-Sign C. Complete (100%) decolorization occurred within 96 h, and I. lacteus demonstrated resistance to the metallic dye. UV-vis spectroscopy, HPLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR analyses of the extracted metabolites confirmed that the decolorization process occurred due to degradation of the dye and not merely by adsorption. GC-MS analysis indicated the formation of 1(2H)-naphthalenone, 3,4-dihydro- and 2-naphthalenol as the main metabolite. ICP analysis demonstrated the removal of 13.49% chromium, and phytotoxicity studies using germinated seeds of Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed during the degradation of Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 dye.

  7. The Decay Resistance and Hyphae Penetration of Bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii Decayed by White and Brown Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norul Hisham Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The decay resistance and hyphae penetration of bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii decayed by white and brown rot fungi were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The bamboo grown in natural stand from three different age classes of 0.5, 3.5, and 6.5 years was harvested, oven dried, sterilised, and exposed to agar media containing 4% malt extract and 2% agar technical (no. 3 under laboratory condition for 8 weeks. The deterioration was expressed as percentage of weight loss, and the decay resistance classes were measured according to ASTM D 2017-81 (1986. This study found that the percentage weight loss was greatly reduced with the bamboo ageing. Regardless of age, the G. scortechinii was classified as highly resistant to decay by white and brown rot fungi. The scanning electron microscope (SEM observation showed that the fungi hyphae mostly penetrated into the vessel and proceeded to the pit and parenchyma cells.

  8. Lignin demethylation and polysaccharide decomposition in spruce sapwood degraded by brown rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filley, T.R.; Cody, G.D.; Noser, C. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, DC (United States). Geophysical Lab.; Goodell, B. [University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Wood Science; Jellison, J.; Ostrofsky, A. [University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2002-07-01

    The organic residues produced in the brown-rot (BR) of wood by many basidiomycetes fungi are ubiquitous on most coniferous forest floors. This degraded wood tissue is characterized by low levels of polysaccharides and a high proportion of demethylated lignin with minor glycerol side chain oxidation. Because of the selective enrichment in an aromatic dihydroxy-rich lignin residue, the chemical and biological reactivity of BR degraded wood will be distinctly different from white rot, the other primary class of fungal wood decay, which typically produces oxidized, lignin-depleted residues. The biochemical mechanism by which BR fungi perform this distinctive degradative chemistry is only starting to become known, and molecular studies which examine the chemical changes imparted to lignin over the long-term decay process are lacking. Using {sup 13}C-labeled tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis ({sup 13}C -TMAH) and solid state {sup 13}C NMR, we investigated the relationship between lignin oxidation/demethylation and polysaccharide metabolism in a 32-week time series study of spruce sapwood inoculated with either of two BR fungi (Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum). Our findings demonstrate a close relationship between lignin demethylation and polysaccharide loss and suggest demethylation may play a mechanistic role in polysaccharide loss, possibly by assisting in Fenton reactions where catechol/quinone oxidation and cycling aids in iron reduction. The residue remaining after 16 weeks of decay is devoid of polysaccharides, in contrast to the 68% polysaccharide carbon present in the initial spruce, and exhibits an increased aromatic dihydroxy content (resulting from demethylation of the 3-methoxyl carbon) of up to 22% of the lignin, as determined by {sup 13}C-TMAH thermochemolysis. In a typical soil or porewater environment these chemical changes would make BR residues highly reactive toward redox sensitive polyvalent metals (e.g. ferric iron) and likely

  9. Bioremediation of CCA-Treated Wood By Brown-Rot Fungi Fomitopsis Palustris, Coniophora Puteana, and Laetiporus Sulphureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, S Nami; Munir, Erman; Kamitani, Tomo

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated oxalic acid accumulation and bioremediation of chromated copper arscnate (CCA)-treated wood by three brown-rot fungi Fomitopsis palustris Coniophora puteane, and Laetiporus sulphureas. The fungi were first cultivated in a fermentation broth to accumulate oxalic acid. Bioremediation of CCA-treated wood was then carried out by leaching of heavy metals with oxalic acid over a 10-day fermentation period. Higher amounts of oxalic acid were produced by F. polustris and L. sulp...

  10. Temporal dynamics of brown rot in different apple management systems and importance of dropped fruit for disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemic development of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructigena, was monitored in integrated and organic apple orchards at two locations in eastern Hungary between 2002 and 2005 on three cultivars with early, midseason, and late ripening periods. Disease incidence and severity measures were affected significantly (P Mutsu. Disease intensity increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest and was considerably lower in integrated than in organic orchards. Final brown rot incidence on fruit in the tree was correlated with incidence on dropped fruit on the orchard floor (r > 0.75, P < 0.05), whereby the lag period from the appearance of the first symptomatic fruit on the ground to the occurrence of the first symptomatic fruit in the tree ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the cultivar. The inflection point of the disease progress curve was attained first by fruit on the ground, followed successively by fruit in the lower, middle, and upper thirds of the tree canopy. This may indicate that dropped fruit that became infected early provided a source of inoculum for subsequent epidemics by serving as a bridge between sporulation from overwintered fruit mummies in the spring and the first fruit with sporulating lesions in the tree in midsummer. Removal of dropped fruit from the orchard floor resulted in a significantly lower disease incidence on fruit in the tree on all cultivars; thus, drop-removal may be useful as a brown rot management practice in apple orchards. PMID:18944175

  11. Postharvest biological control of brown rot in peaches after cold storage preceded by preharvest chemical control 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogenic fungi cause skin darkening and peach quality depreciation in post harvest. Therefore, alternative techniques to chemical treatment are necessary in order to reduce risks to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of Trichoderma harzianum in association with different fungicides applied before harvest to 'Eldorado' peaches for brown rot control and other quality parameters during storage. The treatments consisted of five preharvest fungicide applications (control, captan, iprodione, iminoctadine and tebuconazole associated with postharvest application of T. harzianum, after cold storage (with and without application, in three evaluation times (zero, two and four days at 20 °C, resulting in a 5x2x3 factorial design. The application of T. harzianum only brought benefits to the control of brown rot when combined with the fungicide captan, at zero day shelf life. After two days, there was a greater skin darkening in peaches treated with T. harzianum compared with peaches without the treatment, except for peaches treated with the fungicide iprodione and T. harzianum The application of T. harzianum during postharvest showed no benefits for the control of brown rot, however, the association with fungicides reduced the incidence of Rhizopus stolonifer during the shelf life.

  12. Efeito de sanificantes no controle pós-colheita da podridão parda (Monilinia fructicola e da podridão mole (Rhizopus stolonifer em pêssegos Effect of sanitizing products on the postharvest control of brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and soft rot (Rhizopus stolonifer in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Marchi de Abreu

    2008-02-01

    fungus was inoculated over fruit injuries. None of the products was effective in controlling soft rot. Ozone gas at 0,1 mL L-1 was not effective in controlling brown or soft rots in peaches.

  13. Decolorization and biodegradation of congo red dye by a novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Samayita; Basak, Bikram; Dutta, Subhasish; Bhunia, Biswanath; Dey, Apurba

    2013-11-01

    A novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6 decolorized 99.99% of 600 mg/L congo red within 48 h in yeast extract-glucose medium at 25 °C, pH 5 and 150 rpm. Physicochemical parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH and aeration were optimized to develop faster decolorization process. Dye decolorization rate was maximal (20.21 mg/L h) at 25 °C, pH 5, 150 rpm and 800 mg/L dye, giving 78% final decolorization efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis revealed that the fungus become amorphous after dye adsorption. HPLC and FTIR analysis of the extracted metabolites suggested that the decolorization occurred through biosorption and biodegradation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and acid-alkali and 70% ethanol treatment revealed the efficient dye retention capability of the fungus. The foregoing results justify the applicability of the strain in removal of congo red from textile wastewaters and their safe disposal.

  14. Production of gamma-lactones by the brown-rot basidiomycete Piptoporus soloniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Chimori, Mieko; Iwanaga, Fumi; Hattori, Tsutomu; Yanase, Hideshi

    2002-01-01

    A wild strain of brown-rot basidiomycete Piptoporus soloniensis produced a sweet flavor similar to tropical fruits in liquid cultures. The major and minor compounds were identified to be gamma-decalactone and gamma-octanolactone by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, respectively. The growth and production of gamma-decalactone by P. soloniensis in broth to which fatty acids had been added were investigated. The addition of 12-hydroxystearic acid and ricinoleic acid to the culture markedly enhanced the production of gamma-decalactone. On the other hand, addition of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid to the culture resulted in a higher production of gamma-octanolactone. The addition of hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, lauric acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid to the culture reduced the growth of P. soloniensis and production of gamma-decalactone and gamma-octanolactone. This strain accumulated oxalic acid in liquid culture and grew sufficiently under strongly acidic conditions. PMID:16233291

  15. Brown Rot Strikes Prunus Fruit: An Ancient Fight Almost Always Lost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Lino, Leandro; Pacheco, Igor; Mercier, Vincent; Faoro, Franco; Bassi, Daniele; Bornard, Isabelle; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte

    2016-05-25

    Brown rot (BR) caused by Monilinia spp., has been an economic problem for the stone fruit market due to dramatic losses, mainly during the postharvest period. There is much literature about basic aspects of Monilinia spp. infection, which indicates that environment significantly influences its occurrence in the orchard. However, progress is needed to sustainably limit this disease: the pathogen is able to develop resistance to pesticides, and most of BR resistance research programs in plant models perish. Solving this problem becomes important due to the need to decrease chemical treatments and reduce residues on fruit. Thus, research has recently increased, exploring a wide range of disease control strategies (e.g., genetic, chemical, physical). Summarizing this information is difficult, as studies evaluate different Monilinia and Prunus model species, with diverse strategies and protocols. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present the diversity and distribution of agents causing BR, focusing on the biochemical mechanisms of Monilinia spp. infection both of the fungi and of the fruit, and report on the resistance sources in Prunus germplasm. This review comprehensively compiles the information currently available to better understand mechanisms related to BR resistance. PMID:27133976

  16. Role of brown-rot fungi in the bioremoval of azo dyes under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is vital to the understanding of bioremediation of structurally different azo dyes by some unusual Brown-rot fungi. Bioremoval of each dye (20 mg l-1 was tested in two different culture media under static and shaking conditions by taking inocula from different fungi. Fungal strains showed varying dyes removal abilities, though considerable high in case of Acid Red (AR 151(di-azo as compared to Orange (Or II (mono-azo. With an exception of Aspergillus tereus SA3, all the fungal isolates showed higher removal of dyes in SDB. Under static condition, the maximum decolorizing fungal strains were; Aspergillus flavus SA2 (67% and Alternaria spp. SA4 (57% in AR 151, while Penicillium spp. (34 and 33 % in Orange II, in SDB and STE, respectively. Bioremoval of dyes was considerably increased when experiments were shifted from static to shaking mode. It was specifically increased (% in; AR 151 (255 with Penicillium spp., Or II with A. flavus SA2 (112 and Alternaria spp. (111. The primary mechanism of dyes removal proved to be fungal biosorption. However, reduction of dyes (onto fungal with formation of their products (α. naphthol, sulphalinic acid and aniline furthermore revealed that dyes (specifically azo were actually biodegraded.

  17. The expansion of brown rot disease throughout Bolivia: possible role of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, José Antonio; Plata, Giovanna

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating plant disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum species complex and affects different crops. Bacterial wilt infecting potato is also known as brown rot (BR) and is responsible for significant economic losses in potato production, especially in developing countries. In Bolivia, BR affects up to 75% of the potato crop in areas with high incidence and 100% of stored potatoes. The disease has disseminated since its introduction to the country in the mid-1980s mostly through contaminated seed tubers. To avoid this, local farmers multiply seed tubers in highlands because the strain infecting potatoes cannot survive near-freezing temperatures that are typical in the high mountains. Past disease surveys have shown an increase in seed tubers with latent infection in areas at altitudes lower than 3000 m a.s.l. Since global warming is increasing in the Andes Mountains, in this work, we explored the incidence of BR in areas at altitudes above 3000 m a.s.l. Results showed BR presence in the majority of these areas, suggesting a correlation between the increase in disease incidence and the increase in temperature and the number of irregular weather events resulting from climate change. However, it cannot be excluded that the increasing availability of latently infected seed tubers has boosted the spread of BR. PMID:26991236

  18. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure of Monilinia fructicola During Brown Rot Epidemics Within Individual Peach Tree Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, S E; Scherm, H

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the fine-scale genetic structure of populations of the brown rot pathogen Monilinia fructicola within individual peach tree canopies to better understand within-tree plant pathogen diversity and to complement previous work on spatiotemporal development of brown rot disease at the canopy level. Across 3 years in a total of six trees, we monitored disease development, collected isolates from every M. fructicola symptom during the course of the season, and created high-resolution three-dimensional maps of all symptom and isolate locations within individual canopies using an electromagnetic digitizer. Each canopy population (65 to 173 isolates per tree) was characterized using a set of 13 microsatellite markers and analyzed for evidence of spatial genetic autocorrelation among isolates during the epidemic phase of the disease. Results showed high genetic diversity (average uh=0.529) and high genotypic diversity (average D=0.928) within canopies. The percentage of unique multilocus genotypes within trees was greater for blossom blight isolates (78.2%) than for fruit rot isolates (51.3%), indicating a greater contribution of clonal reproduction during the preharvest epidemic. For fruit rot isolates, between 54.2 and 81.7% of isolates were contained in one to four dominant clonal genotypes per tree having at least 10 members. All six fruit rot populations showed positive and significant spatial genetic autocorrelation for distance classes between 0.37 and 1.48 m. Despite high levels of within-tree pathogen diversity, the contribution of locally available inoculum combined with short-distance dispersal is likely the main factor generating clonal population foci and associated spatial genetic clustering within trees. PMID:25317843

  19. Visualization of the mycelia of wood-rotting fungi by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a peptide nucleic acid probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Yuji; Nakaba, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Hiroshi; Funada, Ryo; Yoshida, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    White rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and brown rot fungus, Postia placenta, grown on agar plates, were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Mycelia grown on wood chips were also clearly detected by PNA-FISH following blocking treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the visualization of fungi in wood by FISH. PMID:23391931

  20. Enhanced laccase production in white-rot fungus Rigidoporus lignosus by the addition of selected phenolic and aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambria, Maria Teresa; Ragusa, Santa; Calabrese, Vittorio; Cambria, Antonio

    2011-02-01

    The white rot fungus Rigidoporus lignosus produces substantial amounts of extracellular laccase, a multicopper blue oxidase which is capable of oxidizing a wide range of organic substrates. Laccase production can be greatly enhanced in liquid cultures supplemented with various aromatic and phenolic compounds. The maximum enzyme activity was reached at the 21st or 24th day of fungal cultivation after the addition of inducers. The zymograms of extracellular fluid of culture preparation in the presence of inducers, at maximum activity day, revealed two bands with enzymatic activity, called Lac1 and Lac2, having different intensities. Lac2 band shows the higher intensity which changed with the different inducers. Laccase induction can be also obtained by adding to the culture medium olive mill wastewaters, which shows a high content of phenolic compounds.

  1. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lorenzo Quibod

    Full Text Available Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  2. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  3. Melanoidin-containing wastewaters induce selective laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Tania; Terrón, María Carmen; Yagüe, Susana; Junca, Howard; Carbajo, José María; Zapico, Ernesto Javier; Silva, Ricardo; Arana-Cuenca, Ainhoa; Téllez, Alejandro; González, Aldo Enrique

    2008-03-01

    Wastewaters generated from the production of ethanol from sugar cane molasses may have detrimental effects on the environment due to their high chemical oxygen demand and dark brown color. The color is mainly associated with the presence of melanoidins, which are highly recalcitrant to biodegradation. We report here the induction of laccases by molasses wastewaters and molasses melanoidins in the basidiomycetous fungus Trametes sp. I-62. The time course of effluent decolorization and laccase activity in the culture supernatant of the fungus were correlated. The expression of laccase genes lcc1 and lcc2 increased as a result of the addition of complete molasses wastewater and its high molecular weight fraction to fungal cultures. This is the first time differential laccase gene expression has been reported to occur upon exposure of fungal cultures to molasses wastewaters and their melanoidins. PMID:18248962

  4. Quantitative relationships between different injury factors and development of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructigena in integrated and organic apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2008-01-01

    In a 4-year study, the incidence of various types of injuries (caused by insects, birds, growth cracks, mechanical wounding, and other, unidentified factors) was assessed in relation to brown rot development (caused by Monilinia fructigena) on fruit of three apple cultivars (Prima, Jonathan, and Mutsu) in integrated and organic blocks of two apple orchards in Hungary. In addition, populations of male codling moths (Cydia pomonella) were monitored with pheromone traps season-long in both management systems. On average, injury incidence on fruit at harvest was 6.1 and 19.2% in the integrated and organic treatments, respectively. Insect injury, which was caused primarily by C. pomonella, had the highest incidence among the five injury types, accounting for 79.4% of the total injury by harvest in the organic blocks and 36.6% in the integrated blocks. Levels of all other injury types remained close to zero during most of the season, but the incidence of bird injury and growth cracks increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest in both production systems. Brown rot developed more slowly and reached a lower incidence in the integrated (6.4% final incidence on average) compared with the organic blocks (20.1% average incidence). In addition, the disease developed later but attained higher levels as the cultivar ripening season increased from early-maturing Prima to late-maturing Mutsu. Overall, 94.3 to 98.7% of all injured fruit were also infected by M. fructigena, whereas the incidence of brown-rotted fruit without visible injury was very low (0.8 to 1.6%). Correlation coefficients (on a per plot basis) and association indices (on a per-fruit basis) were calculated between brown rot and the various injury types for two selected assessment dates 4 weeks preharvest and at harvest. At both dates, the strongest significant (P < 0.05) relationships were observed between brown rot and insect injury and between brown rot and the cumulative number of trapped C

  5. Nutritional evaluation of the white-rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum as a feedstuff to rats, pigs, and sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomke, S.; Rundgren, M.; Eriksson, S.

    1980-11-01

    The production of single-cell protein (SCP) based on cheap carbon sources such as spent liquor from paper mills is of interest for different reasons. The white-rot fungus (Sporotrichum pulverulentum) has earlier been shown to degrade cellulose and lignin. The nutritive value of this fungus was investigated with rats, pigs, and sheep. The effect of different drying processes was evaluated on rats. Experiments with piglets, growing pigs, and sheep were aimed at getting primary information on nutritive parameters with domestic animal species. Chemical analysis of S. pulverulentum showed that the sum of the amino acids corresponded to 70% and ammonia, GABA, and glucosamine to 20% of its crude protein content. Differences between drying treatments in their effect on protein digestibility were not noted. From a protein quality viewpoint, a tendency toward superiority was noted for two of the drying processes. The amino acid digestibility of S. pulverulentum was inferior to values for soybean oil meal given in textbooks. The piglet experiment confirmed the lower nutritive value of S. pulverulentum compared with soybean oil meal. In the piglet stage a content of metabolizable energy of S. pulverulentum was found which corresponded to 60% of that for soybean oil meal. With increasing age the ability of pigs to utilize the fungus increased. The limited nutritive value for monogastric animals is most certainly caused by the cell-wall structure of S. pulverulentum with poor digestibility of the carbohydrates. The experiment with sheep showed more satisfactory results than with monogastric species, with digestibility of crude protein of 82% and a content of metabolizable energy of 70% of soybean oil meal.

  6. Genome sequence of a white rot fungus Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 for wood decay and mycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byoungnam; Park, Hongjae; Jang, Yeongseon; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Lipzen, Anna; Riley, Robert; Grigoriev, Igor V; Spatafora, Joseph W; Choi, In-Geol

    2015-10-10

    Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 is a white rot wood degrader commonly found in Korea. Tolerance to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dye decolorization activity make this strain a potential candidate for mycoremediation. We report the genome sequence of S. paradoxa KUC8140 containing 44.4Mbp. Based on ab initio gene prediction, homology search and RNA-seq, total 17,098 gene models were annotated. We identified 17 lignin-modifying peroxidases and other 377 carbohydrate-active enzymes for modeling lignocellulose deconstruction and mycoremediation. PMID:26188242

  7. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools.

  8. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools. PMID:22286995

  9. Growth Inhibition of Cocoa Pod Rot Fungus Phytophthora palmivora byPseudomonas fluorescence and Bacillus subtilis bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Widyanta Pratama

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivorafungus is one of the important diseases on cocoa crop. Pod rot is the most important disease because it may cause loss of cocoa pod. Until now, the fungal pathogen of cocoa black pod disease is still a crucial problem and there is no fungicide that is really effective against the disease. One alternative to control the cocoa black pod disease is by using biological agents as biofungicide, including utilizing Pseudomonas fluorescenceand Bacillus subtilis bacteria. The research was done by isolation of P. palmivora from infected pods of Kaliwining Experimental Station to obtain pure cultures of fungus and by multiplication of P. fluorescence and B. subtilis. Antagonist test was performed by inoculating P. palmivora into a petri dish in a distance of 3 cm from the edge. P. fluorescenceand B. Subtilis were inoculated into petridishes in three days after the fungal treatment. Control was inoculated with isolate of P. palmivora only. Fungal growth was measured everyday by measuring radius of fungal colonies first time 24 hours after inoculation. Growth of Phytophthora palmivora in the two treatmens were used to calculate the percentage of inhibition. The results of this study indicated that P. fluorescence and B. subtiliswere able to inhibit fungal growth of P. palmivora. Both bacterial antagonists had the same effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of P. palmivora fungus based on the percentage of inhibition and effectiveness criteria. Based on the results of translucent zones indicated that B. subtiliswas more powerfull in inhibiting growth of P. Palmivora compared to P. fluorescence. Key words: Black pod disease of cocoa, biological control, Phytophthora palmivora, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus subtilis

  10. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-10-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ max, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase. PMID:24235871

  11. Biodegradation of methoxychlor and its metabolites by the white rot fungus Stereum hirsutum related to the inactivation of estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Jae-Won; Park, Ki-Ryeong; Hong, Eui-Ju; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Kim, Myung-Kil; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu

    2006-01-01

    The white rot fungus Stereum hirsutum was used to degrade methoxychlor [2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane] in culture and the degraded products were extensively determined. The estrogenic activity of the degraded products of methoxychlor was examined using cell proliferation and pS2 gene expression assays in MCF-7 cells. S. hirsutum showed high resistance to methoxychlor 100 ppm, and the mycelial growth was fully completed within 8 days of incubation at 30 degrees C. Methoxychlor in liquid culture medium was gradually converted into 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane, 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylene, 2-chloro-1,1-bis(4-methoxyphenyl) ethane, 2-chloro-1,1-bis(4-methoxyphenyl) ethylene, and 1,1-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethylene, indicating that methoxychlor is dominantly degraded by dechlorination and dehydrogenation. MCF-7 cells were demonstrated to proliferate actively at the 10-5 M concentration of methoxychlor. However, cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by the incubation with methoxychlor culture media containing S. hirsutum. In addition, the expression level of pS2 mRNA was increased at the concentration (10-5 M) of methoxychlor. The reductive effect of S. hirsutum for methoxychlor was clear but not significant as in the proliferation assay.

  12. Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes by White-Rot Fungus Datronia sp. KAPI0039 and Their Application for Reactive Dye Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilanee Vaithanomsat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on decolorization of 2 reactive dyes; Reactive Blue 19 (RBBR and Reactive Black 5 (RB5, by selected white-rot fungus Datronia sp. KAPI0039. The effects of reactive dye concentration, fungal inoculum size as well as pH were studied. Samples were periodically collected for the measurement of color unit, Laccase (Lac, Manganese Peroxidase (MnP, and Lignin Peroxidase (LiP activity. Eighty-six percent of 1,000 mg L−1 RBBR decolorization was achieved by 2% (w/v Datronia sp. KAPI0039 at pH 5. The highest Lac activity (759.81 UL−1 was detected in the optimal condition. For RB5, Datronia sp. KAPI0039 efficiently performed (88.01% decolorization at 2% (w/v fungal inoculum size for the reduction of 600 mg L−1 RB5 under pH 5. The highest Lac activity (178.57 UL−1 was detected, whereas the activity of MnP and LiP was absent during this hour. The result, therefore, indicated that Datronia sp. KAPI0039 was obviously able to breakdown both reactive dyes, and Lac was considered as a major lignin-degradation enzyme in this reaction.

  13. Role of white rot fungus Funalia trogii in detoxification of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apohan, Elif; Yesilada, Ozfer

    2005-01-01

    Toxic and genotoxic effects of the textile dyes on organisms suggest the need for remediation of dyes before discharging them into the environment. For this reason, the ability of Funalia trogii pellets to detoxify textile dyes was investigated and evaluated. Although, textile dyes are toxic substances for many microorganisms, the pellets were able to decolorize and detoxify the azo dyes used. Astrazon Blue and Red dyes inhibit growth of F. trogii and S. aureus on solid medium in a concentration dependent manner. The toxicity of these dyes on a fungus, F. trogii and a bacterium, S. aureus was significantly decreased after pretreatment with fungal pellets.

  14. Effects of selenium oxyanions on the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    KAUST Repository

    Espinosa-Ortiz, Erika J.

    2014-10-24

    The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to reduce the oxidized forms of selenium, selenate and selenite, and their effects on the growth, substrate consumption rate, and pellet morphology of the fungus were assessed. The effect of different operational parameters (pH, glucose, and selenium concentration) on the response of P. chrysosporium to selenium oxyanions was explored as well. This fungal species showed a high sensitivity to selenium, particularly selenite, which inhibited the fungal growth and substrate consumption when supplied at 10 mg L−1 in the growth medium, whereas selenate did not have such a strong influence on the fungus. Biological removal of selenite was achieved under semi-acidic conditions (pH 4.5) with about 40 % removal efficiency, whereas less than 10 % selenium removal was achieved for incubations with selenate. P. chrysosporium was found to be a selenium-reducing organism, capable of synthesizing elemental selenium from selenite but not from selenate. Analysis with transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and a 3D reconstruction showed that elemental selenium was produced intracellularly as nanoparticles in the range of 30–400 nm. Furthermore, selenite influenced the pellet morphology of P. chrysosporium by reducing the size of the fungal pellets and inducing their compaction and smoothness.

  15. A novel expansin protein from the white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Eduardo Tovar-Herrera

    Full Text Available A novel expansin protein (ScExlx1 was found, cloned and expressed from the Basidiomycete fungus Schizophylum commune. This protein showed the canonical features of plant expansins. ScExlx1 showed the ability to form "bubbles" in cotton fibers, reduce the size of avicel particles and enhance reducing sugar liberation from cotton fibers pretreated with the protein and then treated with cellulases. ScExlx1 was able to bind cellulose, birchwood xylan and chitin and this property was not affected by different sodium chloride concentrations. A novel property of ScExlx1 is its capacity to enhance reducing sugars (N-acetyl glucosamine liberation from pretreated chitin and further added with chitinase, which has not been reported for any expansin or expansin-like protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bona fide fungal expansin found in a basidiomycete and we could express the bioactive protein in Pichia pastoris.

  16. The root rot fungus Armillaria mellea introduced into South Africa by early Dutch settlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, M P; Wingfield, B D; Harrington, T C; Steimel, J; Coutinho, T A; Wingfield, M J

    2001-02-01

    Dead and dying oak (Quercus) and numerous other woody ornamental trees and shrubs showing signs and symptoms of Armillaria root rot were identified in the Company Gardens, Cape Town, South Africa, which were established in the mid-1600s by the Dutch East Indies Trading Company. Nineteen isolates from dying trees or from mushrooms were collected and analysed to identify and characterize the Armillaria sp. responsible for the disease. The AluI digestion of the amplified product of the first intergenic spacer region (IGS-1) of the rRNA operon of 19 isolates from the Company Gardens was identical to that of some of the European isolates of A. mellea s. s. The IGS-1 region and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) were sequenced for some of the Cape Town isolates. Phylogenetic analyses placed the Cape Town isolates in the European clade of A. mellea, which is distinct from the Asian and North American clades of this species. Identification based on sexual compatibility was conducted using A. mellea tester strains in diploid-haploid pairings, which showed some compatibility between the Cape Town isolates and testers from Europe. Somatic compatibility tests (diploid-diploid pairings) and DNA fingerprinting with multilocus, microsatellite probes indicated that the Cape Town isolates were genetically identical and may have resulted from vegetative (clonal) spread from a single focus in the centre of the original Company Gardens (c. 1652). The colonized area is at least 345 m in diameter. Assuming a linear spread rate underground of 0.3 m/year to 1.6 m/year, the genet (clone) was estimated to be between 108 and 575 years old. These data suggest that A. mellea was introduced into Cape Town from Europe, perhaps on potted plants, such as grapes or citrus, planted in the Company Gardens more than 300 years ago. PMID:11298953

  17. Identification of the pathogen causing brown rot of Hylocereus undatus%霸王花褐腐病的病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝国兵; 何自福; 罗方芳; 汤亚飞; 佘小漫; 杜振国

    2014-01-01

    [目的]明确导致广东省霸王花Hylocereus undatus褐腐病的病原种类.[方法]通过病组织分离、致病性测定、形态学观察及rDNA序列分析等方法对广东省霸王花褐腐病病原进行了种类鉴定.[结果和结论]在PDA培养基上,病原菌的菌落为深灰色,绒毛状.产生2种类型的节孢子:一种为浅色、薄壁的柱状孢子,大小为(5.00~10.69)μm ×(2.61~4.52)μm;另一种为褐色、厚壁、圆形或椭圆形、基部平截、成链的孢子,大小为(5.15~12.39)μm ×(3.87~6.07)μm.应用真菌通用引物ITS1和ITS4进行PCR,获得该病原菌579 bp的18S-28S rDNA ITS序列. BLAST结果显示,该序列与Neoscytalidium dimidiatum火龙果菌株的18S-28S rDNA ITS序列相似性最高,为99%~100%.这些研究结果表明,引起广东省霸王花褐腐病的病原菌为N.dimidiatum.%[Objective] To confirm the pathogen species that caused brown rot disease on Hylocereus unda-tus.[Method] Diseased tissue isolation , indoor pathogenicity test , morphological observation and rDNA sequence analysis were used to confirm the pathogen species .[Result and conclusion] The colonies of the fungus were dark grey and fluffy on potato dextrose agar ( PDA) medium.Two kinds of arthrospore were observed on PDA medium .One was columnar conidium with light-colored , thin-walled and (5.00-10.69) μm ×(2.61-4.52) μm in size, and the other was chained conidium with dark brown , thick-walled , circular or oval , base truncate and ( 5.15 -12.39 ) μm ×( 3.87 -6.07 ) μm in size .Using PCR with primers ITS1 and ITS4 for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of fungal 18S-28S rD-NA, the sequence was cloned to be 579 bp in length.The BLAST results showed that the sequence had the highest sequence identity with that of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum strains isolated from pitahaya (99%-100%).These results indicated that night-blooming cereus brown rot in Guangdong was

  18. 大白菜褐腐病(茎基腐病)的病原菌鉴定%Pathogen Identification of Chinese Cabbage Brown Rot (Base Stem Rot)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧敏; 谢学文; 石延霞; 郭英兰; 李宝聚

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the disease known as ' base stem rot' of Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour) Olsson ] was prevalent in Beijing, Hebei and Jiangsu Provinces. 12 fungi isolates were collected from rotten stem of Chinese cabbage. The morphological identification show the isolated bacteria strain is Rhizoctonia solani. PCR of rDNA-ITS was propagated by general primer ITS1/ITS4 and the sequencing result was compared and analyzed in GenBank. The results of molecular identification and morphological identification were the same. Then the isolated bacteria strains were inoculated to the healthy Chinese cabbage stems. The symptoms resembled the ones originally observed in the fields. Finally, the pathogen's identity was confirmed by re-isolation from lesions of infected plants. Based on the tests of morphological characteristics, pathogenicity and molecular biology, the pathogens of Chinese cabbage' base stem rot' found in Beijing, Hebei and Jiangsu Provinces were the same as brown rot, Rhizoctonia solani. etc.%2011年在北京、河北、江苏等地的部分大白菜种植区,当地俗称的大白菜“茎基腐病”普遍严重发生,实际调查后共采集到大白菜“茎基腐病”病样12份,分离获得12个真菌分离物,经形态学鉴定,分离到的菌株均为立枯丝核菌Rhizoctonia solani;采用真菌通用引物ITS1/ITS4对病原菌rDNA-ITS进行PCR扩增,并将测序结果在GenBank中进行同源性比对分析,分子生物学鉴定结果与形态学鉴定结果一致.将分离到的菌株分别回接健康的大白菜植株,植株表现出与田间相似的发病症状,重新进行病原菌的分离,得到相同的病原物.基于形态学、分子生物学鉴定和致病性试验最终确定北京、河北、江苏等地大白菜“茎基腐病”病原菌为立枯丝核菌Rhizoctonia solani,大白菜“茎基腐病”与大白菜褐腐病、大白菜立枯病属同病异名.

  19. Biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene and geraniol to α-terpineol and p-menthane-3,8-diol by the white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Park, Se-Yeong; Choi, In-Gyu

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the monoterpenes, α-pinene and geraniol, were biotransformed to synthesize monoterpene alcohol compounds. Polyporus brumalis which is classified as a white rot fungus was used as a biocatalyst. Consequently α-terpineol was synthesized from α-pinene by P. brumalis mycelium, after three days. Moreover, another substrate, the acyclic monoterpenoids geraniol was transformed into the cyclic compound, p-menthane-3, 8-diol (PMD). The main metabolites, i.e., α-terpineol and PMD, are known to be bioactive monoterpene alcohol compounds. This study highlights the potential of fungal biocatalysts for monoterpene transformation. PMID:26115995

  20. Effect of metal ions and redox mediators on decolorization of synthetic dyes by crude laccase from a novel white rot fungus Peniophora sp. (NFCCI-2131).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Shikha; Nill, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different metal ions and two redox mediators on laccase activity and laccase-catalyzed decolorization of five synthetic dyes was investigated in vitro using crude laccase from a novel white rot fungus Peniophora sp. (NFCCI-2131). The fungus effectively decolorized crystal violet and brilliant green on malt extract agar medium. Laccase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Na(+) Ca(2+), and Cu(2+). Among the different dyes tested, highest decolorization of crystal violet (96.30 %) was obtained in the presence of 1 mM ABTS followed by 86.01 % by HBT. The results conspicuously indicated that laccase from Peniophora sp. has the potential for color removal from textile dye effluent even in the presence of toxic metal ions.

