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Sample records for brown rot fungi

  1. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  3. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin;

    cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in correlation...

  4. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  5. Temporal changes in wood crystalline cellulose during degradation by brown rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, Caitlin; Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Goodell, Barry;

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of wood by brown rot fungi has been studied intensely for many years in order to facilitate the preservation of in-service wood. In this work we used X-ray diffraction to examine changes in wood cellulose crystallinity caused by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora...... planes in all degraded samples after roughly 20% weight loss, as well as a decrease in the average observed relative peak width at 2¿ = 22.2°. These results may indicate a disruption of the outer most semi-crystalline cellulose chains comprising the wood microfibril. X-ray diffraction analysis of wood...... subjected to biological attack by fungi may provide insight into degradative processes and wood cellulose structure....

  6. Enzymatic saccharification of biologically pretreated Pinus densiflora using enzymes from brown rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Ho-Yong; Koo, Bon-Wook; Choi, Don-Ha; Kwon, Mi; Choi, In-Gyu

    2008-08-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass was performed using culture filtrates of brown rot fungi including Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Fomitopsis pinicola, and Laetiporus sulphureus. Biological treatment with white rot fungi was used as pretreatment prior to enzymatic saccharification. Endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase and cellobiohydrolase activities were determined from concentrated culture filtrates of the brown rot fungi. L. sulphureus has the highest endoglucanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase activities, and F. pinicola has the highest cellobiohydrolase activity. When enzymes from L. sulphureus were used along with the lignocellulosic biomass pretreated with Stereum hirsutum as the carbon source, the total sugar yield was 11.36 mg/0.25 g of dry weight biomass, with the highest activities of cellulase and hemicellulase. In order to increase the sugar yield, the enzymes from L. sulphureus were mixed with those from F. pinicola, which showed high cellobiohydrolase activity. This caused an increase in the sugar yield from 11.36 mg to 15.22 mg. When temperature was increased to 50 degrees C, the total sugar yield increased to 17.74 mg for the same reaction time. The crystallinity of lignocellulosic biomass decreased from 68.4% to 60.2%, when lignocellulosic biomass pretreated with S. hirsutum was hydrolyzed using enzymes from L. sulphureus.

  7. Lignin as a facilitator, not a barrier, during saccharification by brown rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Jonathan S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Tschirner, Ulrike [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Blanchette, Robert A [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Filley, Timothy [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2012-11-28

    This research focused on the biology of a group of wood-degrading fungi that cause brown rot in wood, with particular attention to the potential to mimic this biological approach ex situ for bioprocessing lignocellulosic biomass. Supported by the long-standing theory that these fungi use a two-step oxidative/enzymatic approach during brown rot, our team’s objectives were as follows: 1) to determine the discrete timing of lignin modifications, 2) to correlate these alterations with biocatalyst efficiency and ingress into plant cell walls, and 3) to reproduce modifications prior to saccharification for efficient bioprocessing. The core findings of our research were that 1) lignin modifications occur nearly coincident with enzyme secretion during brown rot and 2) there is no specificity to the benefit that a brown rot pretreatment has on the efficacy of cellulases – it is a general enhancement best predicted by chemical changes to lignin and side-chain hemicellulose sugars. In our work, this meant we could attain and predict broad improvements in saccharification using commercial cellulase cocktails, in some cases more than three-fold of that in untreated biomass. This project was completed with minimal variance from the original project management plan (PMP), resulting in fourteen presentations and posters, four peer-reviewed publications, and one additional publication now in review. The publications have been valuable to other scientists working toward similar goals and have been cited in thirteen peer-reviewed publications written by others since 2010. We are working with ADM to advance application options for industry, building on the lessons learned during this DOE award period.

  8. Biodegradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in liquid broth by brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

    2013-11-01

    Dioxins are a class of extremely hazardous molecules that might pose a threat to the environment. This work evaluated the microbial degradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD), in liquid broth using three brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungi as control. A fast and reliable extraction method with recoveries of over 98% together with a validated GC-MS method was developed, and applied to quantify 1,2,3,4-TCDD in liquid broth, mycelia and reaction flask, with detection limits of 10 ppb. Among the four strains tested, brown-rot fungus Aspergillus aculeatus showed best results, removing up to 21% of dioxin after 30-day incubation. The results open both a path for biotechnological interest in bioremediation purposes and environmental behavior studies by using brown-rot fungus.

  9. Investigation on Resistance against White-rot and Brown-rot Fungi of some Fire Retardant Chemicals in Laminate Flooring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Özdemir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the effects of some fire retardants on decay resistance of the high density fiberboard (HDF panels covered with overlay, decorative and balance papers. Borax (BX, boric acid (BA, ammonium polyphosphate (APP and alpha-x (AX as fire retardant (FR chemicals were added as powder into the fibers made from 50% pine and 50% beech woods at 3%, 6% and 9% levels based on oven-dry fiber weight. HDF panels (400x400x6.5mm were produced. After, surfaces of the panels were coated with overlay, decorative and balance papers. The panels were exposed to white (Ceriporiopsis subvermisphora and brown (Coniophora puteana decay fungi. The decay resistance of panels was investigated. The results showed that the addition of FR chemicals increased resistance against white and brown rot fungi of the panels. Thus, it was ascertained that concentration and type of FR chemicals are effective on decay resistance of laminate flooring

  10. Bioremediation of CCA-Treated Wood By Brown-Rot Fungi Fomitopsis Palustris, Coniophora Puteana, and Laetiporus Sulphureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, S Nami; Munir, Erman; Kamitani, Tomo

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated oxalic acid accumulation and bioremediation of chromated copper arscnate (CCA)-treated wood by three brown-rot fungi Fomitopsis palustris Coniophora puteane, and Laetiporus sulphureas. The fungi were first cultivated in a fermentation broth to accumulate oxalic acid. Bioremediation of CCA-treated wood was then carried out by leaching of heavy metals with oxalic acid over a 10-day fermentation period. Higher amounts of oxalic acid were produced by F. polustris and L. sulp...

  11. Comparative studies on thermochemical characterization of corn stover pretreated by white-rot and brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yelin; Yang, Xuewei; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Fuying

    2011-09-28

    The effects of white-rot and brown-rot fungal pretreatment on the chemical composition and thermochemical conversion of corn stover were investigated. Fungus-pretreated corn stover was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis to characterize the changes in chemical composition. Differences in thermochemical conversion of corn stover after fungal pretreatment were investigated using thermogravimetric and pyrolysis analysis. The results indicated that the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2 has great lignin-degrading ability, whereas the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis sp. IMER2 preferentially degrades the amorphous regions of the cellulose. The biopretreatment favors thermal decomposition of corn stover. The weight loss of IMER2-treated acid detergent fiber became greater, and the oil yield increased from 32.7 to 50.8%. After CD2 biopretreatment, 58% weight loss of acid detergent lignin was achieved and the oil yield increased from 16.8 to 26.8%.

  12. Role of brown-rot fungi in the bioremoval of azo dyes under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is vital to the understanding of bioremediation of structurally different azo dyes by some unusual Brown-rot fungi. Bioremoval of each dye (20 mg l-1 was tested in two different culture media under static and shaking conditions by taking inocula from different fungi. Fungal strains showed varying dyes removal abilities, though considerable high in case of Acid Red (AR 151(di-azo as compared to Orange (Or II (mono-azo. With an exception of Aspergillus tereus SA3, all the fungal isolates showed higher removal of dyes in SDB. Under static condition, the maximum decolorizing fungal strains were; Aspergillus flavus SA2 (67% and Alternaria spp. SA4 (57% in AR 151, while Penicillium spp. (34 and 33 % in Orange II, in SDB and STE, respectively. Bioremoval of dyes was considerably increased when experiments were shifted from static to shaking mode. It was specifically increased (% in; AR 151 (255 with Penicillium spp., Or II with A. flavus SA2 (112 and Alternaria spp. (111. The primary mechanism of dyes removal proved to be fungal biosorption. However, reduction of dyes (onto fungal with formation of their products (α. naphthol, sulphalinic acid and aniline furthermore revealed that dyes (specifically azo were actually biodegraded.

  13. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guoqi [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Wang, Lihai, E-mail: xu12nefu@sina.cn [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu, Junliang [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wu, Jinzhuo [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  14. Water relations in untreated and modified wood under brown-rot and white-rot decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund

    2017-01-01

    One key requisite for fungal decay of wood is water within cell walls. While several reviews have focused on the mechanistic relationship between water and decay of wood, this study is the first review of water relations of decayed wood material. Based on a vast compilation of experimental data...... from several literature sources, the water relations of untreated and modified wood decayed by brown-rot and white-rot fungi are examined. The aim is to investigate to what extent observations and assumptions regarding brown-rot and white-rot decay can explain changes in water relations observed during...... and after decay. Although the available experimental data for modified wood is scarce, it indicates that brown-rot and white-rot decay of non-resistant modified wood occurs by similar degradation mechanisms with similar effects on water relations as for untreated wood. From simplistic, mathematical...

  15. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol. A.;

    2006-01-01

    for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi. This was done by treating copper citrate (CC)-treated Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood with a CaCl2 solution and estimating the decay rate and amount of soluble oxalic acid in an ASTM soil block test. Decay by S. lacrymans was found...

  16. ACCELERATED LABORATORY TEST OF THREE AMAZONIAN WOOD SPECIES CALLED TAUARI, EXPOSED TO WHITE- AND BROWN-ROT FUNGI AND COLOR RESPONSE ACCORDING TO CIE L* A* B* SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to: evaluate de natural durability of three species of tauari ( Couratari guianensis Aublet , Couratari oblongifolia Ducke & R.Knuth and Couratari stellata A.C.Smith, report the colorimetric parameters according to CIE L*a*b* 1976 system and also show the appearance of control and attacked wood blocks. Two brown-rot [ Gloeophyllum trabeum (Persoon ex Fries Murril. and Lentinus lepideus Fr.] and two white-rot [ Trametes versicolor (Linnaeus ex Fries Pilat and Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. ex Wallr.] fungi were used . Tauari wood was classed as “moderately resistant” to “resistant” when exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum fungi. All extractives’ contents of attacked samples decreased when compared with the control (sound wood, except Couratari stellata exposed to Ganoderma applanatum. Conversely, all ash contents increased when compared with the control, except Couratari stellata exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum. All attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples were darker, except wood meal from Couratari stellata exposed to Trametes versicolor , and redder than the control. The ∆ E* mean value in attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples attained 29.5 and 14.3, respectively.

  17. Removal of Copper, Chromium and Arsenic From CCA-Treated Wood by Biomediation With Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, Nami; Munir, Erman; Imamura, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    Considerable attentioan has been focused on remediation of treated wood in recent years due to public and scientific awareness concerns about such waste wood. As a result, substantial progress has been made in remediation of CCA-treated waste wood by chemical extraction with several mineral and organic acids and biodegradation using bacteria and fungi in recent years. 08E00046

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD DECAY BY ROT FUNGI USING COLORIMETRY AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian de Almeida Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of marupá (Simarouba amara and andiroba (Carapa guianenis were submitted to Trametes versicolor (white rot and Gloeophylum trabeum (brown rot fungi attack. Colorimetry was used to determine the color of the wood before and after wood decaying fungi. To evaluate the changes in chemical compounds levels in the wood samples, the diffuse reflectance medium infrared spectroscopy was used. Both wood were non resistant against white rot fungus, while with brown rot attack andiroba was resistant and marupá was not. After Gloeophyllum trabeum attack both woods changed to a darken color, and after Trametes versicolor attack andiroba changed to a lighter color and marupá darkened slightly, The analysis showed a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, for both species, after Trametes versicolor attack and a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose after Gloeophyllum trabeum attack.

  19. Brown rot on nuts of Castanea sativa Mill: an emerging disease and its causal agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresi G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of nut production are fundamental to the economic viability of chestnut cultivation, yet recent reports indicate that severe damage due to moulds represents a significant problem for growers. We carried out an investigation of the agents of chestnut rot and internal fruit damage in three orchards in Italy. Black and brown rot, as well as insect damage, were found in all the areas examined. Brown rot appeared to be the main cause of damage, affecting 8% to 49% and 2% to 24% of nuts collected from the ground and from burrs, respectively. With respect to morphology and DNA sequencing analyses, fungal isolates obtained from brown rot were homologous with Gnomoniopsis sp. obtained from Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu galls and with Gnomoniopsis castanea and Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi described on chestnut in Italy and Australia, respectively. The same fungus was also isolated from the bark of one- and two-years-old healthy shoots at each site, supporting the endophytic behaviour of this rot agent. Brown rot symptoms on nuts associated with Gnomoniopsis sp. corresponded with those previously described by several authors and referred to as Phoma or Phomopsis endogena, suggesting a relationship between these fungi and Gnomoniopsis sp. It is to notice that the escalation of brown rot damage in Italy followed several periods of drought and probably the recent invasion of D. kuriphilus, both stress factors for chestnut trees.

  20. Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

  1. Enzyme production by wood-rot and soft-rot fungi cultivated on corn fiber followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand; Khanal, Samir K; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2009-05-27

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert lignocellulosic corn fiber into fermentable sugars at a moderate temperature (37 °C) with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum), and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used for in situ enzyme production to hydrolyze cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber by either white- or brown-rot fungi followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with coculture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown a possibility of enhancing wood rot saccharification of corn fiber for ethanol fermentation. The laboratory-scale fungal saccharification and fermentation process incorporated in situ cellulolytic enzyme induction, which enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose components of corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, and trisaccharides). The yeast fermentation of the hydrolyzate yielded 7.8, 8.6, and 4.9 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol per 100 g initial corn fiber) is equivalent to 35% of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. This research has significant commercial potential to increase net ethanol production per bushel of corn through the utilization of corn fiber. There is also a great research opportunity to evaluate the remaining biomass residue (enriched with fungal protein) as animal feed.