  1. White-rot Fungus Growth Conditions and Its Metabolic Kinetic Models%白腐真菌生长条件及其代谢动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁峙; 韩宝平

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the growth conditions of white-rot fungus and simulate its metabolism kinetic models, the rules how the factors such as biomass, culture fluid, pH value, glucose consumption and exopolysaccharides generation, etc., changed during the batch culture process of white-rot fungi by using an air-lift fermenter, as well as metabolic kinetics of white-rot fungi were studied. Based on Logistic equation, Luedeking-Piret equation and experimental data, the correlation model parameters of mycelia biomass, glucose consumption and exopolysaccharide generation were obtained and found to be change with time in metabolism process. Detailedly, μm=0.071 8 h-1,α= 0.831 8 g/(g·h), β= 0.002 g/(g·h), b1=0.016 3 g/(g·h) and b2=3.023 3 g/(g·h). Hence the mycelial growth kinetic model, exopolysaccharide generation kinetic model and substrate consumption kinetic model which describe fermentation process of white-rot fungi were established. Meanwhile, the experimental data were verified by this model, and a good fitting result with an average relative error less than 10% between the data obtained from experiments and the model was yielded. The results show that these models can predict the growth and metabolic rules of white-rot fungus, the fermentation process of exopolysaccharides and the kinetic mechanism of white-rot fungus accurately.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD DECAY BY ROT FUNGI USING COLORIMETRY AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian de Almeida Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of marupá (Simarouba amara and andiroba (Carapa guianenis were submitted to Trametes versicolor (white rot and Gloeophylum trabeum (brown rot fungi attack. Colorimetry was used to determine the color of the wood before and after wood decaying fungi. To evaluate the changes in chemical compounds levels in the wood samples, the diffuse reflectance medium infrared spectroscopy was used. Both wood were non resistant against white rot fungus, while with brown rot attack andiroba was resistant and marupá was not. After Gloeophyllum trabeum attack both woods changed to a darken color, and after Trametes versicolor attack andiroba changed to a lighter color and marupá darkened slightly, The analysis showed a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, for both species, after Trametes versicolor attack and a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose after Gloeophyllum trabeum attack.

  3. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    no improvement in ethanol yields. We showed that saccharification of lignocellulosic material with a wood-rot fungal process is quite feasible. Corn fiber from wet milling was best degraded to sugars using aerobic solid state fermentation with the soft-rot fungus T. reesei. However, it was shown that both the white-rot fungus P. chrysosporium and brown-rot fungus G. trabeum had the ability to produce additional consortia of hemi/cellulose degrading enzymes. It is likely that a consortium of enzymes from these fungi would be the best approach in saccharification of lignocellulose. In all cases, a subsequent anaerobic yeast process under submerged conditions is required to ferment the released sugars to ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time report on production of cellulolytic enzymes from wet-milled corn fiber using white- and brown-rot fungi for sequential fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzate to ethanol. Keywords: lignocellulose, ethanol, biofuel, bioeconomy, biomass, renewable resources, corn fiber, pretreatment, solid-substrate fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), white-rot fungus, brown-rot fungus, soft-rot fungus, fermentable sugars, enzyme activities, cellulytic enzymes Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloleophyllum trabeum, Trichoderma reesei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  4. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  5. Resistência à podridão parda em pessegueiro Resistance to brown rot in peach plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A podridão parda, causada por Monilinia fructicola, é a mais importante doença fúngica do pessegueiro, principalmente em áreas quentes e úmidas, como a região produtora de pêssegos no Sul do Brasil. A resistência genética é a forma mais eficiente de controle da doença, além de reduzir o custo de produção e o impacto ambiental. A cultivar Bolinha, considerada padrão de resistência à doença, produz frutos de baixa qualidade e suas flores não têm a mesma resistência ao fungo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo buscar novas fontes de resistência a esta doença. Além da cultivar Bolinha, foram submetidos à inoculação com suspensão de 1 x 10(5 conídios mL-1 do patógeno, flores de 11 seleções de pessegueiro, frutos de 12 seleções e 20 plantas de cinco "seedlings" oriundos de hibridações. Os resultados indicaram que a seleção Conserva 930 e a cultivar Jubileu foram as que tiveram maior nível de resistência nas flores. Frutos das seleções Conserva 1798, Conserva 1596, Conserva 1218 e Cascata 1493 proporcionaram níveis de resistência semelhantes aos da cultivar Bolinha, e destas, apenas a Conserva 1798 manteve o mesmo desempenho em estádio mais avançado de infecção por M. fructicola.Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, is the most important peach disease, especially in warm humid areas such as the production area in Southern Brazil. Genetic resistance is the most efficient way for controlling this disease, reducing production costs and environmental problems. The Bolinha cultivar, considered as resistant standard, produces fruits of low quality and is not resistant to blossom blight. The objective of this study was to find new resistance sources to brown rot. Besides Bolinha cultivar, flowers of 11 selections, fruits of 12 selections, and 20 seedlings from hybrid progenies were inoculated with a suspension of conidia of M. fructicola. The results indicated that Conserva 930 and Jubileu cultivar showed

  6. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these-two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12-have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component.

  7. Inhibition Effect Determination of Fungicides on Mycelial Growth of Maize Top Rot Fungus%杀菌剂对玉米顶腐病菌的抑菌效果测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 徐秀德; 董怀玉; 姜钰; 胡兰

    2012-01-01

    室内抑菌、毒力测定表明,不同杀菌剂对玉米(Zea mays L.)顶腐病菌(Fusarium subglutinans)菌丝生长的抑制作用不同;玉米顶腐病菌对化学杀菌剂表现敏感,但是敏感程度不同.筛选出10%环唑醇、10%丙环唑、12.5%腈菌唑、50%退菌特等对玉米顶腐病菌抑制效果较好的药剂,可作为防治该病害的首选药剂.%Determination results of indoor bacteriostasis and toxicity showed that the inhibition effects on mycelial growth of maize top rot fungus were different according to fungicides adopted; maize top rot fungus was sensitive to all fungicides but with different levels of sensitiveness accordingly. 10% Cyproconazole, 10% Propiconazole, 12.5% Myclobutanil and 50% Tuzet were selected as better fungicides to maize top rot fungus, and some useful data on chemical control of the fungus were also provided.

  8. 桑叶褐斑病病原菌的生物学特性研究%Bilolgical Characteristics of Pathogenic Fungus Causing Brown Spot on Mulberry Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庭观; 章一鸣; 叶政平; 何永宏; 张泽; 徐升胜; 洪逗

    2014-01-01

    Through cultivating pathogenic fungi of mulberry brown rot disease under 6 conditions such as different media, temperature, carbon source and nitrogen source after 6 days, research on the biological characteristics of pathogenic fungus causing brown spot on mulberry leaves was conducted .The results showed that nutrition , tem-perature and pH had significant influence on mycelial growth . It was found that the best medium for mycelial growth was oatmeal medium , the proper temperature was 20~30℃, the optimal temperature for mycelial growth was 25℃, the light had no obvious promotion effect on mycelial growth .It was also found that the optimal pH was 9 to 10 , the best carbon source and nitrogen source for mycelial grow are α-Galoctaose and Carbamide , and the mycelial could not survive above 55℃more than 10 min.%通过对桑叶褐斑病病原菌在不同种类培养基培养、不同氮源与碳源、不同温度等6种条件下培养6天后,测定菌落直径,观察菌丝颜色和菌落形态,分析了桑褐斑病病原菌的生物学特性。结果表明,在室内培养条件下,不同的营养成分、 pH值、温度、光照都对菌丝的生长有影响。病原菌菌丝生长的最适宜培养基是燕麦片培养基,适宜生长温度范围是20~30℃,最适生长温度为25℃,光照对菌丝生长无显著影响,最适pH值为9~10,最适碳源为α-乳糖,最适氮源为尿素,菌丝在55℃水浴10 min后则不能生长。

  9. Growth Inhibition of Cocoa Pod Rot Fungus Phytophthora palmivora byPseudomonas fluorescence and Bacillus subtilis bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Sakti Widyanta Pratama; Sri Sukamto; Lis Nur Asyiah; Yeni Vida Ervina

    2013-01-01

    Black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivorafungus is one of the important diseases on cocoa crop. Pod rot is the most important disease because it may cause loss of cocoa pod. Until now, the fungal pathogen of cocoa black pod disease is still a crucial problem and there is no fungicide that is really effective against the disease. One alternative to control the cocoa black pod disease is by using biological agents as biofungicide, including utilizing Pseudomonas fluorescenceand Bacillu...

  10. Development of variable number of tandem repeats typing schemes for Ralstonia solanacearum, the agent of bacterial wilt, banana Moko disease and potato brown rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'guessan, Carine Aya; Brisse, Sylvain; Le Roux-Nio, Anne-Claire; Poussier, Stéphane; Koné, Daouda; Wicker, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil borne bacterial plant pathogen causing bacterial wilt on many important crops. To better monitor epidemics, efficient tools that can identify and discriminate populations are needed. In this study, we assessed variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping as a new tool for epidemiological surveillance of R. solanacearum phylotypes, and more specifically for the monitoring of the monomorphic ecotypes "Moko" (banana-pathogenic) and "brown rot" (potato-pathogenic under cool conditions). Screening of six R. solanacearum genome sequences lead to select 36 VNTR loci that were preliminarily amplified on 24 strains. From this step, 26 single-locus primer pairs were multiplexed, and applied to a worldwide collection of 337 strains encompassing the whole phylogenetic diversity, with revelation on a capillary-electrophoresis genotype. Four loci were monomorphic within all phylotypes and were not retained; the other loci were highly polymorphic but displayed a clear phylotype-specificity. Phylotype-specific MLVA schemes were thus defined, based on 13 loci for phylotype I, 12 loci for phylotype II, 11 loci for phylotype III and 6 for phylotype IV. MLVA typing was significantly more discriminative than egl-based sequevar typing, particularly on monomorphic "brown rot" ecotype (phylotype IIB/sequevar 1) and "Moko disease" clade 4 (Phylotype IIB/sequevar 4). Our results raise promising prospects for studies of population genetic structures and epidemiological monitoring. PMID:23376194

  11. Screening of Indoor Biological Agents for Ginseng Root Rot Fungus%防治人参根腐病的生物制剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟嘉丽; 张苏宏; 魏书琴; 王艳玲; 张忠宝

    2015-01-01

    To determine 6 kinds of biological agents for inhibition effect of ginseng root rot fungus by the mycelium growth rate method.The results showed that the sequence of the inhibiting effect from strong to weak was Bacillus subtilis,Bacillus mucilaginosus,Efective Micro-organisms,Bacillus mucilaginosus,Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms,Sporotrichum thermophile, Trichoserma harzianum.B.subtili,B. mucilaginosus had obviously inhibitory effect on ginseng root rot fungus. B. Subtilis had the strongest inhibiting effect whose EC50 was 0.17 mg/L. B. mucilaginosus had the second best inhibiting effect whose EC50 was 707 mg/L. The inhibitory effect of Efective Micro-organisms,B. mucilaginosus,Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms,S. ther-mophile ans T. harzianum were relatively poor, whose EC50 were 1 148、3 630、7 943、91 201 mg/L respectively.%通过菌丝生长速率法测定了6种生物制剂对人参根腐病菌的抑制效果. 结果显示,抑制作用由强到弱依次为枯草芽孢杆菌、苏云金杆菌、EM菌肥、解磷菌、嗜热性侧孢霉、哈茨木霉菌. 其中枯草芽孢杆菌、苏云金杆菌对人参根腐病菌均具有明显的抑制作用,以枯草芽孢杆菌抑制作用最强,其EC50为0.17 mg/L;苏云金杆菌次之,EC50为707 mg/L;EM菌肥、解磷菌、嗜热性侧孢霉、哈茨木霉菌的EC50分别为1 148、3 630、7 943、91 201 mg/L,抑菌效果较差.

  12. THE IMPACT OF CoFeO 4 NANOPARTICLES ON SOLUBLE PROTEIN CONTENT AT WHITE ROT FUNGUS Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Lacramioara Oprica; Eugen Ungureanu

    2016-01-01

    Experimental investigation focused on influence of different CoFeO4 nanoparticles concentrations on soluble protein and electrophoretic pattern of Phanerochaete chrysosporium fungus. Number of electrophoretic fraction is higher in older mycelium P. chrysosporium 14-day-old compared to that 7-day-old. Moreover, there is an increase in staining intensity of polypeptides of mycelium 14-day-old fact confirmed also by the higher amount of soluble protein. On the other hand, there are n...

  13. ACCELERATED LABORATORY TEST OF THREE AMAZONIAN WOOD SPECIES CALLED TAUARI, EXPOSED TO WHITE- AND BROWN-ROT FUNGI AND COLOR RESPONSE ACCORDING TO CIE L* A* B* SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to: evaluate de natural durability of three species of tauari ( Couratari guianensis Aublet , Couratari oblongifolia Ducke & R.Knuth and Couratari stellata A.C.Smith, report the colorimetric parameters according to CIE L*a*b* 1976 system and also show the appearance of control and attacked wood blocks. Two brown-rot [ Gloeophyllum trabeum (Persoon ex Fries Murril. and Lentinus lepideus Fr.] and two white-rot [ Trametes versicolor (Linnaeus ex Fries Pilat and Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. ex Wallr.] fungi were used . Tauari wood was classed as “moderately resistant” to “resistant” when exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum fungi. All extractives’ contents of attacked samples decreased when compared with the control (sound wood, except Couratari stellata exposed to Ganoderma applanatum. Conversely, all ash contents increased when compared with the control, except Couratari stellata exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum. All attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples were darker, except wood meal from Couratari stellata exposed to Trametes versicolor , and redder than the control. The ∆ E* mean value in attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples attained 29.5 and 14.3, respectively.

  14. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of reactive Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Velmurugan, Natarajan; Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Lee, Yang Soo

    2012-11-30

    The treatment of effluents from textile industry with microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, has recently gained attention. The present study was conducted using white rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes sp., and Lentinula edodes for the decolorization of reactive textile Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye. I. lacteus resulted in the best decolorization and degradation of the dye within four days. Therefore, more detailed studies were carried out using I. lacteus. The decolorization was evaluated at various concentration, pH values, and temperatures. The activities of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase enzymes were estimated to reveal the roles of enzymes in decolorization. The colorless nature of the fungal cells revealed that decolorization occurred through degradation, and confirmed by analysis of the metabolites by UV-visible spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography after decolorization. The metabolites were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and functional group analysis was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The degraded dye metabolites were assessed for phytotoxicity using Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea, which demonstrated nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed after degradation of dye.

  15. Screening of Antagonistic Bacteria from Phyllosphere towards Tobacco Brown Spot Fungus Alternaria alternata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chengsheng; KONG Fanyu; LI Duochuan; WANG Jing; WANG Fenglong

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of employing antagonistic bacteria for the control of tobacco brown spot was studied. Approximately 136 strains of bacteria were isolated from phyllospheres of tobacco and 9 of these possessed high levels of antagonistic properties. They significantly reduced brown spot in detached tobacco leaves when artificially inoculated with Alternaria alternata. Culture filtrate of the most effective bacterial isolate which designated as Tpb88 was shown to be very efficient in inhibiting mycelial growth of A alternata in dual cultures. Culture filtrate of Tpb88 inhibited germination and germ tube elongation of A alternata. The results showed that the culture filtrate directly inhibited spore germination of A. alternata, especially during the first hours of the paired cultivation. The rate of antagonistic activity of culture filtrate of Tpb88 depended on its concentration in the mixture. The greatest inhibition of spore germination was ob served at the highest concentration of filtrate (filtrate to fungal spores inocula mixed in proportion 1: 50). These suggest that the hypothetic mechanism of Tpb88 against tobacco brown spot is to produce antagonistic substances.

  16. Copper improves the production of laccase by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius in solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Kirst Tychanowicz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr Quélet, produced laccase as the main ligninolytic enzyme when cultivated on solid-state cultures using corn cob as substrate. The addition of copper greatly increased the production of enzyme. The addition of 25.0 mM CuSO4 increased the level of laccase from 270 to 1,420 U.L-1 and the fungus showed high resistance to copper under the conditions used in this work.Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr Quélet, um basidiomiceto causador da podridão branca da madeira produz lacase como principal enzima ligninolítica quando cultivado em meio em estado sólido utilizando sabugo de milho como substrato. O íon cobre tem grande efeito na produção da enzima. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos pela adição de 25.0 mM de CuSO4 que causou uma elevação dos níveis enzimáticos de 270 U.L-1 para 1.420 U.L-1 O fungo mostrou uma alta resistência ao íon cobre nas condições de cultivo utilizadas neste trabalho.

  17. Identification of volatile markers in potato brown rot and ring rot by combined GC-MS and PTR-MS techniques: study on in vitro and in vivo samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasioli, Sonia; Biondi, Enrico; Samudrala, Devasena; Spinelli, Francesco; Cellini, Antonio; Bertaccini, Assunta; Cristescu, Simona M; Braschi, Ilaria

    2014-01-15

    Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) are the bacterial causal agents of potato brown and ring rot, respectively, and are included in the A2 list of quarantine pathogens in Europe. Identification by GC-MS analysis of volatile organic compounds from Rs or Cms cultured on different nutrient media was performed. GC-MS and PTR-MS analysis were carried out also on unwounded potato tubers infected with the same pathogens. Infected tubers were produced by experimental inoculations of the plants. In in vitro experiments, Rs or Cms emitted volatile compounds, part of which were specific disease markers of potato (2-propanol and 3-methylbutanoic acid), mainly originating from bacterial metabolism (i.e., amino acid degradation, carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation). In potato tubers, pathogen metabolism modified the volatile compound pattern emitted from healthy samples. Both bacteria seem to accelerate metabolic processes ongoing in potatoes and, in the case of Rs, disease markers (1-hepten-3-ol, 3,6-dimethyl-3-octanone, 3-ethyl-3-methylpentane, 1-chloroctane, and benzothiazole) were identified. PMID:24313381

  18. Integrated Control Effects for Brown Rot of Volvariella volvacea%草菇褐腐病综合防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林德锋; 袁滨; 柯丽娜; 吴顺章

    2015-01-01

    以疣孢霉 Mycogone perniciosa Magn .引起的草菇褐腐病为试验对象,采用化学和物理相结合方法对该病害进行综合防治措施研究。药剂筛选结果表明:药后5 d和10 d ,50%施保功W P 1500倍对草菇褐腐病的防效分别为90.70%和89.66%,均优于45%噻菌灵W P 1200倍、50%福美双W P 1000倍和50%多菌灵W P 800倍的处理。物理措施结果表明:在培养料堆制前对相应环境进行全面清扫及冲洗,并用50%施保功W P 1500倍进行喷雾消毒,防效最高达87.97%;二次发酵时,利用蒸汽对菇房和培养料进行灭菌,当灭菌时间为24 h、灭菌温度60℃时防效最高,达92.47%;采用物理和化学防治相结合的综合措施结果表明,该方法对草菇褐腐病防效达97.97%,可以有效控制草菇褐腐病。%Brown rot caused by Mycogone perniciosa Magn. is a main disease of straw mushroom. In the present study ,the effect of integrated control technologies including chemical control and physical control on the brown rot of straw mushroom was investigated. The results showed that the control efficacy after application for 5 or 10 days were attributed to 1∶1 500 dilution of 50% sporgon (90.70% ,89.66% ) >1∶1 200 dilution of 45% thiabendazole>1∶ 1 000 dilution of 50% thiram > 1∶ 800 dilution of 50% carbendazim . Cleaning of the environment before composting and spray disinfection with 1∶1 500 dilution of 50% sporgon could significantly decreased the damage of M. perniciosa and the control efficiency was 87.97% ,but the control efficacy reached 92.47% after sterilizing the mushroom house and culture components at 60℃ for 24 h. Our results suggest that the integrated control including chemical control and physical control could control the brown rot on straw mushroom efficiently with 97.97%.

  19. Identification and Characterisation of New Microbial Antagonists for Biocontrol of Monilinia laxa, the Causal Agent of Brown Rot on Stone Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jeffries

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monilinia laxa is the causal agent of brown rot disease on stone fruits, and also causes blossom wilt and twig canker. The common practice used to manage this disease is through fungicide treatments. However the demand to reduce fungicide inputs has been increasing and there is a growing number of reports of M. laxa strains that are resistant to fungicides. There is an urgent need to search for an alternative strategy to control the disease. This study focused on the isolation and characterisation of biological control agents (BCAs using indigenous isolates isolated from cherries and plums collected within the UK. A total of 192 isolates were screened against two strains of M. laxa in a series of in vitro dual culture tests. From this in vitro screen, 12 isolates were selected for a subsequent in vivo screen on detached fruits, which then narrowed these isolates down to two potential BCAs. These two strains were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/subtilis (isolate B91 and Aureobasidium pullulans (isolate Y126. The capability of these two potential BCAs to grow and survive at a range of temperatures likely to be experienced under field and storage conditions was studied in order to gain knowledge for product formulation and field application. Bacillus sp. B91 was shown to be a mesophilic bacterium that could grow at 10–25 °C but suffered significant mortality at 0 and 5 °C, while A. pullulans Y126 was both mesophilic and psychrotolerant as it grew between 0–25 °C with the optimum at 20 °C. When all nutrients were removed, Y126 was able to survive for several weeks in all test temperatures (0–25 °C but showed significant mortality at 25 °C. The capability of B91 to survive at 20 and 25 °C was higher than at low temperatures (0–15 °C. In addition, the modes of action of the potential BCAs were studied. B91 was shown to produce soluble and volatile organic compounds that inhibited M. laxa, while A. pullulans Y126 did not

  20. Biological characteristics of Monilia fructigena as pathogen of brown rot in sweet cherry%大樱桃褐腐病菌生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志恒; 白海涛; 杨红; 唐爽爽; 魏美娜; 黄欣阳; 李俞涛

    2012-01-01

    Brown rot is occurring seriously in some areas of Liaoning which is one of the main sweet cherry producing areas. The biological characteristics of Moniliafructigena of sweet cherry brown rot was studied in order to provide the basis for further study and prevention of this disease. In this study, mycelia growth, spore production and spore germination were detected in relation to temperature, illumination, pH and nu- tritional conditions. The results showed that the optimum temperature for mycelia growth of pathogen was 25 ℃ ; PSA was the best of the 8 culture media in the experiment; the Optimum pH was 6.0 ; dark condi- tion was suitable for mycelia growth. PDA, xylose, NH4H2PO4, 25 ℃ and pH 6.0 were the best for spore production. The rate of spore germination was highest under this condition which includes the optimum carbon sources, nitrogen source, temperature and pH: amidulin, NH4H2PO4, 25 ℃ and pH 7.0. The mycelium could not survive at 56 ℃ for 10 min.%褐腐病在辽宁大樱桃产区严重发生,对大樱桃褐腐病菌(Monilia fructigena)生物学特性进行了研究。试验从温度、光照、pH以及营养条件几方面对病菌菌丝生长、孢子产生及萌发的环境条件进行测定。结果表明,大樱桃褐腐病菌菌丝在PSA培养基、25℃、pH6.0及黑暗条件下生长最好;产孢最佳条件为PDA、木糖、NH4H2PO4、25℃、pH6.0;分生孢子在可溶性淀粉、NH4H2PO4、25℃、pH7.0的条件下萌发率最高。病菌菌丝致死温度为56℃、10min。

  1. 台湾褐根病发生情况及研究进展%Research advances of brown root rot (Phellinus noxius) in Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林石明; 廖富荣; 陈红运; 陈青; 陈华忠

    2012-01-01

    褐根病菌是中国大陆的检疫性有害生物。褐根病是由有害木层孔菌(Phellinus noxius(Comer)Cunningham)引起经济作物、果树、景观名木古树和园林绿化等植物的毁灭性土传病害。近年来,在台湾的59科140多种植物上普遍发生并严重危害。本文综述了台湾在褐根病方面的研究进展,内容包括该病原菌的寄主、形态特征和生物学特性,病害发生发展规律和防治措施以及检测与鉴定方法。%Phellinus noxius is one of the quarantine pest of China mainland. It causes brown root rot of fruit and ornamental tree, which is a destructive disease of ancient and famous trees. P. noxius is a soil - borne pathogen. The disease is spreading among 59 families, more than 140 species of host plants these years in Taiwan. We expatiated recent research advances in Taiwan, China, including morphological and biological characteristics, spread model and control measurements and the detection & identification methods.

  2. Postharvest application of a novel chitinase cloned from Metschnikowia fructicola and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris to control brown rot of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Houda; Spadaro, Davide; Zhang, Dianpeng; Matic, Slavica; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2015-04-16

    Metschnikowia fructicola strain AP47 is a yeast antagonist against postharvest pathogens of fruits. The yeast was able to produce chitinase enzymes in the presence of pathogen cell wall. A novel chitinase gene MfChi (GenBank accession number HQ113461) was amplified from the genomic DNA of Metschnikowia fructicola AP47. Sequence analysis showed lack of introns, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1098 bp encoding a 365 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 40.9 kDa and a predicted pI of 5.27. MfChi was highly induced in Metschnikowia fructicola after interaction with Monilinia fructicola cell wall, suggesting a primary role of MfChi chitinase in the antagonistic activity of the yeast. The MfChi gene overexpressed in the heterologous expression system of Pichia pastoris KM71 and the recombinant chitinase showed high endochitinase activity towards 4-Nitrophenyl β-d-N,N',N″-triacetylchitotriose substrate. The antifungal activity of the recombinant chitinase was investigated against Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa in vitro and on peaches. The chitinase significantly controlled the spore germination and the germ tube length of the tested pathogens in PDB medium and the mycelium diameter in PDA. The enzyme, when applied on peaches cv. Redhaven, successfully reduced brown rot severity. This work shows that the chitinase MfChi could be developed as a postharvest treatment with antimicrobial activity for fruit undergoing a short shelf life, and confirms that P. pastoris KM71 is a suitable microorganism for cost-effective large-scale production of recombinant chitinases. PMID:25632799

  3. 19种杀菌剂对桃褐腐病离体抑菌活性%Control Effect of 19 Fungicides against Peach Brown Rot in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何献声

    2011-01-01

    [方法]采用含毒介质法明确了19种杀菌剂对桃褐腐病菌丝生长的影响及对桃褐腐病的离体抑菌活性.[结果]质量浓度10 mg/L时,啶菌(噁)唑、腈苯唑、戊唑醇和多菌灵对桃褐腐病菌丝生长抑菌率达100%;1 mg/L时,以上4种药剂对菌丝生长抑菌率达98%以上.[结论]啶菌(噁)唑、腈苯唑、戊唑醇、多菌灵和氟啶胺的离体抑菌活性高于其他药剂,0.1 mg/L质量浓度下,啶菌(噁)唑和腈苯唑的抑菌活性较为突出,明显高于戊唑醇和多菌灵.%[Methods] The effect on mycelial growth and antibacterial activity of 19 fungicides on peach brown rot in vitro were tested by a medium of containing a poison. [Results] The results showed that the inhibitory ratio of mycelial growth of SYP-Z048, fenbuconazole, tebuconazole and carbendazim was 100% at 10 mg/L, and over 98% at 1 mg/L. [Conclusions] The antibacterial activity in vitro of four fungicides were all higher than others, SYP-Z048 and fenbuconazole had more significant activity at the low concentration of 0.1 mg/L, much higher than tebuconazole and carbendazim.

  4. Morphological and molecular identification of bamboo culm brown rot%刚竹秆褐腐病病原形态及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春来; 吴小芹; 叶利芹; 叶建仁; 徐旭凌; 曹云

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo culm brown rot occurs generally, especially in Nanjing,and influences the growth of bamboo such as Phyllostachys glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana,especially for the former. There was no any reports about Ph. glauca infected the disease previously. By isolation and culture of diseased tissue、artificial inoculation test, morphological observation of isolated strain and amplification with universal primer ITS1/ITS4, finally molecular identification with fragment amplified of 559 bp by ITS analysis, the pathogen of Ph. glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana was identified as Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.. The research result could provide the reference basis for the effective monitoring and control of the disease.%刚竹秆褐腐病在南京地区发生较普遍,影响竹林生长.其主要危害刚竹属的淡竹(Phyllostachys glauca)、黄槽刚竹(Ph.viridis f.houzeauana),其中以淡竹受害最为严重.笔者通过对刚竹秆褐腐病病组织分离培养、人工接种试验、分离菌形态学观察及采用通用引物ITS1/ITS4扩增,对扩增出的约559 bp的片段进行ITS序列分子鉴定,最终将在淡竹和黄槽刚竹等上发生的病原鉴定为木贼镰刀菌(Fusarium equiseti(Corda)Sacc.).

  5. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants. PMID:24502208

  6. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants.

  7. Alternativas de controle pós-colheita da podridão-parda e da podridão-mole em frutos de pessegueiro Alternatives for post-harvest control of brown rot and soft rot in peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative products, used during the post-harvest, in order to control the brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and the soft rot (Rhizopus spp. in peaches. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Nepomuceno-MG in peaches of cultivar Diamond, of 10 years of planting. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions. For the study, it was selected fruits without injuries and symptoms of the diseases. The fruits were immersed for 30 seconds in a solution containing the following treatments: 1- clove oil 0.01%; 2-Chlorine dioxide 0.1%; 3-Chlorine dioxide 0.05%; 4-Benzalkonium chloride 0.25%; 5-Dichloran 0.12%, 6-Iprodione 0.15% and 7-control (water only. After the treatments, the fruits, in a number of 10, were placed in sterile trays, in three replicates. The experiment was carried out in uncontrolled environmental conditions, the development of the diseases were evaluated 3 and 5 days after the treatments in 2005 and 3, 6 and 9 days after treatment in 2006. The use of Iprodione controlled the incidence and severity of M. fructicola and Rhizopus spp. The Dichloran was the most effective treatment in the control of Rhizopus spp. and intermediate in the control of M. fructicola. The treatments with clove oil and chlorine dioxide, at the highest concentration, reduced the incidence of Rhizopus spp. and to severity they showed intermediate results.

  8. Metabolism of halogenated compounds in the white rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta studied by membrane inlet mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Lauritsen, F.R.; Patrick, J.S.;

    1996-01-01

    Membrane inlet mass spectrometry has been used for the characterization of halogenated organic compounds produced by the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. Using this technique, electron impact-, chemical ionization-, electron capture negative chemical ionization-mass spectra and tandem mass spectra were...

  9. Enhancing the laccase production and laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 with great potential for biotechnological applications by different metal ions and aromatic compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available Laccase is useful for various biotechnological and industrial applications. The white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 and its laccase, isolated from the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China by our laboratory, has great potential for practical application in environmental biotechnology. However, the original level of laccase produced by Trametes velutina 5930 was relatively low in the absence of any inducer. Therefore, in order to enhance the laccase production by Trametes velutina 5930 and make better use of this fungus in the field of environmental biotechnology, the regulation of laccase production and laccase gene expression in Trametes velutina 5930 were investigated in this study. Different metal ions such as Cu(2+ and Fe(2+ could stimulate the laccase synthesis and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Some aromatic compounds structurally related to lignin, such as tannic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and guaiacol, could also enhance the level of laccase activity and laccase gene transcription. We also found that there existed a positive synergistic effect of aromatic compound and metal ion on the laccase production and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Taken together, our study may contribute to the improvement of laccase productivity by Trametes velutina 5930.

  10. Enhancing the laccase production and laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 with great potential for biotechnological applications by different metal ions and aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wei, Fuxiang; Zhuo, Rui; Fan, Fangfang; Liu, Huahua; Zhang, Chen; Ma, Li; Jiang, Mulan; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2013-01-01

    Laccase is useful for various biotechnological and industrial applications. The white-rot fungus Trametes velutina 5930 and its laccase, isolated from the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China by our laboratory, has great potential for practical application in environmental biotechnology. However, the original level of laccase produced by Trametes velutina 5930 was relatively low in the absence of any inducer. Therefore, in order to enhance the laccase production by Trametes velutina 5930 and make better use of this fungus in the field of environmental biotechnology, the regulation of laccase production and laccase gene expression in Trametes velutina 5930 were investigated in this study. Different metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) could stimulate the laccase synthesis and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Some aromatic compounds structurally related to lignin, such as tannic acid, syringic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and guaiacol, could also enhance the level of laccase activity and laccase gene transcription. We also found that there existed a positive synergistic effect of aromatic compound and metal ion on the laccase production and laccase gene transcription in Trametes velutina 5930. Taken together, our study may contribute to the improvement of laccase productivity by Trametes velutina 5930.

  11. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) and Humic Acid on the Growth of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plant and Root Rot Disease Caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian

    OpenAIRE

    ASLANPAY, Burcu; Semra DEMİR

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of singular and double combinations of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and humic acid (HA) were investigated on the growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and rot root disease caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian which has been known as an important problem of pepper cultivation and leading yield losses. Under controlled conditions, four F1 pepper cultivars (Ergenekon, Bafra, Sirena and Yıldız) were inoculated with three different AMF strains (Glomus intraradice...

  12. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  13. Simultaneous detoxification and decolorization of molasses spent wash by the immobilized white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus isolated from a marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.; Kamat, S.; Shailaja, M.S.

    comparison of gel filtration chromatography of MSW, before and after treatment with the immobilized F. flavus showed disappearance of the most of the colored fractions in the fungus-treated MSW. A possible mechanism of decolorization of MSW is via the action...