  2. The use of white-rot fungi as active biofilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Johannes, C.; Majcherczyk, A.; Huettermann, A. [Univ. Goettingen (Germany). Forstbotanisches Inst.

    1995-12-31

    White-rot fungi, growing on lignocellulosic substrates, have been successfully used as active organisms in biofilters. Filters using these fungi have a very high biological active surface area, allowing for high degrees of retention, a comparatively low pressure drop, and a high physical stability. The unspecific action of the extracellular enzymes of the white-rot fungi allows for the degradation of a wide variety of substances by the same organism. Degradation of several compounds in the gas phase by the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Bjerkandera adusta, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was tested. Among the aromatic solvents, styrene was the compound that was most readily degraded, followed by ethylbenzene, xylenes, and toluene. Tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane were also degraded, whereas dioxane could not be attacked by fungi under the conditions used. Acrylonitrile and aniline were degraded very well, whereas pyridine was resistant to degradation. The process for removing styrene is now in the scaling-up stage.

  3. Localizing gene regulation reveals a staggered wood decay mechanism for the brown rot fungus Postia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Presley, Gerald N; Hammel, Kenneth E; Ryu, Jae-San; Menke, Jon R; Figueroa, Melania; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2016-09-27

    Wood-degrading brown rot fungi are essential recyclers of plant biomass in forest ecosystems. Their efficient cellulolytic systems, which have potential biotechnological applications, apparently depend on a combination of two mechanisms: lignocellulose oxidation (LOX) by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polysaccharide hydrolysis by a limited set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Given that ROS are strongly oxidizing and nonselective, these two steps are likely segregated. A common hypothesis has been that brown rot fungi use a concentration gradient of chelated metal ions to confine ROS generation inside wood cell walls before enzymes can infiltrate. We examined an alternative: that LOX components involved in ROS production are differentially expressed by brown rot fungi ahead of GH components. We used spatial mapping to resolve a temporal sequence in Postia placenta, sectioning thin wood wafers colonized directionally. Among sections, we measured gene expression by whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) and assayed relevant enzyme activities. We found a marked pattern of LOX up-regulation in a narrow (5-mm, 48-h) zone at the hyphal front, which included many genes likely involved in ROS generation. Up-regulation of GH5 endoglucanases and many other GHs clearly occurred later, behind the hyphal front, with the notable exceptions of two likely expansins and a GH28 pectinase. Our results support a staggered mechanism for brown rot that is controlled by differential expression rather than microenvironmental gradients. This mechanism likely results in an oxidative pretreatment of lignocellulose, possibly facilitated by expansin- and pectinase-assisted cell wall swelling, before cellulases and hemicellulases are deployed for polysaccharide depolymerization.

  4. BIOCHEMICAL PULPING OF REED PRETREATED BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiyuFu; AniwarApiz; HuaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    The Soda-AQ pulps were made from reed pretreated by white rot fungi Panus conchatus. Cyathus stercoreus and Pleurotus florida respectively. It was found that kappa number decreased and the brightness increased for Soda-AQ pulps from the reed treated by Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus, but it was reverse for the pulp from reed treated by Cyathus stercoreus. The result indicated that white rot fungi Pleurotus .florida and Panus conchatus were selective to degrade lignin inreed, which were good for biopulping, but Cyathus stercoreus was preferential to degrade cellulose, which was not good for biopulping.

  5. BIOCHEMICAL PULPING OF REED PRETREATED BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyu Fu; Aniwar Apiz; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    The Soda-AQ pulps were made from reed pretreated by white rot fungi Panus conchatus,Cyathus stercoreus and Pleurotus florida respectively. It was found that kappa number decreased and the brightness increased for Soda-AQ pulps from the reed treated by Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus, but it was reverse for the pulp from reed treated by Cyathus stercoreus. The result indicated that white rot fungi Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus were selective to degrade lignin in reed, which were good for biopulping, but Cyathus stercoreus was preferential to degrade cellulose,which was not good for biopulping.

  6. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Magan, Naresh; Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the ...

  7. Biotechnological procedures to select white rot fungi for the degradation of PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwanhwi; Jang, Yeongseon; Choi, Yong-Seok; Kim, Min-Ji; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hanbyul; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2014-02-01

    White rot fungi are essential in forest ecology and are deeply involved in wood decomposition and the biodegradation of various xenobiotics. The fungal ligninolytic enzymes involved in these processes have recently become the focus of much attention for their possible biotechnological applications. Successful bioremediation requires the selection of species with desirable characteristics. In this study, 150 taxonomically and physiologically diverse white rot fungi, including 55 species, were investigated for their performance in a variety of biotechnological procedures, such as dye decolorization, gallic acid reaction, ligninolytic enzymes, and tolerance to four PAHs, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Among these fungi, six isolates showed the highest (>90%) tolerance to both individual PAH and mixed PAHs. And six isolates oxidized gallic acid with dark brown color and they rapidly decolorized RBBR within ten days. These fungi revealed various profiles when evaluated for their biotechnological performance to compare the capability of degradation of PAHs between two groups selected. As the results demonstrated the six best species selected from gallic acid more greatly degraded four PAHs than the other isolates selected via tolerance test. It provided that gallic acid reaction test can be performed to rank the fungi by their ability to degrade the PAHs. Most of all, Peniophora incarnata KUC8836 and Phlebia brevispora KUC9033 significantly degraded the four PAHs and can be considered prime candidates for the degradation of xenobiotic compounds in environmental settings.

  8. Comparison of ligninolytic activities of selected white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, R.; Leisola, M.S.A.; Fiechter, A.

    1988-10-01

    Six fast growing ligninolytic white-rot fungi were compared with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results showed that the fungi have similar ligninolytic systems, although minor differences exist. Like in P. chrysosporium the ligninolytic system could be induced by veratryl alcohol in Coriolus versicolor and Chrysosporium pruinosum. These three lignin peroxidase producing fungi were the fastest lignin degraders in stationary cultures, whereas in agitated cultures Bjerkandera adusta showed highest lignin degradation rates. Metabolites accumulating during the degradation of veratryl alcohol were analyzed and compared. Peroxidase production seems to be a common feature of all the tested fungi. Polyclonal antibodies against the lignin peroxidase with pl of 4.65 from P. chrysosporium reacted with the extracellular peroxidases of C. pruinosum, C. versicolor and B. adusta, but not with those of Pleurotus ostreatus.

  9. Pengaruh Penambahan Jamur Pelapuk Putih (White Rot Fungi pada Proses Pengomposan Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Nasrul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Composting is nowadays a general treatment method for agriculture waste such as empty fruit bunch. This research article reported the composting process of the empty fruit bunches. The effect of addition of white rot fungi (Phanerochaete Chrysosporium as an activator on composting product was studied. Experiment results indicated that white rot fungi is a good activator to improve degradation process of the empty fruit bunch become an organic fertilizer. White rot fungi has capable to increase composting period become shorter in compare with original composting without addition of white rot fungi. The organic fertilizer product as regulation issued by the Standar Nasional Indonesia (NSI can be achieved in duration of 3 months, while for original process without addition of white rot fungi longer degradation time is necessary. Keyword: Composting, empty fruit bunch, white rot fungi

  10. Localizing gene regulation reveals a staggered wood decay mechanism for the brown rot fungus Postia placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Presley, Gerald N.; Hammel, Kenneth E.; Ryu, Jae-San; Menke, Jon R.; Figueroa, Melania; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Schilling, Jonathan S.

    2016-09-12

    The fungi that cause brown rot of wood are essential contributors to biomass recycling in forest ecosystems. Their highly efficient cellulolytic systems, which may have practical applications, apparently depend on a combination of two mechanisms: nonselective oxidation of the lignocellulose by reactive oxygen species (ROS) coupled with hydrolysis of the polysaccharide components by a limited set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Since the production of strongly oxidizing ROS appears incompatible with the operation of GHs, it has been proposed that the fungi regulate ROS production by maintaining concentration gradients of the chelated metal ions they use to generate extracellular oxidants. However, calculations have indicated that this protective mechanism is physically infeasible. We examined a different hypothesis, that expression of ROS and GH components is temporally staggered by brown rot fungi in wood. We sectioned thin wafers of spruce and aspen that had been colonized directionally by Postia placenta and measured expression of relevant genes and some of the encoded enzymes, thus using the spatial distribution of fungal hyphae to resolve a fine-scale temporal sequence. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression for eight oxidoreductases thought to have a role in ROS production and of eight GHs revealed a zone of oxidoreductase upregulation at the hyphal front that persisted about 48 h before upregulation of the GHs. Additional evidence for differential expression was provided by localization of endoglucanase, xylanase, mannanase, and laccase activities in the colonized wood. Our results support a two-step mechanism for brown rot, in which substrate oxidation precedes enzymatic hydrolysis.

  11. Are white-rot fungi a real biotechnological option for the improvement of environmental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, G; Durán, N; Rubilar, O; Parada, M; Diez, M C

    2015-06-01

    The use of white-rot fungi as a biotechnological tool for cleaning the environment of recalcitrant pollutants has been under evaluation for several years. However, it is still not possible to find sufficiently detailed investigations of this subject to conclude that these fungi can decontaminate the environment. In the present review, we have summarized and discussed evidence about the potential of white-rot fungi to degrade such pollutants as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dyes or antibiotics as an example of the complex structures that these microorganisms can attack. This review also discusses field experiment results and limitations of white-rot fungi trials from contaminated sites. Moreover, the use of catabolic potential of white-rot fungi in biopurification systems (biobeds) is also discussed. The current status and future perspectives of white-rot fungi, as a viable biotechnological alternative for improvement of environmental health are noted.

  12. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  13. Peaches tree genetic divergence for brown rot reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the genetic divergence in peach genotypes for brown rot reaction. It was evaluated 26 and 29 peach genotypes in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 production cycle, respectively. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitossanidade, da UTFPR - Campus Dois Vizinhos. The experimental design was entirely randomized, considering each peach genotype a treatment, and it was use three replication of nine fruits. The treatment control use three replication of three peach. The fruit epidermis were inoculated individually with 0.15 mL of M. fructicola conidial suspension (1.0 x 10(5 spores mL-1. In the control treatment was sprayed with 0.15 mL of distilled water. The fruits were examined 72 and 120 hours after inoculation, and the incidence and severity disease were evaluated. These results allowed realized study for genetic divergence, used as dissimilarity measure the Generalized Mahalanobis distance. Cluster analysis using Tocher´s optimization method and distances in the plan were applied. There was smallest genetic divergence among peach trees evaluated for brown rot, what can difficult to obtain resistance in the genotypes.

  14. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular...... the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matterprotein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism...... by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton...

  15. 小麦茎基褐腐病病原菌组成及其致病力研究%Pathogenic Fungi of Wheat Brown Foot Rot and Their Pathogenicity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 陈莹; 张晓祥; 张伯桥; 于汉寿; 陈怀谷

    2011-01-01

    为明确小麦茎基褐腐病(brown foot rot)病原菌的组成,于2008-2009年春从江苏、安徽、河南、湖北、河北和四川6省48个县市的65个地点采集了具有茎基褐腐症状的病株,并分离到110株病原真菌.根据其培养性状、形态学特征以及分子生物学鉴定,可将这些病原菌分为4类,分别为小麦根腐离蠕孢(Bipolaris sorokiniana,41株)、镰孢菌(Fusarium spp.,33株)、雪霉叶枯病菌(Microdochium nivale,24株)和黑附球菌(Epicoccum nigrum,12株).对这些菌株在小麦苗期的致病力及重新分离得率的测定结果表明,4类病原菌之间的致病力存在明显差异,其中以小麦根腐离蠕孢(B.sorokiniana)发病率和致病力最强,其次是镰孢菌(Fusarium spp.),雪霉叶枯病菌(M.nivale)和黑附球菌(E.nigrum)则相对较弱;病菌的重新分离得率与其致病力呈正相关.

  16. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  17. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz eTadych

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase.

  18. Microsomal transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Juan; Valderrama, Brenda; Albores, Arnulfo; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2003-12-01

    The enzymatic mechanism for the transformation of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) by different white-rot fungi strains was studied. With the exception of Ganoderma applanatum 8168, all strains from a collection of 17 different fungi cultures were able to deplete parathion. Three strains showing the highest activities were selected for further studies: Bjerkandera adusta 8258, Pleurotus ostreatus 7989 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium 3641. These strains depleted 50 to 96% of terbufos, azinphos-methyl, phosmet and tribufos after four-days exposure to the pesticides. In order to identify the cellular localization of the transformation activity, the extracellular and microsomal fractions of Pleuronts ostreatus 7989 were evaluated in vitro. While the activities of ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase) were detected in the extracellular fraction, no enzymatic modification of any of the five pesticides tested could be found, suggesting the intracellular origin of the transformation activity. In accordance with this observation the microsomal fraction was found able to transform three OPPs with the following rates: 10 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for phosmet, 5.7 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for terbufos, and 2.2 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for azinphos-methyl. The products from these reactions and from the transformation of trichlorfon and malathion, were identified by mass-spectrometry. These results, supported by specific inhibition experiments and the stringent requirement for NADPH during the in vitro assays suggest the involvement of a cytochrome P450.