  14. Study on the treatment of dye wastewater by immobilized white-rot fungus%固定化白腐真菌处理染料废水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁绍兰; 陈旭婷; 白雄艳

    2014-01-01

    染料废水具有COD高、色度高、盐度高和BOD/COD比值低等特点,属于难生化降解的有机工业废水.白腐真菌对可生化性差、有毒有害的废水有较好的降解作用.利用固定化微生物技术可构成一种高效、快速、能连续处理的废水处理系统,减少二次污染.实验采用固定化白腐真菌处理染料废水,分别考察了不同生物球的投加量、染料废水浓度、pH、转速对染料脱色率的影响.结果表明:固定化白腐真菌对染料废水分别在生物球投加量为5.5 g/100 m L、染料废水浓度为20 mg/L、pH为3、转速为120 r/min条件下具有最好的脱色率.%Dye wastewater is difficult to biodegrade which belongs to organic industrial wastewater with high COD ,high chromaticity ,high salinity and low BOD/COD ratio etc . The white-rot fungus has quite good degradation on poor biodegradability ,toxic and hazard-ous wastewater .Using the immobilized microorganism technology can constitute a highly ef-ficient ,rapid and continuous processing of wastewater treatment system and reduce the sec-ondary pollution effectively .The dye wastewater was treated by immobilized white-rot fun-gus ;and the influence of the different mass of biological balls ,concentration of dye wastewater ,the values of pH ,rotational speed on the decolorization rates was examined .The results show that :when the mass of biological balls is 5 .5 g/100 mL ,the concentration of dye wastewater is 20 mg/L ,pH is 3 ,the rotational speed is 120 r/min ,the decolorization rate of dye wastewater reach the best respectively .

  15. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgenstern, Ingo [CLARK UNIV; Hibbett, David [CLARK UNIV.; Schmoll, Monika [UNIV WIEN; Kubicek, Christian P [UNIV WIEN; Ferreira, Patricia [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Martinez, Angel T [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Kersten, Phil [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Hammel, Kenneth E [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber [U. WISCONSIN; Gaskell, Jill [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Lindquist, Erika [DOE JGI; Sabati, Grzegorz [U. WISCONSIN; Bondurant, Sandra S [U. WISCONSIN; Larrondo, Luis F [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Canessa, Paulo [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Vicunna, Rafael [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Yadavk, Jagiit [U. CINCINATTI; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan [U. CINCINATTI; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan [U. CINCINATTI; Pisabarro, Antonio G [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Lavin, Jose L [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Oguiza, Jose A [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Master, Emma [U. TORONTO; Henrissat, Bernard [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Coutinho, Pedro M [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Harris, Paul [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Magnuson, Jon K [PNNL; Baker, Scott [PNNL; Bruno, Kenneth [PNNL; Kenealy, William [MASCOMA, INC.; Hoegger, Patrik J [GEORG-AUGUST-U.; Kues, Ursula [GEORG-AUGUST-U; Ramaiva, Preethi [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Lucas, Susan [DOE JGI; Salamov, Asaf [DOE JGI; Shapiro, Harris [DOE JGI; Tuh, Hank [DOE JGI; Chee, Christine L [UNM; Teter, Sarah [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Yaver, Debbie [NOVOZYMES, INC.; James, Tim [MCMASTER U.; Mokrejs, Martin [CHARLES U.; Pospisek, Martin [CHARLES U.; Grigoriev, Igor [DOE JGI; Rokhsar, Dan [DOE JGI; Berka, Randy [NOVOZYMES; Cullen, Dan [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  16. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus Postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego; Challacombe, Jean; Morgenstern, Ingo; Hibbett, David; Schmoll, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco; Martinez, Angel T.; Kersten, Phil; Hammel, Ken; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Lindquist, Erika; Sabat, Gregorz; Splinter Bondurant, Sandra; Larrondo, Luis F.; Canessa, Paulo; Vicuna, Rafael; Yadev, Jagjit; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Pisabarro, Antonio; Lavin, Jose L.; Oguiza, Jose A.; Master, Emma; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Harris, Paul; Magnuson, Jon K.; Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Kenealy, William; Hoegger, Patrik; Kues, Ursula; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank; Chee, Christine L.; Misra, Monica; Xie, Gary; Teter, Sarah; Yaver, Debbie; James, Tim; Mokrejs, Martin; Pospisek, Martin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Brettin, T.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan

    2009-02-10

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome, and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in media containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative β-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Also upregulated under cellulolytic culture conditions were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H2O2. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H2O2 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. In particular, comparisons between P. placenta and the closely related white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  17. Basal Root Rot, a new Disease of Teak (Tectona grandis in Malaysia caused by Phellinus noxius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal root rot of teak was first reported from Sabak Bernam, Selangor making this the first report of the disease on teak in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungus found associated with the disease was Phellinus noxious. The disease aggressively killed its host irrespective of the host health status. Bark depression at the root collar which was visible from a distance was the characteristic symptom and the main indicator in identifying the disease in the plantation since above ground symptoms of the canopy could not be differentiated from crowns of healthy trees. However, although above ground symptoms were not easily discernible, the disease was already advanced and the trees mostly beyond treatment; 3.4 % of the trees in the plantation were affected and the disease occurred both on solitary trees and in patches. Below ground, infected trees had rotted root systems, mainly below and around the collar region with brown discolored wood and irregular golden-brown honeycomb-like pockets of fungal hyphae in the wood. Pathogenicity tests showed that the fungus produced symptoms similar to those observed in the plantation and killed two year-old teak plants. The disease killed all the inoculated hosts within three months, irrespective of wounded or unwounded treatments.

  18. Study on Anniversary Cultivation Mode of Coffee and Straw Rotting Fungus%咖啡与草腐型食用菌复合高效周年栽培模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传利; 杜华波; 杨发军; 桂雪梅; 谢纯

    2014-01-01

    在小粒咖啡种植园进行的咖啡园+大球盖菇和咖啡园+姬松茸两种复合栽培试验的结果表明:利用咖啡副产品混合其它原料生料栽培的大球盖菇和发酵料栽培的姬松茸生物学效率分别达36.5%和35.8%;鲜菇产量分别为5.84 kg/m2和5.78 kg/m2,姬松茸经济效益高于大球盖菇;两种复合栽培模式能实现咖啡园与草腐型食用菌复合周年栽培,栽培1个周期后,平均效益比咖啡纯作增加5~10倍,达到7742元/667 m2,最高可达14242元/667 m2;养菇的营养基料为咖啡园持续提供良好的田面覆盖和优质的有机肥料,增进土壤肥力,具有较好的经济、生态和社会效益。%Intercropped experiment of two edible fungus in Coffea arabica plantations was conducted. The results indicat-ed that the biological efficiency of fungus Stropharia rugoso-annulata reached to 36.5% under treatment of coffee by prod-ucts mixed with other raw material, and 36.5%for Agaricus blazei Murrill with fermented material . Fresh yields were 5.84 kg/m2 and 5.78 kg/m2, respectively.The economic benefit of Agaricus blazei Murrill is much better than that of Strophar-ia rugoso-annulata;This model is help in implementing the anniversary cultivation of straw rotting fungus in coffee planta-tions. Compared with solo coffee planting, the averaged efficiency increased 5 to 10 times, up to 7 742 yuan per hec-are in one cultivation cycle. The highest can reach to 14 242 yuan per hecare. While mushroom nutrition makings can pro-vide good surface coverage and quality organic fertilizer, improving soil fertility and has better economic, ecological and so-cial benefits.

  19. Biocontrol of the Brown-banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. (Blattaria: Blattellidae, with Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metharhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sharififard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering to the high distribution of cockroaches as urban pests, the efficacy of different formula­tions of Metarhizium anisopliae strain Iran 437C were assessed against the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longi­palpa F. under laboratory and field conditions.Methods: Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were screened with immersing adults of the brown-banded cockroachs in aqueous suspension of 108 conidia ml-1 followed by surface or bait treated with different doses of the most virulent isolate against the nymphs. Then formulations of conidia oil-in-water were examined versus cockroach nymphs us­ing different plant oils and paraffin. Then they were evaluated and compared with aqueous suspension and control group. On a large-scale, the sunflower oil-in-water formulation of conidia was sprayed at houses using a hand sprayer.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae IRAN 437C was the most virulent isolate against the brown-banded cockroach, causing 100% mortality in adults at seven days post-exposure. Inoculated bait with this isolate was not enough path­ogenic against the cockroach even at two weeks after treatment. Treated surface with conidia as aqueous suspension or oil-in- water formulation was more effective than the bait formulation against the cockroach caused 39.4–97.2% mortality compared with 2.5% mortality in control group after two days. Spraying the conidia formulated with sun­flower oil was an effective formulation causing 76.1% reduction in the cockroach density on the third day post treatment in the houses.Conclusion: The oil-in-water formulation of M. anisopliae IRAN 437C could be recommended as a promising al­ternative for cockroach control.  

  20. Effect of phosphate and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on disease severity of root rot of peas ( Pisum sativum ) caused by Aphanomyces euteiches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Lars; Kjøller, Rasmus; Rosendahl, Søren

    1998-01-01

    The effects of inorganic phosphate levels and the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on disease severity of Aphanomyces euteiches in pea roots were studied. Disease severity on roots and epicotyl as well as the oospore number within infected root tissue were correlated with the phosphorus (P) level...... in the growth medium. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices increased P uptake and the P concentration in the plant but reduced disease development in peas. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by densitometry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase specific to A.euteiches was used...... to measure the activity of the pathogen in roots. The enzyme activity increased with disease severity and disease incidence, except in plants supplemented with P at the highest level, where a peak in activity was seen 12 days after inoculation with the pathogen, followed by a decrease in activity...

  1. Trichocitrin, a new fusicoccane diterpene from the marine brown alga-endophytic fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-Rui; Miao, Feng-Ping; Song, Yin-Ping; Guo, Zhan-Yong; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    One new diterpene, trichocitrin (1), and four known secondary metabolites, nafuredin (2), 5-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-7-methoxychromone (3), 24-methylenecycloartanol (4) and citrostadienol (5), were isolated from the culture of marine brown alga-endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27. Trichocitrin (1) represents the first Trichoderma-derived and furan-bearing fusicoccane diterpene, and its structure and relative configuration were identified by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited 8.0- and 9.5-mm inhibition zones, respectively, against Escherichia coli at 20 μg/disc and 54.1 and 36.7% growth inhibition, respectively, of Prorocentrum donghaiense at 80 μg/mL. PMID:26728965

  2. Trichocitrin, a new fusicoccane diterpene from the marine brown alga-endophytic fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-Rui; Miao, Feng-Ping; Song, Yin-Ping; Guo, Zhan-Yong; Ji, Nai-Yun

    2016-07-01

    One new diterpene, trichocitrin (1), and four known secondary metabolites, nafuredin (2), 5-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-7-methoxychromone (3), 24-methylenecycloartanol (4) and citrostadienol (5), were isolated from the culture of marine brown alga-endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride cf-27. Trichocitrin (1) represents the first Trichoderma-derived and furan-bearing fusicoccane diterpene, and its structure and relative configuration were identified by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited 8.0- and 9.5-mm inhibition zones, respectively, against Escherichia coli at 20 μg/disc and 54.1 and 36.7% growth inhibition, respectively, of Prorocentrum donghaiense at 80 μg/mL.

  3. Preliminary evidence of the role of hydrogen peroxide in the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by a non-white rot fungus Fusarium solani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veignie, Etienne; Rafin, Catherine; Woisel, Patrice; Cazier, Fabrice

    2004-05-01

    In order to study the enzymatic mechanisms involved in the successive steps of BaP degradation by a Deuteromycete fungus Fusarium solani, we developed an indirect approach by using inhibitors of enzymes. We used either specific inhibitors of peroxidases (i.e. salicylhydroxamic acid) and of cytochrome P-450 (i.e. piperonyl butoxyde) or inhibitors of both enzymes (i.e. potassium cyanide). Surprisingly, no expected decrease of BaP degradation was observed with most inhibitors tested. On the contrary, more BaP was degraded. Only butylated hydroxytoluene, which acts as a free radical scavenger, inhibited BaP degradation. The inhibition of these enzymes, which use H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as a cosubstrat, might have resulted in an increase of hydrogen peroxide availability in the fungal cultures. This enhancement could induce formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be the agents that initiate benzo[a]pyrene oxidation. This study proposed a hypothetic alternative metabolic pathway involved in PAH metabolism by Fusarium solani. - An alternative metabolic pathway was demonstrated.

  4. 利用葡萄籽油防治桃子采后褐腐病的研究%Application of Grape Seed Oil to Control Brown Rot of Postharvest Peaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张殿朋; 韩雪梅; 卢彩鸽; 张晓元; 刘伟成

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the efficacy of grape seed oil (GFO) at different concentrations (0.5%,0.1%,0.05%,0.01%) in controlling brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on postharvest peaches was evaluated in artificially-wounded peaches or under storage conditions,and moreover,the effects of GFO on fruit quality parameters including firmness,total soluble solids,ascorbic acid and titratable acidity were investigated.In vitro,when M.fructicola at 5 × 104 cfu/mL was cultured at the presence of GFO at the concentration of ≥0.05 %,the pathogen spore germination was completely inhibited by GFO; In vivo,when M.fructicola at 5 × 104 cfu/mL was inoculated into artificially-wounded peaches followed by inoculating GFO,GFO at the concentration of≥0.05% reduced the brown rot diameter by more than 50%,but no significant difference was observed between 0.1% and 0.5%.However,when the concentration of GFO was 0.01%,the control efficacy in vivo was significantly decreased.Therefore,the optimal concentration of GFO in controlling brown rot on postharvest peaches was defined as 0.1%.When stored at 1 ℃ and 96% RH for 21 days,the disease incidence of 0.1% GFO-treated peaches was 20.0%,the disease incidence of the fungicide (tebuconazole)-treated peaches was 18.7 %,and the disease incidence of the control group was 45.5%,showing that the efficacy of 0.1% GFO in controlling brown rot was 56.0%,which was very similar to that of fungicide(58.9%).Fruit quality parameter assessment indicated that GFO had no significant effects on the peach quality.As far as we know,this is the first report on application of non-harmful grape seed oil to control the brown rot on postharvest peaches as an alternative to fungicide.%为探索桃采后褐腐病的新型非化学农药防治手段,研究了不同用量葡萄籽油处理(体积分数分别为0.5%、0.1%、0.05%、0.01%)对桃采后褐腐病的抑制效果.将褐腐病菌(Monilinia fructicola)(终浓度:5

  5. EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LACCASE FROM WILD, MUTANTS AND HYBRID STRAINS OF TWO WHITE-ROT FUNGUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN DECOLOURIZATION AND LIGNINOLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Majolagbe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular laccases were extracted from a 5-day old submerge cultures of the wild, mutants and hybrid of Lentinus subnudus. Mutants were generated by exposure of the wild strain of L. subnudus to ultraviolet radiation (ג = 280 nm at specific time intervals while the hybrid was produced by cross-breeding L. subnudus with L. edodes. The crude enzyme was fractionated with 80% ammonium sulphate and further purified on DEAE column. The laccase has a molecular weight of about 45 KDa. Purification yield on DEAE column gave the highest purification yield of 23.25% in SWT and least in SHT (5.29%. Its potentials in decolourization of 2, 6-dichlorophenol-indophenol dye at different pH conditions were investigated. Five out of the six fungal strains tested gave significant (P<0.05 percentage decolourization (≥43.94% at pH 8. The fungus was further studied for their ability in degrading wheat and paddy straws. The solid substrate fermentation was inoculated with two pieces (0.6cm diameter mycelial agar blocks of each of the fungal strains, supplemented with 30mg/100g sucrose, 24mg/100g KNO3 and 60mg/100g CaCO3. The periodic reduction in weight of the solid substrate medium and enzymatic activity of laccase for each of the fungal strains was assessed. Therefore, the ability of the wild, mutants and hybrid of L subnudus strains to produce laccase enzyme shows their significant potential in textile industry, especially in decolourization of dye and bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes.

  6. Controle da podridão parda do pessegueiro com fungicidas e fosfitos avaliados em pré e pós-colheita Control of peach tree brown rot by fungicides and phosphites evaluated during preharvest and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Martins Moreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A podridão parda é a doença mais importante para a cultura do pessegueiro, entretanto, no Brasil são escassos os trabalhos realizados a campo visando o seu controle. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, selecionar fungicidas em laboratório e avaliar a sua eficiência e de fosfitos a campo, para o controle da podridão parda monitorando as fases de desenvolvimento de frutos e pós-colheita, além de avaliar as características qualitativas dos frutos. O experimento de campo foi realizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições: três fungicidas pré-selecionados in vitro (iminoctadine tris albesilate, myclobutanil e iprodione, dois fosfitos (CaB e de K e testemunha. Foi avaliada a incidência de infecções latentes de Monilinia fructicola em frutos em desenvolvimento e em frutos maduros após a colheita. Para os frutos em desenvolvimento observou-se maior incidência nas duas últimas coletas. No campo, o iprodione e o iminoctadine mostraram eficiência no controle da doença durante as avaliações. Após três dias no ambiente o iminoctadine foi melhor que os demais tratamentos mantendo a incidência da podridão parda em 1,0% contra 31,4% no tratamento com iprodione e 91,2% na testemunha. O fosfito de CaB não mostrou diferença em relação à testemunha no decorrer das avaliações, mas o fosfito de K, reduziu em 60 e 28% o número de frutos doentes aos três e cinco dias, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. Quanto aos parâmetros de qualidade, o peso médio dos frutos, o diâmetro e a firmeza da polpa, não mostraram diferenças significativas em relação à testemunha.Brown rot is the most important disease in peach tree cultivation, but field studies with control methods are currently rare in Brazil. One of the objectives of this study was to select fungicides in the laboratory then test them in the field, additionally to phosphites, for the control of the brown rot. The control was performed by observing the fruit development

  7. 双孢蘑菇褐腐病病原菌的分离及分子鉴定%Isolation and Molecular Identification of a Pathogen Causing Brown Rot in Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李河; 周国英; 刘君昂

    2009-01-01

    Strain CSUFT0821, a pathogen causing brown rot of Agaricus bisporus, has been identified by determining the sequence of a ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and comparing with corresponding sequences deposited in GenBank. Homology was highest (99%) with an ITS sequence from Mycogone perniciosa (EU380317). A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of ITS sequences revealed very close proximity between EU380317 and the ITS sequence from strain CSUFT0821, and confirmed that the latter was M. perniciosa.%对引起双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)褐腐病的病原菌进行分离和分子鉴定.分离培养褐腐病病原菌,采用CTAB法抽提其基因组总DNA,利用真菌通用引物ITS1和ITS4扩增菌株rDNA ITS区序列,扩增产物纯化后克隆转化至大肠杆菌,挑选克隆成功的菌株进行测序.测序结果在GenBank中进行同源性搜索,并下载部分具有代表性种的ITS序列,利用软件MEGA4 构建分子系统发育树,通过序列分析,鉴定出引起双孢蘑菇褐腐病的病原菌为Mycogone perniciosa.

  8. Expression of Five Endopolygalacturonase Genes and Demonstration that MfPG1 Overexpression Diminishes Virulence in the Brown Rot Pathogen Monilinia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien-Ming; Yu, Fang-Yi; Yu, Pei-Ling; Ho, Jia-Fang; Bostock, Richard M; Chung, Kuang-Ren; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lee, Miin-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Monilinia fructicola is a devastating pathogen on stone fruits, causing blossom blight and fruit rot. Little is known about pathogenic mechanisms in M. fructicola and related Monilinia species. In this study, five endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in M. fructicola. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the five MfPG genes are differentially expressed during pathogenesis and in culture under various pH regimes and carbon and nitrogen sources. MfPG1 encodes the major endo-PG and is expressed to significantly higher levels compared to the other four MfPGs in culture and in planta. MfPG1 function during pathogenesis was evaluated by examining the disease phenotypes and gene expression patterns in M. fructicola MfPG1-overexpressing strains and in strains carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene fused with MfPG1 (MfPG1-GUS). The MFPG1-GUS reporter was expressed in situ in conidia and hyphae following inoculation of flower petals, and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed MfPG1 expression during pathogenesis. MfPG1-overexpressing strains produced smaller lesions and higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the petals of peach and rose flowers than the wild-type strain, suggesting that MfPG1 affecting fungal virulence might be in part resulted from the increase of ROS in the Prunus-M. fructicola interactions. PMID:26120831

  9. Expression of Five Endopolygalacturonase Genes and Demonstration that MfPG1 Overexpression Diminishes Virulence in the Brown Rot Pathogen Monilinia fructicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chou

    Full Text Available Monilinia fructicola is a devastating pathogen on stone fruits, causing blossom blight and fruit rot. Little is known about pathogenic mechanisms in M. fructicola and related Monilinia species. In this study, five endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG genes were cloned and functionally characterized in M. fructicola. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR revealed that the five MfPG genes are differentially expressed during pathogenesis and in culture under various pH regimes and carbon and nitrogen sources. MfPG1 encodes the major endo-PG and is expressed to significantly higher levels compared to the other four MfPGs in culture and in planta. MfPG1 function during pathogenesis was evaluated by examining the disease phenotypes and gene expression patterns in M. fructicola MfPG1-overexpressing strains and in strains carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene fused with MfPG1 (MfPG1-GUS. The MFPG1-GUS reporter was expressed in situ in conidia and hyphae following inoculation of flower petals, and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed MfPG1 expression during pathogenesis. MfPG1-overexpressing strains produced smaller lesions and higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS on the petals of peach and rose flowers than the wild-type strain, suggesting that MfPG1 affecting fungal virulence might be in part resulted from the increase of ROS in the Prunus-M. fructicola interactions.

  10. Queima das flores e podridão parda em pessegueiro sob sistema de cultivo orgânico Blossom blight and brown rot on organic peach production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Keske

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A queima das flores e a podridão parda, causadas por Monilinia fructicola, são as doenças mais importantes na cultura do pessegueiro. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a incidência de queima das flores e podridão parda latente em frutos verdes e na colheita sob condições naturais de infecção, em relação à posição dos ramos em pomar com cultivares de pessegueiro sob sistema de cultivo orgânico. As avaliações foram realizadas com as cultivares 'Aurora', 'Flordaking', 'Marli' e 'Della Nona' em 2006, e 'Aurora' e 'Marli' em 2007 e 2008 e conduzidas em sistema orgânico em Rio do Sul, Santa Catarina (SC. Foram monitorados semanalmente os conídios do patógeno em armadilhas tipo "cata-vento". A incidência média da doença na floração foi de 0,8 ('Della Nona' a 19,1% ('Marli'. A incidência na colheita foi de 15,4('Della Nona' a 65,7% ('Flordaking'. Correlações positivas e significativas foram verificadas entre número de conídios e fases fenológicas variando de 0,67 ('Flordaking a 0,99 ('Aurora'. A posição do ramo no pomar, na linha ou na entrelinha não influenciou a incidência da doença nas flores e nos frutos. A maior concentração de conídios foi observada na fase de maturação dos frutos.The blossom blight and brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola are the most important diseases of peach tree. This study aimed to verify the incidence of the blossom blight on flowers and latent brown rot in green fruits, and at harvest under natural infection, in relation to the position of branches in the orchard with peach cultivars under organic system. The evaluations were carried out with the cultivars 'Aurora', 'Flordaking', 'Marli' and 'Della Nona' in 2006, 'Aurora' and 'Marli' in 2007 and 2008 and conducted in an organic syste m in Rio do Sul, SC. Conidia were monitored weekly by "winddriven" traps. At flowering the average incidence was 0.8 ('Della Nona' to 19.1% ('Marli'. The incidence at harvest was 15

  11. Identification of the pathogen causing brown rot of Chinese Dwarf Cherry( Cerasus humilis%欧李褐腐病病原菌鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐成楠; 周宗山; 吴玉星; 迟福梅; 张红军

    2011-01-01

    欧李[ Cerasus humilis( Bge.) Sok.]为蔷薇科樱桃属果树,别名钙果,原产中国,分布于我国的黑龙江、辽宁、内蒙古、河北、山东、山西等省区.多生长在向阳山坡或沙丘边缘,资源相当丰富.欧李株高0.3~1.5m,多为0.5~0.7m左右,是目前世界上最矮小的木本果树.果实可鲜食或加工,含糖、蛋白质、维生素C,特别是矿质元素铁和钙的含量很高,每100果肉干分别含有58和360 mg种仁可作药用,中药称之为"郁李仁"可消毒化肿.%One serious disease happened on the fruit of Chinese Dwarf Cherry in Liaoning Province recently. The typical symptom was brown spot formed on the fruit surface. The spot spread quickly through the whole fruits, then the fruits were rotten. There were tomentum round shaped mildew formed on the surface of symptomatic fruits. The pathogen was isolated from infected fruits. After pathogenicity tests in lab and field and re-isolation, the isolate HI was determined to be responsible for the disease. HI colony on PDA was 70 -75 mm in diameter, with concentric rings in grayish or light brown color after 7 days incubation at 221 with illumination of 12 h near-UV/12 h dark. The conidia were one-celled, hyaline, lemon-shaped, (10-27) jun x (7-17) jun on PDA, produced in branched monilioid chains. The rDNA ITS sequence of islolates HI and Gl had 100% similarity with those of Monilinia fructicola in GenBank. The amplification results with three Monilinia specific primer pairs showed that only primer pair ITSlMfcl and ITS4Mfcl could amplify a 356 bp fragment. Based on the morphological characteristics and rDNA molecular analysis, the pathogen was finally identified as M. Fructicola.

  12. 一种玉米新型细菌性褐腐病的病原鉴定%Identification of the bacteria causing a new brown stalk rot on maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾沁; 张昊; 黄海; 丁正; 伍辉军; 高学文

    2016-01-01

    本研究从河北省武邑、献县、阜城和永年采集感病玉米植株。病株症状为叶梢枯死卷曲,叶脉产生黄色病斑,茎秆处黄褐色干腐。从发病植株中分离得到了10株疑似病原细菌菌株,经过回接验证和16S rDNA 和 gyrB 基因的序列分析,结果表明,引起该病害的病原物为菠萝泛菌(Pantoea ananatis )和分散泛菌(Pantoea dispersa )。这是国内首次报道菠萝泛菌和分散泛菌引起玉米细菌性病害。%To identify the pathogens of newly occurred maize disease,we collected the samples of maize disease from four areas (Wuyi,Xianxian,Fucheng and Yongnian)in Hebei Province.The symptoms of the disease showed yellowish-brown dry rot in corn stalk,curl and blight symptoms on leaf tips and yellow spots on leaf veins. Pathogenic tests were assayed by inoculating the bacteria isolated from the diseased corn plants.The pathogens were identified as Pantoea ananatis and P .dispersa according to the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and gyrB gene .To our knowledge,it is the first report of P .ananatis and P .dispersa causing maize disease in China.

  13. 小麦茎基褐腐病病原菌组成及其致病力研究%Pathogenic Fungi of Wheat Brown Foot Rot and Their Pathogenicity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 陈莹; 张晓祥; 张伯桥; 于汉寿; 陈怀谷

    2011-01-01

    为明确小麦茎基褐腐病(brown foot rot)病原菌的组成,于2008-2009年春从江苏、安徽、河南、湖北、河北和四川6省48个县市的65个地点采集了具有茎基褐腐症状的病株,并分离到110株病原真菌.根据其培养性状、形态学特征以及分子生物学鉴定,可将这些病原菌分为4类,分别为小麦根腐离蠕孢(Bipolaris sorokiniana,41株)、镰孢菌(Fusarium spp.,33株)、雪霉叶枯病菌(Microdochium nivale,24株)和黑附球菌(Epicoccum nigrum,12株).对这些菌株在小麦苗期的致病力及重新分离得率的测定结果表明,4类病原菌之间的致病力存在明显差异,其中以小麦根腐离蠕孢(B.sorokiniana)发病率和致病力最强,其次是镰孢菌(Fusarium spp.),雪霉叶枯病菌(M.nivale)和黑附球菌(E.nigrum)则相对较弱;病菌的重新分离得率与其致病力呈正相关.

  14. Prospects for Inhibition of lignin degrading enzymes to control ganoderma white rot of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; Meon, Sariah; Abidin, M. A. Zainal; Lima, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Oil palm (OP) is prone to a rot by the fungus Ganoderma which may be capable of being controlled by enzyme inhibitors. Palm oil is used in the production of vegetable oil for foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and, most recently, biodiesel. However, the fundamental process of the disease as “white rot” has been ignored by researchers. White rot fungi are capable of degrading lignin ultimately to carbon dioxide and water: Celluloses become available as nutrients for the fungus. One potential co...

  15. Monitoring cotton root rot progression within a growing season using airborne multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, is a serious and destructive disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern United States. Accurate delineation of cotton root rot infections is important for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this st...

  16. Comparison of airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for mapping cotton root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, is a major cotton disease affecting cotton production in the southwestern and south central U.S. Accurate delineation of root rot infestations is necessary for cost-effective management of the disease. The objective of this s...

  17. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  18. 甘肃省马铃薯束梗褐腐病病原鉴定及其生物学特性研究%Identification and biological characteristics of Solanum tuberosum brown rot caused by Doratomyces stemonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泰祥; 陈秀蓉; 杨成德; 朱海波; 王涵琦; 卞静

    2014-01-01

    The identification and biological characteristics of the pathogen isolated from brown rot of Solanum tu-berosum were studied.The pathogen was identified as Doratomyces stemonitis (Pers.ex Fr.)F.J.Morton &G. Smith based on morphological characteristics as well as rDNA-ITS sequences.The optimum temperature for myce-lial growth was 25-30 ℃ at pH 6.The pathogen could use monosaccharide,disaccharide and polysaccharide;the best carbon source was sucrose,and the best nitrogen source was glycine.Illumination had no obvious promotion effect on mycelial growth.The optimum temperature for sporangium sprout was 25 ℃ at pH 7.Spores could ger-minate only in water drop.The filtrate of potato and glucose solution had obvious promotion effect on spore ger-mination.Soil solution had no effects on spore germination.%对甘肃省马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum L.)束梗褐腐病病原进行了分离鉴定和生物学特性研究。经形态特征观察与 rDNA-ITS 序列分析,将病原菌鉴定为细基束梗霉[Doratomyces stemonitis (Pers.ex Fr.)F.J.Morton &G.Smith]。生物学特性研究结果表明,病菌菌丝生长最适温度为25~30℃,最适 pH 为6,病菌能利用多种碳源,但以蔗糖最好,氮源以甘氨酸最适,光照对菌丝生长没有影响。分生孢子在5~40℃范围内均能萌发,最适25℃,最适 pH 为7,分生孢子萌发需液态水,湿度低于99%几乎不萌发,马铃薯汁液和葡萄糖液对孢子萌发有较好的促进作用。本研究为马铃薯束梗褐腐病的防治提供了理论依据。

  19. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, S.M.; Hansen, K.; Romanish, M.; Thorn, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia res

  20. Fungos antagonistas e efeito de produtos químicos no controle da podridão parda em pomar de pessegueiro Antagonistic fungi and effect of chemical products in the control of brown rot in peach orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Martins Moreira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a eficiência de controladores biológicos e produtos químicos para controle da podridão parda, foi conduzido um experimento a campo na safra de 2002 no município da Lapa-PR, com a cultivar BR-1. O objetivo do experimento foi fazer seleção de tratamentos com controle biológico comparando-os com químicos em sistemas de manejo utilizados na região. Como tratamentos foram utilizados quatro antagonistas previamente selecionados em trabalho de pós-colheita, isolados F1, F2, F4 (Trichothecium roseum, isolado F9 (Penicillium sp (em 16 aplicações, sistema de Produção Integrada de Pêssegos (PIP (nove aplicações, fosfitos de Ca e de K + captan (11 aplicações, alternância de fungicidas (oito aplicações, tratamento convencional da propriedade (PC (nove aplicações, pulverizados desde a floração até a colheita, sendo a testemunha sem pulverização. Para avaliação, foi contado o número de frutos por ramo marcado após o raleio e no início da colheita. Para os frutos colhidos nos ramos foi determinada a incidência da doença na colheita e aos 3 e 5 dias em pós-colheita. O PIP, fosfito+captan, e isolado F4, não diferirem estatisticamente do padrão PC, e reduziram 95,5; 63,6 e 68,2%, respectivamente a doença em relação à testemunha que apresentou 44% dos frutos com podridão parda aos cinco dias. O tratamento com a alternância de fungicidas foi o melhor, e não foram observados frutos com a doença, entretanto apresentou uma redução do número de frutos entre o raleio e a colheita de 76,5% contra 50% em média dos demais tratamentos indicando um provável efeito fitotóxico.The efficiency of biological controllers and chemical products in the control of brown rot was investigated in a field experiment during the 2002 growing season in the municipality of Lapa-PR. The cultivar BR1 was used in the experiment. The objective of the experiment was to select treatments with biological control by comparing them

  1. Etiology of phomopsis root rot in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cecília Ghissi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of damages caused by soybean root rot to crops in the south of Brazil for several years, a root rot caused by Phomopsis sp has been found with increasing frequency. The primary symptoms are seen when the main root is cut longitudinally, including the death of the wood which shows white coloration and well-defined black lines that do not have a defined format. Thus, based on similarity, it has been called geographic root rot due to its aspect resembling irregular lines that separate regions on a map. In isolations, colonies and alpha spores of Phomopsis have prevailed. Pathogenicity test was done by means of inoculation in the crown of plants cultivated in a growth chamber. The geographic symptoms were reproduced in plants and the fungus Phomopsis sp. was reisolated. In soybean stems naturally infected with pod and stem blight, geographic symptoms caused by Phomopsis phaseoli are found. To the known symptoms on stems, pods and grains, that of root rot caused by P. phaseoli is now added.