  19. Postharvest biological control of brown rot in peaches after cold storage preceded by preharvest chemical control 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogenic fungi cause skin darkening and peach quality depreciation in post harvest. Therefore, alternative techniques to chemical treatment are necessary in order to reduce risks to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of Trichoderma harzianum in association with different fungicides applied before harvest to 'Eldorado' peaches for brown rot control and other quality parameters during storage. The treatments consisted of five preharvest fungicide applications (control, captan, iprodione, iminoctadine and tebuconazole associated with postharvest application of T. harzianum, after cold storage (with and without application, in three evaluation times (zero, two and four days at 20 °C, resulting in a 5x2x3 factorial design. The application of T. harzianum only brought benefits to the control of brown rot when combined with the fungicide captan, at zero day shelf life. After two days, there was a greater skin darkening in peaches treated with T. harzianum compared with peaches without the treatment, except for peaches treated with the fungicide iprodione and T. harzianum The application of T. harzianum during postharvest showed no benefits for the control of brown rot, however, the association with fungicides reduced the incidence of Rhizopus stolonifer during the shelf life.

  20. Fungi associated with post-harvest rot of black plum (Vitex doniana) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseigbe, D A; Bankole, S A

    The fungi associated with rot of Vitex doniana fruits (blackplum) were isolated and identified. Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Candida spp. Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium pallidoroseum F. oxysporum and Mucor mucedo were the primary rot causing fungi in contrast to Cladosporium herbarum and Mucor circinelloides which were just present as secondary colonizers. The rot fungi penetrated mainly through wounds and bruises on the surface of fruits. Mature green fruits were less susceptible to infection than half ripe and fully ripened red fruits. Optimum rot by pathogenic isolates occurred at 25-30 degrees C and relative humidity 72.5-100%. The results of investigation of influence of storage temperatures and relative humidity on the quality of uninoculated healthy fruits are presented and discussed.

  1. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin C; Hofmann, Ulrike; Moeder, Monika; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn) within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ), which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants.

  2. Mycolytic enzymes produced by Streptomyces violaceusniger and their role in antagonism towards wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Anand; Choudhary, Bharti; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular mycolytic enzymes produced under submerged fermentation by the fungal antagonist Streptomyces violaceusniger MTCC 3959 were characterized. This streptomycete produced higher amounts of extracellular chitinase and protease during late exponential phase, whereas β-1,3-glucanase production was at peak in mid-stationary phase. Cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) exhibited a broad range of antifungal activity against both white rot and brown rot fungi. The inhibitory activity was completely lost after treatment with proteinase K and heat, indicating that extracellular antifungal metabolites are heat labile and proteinaceous in nature. Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were: 9.0 and 60 °C for chitinase; 6.0 and 60 °C for β-1,3-glucanase; and 9.0 and 70 °C for protease. Mycolytic enzymes were moderately thermostable, and had a wide pH stability range extending from pH 5.0 to 10.0. The zymogram analysis of CCF revealed five chitinase isoenzymes with an apparent molecular weight of 20.8, 33.3, 45.6, 67.4, and 114.8 kDa, one β-1,3-glucanase appeared as a single band of ∼131.8 kDa and four protease isoenzymes with approximate molecular weights of 22.8, 62.52, 74.64, and 120.5 kDa. S. violaceusniger MTCC 3959 produced mycolytic enzymes that can be effectively used for suppression of phytopathogenic basidiomycetes. It has the potential to be an effective biofungicide.

  3. A Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase with Broad Xyloglucan Specificity from the Brown-Rot Fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and Its Action on Cellulose-Xyloglucan Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    KOJIMA, Yuka; Várnai, Anikó; Ishida, Takuya; Sunagawa, Naoki; Petrovic, Dejan M.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jellison, Jody; GOODELL, BARRY; Alfredsen, Gry; Westereng, Bjørge; Vincent G H Eijsink; Yoshida, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungi secrete a set of glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) to degrade plant polysaccharides. Brown-rot fungi, such as Gloeophyllum trabeum, tend to have few LPMOs, and information on these enzymes is scarce. The genome of G. trabeum encodes four auxiliary activity 9 (AA9) LPMOs (GtLPMO9s), whose coding sequences were amplified from cDNA. Due to alternative splicing, two variants of GtLPMO9A seem to be produced, a single-domain variant, GtLPMO9A-1, and...

  4. The GSTome Reflects the Chemical Environment of White-Rot Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Deroy

    Full Text Available White-rot fungi possess the unique ability to degrade and mineralize all the different components of wood. In other respects, wood durability, among other factors, is due to the presence of extractives that are potential antimicrobial molecules. To cope with these molecules, wood decay fungi have developed a complex detoxification network including glutathione transferases (GST. The interactions between GSTs from two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and an environmental library of wood extracts have been studied. The results demonstrate that the specificity of these interactions is closely related to the chemical composition of the extracts in accordance with the tree species and their localization inside the wood (sapwood vs heartwood vs knotwood. These data suggest that the fungal GSTome could reflect the chemical environment encountered by these fungi during wood degradation and could be a way to study their adaptation to their way of life.

  5. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: a new potential biocontrol agent of Ralstonia solanacearum, causal agent of potato brown rot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Farag, N.S.; Abdallah, S.A.; Janse, J.D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated from the rhizosphere of eggplant in the Nile Delta of Egypt, and its antagonistic potential against Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causal agent of potato brown rot, was in vitro evaluated on KB agar medium and in vivo on potato plants. In vitro,

  6. Potato brown rot incidence and severity under different management and amendment regimes in different soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, N.N.A.; Janse, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causative agent of potato brown rot (bacterial wilt), is an economically important disease in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In view of previous reports on suppression of the disease by organic amendments, and the expansion of or

  7. Improving ruminal degradability of oil palm fronds using white rot fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Lourenco, M.; Hassim, H.A.; Baars, J.J.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Cone, J.W.; Boever, de J.L.; Fievez, V.

    2011-01-01

    The use of oil palm fronds (OPF) in livestock production is limited as up to 0.20 of their dry biomass is lignin. White rot fungi (WRF) are very effective basidiomycetes for biological pre-treatment as they degrade lignin extensively. Ten WRF were screened for their potential to increase OPF digesti

  8. Modification of wheat straw lignin by solid state fermentation with white-rot fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinis, M.J.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Nunes, F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Barros, A.R.N.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state cultivation of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma applanatum and Phlebia rufa), was exploited to modify wheat straw cell wall. At different fermentation times, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP)

  9. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin C.; Hofmann, Ulrike; Moeder, Monika; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn) within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ), which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants. PMID:26147966

  10. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C Krueger

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS. Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ, which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants.

  11. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz; Smits, Mark; Johansson, Tomas; Canbäck, Björn; Olsen, Peter Bjarke; Persson, Per; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Lindquist, Erika; Grigoriev, Igor V; Lange, Lene; Tunlid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Soils in boreal forests contain large stocks of carbon. Plants are the main source of this carbon through tissue residues and root exudates. A major part of the exudates are allocated to symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi. In return, the plant receives nutrients, in particular nitrogen from the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matter–protein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes needed for metabolizing the released carbon. The saprotrophic activity has been reduced to a radical-based biodegradation system that can efficiently disrupt the organic matter–protein complexes and thereby mobilize the entrapped nutrients. We suggest that the released carbon then becomes available for further degradation and assimilation by commensal microbes, and that these activities have been lost in ectomycorrhizal fungi as an adaptation to symbiotic growth on host photosynthate. The interdependence of ectomycorrhizal symbionts and saprophytic microbes would provide a key link in the turnover of nutrients and carbon in forest ecosystems. PMID:22469289

  12. Biological pretreatment of softwood Pinus densiflora by three white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Park, Jun-Yeong; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Don-Ha; Kwon, Mi; Choi, In-Gyu

    2007-12-01

    The effects of biological pretreatment on the Japanese red pine Pinus densiflora, was evaluated after exposure to three white rot fungi Ceriporia lacerata, Stereum hirsutum, and Polyporus brumalis. Change in chemical composition, structural modification, and their susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification in the degraded wood were analyzed. Of the three white rot fungi tested, S. hirsutum selectively degraded the lignin of this sortwood rather than the holocellulose component. After eight weeks of pretreatment with S. hirsutum, total weight loss was 10.7%, while lignin loss was the highest at 14.52% among the tested samples. However, holocellulose loss was lower at 7.81% compared to those of C. lacerata and P. brumalis. Extracelluar enzymes from S. hirsutum showed higher activity of ligninase and lower activity of cellulase than those from other white rot fungi. Thus, total weight loss and changes in chemical composition of the Japanese red pine was well correlated with the enzyme activities related with lignin- and cellulose degradation in these fungi. Based on the data obtained from analysis of physical characterization of degraded wood by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) and pore size distribution, S. hirsutum was considered as an effective potential fungus for biological pretreatment. In particular, the increase of available pore size of over 120 nm in pretreated wood powder with S. hirsutum made enzymes accessible for further enzymatic saccharification. When Japanese red pine chips treated with S. hirsutum were enzymatically saccharified using commercial enzymes (Cellulclast 1.5 L and Novozyme 188), sugar yield was greatly increased (21.01%) compared to non-pretreated control samples, indicating that white rot fungus S. hirsutum provides an effective process in increasing sugar yield from woody biomass.

  13. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  14. Durability of five native Argentine wood species of the genera Prosopis and Acacia decayed by rot fungi and its relationship with extractive content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometti, Carolina L; Palanti, Sabrina; Pizzo, Benedetto; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Boizot, Nathalie; Resio, Claudio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2010-09-01

    The natural durability of four Argentinean species of Prosopis and one of Acacia was evaluated in laboratory tests, according to European standards, using three brown rot and one white rot fungi. These tests were complemented by assessing the wood chemical composition. All the species were from moderately slightly durable to very durable (classes 4-1), and in all cases the heartwood was the most resistant to fungal attack. Chemical extractives content (organic, aqueous, tannic and phenolic) was higher in the heartwood. However, species durability was not related to extractive contents nor with wood density. Instead, it is possible that extractives could contribute to natural durability in different ways, including the effects related to the antioxidant properties of some of them.

  15. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy Applied for Wood Rot Decay and Mould Fungi Growth Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Thus ATR saves time and enables the study of materials in a pristine condition, that is, the comprehensive sample preparation by pressing thin KBr pellets in traditional FTIR transmittance spectroscopy is hence avoided. Materials and their ageing processes, both ageing by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect wood rot decay and mould fungi growth on various building material substrates. An experimental challenge and aim is to be able to detect the wood rot decay and mould fungi growth at early stages when it is barely visible to the naked eye. Another goal is to be able to distinguish between various species of fungi and wood rot.

  16. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP with the white- rot fungi under non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Dawen; WEN Xianghua; QIAN Yi

    2004-01-01

    @@ In recent years, many researches indicate that white rot fungus is a promising microbe in wastewater treatment. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium in white rot fungi is the most extensively studied and discussed[1]. The extracellular ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi have the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo-pollutants such as chlorinated phenols and various types of synthetic dyes because of their nonspecific characteristics[2-6]. And some significant mineralization (20%-48%) was observed during degradation of azo dyes[7].

  17. Efficiency of fungicides in the control of brown rot in peaches and its relationship with physiological parameters of the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The brown rot, caused by the fungus Monilinia fructicola, is the main cause for losses in pre and postharvest of peaches. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of preharvest application of fungicides on the control of brown rot in the field and during cold storage, and its relation to parameters of maturation and fruit quality. Therefore, we evaluated the following active ingredients: [1] control (water application, [2] captan; [3] iprodione; [4] iminoctadine; [5] tebuconazole; [6] procymidone; [7 ] azoxystrobin; [8] difenoconazole; [9] azoxystrobin / difenoconazole; [10] trifloxystrobin / tebuconazole; [11] sequence iminoctadine + captan; [12] sequence iminoctadine + iprodione; [13] sequence of tebuconazole + captan; [14] sequence of tebuconazole + iprodione. All treatments were applied according recommended doses and grace period for culture. The fruits were evaluated at harvest and after 40 days storage at –0.5 ° C, plus six days at 20 º C. At harvest time, the best control of brown rot was obtained with difenoconazole, while the fungicide iminoctadine and its association with iprodione showed good results in controlling brown rot after 40 days of cold storage, plus six days shelf life at 20 º C. The preharvest application of captan cause skin browning. The fungicide azoxystrobin influences the fruit maturation by decreasing acidity and firmness at harvest. Good levels of control of brown rot of peach can be achieved with the use of iminoctadine and iprodione.

  18. Toxicity of organic and inorganic nanoparticles to four species of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, T.P.S., E-mail: pgalindo@ua.pt [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, R. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Freitas, A.C.; Santos-Rocha, T.A.P. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Rasteiro, M.G.; Antunes, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Rodrigues, D. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M.; Gonçalves, F. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2013-08-01

    The rapid development of nanoparticles (NP) for industrial applications and large-volume manufacturing, with its subsequent release into the environment, raised the need to understand and characterize the potential effects of NP to biota. Accordingly, this work aimed to assess sublethal effects of five NP to the white-rot fungi species Trametes versicolor, Lentinus sajor caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Each species was exposed to serial dilutions of the following NP: organic-vesicles of SDS/DDAB and of Mo/NaO; gold-NP, quantum dot CdSe/ZnS, and Fe/Co. Fungi growth rate was monitored every day, and at the end of assay the mycelium from each replicate was collected to evaluate possible changes in its chemical composition. For all NP-suspensions the following parameters were characterized: hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, aggregation index, zeta potential, and conductivity. All tested NP tended to aggregate when suspended in aqueous media. The obtained results showed that gold-NP, CdSe/ZnS, Mo/NaO, and SDS/DDAB significantly inhibited the growth of fungi with effects on the mycelium chemical composition. Among the tested NP, gold-NP and CdSe/ZnS were the ones exerting a higher effect on the four fungi. Finally to our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that different types of NP induce changes in the chemical composition of fungi mycelium. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles (NP) tend to aggregate when in aqueous suspensions. • Chemical composition revealed to be very important in the ecotoxicity of NP. • Observed effects suggested diversified modes of action of different NP. • White-rot fungi species exhibit great differences in their sensitivity to NP.

  19. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reducing...... after AM fungi inoculation, roots were challenged with P. aphanidermatum. Variables evaluated at each harvest were root colonization levels of the interacting fungi, plant growth responses, and expression of a plant pathogenesis related protein gene (PR-1). All of the tested AM fungi caused marked...

  20. Fungi yang Berperan dalam Proses Biodelignifikasi pada Jaringan Kayu Mati Tanaman Eucalyptus sp. Di hutan Tanaman Industri PT. Toba Pulp Lestari Sektor Aek Nauli

    OpenAIRE

    Yanto, Tri

    2011-01-01

    Wood-rot fungi in ecological can be grouped in two part, which is white-rot fungi and brown-rot fungi. White-rot fungi can degradate lignin, hemiselulose, and selulose. White-rot fungi has special ability. It is to degradate lignin. Based on its ability, need to be done a research about this fungi that gets a role in lignin degradation (delignification). This research was conducted in Biotecnology Laboratory of forestry department in North Sumatera University from April to July 2011. The mate...

  1. The Genetic Structure of Phellinus noxius and Dissemination Pattern of Brown Root Rot Disease in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chung

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained a draft genome of ~40 Mb. By comparing the 12,217 simple sequence repeat (SSR regions in Daxi42 with the low-coverage Illumina sequencing data for four additional P. noxius isolates, we identified 154 SSR regions with potential polymorphisms. A set of 13 polymorphic SSR markers were then developed and used to analyze 329 P. noxius isolates collected from 73 tree species from urban/agricultural areas in 14 cities/counties all around Taiwan from 1989 to 2012. The results revealed a high proportion (~98% of distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs and that none of the 329 isolates were genome-wide homozygous, which supports a possible predominant outcrossing reproductive mode in P. noxius. The diverse MLGs exist as discrete patches, so brown root rot was most likely caused by multiple clones rather than a single predominant strain. The isolates collected from diseased trees near each other tend to have similar genotype(s, which indicates that P. noxius may spread to adjacent trees via root-to-root contact. Analyses based on Bayesian clustering, FST statistics, analysis of molecular variance, and isolation by distance all suggest a low degree of population differentiation and little to no barrier to gene flow throughout the P. noxius population in Taiwan. We discuss the involvement of basidiospore dispersal in disease dissemination.

  2. The Genetic Structure of Phellinus noxius and Dissemination Pattern of Brown Root Rot Disease in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chia-Lin; Huang, Shun-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Ann, Pao-Jen; Tsai, Jyh-Nong; Yang, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Hsin-Han; Huang, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Hsin-Yu; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Lee, Hui-Lin; Liou, Ruey-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner) Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained a draft genome of ~40 Mb. By comparing the 12,217 simple sequence repeat (SSR) regions in Daxi42 with the low-coverage Illumina sequencing data for four additional P. noxius isolates, we identified 154 SSR regions with potential polymorphisms. A set of 13 polymorphic SSR markers were then developed and used to analyze 329 P. noxius isolates collected from 73 tree species from urban/agricultural areas in 14 cities/counties all around Taiwan from 1989 to 2012. The results revealed a high proportion (~98%) of distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and that none of the 329 isolates were genome-wide homozygous, which supports a possible predominant outcrossing reproductive mode in P. noxius. The diverse MLGs exist as discrete patches, so brown root rot was most likely caused by multiple clones rather than a single predominant strain. The isolates collected from diseased trees near each other tend to have similar genotype(s), which indicates that P. noxius may spread to adjacent trees via root-to-root contact. Analyses based on Bayesian clustering, FST statistics, analysis of molecular variance, and isolation by distance all suggest a low degree of population differentiation and little to no barrier to gene flow throughout the P. noxius population in Taiwan. We discuss the involvement of basidiospore dispersal in disease dissemination.

  3. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: a new potential biocontrol agent of Ralstonia solanacearum, causal agent of potato brown rot

    OpenAIRE

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Diepeningen, van, A.D.; Farag, N.S.; Abdallah, S.A.; Janse, J.D.; Bruggen, van, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated from the rhizosphere of eggplant in the Nile Delta of Egypt, and its antagonistic potential against Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causal agent of potato brown rot, was in vitro evaluated on KB agar medium and in vivo on potato plants. In vitro, four isolates of S. maltophilia (PD3531, PD3532, PD3533, and PD3534) appeared antagonistic. The isolate (PD3533) was screened as the most promising antagonist for the in vivo tests. In the greenho...

  4. Transformation of low rank coal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P.; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1997-11-01

    There is evidence that the organic fraction of low rank coal (LRC) is chemically transformed by wood-rot fungi. These fungi and the oxidases they secrete have variously been shown to solubilise, polymerise, depolymerise and decolourise macromolecules derived from LRC. The white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is able to depolymerise and decolourise alkali-soluble acid-precipitable LRC macromolecules (AS-coal), converting them to a form not recoverable by alkali washing. Transformation of AS-coal is enhanced in N-limiting media under hyperbaric oxygen and is believed to be due, at least in part, to oxidation by manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP). The precise role these enzymes play is not yet clear but enzyme and mutant studies show AS-coal can be both polymerised and depolymerised by MnP and its mimetic Mn(III), without change to its absorbance at 400 nm. LiP decolourises AS-coal without apparently altering its molecular mass. Culture filtrates containing MnP and LiP acting on methylated AS-coal yield an array of low molecular mass moieties. Coal-derived monometers have not been recovered from cultures of P. chrysosporium, consistent with them being taken-up by the fungal cells. This suggests that cellular transformations may permit the diverse catabolic products derived from LRC to be converted to specific low molecular mass compounds in usable yield. 43 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Effects of soil type, management type and soil amendments on the survival of the potato brown rot bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Franz, E.; Janse, J.D.; Schoeman-Weerdesteijn, M.E.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Diepeningen, van A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Potato brown rot disease (Ralstonia solanacearum) is a serious economic problem in Egypt, partly due to an European Union requirement that potatoes for export to the EU should be grown in so-called pest free area's (PFA's), where fields are tested and infested fields are put under quarantine measure

  6. Effect of Tween 80 and beta-cyclodextrin on degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) by White rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Jiang, Weiying; Ding, Juan; Zhang, Xingding; Gao, Shixiang

    2007-12-01

    The environmental safety of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), a widely used flame retardant, has been the topic of controversial discussions during the past several years. Degradation of BDE-209 into lower brominated diphenyl ether congeners, exhibiting a higher bioaccumulation potential, has been a critical issue. White rot fungi are known to degrade a wide variety of recalcitrant pollutants. In this work, white rot fungi were used to degrade BDE-209 in liquid culture medium, and the effects of Tween 80 and beta-cyclodextrin on BDE-209 degradation by white rot fungi were evaluated. On the basis of these results, it appears that BDE-209 could be degraded by white rot fungi, and Tween 80 and beta-cyclodextrin can both increase the biodegradation. The best result in Tween 80 experiments was obtained at a Tween 80 concentration of 500mgl(-1) within 10d, which showed 96.5% (w/w) BDE-209 transformed. Tween 80 at a high concentration will restrain the fungal growth and the degradation of BDE-209. However, beta-cyclodextrin had positive effects both on the BDE-209 degradation and the fungal growth.

  7. The potential of white-rot fungi to degrade phorbol esters of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, de C.R.M.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Nunes, F.M.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of solid-state cultivation, with three white-rot fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma resinaceum and Phlebia rufa), to decrease phorbol esters concentration of Jatropha curcas L. was evaluated in this study. Incubation was conducted in 250¿mL Erlenmeyer flasks without agitation at 28°C

  8. Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Pinto, P.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    A series of in vitro experiments were completed to evaluate the potential of enzyme extracts, obtained from the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor (TV1, TV2), Bjerkandera adusta (BA) and Fomes fomentarius (FF), to increase degradation of cell wall components of wheat straw. The studies were conduct

  9. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white rot-fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Fajardo, S.; Manzanares, P.

    1996-07-01

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameles versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorisation studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorisation percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolics content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs.

  10. Recent developments in biodegradation of industrial pollutants by white rot fungi and their enzyme system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Legge, Raymond L

    2008-11-01

    Increasing discharge and improper management of liquid and solid industrial wastes have created a great concern among industrialists and the scientific community over their economic treatment and safe disposal. White rot fungi (WRF) are versatile and robust organisms having enormous potential for oxidative bioremediation of a variety of toxic chemical pollutants due to high tolerance to toxic substances in the environment. WRF are capable of mineralizing a wide variety of toxic xenobiotics due to non-specific nature of their extracellular lignin mineralizing enzymes (LMEs). In recent years, a lot of work has been done on the development and optimization of bioremediation processes using WRF, with emphasis on the study of their enzyme systems involved in biodegradation of industrial pollutants. Many new strains have been identified and their LMEs isolated, purified and characterized. In this review, we have tried to cover the latest developments on enzyme systems of WRF, their low molecular mass mediators and their potential use for bioremediation of industrial pollutants.

  11. Biotransformation of (-)-α-Pinene by Whole Cells of White Rot Fungi, Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 and Stereum hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Ho-Young; Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Choi, In-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    Two white rot fungi, Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 (CER) and Stereum hirsutum (STH) were used as biocatalysts for the biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene. After 96 hr, CER converted the bicyclic monoterpene hydrocarbon (-)-α-pinene into α-terpineol (yield, 0.05 g/L), a monocyclic monoterpene alcohol, in addition to, other minor products. Using STH, verbenone was identified as the major biotransformed product, and minor products were myrtenol, camphor, and isopinocarveol. We did not observe any inhibitory effects of substrate or transformed products on mycelial growth of the fungi. The activities of fungal manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase were monitored for 15 days to determine the enzymatic pathways related to the biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene. We concluded that a complex of enzymes, including intra- and extracellular enzymes, were involved in terpenoid biotransformation by white rot fungi.

  12. Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Leonardo; Jung, Thomas; Evoli, Maria; Pane, Antonella; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Van Tri, Mai; Wright, Sandra; Ramstedt, Mauritz; Olsson, Christer; Faedda, Roberto; Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with ‘King’ mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on ‘Carrizo’ citrange (C. sinensis ‘Washington Navel’ x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity. PMID:28208159

  13. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  14. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Formation in Norway Spruce Stems Infected by White-Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari M. Hietala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of tons of carbon sequestered in trees are annually recycled back to the atmosphere through wood decomposition by microbes. In Norway, every fifth Norway spruce shows at final harvest infection by pathogenic white-rot fungi in the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria. As these fungi can mineralize all components of wood, we predicted that they have a significant carbon footprint. Gas samples taken from infected stems were analyzed for CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and wood samples from different parts of the decay columns were incubated under hypoxic (4% O2 and anoxic laboratory conditions. In spring and summer the stem concentrations of CO2 were generally two times higher in trees with heartwood decay than in healthy trees. For most of the healthy trees and trees with heartwood decay, mean stem concentrations of CH4 were comparable to ambient air, and only some Armillaria infected trees showed moderately elevated CH4. Consistently, low CH4 production potentials were recorded in the laboratory experiment. Up-scaling of CO2 efflux due to wood decay in living trees suggests that the balance between carbon sequestration and emission may be substantially influenced in stands with high frequency of advanced root and stem heartwood decay.

  15. The Effect of Interaction Between White-rot Fungi and Indigenous Microorganisms on Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesche, C. in der [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (Germany)], E-mail: carsten.wiesche@fal.de; Martens, R. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (Germany); Zadrazil, F. [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (Germany)

    2003-05-15

    White-rot fungi applied for soil bioremediation have to compete with indigenous soil microorganisms. The effect of competition on both indigenous soil microflora and white-rot fungi was evaluated with regard to degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with different persistence in soil. Sterile and non-sterile soil was artificially contaminated with {sup 14}C-labeled PAH consisting of three (anthracene), four (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene) and five fused aromatic rings (benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene). The two fungi tested,Dichomitus squalens and Pleurotus ostreatus, produced similar amounts of ligninolytic enzymes in soil, but PAH mineralization by P. ostreatus was significantly higher. Compared to the indigenous soil microflora, P.ostreatus mineralized 5-ring PAH to a larger extent, while the indigenous microflora was superior in mineralizing 3-ring and 4-ring PAH. In coculture the special capabilities of both soil microflora and P. ostreatus were partly restricted due to antagonistic interactions, but essentially preserved. Thus, soil inoculation with P. ostreatus significantly increased the mineralization of high-molecular-weight PAH, and at the same time reduced the mineralization of anthracene and pyrene. Regarding the mineralization of low-molecular-weight PAH, the stimulation of indigenous soil microorganisms by straw amendment was more efficient than application of white-rot fungi.

  16. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these-two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12-have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component.

  17. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  18. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  19. Biosorption and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solutions by a consortium of white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoliang; Wang, Yinshan; Hu, Dingfei

    2010-07-15

    Bioremediation is a popular approach used to abate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. A consortium of white-rot fungi (CW-1) isolated from wood pieces was used for studying their potential of bioremediation of PAHs. Biosorption and biodegradation of PAHs by live and heat-killed white-rot fungi (CW-1) were investigated to elucidate the bio-dissipation mechanisms of PAHs. Sorption isotherms of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene to heat-killed fungal biomass were linear and non-competitive, indicating the primary mechanism of biosorption to be by partition. The carbon-normalized partition coefficients (K(oc)) were linearly correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (K(ow)), i.e., log K(oc)=1.13 log K(ow)-0.84 (n=5, r(2)=0.996). Biosorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene and pyrene by live white-rot fungi were quantified. In 1 week, the removal efficiency of phenanthrene (70-80%) and pyrene (90%) by live fungi from aqueous solution were comparable to those by heat-killed fungi. However, approximately 40-65% of phenanthrene and 60-85% of pyrene were still stored in organismal bodies. Biosorption might restrict biodegradation while nutrient limitation and presence of a PAH mixture might stimulate biodegradation. The apparent partition coefficients (K(d)(*)) in live fungal systems and the K(d) of heat-killed fungi without biodegradation were compared, and then the K(d)(*)/K(d) ratios were employed to illustrate the relative contributions of biosorption and biodegradation under different nutrient conditions.