  2. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  3. Identification of the pathogenic fungus causing brown spot on tangerine( Citrus reticulata CV.Hongjv%红橘褐斑病病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌胜; 黄峰; 程兰; 冯春刚; 黄涛江; 李红叶

    2011-01-01

    自2007年起重庆万州的红橘(Citrus reticulata Blanco,CV.Hongjv)上爆发一种未曾见过的病害,损失严重,因病斑褐色,故被称之为褐斑病.褐斑病贯穿柑橘整个生长季节,主要为害叶片和果实,严重时也为害新梢,引起大量落叶和落果,甚至枝梢枯死.为明确其病原,本研究从病区多个果园采集发病的叶片、果实和枝梢,检查和分离培养发现病组织中广泛存在链格孢菌(Alternaria)和炭疽菌(Colletotrichum).致病性试验证明只有链格孢菌才能引起类似褐斑症状,而炭疽菌和空白对照都不产生任何症状.通过比较研究这些链格孢菌菌株的形态学,培养性状和多聚半乳糖醛酸酶(endoPG)基因的部分序列,可以断定红橘褐斑病的病原为交链格孢菌[A.alternate(Fr.)Keissler].病原性质的确定将为红橘褐斑病发生规律的研究和控制奠定基础.%An unknown disease has been breaking out and causing a great loss on Hongjv (Citrus reticulata Blanco, CV. Hongjv) since 2007 in Wanzhou, Zhongqing, China. The disease was characterized as the brown spot on affected tissues and named "brown spot disease" temporarily. The disease occurs around a growing season and the severe affected leaves and fruits drop quickly. To determine the causing agent, the infected leaves, fruits and shoots were collected from different orchards. Typical conidiospores and cultures of Alternaria and Colletotrichum were always observed and isolated from infected tissues. However, pathogenici-ty test showed that only the isolates of Alternaria were pathogenic to the leaves and fruits of tangerine (Ci. Reticulata CV. Ponkan). Based on the study of morphology, cultural feature and partial sequence of an endopo-lygalacturonase gene (endoPG), the pathogenic Alternaria was identified as A. Alternate (Fr. ) Keissler. The clarification of pathogen would benefit to the study on epidemiology and control of this disease.

  4. Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408

  5. Kraft pulping and ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus pretreated by the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.12410

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Salazar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus wood chips were decayed by the lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as a pretreatment step before kraft pulping. Weight and component losses of wood after the biotreatment were the following: weight (5%, glucans (1.5%, xylans (4.3%, lignin (5.7% and extractives (57.5%. The residual amount of lignin (expressed by the kappa number in pulps from biotreated wood chips was lower than that of pulps from the undecayed control. Depending on the delignification degree, kraft biopulps presented similar or up to 4% increase in pulp yield and 20% less hexenuronic acids (HexA than control pulps. The extended delignification with O2 decreases approximately 50% of the kappa number of the pulps and increases brightness, but had no effect in HexA reduction. The bleaching steps with chlorine dioxide (D0ED1 sequence decreased the kappa number up to 97%, increased pulp brightness up to 84% ISO and decreased HexA amount up to 91%. The use of C. subvermispora in biopulping of E. globulus generated important benefits during the production of kraft pulps that are reflected in a high pulp yield, low residual lignin content, low HexA amount, high brightness and viscosity of the biopulps as compared with pulps produced from untreated wood chips.

  6. 复合白腐真菌茵剂修复原油污染土壤%Restoration of Oil Polluted Soil using Combined Fungus of White-rot Fungi and Microbial Inoculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付辉; 孟瑶; 梁红; 董义兴; 程方志; 郝伟; 朱逸格; 高大文

    2012-01-01

    The oil polluted soil in Daqing was simulated under different soil moisture content and inoculation amount, and the effects of complex microbial inoculum ( the most famous northeastern white-rot fungi with high enzyme production : Polyporellus picipes + Pleurotus ostreatus + Pseudotrametes gibbosa) on oil degradation rates and the changes of soil FH values were analyzed. The re- suits showed that the higher the inoculum concentration of complex microbial inoculum, the bigger the effects on oil degradation rates. The effects on oil degradation are remarkable in the first 40 days, especially in the first 20 days. A certain amount of soil moisture is maintained, which is helpful for complex microbial inoculum to work on oil degradation. On the 20th day, the degradation rate reaches 33.43% after adding distilled water regularly, and the oil residue quantity decreases by 16. 571 g/kg, which is 8. 762g/kg more than the oil without adding distilled water in the same period.%模拟大庆原油污染土壤,研究不同接种量和土壤湿度条件下,复合菌剂(采用产酶量高的东北土著白腐真菌:青顶拟多孔菌Polyporelluspicipes’糙皮侧耳菌Pleurotusostreatus’偏肿拟栓菌Pseudotrametesgibbosa)对原油的降解效果及土壤的pH变化规律。结果表明,复合菌剂的接种量越高,对石油的降解率也越高。复合菌剂在投加前40dx,t-石油的降解效果明显,尤其前20d降解效果极其显著。保持一定的土壤湿度,有利于复合菌剂对石油的降解.在第20d,在定期添加蒸馏水的条件下降解率达到33.43%,原油的残余量减少了16.571g/kg,比同期不添加蒸馏水的多去除8.762g/kg。

  7. 津黑两地大白菜褐腐病病原菌鉴定及生物学特性的比较%Identification and comparison of the biological characteristics of the pathogen causing brown rot of Chinese cabbage in Tianjin and Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗国辉; 闻凤英; 张耀伟

    2012-01-01

    采用形态特征观察、致病性测定及rDNA-ITS序列分析等方法对天津、黑龙江两地大白菜褐腐病的病原菌进行鉴定.结果表明,天津、黑龙江两地大白菜褐腐病的病原菌为立枯丝核菌(Rhizoctonia solani Kühn),分离鉴定出TJ和DB两个菌株,分属立枯丝核菌AG-2融合群和AG-1融合群;DB菌株为一新菌株.两菌株菌丝生长最适温度均为25℃,最适pH为7,最适光照为12h.DB菌株菌丝生长速率快于TJ菌株;但TJ菌株先于DB菌株形成菌核,且形成量多.两菌株在碳源、氮源利用和菌核致死温度上也存在差异.%The pathogen of Chinese cabbage brown rot was studied through morphological characteristics, patho-genicity, and ribosomal DNA-ITS sequence. The results showed that the two strains from Chinese cabbage brown rot collected from Tianjin and Heilongjiang were Rhizoctonia solani Kiihn TJ and DB, belonging to anastomosis group AG-2 and anastomosis group AG-1. The DB strain was a new strain. The optimal temperature, pH and illumination for mycelial growth of the two strains were 25 "C , 7 and 12 h, respectively. The mycelial growth rate of the TJ strain was lower than the DB strain. The quantity and rate of sclerotia formation of the TJ strain were greater. There were obvious differences in the use of carbon sources, nitrogen sources and lethal temperature in the two strains.

  8. 高温热处理杉木间伐材的抗褐腐性能%Decay resistance of middle cutting wood of Cunninghamia lancelolate with heat treatment against the brown-rot fungus Poria placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓邵平; 江茂生

    2008-01-01

    以褐腐菌棉腐卧孔菌为试菌,对分别用热油和热空气为介质,经不同温度、不同时间热处理后的杉木间伐材试样的耐腐性进行了试验,并与质量分数为1.O%的CCA-C防腐剂处理材(吸药量为2.53 kg·m-3)和未处理材进行了比较.结果表明:在2种加热介质中经不同温度、不同时间处理后试材的耐腐性均比未处理材高,且随温度的升高、处理时间的延长,耐腐性有较明显的改善;试材在180、200℃分别经不同时间热处理后的耐腐性均低于CCA-C处理材,但在220℃热处理3、5 h后,各试材的质量损失率均为0;若处理温度和时间相同,则热油处理材的耐腐性基本上高于热空气处理材.

  9. Using the Resistograph®to distinguish different types of wood rot on living silver fir in Molise (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasserre B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available he study was performed in two silver-fir forests (Abies alba Mill. located in Alto Molise, Province of Isernia: Collemeluccio, near Pescolanciano and Abeti Soprani near Capracotta. The aim of this work was to distinguish different types of wood rot on living silver fir individuals by using the Resistograph® (IML-RESI E400, a device that allows to estimate the variation of wood density by measuring the resistance to micro-perforation. The occurrence of different types of wood rot (white rot and brown rot in living trees was pointed out and discriminated by the device. In the detected deteriorated zones, fungal pathogens and decomposers were isolated and identified, causing either white (Phellinus hartigii, Ganoderma adspersum, Heterobasidion abietinum and Armillaria ostoyae or brown rot (Fomitopsis pinicola.

  10. Involutin is an Fe3+ reductant secreted by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus during Fenton-based decomposition of organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Firoz; Schwenk, Daniel; Nicolás, César; Persson, Per; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi play a key role in mobilizing nutrients embedded in recalcitrant organic matter complexes, thereby increasing nutrient accessibility to the host plant. Recent studies have shown that during the assimilation of nutrients, the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus decomposes organic matter using an oxidative mechanism involving Fenton chemistry (Fe(2+) + H2O2 + H(+) → Fe(3+) + ˙OH + H2O), similar to that of brown rot wood-decaying fungi. In such fungi, secreted metabolites are one of the components that drive one-electron reductions of Fe(3+) and O2, generating Fenton chemistry reagents. Here we investigated whether such a mechanism is also implemented by P. involutus during organic matter decomposition. Activity-guided purification was performed to isolate the Fe(3+)-reducing principle secreted by P. involutus during growth on a maize compost extract. The Fe(3+)-reducing activity correlated with the presence of one compound. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified this compound as the diarylcyclopentenone involutin. A major part of the involutin produced by P. involutus during organic matter decomposition was secreted into the medium, and the metabolite was not detected when the fungus was grown on a mineral nutrient medium. We also demonstrated that in the presence of H2O2, involutin has the capacity to drive an in vitro Fenton reaction via Fe(3+) reduction. Our results show that the mechanism for the reduction of Fe(3+) and the generation of hydroxyl radicals via Fenton chemistry by ectomycorrhizal fungi during organic matter decomposition is similar to that employed by the evolutionarily related brown rot saprotrophs during wood decay. PMID:26431968

  11. Creating prescription maps from historical imagery for site-specific management of cotton root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore, is a severe plant disease that has affected cotton production for over a century. Recent research found that a commercial fungicide, Topguard (flutriafol), was able to control this disease. As a result, Topguard Terra Fungic...

  12. Functional Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation in the Basidiomycete White Rot Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tegelaar, Martin [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Henrissat, Bernard [Univ. of Marseille (France); Brewer, Heather M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purvine, Samuel O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wosten, Han A. B. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Grigoriev, Igor V. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lugones, Luis G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    White and brown rot fungi are among the most important wood decayers in nature. Although more than 50 genomes of Basidiomycete white and brown rots have been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute, there is still a lot to learn about how these fungi degrade the tough polymers present in wood. In particular, very little is known about how these fungi regulate the expression of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation. Here, we used transcriptomics, proteomics, and promoter analysis in an effort to gain insight into the process of lignocellulose degradation.

  13. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP with the white- rot fungi under non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Dawen; WEN Xianghua; QIAN Yi

    2004-01-01

    @@ In recent years, many researches indicate that white rot fungus is a promising microbe in wastewater treatment. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium in white rot fungi is the most extensively studied and discussed[1]. The extracellular ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi have the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo-pollutants such as chlorinated phenols and various types of synthetic dyes because of their nonspecific characteristics[2-6]. And some significant mineralization (20%-48%) was observed during degradation of azo dyes[7].

  14. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W. Severity of crown rot disease was determined through visual assessment of the first internode of 20 tillers obtained from each field. Incidence of crown rot pathogens per field was determined by plating the 20 tillers on Petri plates with 20% potato dextrose agar amended with lactic acid (aPDA medium. Resulting fungal colonies from monoxenic culture were identified by morphological or molecular-assisted identification. Severity of crown rot varied between 11.3% and 80% for individual fields. Culture plate analysis showed 72.2% of stems were infected with some fungus. Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, and F. culmorum, pathogens associated with Fusarium crown rot disease were isolated from 13.5% of tillers. Gaeumannomyces graminis, causal agent of take-all disease in cereals, was isolated from 11.1% of culms. Phaeosphaeria sp., an endophyte and possibly a non-pathogenic fungus, was isolated from 13.9% of tillers. Pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia spp. and Microdochium nivale, other saprophyte, and several unidentified non-sporulating fungi were isolated at frequencies lower than 3% of the total. Fusarium crown rot and take-all were the most prevalent and distributed crown rot diseases present in wheat crops in southern Chile.

  15. Indução de resistência à podridão-parda em pêssegos pelo uso de eliciadores em pós-colheita Induction of resistance to brown-rot on peaches by elicitors use in post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos eliciadores acibenzolar-S-metil e proteína harpina, aplicados em pós-colheita, na indução de resistência sistêmica à podridão-parda em pêssegos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas - com e sem ferimentos provocados aos frutos -, e os tratamentos foram constituídos por: acibenzolar-S-metil (50 mg do i.a. L-1, dois produtos comerciais com proteína harpina (80 mg do i.a. L-1 e uma testemunha (água destilada. Os frutos foram pulverizados, individualmente, com 1 mL de solução aquosa com os tratamentos e, após 12 horas, efetuou-se a inoculação com Monilinia fructicola (0,2 mL da suspensão com concentração de 10(5 esporos mL-1, em cada lado do fruto. Após 60 horas da inoculação, avaliaram-se: a área lesionada, a esporulação e o percentual de controle. Determinaram-se os teores de proteínas totais, açúcares redutores e totais, fenóis, além da atividade da enzima fenilalanina amônia-liase (FAL. Os eliciadores induziram resistência dos frutos a M. fructicola, com redução do desenvolvimento do fungo. O uso dos eliciadores aumentou os teores dos parâmetros bioquímicos avaliados e a atividade da FAL, que esteve relacionada à redução da área lesionada em pêssegos. Os indutores podem contribuir para o manejo integrado da podridão-parda em pêssegos, em pós-colheita.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl and harpin protein elicitors, applied in post-harvest, in systemic resistance induction to brown-rot, on peaches. A completely randomized design was utilized, with four replicates, in a split plot scheme - injured or noninjured peaches -, and treatments were constituted of : acibenzolar-S-methyl (50 mg of a.i. L-1, two commercial products with harpin protein (80 mg of a.i. L-1; and control (distilled water. Peaches were sprayed individually with 1 mL of

  16. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  17. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityananda Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be due to increased sytheses of the enzymes. In an in vitro culture, the fungus exhibited some peroxidase but no polyphenoloxidase activity.

  18. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  19. Gene-for-gene relationships between strawberry and the causal agent of red stele root rot, Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.

    1997-01-01

    Red stele (red core) root rot is the major soil-borne disease of strawberries (Fragaria spp.) in many areas with cool, moist soil conditions. It is caused by the soil-borne fungus Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae. Red stele is a quarantine disease in Europe with a zero tolerance for commercial

  20. Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PALL

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

  1. Diversity and biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii, causal agent of stem rot of groundnut

    OpenAIRE

    Lê, N.C.

    2011-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important legume crop in Vietnam and many other countries worldwide. Stem rot disease, caused by the soil-borne fungus Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., is a major yield limiting factor in groundnut cultivation. Current control methods mostly rely on the extensive use of fungicides and on cultural practices. Both methods are not always effective and repeated fungicide use can lead to resistance development in the pathogen population. To further impro...

  2. Ergosterol as a rapid measurement of Ganoderma rot of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; Lima, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil (PO) is a very important commodity for many countries and especially Indonesia and Malaysia who are the predominant producers. PO is used in ca. 30% of supermarket foods, cosmetics, cooking and as biodiesel. The growth of oil palms in plantations is controversial as the production methods contribute to climate change and cause environmental damage [1]. The plant is subjected to a devastating disease in these two countries caused by the white rot fungus Ganoderma. There are no satisfa...

  3. Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctoni solani K ü h n of sugar beet in province Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet root rot appears regularly each year, but its intensity depends on agro ecological conditions. The predominant causers of root rot in Vojvodina are fungi from Fusarium genus and species Macrophomina phaseolina. Over the last couple of years, more intense occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot has been observed. Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot is present in sugar beet fields. During 2000-2005, on the territory of Vojvodina, the frequency of Rhizoctonia solani in phytopathological isolations from rotted sugar beet roots was between 0,0-18,2%. The intensity of the disease depends on localities, agro ecological conditions and genotypes. Symptoms of Rhizoctonia root rot were registered at some localities in all regions of Vojvodina: Srem, Banat and Bačka. The disease appearance is above all local. It occurs in small patches, on heavy, non-structured soil and on depressed wet parts of plots. Individual diseased plants can be found during July. Brown rot appears on sugar beet roots, with dried tissue on surface, which is present on the tail as well as on the middle part and the head of root. Tissues with described symptoms are deeper regarding the healthy part of root. On vertical root section, the necrotic changes are clearly visible comparing to tissue section without symptoms. The heavily infected tissue forms fissures on roots in most cases. Besides the above-mentioned symptoms on roots, the plant wilting and leaf handle necrosis as well as leaf dying are also observed. When rot spreads to the whole root head, plants quickly die.

  4. Sugarcane residue decomposition by white and brown rot microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvesting sugarcane with chopper harvesters results in up to 10 tons of field crop residue per acre. Residue management by soil microorganism decomposition offers numerous ecological and economical benefits to growers; however, this natural process is dependent on the biotic density, diversity and...

  5. Fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding and mechanical wounding inhibit Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of laboratory tests were conducted to investigate potential effects of fungus gnat (Bradysia impatiens) feeding damage on susceptibility of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum) to infection by the root rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum. Effects were compared to those from similar t...

  6. Isolation and identification of Sclerotinia stem rot causal pathogen in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-rong WANG; Wen-wei LIN; Xiao-ting CHEN; Guo-dong LU; Lie ZHOU; Zong-hua WANG

    2008-01-01

    A new stem rot disease is found to occur naturally on Arabidopsis plants in greenhouses of Fuzhou, China. In order to identify its pathogen, we conducted a series of fimgal isolation and purification, plant reinoculation, and ascus and ascospore induction from the sclerotia. The isolate caused typical water-soaked lesions after reinoeulation and produced sclerotia both on Arabidopsis plants and culture medium plates, and the sclerotia could be induced to produce discal apothecia and 8 binucleate ascospores per ascus. These disease symptom and fungal morphology data revealed that the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary was the pathogen for Arabidopsis stem rot. To confirm this, we further amplified its large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and compared the sequence with the known LSU rDNA sequences in GenBank. The results show that the sequence shares the highest identities with the LSU rDNAs of different S. sclerotiorum strains. Taking all these data together, we concluded that the fungus that caused the Arabidopsis stem rot is S. sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. This is the first report that Arabidopsis is naturally infected by S. sclerotiorum.

  7. Factors affecting germination of the resting sporangia of maize brown spot fungus Physoderma naydis%玉米褐斑病菌休眠孢子囊萌发条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪莉景; 王连生; 栗秋生; 孔令晓; 李杏爽

    2011-01-01

    为了明确玉米褐斑病菌休眠孢子囊的萌发条件,本试验测定了不同温度、pH值、光照处理对玉米褐斑病菌休眠孢子囊萌发的影响.试验结果表明,20~35℃培养条件下玉米褐斑病菌休眠孢子囊均能萌发,适宜温度范围为26~32℃,休眠孢子囊萌发率分别为49.6%、47.5%和49.5%,适宜pH值为6~9,休眠孢子囊萌发率分别为49.3%、49.7%、45.3%和47.3%;休眠孢子囊萌发需要光照,在全光照和光暗交替培养条件下,休眠孢子囊萌发率分别为45.4%和49.6%,高于全黑暗条件下的萌发率30.1%,但是在1 300~14 000 lx光照强度范围内,休眠孢子萌发率不受光照强度的影响;本研究结果为明确玉米褐斑病的发生条件提供了依据.%Factors affecting germination of the resting sporangia of Physodermna naydis-the pathogen of maize brown spot were studied. Results showed that temperatures from 20 ℃ to 35 ℃ were suitable for the germination of the resting sporangia, but the optimum temperatures were 26 ℃, 29 ℃ and 32 ℃ with the germination rates 49. 66%, 47. 5% and 49.5%, respectively. The favorable pH value for the resting sporangia germination was 6, 7, 8 and 9 with the germination rates 49.3%, 49.7%, 45.3% and 47.3%, respectively. Maximum germination rate was obtained when sufficient light was provided. The germination rate was 45.4% and 49.6% under 24 h light and 24 h light-dark cycle (12:12 h light-darkness), which was significantly higher than that under 24 h darkness condition. However, the light intensity during 1 300~14 000 Ix had no effect on the germination of the resting sporangia. The findings can provide evidence for idendification of maize brown spot diseases.

  8. Tremella with Edible Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (Meiwei Shuang’er)Remove the tremella and edible fungus roots, clean and drain. Slice green peppers and carrots.Heat some oil in a wok, add tremella, edible fungus, green peppers and carrots, and clear stock, salt and sugar. Simmer for two minutes. Add MSG and pepper, remove to a plate, and serve.Features: Attractively black and white.Taste: Crisp and savory.

  9. Insect feeding on spores of a bracket fungus, Elfvingia applanata (Pers.) Karst. (Ganodermataceae, Aphyllophorales)

    OpenAIRE

    Tuno, Nobuko

    1999-01-01

    Insects visiting sporocarps of Elfvingia applanata, a wood-rotting bracket fungus, were examined in Kyoto, central Japan. Mycodrosophila flies (Drosophilidae: Diptera) were predominant and visited the spore-producing sporocarps exclusively. They were observed feeding on the spores, and a number of spores seemed to be alive even after having passed through insects' digestive tracts. In addition, the insects attached a number of spores on their body surfaces. In a rearing experiment with insect...

  10. Biodegradation of Hevea brasiliensis wood by Rigidoporus lignosus and Phellinus noxius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.P.; Rio, B.; Nicole, M.; Nandris, D.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro wood slats degradation assays reveal that both the white root rot fungus R. lignosus and the brown root rot fungus P. noxius cause a white rot of wood. In vivo (infected tap roots) they cause the same type of decay. Nevertheless lignin determination show the rubber-tree ability to react against the parasite aggression by increased lignification of tissues.

  11. Study on the Fruits Disease Fungus of Ziziphus jujuba cv.Jinsixiaozao%金丝小枣果实病害病原菌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立震; 康绍兰; 刘春琴; 孙玉英; 黄素芳; 刘惠珍

    2004-01-01

    According to study for years, fruits disease of Jinsixiaozao was divided into three types, which were thick rotten, dark furuncle and brown rind. Different symptom had different pathogenic fungus. The main pathogenic fungus of thick rotten type of jujube was Physalospora obtuse (Schw.) Cooke, and the isolated rate in the thick rotten disease fruits was 94.6% . The main pathogenic fungus of dark furuncle type was Ahernaria ahernata (Fr.) Keissler, and the isolated rate in the dark furuncle fruits was 75.7% .The main pathogenic fungus of the brown rind type was Phoma destructiva Plowr and A. alternata(Fr.)Keissler.The isolated rate in the brown rind type was 33.2% and 25.5% seperately. The mixed isolated rate was 19.1%. According to this, three types of the fruits disease of Jinsixiaozao were named as thick rotten disease, dark furuncle and brown rind disease.

  12. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  13. 白腐菌在有机固体废弃物堆肥中的研究进展%Application of White-Rot Fungi on Organic Solid Waste Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 吴京科; 祁娜; 孙向阳; 张强; 郝利峰

    2011-01-01

    The white-rot fungus has been applied widely because of its strong degradation ability and special metabolic type. The current status of white-rot fungus applied in organic solid waste composting was reviewed in the paper. The degradation mechanism of lignin by white-rot fungus and the application of white-rot fungi in the bioremediation of heavy metal bio-sorption in composting have been introduced especially. The prospect of white-rot fungi usage in other aspects was put forward.%白腐菌因具有极强的降解能力和特殊的代谢类型,在生物降解和修复中有广阔的应用前景.本文综述了白腐菌应用于有机固体废弃物堆肥的研究现状,主要介绍了白腐菌在堆肥中对难降解木质素的作用以及对重金属污染的修复.同时对白腐菌的应用前景做出展望.

  14. Heterobasidion root rot in Norway spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Thor, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its biological and economic impact on Swedish forestry, root rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu lato has received no or little attention in forest planning. This thesis summarizes and discusses two experiments involving prophylactic treatment of stumps, and three investigations on the modelling and simulation of root rot in coniferous stands with special emphasis on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). In 14 previously unthinned stands of Norway spruce, the...

  15. Identification of putative candidate genes for red rot resistance in sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrid) using LD-based association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram K; Banerjee, Nandita; Khan, M S; Yadav, Sonia; Kumar, Sanjeev; Duttamajumder, S K; Lal, Ram Ji; Patel, Jinesh D; Guo, H; Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-06-01

    Red rot is a serious disease of sugarcane caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum that has a colossal damage potential. The fungus, prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, keeps on producing new pathogenic strains leading to breakdown of resistance in newly released varieties and hence the deployment of linked markers for marker-assisted selection for resistance to this disease can fine tune the breeding programme. This study based on a panel of 119 sugarcane genotypes fingerprinted for 944 SSR alleles was undertaken with an aim to identify marker-trait associations (MTAs) for resistance to red rot. Mixed linear model containing population structure and kinship as co-factor detected four MTAs that were able to explain 10-16 % of the trait variation, individually. Among the four MTAs, EST sequences diagnostic of three could be BLAST searched to the sorghum genome with significant sequence homology. Several genes encoding important plant defence related proteins, viz., cytochrome P450, Glycerol-3-phosphate transporter-1, MAP Kinase-4, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Ring finger domain protein and others were localized to the vicinity of these MTAs. These positional candidate genes are worth of further investigation and possibly these could contribute directly to red rot resistance, and may find a potential application in marker-assisted sugarcane breeding. PMID:26961118

  16. Suppression of charcoal rot in soybean by moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa GS-33 under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep; Paradeshi, Jayasinh; Chaudhari, Bhushan

    2016-08-01

    Charcoal rot severely limits the soybean crop yield under saline conditions. The present studies focus on biocontrol and plant growth promoting potential of phenazine producing moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GS-33) in soybean under saline soil conditions. A marine isolate; GS-33 was identified as P. aeruginosa based on polyphasic characterization. This strain showed potent in vitro biocontrol activity against charcoal rot causing fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. It was capable of producing phenazine-1-carboxylic acid even at elevated salt concentrations. Moreover, GS-33 possessed other biocontrol traits like production of siderophores, HCN and protease under saline conditions. Multiple traits for plant growth promotion such as synthesis of IAA, NH3 , and solubilization of phosphate were also exhibited by GS-33. Plant growth promoting and biocontrol control potentials of GS-33 were evaluated by pot assay under saline soil conditions. Higher biomass and chlorophyll content were observed in GS-33 treated seedlings. A greater reduction in charcoal rot caused by fungal pathogens under both normal and saline soil conditions in GS-33 treated seedlings was observed. In a nut shell, phenazine producing halotolerant strain GS-33 could mitigate saline soil conditions (abiotic stress) and infestation of M. phaseolina (biotic stress) in soybean. PMID:27213894

  17. Optimization of Laccase Production using White Rot Fungi and Agriculture Wastes in Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Risdianto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Laccase has been produced in a solid state fermentation (SSF using white rot fungi and various lignocellulosic based substrates. White rot fungi used were Marasmius sp, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete crysosporium. The solid substrates employed in this research were collected from agriculture waste which were empty fruit bunches (EFB, rice straw, corn cob, and rice husk. The objective of this research was to determine the most promising fungus, the best solid substrate and the optimal conditions for the production of laccase. The results showed that Marasmius sp. on all solid substrates displayed higher laccase activity than that of any other strain of white rot fungi. Marasmius sp. and solid substrate of rice straw demonstrated the highest laccase activity of 1116.11 U/L on day 10. Three significant factors, i.e. pH, temperature and yeast extract concentration were studied by response surface method on laccase production using Marasmius sp and rice straw. The optimized conditions were pH, temperature and yeast extract concentration of 4.9, 31ºC and 0.36 g/L respectively. The fermentation of Marasmius sp. in SSF on agricultural waste shows a great potential for the production of laccase.

  18. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  19. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  20. Marker recycling via 5-fluoroorotic acid and 5-fluorocytosine counter-selection in the white-rot agaricomycete Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takehito; Tsuzuki, Masami; Irie, Toshikazu; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Honda, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    Of all of the natural polymers, lignin, an aromatic heteropolymer in plant secondary cell walls, is the most resistant to biological degradation. White-rot fungi are the only known organisms that can depolymerize or modify wood lignin. Investigating the mechanisms underlying lignin biodegradation by white-rot fungi would contribute to the ecofriendly utilization of woody biomass as renewable resources in the future. Efficient gene disruption, which is generally very challenging in the white-rot fungi, was established in Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom). Some of the genes encoding manganese peroxidases, enzymes that are considered to be involved in lignin biodegradation, were disrupted separately, and the phenotype of each single-gene disruptant was analysed. However, it remains difficult to generate multi-gene disruptants in this fungus. Here we developed a new genetic transformation marker in P. ostreatus and demonstrated two marker recycling methods that use counter-selection to generate a multigene disruptant. This study will enable future genetic studies of white-rot fungi, and it will increase our understanding of the complicated mechanisms, which involve various enzymes, including lignin-degrading enzymes, underlying lignin biodegradation by these fungi. PMID:27567720

  1. Comparative study on using carbon or nitrogen limited medium to culture white rot fungi for reactive brilliant red dye K-2BP decolotization under non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore ways for the application of white rot fungus in dye effluent treatment under non-sterile conditions, experiment on decolorization of reactive brilliant red was carried out, employing nitrogen-limited and carbon-limited medium with C/N ratio of 56/2.2 and 28/44 (in mmol/L), respectively. The results showed that the decolorization rate reached 92% while culturing white rot fungus with nitrogen-limited medium; however, the decolorization process ended in carbon-limited medium (n(C)/n(N) = 28/44) because of bacterial contamination. In addition, pH rose up to 9.31 after 4 d of decolorization, which was caused by bacterial contamination in the carbon-limited system. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen-limited medium can inhibit bacterial growth to some extent while carbon-limited medium is more easily contaminated by bacteria. Nitrogen-limited medium is more suitable in culture of white rot fungus for decolorization of reactive dye. Medium with the ability of inhibiting yeast growth should be developed by adjusting other components of nitrogen-limited medium.

  2. Somaclonal variation of sugar beet resistant to pathogenic root rot Fusarium oxysporum var. orthoceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urazaliev Kairat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. - one of the most important crop in the world. In Kazakhstan, it is a traditional and major source of domestic sugar. The industry of cultivation and production of sugar beet is one of the priority areas of agricultural development of the country. In this paper, we studied the regeneration ability of different genotypes of sugar beet explants on selective media with the culture filtrate of the pathogen fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. From the roots and shoots of sugar beet the pathogen Fusarium root rot was isolated. Was obtained pure cultures of the isolated pathogen. As a result, of morphological and cultural descriptions, as well as microbiological analysis it was revealed that the isolated pathogen is Fusarium Oxysporum. The results showed the pathogenicity of the fungus. For regeneration in vitro of the sugar beet genotypes resistant to the pathogen the culture media was optimized to the culture filtrate of the fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. The frequency of shoot regeneration, depending on the genotype, was 1,0-12,5 %. On these explants the multiple shoot formations were observed.

  3. Gene-for-gene relationships between strawberry and the causal agent of red stele root rot, Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae.

    OpenAIRE

    Weg, van de, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    Red stele (red core) root rot is the major soil-borne disease of strawberries (Fragaria spp.) in many areas with cool, moist soil conditions. It is caused by the soil-borne fungus Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae. Red stele is a quarantine disease in Europe with a zero tolerance for commercial stock plants. Any lot of such plants with even just a trace of the disease has to be destroyed. The plot on which the plants were harvested has to be abandoned for commercial strawberry propagation...

  4. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  5. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  6. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  7. Everbearing strawberry cultivars - susceptibility to crown rot

    OpenAIRE

    Parikka, Päivi; Karhu, Saila; Hietaranta, Tarja

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the production of everbearing strawberry cultivars were started at MTT Plant Production Research in 2007. MTT Horticulture makes trials in tunnel and open fields to study the growth, yield and overwintering of cultivars in northern conditions. Resistance to crown rot is also being tested.

  8. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up some 37% of the described fungi and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To b...

  9. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  10. Integrated Management of Causal Agents of Postharvest Fruit Rot of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Grahovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of poor quality and fruit loss (during storage and transportare diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Economic losses which are the consequenceof the phytopathogenic fungus activity after harvest exceed the losses in the field.Themost important postharvest fungal pathogens of apple fruits are: Botrytis cinerea Pers. exFr., Penicillium expansum (Lk. Thom., Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck. Grem., Colletotrichumgloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., Monilinia sp., Gloeosporium album Osterw, Alternaria alternata(Fr. Keissler, Cladosporium herbarium Link., Cylindrocarpon mali (Alles. Wollenw., Stemphyliumbotryosum Wallr. The use of available protection technologies can significantly reducelosses caused by pathogens in storage. The concept of integrated pest management (IPMin apple fruits i.e. sustainable approach in control of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot,using cultural, physical, biological and chemical measures, to minimize economic, healthand risks to consumers and environment, is presented in the paper.