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolism by White Rot Fungi and Oxidation by Coriolopsis gallica UAMH 8260 Laccase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Michael A.; Roman, Rosa; Tinoco, Raunel; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    1999-01-01

    We studied the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using white rot fungi previously identified as organisms that metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls. Bran flakes medium, which has been shown to support production of high levels of laccase and manganese peroxidase, was used as the growth medium. Ten fungi grown for 5 days in this medium in the presence of anthracene, pyrene, or phenanthrene, each at a concentration of 5 μg/ml could metabolize these PAHs. We studied the oxidation of 10 PAHs by using laccase purified from Coriolopsis gallica. The reaction mixtures contained 20 μM PAH, 15% acetonitrile in 60 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6), 1 mM 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), and 5 U of laccase. Laccase exhibited 91% of its maximum activity in the absence of acetonitrile. The following seven PAHs were oxidized by laccase: benzo[a]pyrene, 9-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, anthracene, biphenylene, acenaphthene, and phenanthrene. There was no clear relationship between the ionization potential of the substrate and the first-order rate constant (k) for substrate loss in vitro in the presence of ABTS. The effects of mediating substrates were examined further by using anthracene as the substrate. Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) (1 mM) supported approximately one-half the anthracene oxidation rate (k = 2.4 h−1) that ABTS (1 mM) supported (k = 5.2 h−1), but 1 mM HBT plus 1 mM ABTS increased the oxidation rate ninefold compared with the oxidation rate in the presence of ABTS, to 45 h−1. Laccase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus had an activity similar to that of C. gallica laccase with HBT alone, with ABTS alone, and with 1 mM HBT plus 1 mM ABTS. Mass spectra of products obtained from oxidation of anthracene and acenaphthene revealed that the dione derivatives of these compounds were present. PMID:10473379

  1. Bioremediation of Direct Blue 14 and Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzyme Production by White Rot Fungi: Pleurotus Spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, four species of white rot fungi (Pleurotus, that is, P. flabellatus, P. florida, P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju were used for decolorization of direct blue 14 (DB14. Among all four species of Pleurotus, P. flabellatus showed the fastest decolorization in petri plates on different concentration, that is, 200 mg/L, 400 mg/L, and 600 mg/L. All these four species were also evaluated for extracellular ligninolytic enzymes (laccase and manganese peroxidase production and it was observed that the twelve days old culture of P. flabellatus showed the maximum enzymatic activity, that is, 915.7 U/mL and 769.2 U/mL of laccase and manganese peroxidase, respectively. Other three Pleurotus species took more time for dye decolorization and exhibited less enzymatic activities. The rate of decolorization of DB14 dye solution (20 mg/L by crude enzymes isolated from P. flabellatus was very fast, and it was observed that up to 90.39% dye solution was decolorized in 6 hrs of incubation.

  2. Grape stalks as substrate for white rot fungi, lignocellulolytic enzyme production and dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Laura; Diorio, Luis; Grassi, Emanuel; Forchiassin, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of grape stalks, an agroindustrial waste, for growth and lignocellulolytic enzyme production via solid-state fermentation, using the following three white rot fungi: Trametes trogii, Stereum hirsutum and Coriolus antarcticus. The decolorization of several dyes by the above mentioned cultures was also investigated. Similar values of dry weight loss of the substrate were measured after 60 days (33-43 %). C. antarcticus produced the highest laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities (33.0 and 1.6 U/g dry solid). The maximum endoglucanase production was measured in S. hirsutum cultures (10.4 U/g), while the endoxylanase peak corresponded to T. trogii (14.6 U/g). The C. antarcticus/grape stalk system seems potentially competitive in bioremediation of textile processing effluents, attaining percentages of decolorization of 93, 86, 82, 82, 77, and 58% for indigo carmine, malachite green, azure B, remazol brilliant blue R, crystal violet and xylidine, respectively, in 5 h.

  3. The expansion of brown rot disease throughout Bolivia: possible role of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, José Antonio; Plata, Giovanna

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating plant disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum species complex and affects different crops. Bacterial wilt infecting potato is also known as brown rot (BR) and is responsible for significant economic losses in potato production, especially in developing countries. In Bolivia, BR affects up to 75% of the potato crop in areas with high incidence and 100% of stored potatoes. The disease has disseminated since its introduction to the country in the mid-1980s mostly through contaminated seed tubers. To avoid this, local farmers multiply seed tubers in highlands because the strain infecting potatoes cannot survive near-freezing temperatures that are typical in the high mountains. Past disease surveys have shown an increase in seed tubers with latent infection in areas at altitudes lower than 3000 m a.s.l. Since global warming is increasing in the Andes Mountains, in this work, we explored the incidence of BR in areas at altitudes above 3000 m a.s.l. Results showed BR presence in the majority of these areas, suggesting a correlation between the increase in disease incidence and the increase in temperature and the number of irregular weather events resulting from climate change. However, it cannot be excluded that the increasing availability of latently infected seed tubers has boosted the spread of BR.

  4. Sequential saccharification of corn fiber and ethanol production by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Shrestha, P; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2010-05-01

    Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars through a purely biological process is a key to sustainable biofuel production. Hydrolysis of the corn wet-milling co-product-corn fiber-to simple sugars by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was studied in suspended-culture and solid-state fermentations. Suspended-culture experiments were not effective in producing harvestable sugars from the corn fiber. The fungus consumed sugars released by fungal extracellular enzymes. Solid-state fermentation demonstrated up to 40% fiber degradation within 9days. Enzyme activity assays on solid-state fermentation filtrates confirmed the involvement of starch- and cellulose-degrading enzymes. To reduce fungal consumption of sugars and to accelerate enzyme activity, 2- and 3-d solid-state fermentation biomasses (fiber and fungus) were submerged in buffer and incubated at 37 degrees C without shaking. This anaerobic incubation converted up to almost 11% of the corn fiber into harvestable reducing sugars. Sugars released by G. trabeum were fermented to a maximum yield of 3.3g ethanol/100g fiber. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of G. trabeum fermenting sugar to ethanol. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a co-culture led to more rapid fermentation to a maximum yield of 4.0g ethanol/100g fiber. The findings demonstrate the potential for this simple fungal process, requiring no pretreatment of the corn fiber, to produce more ethanol by hydrolyzing and fermenting carbohydrates in this lignocellulosic co-product.

  5. Non-Botrytis grape-rotting fungi responsible for earthy and moldy off-flavors and mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Sandrine; Diguta, Camelia Filofteia; Radoï-Matei, Florentina; Alexandre, Hervé; Guilloux-Bénatier, Michèle

    2014-04-01

    The grape microflora is complex and includes filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects on wine production. Most studies have focused on the wine microbiota, but a few studies have reported the ecology of grape microorganisms. Some of these organisms - such as non-Botrytis bunch rotting fungi, which greatly influence the safety or sensory quality of wine, due to the production of mycotoxins and off-flavors, respectively - are considered to be spoilage agents. We review here the diversity of filamentous fungi on grapes and the factors influencing their development, such as grape ripening stage, environmental factors (climate, rain and cultivation practices), grape variety and grape health status. We also discuss the pathways by which mycotoxins and off-flavors are produced, the control of the population, the metabolites responsible for wine spoilage and the methods for detecting and characterizing the microorganisms involved.

  6. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  7. Co-cultured production of lignin-modifying enzymes with white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi-He, Chen; Krügener, Sven; Hirth, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Zibek, Susanne

    2011-09-01

    Co-cultivation was a potential strategy in lignocellulolytic biodegradation with producing high activity enzymes due to their synergistic action. The objective of this study was to investigate the rarely understood effects of co-culturing of two white-rot fungi on lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) production. Six species, Bjerkandera adusta, Phlebia radiata, Pleurotus ostreatus, Dichomitus squalens, Hypoxylon fragiforme and Pleurotus eryngii, were cultured in pairs to study the production of LMEs. The paired hyphal interaction observed showed that P. eryngii is not suitable for co-growth. The use of agar plates containing dye RBBR showed elevated decolourisation at the confrontation zone between mycelia. Laccase was significantly stimulated only in the co-culture of P. radiata with D. squalens under submerged cultivation; the highest value was measured after 4 days of incubation (120 U mg(-1)). The improved productions of MnP and LiP were simultaneously observed at the co-culture of P. ostreatus and P. radiata (MnP = 800 nkat L(-1) after 4 days of incubation; LiP = 60 nkat L(-1) after 7 days of incubation), though it was not a good producer of laccase. P. ostreatus appeared to possess specific potential to be used in co-cultured production of LMEs. The phenotype of LMEs production was not only dependent on the species used but also regulated by different nutritions available in the culture medium. The present data will provide evidence for illustrating the regulatory roles of C/N on LMEs production under the co-cultures' circumstances.

  8. Functional Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation in the Basidiomycete White Rot Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tegelaar, Martin [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Henrissat, Bernard [Univ. of Marseille (France); Brewer, Heather M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purvine, Samuel O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wosten, Han A. B. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Grigoriev, Igor V. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lugones, Luis G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    White and brown rot fungi are among the most important wood decayers in nature. Although more than 50 genomes of Basidiomycete white and brown rots have been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute, there is still a lot to learn about how these fungi degrade the tough polymers present in wood. In particular, very little is known about how these fungi regulate the expression of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation. Here, we used transcriptomics, proteomics, and promoter analysis in an effort to gain insight into the process of lignocellulose degradation.

  9. Temporal dynamics of brown rot in different apple management systems and importance of dropped fruit for disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemic development of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructigena, was monitored in integrated and organic apple orchards at two locations in eastern Hungary between 2002 and 2005 on three cultivars with early, midseason, and late ripening periods. Disease incidence and severity measures were affected significantly (P system (organic versus integrated) and cultivar, but there was no significant management system-cultivar interaction. Epidemics started 2 to 4 weeks earlier in organic orchards and on the early cv. Prima compared with integrated orchards and the late cv. Mutsu. Disease intensity increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest and was considerably lower in integrated than in organic orchards. Final brown rot incidence on fruit in the tree was correlated with incidence on dropped fruit on the orchard floor (r > 0.75, P < 0.05), whereby the lag period from the appearance of the first symptomatic fruit on the ground to the occurrence of the first symptomatic fruit in the tree ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the cultivar. The inflection point of the disease progress curve was attained first by fruit on the ground, followed successively by fruit in the lower, middle, and upper thirds of the tree canopy. This may indicate that dropped fruit that became infected early provided a source of inoculum for subsequent epidemics by serving as a bridge between sporulation from overwintered fruit mummies in the spring and the first fruit with sporulating lesions in the tree in midsummer. Removal of dropped fruit from the orchard floor resulted in a significantly lower disease incidence on fruit in the tree on all cultivars; thus, drop-removal may be useful as a brown rot management practice in apple orchards.

  10. Trametes meyenii possesses elevated dye degradation abilities under normal nutritional conditions compared to other white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenaux, Peter R; Lalji, Narisa; Lefebvre, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Several species of white-rot fungi were investigated for their utility in prolonged decolouration of the recalcitrant sulfonated azo dye, amaranth. Trametes pubescens, T. multicolor, T. meyenii and T. versicolor decoloured amaranth azo-dye best on low-nitrogen agar-solidified media whereas Bjerkandera adusta and Phlebia radiata were most effective in low nitrogen medium supplemented with manganese. Trametes cotonea did not decolour effectively under any condition. The decolouring Trametes species were also effective in liquid culture whereas B. adusta and P. radiata were not. Trametes meyenii, T. pubescens and T. multicolor were equal to or better than commonly employed T. versicolor at decolouring amaranth. This is the first study to show the dye decolouration potential of T. meyenii, T. pubescens, and T. multicolor. Supplementing with Mn(II) increased assayable manganese peroxidase activity, but not long-term decolouration, indicating that laccase is the main decolourizing enzyme in these Trametes species. This appears to be because of inadequate Mn(3+) chelation required by manganese peroxidase because adding relatively low amounts of malonate enhanced decolouration rates. The ability of Trametes meyenii to simultaneously decolour dye over prolonged periods of time while growing in relatively nutrient-rich medium appears to be unique amongst white-rot fungi, indicating its potential in wastewater bioremediation.

  11. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools.

  12. Evaluation of white-rot fungi for detoxification and decolorization of effluents from the green olive debittering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelis, G; Ehaliotis, C; Nerud, F; Stoychev, I; Lyberatos, G; Zervakis, G I

    2002-07-01

    Wastewater produced by the debittering process of green olives (GOW) is rich in polyphenolics and presents high chemical oxygen demand and alkalinity values. Eight white-rot fungi ( Abortiporus biennis, Dichomitus squalens, Inonotus hispidus, Irpex lacteus, Lentinus tigrinus, Panellus stipticus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes hirsuta) were grown in GOW for 1 month and the reduction in total phenolics, the decolorization activity and the related enzyme activities were compared. Phenolics were efficiently reduced by P. ostreatus (52%) and A. biennis (55%), followed by P. stipticus (42%) and D. squalens (36%), but only P. ostreatus had high decolorization efficiency (49%). Laccase activity was the highest in all of the fungi, followed by manganese-independent peroxidase (MnIP). Substantial manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was observed only in GOW treated with P. ostreatus and A. biennis, whereas lignin peroxidase (LiP) and veratryl alcohol oxidase (VAOx) activities were not detected. Early measurements of laccase activity were highly correlated ( r(2)=0.91) with the final reduction of total phenolics and could serve as an early indicator of the potential of white-rot fungi to efficiently reduce the amount of total phenolics in GOW. The presence of MnP was, however, required to achieve efficient decolorization. Phytotoxicity of GOW treated with a selected P. ostreatus strain did not decline despite large reductions of the phenolic content (76%). Similarly, in GOW treated with purified laccase from Polyporus pensitius, a reduction in total phenolics which exceeded 50% was achieved; however, it was not accompanied by a decline in phytotoxicity. These results are probably related to the formation of phenoxy radicals and quinonoids, which re-polymerize in the absence of VAOx but do not lead to polymer precipitation in the treated GOW.

  13. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py

  14. Exploring the bioprospecting and biotechnological potential of white-rot and anaerobic Neocallimastigomycota fungi: peptidases, esterases, and lignocellulolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues; Pedezzi, Rafael; Souto, Tatiane Beltramini

    2017-04-01

    Fungi constitute an invaluable natural resource for scientific research, owing to their diversity; they offer a promising alternative for bioprospecting, thus contributing to biotechnological advances. For a long time, extensive information has been exploited and fungal products have been tested as a source of natural compounds. In this context, enzyme production remains a field of interest, since it offers an efficient alternative to the hazardous processes of chemical transformations. Owing to their vast biodiversity and peculiar biochemical characteristics, two fungal categories, white-rot and anaerobic Neocallimastigomycota, have gathered considerable attention for biotechnological applications. These fungi are known for their ability to depolymerize complex molecular structures and are used in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, improvement of animal feed digestibility, biogas and bioethanol production, and various other applications. However, there are only limited reports that describe proteolytic enzymes and esterases in these fungi and their synergistic action with lignocellulolytic enzymes on degradation of complex polymers. Thus, in this minireview, we focus on the importance of these organisms in enzyme technology, their bioprospecting, possibility of integration of their enzyme repertoire, and their prospects for future biotechnological innovation.

  15. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  16. INFLUENCE OF NPK AND LIME APLICATION ON ERVA-MATE GROWTH, ROOT-ROT SEVERITY AND SOIL FUNGI POPULATION1

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    Igor Poletto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the influence of the application of NPK and liming doses in the soil, on the growth of Erva-mate, the severity of rot-root and the fungi population of the soil. To do so, an experiment was installed at the green house, in the Forest Nursery of UFSM, using an experimental design completely randomized factorial 4x3x4 (Factor F: Fusarium spp. inoculation; Factor C: soil limestone; Factor A: NPK doses , totaling 48 treatments. The seedlings were cultivated in vases containing 2 kg of soil, classified as ‘Red-Yellow Argisoil’ (clay soil. At the end of the experiment was measured the stem diameter, height of the aerial part, leaves number, aerial dry biomass, root dry biomass and total dry biomass of the seedlings. Also, the soil was collected, from each treatment, for the chemical analysis and the counting of the fungi population. It was observed that the association among application of NPK and liming in the soil hampered the development of Erva-mate seedlings. The analysis of some variables suggests that the limestone absence provided greater resistance of seedlings to the attack of Fusarium spp. or the severity of Fusarium spp. was reduced in lower pH. The fungi population of the soil presented varied behavior depending on the applied treatments.

  17. Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F. Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Ikram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. It was noted that germination percentage, fresh weight, leaf area and number of nodules were significantly higher and the inhibitory effect on root rot fungi increased when the soil was amended with A. javanica leaves at 1%. Thus, among all the treatments, A. javanica leaves at 1% were found to be the most effective against root rot fungi.

  18. Structural analysis of lime wood biodegraded by white rot fungi through infrared and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Gradinariu, Petronela; Popescu, Maria-Cristina

    2016-11-01

    The action of the white rot fungi Phanerochaete crisosporium on the structure of lime wood (Tilia cordata) has been studied. The degree of decay was determined by weight loss, which was of 37% after 110 days. The samples were further analyzed by infrared and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy. The recorded spectra for different intervals of decay indicate variations in the intensities and width or wavenumber shifts of the bands assigned, both, for lignin and carbohydrates. An increase in the intensities of the bands from the carbonyl region due to formation of new structures, accompanied by the reduction of the methoxyl and methyl/methylene groups in lignin was evidenced. Further, the differences between reference and decayed wood spectra were examined in detail using 2DCOS spectroscopy and the second derivative analysis and the sequential order of modifications were established.

  19. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  20. Effects of white rot fungi on the composition and in vitro digestibility of crop by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.N.M.; Pearce, G.R.

    Eleven species of white rot fungi were inoculated on to samples of barley straw, pea straw, sugar cane bagasse and sunflower hulls and incubated at room temperature (14-25 degrees C) for 21 days. In barley straw, Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in lignin content of the dry matter and the greatest increase in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) (10 units). Sporotrichum priunosum caused the greatest depression in cellulose content and the greatest depression in IVDMD (13 units). In pea straw, Ganoderma lucidum caused the greatest depression in lignin content and the greatest increase in IVDMD (8 units); Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in cellulose content but Sporotrichum pruinosum caused the greatest depression in IVDMD (2 units). In bagasse, Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in lignin content and the greatest increase in IVDMD (7 units). Grifola berkleyi caused the greatest depression in cellulose content and the greatest depression in IVDMD (12 units). In sunflower hulls, Stereum frustulatum caused the greatest depression in lignin content but Peniophora cremea caused the greatest increase in IVDMD (7 units). Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in cellulose content and the greatest depression in IVDMD (3 units). It was concluded that fungi needed to be selected specifically for particular by-products and that some control over the conditions of incubation may need to be exercised in order to achieve more substantial increases in digestibility.

  1. The effect of aeration on the biotransformation of lignocellulosic wastes by white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M J; Elorrieta, M A; Vargas-García, M C; Suárez-Estrella, F; Moreno, J

    2002-01-01

    The mineralisation and the humification of organic matter (OM) in sterile horticultural plant wastes inoculated with Coriolus versicolor or Phanerochaete flavido-alba was investigated under different aeration rates in order to determine their efficacy as potential inoculants for composting. The change in elemental composition, lignin content and OM fractions was analysed during a 90-day incubation. Both fungi degraded 30% of lignin at low aeration rates. Different aeration rates led to significant changes in OM mineralisation induced by C. versicolor, but did not have noticeable effect on P. flavido-alba activity. The mineralisation was more effectively carried out by P. flavido-alba than by C. versicolor. Lignin degradation and the linked humification process were equally achieved by the two fungi and were enhanced in aerated conditions. The fungi analysed may facilitate the composting of lignocellulosic wastes by means of an increase in substrate bioavailability and OM humification.

  2. Investigation of the response of wood-rotting fungi to copper stress by size-exclusion chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis with ICP MS detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacchina, V.; Szpunar, J. [Group of Bio-inorganic Analytical Chemistry, CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Baldrian, P.; Gabriel, J. [Laboratory of the Biochemistry of the Wood-Rotting Fungi, Institute of Microbiology ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2002-02-01

    A method based on the coupling of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was developed for screening the changes in the bioligand composition of wood-rotting fungi as a function of their exposure to copper stress. Strains of four different species of wood-rotting fungi: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Schizophyllum commune, Daedalea quercina and Pleurotus ostreatus were examined. Only one, namely Ph. chrysosporium, showed any significant difference in terms of the fingerprint of Cu-binding ligands between control and exposed cells which suggest trapping of Cu(II) by cell walls as the only resistance mechanisms. In the case of Ph. chrysosporium the bioinduction of a new Cu-binding ligand was demonstrated. The presence of a new compound in the SE chromatographic fraction of interest was confirmed by CZE-ICP MS. Attempts to identify the new compound by electrospray MS/MS failed because of insufficient sensitivity. (orig.)

  3. White rot fungi and the treatment of dye-containing wastewater%白腐菌与染料废水的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华钟; 章燕芳

    2001-01-01

    The special biodegradative ability and its mechanism of dyes by white rot fungi and advances in research are reviewed. The advantages of the treatment of dye-containing wastewater by white rot fungi are also generalized. On the basis of the difficulties in application,the emphases on research in the future are put forward.%综述了白腐菌降解染料的机理及其独特的降解能力,介绍了白腐菌降解染料的研究进展,总结了白腐菌处理染料废水的优势,并针对实际应用中的困难,提出了今后研究工作的重点。

  4. Copper inducing effect on laccase production of white rot fungi native from Misiones (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, María I; Shimizu, Ernesto; Zapata, Pedro D; Villalba, Laura L

    2010-05-05

    Fungi may be selected as models for gene expression studies and further adaptation for biotechnological enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate laccase production and to analyze the effect of Cu(2+) on selected fungi natives of Misiones, Ganoderma applanatum (strain F), Peniophora sp. (BAFC 633), Pycnoporus sanguineus (BAFC 2126) and Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus (BAFC 266). Fungi secretion system of G. applanatum, Peniophora sp., P. sanguineus and C. versicolor f. antarcticus is sensitive to stimulation by copper. Biomass values of G. applanatum, Peniophora sp. and C. versicolor f. antarcticus did not show differences between treatments. P. sanguineus biomass underwent a dramatic growth inhibition with 1mM Cu(2+) and marked delay in growth with 0.5mM Cu(2+). Proteins were increased with copper in Peniophora sp., C. versicolor and G. applanatum. G. applanatum and Peniophora sp. reached the highest enzyme activity at 10th day equivalent to 49.2-fold and 19.7-fold higher than the control samples, respectively. Copper produced an increase of constitutive laccases in all fungi and an additional inducible isoenzyme in Peniophora sp., C. versicolor f. antarcticus and G. applanatum.

  5. Decolorization of the metal textile dye Lanaset Grey G by immobilized white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daâssi, Dalel; Mechichi, Tahar; Nasri, Moncef; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we studied the ability of four Tunisian-isolated fungi (i.e. Coriolopsis gallica, Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor and Trametes trogii) immobilized into Ca-alginate beads to decolorize the metal textile dye Lanaset Grey G (LG). The effect of different operational conditions, such as initial dye concentration, temperature, pH, beads/medium ratio and agitation, on dye decolorization by the immobilized fungi was investigated. Maximal decolorization percentages of 88.7%, 89.3%, 82.1% and 81.3% for C. gallica, B. adusta, T. versicolor and T. trogii were attained, respectively, when operating at an initial LG concentration of 150 mg/L, pH values of 5.0-6.0, temperatures of 40-45 °C and a beads/medium ratio of 20% (w/v) in static conditions after 72 h of incubation. Subsequently, the re-usability of the immobilized fungi was evaluated. After three decolorization cycles, the decolorization percentage of free cell cultures dropped to values below 36%, while decolorization percentages of about 75%, 70%, 60% and 68% were obtained by the immobilized cultures of C. gallica, B. adusta, T. versicolor and T. trogii, respectively.

  6. FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control. Fresh and barkless large (betung bamboo chips of 2 year's old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO; P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC; P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV; and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO.After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for

  7. Activity of Ligninolytic Enzymes during Growth and Fruiting Body Development of White Rot Fungi Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPPY WIDIASTUTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi (WRF Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus was observed during somatic and fruiting body development in solid substrate fermentation using empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFB. The enzyme activity was dominated by laccase both of Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus. The laccase activity on somatic phase (mycelium growth was higher compared to that of fruiting body formation phase. The laccase activity of Omphalina sp. was slightly higher compared to that of P. ostreatus. The peak activity of manganese peroxidase (MnP for Omphalina sp. was observed two weeks after inoculation, while P. ostreatus had two peaks i.e. two and four weeks after inoculation period. The MnP activity of P. ostreatus was higher compared to that of Omphalina sp. Omphalina sp. growth in EFB did not secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP in contrast to P. ostreatus. The peak of LiP activity of P. ostreatus was reached two and four weeks after inoculation. The MnP and LiP activities declined during the development of fruiting bodies while laccase increased both in Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus. It seems that the activities of ligninolytic enzyme profile were regulated in line with developmental phase of growth both in Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus.

  8. Quantitative relationships between different injury factors and development of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructigena in integrated and organic apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2008-01-01

    In a 4-year study, the incidence of various types of injuries (caused by insects, birds, growth cracks, mechanical wounding, and other, unidentified factors) was assessed in relation to brown rot development (caused by Monilinia fructigena) on fruit of three apple cultivars (Prima, Jonathan, and Mutsu) in integrated and organic blocks of two apple orchards in Hungary. In addition, populations of male codling moths (Cydia pomonella) were monitored with pheromone traps season-long in both management systems. On average, injury incidence on fruit at harvest was 6.1 and 19.2% in the integrated and organic treatments, respectively. Insect injury, which was caused primarily by C. pomonella, had the highest incidence among the five injury types, accounting for 79.4% of the total injury by harvest in the organic blocks and 36.6% in the integrated blocks. Levels of all other injury types remained close to zero during most of the season, but the incidence of bird injury and growth cracks increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest in both production systems. Brown rot developed more slowly and reached a lower incidence in the integrated (6.4% final incidence on average) compared with the organic blocks (20.1% average incidence). In addition, the disease developed later but attained higher levels as the cultivar ripening season increased from early-maturing Prima to late-maturing Mutsu. Overall, 94.3 to 98.7% of all injured fruit were also infected by M. fructigena, whereas the incidence of brown-rotted fruit without visible injury was very low (0.8 to 1.6%). Correlation coefficients (on a per plot basis) and association indices (on a per-fruit basis) were calculated between brown rot and the various injury types for two selected assessment dates 4 weeks preharvest and at harvest. At both dates, the strongest significant (P integrated blocks. Although it is well established that brown rot in pome fruits is closely associated with fruit injuries, this is the

  9. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Mitsuteru; Ota, Yuko; Tsai, Isheng J; Hattori, Tsutomu; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands.

  10. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuteru Akiba

    Full Text Available Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands.