  11. The Growth of Root Rot Disease on Pepper Seed Applied by Trichoderma Harzianum Inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Root rot disease on pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici is one of the most important diseases on pepper. The using of antagonistic fungus of Trichoderma harzianum as a biological control agent of the pathogen is one of the important alternatives in controlling P. capsici without causing negative effects on the environment. The objectives of the research were to study about the ability of T. harzianum inoculum application in inhibiting the development of root-rot disease, influenced the growth of pepper seed, to studythe effective length time application of T. harzianum inoculum in inhibiting the development of root rot disease, and increased the growth of pepper seedlings. This research was arranged in a completely randomized design, with five treatments of length time application of T. harzianum inoculum i.e. control treatment without applicationtime of T. harzianum inoculum (K, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 0 week (S0, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 1 week (S1, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for two weeks (S2, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for three weeks (S3, and application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 4 weeks (S4 before planting. Each treatment was repeated15 times. The observed parameterswere disease percentage, the inhibition of antagonistic fungus, disease infection rate, plant height, number of leaves, wet and dry weight of plant, stem and leaves on pepper seed, and P. capsici population density. The result showed that application time of T. harzianum inoculumfor 4 weeks (S4 before planting is the most effective time in inhibiting the development of root rot disease than the other treatment sand also had significant effect on increasing the growth of pepper seed. The antagonism test showed that T. harzianum could inhibit P. capsiciin vitro. This result proves that application time of T. harzianum inoculums

  12. Tow-step degradation of pyrene by white-rot fungi and soil microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of soil microorganisms on mineralization of 14C-labelled pyrene by white-rot fungi in solid-state fermentation was investigated. Two strains of white-rot fungi, Dichomitus squalens and a Pleurotus sp., were tested. The fungi were incubated on milled wheat straw contaminated with [14C]pyrene for 15 weeks. CO2 and 14CO2 liberated from the cultures were determined weekly. To study the effect of soil microorganisms on respiration and [14C]pyrene mineralization in different periods of fungal development, the fungal substrate was covered with soil at different times of incubation (after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 or 11 weeks). The two fungi showed contrasting ecological behaviour in competition with the soil microflora. Pleurotus sp. was highly resistant to microbial attack and had the ability to penetrate the soil. D. squalens was less competitive and did not colonize the soil. The resistance of the fungus was dependent on the duration of fungal preincubation. Mineralization of [14C]pyrene by mixed cultures of D. squalens and soil microorganisms was higher than by the fungus or the soil microflora alone when soil was added after 3 weeks of incubation or later. With Pleurotus sp., the mineralization of [14C]pyrene was enhanced by the soil microflora irrespective of the time of soil application. With D. squalens, which in pure culture mineralized less [14C]pyrene than did Pleurotus sp., the increase of [14C]pyrene mineralization caused by soil application was higher than with Pleurotus sp. (orig.)

  13. Discovery and characterization of new O-methyltransferase from the genome of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium for enhanced lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Mai Pham, Le; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Using bioinformatic homology search tools, this study utilized sequence phylogeny, gene organization and conserved motifs to identify members of the family of O-methyltransferases from lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The heterologous expression and characterization of O-methyltransferases from P. chrysosporium were studied. The expressed protein utilized S-(5'-adenosyl)-L-methionine p-toluenesulfonate salt (SAM) and methylated various free-hydroxyl phenolic compounds at both meta and para site. In the same motif, O-methyltransferases were also identified in other white-rot fungi including Bjerkandera adusta, Ceriporiopsis (Gelatoporia) subvermispora B, and Trametes versicolor. As free-hydroxyl phenolic compounds have been known as inhibitors for lignin peroxidase, the presence of O-methyltransferases in white-rot fungi suggested their biological functions in accelerating lignin degradation in white-rot basidiomycetes by converting those inhibitory groups into non-toxic methylated phenolic ones. PMID:26672450

  14. Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D/Souza, T.M.; Merritt, C.S.; Reddy, C.A.

    1999-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was readily seen in cultures grown with pine or poplar as the sole carbon and energy source. Cultures containing both pine and poplar showed 5- to 10-fold-higher levels of laccase than cultures containing pine or poplar alone. Since syringyl units are structural components important in poplar lignin and other hardwoods but much less so in pine lignin and other softwoods, pine cultures were supplemented with syringic acid, and this resulted in laccase levels comparable to those seen in pine-plus-poplar cultures. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated extracellular culture fluid from HM cultures showed two laccase activity bands, where as isoelectric focusing revealed five major laccase activity bands with estimated pIs of 3.0, 4.25, 4.5, and 5.1. Low levels of MnP activity were detected in poplar-grown cultures but not in cultures grown with pine, with pine plus syringic acid, or in HN medium. No LiP activity was seen in any of the media tested; however, probing the genomic DNA with the LiP cDNA (CLG4) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed distinct hybridization bands suggesting the presence of lip-like sequences in G. lucidum.

  15. Improvement of garlic resistance to white rot disease and its productivity and storability using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation program was conducted to improve garlic (Allium sativum) resistance to white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) and to improve its storability under natural conditions. Cloves of two local garlic cultivars (Kisswany and Yabroudy) were irradiated with gamma ray doses 4, 5, 6, and 7 gray. The cloves were then planted in the field and plants were advanced for 4 generations in order to isolate mutations in stable form. The results indicated that the cultivar Yabroudy was more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Kisswany. Rate of morphological mutants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Selection pressure against white rot disease was applied starting in the second generation by adding infected garlic leaves to the soil. In the third and fourth generations, however, full selection pressure was applied by inoculating the cloves with the fungus sclerotia and planting them in a soil previously planted with infected garlic plants. healthy garlic bulbs were harvested and stored under natural conditions and then planted to obtain the next generation. By the end of the fourth generation, we have been able to improve garlic resistance to white rot disease and its storability. Twenty four mutant lines from each garlic cultivar have been selected. Out of the selected lines, twelve lines from cultivar Kisswany had only 3% infection percentage as compared to 29% in the control, and twelve lines from cultivar Yabroudy had less than 5% infection percentage as compared to 20% in the control. Also, we have been able to improve storability under natural conditions. Weight loss during storage decreased from 8.25% in the control to only 4% in some Kisswany lines and from 10% to 3% in some Yabroudy lines. However, we have not been able to increase the bulb weight over the control but the weights of the selected lines were comparable to those of the control. (author)

  16. Improvement of garlic resistance to white rot disease and its productivity and storability using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation program was conducted to improve garlic (Allium sativum) resistance to white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) and to improve its storability under natural conditions. Cloves of two local garlic cultivars (Kisswany and Yabroudy) were irradiated with gamma ray doses 4, 5, 6 and 7 gray. The cloves were then planted in the the field and plants were advanced for 4 generations in order to isolate mutations in stable form. The results indicated that the cultivar Yabroudy was more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Kisswany. Rate of morphological mutants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Selection pressure against white rot disease was applied starting in the second generation by adding infected garlic leaves to the soil. In the third and fourth generations, however, full selection pressure was applied by inoculating the cloves with the fungus sclerotic and planting them in a soil previously planted with infected garlic plants. Healthy garlic bulbs were harvested and stored under natural conditions and then planted to obtain the next generation. By the end of the fourth generation, we have been able to improve garlic resistance to white rot disease and its storability. Twenty four mutant lines from each garlic cultivar have been selected. Out of the selected lines, twelve lines from cultivar Kisswany had only 3% infection percentage as compared to 29% in the control, and twelve lines from cultivar Yabroudy had less than 5% infection percentage as compared to 20% in the control. Also, we have been able to improve storability under natural conditions. Weight loss during storage decreased from 8.25% in the control to only 4% in some Kisswany lines and from 10% to 3% in some Yabroudy lines. However, we have not been able to increase the bulb weight over the control but the weights of the selected lines were comparable to those of the control. (authors)

  17. Removal of trace organic contaminants by an MBR comprising a mixed culture of bacteria and white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Yang, Shufan; Kang, Jinguo; Leusch, Frederic D L; Roddick, Felicity; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-11-01

    The degradation of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOC) by a white-rot fungus-augmented membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The results show that white-rot fungal enzyme (laccase), coupled with a redox mediator (1-hydroxy benzotriazole, HBT), could degrade TrOC that are resistant to bacterial degradation (e.g. diclofenac, triclosan, naproxen and atrazine) but achieved low removal of compounds (e.g. ibuprofen, gemfibrozil and amitriptyline) that are well removed by conventional activated sludge treatment. Overall, the fungus-augmented MBR showed better TrOC removal compared to a system containing conventional activated sludge. The major role of biodegradation in removal by the MBR was noted. Continuous mediator dosing to MBR may potentially enhance its performance, although not as effectively as for mediator-enhanced batch laccase systems. A ToxScreen3 assay revealed no significant increase in the toxicity of the effluent during MBR treatment of the synthetic wastewater comprising TrOC, confirming that no toxic by-products were produced. PMID:24050925

  18. Insights Into Triticum aestivum Seedling Root Rot Caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Vera Buxa, Stefanie; Furch, Alexandra; Friedt, Wolfgang; Gottwald, Sven

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most common and potent fungal pathogens of wheat (Triticum aestivum), known for causing devastating spike infections and grain yield damage. F. graminearum is a typical soil-borne pathogen that builds up during consecutive cereal cropping. Speculation on systemic colonization of cereals by F. graminearum root infection have long existed but have not been proven. We have assessed the Fusarium root rot disease macroscopically in a diverse set of 12 wheat genotypes and microscopically in a comparative study of two genotypes with diverging responses. Here, we show a 'new' aspect of the F. graminearum life cycle, i.e., the head blight fungus uses a unique root-infection strategy with an initial stage typical for root pathogens and a later stage typical for spike infection. Root colonization negatively affects seedling development and leads to systemic plant invasion by tissue-adapted fungal strategies. Another major outcome is the identification of partial resistance to root rot. Disease severity assessments and histological examinations both demonstrated three distinct disease phases that, however, proceeded differently in resistant and susceptible genotypes. Soil-borne inoculum and root infection are considered significant components of the F. graminearum life cycle with important implications for the development of new strategies of resistance breeding and disease control.

  19. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg, Jonas; Vollbrecht, Gudmund [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre; Thomsen, I.M. [Danish Forest and Landscape Research Inst., Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1999-08-01

    The susceptibility to infections by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was examined in a 28-year-old tree species experiment in northern Jutland, Denmark. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl) Lindl.), noble fir (Abies procera Rehd.), Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were planted after shelterwood felling of a mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill. ex Mirb.) stand that had been infected by H. annosum. Douglas fir and noble fir showed the greatest mortality due to H. annosum during the first 5 years after planting. At first thinning the highest incidences of butt rot were recorded in noble fir, Japanese larch and Sitka spruce, with 44%, 43% and 36% of the thinned trees infected, respectively. Silver fir and Caucasian fir were almost free from infections. Maximum extension of H. annosum rot columns were in Japanese larch (18 dm). Heterobasidion annosum was found to be the most important decay causing fungus. Mating tests assigned all isolated strains of H. annosum to the P-intersterility group 35 refs, 2 tabs

  20. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white rot-fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Fajardo, S.; Manzanares, P.

    1996-07-01

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameles versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorisation studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorisation percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolics content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs.

  1. Evaluation of natural plant extracts, antagonists and fungicides in controlling root rot, collar rot, fruit (brown rot and gummosis of citrus caused by Phytophthora spp. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Jagtap

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The results revealed that all the six bioagents tested in vitro applying dual culture technique against Phytophthora nicotianae, Phytophthora citrophthora and Phytophthora palmivora significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control. However, bioagent, Trichoderma harzianum recorded minimum mean colony diameter (7.73 cm2 and highest inhibition (87.85% of mycelial growth of P. nicotianae over untreated control followed by the bioagent T. viride, T. koningii which recorded mean colony diameter of 9.95 cm2, 14.15 cm2 and mean mycelial inhibition of 84.36 %, 77.76%, respectively. Evaluation of different botanicals by Poisoned Food Technique showed that all plant extracts tested in vitro were found significantly effective in reducing the percentage mycelial growth of P. nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora over untreated control. However, plant extract (@ 5, 10 and 15% of Garlic, recorded lowest mean colony diameter (47.45 mm and highest mean mycelial growth inhibition (47.26% followed by Neem, Onion which recorded the mycelial growth of 55.20 mm, 60.85 mm, and the mean mycelial growth inhibition of 38.65%, 32.38%, respectively. Results revealed that all the nine fungicides tested in vitro applying Poisoned Food Technique against P. nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control. However, fungicide, Cymoxynil 8% + Mancozeb 64% (Curzate M-8 recorded minimum mean colony diameter (16.12 mm and maximum mean inhibition (82.09% of mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control (mean colony diameter 90.00 mm and mean inhibition 0.00 followed by the fungicide Metalaxyl-M 4% + Mancozeb 64% (Ridomil Gold, Metyram (Polyram, which recorded mean colony diameter of 20.16 mm, 24.16 mm and mean mycelial inhibition of 77.59%, 73.14%, respectively.

  2. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  3. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to biofuels and/or chemicals remains one of the main barriers to commercial success. Typically, harsh methods are used to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass prior to its breakdown to sugars by enzymes, which also result ...

  4. Decoloration of Amaranth by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Part II. Verification study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavril, Mihaela; Hodson, Peter V

    2007-02-01

    The involvement of lignin peroxidase (LiP) in the decoloration of the mono-azo substituted napthalenic dye Amaranth was investigated with pure enzymes and whole cultures of Trametes versicolor. The verification study confirmed that LiP has a direct influence on the initial decoloration rate and showed that another enzyme, which does not need hydrogen peroxide to function and is not a laccase, also plays a role during decoloration. These results confirm the results of a previous statistical analysis. Furthermore, the fungal mycelium affects the performance of the decoloration process.

  5. Manganese regulation of manganese peroxidase expression and lignin degradation by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellular manganese peroxidase and laccase activities were detected in cultures of Dichomitus squalens (Polyporus anceps) under conditions favoring lignin degradation. In contrast, neither extracellular lignin peroxidase nor aryl alcohol oxidase activity was detected in cultures grown under a wide variety of conditions. The mineralization of 14C-ring-, -side chain-, and -methoxy-labeled synthetic guaiacyl lignins by D. squalens and the expression of extracellular manganese peroxidase were dependent on the presence of Mn(II), suggesting that manganese peroxidase is an important component of this organism's lignin degradation system. The expression of laccase activity was independent of manganese. In contrast to previous findings with Phanero-chaete chrysosporium, lignin degradation by D. squalens proceeded in the cultures containing excess carbon and nitrogen

  6. Fluorene biodegradation and identification of transformation products by white-rot fungus Armillaria sp. F022.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu

    2014-06-01

    A diverse surfactant, including the nonionic Tween 80 and Brij 30, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate, the cationic surfactant Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and biosurfactant Rhamnolipid were investigated under fluorine-enriched medium by Armilaria sp. F022. The cultures were performed at 25 °C in malt extract medium containing 1 % of surfactant and 5 mg/L of fluorene. The results showed among the tested surfactants, Tween-80 harvested the highest cell density and obtained the maximum specific growth rate. This due Tween-80 provide a suitable carbon source for fungi. Fluorane was also successfully eliminated (>95 %) from the cultures within 30 days in all flasks. During the experiment, laccase production was the highest among other enzymes and Armillaria sp. F022-enriched culture containing Non-ionic Tween 80 showed a significant result for laccase activity (1,945 U/L). The increased enzyme activity was resulted by the increased biodegradation activity as results of the addition of suitable surfactants. The biotransformation of fluorene was accelerated by Tween 80 at the concentration level of 10 mg/L. Fluorene was initially oxidized at C-2,3 positions resulting 9-fluorenone. Through oxidative decarboxylation, 9-fluorenone subjected to meta-cleavage to form salicylic acid. One metabolite detected in the end of experiment, was identified as catechol. Armillaria sp. F022 evidently posses efficient, high effective degrader and potential for further application on the enhanced bioremediation technologies for treating fluorene-contaminated soil.

  7. Diversity study on Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikks., the causal agent of clover rot in red clover crops (Trifolium pratense L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, T; Baert, J; De Riek, J; Heungens, K; Malengier, M; Cnops, G; Van Bockstaele, E

    2010-01-01

    Since the 16th century, red clover has been an important crop in Europe. Since the 1940s, the European areal of red clover has been severely reduced, due to the availability of chemical fertilizers and the growing interest in maize. Nowadays there is a growing interest in red clover again, although some setbacks still remain. An important setback is the low persistence of red clover crops. Clover rot, caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikss., is a major disease in Europe and reduces the persistence of red clover crops severely. The fungus infects clover plants through ascospores in the autumn, the disease develops during the winter and early spring and can kill many plants in this period. In early spring, black sclerotia, serving as surviving bodies, are formed on infected plants. Sclerotia can survive up to 7 years in the soil (Ohberg, 2006). The development of clover rot is highly dependent on the weather conditions: a humid fall, necessary for the germination of the ascospores and an overall warm winter with short periods of frost are favourable for the disease. Cold and dry winters slow the mycelial growth down too much and prevent the disease from spreading. Clover rot is difficult to control and completely resistant red clover varieties have yet to be developed. Because of the great annual variation in disease severity, plant breeders cannot use natural infection as an effective means to screen for resistant material. Breeding for resistant cultivars is being slowed down by the lack of a bio-test usable in breeding programs. When applying artificial infections, it is necessary to have an idea of the diversity of the pathogen. A diverse population will require resistance screening with multiple isolates. The objective of this research is to investigate the genetic diversity among isolates from the pathogen S. trifoliorum from various European countries. We assessed diversity using a species identification test based on the sequence of

  8. Stand tending and root rot in Norway spruce stands - economical effects caused by root rot at different thinning regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into three parts: 1) a literature study describing the most common fungi causing rot in wood and descriptions of various strategies to reduce economic loss from root rot, 2) a check of a model describing the development of butt rot in pure Norway spruce plantations in southern Sweden, and 3) simulated economic effects of root rot in stands with various stand tending. The rot model was used to estimate future rot frequencies in the economic calculations. In order to avoid overestimations of rot frequencies, the calculations were also executed when assuming slower growth of rot than shown in the model. When analysing the economical effects of rot, the following three thinning programmes were used: Program 1: thinning at the ages of 30- and 45 years. Final felling at the ages 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, and 70 years. Program 2: thinning at the ages of 40- and 60- years. Final felling at the ages 65 and 75 years. Program 3: thinning at the ages of 30-, 40-, 55-, and 70 years. Final felling at the ages 80 and 90 years. With an interest rate of 3%, programme 2 (final felling at the age of 65 years) had the highest value at present. This result was valid when presuming butt rot in the stand as well as when presuming no butt rot in the stand. There was a small difference between the value at present in programme 1 (final felling at the age of 60 years) and in programme 3 (final felling at the age of 80 years). When presuming butt rot in the stand, the value at present in programme 3 decreased somewhat more in comparison to the value at present in programme 1. Compared to no butt rot in the stand, the optimal final felling time appeared five to ten years earlier when assuming butt rot in the stand. Stand tending programme 1 and an interest rate of 3% were used. Interest rates 2 and 4% did not indicate shorter rotation. The calculated optimal time of final felling appeared at the same stand age whether assuming rot preset or not. The results in this study

  9. The effect of temperature and rainfall on participation of the pathogens causing root and stem rot in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Łacicowa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments conducted in the years 1990-1995 were localized at the Plaiit Cultivation Station, Ulhówek to repeat the cultivation of spring barley cultivars Roland and Lot. In conditions of monoculture, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium culmorum were of the foremost importance in causing root and stem rot. The proportion of infected plants did not increase with time. Depending on the period of vegetation and the cultivar, the percentage of seedlings with necrosis symptoms ranged from 6% to 53,5% and that of stem base rot from 14% to 59%. In the case of both cultivars. root and stem rot was especially intensive in the third successive season of vegetation, i, e,. in 1992. That season was characterized by warm and wet weather conditions. favourable for the infection of seedlings by B.sorokiniane during the period of six weeks after the sowing of grain. Bipolaris sorokiniana always had the greatest proportion in the infction of spring barley but not in the seasons distinguished by hot and dry weather conditions. On the other hand, during dry and hot weather conditions the only or the dominating fungus obtained from the infcted stem base after the heading of spring barley was F. culmorum. In conditions of monoculture, favourable for root and stem rot of spring barley, the temperature and rainfalls clearly distinguished the proportion of B. sorokiniana and F. culmorum in plant infection.

  10. Dactylospora glaucomarioides (Ascomycetes, Dactylosporaceae): A Lichenicolous Fungus New to South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Yogesh; Knudsen, Kerry; Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2010-01-01

    The lichenicolous fungi flora of South Korea is poorly known. During recent field trips to various parts of South Korea and after an extensive examination of herbarium lichen specimens, we encountered a lichenicolous fungi growing over a thallus of the lichen Ochrolechia yasudae Vain., characterized by small black apothecia with mostly three-septate brown ascospores. It was identified as Dactylospora glaucomarioides. This is the first report of this lichenicolous fungus from South Korea. A ta...

  11. Dactylospora glaucomarioides (Ascomycetes, Dactylosporaceae): A Lichenicolous Fungus New to South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Yogesh; Knudsen, Kerry; Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2010-12-01

    The lichenicolous fungi flora of South Korea is poorly known. During recent field trips to various parts of South Korea and after an extensive examination of herbarium lichen specimens, we encountered a lichenicolous fungi growing over a thallus of the lichen Ochrolechia yasudae Vain., characterized by small black apothecia with mostly three-septate brown ascospores. It was identified as Dactylospora glaucomarioides. This is the first report of this lichenicolous fungus from South Korea. A taxonomic description and comments are presented. PMID:23956673

  12. Gene cluster involved in melanin biosynthesis of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kimura; Tsuge,T.

    1993-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata produces melanin, a black pigment, from acetate via 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene. To isolate a fungal gene required for melanin biosynthesis, we transformed an A. alternata Brm1- (light brown) mutant with the DNA of a wild-type strain genomic library constructed by use of a cosmid carrying the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When hygromycin B-resistant transformants were screened for melanin production, 1 of 1,363 transformants appeared to regain ...

  13. Irradiation and evolution of the gray rot botrytis cinerea at the strawberry plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawberry was introduced since french colonization in tunisia as one of plants cultivated. At the end of the 1970's the strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) was developed in area of Cap Bon. grey mold, caused by botrytis cinerea is by far the most widespread and serious of strawberry fruit diseases and an ever-present threat to the crop. A wide variety of symptoms is caused by B. Cinerea such as a rot on fruit and blight on leaves. this fungus causes domages bith in the field and during storage. In order to reduce severity of grey mold, biological control in field and radiation on post-harvest are developed. The objective of this study was to determine the antagonism of some microorganisms against B.Cinerea such as Trichoderma and Bacillus in greenhouse. On the other hand we tested the efficacity of biological products such as Prev-Am and BM 86on enhancing plant defense. For the post-harvest studies, the goal is to provide a wear tool to manage better the fungus by gamma rays radiation. (author). 29 refs

  14. Pathogenicity of some Rhizoctonia solaniz isolates associated with root/collar rots on the cultivars of bean in greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlooli, A; Okhovvat, S M; Javan-Nikkhah, M

    2006-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were gathered from infected roots and hypocotyls of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in the fields of Tehran Province, Iran. Two isolates of the collected samples belonged to binucleate and 81 isolates to multinucleate of R. solani. The multinucleate isolates showed different anastomosis groups as AG-4 (subg. AG-4 HGI, AG-4HGII), AG-6 and AG-2. In greenhouse, pathogenicity tests carried out on bean cv. Naz in randomized design with 4 replications and each replication (pots) with 5 seeds of bean. Infection was done with seeds of wheat which were infected to the fungus with pasteurized soil. Results showed that the highest disease severity was caused by AG-4 (Rs21) isolates, whereas AG-4 (Rs74) isolates were weakly pathogenic with 90% and 21% infection, respectively. In this test the major pathogenic isolates belonged to AG-4 and they caused seed rot and damping-off of bean and AG-6 isolates were non-pathogenic. Five isolates of the fungus with major pathogenicity (Rs7, Rs18, Rs21, Rs62 and Rs71) selected and used for the reaction with different cultivars of bean. In this test, the cultivars and lines of bean (Pinto, red, white, green) studied in factorial experiment as randomized block design with 4 replications (pots). Results showed that none of the cultivars was completely resistant, however green bean cv. Sanry and pinto cv. Shad with number 4.8 disease severities had the highest susceptibility to seed rot and damping-off and red bean cv. Goli with 2.58 had the lowest susceptibility to the infection. Reaction of the cultivars and lines to the isolates of R. solani was significantly different at 1% level. Isolates of the fungus, Rs7, Rs21 with 84%, 90% pathogenicity was more virulent than the others. PMID:17390878

  15. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Riley, Robert; Nagy, Laszlo G; Koehler, Gage; Ransdell, Anthony S; Younus, Hina; Chow, Julianna; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Lipzen, Anna; Tritt, Andrew; Sun, Hui; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A; Kües, Ursula; Blanchette, Robert A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Minto, Robert E; Hibbett, David S

    2015-03-01

    Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white-rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown-rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. C. torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related to Schizophyllum commune, which has been reported to cause white rot. Our results suggest that C. torrendii and S. commune are intermediate between white-rot and brown-rot fungi, but at the same time they show characteristics of decay that resembles soft rot. Both species cause weak wood decay and degrade all wood components but leave the middle lamella intact. Their gene content related to lignin degradation is reduced, similar to brown-rot fungi, but both have maintained a rich array of genes related to carbohydrate degradation, similar to white-rot fungi. These characteristics appear to have evolved from white-rot ancestors with stronger ligninolytic ability. F. hepatica shows characteristics of brown rot both in terms of wood decay genes found in its genome and the decay that it causes. However, genes related to cellulose degradation are still present, which is a plesiomorphic characteristic shared with its white-rot ancestors. Four wood degradation-related genes, homologs of which are frequently lost in brown-rot fungi, show signs of pseudogenization in the genome of F. hepatica. These results suggest that transition toward a brown-rot lifestyle could be an ongoing process in F. hepatica. Our results reinforce the idea that wood decay mechanisms are more diverse than initially thought and that the dichotomous separation of wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina into white rot and brown rot should be revisited. PMID:25683379

  16. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Hitoshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  17. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  18. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  19. EXTRACELLULAR POLYSACCHARIDES OF POTATO RING ROT PATHOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafikova Т.N.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria, including phytopathogenic ones produce extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides which are universal molecules. Causal agent of potato ring rot, Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus, secretes exopolysaccharides which role in pathogenesis is poorly investigated. The aim of our research is to ascertain the composition and structure of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus exopolysaccharides. Exopolysaccharides of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus are determined to consist of 4-6 anionic and neutral components which have molecular weights from 700 kDa. Glucose is a major monomer of polysaccharides and arabinose, rhamnose and mannose are minor monomers. Glucose is present in α-Dglucopyranose and β-D-glucopyranose configurations. Calcium is determined to be a component of exopolysaccharides. Components of exopolysaccharides of potato ring rot pathogen are probably capableto associate via calcium ions and other ionic interactions that may result in a change of their physiological activity. Further studies of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus exopolysaccharides composition and structure can serve a base for the synthesis of their chemical analogues with elicitor action.

  20. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a fungus Aspergillus sp. strain F-3 capable of degrading alkali lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y S; Zhou, J T; Lu, H; Yuan, Y L; Zhao, L H

    2011-09-01

    A fungus strain F-3 was selected from fungal strains isolated from forest soil in Dalian of China. It was identified as one Aspergillus sp. stain F-3 with its morphologic, cultural characteristics and high homology to the genus of rDNA sequence. The budges or thickened node-like structures are peculiar structures of hyphae of the strain. The fungus degraded 65% of alkali lignin (2,000 mg l(-1)) after day 8 of incubation at 30°C at pH 7. The removal of colority was up to 100% at 8 days. The biodegradation of lignin by Aspergillus sp. F-3 favored initial pH 7.0. Excess acid or alkali conditions were not propitious to lignin decomposing. Addition of ammonium L: -tartrate or glucose delayed or repressed biodegradation activities. During lignin degradation, manganese peroxidase (28.2 U l(-1)) and laccase (3.5 U l(-1))activities were detected after day 7 of incubation. GC-MS analysis of biodegraded products showed strain F-3 could convert alkali lignin into small molecules or other utilizable products. Strain F-3 may co-culture with white rot fungus and decompose alkali lignin effectively. PMID:21350882

  2. Durability of five native Argentine wood species of the genera Prosopis and Acacia decayed by rot fungi and its relationship with extractive content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometti, Carolina L; Palanti, Sabrina; Pizzo, Benedetto; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Boizot, Nathalie; Resio, Claudio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2010-09-01

    The natural durability of four Argentinean species of Prosopis and one of Acacia was evaluated in laboratory tests, according to European standards, using three brown rot and one white rot fungi. These tests were complemented by assessing the wood chemical composition. All the species were from moderately slightly durable to very durable (classes 4-1), and in all cases the heartwood was the most resistant to fungal attack. Chemical extractives content (organic, aqueous, tannic and phenolic) was higher in the heartwood. However, species durability was not related to extractive contents nor with wood density. Instead, it is possible that extractives could contribute to natural durability in different ways, including the effects related to the antioxidant properties of some of them.

  3. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C Krueger

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS. Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ, which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants.

  4. Reaction of Oilseed Rape Cultivars to Sclerotinia Stem Rot in Field Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jun-ming; HAN Fen-xia; Malgorzata Jedryczka

    2005-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, as an ubiquitous phytopathogenic Ascomycete fungus capable of infecting a wide range of plants, has increased in importance for oilseed rape production worldwide in recent years. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of two measurements of disease rating in predicting the field reaction of cultivars to sclerotinia stem rot. One hundred and ten cultivars or lines of oilseed rape were repeatedly evaluated the disease severity index (DSI) and lesion length for their resistance to nine isolates of S. sclerotiorum in two field stations.There were greatly significant differences between two stations, among isolates, among population of cultivars for the disease severity index and lesion length, and also significant station×isolate interaction for lesion length and population×isolate interactions for DSI and lesion length, but interactions of station×isolate for DSI were not significant.Cultivars such as Pomorzanin and Lisek consistently had the lowest disease severity ratings in the field tests. However,most of cultivars were susceptible to sclerotinia stem rot in the field test. A positive correlation between the mean DSI and lesion length was found for both isolates (Sc23 and B1). The correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.83 at various plots, with nine of the twelve correlations significant. The correlations for disease caused by different fungal isolates were statistically significant difference. These correlations ranged from -0.44 to 0.90, with nine of the thirty-two correlations significant. It indicated that resistance to some isolates was significantly correlated and selection of some varieties for resistance to one isolate appeared to improve resistance to other isolates.

  5. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  6. Experimental Study on Decolorization and Degradation of Reactive Brilliant Red X—3B in a White Rot Fungal Biofilm Reacor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGMin-sheng; HUANGRong; 等

    2001-01-01

    Experimental results of an azo dye(reactive brilliant red X-3B,RBR X-3B) decolorization and degradation in a white rot fungal biofilm reactor were introduced and discussed.The fungal biofilm reactor is highly potential for dye decolorization and degradation with the highest decoloring rate of 95% within 96 hours reaction time at initial pH 4.5 under high nirogen level (HN) (24mmol/L ammonium tartrate)condition.Experimental conditions.such as nutrient nitrogen levels in reaction mixture and initial pH,significantly affected dye decolorization and degradation.Effluents from this bioilm reactor can be well treated to meet the discharging requirements by use of chemical flocculation.RBR X-3B was first absorbed onto fungal biomass and then degraded gradually,The SH-13 fungus monopolized the biofilm throughout the experiments,though the reactor was exposed to open air for 4 months.

  7. 茄褐纹病研究进展%Research Progress of Eggplant Brown Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马珂; 丁克坚; 汪爱娥

    2005-01-01

    茄褐纹病是茄子的主要病害,在我国南北均有分布.其致病菌是茄褐纹拟茎点霉属,属半知菌亚门真菌.综述了茄褐纹病病原学和抗病技术的研究进展,并指出了存在的问题.

  8. Selecting antagonists for control of postharvest brown rot of stone fruits originating from latent infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    In contrast to biological control of postharvest decays (BCPD) of fruits originating from wound infections after harvest, BCPD originating from latent infections occurring in the orchard has not been developed. This is largely due to the lack of methodology to screen and evaluate microbes for bioco...

  9. Study on Gastrodia elata Brown Rot%天麻褐腐病的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大椿; 秦亚平; 秦锋

    2002-01-01

    天麻(Gastrodia elata)球茎变褐腐烂是近年发生的新病害,病球茎率达42.1%.经病原分离鉴定,是由灰葡萄孢(Botrytis cinerea Pers.ex Fr.)所引起.通过室内毒力测定,多菌灵和快宁对该菌EC50分别为66×10-4 mg*mL-1和68×10-4 mg*mL-1.讨论了病害流行的原因,并提出了防治方法.

  10. Induction of in vitro mutation for resistance to potato brown rot (ralstonia solanacearum) disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six genotypes were selected from M1 V2 generation on the bases on their high yield for assessment of genetic variability using protein and RAPD analysis. The results of RAPD analysis showed that 11 primers generated 56 distinct bands of which 31 (55.4%) were polymorphic. The similarity indices of the six mutants of potato and their parents ranged from 70 to 91%. The highest genetic similarity 91% was found between D 20 mutant and Do (Diamant parent), on the other hand, the lowest genetic similarity 705 was found between S 30, S 40 mutants and their parent S 0 (Spunta). In the artificial experiment under in vitro condition, the irradiated and non-irradiated plant lets of potato were cultured on medium inoculates of the selected genotypes form irradiated population of Diamant and Spunta Cultivar were susceptible except S 20 mutant which was resistant. Protein analysis showed that S 20 genotype (Resistant Mutant) displayed 2 negative unique bands that might be responsible for resistance to R. solanacea rum. (Author)

  11. Yeast microflora of nectarines and their potential for biocontrol of brown rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resident fruit microflora has been the source of biocontrol agents for the control of postharvest decays of fruits and the active ingredient in commercialized biocontrol products. With the exception of grapes and apples, information on the resident microflora of other fruits is only fragmentary; ho...