  11. Bioremediation of a wine distillery wastewater using white rot fungi and the subsequent production of laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, P J; Burgess, J E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain whether a submerged culture of a white rot fungus could be used to treat distillery wastewater, and whether the compounds present in the wastewater would stimulate laccase production. Trametes pubescens MB 89, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and UD4 were screened for their ability for the bioremediation of a raw, untreated distillery wastewater as well as distillery wastewater that had been pretreated by polyvinylpolypyrrolidone. Suitability of each strain was measured as a function of decreasing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic compounds concentration and the colour of the wastewater, while simultaneously producing laccase in high titres. After screening, T. pubescens MB 89 was used further in flask cultures and attained 79 +/- 1.1% COD removal, 80 +/- 4.6% total phenols removal, 71 +/- 1.6% decrease in colour at an absorbance of 500 nm and increased the pH from 5.3 to near-neutral. Laccase activity in flask cultures peaked at 4,644 +/- 228 units/l, while the activity in a 50 l bubble lift reactor peaked at 12,966 +/- 71 units/l. Trametes pubescens MB 89 greatly improved the quality of a wastewater known for toxicity towards biological treatment systems, while simultaneously producing an industrially relevant enzyme.

  12. Accumulation and degradation of dead-end metabolites during treatment of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with five strains of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B.E. [Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund Univ. (Sweden); Henrysson, T. [Centre for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor PRL 572, Trametes versicolor MUCL 28407, Pleurotus ostreatus MUCL 29527, Pleurotus sajor-caju MUCL 29757 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium DSM 1556 were investigated for their ability to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) anthracene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a, h]anthracene in soil. The fungi were grown on wheat straw and mixed with artificially contaminated soil. The results of this study show that, in a heterogeneous soil environment, the fungi have different abilities to degrade PAH, with Trametes showing little or no accumulation of dead-end metabolites and Phanerochaete and Pleurotus showing almost complete conversion of anthracene to 9,10-anthracenedione. In contrast to earlier studies, Phanerochaete showed the ability to degrade the accumulated 9,10-anthracenedione while Pleurotus did not. This proves that, in a heterogeneous soil system, the PAH degradation pattern for white-rot fungi can be quite different from that in a controlled liquid system. (orig.)

  13. Effect of soya lecithin on the enzymatic system of the white-rot fungi Anthracophyllum discolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M; González, M E; Cartes, A; Diez, M C

    2011-01-01

    The present work optimized the initial pH of the medium and the incubation temperature for ligninolytic enzymes produced by the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor. Additionally, the effect of soya lecithin on mycelial growth and the production of ligninolytic enzymes in static batch cultures were evaluated. The critical micelle concentration of soya lecithin was also studied by conductivity. The effects of the initial pH (3, 4, and 5) and incubation temperature (20, 25, and 30°C) on different enzymatic activities revealed that the optimum conditions to maximize ligninolytic activity were 26°C and pH 5.5 for laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) and 30°C and pH 5.5 for manganese-independent peroxidase (MiP). Under these culture conditions, the maximum enzyme production was 10.16, 484.46, and 112.50 U L(-1) for laccase, MnP, and manganese-independent peroxidase MiP, respectively. During the study of the effect of soya lecithin on A. discolor, we found that the increase in soya lecithin concentration from 0 to 10 g L(-1) caused an increase in mycelial growth. On the other hand, in the presence of soya lecithin, A. discolor produced mainly MnP, which reached a maximum concentration of 30.64 ± 4.61 U L(-1) after 25 days of incubation with 1 g L(-1) of the surfactant. The other enzymes were produced but to a lesser extent. The enzymatic activity of A. discolor was decreased when Tween 80 was used as a surfactant. The critical micelle concentration of soya lecithin calculated in our study was 0.61 g L(-1).

  14. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microflora and combinations of white-rot fungi in a coal-tar contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canet, R.; Birnstingl, J.G.; Malcolm, D.G.; Lopez-Real, J.M.; Beck, A.J. [Inst. of Valenciano Invest. Agency, Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Four white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium IMI 232175, Pleurotus ostreatus from the University of Alberta Microfungus Collection IMI 341687, Coriolus versicolor IMI210866 and Wye isolate No. 7) and all possible combinations of two or more of these fungi, were incubated in microcosms containing wheat straw and non-sterile coal-tar contaminated soil to determine their potential to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biotic and abiotic controls were prepared similarly and PAH concentrations remaining in each microcosm were determined after 8, 16 and 32 weeks by GC-MS following extraction with dichloromethane. The greatest PAH losses were in the biotic control. Soil cultures prepared at the end of the experiment showed that though introduced fungi were still alive, they were unable to thrive and degrade PAH in such a highly contaminated soil and remained in a metabolically inactive form.

  15. Optimisation of the biological pretreatment of wheat straw with white-rot fungi for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abelairas, M; Álvarez Pallín, M; Salvachúa, D; Lú-Chau, T; Martínez, M J; Lema, J M

    2013-09-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the most frequently used process, steam explosion (SE). However, this pretreatment can still not be industrially implemented due to long incubation times. The main objective of this work was to test the viability of and optimise the biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which uses ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus eryngii and Irpex lacteus) in a solid-state fermentation of sterilised wheat straw complemented with a mild alkali treatment. In this study, the most important parameters of the mechanical and thermal substrate conditioning processes and the most important parameters of the fungal fermentation process were optimised to improve sugar recovery. The largest digestibilities were achieved with fermentation with I. lacteus under optimised conditions, under which cellulose and hemicellulose digestibility increased after 21 days of pretreatment from 16 to 100 % and 12 to 87 %, respectively. The maximum glucose yield (84 %) of cellulose available in raw material was obtained after only 14 days of pretreatment with an overall ethanol yield of 74 % of the theoretical value, which is similar to that reached with SE.

  16. VALORIZATION AND BIODECOLORIZATION OF DYE ADSORBED ON LIGNOCELLULOSICS USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Ozmen,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of dyes by lignocelluloses may be an effective method for removing dyes from textile effluents. However, the resulting dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic materials may constitute another pollution problem. An integrated method can solve this problem. Here, various lignocelluloses were tested for their Astrazon Black and Astrazon Blue dyes removal activities. The dye adsorbed after 30 min contact time was 90% (45 mg/L, 70% (35 mg/L, and 98% (49 mg/L for wheat bran, pine cone, and cotton stalk, respectively. These dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic wastes then were used as solid substrates to produce laccase enzyme with Funalia trogii and Trametes versicolor under solid state fermentation (SSF. Among the lignocellulosic substrates, the dye-adsorbed wheat bran served as the best solid substrate for laccase production under SSF. Therefore, it was also tested as a solid source for laccase production under submerged fermentation. During solid state fermentation, these two fungi were able to highly decolorize these dyes. While F. trogii decolorized 80% of Astrazon Black dye adsorbed onto wheat bran, T. versicolor decolorized 86%. On the other hand, the decolorization values for Astrazon Blue dye were 69% and 84%, respectively.

  17. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Rana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare, previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  18. Fungal cell-wall lytic enzymes, antifungal metabolite(s) production, and characterization from Streptomyces exfoliatus MT9 for controlling fruit-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Bharti; Nagpure, Anand; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2014-12-01

    An antifungal actinomycete strain MT9 was isolated from Loktak Lake, Manipur, India and its cultural characteristics, fatty acid methyl ester, 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that strain MT9 is identical to Streptomyces exfoliatus. Strain MT9 displayed strong and broad-spectrum antagonism towards several fruit-rotting fungi by mycelial growth suppression. Crude fungal cell-wall lytic enzymes, i.e., chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease produced by S. exfoliatus MT9 were optimally active at pH 8.0 and 50 °C, pH 5.0 and 60 °C, pH 9.0 and 70 °C, respectively. All three mycolytic enzymes had good stability over a wide pH range of 5.0-10.0, with protease being more thermostable than both chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Interestingly zymogram analysis revealed that S. exfoliatus MT9 secretes six distinct chitinase isoenzymes with approximate molecular weights of 9.42, 13.93, 27.87, 36.43, 54.95, 103.27 kDa, six active protease isoenzymes with apparent molecular weights of 12.45, 30.20, 37.45, 46.32, 52.46, 131.46 kDa, and an active band of 119.39 kDa as β-1,3-glucanase enzyme. Extracellular fluid and its organic solvent extracts also exhibited inhibitory activity to various fruit-rotting fungi. The MIC value of n-butanol extract was 2-25 µg/ml against tested fruit-rotting fungi. Antifungal secondary metabolite(s) was found to be polyene in nature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on extracellular production of fungal cell-wall lytic enzymes and antifungal metabolites by bioactive S. exfoliatus MT9 under submerged fermentation.

  19. Degradation mechanism of thymol by white-rot fungi%白腐真菌对百里酚的降解机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石开仪; 陶秀祥; 李志; 籍永华

    2012-01-01

    White rot fungi have great potential applications in environment management. Thymol was degraded by white rot fungi in DOX culture. Enzymes containing lignin peroxidase (LiP) , manganese peroxidase (MnP) , laccase (Lac) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were detected in degradation systems, and degraded products were detected by infrared spectrometer and GC- MS analyzer. Results show that Lac and LiP catalyze thymol occur phenolization, demethylation, ring opening and oxidation reactions to receive corresponding degraded products. Thus, degradation mechanism of thymol by white rot fungi is speculated.%白腐真菌在环境治理方面有很大的应用潜力.以百里酚作为研究对象,利用白腐真菌在DOX培养基中对其进行微生物降解,通过测定降解体系中木质素过氧化物酶(LiP)、锰过氧化物酶(MnP)、漆酶(Lac)和多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活性,并利用红外光谱仪、气相色谱-质谱分析仪分析了降解产物.结果发现,百里酚在Lac和LiP催化下发生了脱酚基、脱甲基、开环、氧化等作用,得到对应降解产物,从而推测出白腐真菌对百里酚的降解历程.

  20. 白腐真菌处理玉米秸秆饲料的研究进展%Research Progress of White Rot Fungi Treatment Corn Straw Feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓翠; 王浩; 李杰

    2012-01-01

    目前我国的玉米秸秆饲料加工处理方法已日趋成熟,其在缓解饲粮压力、净化养殖环境、促进农业良性循环的作用也逐渐体现出来。在对玉米秸秆处理方法的,选择上,白腐真菌因其能选择性的降解秸秆木质素,提高秸秆的瘤胃干物质降解率和改善秸秆营养价值,而被国内外学者深入的研究,并取得一定的成果,文章就玉米秸秆饲料的特性、白腐真菌的概况,白腐真菌处理玉米秸秆的原理及处理后玉米秸秆的营养特性作一综述。%At present, treatment processing methods of corn straw feed is reach its maturity in China. It was reflected foot by foot that is efficacy relieve stress and purification of the culture environment and promote agricultural virtuous circle. Treatment of corn stalk in the choice, because of white rot fungi can selectively degrade lignin straw, degradation rate of dry matter of straw was increased in the tureen and the nutritional value of straw was improved, thus it was in-depth study by scholars at home and abroad, and then made some the results. This paper summaried characteristics of corn stalk silage, overview of white rot fungi and white rot fungi treatment principle of corn straw feed, as well as after processing the nutritional characteristics of feed corn stalks.

  1. Citrus Black Rot is Caused by Phylogenetically Distinct Lineages of Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, T L; Carpenter-Boggs, L; Timmer, L W; Carris, L M; Bhatia, A

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates of Alternaria alternata causing black rot of citrus were associated with six well-supported evolutionary lineages. Isolates recovered from brown spot lesions on Minneola tangelo, leaf spot lesions on rough lemon, and healthy citrus tissue and noncitrus hosts were related closely to isolates from black-rotted fruit. Phylogenies estimated independently from DNA sequence data from an endopolygalacturonase gene (endoPG) and two anonymous regions of the genome (OPA1-3 and OPA2-1) had similar topologies, and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the combined data set. In the combined phylogeny, isolates from diverse ecological niches on citrus and noncitrus hosts were distributed in eight clades. Isolates from all lineages, regardless of ecological or host association, caused black rot in fruit inoculation assays, demonstrating that small-spored Alternaria isolates associated with different ecological niches on citrus and other plant hosts are potential black rot pathogens. These data also indicated that the fungi associated with black-rotted fruit do not form a natural evolutionary group distinct from other Alternaria pathogens and saprophytes associated with citrus. The use of the name A. citri to describe fungi associated with citrus black rot is not justified and it is proposed that citrus black rot fungi be referred to as A. alternata.

  2. Bioremediation of Lindane by Wood-Decaying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Ulčnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to study the ability of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Hypoxylon fragiforme, Chondrostereum purpureum, and Pleurotus ostreatus and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum to degrade the organochlorine insecticide lindane in liquid cultures. The evaluation of lindane biodegradation was performed using two analytical procedures. In order to extract and properly quantify the remaining lindane from fungal liquid cultures, two different extraction procedures were used: extraction from filtrates and extraction from homogenized fungal cultures. White-rot fungi were able to degrade lindane. The amount of degraded lindane increased with its exposure period in the liquid cultures of all white-rot fungi used, except C. purpureum. After 21 days of exposure, over 90 % of lindane was degraded by T. versicolor, H. fragiforme, and P. ostreatus. Degradation of lindane by the brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. The extraction procedures, when liquid cultures of T. versicolor, H. fragiforme, and P. ostreatus were used, had no noticeable effect on the determined degradation after 21 days of exposure. On the other hand, the amount of remaining lindane in liquid cultures of C. purpureum and G. trabeum depended strongly on the extraction procedure. Our study indicates that mycoremediation studies of lindane should also consider adsorption onto mycelial biomass as a possible reason for the removal of the insecticide from the liquid medium, especially where shorter exposure periods are studied or fungi with poorer degradation potentials are used.