  12. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  13. Improvement of garlic (Allium Sativum L.) resistance to white rot and storability using gamma irradiation induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutation program was conducted to improve garlic (Allium sativum) resistance to white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) and to improve its storability under natural conditions. Cloves of two local garlic cultivars (Kisswany and Yabroudy) were irradiated with gamma ray doses 4, 5, 6, and 7 gray. The cloves were then planted in the field and plants were advanced for 4 generations in order to isolate mutations in stable form. The results indicated that the cultivar Yabroudy was more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Kisswany. Rate of morphological mutants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Selection pressure against white rot disease was applied starting in the second generation by adding infected garlic leaves to the soil. In the third and fourth generations, however, full selection pressure was applied by inoculating the cloves with the fungus sclerotia and planting them in a soil previously planted with infected garlic plants. healthy garlic bulbs were harvested and stored under natural conditions and then planted to obtain the next generation. By the end of the fourth generation, we have been able to improve garlic resistance to white rot disease and its storability. Twenty four mutant lines from each garlic cultivar have been selected. Out of the selected lines, twelve lines from cultivar Kisswany had only 3% infection percentage as compared to 29% in the control, and twelve lines from cultivar Yabroudy had less than 5% infection percentage as compared to 20% in the control. Also, we have been able to improve storability under natural conditions. Weight loss during storage decreased from 8.25% in the control to only 4% in some Kisswany lines and from 10% to 3% in some Yabroudy lines. However, we have not been able to increase the bulb weight over the control but the weights of the selected lines were comparable to those of the control. (author)

  14. Etiology and Epidemiological Conditions Promoting Fusarium Root Rot in Sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, A C; Quesada-Ocampo, L M

    2016-08-01

    Sweetpotato production in the United States is limited by several postharvest diseases, and one of the most common is Fusarium root rot. Although Fusarium solani is believed to be the primary causal agent of disease, numerous other Fusarium spp. have been reported to infect sweetpotato. However, the diversity of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina is unknown. In addition, the lack of labeled and effective fungicides for control of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato creates the need for integrated strategies to control disease. Nonetheless, epidemiological factors that promote Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato remain unexplored. A survey of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina identified six species contributing to disease, with F. solani as the primary causal agent. The effects of storage temperature (13, 18, 23, 29, and 35°C), relative humidity (80, 90, and 100%), and initial inoculum level (3-, 5-, and 7-mm-diameter mycelia plug) were examined for progression of Fusarium root rot caused by F. solani and F. proliferatum on 'Covington' sweetpotato. Fusarium root rot was significantly reduced (P Fusarium spp. revealed the production of fumonisin B1 by F. proliferatum when infecting sweetpotato. This study is a step toward characterizing the etiology and epidemiology of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato, which allows for improved disease management recommendations to limit postharvest losses to this disease.

  15. Heterobasidion annosum root rot in Picea abies: Variability in aggressiveness and resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swedjemark, G.

    1995-12-31

    In greenhouse experiments 3-4 year-old plants of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris were inoculated with the root rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum. The growth rates of 25 S and 14 P isolates of the fungus were measured in the sapwood of about 25 rametes each of 98 Norway spruce clones and in 150 seedlings each of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Correlations were determined between fungal sapwood growth and a variety of variables, i.e. the physical stage, growth rhythm, size and condition of the cuttings, provenance and the growth capacity of the clones estimated in field tests. Genetic parameters such as phenotypic and genotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance and broad sense heritability were calculated. H. annosum infection incidence was close to 100 % for inoculated Norway spruce clones, and the mortality rate was about 1 %. Fungal growth in sapwood differed significantly among clones and among fungal isolates. The genotypic correlation coefficient was large (30 %) and broad sense heritability was 0.35. This suggests that good selection progress can be achieved in breeding programs. The physical stage (bud-flush, vegetative and post bud-set stage) of the clones contributed significantly to the total variation in fungal growth. The population structure of H. annosum was studied in two 25-year-old, first generation stands of Norway spruce. The stands had been thinned one and seven years earlier, respectively. All stumps and remaining trees were sampled for H. annosum isolates. The isolates were tested with somatic incompatibility to detect single genets and the distribution of genets in the stand was determined. About 70 % of the 7-year-old thinning stumps were colonized by H, annosum, and 50 % of these stumps were colonized by more than one fungal genet. Sixty-three percent of the remaining trees were infected with H. annosum but among them there was only one genet per tree. 104 refs, 12 figs

  16. Diplonine, a neurotoxin isolated from cultures of the fungus Stenocarpella maydis (Berk.) Sacc. that induces diplodiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Leendert D; Kellerman, T Stephanus; Vleggaar, Robert; Flett, Bradley C; Basson, Karin M; Schultz, R Anitra

    2011-08-24

    Diplodiosis is a neuromycotoxicosis of cattle and sheep caused by ingestion of maize infected with the ear-rot fungus Stenocarpella (= Diplodia ) maydis . Apart from ataxia, paresis, and paralysis, the toxin is responsible for stillbirths and neonatal losses characterized by the presence of spongiform degeneration in the white matter of the brain in the offspring of dams exposed to infected maize cobs. In the present study a toxin, named diplonine, which induced neurological signs in guinea pigs resembling some of those occurring in cattle and sheep, was isolated from S. maydis cultures. Purification of diplonine was achieved by methanol extraction followed by chromatographic separation on silica gel and RP-18 stationary phases. The structure and relative configuration of diplonine were defined by analysis of NMR and MS data as (S)-2-amino-2-[(1R,2S)-1-hydroxy-2-methylcyclopropyl]acetic acid or the (S)-2-amino-2-[(1S,2R)-diastereomer. PMID:21780820

  17. Mycolytic enzymes produced by Streptomyces violaceusniger and their role in antagonism towards wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Anand; Choudhary, Bharti; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular mycolytic enzymes produced under submerged fermentation by the fungal antagonist Streptomyces violaceusniger MTCC 3959 were characterized. This streptomycete produced higher amounts of extracellular chitinase and protease during late exponential phase, whereas β-1,3-glucanase production was at peak in mid-stationary phase. Cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) exhibited a broad range of antifungal activity against both white rot and brown rot fungi. The inhibitory activity was completely lost after treatment with proteinase K and heat, indicating that extracellular antifungal metabolites are heat labile and proteinaceous in nature. Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were: 9.0 and 60 °C for chitinase; 6.0 and 60 °C for β-1,3-glucanase; and 9.0 and 70 °C for protease. Mycolytic enzymes were moderately thermostable, and had a wide pH stability range extending from pH 5.0 to 10.0. The zymogram analysis of CCF revealed five chitinase isoenzymes with an apparent molecular weight of 20.8, 33.3, 45.6, 67.4, and 114.8 kDa, one β-1,3-glucanase appeared as a single band of ∼131.8 kDa and four protease isoenzymes with approximate molecular weights of 22.8, 62.52, 74.64, and 120.5 kDa. S. violaceusniger MTCC 3959 produced mycolytic enzymes that can be effectively used for suppression of phytopathogenic basidiomycetes. It has the potential to be an effective biofungicide. PMID:23686763

  18. Mycolytic enzymes produced by Streptomyces violaceusniger and their role in antagonism towards wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Anand; Choudhary, Bharti; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular mycolytic enzymes produced under submerged fermentation by the fungal antagonist Streptomyces violaceusniger MTCC 3959 were characterized. This streptomycete produced higher amounts of extracellular chitinase and protease during late exponential phase, whereas β-1,3-glucanase production was at peak in mid-stationary phase. Cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) exhibited a broad range of antifungal activity against both white rot and brown rot fungi. The inhibitory activity was completely lost after treatment with proteinase K and heat, indicating that extracellular antifungal metabolites are heat labile and proteinaceous in nature. Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were: 9.0 and 60 °C for chitinase; 6.0 and 60 °C for β-1,3-glucanase; and 9.0 and 70 °C for protease. Mycolytic enzymes were moderately thermostable, and had a wide pH stability range extending from pH 5.0 to 10.0. The zymogram analysis of CCF revealed five chitinase isoenzymes with an apparent molecular weight of 20.8, 33.3, 45.6, 67.4, and 114.8 kDa, one β-1,3-glucanase appeared as a single band of ∼131.8 kDa and four protease isoenzymes with approximate molecular weights of 22.8, 62.52, 74.64, and 120.5 kDa. S. violaceusniger MTCC 3959 produced mycolytic enzymes that can be effectively used for suppression of phytopathogenic basidiomycetes. It has the potential to be an effective biofungicide.

  19. Social-insect fungus farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    basidiomycete genus Termitomyces - whereas the ants are associated with a larger diversity of fungal lineages (all basidiomycetes). The ants and termites forage for plant material to provision their fungus gardens. Their crops convert this carbon-rich plant material into nitrogen-rich fungal biomass to provide...... the farming insects with most of their food ( Figure 1 ). No secondary reversals to the ancestral life style are known in either group, which suggests that the transitions to farming were as drastically innovative and irreversible as when humans made this step about 10,000 years ago....

  20. Repression of hla by rot is dependent on sae in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Cheung, Ambrose

    2008-03-01

    The regulatory locus sae is a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus that regulates many important virulence factors, including alpha-toxin (encoded by hla) at the transcriptional level. The SarA homologs Rot and SarT were previously shown to be repressors of hla in selected S. aureus backgrounds. To delineate the interaction of rot and sae and the contribution of sarT to hla expression, an assortment of rot and sae isogenic single mutants, a rot sae double mutant, and a rot sae sarT markerless triple mutant were constructed from wild-type strain COL. Using Northern blot analysis and transcriptional reporter gene green fluorescent protein, fusion, and phenotypic assays, we found that the repression of hla by rot is dependent on sae. A rot sae sarT triple mutant was not able to rescue the hla defect of the rot sae double mutant. Among the three sae promoters, the distal sae P3 promoter is the strongest in vitro. Interestingly, the sae P3 promoter activities correlate with hla expression in rot, rot sae, and rot sae sarT mutants of COL. Transcriptional study has also shown that rot repressed sae, especially at the sae P3 promoter. Collectively, our data implicated the importance of sae in the rot-mediated repression of hla in S. aureus.

  1. [Cutaneous mold fungus granuloma from Ulocladium chartarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, P; Schon, K

    1981-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas due to the mold fungus Ulocladium chartarum (Preuss) are described in a 58 year old woman. This fungus is usually harmless for mammalian. It is thought that a consisting immunosuppression (Brill-Symmer's disease, therapy with corticosteroids) was a priming condition for the infection. The route of infection in this patient described is unknown. PMID:7194869

  2. Population genetics of the wood-rotting basidiomycete Armillaria cepistipes in a fragmented forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Renate; Rigling, Daniel; Prospero, Simone

    2012-09-01

    Armillaria cepistipes is a common wood-rotting basidiomycete fungus found in most forests in Central Europe. In Switzerland, the habitat of A. cepistipes is fragmented because of the presence of major geographical barriers, in particular the Alps, and past deforestation. We analysed the impact of habitat fragmentation on the current spatial genetic structure of the Swiss A. cepistipes population. A total of 167 isolates were sampled across an area of 41 000 km(2) and genotyped at seven microsatellite and four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. All isolates belonged to different genotypes which, according to the Bayesian clustering algorithm implemented in Tess, originated from a single gene pool. Our analyses indicate that the overall A. cepistipes population shows little, but significant (F(ST)=0.02), genetic differentiation. Such a situation suggests gene flow is strong, possibly due to long-distance dispersal of airborne basidiospores. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that we could not detect a pattern of isolation by distance. Gene flow is partially restricted by the high mountain ranges of the Alps, as indicated by a signal of spatial autocorrelation detected among genotypes separated by less than about 80-130 km. In contrast, past deforestation seems to have no significant effect on the current spatial population structure of A. cepistipes. This might indicate the existence of a time lag between the current spatial genetic structure and the processes that have induced this specific structure. PMID:22954341

  3. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  4. DEGRADATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY WHITE ROT BASIDIOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. PARMAR, P.N. MERVANA B.R.M. VYAS*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Dyes released by the textile industries pose a threat to environmental quality. Ligninolytic white-rot basidiomycetes can effectively degrade colored effluents and conventional dyes. White-rot fungi produce various isoforms of extracellular oxidases including laccase, Mn peroxidase and lignin peroxidase (LiP, which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates.  The textile industry, by far the most avid user of synthetic dyes, is in need of eco-efficient solutions for its colored effluents. White rot basidiomycetous fungi comprise the only group of organisms known to completely degrade lignin. Ligninolytic enzymes have potential applications in a large number of fields, including the chemical, fuel, food, agricultural, paper, textile, cosmetic industrial sectors and more. This ligninolytic system of white-rot fungi is also directly involved in the degradation of various xenobiotic compounds apart from textile dyes. Their capacities to remove xenobiotic substances make them a useful tool for bioremediation purposes. This paper reviews involvement of ligninolytic enzymes of white rot basidiomycetes in the degradation of textiles dyes and xenobiotic compounds for their industrial and biotechnological applications.

  5. A new naphthoquinoneimine derivative from the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger EN-13

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cultivation of an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger EN-13 that was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine brown alga Colpomenia sinuosa resulted in the characterization of a new naphthoquinoneimine derivative, namely, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-[1-(4-methoxy-6-oxo-6H-pyran-2-yl)-2-phenylethylamino]-[ 1,4]naphthoquinone. The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of various NMR spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR techniques, EI-MS, and HR-ESI-MS. This compound displayed moderate antifungal activity.

  6. Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Eikemo, H; Klemsdal, S.S.; Riisberg, I.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Stensvand, A.; Tronsmo, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of 44 isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by AFLP showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from P. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, were identical in an analysis based on 96 polymorphic bands from seven primer combinations. Leather rot isolates of strawberry could not be distinguished from isolates from other...

  7. Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikemo, H.; Klemsdal, S.S.; Riisberg, I.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Stensvand, A.; Tronsmo, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of 44 isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by AFLP showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from P. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from Europe, Japan, Australia

  8. Black rot of cabbage in The Netherlands: studies on spatial and temporal development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocks, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Black rot in cabbage is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris . An exploratory survey at farm level suggested that major aspects contributing to black rot development are cultivar, initial inoculum, refuse management, origin of transplants, and seed quality. Black rot develop

  9. The use of white-rot fungi as active biofilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.; Huettermann, A. [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Forstbotanisches Inst.

    1995-12-31

    White-rot fungi, growing on lignocellulosic substrates, have been successfully used as active organisms in biofilters. Filters using these fungi have a very high biological active surface area, allowing for high degrees of retention, a comparatively low pressure drop, and a high physical stability. The unspecific action of the extracellular enzymes of the white-rot fungi allows for the degradation of a wide variety of substances by the same organism. Degradation of several compounds in the gas phase by the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bjerkandera adusta, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was tested. Among the aromatic solvents, styrene was the compound that was most readily degraded, followed by ethylbenzene, xylenes, and toluene. Tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane were also degraded, whereas dioxane could not be attacked by fungi under the conditions used. Acrylonitrile and aniline were degraded very well, whereas pyridine was resistant to degradation. The process for removing styrene is now in the scaling-up stage.

  10. Affect of crop residue on colonization and survival of Phoma sclerotioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoma sclerotioides causes brown root rot (BRR) of alfalfa and root rot of other perennial legumes and some winter hardy grasses. It can survive as a saprophyte on crop debris so crop residues that support the fungus may increase inocula levels. Current management of BRR is based on crop rotation wi...

  11. BIOCHEMICAL PULPING OF REED PRETREATED BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiyuFu; AniwarApiz; HuaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    The Soda-AQ pulps were made from reed pretreated by white rot fungi Panus conchatus. Cyathus stercoreus and Pleurotus florida respectively. It was found that kappa number decreased and the brightness increased for Soda-AQ pulps from the reed treated by Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus, but it was reverse for the pulp from reed treated by Cyathus stercoreus. The result indicated that white rot fungi Pleurotus .florida and Panus conchatus were selective to degrade lignin inreed, which were good for biopulping, but Cyathus stercoreus was preferential to degrade cellulose, which was not good for biopulping.

  12. BIOCHEMICAL PULPING OF REED PRETREATED BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyu Fu; Aniwar Apiz; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    The Soda-AQ pulps were made from reed pretreated by white rot fungi Panus conchatus,Cyathus stercoreus and Pleurotus florida respectively. It was found that kappa number decreased and the brightness increased for Soda-AQ pulps from the reed treated by Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus, but it was reverse for the pulp from reed treated by Cyathus stercoreus. The result indicated that white rot fungi Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus were selective to degrade lignin in reed, which were good for biopulping, but Cyathus stercoreus was preferential to degrade cellulose,which was not good for biopulping.

  13. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...

  14. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  15. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  16. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  17. A new macrocyclic trichochecene from soil fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province,a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated.The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  18. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  19. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  20. Genome Sequence of Mushroom Soft-Rot Pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum

    OpenAIRE

    Graupner, Katharina; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum causes soft-rot disease of the cultured button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and is thus responsible for agricultural losses. Here, we present the genome sequence of J. agaricidamnosum DSM 9628. The 5.9-Mb genome harbors several secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, which renders this neglected bacterium a promising source for genome mining approaches.

  1. Calibrating echelle spectrographs with Fabry-Pérot etalons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. F.; Zechmeister, M.; Reiners, A.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Over the past decades hollow-cathode lamps have been calibration standards for spectroscopic measurements. Advancing to cm/s radial velocity precisions with the next generation of instruments requires more suitable calibration sources with more lines and fewer dynamic range problems. Fabry-Pérot interferometers provide a regular and dense grid of lines and homogeneous amplitudes, which makes them good candidates for next-generation calibrators. Aims: We investigate the usefulness of Fabry-Pérot etalons in wavelength calibration, present an algorithm to incorporate the etalon spectrum in the wavelength solution, and examine potential problems. Methods: The quasi-periodic pattern of Fabry-Pérot lines was used along with a hollow-cathode lamp to anchor the numerous spectral features on an absolute scale. We tested our method with the HARPS spectrograph and compared our wavelength solution to the one derived from a laser frequency comb. Results: The combined hollow-cathode lamp/etalon calibration overcomes large distortion (50 m/s) in the wavelength solution of the HARPS data reduction software. The direct comparison to the laser frequency comb shows differences of only 10 m/s at most. Conclusions: Combining hollow-cathode lamps with Fabry-Pérot interferometers can lead to substantial improvements in the wavelength calibration of echelle spectrographs. Etalons can provide economical alternatives to the laser frequency comb, especially for smaller projects.

  2. Phytophthora root rot resistance in soybean E00003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a devastating disease in soybean production. Using resistant cultivars has been suggested as the best solution for disease management. Michigan elite soybean E00003 is resistant to P. sojae and has been used as a PRR resist...

  3. Avaliação da atividade de indutores de resistência abiótica, fungicida químico e extratos vegetais no controle da podridão-negra em Abacaxi 'Pérola' Activity evaluation of abiotic resistance inducers, chemical fungicide and natural plant extracts on black rot of pineapple, cv. pérola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Danielly de Mello Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    probabilidade. O tratamento que apresentou melhor resultado foi o indutor de resistência Ecolife®, aumentando o período de vida útil dos frutos e diminuindo a severidade dos sintomas da doença.Black rot of pineapple, caused by Chalara paradoxa (De Seyn. Sacc., is a postharvest disease responsible by high losses on fruits destined to the fresh market and to the processing industry. Penetration of fungus inside cells occurs through wounds and stem cutting, causing infection. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of abiotic resistance inducers, chemical fungicide and natural plant extracts on black rot of pineapple control. 32 fruits of pineapple cv pérola were used. They were disinfested with sodium hypochlorite (commercial product at 4% for 5 minutes. After drying at room temperature, fruits were treated, by spraying, with: 1 Distilled water (control, 2 Derosal 3 Bion® (Acibenzolar-S-methyl; 4 Ecolife®; 5 Agro-Mos®; 6 Allium sativum extract at 20%; 7 A. cepa at 20% and 8 Azadirachta indica at 20%. Treated fruits were incubated on humid chamber with polyethylene bags during 24 hours before inoculation procedure using a mycelia disk added to a wound at the epidermic area of the fruit. Evaluation of disease progress was done by a disease index: 1- no symptoms, 2- black rot on epidermis reaching 1-5 simple fruits, 3- black rot on epidermis reaching 6-10 simple fruits, 4- internal brown yellow rot, 5- black rot and disintegration of internal area in more than 50%. The experimental design was a completely randomized with eight treatments and five replicates, using general linear models with multinomial distribution and the averages were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5%. The best results were found in the Ecolife treatment with longer fruit life span and less severity in the symptoms of the disease.

  4. Root rot of sugarbeet in the Vojvodina Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large changes introduced in the sugar beet production technology in the Vojvodina Province over last 40 years resulted in changes in the etiology and harmfulness of different agents of sugar beet root diseases. Improvements in cultivation practices reduced the harmfulness of some diseases while increased the harmfulness of others. Some disease agents became obsolete, but others gained importance. New agents of root diseases were found. The most frequent damages, persisting over long periods of time were caused by seedling damping-off, Fusarium root rot, charcoal root rot, parasitic (Rhizomania and non-parasitic root bearding. The parasitic damping-off caused by several fungal species but most frequently by Phoma betae occurred at the time when multigerm seeds were used in combination with extensive cultural practices. The agents of seedling diseases completely lost their significance as the consequence of switching to fungicide - treated monogerm seeds, earlier planting and improved soil tillage. In the period of intensive use of agricultural chemicals, seedling damping-off occurred frequently due to the phytotoxic action of chemicals (insecticides, herbicides and mineral fertilizers. In some years, frosts caused damping- off of sugar beet seedlings on a large scale in the Vojvodina Province. Poor sugar beet germination and emergence were frequently due to spring droughts. Sometimes they were due to strong winds. The occurrence of Fusarium root rot and charcoal root rot intensified on poor soils. Fusariosis symptoms were exhibited as plant wilting and different forms of root rot. In recent years root tip rot has occurred frequently in the first part of the growing season causing necrosis and dying of plants. Lateral roots tended to proliferate from the healthy tissue, giving the root a bearded appearance similar to Rhizomania. Fusarium oxysporum was the most frequent agent of this fusariosis. F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. solani have also been

  5. Control of lettuce bottom rot by isolates of Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IB, is an important disease affecting lettuce in Brazil, where its biological control with Trichoderma was not developed yet. The present study was carried out with the aim of selecting Trichoderma isolates to be used in the control of lettuce bottom rot. Forty-six Trichoderma isolates, obtained with baits containing mycelia of the pathogen, were evaluated in experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo in a greenhouse in two steps. In the laboratory, the isolates were evaluated for their capabilities of parasitizing and producing toxic metabolic substances that could inhibit the pathogen mycelial growth. In the first step of the in vivo experiments, the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings of the cultivar White Boston were evaluated. In the second step, 12 isolates that were efficient in the first step and showed rapid growth and abundant sporulation in the laboratory were tested for their capability of controlling bottom rot in two repeated experiments, and had their species identified. The majority of the isolates of Trichoderma spp. (76% showed high capacity for parasitism and 50% of them produced toxic metabolites capable of inhibiting 60-100% of R. solani AG1-IB mycelial growth. Twenty-four isolates increased the number and 23 isolates increased the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with the pathogen in the first step of the in vivo experiments.In both experiments of the second step, two isolates of T. virens, IBLF 04 and IBLF 50, reduced the severity of bottom rot and increased the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with R. solani AG1-IB. These isolates had shown a high capacity for parasitism and production of toxic metabolic substances, indicating that the in vitro and in vivo steps employed in the present study were efficient in selecting antagonists to be used for the control of lettuce bottom rot.

  6. Analysis of the Biological Characteristics of a Parasitical Fungus in Chrysosplenium absconditicapsulum J. T. Pan Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangquan DUAN; Penghui XU; Shunlin XING

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to uncover the biological characteristics of a parasitical fungus in Chrysosp/enium absconditicapsu/um J. T. Pan leaves. [Method] PDA medium was used to isolate the fungus from C. absconditicapsulum leaves; PDA medium, modified KB medium and Czapek medium were adopted to cultivate the isolated strain. [Result] Colonies of the strain were stretched, white, fedora- shaped with smooth and wavy edges, and showed diameter growth on PDA medi- um, modified KB medium and Czapek medium. At the late stage of culture, the colonies turned into cyanish brown on the above media. Spores were black and born on the surface of colonies on PDA medium with blackened medium. While on modified KB medium and Czapek medium, they were born at the edge of colonies with blackened medium. The spores varied in a wide range of shapes, mostly ob- clavate, sometimes spherical or ellipsoidal. The conidia were muriformly septate with transverse or longitudinal or oblique septations. The pseudo-beaks were short and cylindrical. [Conclusion] According to relevant literatures, the isolated strain is a fungus in Alternaria, Dematiaceae, Hylohomycetales, Hyphomycetes, Deuteromycotina.

  7. Enhanced lignin biodegradation by a laccase-overexpressed white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis in the pretreatment of wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Cho, Myung-Kil; Kim, Myungkil; Jung, Sang-Min; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-11-01

    The laccase gene of Polyporus brumalis was genetically transformed to overexpress its laccase. The transformants exhibited increased laccase activity and effective decolorization of the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R than the wild type. When the transformants were pretreated with wood chips from a red pine (softwood) and a tulip tree (hardwood) for 15 and 45 days, they showed higher lignin-degradation activity as well as higher wood-chip weight loss than the wild type. When the wood chips treated with the transformant were enzymatically saccharified, the highest sugar yields were found to be 32.5 % for the red pine wood and 29.5 % for the tulip tree wood, on the basis of the dried wood weights, which were 1.6-folds higher than those for the wild type. These results suggested that overexpression of the laccase gene from P. brumalis significantly contributed to the pretreatment of lignocellulose for increasing sugar yields. PMID:23975277

  8. The effect of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress on the enzymes in white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihua; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Yan, Min; Chen, Anwei; Du, Jianjian; Huang, Jian; Yi, Bin; Zhou, Ying; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Prevalence of heavy metals in the living environment causes chemical stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). However, the mechanisms involved in ROS defense are still under investigation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidative stress on the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP). A time-dependent change in all enzyme activities was observed following exposure to 50 μM cadmium and 25 μM lead. The lowest values were recorded at 4 h after exposure. Both cadmium and lead inhibited CAT and POD. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) levels increased under 50-100 μM cadmium or lead exposure and decreased when heavy metal concentration was under 50 μM; this suggested that ROS is not the only factor that alters the CYP450 levels. The cadmium removal rate in the sample containing 900 μM taxifolin (inhibitor of CYP450) and 100 μM cadmium was reduced to 12.34 %, 9.73 % lower than that of 100 μM cadmium-induced sample, indicating CYP450 may play an indirect but key role in the process of clearance of heavy metals. The pH of the substrate solution decreased steadily during the incubation process.

  9. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of lignin derived from enzymatic hydrolysis residue of bamboo pretreated with white-rot fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Keliang; Liu, Fang; Chen, Qing; Ke, Ming; Huang, Xin; Hu, Weiyao; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; YU, HONGBO

    2016-01-01

    Background The lignocellulose biorefinery based on the sugar platform usually focuses on polysaccharide bioconversion, while lignin is only burned for energy recovery. Pyrolysis can provide a novel route for the efficient utilization of residual lignin obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. The pyrolysis characteristics of residual lignin are usually significantly affected by the pretreatment process because of structural alteration of lignin during pretreatment. In recent ...

  10. Influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzyme production of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiaoyan; WEN Xianghua; FENG Yan

    2007-01-01

    The present work studied the influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a nitrogen-limited(C/N ratio is 56/8.8 mmol/L)medium.Several sets of shaking flask experiments were conducted.The results showed that 2g/L glucose feeding on the first day of the culture(24 h after the inoculation)stimulated both fungal biomass growth and enzyme production.The manganese peroxidase(MnP)activity was 2.5 times greater than that produced in cultures without glucose feeding.Furthermore,the glucose feeding mode in fed-batch culture was also investigated.Compared to cultures with glucose feeding every 48 h,cultures with glucose feeding of 1.5 g/L(final concentration)every 24 h produced more enzymes.The peak and total yield of MnP activity were 2.7 and 3 times greater compared to the contrast culture,respectively,and the enzyme was kept stable for 4 days with an activity of over 200 U/L.

  11. Decolorization of molasses spent wash by the white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus, isolated from a marine habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghukumar, C; Rivonkar, G

    2001-05-01

    Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden, a basidiomycete (NIOCC strain 312) isolated from decomposing leaves of a sea grass, decolorized pigments in molasses spent wash (MSW) by 80% after 8 days of incubation, when used at concentrations of 10% and 50%. Decolorizing activity was also present in media prepared with half-strength seawater (equivalent to 15 ppt salinity). Decolorizing activity was seen in low-nitrogen medium, nutrient-rich medium and in sugarcane bagasse medium. The percentage decolorization of MSW was highest when glucose or sucrose was used as the carbon source in the low-nitrogen medium. The production of lignin-modifying enzymes, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MNP) and laccase decreased in a medium containing MSW. MNP production and MSW decolorization were inversely correlated, suggesting no role for MNP in MSW decolorization. The decolorization of MSW was not effective when F. flavus was immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Decolorization was achieved best in oxygenated cultures. Besides color, total phenolics and chemical oxygen demand were reduced by 50% in MSW treated with F. flavus, suggesting its potential in the bioremediation of effluents.

  12. Improving xylitol production through recombinant expression of xylose reductase in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Sho; Wang, Jianqiao; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Hirai, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    We generated an expression construct consisting of the xylose reductase (XR) gene (xr) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Transformant X7 exhibited increased xylitol production and markedly higher XR activities than the wild-type strain. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the increased XR activity was associated with constant expression of the recombinant xr gene. PMID:25547244

  13. Decolorization of molasses spent wash by the white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus, isolated from a marine habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Rivonkar, G.

    Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden, a basidiomycete (NIOCC strain 312) isolated from decomposing leaves of a sea grass, decolorized pigments in molasses spent wash (MSW) by 80% after 8 days of incubation, when used at concentrations of 10% and 50...

  14. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and decolorization of synthetic dyes by laccase from white-rot fungus, Trametes polyzona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairin, Thanunchanok; Nitheranont, Thitinard; Watanabe, Akira; Asada, Yasuhiko; Khanongnuch, Chartchai; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2013-01-01

    Purified laccase from Trametes polyzona WR710-1 was used as biocatalyst for bisphenol A biodegradation and decolorization of synthetic dyes. Degradation of bisphenol A by laccase with or without redox mediator, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) was studied. The quantitative analysis by HPLC showed that bisphenol A rapidly oxidized by laccase with HBT. Bisphenol A was completely removed within 3 h and 4-isopropenylphenol was found as the oxidative degradation product from bisphenol A when identified by GC-MS. All synthetic dyes used in this experiment, Bromophenol Blue, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Methyl Orange, Relative Black 5, Congo Red, and Acridine Orange were decolorized by Trametes laccase and the percentage of decolorization increased when 2 mM HBT was added in the reaction mixture. This is the first report showing that laccase from T. polyzona is an affective enzyme having high potential for environmental detoxification, bisphenol A degradation and synthetic dye decolorization.

  15. Control of Postharvest Fusarium Rot and Trichothecium Rot in Harvested Muskmelon (cv. Yindi) by Harpin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yong-hong; BI Yang; LI Mei; LI Xuan

    2005-01-01

    Preharvest and postharvest application of Harpin was evaluated for its ability to induce resistance in muskmelon fruit and control rots. Preharvest treatments were 30 mg L-1, 60 mg L-1 Harpin or 1 mg L-1 Imazalil either 1 week or 1 day before harvest.The CK was untreated. Fruit were then inoculated with Fusarium semitectum or Trichothecium roseum 48 h after harvest,and stored at 23 ± 1℃, RH (relative humidity) 50-60% for 4 d. All treatments were effective in reducing the lesion area with 60 mg L-1 Harpin the most effectively. No treatments inhibited infection rate. Postharvest treatment was fruit dips of 30 mg L-1, 60 mg L-1 Harpin, 0.1 mg L-1 Imazalil. Fruit were inoculated with F. semitectum or T. roseum 24, 72, 120 or 168 h after treatment, and stored at 23 ± 1 ℃, RH 50-60% for 4 days. All treatments were effective in reducing the lesion area with 60 mg L-1 Harpin the most effectively. No treatments inhibited the infection rate. Postharvest Harpin treatment induced the peroxidase activity increase, peroxidase activity reached maximum after 8 d and the activation lasted at least 10 d.

  16. Effect of soya lecithin on the enzymatic system of the white-rot fungi Anthracophyllum discolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M; González, M E; Cartes, A; Diez, M C

    2011-01-01

    The present work optimized the initial pH of the medium and the incubation temperature for ligninolytic enzymes produced by the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor. Additionally, the effect of soya lecithin on mycelial growth and the production of ligninolytic enzymes in static batch cultures were evaluated. The critical micelle concentration of soya lecithin was also studied by conductivity. The effects of the initial pH (3, 4, and 5) and incubation temperature (20, 25, and 30°C) on different enzymatic activities revealed that the optimum conditions to maximize ligninolytic activity were 26°C and pH 5.5 for laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) and 30°C and pH 5.5 for manganese-independent peroxidase (MiP). Under these culture conditions, the maximum enzyme production was 10.16, 484.46, and 112.50 U L(-1) for laccase, MnP, and manganese-independent peroxidase MiP, respectively. During the study of the effect of soya lecithin on A. discolor, we found that the increase in soya lecithin concentration from 0 to 10 g L(-1) caused an increase in mycelial growth. On the other hand, in the presence of soya lecithin, A. discolor produced mainly MnP, which reached a maximum concentration of 30.64 ± 4.61 U L(-1) after 25 days of incubation with 1 g L(-1) of the surfactant. The other enzymes were produced but to a lesser extent. The enzymatic activity of A. discolor was decreased when Tween 80 was used as a surfactant. The critical micelle concentration of soya lecithin calculated in our study was 0.61 g L(-1).

  17. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clifford Sutton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydroponic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances, the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and phenolic substances in the nutrient solution, microbial communities and temperature and human interferences (cropping practices and control measures are reviewed. Recent findings on predisposition of roots to Pythium attack by environmental stress factors are highlighted. The commonly minor impact on epidemics of measures to disinfest nutrient solution as it recirculates outside the crop is contrasted with the impact of treatments that suppress Pythium in the roots and root zone of the crop. New discoveries that infection of roots by P. aphanidermatum markedly slows the increase in leaf area and whole-plant carbon gain without significant effect on the efficiency of photosynthesis per unit area of leaf are noted. The platform of

  18.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

      The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables   Anne Winding, National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde, AU   Trichoderma spp. is a naturally occurring fungus in soil and T. harzianum is an active ingredient in microbial pest control agents (MPCA) active against root pathogenic fungi....... The MPCA is administered to the plants by watering. The fungus establishes in the root zone and exerts its beneficial effect by general increase of resistance against pathogenic fungi. The natural occurrence of Trichoderma spp. and the fate and survival of the introduced T. harzianum on vegetables...... are important for risk assessment of MPCA and are the objectives of this project. Trichoderma spp. on tomatoes and cucumbers grown in greenhouses and on broccoli and celery leaf grown outdoors were quantified during a growth season. A MPCA with T. harzianum was applied in a greenhouse growing tomatoes...

  19. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, expressed as a slower inhibition of growth of the former, and faster of the latter pathogen. Antagonistic abilities of species from genus Trichoderma (T. asperellum are important, and have already been exploited in formulated biocontrol products in organic and conventional production, in order to prevent soil borne pathogens inducing fusarium wilt and rot. The importance of preventing onion infection by Fusarium spp., possible mycotoxin producers, has been underlined.

  20. Korrektur von Rot- bzw. Grünanomalie mittels Farbfilter

    OpenAIRE

    Junger, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Zielsetzung Farbensehen ist ein physiologisches Vermögen basierend unter anderem auf Pigmentgenen, erzeugten Photopigmenten und deren Absorptionsspektren. Im Falle von Störungen des Rot- und Grüngenes resultiert fehlerhaftes Farbensehen im Sinne von anomaler Trichromasie, Dichromasie oder Blauzapfenmonochromasie. Zur Therapie der anomalen Trichromasie wurden korrigierende Farbfilter (Coloryte) mit Spezialbeschichtung entwickelt, deren Einfluss auf das Farbensehen Gegenstand dieser Studie w...

  1. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    OpenAIRE

    Nityananda Chakraborty; Balen Nandi

    2015-01-01

    Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be du...

  2. Stabilization of lignin peroxidases in white rot fungi by tryptophan.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, P. J.; Field, J. A.; Teunissen, P; Dobson, A D

    1997-01-01

    Supplementation of various cultures of white rot fungi with tryptophan was found to have a large stimulatory effect on lignin peroxidase activity levels. This enhancement was greater than that observed in the presence of the lignin peroxidase recycling agent veratryl alcohol. Using reverse transcription-PCR, we found that tryptophan does not act to induce lignin peroxidase expression at the level of gene transcription. Instead, the activity enhancement observed is likely to result from the pr...

  3. Resistance to black rot in a Spanish Brassica collection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Márquez, Margarita; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Abilleira Ambroa, Rosaura; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), causal agent of black rot, is widely distributed around the world in Brassica crops causing severe yield losses. The seedborne bacteria can survive in crop debris or crucifer weeds, introducing in the plant through hydathodes and wounds. While in warm and humid regions Xcc can cause plant dead, in coastal temperate areas it produces necrotic lesions on leaf margin, which decrease the value of the product on fresh market. In northwestern Spain, blac...

  4. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Magan, Naresh; Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the ...

  5. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  6. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    OpenAIRE

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata; Lević Jelena; Maširević Stevan; Grozdanović-Varga Jelica; Vasić Mirjana; Aleksić Svjetlana

    2008-01-01

    Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, express...

  7. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  8. Effect of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith(Ascomycota: Hypocreales) alone or in combination with diatomaceous earth against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalaki, M P; Athanassiou, C G; Steenberg, Tove;

    2007-01-01

    The insecticidal eVect of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) was evaluated against adults and larvae of the confused Xour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and larvae of the Mediterranean Xour...

  9. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage. PMID:23575125

  10. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  11. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  12. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  13. Control of Black Rot Disease in Tomato Fruits by Using Formulated Ginger Essential oil Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginger essential oil (Zingiber officinale) treated by gamma radiation at dose of 10 kGy was selected as an active ingredient for formulation of the biocide. Liquid formulations (emulsifiable concentrates) were prepared using different emulsifiers (Emulgator B.L.M. and tween 80 or tween 20) and additive oil (soybean oil). Physicochemical properties of the formulated oil (spontaneous emulsification, emulsion stability; cold stability and heat stability, viscosity, surface tension and ph) were measured. The formulated oil was tested in vivo to investigate its efficiency for controlling the growth of Alternaria alternata inoculated into tomato fruits. The results indicated that soaking inoculated tomato fruits in the formulated oil (ginger essential oil + soybean oil + emulgator B.L.M. + tween 80) treatment at concentration of 300 ppm for a period of 12 minute was the most effective for controlling the growth of the tested fungus. In addition, the formulated oil had efficiency for controlling the rot development on tomato fruits when applied as therapeutic and protective agents

  14. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  17. Copper complexes grafted to amino-functionalized silica gel as wood preservatives against fungal decay: Mini-blocks and standard test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Palanti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous preliminary studies showed good efficacy of treatments based on a mixture of siloxane materials, functionalized with amino groups and coupled with copper, against the brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana (Palanti et al. 2011. In the present work, a one-step impregnation was performed on two sets of samples differing in size, in order to verify and compare the homogeneity of treatments. Leaching and resistance against brown rot and white rot fungi were also tested according to European standards EN 84 and EN 113, respectively. Furthermore, an accelerated test of efficacy against fungal decay was also used for determining the treatment efficacy. The obtained results made it possible to validate the findings of the preliminary study concerning resistance of the treated wood against C. puteana, while extending them to the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. In contrast, no protection was conferred by the treatment against the copper-tolerant fungus Poria placenta.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  19. Development of dry gram-negative bacteria biocontrol products and small pilot tests against dry rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains S11:P:12, P22:Y:05, and S22:T:04 suppress four important storage potato maladies; dry rot, late blight, pink rot, and sprouting. Studies were designed to identify methods for producing a dried, efficacious biological control product. The strains were evaluated individ...

  20. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot and yellow

  1. Sorghum pathology and biotechnology - A fungal disease perspective: Part II. Anthracnose, stalk rot, and downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar diseases and stalk rots are among the most damaging diseases of sorghum in terms of lost production potential, thus commanding considerable research time and expenditure. This review will focus on anthracnose, a fungal disease that causes both foliar symptoms and stalk rots along with the st...

  2. Evaluation of Pseudomonas syringae Strain ESC11 for Biocontrol of Crown Rot and Anthracnose of Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas syringae strain ESC11, and 250 'g/ml each of thiabendazole (TBZ) and imazalil reduced crown rot of banana caused by a Fusarium sp. by 0-88% and 73-88%, respectively, in laboratory experiments. ESC11 alone did not significantly reduce rot, mold, or anthracnose in most field trials. TBZ an...

  3. First Report of Calonectria hongkongensis Causing Fruit Rot of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Latoni-Brailowsky, E.I.; Rivera-Vargas, L.I.; Goenaga, R.J.; Crous, P.W.; French-Monar, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit rot of rambutan is a pre- and post-harvest disease problem of rambutan orchards. In 2011, fruit rot was observed at USDA-ARS orchards in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and 1 mm2 tissue sections were surface disinfested with 70% ethanol followed by 0.5% sodium hypochlorite

  4. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  5. Biofumigation on Post-Harvest Diseases of Fruits Using a New Volatile-Producing Fungus of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wu, Lei; Hao, Jianjun; Luo, Laixin; Cao, Yongsong; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    A variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata have strong bioactivity against a wide range of fungi, bacteria and oomycetes. Mycelial growth, conidial production, and spore germination of fungi and oomycetes were significantly inhibited after exposure to cultures of C. fimbriata, and colony formation of bacteria was also inhibited. Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box. The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old. Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively. After exposure to C. fimbriata VOCs, severely misshapen hyphae and conidia of these two post-harvest pathogens were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their pathogenicity was lost or greatly reduced. PMID:26147922

  6. Biofumigation on Post-Harvest Diseases of Fruits Using a New Volatile-Producing Fungus of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    Full Text Available A variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata have strong bioactivity against a wide range of fungi, bacteria and oomycetes. Mycelial growth, conidial production, and spore germination of fungi and oomycetes were significantly inhibited after exposure to cultures of C. fimbriata, and colony formation of bacteria was also inhibited. Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box. The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old. Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively. After exposure to C. fimbriata VOCs, severely misshapen hyphae and conidia of these two post-harvest pathogens were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their pathogenicity was lost or greatly reduced.

  7. The ovipositional response of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, to fleece-rot odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, J E; Merritt, G C; Goodrich, B S

    1981-10-01

    The ovipositional response of Lucilia cuprina flies to odours emanating from fleece-rot lesions of greasy wool in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria proliferated, was studied. Fractionation of the fleece-rot odours was carried out by bubbling the volatile components through hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions to remove basic odours and acidic odours respectively. It was found that the acidic/neutral odours of fleece-rot wool, when perfused into wet, greasy wool stimulated L. cuprina to oviposit. On the other hand, the basic/neutral odours of fleece-rot wool were virtually unattractive to the gravid fly. Similarly, the acidic/neutral odours emanating from fleece-rot lesions of clean wool from which the non-fibre components, wax, suint and epithelial debris, had been removed by scouring, were found to be unattractive to the gravid fly in choice tests. PMID:7337595

  8. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2004-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  9. Bacteriophages of Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae-a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp., formerly pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) are ubiquitous necrotrophic bacterial pathogens that infect a large number of different plant species worldwide, including economically important crops. Despite the fact that these bacteria have been studied for more than 50 years, little is known of their corresponding predators: bacteriophages, both lytic and lysogenic. The aim of this minireview is to critically summarize recent ecological, biological and molecular research on bacteriophages infecting Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. with the main focus on current and future perspectives in that field.

  10. Biosorption of heavy metals using a dead macro fungus schizophyllum commune fries: evaluation of equilibrium and kinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass of a wood rotting fungus viz., Schizophyllum commune Fries was utilized for the treatment of electroplating wastewater that contained Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cr(VI) ions. Preliminary batch assays were conducted with synthetic pure metal-bearing solutions. Results obtained showed that among various parameters studied, solution pH between a range of 2.0-6.0 induced negligible uptake at pH < 3.5 and exhibited maximum at around 4.5-5.5 for Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions, while for Cr(VI) ion the highest was evidenced at pH 2.0-2.5. The kinetics of all metal ions was fast and biosorption equilibrium was established in 1 hour with appropriateness of pseudo-second-order. A temperature change in the range of 15 - 45 deg. C did not affect the biosorption capacity of the candidate fungus. The biosorption of metal ion increased on elevating initial metal ions concentrations (20-100 mg L/sup -1/) in the medium. The maximum biosorption capacity of fungus biomass was 9.0, 21.27, 4.83, 18.54 mg g/sup -1/ for Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The experimental data was best adjusted by Langmuir, Freundlich and modified Langmuir models. Biosorption assays conducted with actual electroplating effluents under pre-optimized conditions revealed efficiency of 72.01, 53.16, 7.08 and 19.87% for Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cr(VI) ions, respectively by candidate biomass. (author)

  11. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of brown-rot control strategies : development of a bio-economic model of brown-rot prevalence in the Dutch potato production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, M.L.H.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Werf, van der W.; Kettenis, D.L.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Quarantine diseases comprise a distinct class of plant diseases. In contrast to other plant diseases, direct losses through crop damage are often limited. Yet, quarantine diseases may have serious economic consequences for a country as they threaten the country¿s export of affected crops. In particu

  12. Phenotypic classes of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the isolation of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the results of a survey of idiophasic functions among these mutants. The mutant strains were isolated from a medium containing o-anisidine after gamma irradiation of wild-type spores and fell into four classes, divided by the manner in which they mineralized 14C-lignin wheat lignocellulose. Examples are strain LMT7, which degraded lignin at a rate similar to that of the wild type; strain LMT26, in which degradation was enhanced; strain LMT16, whose degradation rate was apparently unaffected, although the onset of lignin attack was delayed compared with that in the wild type; and strain LMT24, which was unable to evolve significant amounts of 14CO2 from the radiolabeled substrate. The mutants were not necessarily defective in other functions associated with idiophasic activities (intracellular cyclic AMP levels, sporulation, extracellular glucan production, veratryl alcohol synthesis). The authors conclude that phenoloxidase activity as detected by the o-anisidine plate test is not necessary for lignin degradation. In addition, mutations resulting in the loss of lignin-degrading ability were not necessarily pleiotropic with other idiophasic functions

  13. [Report on a fungus parasitizing Entamoeba histolytica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C Q; Feng, Y S

    1989-01-01

    Infection of Entamoeba histolytica with chytridiaceous fungus Sphaerita was observed in some specimens obtained from a farmer and stained with iron-haematoxylin. The fungi were found in 78% of the cysts, mostly immature ones. Within the amoebae this parasite occurred singly, in groups, or in the form of a sporangium. It was located in the cytoplasm, the glycogen mass or the chromatoidal bars. In the same specimen, the parasitic fungus was also found in 18% of E. coli cysts; in 11% of E. nana cysts; while only one of 16 E. hartmanni cysts was parasitized. It is an interesting case of superimposed parasitism so far reported in China as well as a rare case of several species of amoebae being heavily involved with the same in the scientific literature. PMID:2548767

  14. The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Cameron R; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Malloch, David

    1999-01-01

    Gardens of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) traditionally have been thought to be free of microbial parasites, with the fungal mutualist maintained in nearly pure “monocultures.” We conducted extensive isolations of “alien” (nonmutualistic) fungi from ant gardens of a phylogenetically representative collection of attine ants. Contrary to the long-standing assumption that gardens are maintained free of microbial pathogens and parasites, they are in fact host to specialized parasites th...

  15. Pestalone, a new antibiotic produced by a marine fungus in response to bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, M; Jensen, P R; Kauffman, C; Fenical, W; Lobkovsky, E; Clardy, J

    2001-11-01

    The isolation and structure determination of a new chlorinated benzophenone antibiotic, pestalone (1), is described. The new compound was produced by a cultured marine fungus only when a unicellular marine bacterium, strain CNJ-328, was co-cultured in the fungal fermentation. The fungus, isolated from the surface of the brown alga Rosenvingea sp. collected in the Bahamas Islands, was identified as an undescribed member of the genus Pestalotia. The structure of 1, initially assigned with only modest confidence by combined spectral and chemical data, was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Pestalone (1) exhibits moderate in vitro cytotoxicity in the National Cancer Institute's 60 human tumor cell line screen (mean GI(50) = 6.0 microM). More importantly, pestalone shows potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 37 ng/mL) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (MIC = 78 ng/mL), indicating that pestalone should be evaluated in advanced models of infectious disease. PMID:11720529

  16. Incidence and management of the peach fruit brown rot%桃褐腐病的发生和防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世访; 陈策

    2009-01-01

    链核盘菌(Monilinia spp.)所致的褐腐病是核果类果树的主要病害之一.我国16省(区)记载发生此病.本文综述了前人关于病原菌鉴定、分布、侵染特点和病害循环等方面的研究进展,对褐腐病防治策略和防治中的难点进行了讨论.

  17. Control techniques for brown rot of fruit tree%果树褐腐病的防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兴; 候立新; 孙忠义; 张秀丽

    2009-01-01

    褐腐病主要危害苹果、梨、桃、杏、李及樱桃等果树的果实.在8~9月份喷50%甲基托布津可湿性粉剂800×10-6等可有效预防褐腐病的发生;在果树落花后10 d左右至采收前1个月,每隔半月左右喷1次50%多菌灵可湿性粉剂800×10-6~1 000×10-6等可有效防治褐腐病.

  18. Identifying and characterizing microflora of stone fruits to select antagonists for control of brown rot with emphasis on latent infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit surface microflora has been the most productive source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. The establishment of populations of these organisms and their interaction with decay causing pathogens in fruit wounds has been the basis for the development of current pos...

  19. Identifying and characterizing microflora of stone fruits to select antagonists for control of brown rot with emphasis on latent infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit surface microflora has been the richest source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. The establishment of populations of these organisms and their interaction with decay causing pathogens in fruit wounds has been the basis for the development of current postharvest ...

  20. Ultrastructure of the Rust Fungus Puccinia miscanthi in the Teliospore Stage Interacting with the Biofuel Plant Miscanthus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Woo Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of the the rust fungus Puccinia miscanthi with the biofuel plant Miscanthus sinensis during the teliospore phase was investigated by light and electron microscopy. P. miscanthi telia were oval-shaped and present on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Teliospores were brown, one-septate (two-celled, and had pedicels attached to one end. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous electron-translucent lipid globules in the cytoplasm of teliospores. Extensive cell wall dissolution around hyphae was not observed in the host tissues beneath the telia. Hyphae were found between mesophyll cells in the leaf tissues as well as in host cells. Intracellular hyphae, possibly haustoria, possessed electron-dense fungal cell walls encased by an electron-transparent fibrillar extrahaustorial sheath that had an electron-dense extrahaustorial membrane. The infected host cells appeared to maintain their membrane-bound structures such as nuclei and chloroplasts. These results suggest that the rust fungus maintains its biotrophic phase with most mesophyll cells of M. sinensis. Such a nutritional mode would permit the rust fungus to obtain food reserves for transient growth in the course of host alteration.

  1. Ultrastructure of the Rust Fungus Puccinia miscanthi in the Teliospore Stage Interacting with the Biofuel Plant Miscanthus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-09-01

    Interaction of the the rust fungus Puccinia miscanthi with the biofuel plant Miscanthus sinensis during the teliospore phase was investigated by light and electron microscopy. P. miscanthi telia were oval-shaped and present on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Teliospores were brown, one-septate (two-celled), and had pedicels attached to one end. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous electron-translucent lipid globules in the cytoplasm of teliospores. Extensive cell wall dissolution around hyphae was not observed in the host tissues beneath the telia. Hyphae were found between mesophyll cells in the leaf tissues as well as in host cells. Intracellular hyphae, possibly haustoria, possessed electron-dense fungal cell walls encased by an electron-transparent fibrillar extrahaustorial sheath that had an electron-dense extrahaustorial membrane. The infected host cells appeared to maintain their membrane-bound structures such as nuclei and chloroplasts. These results suggest that the rust fungus maintains its biotrophic phase with most mesophyll cells of M. sinensis. Such a nutritional mode would permit the rust fungus to obtain food reserves for transient growth in the course of host alteration.

  2. Use of gamma irradiation for control of postharvest Botrytis cinerea bunch rot of table grapes in cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of employing gamma irradiation for the control of postharvest Botrytis bunch rot of table grapes in cold storage was studied. Table grape cultivars from commercial vineyards in the Paarl and Hex River Valley areas were packed as for export in vented corrugated cartons. The cartons were irradiated at 0; 1,5; 2,0 or 3,0 kGy. After irradiation, grapes were kept for 4 weeks at -0,5 degrees C, followed by another week at 10 degrees C. Less decay was observed when table grapes were irradiated soon after picking than after a storage period. Irradiation at 1,5; 2,0 and 3,0 kGy reduced the effects of Botrytis cinerea on Barlinka grapes stored without sulphur dioxide. Irradiation of Waltham Cross and Barlinka grapes at a dose of 2,0 kGy, combined with reduced SO2 treatments, resulted in similar control as with the standard practice of enclosing an SO2 generator. Browning of Waltham Cross berries and bacterial and yeast growth occurred on the surface of berries irradiated at a dose of 3,0 kGy. Irradiation had no adverse effect on other aspects of quality. 25 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  4. The plant cell wall decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, Daniel C.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Baker, Scott E.; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Vries, Ronald P. de; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hä; vard,; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José; L.; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José; A.; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kü; es, Ursula; Hibbett, David S.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hö; gberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Watkinson, Sarah C.

    2011-05-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood?residual lignin contributing up to 30percent of forest soil carbon?and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the ?dry rot? fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota

  5. Effect of Environment and Sugar Beet Genotype on Root Rot Development and Pathogen Profile During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Storage rots represent an economically important factor impairing the storability of sugar beet by increasing sucrose losses and invert sugar content. Understanding the development of disease management strategies, knowledge about major storage pathogens, and factors influencing their occurrence is crucial. In comprehensive storage trials conducted under controlled conditions, the effects of environment and genotype on rot development and associated quality changes were investigated. Prevalent species involved in rot development were identified by a newly developed microarray. The strongest effect on rot development was assigned to environment factors followed by genotypic effects. Despite large variation in rot severity (sample range 0 to 84%), the spectrum of microorganisms colonizing sugar beet remained fairly constant across all treatments with dominant species belonging to the fungal genera Botrytis, Fusarium, and Penicillium. The intensity of microbial tissue necrotization was strongly correlated with sucrose losses (R² = 0.79 to 0.91) and invert sugar accumulation (R² = 0.91 to 0.95). A storage rot resistance bioassay was developed that could successfully reproduce the genotype ranking observed in storage trials. Quantification of fungal biomass indicates that genetic resistance is based on a quantitative mechanism. Further work is required to understand the large environmental influence on rot development in sugar beet. PMID:26474333

  6. Incidence of root and butt rot in consecutive rotations of Picea abies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg, Jonas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre; Joergensen, B.B. [Danish Forest and Landscape Research Inst., Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The incidence of butt rot in two consecutive rotations of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] in 28 permanent sample plots at four different sites in Denmark was evaluated. Incidence of butt rot was estimated by visual examination of stumps at final felling of the previous rotation and by examination of bore cores taken at the butt from a random sample of trees before first thinning of the subsequent rotation. There was no correlation between the incidence of butt rot at final felling of the previous rotation of Norway spruce and the incidence of butt rot at first thinning of the subsequent rotation of Norway spruce. The incidence of butt rot at final felling was between 19 and 100%, and at first thinning between 0 and 20%. The S-form of Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was the most commonly found decay-causing organism at all sites. Root systems of 28 trees without decay at stump height in the present rotation were excavated to estimate the incidence of root rot. Heterobasidion annosum was found in only one root. Resinicium bicolor (Alb. and Schw. ex Fr.) Parm. was found in 25% of the excavated root systems. The result of the study shows that the incidence of butt rot at first thinning of Norway spruce is not necessarily higher on sites where the previous rotation was heavily infected than on sites where infection in the previous rotation was low.

  7. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    , suggesting that direct temperature stress might be a factor in some species. Since warm growing seasons are also typically dry growing seasons, direct temperature stress and moisture stress could occur simultaneously. For example, 2004 was the warmest summer in over 200 years in boreal Alaska (Barber et al 2004) but it was also during a drought with less than 50 mm of summer precipitation recorded in Fairbanks. In Fairbanks, the length of the growing season, as defined as the period above freezing, has increased by 45 per cent over the past 100 years, with no significant increase in precipitation (Wendler and Shulski 2009). Regional winter runoff has increased, likely associated with permafrost thawing (Brabets and Walvoord 2009), while surface water has decreased, likely associated with increased evapotranspiration (Riordan et al 2006, Anderson et al 2007, Berg et al 2009). The mean annual air temperature in boreal Alaska has increased by over 1.5 °C during the past 50 years (Stafford et al 2000), and is projected to increase by 3-7 °C by end of this century (Walsh et al 2008). Thus, it would be surprising if a declining NDVI trend was not occurring in the western boreal region of North America as the climate continues to warm. Insects and disease in the North American boreal forest may also affect the NDVI browning trends (Malmström and Raffa 2000), as the life histories of damaging insects may be linked to a warming boreal climate. For example, warmer temperatures contributed to the spruce beetle outbreaks in Alaska with a reduction in the beetle life cycle from two years to one year (Berg et al 2006). Thus, as the boreal climate continues to warm, tree growth reduction and mortality from insects and diseases may become more substantial. In boreal Alaska, recent alder dieback and mortality is likely to be related to alder's susceptibility to a canker-causing fungus in drought years (Ruess et al 2009). Recent widespread and prolonged outbreaks of aspen leaf miner and a

  8. Podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Agentes causales y su patogenicidad potencial sobre Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Causal agents and its potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia María Wolcan

    basal stem wounds with different strains of each fungus. Crown rot was incited by P. nicotianae causing fast decay of leaves and stems and wet soft rot of the crowns, and by R. solani causing slower decay and disintegrated crown tissues. Basal stem rot was incited by F. graminearum , which was described for the first time on G. paniculata and enter through wounded tissues. Under experimental conditions some strains of R. solani and F. graminearum isolated from gipsofila caused stem rot on carnation plants and only some strains of P. niconianae were weakly pathogenic.

  9. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  10. Transgenic sweet potato expressing thionin from barley gives resistance to black rot disease caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata in leaves and storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Tomoko; Shimamura, Takashi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Hori, Etsuko; Koda, Katsunori; Otani, Motoyasu; Hirai, Masana; Nakamura, Kenzo; Imaeda, Takao

    2012-06-01

    Black rot of sweet potato caused by pathogenic fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata severely deteriorates both growth of plants and post-harvest storage. Antimicrobial peptides from various organisms have broad range activities of killing bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi. Plant thionin peptide exhibited anti-fungal activity against C. fimbriata. A gene for barley α-hordothionin (αHT) was placed downstream of a strong constitutive promoter of E12Ω or the promoter of a sweet potato gene for β-amylase of storage roots, and introduced into sweet potato commercial cultivar Kokei No. 14. Transgenic E12Ω:αHT plants showed high-level expression of αHT mRNA in both leaves and storage roots. Transgenic β-Amy:αHT plants showed sucrose-inducible expression of αHT mRNA in leaves, in addition to expression in storage roots. Leaves of E12Ω:αHT plants exhibited reduced yellowing upon infection by C. fimbriata compared to leaves of non-transgenic Kokei No. 14, although the level of resistance was weaker than resistance cultivar Tamayutaka. Storage roots of both E12Ω:αHT and β-Amy:αHT plants exhibited reduced lesion areas around the site inoculated with C. fimbriata spores compared to Kokei No. 14, and some of the transgenic lines showed resistance level similar to Tamayutaka. Growth of plants and production of storage roots of these transgenic plants were not significantly different from non-transgenic plants. These results highlight the usefulness of transgenic sweet potato expressing antimicrobial peptide to reduce damages of sweet potato from the black rot disease and to reduce the use of agricultural chemicals. PMID:22212462

  11. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  12. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  13. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  14. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  15. Comparison of ligninolytic activities of selected white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, R.; Leisola, M.S.A.; Fiechter, A.

    1988-10-01

    Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in agitated cultures Bjerkandera adusta showed highest lignin degradation rates. Metabolites accumulating during the degradation of veratryl alcohol were analyzed and compared. Peroxidase production seems to be a common feature of all the tested fungi. Polyclonal antibodies against the lignin peroxidase with pl of 4.65 from P. chrysosporium reacted with the extracellular peroxidases of C. pruinosum, C. versicolor and B. adusta, but not with those of Pleurotus ostreatus.

  16. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  17. Sterols from the Fungus Catathelasma imperiale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG, Sheng-Ping; XU, Jun; YUE, Jian-Min

    2003-01-01

    Eight ergostane-type sterols and three their derivatives (one mono-linoleate and two mono-glucosides) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the fungus Catathelasma imperiale. Two of them are novel compounds, namely 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β, 5α-diol-6β-linoleate (1) and 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5β,6α-triol (5) with an uncommon cisfused A/B ring. Structures of these compounds were demonstrated on the basis of their chemical evidences and spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques.

  18. Exploring the potential of novel biomixtures and Lentinula edodes fungus for the degradation of selected pesticides. Evaluation for use in biobed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A P; Rodrigues, S C; Caldeira, A T; Teixeira, D M

    2016-01-15

    An approach to reduce the contamination of water sources with pesticides is the use of biopurificaction systems. The active core of these systems is the biomixture. The composition of biomixtures depends on the availability of local agro-industrial wastes and design should be adapted to every region. In Portugal, cork processing is generally regarded as environmentally friendly and would be interesting to find applications for its industry residues. In this work the potential use of different substrates in biomixtures, as cork (CBX); cork and straw, coat pine and LECA (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates), was tested on the degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin pesticides. Bioaugmentation strategies using the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes inoculated into the CBX, was also assessed. The results obtained from this study clearly demonstrated the relevance of using natural biosorbents as cork residues to increase the capacity of pesticide dissipation in biomixtures for establishing biobeds. Furthermore, higher degradation of all the pesticides was achieved by use of bioaugmented biomixtures. Indeed, the biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 were able to mineralize the selected xenobiotics, revelling that these white-rot fungi might be a suitable fungus for being used as inoculum sources in on-farm sustainable biopurification system, in order to increase its degradation efficiency. After 120 days, maximum degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin, of bioaugmented CBX, was 89.9%, 75.0%, 65.0% and 99.4%, respectively.. The dominant metabolic route of terbuthylazine in biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 proceeded mainly via hydroxylation, towards production of terbuthylazine-hydroxy-2 metabolite. Finally, sorption process to cork by pesticides proved to be a reversible process, working cork as a mitigating factor reducing the toxicity to microorganisms in the biomixture, especially in the

  19. Exploring the potential of novel biomixtures and Lentinula edodes fungus for the degradation of selected pesticides. Evaluation for use in biobed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A P; Rodrigues, S C; Caldeira, A T; Teixeira, D M

    2016-01-15

    An approach to reduce the contamination of water sources with pesticides is the use of biopurificaction systems. The active core of these systems is the biomixture. The composition of biomixtures depends on the availability of local agro-industrial wastes and design should be adapted to every region. In Portugal, cork processing is generally regarded as environmentally friendly and would be interesting to find applications for its industry residues. In this work the potential use of different substrates in biomixtures, as cork (CBX); cork and straw, coat pine and LECA (Light Expanded Clay Aggregates), was tested on the degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin pesticides. Bioaugmentation strategies using the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes inoculated into the CBX, was also assessed. The results obtained from this study clearly demonstrated the relevance of using natural biosorbents as cork residues to increase the capacity of pesticide dissipation in biomixtures for establishing biobeds. Furthermore, higher degradation of all the pesticides was achieved by use of bioaugmented biomixtures. Indeed, the biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 were able to mineralize the selected xenobiotics, revelling that these white-rot fungi might be a suitable fungus for being used as inoculum sources in on-farm sustainable biopurification system, in order to increase its degradation efficiency. After 120 days, maximum degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole, diflufenican and pendimethalin, of bioaugmented CBX, was 89.9%, 75.0%, 65.0% and 99.4%, respectively.. The dominant metabolic route of terbuthylazine in biomixtures inoculated with L. edodes EL1 proceeded mainly via hydroxylation, towards production of terbuthylazine-hydroxy-2 metabolite. Finally, sorption process to cork by pesticides proved to be a reversible process, working cork as a mitigating factor reducing the toxicity to microorganisms in the biomixture, especially in the

  20. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  1. Fungi associated with post-harvest rot of black plum (Vitex doniana) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseigbe, D A; Bankole, S A

    The fungi associated with rot of Vitex doniana fruits (blackplum) were isolated and identified. Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Candida spp. Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium pallidoroseum F. oxysporum and Mucor mucedo were the primary rot causing fungi in contrast to Cladosporium herbarum and Mucor circinelloides which were just present as secondary colonizers. The rot fungi penetrated mainly through wounds and bruises on the surface of fruits. Mature green fruits were less susceptible to infection than half ripe and fully ripened red fruits. Optimum rot by pathogenic isolates occurred at 25-30 degrees C and relative humidity 72.5-100%. The results of investigation of influence of storage temperatures and relative humidity on the quality of uninoculated healthy fruits are presented and discussed.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANAEROBIC FUNGUS FROM LLAMA FECES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; LAHPOR, GA; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    1992-01-01

    An anaerobic fungus was isolated from Hama faeces. Based on its morphological characteristics, polyflagellated zoospores, extensive rhizoid system and the formation of monocentric colonies, the fungus is assigned to the genus Neocallimastix. Neocallimastix sp. L2 is able to grow on several poly-, ol

  3. Innate immune system targets asthma-linked fungus for destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2008-01-01

    A new study shows that the innate immune system of humans is capable of killing a fungus linked to airway inflammation, chronic rhinosinusitis, and bronchial asthma. Researchers at Mayo Clinic and the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech have revealed that eosinophils, a particular type of white blood cell, exert a strong immune response against the environmental fungus Alternaria alternata.

  4. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  5. Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Fungus Sporothrix schenckii (ATCC 58251).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Christina A; Rodriguez-Del Valle, Nuri; Perez-Sanchez, Lizaida; Abouelleil, Amr; Goldberg, Jonathan; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W

    2014-05-22

    Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus that grows as a yeast and as mycelia. This species is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, typically a skin infection. We report the genome sequence of S. schenckii, which will facilitate the study of this fungus and of the Sporothrix schenckii group.

  6. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai;

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  7. Zwalczanie zgnilizny powodowanej przez grzyby z rodzaju Penicillium [Control of Penicillium apple rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Borecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of Pezicula spp. fungi reduced Penicillium apple rot. The Penicillium apple rot process began slowly under the modified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 3% O2. The lower concentration of Benlate – 0.05% did not influence this fungicide's effectiveness, The lower concentration– 0.05% of Topsin M decreased the effectiveness of this fungicide. The resistant strains of Penicillium spp. to benzimidazole fungicides under laboratory conditions were obtained.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of a Hybrid Fabry-Pérot Cavity for Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Lopez-Aldaba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid Fabry-Pérot cavity sensing head based on a four-bridge microstructured fiber is characterized for temperature sensing. The characterization of this cavity is performed numerically and experimentally in the L-band. The sensing head output signal presents a linear variation with temperature changes, showing a sensitivity of 12.5 pm/°C. Moreover, this Fabry-Pérot cavity exhibits good sensitivity to polarization changes and high stability over time.

  9. Field Efficiency Trial of 72% Streptomycin against Konjac Bacterial Soft Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Yongsheng; Li; Xiaojun; Zhu; Shijin; Ma; Yongsheng; Wang; Li

    2014-01-01

    72% Streptomycin soluble powder was used to control konjac bacterial soft rot in the study. The control efficiency and yield of different treatments were investigated,and the benefit was analyzed. The control scheme against konjac bacterial soft rot was as follows: spraying 72% atreptomycinon twice on rotation fields after all the seedlings were strong and uniform,or irrigating roots with 72% atreptomycinon once and spraying twice on continuous cropping fields.

  10. Evaluation of fungicide programs for management of Botrytis bunch rot of grapes: 2009 field trial

    OpenAIRE

    Janousek, Christopher N; Bay, Ian S.; Herche, Ryan W; Gubler, W D

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis bunch rot is an important grapevine disease in California. Twenty eight fungicide programs were evaluated for control of bunch rot in a field experiment in a Chardonnay (clone 4) vineyard in the Carneros region of Napa Valley, California during 2009. Four fungicide applications were made from bloom to harvest with the final application made just prior to heavy rainfall. Disease was rated three weeks following the final application. Disease developed rapidly during the month of Octobe...

  11. Evaluation of fungicide programs for management of Botrytis bunch rot of grapes: 2010 field trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bay, Ian S.; Eynard, James; Gubler, W D

    2010-01-01

    Bunch rot of grapes is caused by Botrytis cinerea, a fast-growing pathogen infecting numerous crops of commercial value. Bunch rot can potentially lead to a reduction in the yield and quality of table, raisin, and wine grapes, with high economic losses in some locations or years (Flaherty et al. 1992). Botrytis overwinters as sclerotia in mummified berries on the ground or on canes. The disease can first appear as shoot blight following frequent spring rains; flowers can become infected durin...

  12. Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (solanum tuberosum l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Salami Olusola Abiodun; Popoola Omololu Olumide

    2007-01-01

    Thermal control effect on the incidence of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Solanum tuberosum (potato) was investigated in this study. Three cultivars of potato tuber whose local names are, Patiska, Mai Bawondoya and Nicola were used for the study. Five pathogenic fungi viz: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium redolens, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae associated with post harvest storage rot of root-tubers, were isolated from diseased potatoes. Among the three specie...

  13. Losses due to lenticel rot are an increasing concern for Kern County potato growers

    OpenAIRE

    Farrar, Jim; Nunez, Joe; Davis, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, lenticel rot of potato tubers, caused by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, has become an economically important postharvest disease for Kern County growers. Disease symptoms are sunken and rotted tissue surrounding tuber lenticels, which develop after harvest and packing. In the field, the bacterium also causes Erwinia early dying, characterized by wilt and progressive necrosis of leaves, eventually resulting in potato plant death. This study confirms Erwini...

  14. Zwalczanie zgnilizny powodowanej przez grzyby z rodzaju Penicillium [Control of Penicillium apple rot

    OpenAIRE

    H. Borecka

    2015-01-01

    Control of Pezicula spp. fungi reduced Penicillium apple rot. The Penicillium apple rot process began slowly under the modified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 3% O2. The lower concentration of Benlate – 0.05% did not influence this fungicide's effectiveness, The lower concentration– 0.05% of Topsin M decreased the effectiveness of this fungicide. The resistant strains of Penicillium spp. to benzimidazole fungicides under laboratory conditions were obtained.

  15. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  17. Symptoms of sclerotinia stem rot on Ligusticum chuanxiong and Identification of its pathogen%川芎菌核病的症状及病原菌鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玲; 黄云; 王靖; 何苗; 万英

    2009-01-01

    @@ 中药川芎为伞形科藁本属植物川芎(Ligus-ticum chuanxiong Hort)的根茎,在我国栽培已有1500多年的历史.川芎是四川著名道地中药材,主产于四川省.川芎性温,昧辛,微苦,具有活血行气祛风止痛之功效.已报道的川芎病害有根腐病(Fusarium solani)、褐斑病(Ahernaria tenuissima)、灰霉病(Botrytis cinerea)和白粉病(Erysiphe polygoni)[1,2]等.%Symptoms of sclerotinia stem rot of Ligusticum chuanxiong were observed and the causal agent of the disease was identified. The results showed that the symptoms of this disease began with the formation of dark brown hygrophanous splotch on the basal leaves, followed by the appearance of dark brown circular spot on the basal stem. Finally, the whole plant stoped growing and died. White mycelium and/or sclerotia were formed under moisturized conditions. On PDA medium, the pathogen of this disease formed brown sclerotia with various shapes and 2-5 mm in diameter . The diameter of apothecia was 0.3 -0.8 cm and the length of stipes was 2 -8 cm. Asci were columniform in shape and (100 - 135) ×9 μm in size, each containing 8 ascospores sized by (6-12) μm × (3 -7) μm. No asexual spore formation was observed. Based on the morphological characteristics and the sequence of ribosomal DNA-ITS, the pathogen was identified as Sclero-tinia sclerotiorum (Lib. ) de Bary.

  18. New Development Trend of Edible Fungus Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We elaborate support system of edible fungus industry from outlook on ecological economic development, legislation and standardization of variety approval, multiple-function innovation platform of industrial development research, and perfect talent cultivation and education system. Besides, we analyze the development trend of edible fungus industry from competitive advantages, position and role in national food security, industrial development trend driven by internal demand, diversified industrial development model, division of labor within the industry, and expansion of industrial chain. Then, from the point of zoning and planning of edible fungus industry, we put forward suggestions that it should start from modern industrial system and take the industrial cluster development and optimization as guidance. In addition, we present technical innovation direction of industrial development. It is proposed to strengthen propaganda, build industrial cultural atmosphere, and expand social cognition degree of edible fungus industry to promote its redevelopment. Finally, it is expected to promote international influence of edible fungus industry through experts appealing for policy support.

  19. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    are consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model......Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae, Isoptera) cultivate fungal crops (genus Termitomyces, Basidiomycotina) in gardens inside their colonies. Those fungus gardens are continuously provided with plant substrates, whereas older parts that have been well decomposed by the fungus...... of habitat switching [ 4 ] repeated over all phylogenetic trees sampled in a Bayesian analysis of molecular data [ 5 ]. Our reconstructions provide strong evidence that termite agriculture originated in African rain forest and that the main radiation leading to the extant genera occurred there. Because...

  20. Root rot diseases of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L as affected by defloliation intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of sugar beet re-growth after water stress defoliation on root rots of three cultivars (Europa, Rival Corsica, which were spring sown in Thessaly, central Greece, for two growing seasons (2003-04. At the beginning of July, sugar beets were subjected to water deficit with irrigation withholding. A month later, three defoliation levels (control - C, moderate - MD, severe - SD and irrigation were applied. Thus, sugar beets were forced to re-grow and three harvests (15, 30 and 40 days after defoliation - DAD were conducted. Rotted roots per hectare were counted and pathogens were identified. Data were analyzed as a four-factor randomized complete block design with years, defoliation levels, sampling times and cultivars as main factors. The number of rotted roots was increased with the defoliation level and was significantly higher for SD sugar beets (3748 roots ha–1. No significant differences were found between C and MD treatments (1543 and 2116 roots ha–1, respectively. Rival was the most susceptible cultivar to root rots. Sugar beets were more susceptible to rotting 15 and 40 DAD (2778 and 2998 roots ha–1. The causal agents of root rots were the fungi, Fusarium spp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani.

  1. Soft rot decay capabilities and interactions of fungi and bacteria from fumigated utility poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives were to (1) identify microfungi and bacterial associates isolated from fumigated southern pine poles from EPRI project RP 1471-72, (2) study the soft-rot capabilities of predominant fungi, and (3) study interactions among microorganisms in relation to wood decay. Methods for identification followed standard techniques using morphological and physiological criteria. Soft-rot by microfungi alone and with bacteria was determined as weight loss and anatomical examination of wood blocks using light microscopy and limited electron microscopy. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was the predominant bacterium. Twenty-one species of microfungi were identified including four new species. A book entitled IDENTIFICATION MANUAL FOR FUNGI FROM UTILITY POLES IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES was published. An improved soft-rot test was devised. Fifty-one of 84 species (60%) of microfungi from poles tested were soft-rot positive; that is much greater than previously reported. Three types of anatomical damage of wood of pine or birch caused by soft-rot fungi were described. Interaction tests showed that, in some cases, there was a strong synergism between bacteria and fungi in causing weight loss, but results were inconsistent. Although soft rot is often most apparent under conditions of very high moisture, intermediate moisture levels appear to be optimal, as with basidiomycete decayers

  2. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  3. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  4. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  5. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  6. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2006-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the optically thin outer regions of circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  7. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  8. Structure-based functional characterization of repressor of toxin (Rot), a central regulator of Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killikelly, April; Benson, Meredith A; Ohneck, Elizabeth A; Sampson, Jared M; Jakoncic, Jean; Spurrier, Brett; Torres, Victor J; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of diverse infections worldwide. In order to support its pathogenic lifestyle, S. aureus has to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a coordinated fashion. One of the central regulators of the S. aureus virulence regulatory networks is the transcription factor repressor of toxin (Rot). Rot plays a key role in regulating S. aureus virulence through activation or repression of promoters that control expression of a large number of critical virulence factors. However, the mechanism by which Rot mediates gene regulation has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of Rot and used this information to probe the contribution made by specific residues to Rot function. Rot was found to form a dimer, with each monomer harboring a winged helix-turn-helix (WHTH) DNA-binding motif. Despite an overall acidic pI, the asymmetric electrostatic charge profile suggests that Rot can orient the WHTH domain to bind DNA. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that R(91), at the tip of the wing, plays an important role in DNA binding, likely through interaction with the minor groove. We also found that Y(66), predicted to bind within the major groove, contributes to Rot interaction with target promoters. Evaluation of Rot binding to different activated and repressed promoters revealed that certain mutations on Rot exhibit promoter-specific effects, suggesting for the first time that Rot differentially interacts with target promoters. This work provides insight into a precise mechanism by which Rot controls virulence factor regulation in S. aureus.

  9. Revised Phylogeny and Novel Horizontally Acquired Virulence Determinants of the Model Soft Rot Phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Nykyri; Outi Niemi; Patrik Koskinen; Jussi Nokso-Koivisto; Miia Pasanen; Martin Broberg; Ilja Plyusnin; Petri Törönen; Liisa Holm; Minna Pirhonen; E Tapio Palva

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can...

  10. Identification and evaluation of resistance of Vitis to grape white rot%中国野生葡萄资源抗白腐病鉴定及抗性种质筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 孙海生; 樊秀彩; 姜建福; 刘崇怀

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]White rot [Coniothyrium diplodilla (Speg.) Sacc] is the main fungal disease in China. White-rot disease is one of main disease causing production loss of grapes. The disease is also found in most grape growing regions of the world, and shear on grapevines results in poor berry quality and weakens the vines grown in warm and humid climates. This pathogenic fungus attacks all aerial parts of the vine and overwinters in dead canes and fruits, thus making its control very difficult. It is important to select white-rot-resistant grape varieties, since grape cultivars have varying susceptibility to Coniothyrium diplodilla. [Method] This study explored the Chinese wild grapes to excavate germplasm with resistance to white-rot disease. The method was interior inoculation. ' Red globe' and ' Concord' being contrast variety, and resistance to white rot in 35 accessions of 17 Chinese wild Vitis species was evaluated. [Result]Duan maop-utao, Tangweishesheng, Ciputao ♂ , ciputao ♀ , wugang miaojie sangye, Yingyu wuhanA1, Lingbao-bianye, Yanshang0947 were resistant strains. Ciputao ♂ was the most resistant strain. It was the ideal material to study the resistant mechanism of white rot disease. [Conclusion]There were while-rot resistant strains in Chinese wild grapes.%[目的]葡萄白腐病是引起葡萄减产的重要病害,葡萄白腐病不但在我国流行严重,在世界上主要葡萄产区都有发生,由于白腐病菌难以防治,挖掘抗病种质有利于抗病机制研究及抗病育种的开展.[方法]研究利用室内离体菌丝接种的方法,对收集到的中国野生葡萄种质17个种、亚种及种间杂种的35个株系进行葡萄抗白腐病鉴定.[结果]结果表明,中国野生葡萄不同种之间对白腐病的抗性存在差异,其中都安毛葡萄、塘尾葡萄实生、刺葡萄♀、刺葡萄♀、舞钢庙街桑叶、蘡奠武汉A1、灵宝变叶、燕山葡萄0947为抗病株系,刺葡萄♂为最抗病的株系,是研

  11. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  12. SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

  13. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  14. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  15. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  16. Biodeterioration of products made from australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Amarante Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the natural resistance of composite and solid wood panels from Toona ciliata to fungal attack through accelerated laboratory testing, to characterize the anatomical components of the wood according to IAWA, to quantify the soluble and insoluble lignin contents by acid hydrolysis and to determine the colorimetric parameters before and after fungal attack by using the CIE-L*a*b*(1976 system. Solid wood was classified as moderately and highly resistant to white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor and to brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum. OSB panels were found to be resistant and moderately resistant to white-rot fungus and highly resistant to brown-rot fungus. Variation in species and particle type did not have a positive effect on the treatments. As regards the wood, both fungi were inhibited by the presence of phenolic resin. Particleboard panels were classified as moderately resistant to white-rot fungus. Treatments T2 (cedar and T4 (cedar-eucalyptus were resistant while treatment T3 (cedar-pine was not resistant to attack by brown-rot fungus. The urea-formaldehyde resin failed to inhibit attack in the same way the phenolic resin did. Anatomically, the species was found to have medium texture, straight vessel lines, pleasant smell after incision and poor luster on the radial surface. Its anatomical structure favored colonization by the threadlike filaments of the fungi. All treatments caused wood darkening after attack by the G. trabeum fungus, with total variation in color. It was observed that with weight loss an increase followed in insoluble lignin contents, in all treatments, indicating that this chemical property is a determining factor in wood resistance to the attack of the fungi being evaluated.

  17. Influence of Hyphal Inoculum potential on the Competitive Success of Fungi Colonizing Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zewei; Vail, Andrew; Sadowsky, Michael J; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2015-05-01

    The relative amounts of hyphal inoculum in forest soils may determine the capacity for fungi to compete with and replace early colonizers of wood in ground contact. Our aim in this study was to test the flexibility of priority effects (colonization timing) by varying the timing of inoculum introduction (i.e., precolonization) and amount of inoculum (i.e., inoculum potential). We controlled these variables in soil-block microcosms using fungi with known competitive outcomes in similar conditions, tracking isolate-specific fungal biomass, and residue physiochemistry over time. In the precolonization trial (experiment I), a brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was given 1, 3, or 5 weeks to precolonize wood blocks (oak, birch, pine, and spruce) prior the introduction of a white rot fungus, Irpex lacteus, a more aggressive colonizer in this set-up. In the inoculum potential trial (experiment II), the fungi were inoculated simultaneously, but with eightfold higher brown rot inoculum than that of experiment I. As expected, longer precolonization duration increased the chance for the less-competitive brown rot fungus to outcompete its white rot opponent. Higher brown rot fungal inoculum outside of the wood matrix also resulted in competitive success for the brown rot isolate in most cases. These temporal shifts in fungal dominance were detectable in a 'community snapshot' as isolate-specific quantitative PCR, but also as functionally-relevant consequences of wood rot type, including carbohydrate depolymerization and pH. These results from a controlled system reinforce fungal-fungal interaction and suggest that relative inoculum availability beyond the wood matrix (i.e., soils) might regulate the duration of priority effects and shift the functional trajectory of wood decomposition. PMID:25750000

  18. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  19. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  20. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  1. Genetically based location from triploid populations and gene ontology of a 3.3-mb genome region linked to alternaria brown spot resistance in citrus reveal clusters of resistance genes

    OpenAIRE

    José Cuenca; Pablo Aleza; Antonio Vicent; Dominique Brunel; Patrick Ollitrault; Luis Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR) to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS) resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria ...

  2. White-rot fungal growth on sugarcane lignocellulosic residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolz, C.; Leon, R. de; Arriola, M.C. de; Cabrera, S. de

    1987-03-01

    Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid state culture on sugarcane chips previously fermented by yeast employing the EX-FERM process. The lignocellulosic sugarcane residue had 12.5% permanganate lignin and 81.3% holocellulose. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20/sup 0/C, all fungi produced a solid residue which had a lower in vitro dry matter enzymatic digestibility than the original bagasse, with the exception of Coriolus versicolor which showed a slight increase of 0.6 units. Four fungi produced a residue with higher soluble solids that the original sample. Lignin losses were rather similar for all fungi tested, an average value of 38.64% of the original value was obtained. About the same amount of hemicellulose was degreaded, 32.22%. Most fungi showed a preference for hemicellulose hydrolysis over cellulose degradation. The two fungi that showed greater cellulolytic activity were Sporotrichum pulverulentum and Dichomitus squalens. No appreciable dry matter losses were detected for Agrocybe aergerita and Flammulina velutipes.

  3. The Urochloa Foliar Blight and Collar Rot Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA Emerged in South America Via a Host Shift from Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarro Mesa, Edisson; Ceresini, Paulo C; Ramos Molina, Lina M; Pereira, Danilo A S; Schurt, Daniel A; Vieira, José R; Poloni, Nadia M; McDonald, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA emerged in the early 1990s as an important pathogen causing foliar blight and collar rot on pastures of the genus Urochloa (signalgrass) in South America. We tested the hypothesis that this pathogen emerged following a host shift or jump as a result of geographical overlapping of host species. The genetic structure of host and regional populations of R. solani AG-1 IA infecting signalgrass, rice, and soybean in Colombia and Brazil was analyzed using nine microsatellite loci in 350 isolates to measure population differentiation and infer the pathogen reproductive system. Phylogeographical analyses based on the microsatellite loci and on three DNA sequence loci were used to infer historical migration patterns and test hypotheses about the origin of the current pathogen populations. Cross pathogenicity assays were conducted to measure the degree of host specialization in populations sampled from different hosts. The combined analyses indicate that the pathogen populations currently infecting Urochloa in Colombia and Brazil most likely originated from a population that originally infected rice. R. solani AG-1 IA populations infecting Urochloa exhibit a mixed reproductive system including both sexual reproduction and long-distance dispersal of adapted clones, most likely on infected seed. The pathogen population on Urochloa has a genetic structure consistent with a high evolutionary potential and showed evidence for host specialization. PMID:26222889

  4. Cellular Tracking and Gene Profiling of Fusarium graminearum during Maize Stalk Rot Disease Development Elucidates Its Strategies in Confronting Phosphorus Limitation in the Host Apoplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum causes stalk rot in maize. We tracked this pathogen's growth in wound-inoculated maize stalks using a fluorescence-labeled fungal isolate and observed that invasive hyphae grew intercellularly up to 24 h post inoculation, grew intra- and inter-cellularly between 36-48 h, and fully occupied invaded cells after 72 h. Using laser microdissection and microarray analysis, we profiled changes in global gene expression during pathogen growth inside pith tissues of maize stalk from 12 h to six days after inoculation and documented transcriptomic patterns that provide further insights into the infection process. Expression changes in transcripts encoding various plant cell wall degrading enzymes appeared to correlate with inter- and intracellular hyphal growth. Genes associated with 36 secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters were expressed. Expression of several F. graminearum genes potentially involved in mobilization of the storage lipid triacylglycerol and phosphorus-free lipid biosynthesis were induced during early infection time points, and deletion of these genes caused reduction of virulence in maize stalk. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the F. graminearum betaine lipid synthase 1 (BTA1 gene was necessary and sufficient for production of phosphorus-free membrane lipids, and that deletion of BTA1 interfered with F. graminearum's ability to advance intercellularly. We conclude that F. graminearum produces phosphorus-free membrane lipids to adapt to a phosphate-limited extracellular microenvironment during early stages of its invasion of maize stalk.

  5. Identification of anastomosis group of Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of seed rot and damping-off of bean in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlooli, A; Okhowat, S M; Javan-Nikkhah, M

    2005-01-01

    Bean is one of the major crops in Iran. Seed rot and damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the most important disease of bean. In this research, infected roots and seedlings of beans were collected from different fields of Tehran Province. The samples were sterilized with 10% sodium hypochloride (5% stock) and incubated on PDA surface in petri-dishes. The purified fungi kept on filter paper and identified, pathogenicity test of R. solani was carried out on 2 cultivars of bean (red bean cv. Naz and white bean cv. Dehghan) and it determined. For identification of the anastomosis groups, the discs of cultured media with 5 mm. diameter of standard AG placed on one side of microscopic slides covered with water agar (2%) of 1 mm. thick and the isolates of the fungus on another side of slide about 2 cm away from each other. Experiment carried out in 4 replications. The cultures were incubated in 25 +/- 1 degrees C incubator for 24 hours, then the mycelial contact stained with lactophenol, cotton blue and hyphal anastomosis looked for under the light microscope with 10 x 40 and 10 x 100 magnifications. As a result, anastomosis groups: AG4, AG4HGII, AG2-2-2B and AG6 determined, frequency of these groups were 64, 18, 2, 16%, respectively. The group AG6 and subgroups AG4HGII and AG2-2-2B are introduced as new anastomosis groups on bean in Iran. PMID:16637168

  6. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  7. Diplopyrone, a new phytotoxic tetrahydropyranpyran-2-one produced by Diplodia mutila, a fungus pathogen of cork oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Maddau, Lucia; Spanu, Emanuela; Franceschini, Antonio; Lazzaroni, Silvia; Motta, Andrea

    2003-02-01

    A new phytotoxic monosubstituted tetrahydropyranpyran-2-one, named diplopyrone (1), was isolated from the liquid culture filtrates of Diplodia mutila, a plant pathogenic fungus causing a form of canker disease of cork oak (Quercus suber). Diplopyrone was characterized, using spectroscopic and chemical methods, as 6-[(1S)-1-hydroxyethyl]-2,4a,6,8a-tetrahydropyran[3,2-b]pyran-2-one. The absolute stereochemistry of the chiral secondary hydroxylated carbon (C-9), determined by application of Mosher's method, proved to be S. Diplopyrone assayed at a 0.01-0.1 mg/mL concentration range caused necrosis and wilting on cork oak cuttings. On a nonhost plant, tomato, diplopyrone caused brown discoloration or stewing on the stem.

  8. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  9. Behavior of hybrid corn crop as second rot incidence in West Region Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and influence of stalk rot and ear in cultivation of hybrid corn second crop in west region Paraná. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six transgenic corn hybrids (DKB 330PRO, P4285HX, P3646HX, 30F53HX, P3340HX and P3161HX with four replications at spacing of 0.90 m between rows and 0.20 m between plants. The characteristics evaluated were: number of healthy and symptomatic plants, number of ears healthy and symptomatic and total number of spikes. After harvest, we assessed the length of ears healthy and symptomatic, bulk grain ears healthy and symptomatic, thousand grain weight of ears healthy and symptomatic, and grain mass per spike weighted, thousand grain weight and weighted productivity. The hybrid P3646HX showed 100% of plants with stem base rot (Colletotrichum graminicola and soft rot cob (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Zeae and 100% of ears with symptoms of soft rot, followed by hybrid 30F53HX, DKB 330PRO with 34.9 and 29.1% of ears with symptoms of soft rot respectively. The hybrid DKB330PRO showed healthy spikes and patients with superior size, resulting in less interference in the grain yield. The hybrid P3340 productivity was higher, with 7952 kg ha-1 , followed by hybrid 30F53HX and DKB330PRO. A positive correlation between agronomic characteristics and grain yield.

  10. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles....... Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production...... hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...

  11. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  4. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  5. Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge : Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Master plan for Browns Park NWR that discusses the history, wildlife goals, recreation goals, habitat goals, recreational and operational facilities, and estimated...

  6. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  10. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  11. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  12. Solubilization of lignin by the ruminal anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.

    OpenAIRE

    McSweeney, C S; Dulieu, A; Katayama, Y; Lowry, J B

    1994-01-01

    The ability of the ruminal anaerobic phycomycete Neocallimastix patriciarum to digest model lignin compounds and lignified structures in plant material was studied in batch culture. The fungus did not degrade or transform model lignin compounds that were representative of the predominant intermonomer linkages in lignin, nor did it solubilize acid detergent lignin that had been isolated from spear grass. In a stem fraction of sorghum, 33.6% of lignin was apparently solubilized by the fungus. S...

  13. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  14. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  15. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance the resistance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to rhizome rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5 g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, relative to the untreated control, with...

  16. Mapping Fusarium solani and Aphanomyces euteiches root rot resistance and root architecture quantitative trait loci in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a constraint to dry and snap bean production. We developed the RR138 RIL mapping population from the cross of OSU5446, a susceptible line that meets current snap bean processing industry standards, and RR6950, a root rot resistant dry bean in th...

  17. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing inflorescence blight and fruit rot of longan (Dimocarpus longan L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longan is a tropical fruit tree in the Sapindaceae family. During a disease survey from 2008 to 2010, fruit rot and inflorescence blight (rotting of the rachis, rachilla and flowers) were observed at the USDA-ARS Research Farm in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Tissue sections (1 mm2) of diseased inflorescenc...

  18. rDNA-based characterization of a new binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing root rot on kale in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Buzeto, A.L.; Nakatani, A.K.; Souza, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the first report of the occurrence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing hypocotyl and root rot in kale in Brazil. Rhizoctonia spp. were isolated from kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with symptoms of hypocotyl and root rot. The isolates, characterized as binucleate

  19. Effect of Chitosan on Rhizome Rot Disease of Turmeric Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusuya, Sathiyanarayanan; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan was evaluated for its potential to induce antifungal hydrolases in susceptible turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.). Under field conditions, the application of chitosan (crab shell) to turmeric plants by foliar spray method induces defense enzymes such as chitinases and chitosanases. Such an increase in enzyme activity was enhanced by spraying chitosan (0.1% w/v) on leaves of turmeric plants at regular intervals. Gel electrophoresis revealed new chitinase and chitosanase isoforms in leaves of turmeric plants treated with chitosan. Treated turmeric plants showed increased resistance towards rhizome rot disease caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, whereas control plants expressed severe rhizome rot disease. Increased activity of defense enzymes in leaves of chitosan treated turmeric plants may play a role in restricting the development of disease symptoms. The eliciting properties of chitosan make chitosan a potential antifungal agent for the control of rhizome rot disease of turmeric.

  20. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L. LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L. causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method. Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8 were isolated from soft rot tuber. BL6 isolate showed positive result in Postulat Koch test that caused soft rot on carrot tuber. The result of identification by Microgen™ GnA+B-ID System and identification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 was identified as Citrobacter.

  1. Screening preharvest/postharvest strategies to prevent fruit rot decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstermans, B; Creemers, P

    2007-01-01

    In fruit growing preharvest sprayings in the orchard are mainly applied to protect fruit from decaying. Next to multisite fungicides (captan, thiram, tolylfluanid) the most commonly used products recognized for the Belgium market are Bellis (pyraclostrobin & boscalid) and the combination of Topsin M (thiophanate-methyl) and Frugico (diethofencarb). In general the spraying schedule varies depending on weather conditions (infection risk), preharvest interval of available fungicides, fruitgrower and cultivar of pome fruit (apple/pear). Facing the climatological conditions before picking the residue loading on the fruit surface can differ enormously. Also wet (pre)grading is considered to decrease the product residue resulting to fruits which are less protected before entering the cold storage room. In this context a partially replacement of the preharvest treatments by one postharvest application could offer a reliable alternative to the PPP reduction program (Plant Protection Products) in the orchard. A standardized application method by dipping or drenching will cover the fruits homogenically resulting in a rationalized fungicide use compared to the preharvest sprayings in the orchard. For the Belgium market Philabuster (imazalil & pyrimethanil) is registered for postharvest treatments since for this product a proper solution for the waste water of postharvest uses was developed to protect surface waters (Funds technology). Philabuster provides an advanced mould control towards fruit rot pathogens Gloeosporium spp., Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium spp. In this context several trials were set up to evaluate the biological efficacy of Philabuster alone or in combination with preharvest sprayings in the orchard. In concrete different preharvest spraying schedules were applied in the last six weeks before harvest on apple and pear facing parameters as rational fungicide use, antifungal effectiveness and cost price. The purpose was to select the optimal combination in

  2. Pathogenicity of and plant immunity to soft rot pectobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Roland Davidsson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot Pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemibiotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type three secretion systems (T3SS and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of Pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range Pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA and JA/ET mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs and result in enhancement of basal immunity (Pattern-triggered immunity, PTI. In particular plant cell-wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by Pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity towards these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights into plant defense strategies against necrotrophs such as

  3. Different Culture Metabolites of the Red Sea Fungus Fusarium equiseti Optimize the Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease (HCV PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawas, Usama W.; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T.; Turki, Adnan J.

    2016-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Fusarium equiseti was isolated from the brown alga Padina pavonica, collected from the Red Sea. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18S rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain in biomalt-peptone medium led to isolation of 12 known metabolites of diketopeprazines and anthraquinones. The organic extract and isolated compounds were screened for their inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease (HCV PR). As a result, the fungal metabolites showed inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 from 19 to 77 μM), and the fungus was subjected to culture on Czapek’s (Cz) media, with a yield of nine metabolites with potent HCV protease inhibition ranging from IC50 10 to 37 μM. The Cz culture extract exhibited high-level inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 27.6 μg/mL) compared to the biomalt culture extract (IC50 56 μg/mL), and the most potent HCV PR isolated compound (Griseoxanthone C, IC50 19.8 μM) from the bio-malt culture extract showed less of an inhibitory effect compared to isolated ω-hydroxyemodin (IC50 10.7 μM) from the optimized Cz culture extract. Both HCV PR active inhibitors ω-hydroxyemodin and griseoxanthone C were considered as the lowest selective safe constituents against Trypsin inhibitory effect with IC50 48.5 and 51.3 μM, respectively. PMID:27775589

  4. Sulphur Requirements of Hendersonula Toruloidea Nattrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Srivastava

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of sulphur compounds on the growth of hendersonula toruloidea Nattrass, causing brown rot of fruits of Malus sylvestris Mill, Has been studied. Nine different sources of sulphur have been used and out of them Ferrous sulphate is found to be best. Zinc sulphate, sodium thiosulphate, potassium persulphate, magnesium sulphate and sodium sulphate support good growth of the organism and are identical sources for this fungus. Ammonium sulphate, potassium sulphate and zinc sulphite support poor growth of the fungus.

  5. New record of Phytophthora root and stem rot of Lavandula angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek B. Orlikowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora cinnamomi was isolated from rotted root and stem parts of lavender as well as from soil taken from containers with diseased plants. Additionally Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium spp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were often isolated from diseased tissues. P. cinnamomi colonised leaves and stem parts of 4 lavender species in laboratory trials and caused stem rot of plants in greenhouse experiments. Cardinal temperature for in vitro growth were about 7,5 and 32°C with optimum 25-27,5°C. The species colonised stem tissues at temperature ranged from 10° to 32°C.

  6. Evaluation of some garlic (Allium Sativum L.) mutants resistant to white rot disease by RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to evaluate genetic diversity among eight garlic mutants resistant to white rot disease (Sclerotium cepivorum) and two controls. Twelve of 13 synthetic random primers were found to identify polymorphism in amplification products. Mutants characterised with moderate resistance to white rot were closely related to the control using cluster and correlation analyses. On the other hand, highly resistant mutants were quite distant from the control with low correlation coefficients. The banding patterns produced by primer OPB-15 (GGAAGGGTGTT) with highly resistant mutants may be used as genetic markers for early selection of resistant plants. (author)

  7. Analysis of Fusarium avenaceum Metabolites Produced during Wet Apple Core Rot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2009-01-01

    Wet apple core rot (wACR) is a well-known disease of susceptible apple cultivars such as Gloster, Jona Gold, and Fuji. Investigations in apple orchards in Slovenia identified Fusarium avenaceum, a known producer of several mycotoxins, as the predominant causal agent of this disease. A LC-MS/MS me......Wet apple core rot (wACR) is a well-known disease of susceptible apple cultivars such as Gloster, Jona Gold, and Fuji. Investigations in apple orchards in Slovenia identified Fusarium avenaceum, a known producer of several mycotoxins, as the predominant causal agent of this disease. A LC...

  8. Characterisation of Alternaria species-groups associated with core rot of apples in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serdani, M.; Kang, J.C.; Andersen, Birgitte;

    2002-01-01

    Alternaria core rot of red apple cultivars is a serious post-harvest disease in South Africa. Thirty isolates of Alternaria spp. previously isolated from apple, together with reference isolates of A. alternata and A. infectoria, were characterised and grouped according to their sporulation patterns...... the other species-groups, as all isolates had a distinction of 35 base pair insertions and 6 base pair deletions in the ITS regions. The results obtained in the present study showed that the major pathogens associated with core rot disease of Top Red apples in South Africa belong to the A. tenuissima...

  9. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  10. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  11. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  12. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  13. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing......-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  14. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  15. The use of X-ray diffraction for analyzing biomodification of crystalline cellulose by wood decay fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, Caitlin; Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jellison, Jody

    2007-01-01

    measures. Studies were conducted to determine changes over time in wood crystallinity generated by the brown rot fungus Meruliporia incrassata and the soft rot fungus Chaetomium elatum. Fungi were grown in modified soil block jars with spruce wood blocks for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. After removal from...... the wood, and can be used to examine the changes in these parameters during degradation. Enhanced understanding of the mechanisms and effects of wood degradation through x-ray diffraction may improve knowledge of degradative processes and facilitate the development of more effective decay prevention...

  16. Ability of some species of fungi of the Basidiomycetes class to degrade cellulose and lignocellulose substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Tagoński

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried-out on the ability of 18 strains of 15 white-rot and brown-rot basidiomycetons fungi to degrade wood components and to synthesize cellulolytic enzymes and laccase. 28,5% lignin and 26,1% carbohydrates of pine wood meal, 46,2% lignin and 67,8% carbohydrates of beech wood meal was degraded after 6 weeks incubation by the white-rot fungus Phanerochate chrysosporium. The highest activity of laccase was obtained in from fungi Coriotus zonatus and Fomes fomentarius.

  17. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  18. Insights into brown spider and loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Appel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles is a genus of cosmopolitan spiders comprising several species, and popularly knownas brown spiders or brown recluses. Brown spider bites can cause dermonecrotic lesions andsystemic reactions known as loxoscelism. Systemic effects are less common but may be severe oreven fatal in some patients. Systemic manifestations include intravascular hemolysis, disseminatedintravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A rapid diagnosis and an understanding of thevenom’s molecular activity are crucial for satisfactory treatment. Mechanisms by which venoms exerttheir deleterious effects are under investigation, and searches are underway for diagnosticenvenomation assays. Molecular biology is being used to produce quantities of several of the mostimportant venom molecules and has contributed to the study and understanding of their mechanismsof action.

  19. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  20. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.