  3. Screening of white-rot fungi manganese peroxidases: a comparison between the specific activities of the enzyme from different native producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Juho; Taskila, Sanna; Isomäki, Ritva; Ojamo, Heikki

    2012-11-29

    In this study manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzymes from selected white-rot fungi were isolated and compared for potential future recombinant production. White-rot fungi were cultivated in small-scale in liquid media and a simplified process was established for the purification of extracellular enzymes.Five lignin degrading organisms were selected (Bjerkandera sp., Phanerochaete (P.) chrysosporium, Physisporinus (P.) rivulosus, Phlebia (P.) radiata and Phlebia sp. Nf b19) and studied for MnP production in small-scale. Extracellular MnP activity was followed and cultivations were harvested at proximity of the peak activity. The production of MnPs varied in different organisms but was clearly regulated by inducing liquid media components (Mn2+, veratryl alcohol and malonate). In total 8 different MnP isoforms were purified.Results of this study reinforce the conception that MnPs from distinct organisms differ substantially in their properties. Production of the extracellular enzyme in general did not reach a substantial level. This further suggests that these native producers are not suitable for industrial scale production of the enzyme. The highest specific activities were observed with MnPs from P. chrysosporium (200 U mg-1), Phlebia sp. Nf b19 (55 U mg-1) and P. rivulosus (89 U mg-1) and these MnPs are considered as the most potential candidates for further studies. The molecular weight of the purified MnPs was estimated to be between 45-50 kDa.

  4. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain-mediated induced systemic resistance in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) through defense-related enzymes against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Morang, P; Deka, M; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

    2014-09-01

    Induction of systemic resistance in host plants through microbes and their bioactive metabolites are attaining popularity in modern agricultural practices. In this regard, individual application of two strains of Pseudomonas, RRLJ 134 and RRLJ 04, exhibited development of induced systemic resistance in tea plants against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot under split root experiments. The experimental findings also confirmed that the cuttings treated with fungal test pathogen and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains survived longer as compared with pathogen-alone-treated cuttings. The enzyme level studies revealed that the presence of PGPR strains reduced the viscosity loss of cellulose and pectin by both the pathogens to a significant level. The activity of defense-related enzymes like L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were also recorded higher in tea cuttings treated with PGPR strains in presence of pathogen. Crude bioactive metabolites isolated from these strains also showed in vitro antagonism against the test pathogens besides reducing the number of diseased plants under gnotobiotic conditions. These findings confirm the utilization of these two strains for induction of systemic resistance against two major root diseases in tea plants under plantation conditions.

  5. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process proceeded by in-situ cellulolytic enzyme induction enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose from corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides). The yeast fermentation of hydrolyzate yielded 7.1, 8.6 and 4.1 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest corn-to-ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol/100 g corn fiber) was equivalent to 42 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. Cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities of these fungi were also investigated over a week long solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber. G. trabeum had the highest activities for starch (160 mg glucose/mg protein.min) and on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. P. chrysosporium had the highest activity for xylan (119 mg xylose/mg protein.min) on day five and carboxymethyl cellulose (35 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. T. reesei showed the highest activity for Sigma cell 20 (54.8 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day 5 of solid-substrate fermentation. The effect of different pretreatments on SSF of corn fiber by fungal processes was examined. Corn fiber was treated at 30 °C for 2 h with alkali [2% NaOH (w/w)], alkaline peroxide [2% NaOH (w/w) and 1% H2O 2 (w/w)], and by steaming at 100 °C for 2 h. Mild pretreatment resulted in improved ethanol yields for brown- and soft-rot SSF, while white-rot and Spezyme CP SSFs showed

  6. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment.

  8. Research Progress of Lactase Production by Lignin-degrading White Rot Fungi%降解木素白腐菌产漆酶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅恺; 付时雨; 詹怀宇

    2011-01-01

    综述了近年来国内外对于白腐菌产漆酶的研究进展,对液体和固体发酵提高漆酶产量的技术和方法进行了讨论和评述,并对今后的研究工作提出了展望.%Laccase is one of the ligninolytic enzymes secreted by white rot fungus which is the most important microorganism involved in degrading lignin in nature. Application of laccase to pulp bleaching is an attractive alternative to decrease chemicals demand and wastewater pollution. Therefore, the production of laccase in high yield has received much attention from researchers in past decades. The research progress of laccase production from white rot fungi in recent years is overviewed in this paper. Several effective methods to improve laccase yield in submerged and solid-state fermentation are mainly discussed, and the prospect of such research field in the future is also presented.

  9. 白腐菌在有机固体废弃物堆肥中的研究进展%Application of White-Rot Fungi on Organic Solid Waste Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 吴京科; 祁娜; 孙向阳; 张强; 郝利峰

    2011-01-01

    The white-rot fungus has been applied widely because of its strong degradation ability and special metabolic type. The current status of white-rot fungus applied in organic solid waste composting was reviewed in the paper. The degradation mechanism of lignin by white-rot fungus and the application of white-rot fungi in the bioremediation of heavy metal bio-sorption in composting have been introduced especially. The prospect of white-rot fungi usage in other aspects was put forward.%白腐菌因具有极强的降解能力和特殊的代谢类型,在生物降解和修复中有广阔的应用前景.本文综述了白腐菌应用于有机固体废弃物堆肥的研究现状,主要介绍了白腐菌在堆肥中对难降解木质素的作用以及对重金属污染的修复.同时对白腐菌的应用前景做出展望.

  10. Bioremediation of quinolin-contaminated soil by white rot fungi%白腐真菌对受喹啉污染模拟土壤的生物修复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿晶晶; 王玲; 王晓书; 沈珊; 任大军

    2011-01-01

    通过引入白腐真菌对受喹啉污染的模拟土壤进行生物修复.结果表明,白腐真菌对受喹啉污染土壤的生物修复是可行的;土壤含水率升高,喹啉去除率提高;投菌量越大,喹啉的去除效果越显著;不同pH土壤中的白腐真菌对喹啉降解差异不大,添加木屑能为白腐真菌提供额外的营养源,对土壤中喹啉的降解起到了促进作用.%White rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus was selected to degrade quinoline in simulated soil,and the effect of soil moisture,fungi inoculum size,soil pH and wood dust on degradation efficiency was investigated. Results showed it was feasible to bioremediation quinolin-contaminated soil by white rot fungi. The removal rate of quinoline was increased with'increasing the soil moisture,higher inoculim size of fungi resulted in a higher degradation rate of quinoline,while soil pH had little effect on quinoline degradation. Addition of wood dust could promote quinoline degradation for it provided nutrition source to white rot fungi. The mechanism of quinoline degradation by white rot fungi still needed further exploration and study.

  11. Study on the bioremediation of indole-contaminated soil by white rot fungi%白腐真菌对受吲哚污染模拟土壤的修复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任大军; 鲍欣; 瞿晶晶; 张元元; 许琴; 张淑琴; 吴高明

    2013-01-01

    White rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus was selected to degrade indole in simulated soil.The degradation processes of single indole and indole with co-metabolism substrate of quinoline were studied.Results showed that it was feasible to bioremediate indole-contamianted soil by white rot fungi.The pH value of soil had little effect on indole degradation.Addition of wood dust could promote indole degradation as it provided extra nutrition source to white rot fungi.Indole and quinoline could be degraded efficiently by white rot fungi,but indole degradation was inhibited by quionline.%选用白腐真菌对受吲哚污染的模拟土壤进行生物修复,研究了白腐真菌对吲哚单基质体系和以喹啉作为吲哚的共代谢因子的共基质体系的降解过程.结果表明:白腐真菌对受吲哚污染土壤的生物修复是可行的;不同pH土壤中的白腐真菌对吲哚降解差异不大;添加木屑能为白腐真菌提供额外的营养源,对土壤中吲哚的降解起到了促进作用.白腐真菌可以同时对吲哚和喹啉进行生物修复,喹啉对吲哚的降解主要产生抑制作用.

  12. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Civardi

    Full Text Available Recently introduced micronized copper (MC formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH2 nanoparticles (NPs, were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA. In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles.

  13. REVISIÓN: DEGRADACIÓN DE PLAGUICIDAS MEDIANTE HONGOS DE LA PUDRICIÓN BLANCA DE LA MADERA PESTICIDES DEGRADATION BY WHITE ROT FUNGI: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintero Díaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos de la pudrición blanca de la madera, se han caracterizado por su capacidad para degradar y mineralizar la lignina empleando un sistema enzimático extracelular compuesto principalmente de tres enzimas Ligninoperoxidasa (LiP, Manganeso peroxidasa (MnP y Lacasa. Durante los últimos veinte años se ha orientado la atención a estos hongos y su sistema enzimático ligninolítico para estudiar la capacidad para degradar un amplio rango de compuestos xenobióticos como plaguicidas, colorantes, explosivos, etc. Sin embargo, se ha observado que gran número de compuestos entre ellos los plaguicidas no responden al proceso degradativo de las enzimas ligninoliticas y esto ha permitido descubrir recientemente nuevos mecanismos empleados por estos hongos como son los sistemas oxidativos de las monooxigenasas del citocromo P-450 y reductivo de las transferasas, ya ampliamente conocidos en animales superiores e identificados como fase I y fase II del metabolismo. En esta revisión se describen estos tres tipos de mecanismos degradativos hasta ahora conocidos que son empleados por los hongos para la degradación de contaminantes ambientales y se analizan algunos casos de plaguicidas donde se involucran estos mecanismos en su degradación.Wood white rot fungi are characterized by their capacity of degradation and mineralization of lignin by means of an enzymatic extracellular system, which mainly consists of lignin peroxidase (LiP, Manganese peroxidase (MnP and Laccase. During the last twenty years, these fungi and their enzymatic ligninolytic system have been the focus of attention to study the degradation capacity of a wide range of xenobiotics as pesticides, dyes, explosives, etc. However, a large number of xenobiotics are not responding to ligninolytic enzymes biodegradation process. This situation has permitted the discovering of new mechanisms used by fungi as citochrome P-450 monooxygenases oxidation system, and transferases’ reductive

  14. 台湾褐根病发生情况及研究进展%Research advances of brown root rot (Phellinus noxius) in Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林石明; 廖富荣; 陈红运; 陈青; 陈华忠

    2012-01-01

    褐根病菌是中国大陆的检疫性有害生物。褐根病是由有害木层孔菌(Phellinus noxius(Comer)Cunningham)引起经济作物、果树、景观名木古树和园林绿化等植物的毁灭性土传病害。近年来,在台湾的59科140多种植物上普遍发生并严重危害。本文综述了台湾在褐根病方面的研究进展,内容包括该病原菌的寄主、形态特征和生物学特性,病害发生发展规律和防治措施以及检测与鉴定方法。%Phellinus noxius is one of the quarantine pest of China mainland. It causes brown root rot of fruit and ornamental tree, which is a destructive disease of ancient and famous trees. P. noxius is a soil - borne pathogen. The disease is spreading among 59 families, more than 140 species of host plants these years in Taiwan. We expatiated recent research advances in Taiwan, China, including morphological and biological characteristics, spread model and control measurements and the detection & identification methods.

  15. Study on Impact Factors of Manganese-Dependent Peroxidase Produced by White Rot Fungi%白腐真菌产锰过氧化物酶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余梅; 阮小文; 谭丽泉; 卢玉娟

    2014-01-01

    以锰过氧化物酶活性为评价指标,研究各种因子对白腐真菌生长及产锰过氧化物酶的影响。结果表明:藜芦醇、苯甲醇和吐温80的添加有利于促进白腐真菌的生长及产锰过氧化物酶活性,在浓度分别为150 mg·L-1、150 mg ·L-1、14 mg·L-1时对白腐真菌生长及产锰过氧化物酶促进作用最好;Ca2+、Fe2+对白腐真菌生长及产锰过氧化物酶活性的影响是一致的,均表现为“先促进,后抑制”的作用;Cu2+浓度小于0.4 mg·L-1时能略微促进白腐真菌的生长及产锰过氧化物酶活性,大于该浓度时具有较明显的抑制作用。%Taking enzyme activity of manganese-dependent peroxidase as the assessment index,the effects of several factors on the characterizations of growth and production of manganese-dependent peroxidase(MnP)by white rot fungi(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)were studied.Results indicated that,veratryl alcohol(150 mg· L-1 ),benzyl alcohol(150 mg·L-1 )and Tween 80(14 mg·L-1 )could stimulate the growth of white rot fungi and activity of MnP.Effects on the growth of white rot fungi and activity of MnP were the same with addition of Ca2+ and Fe2+ ,which was promoted at beginning and inhibited later.When Cu2+ concentration was lower than 0.4 mg·L-1 ,Cu2+ cound promote the growth of white rot fungi and activity of MnP,while it could inhibit the growth of white rot fungi and activity of MnP when the concentration was mare than 0.4 mg·L-1 .

  16. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants.

  17. Identification of the pathogen causing brown rot of Hylocereus undatus%霸王花褐腐病的病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝国兵; 何自福; 罗方芳; 汤亚飞; 佘小漫; 杜振国

    2014-01-01

    [目的]明确导致广东省霸王花Hylocereus undatus褐腐病的病原种类.[方法]通过病组织分离、致病性测定、形态学观察及rDNA序列分析等方法对广东省霸王花褐腐病病原进行了种类鉴定.[结果和结论]在PDA培养基上,病原菌的菌落为深灰色,绒毛状.产生2种类型的节孢子:一种为浅色、薄壁的柱状孢子,大小为(5.00~10.69)μm ×(2.61~4.52)μm;另一种为褐色、厚壁、圆形或椭圆形、基部平截、成链的孢子,大小为(5.15~12.39)μm ×(3.87~6.07)μm.应用真菌通用引物ITS1和ITS4进行PCR,获得该病原菌579 bp的18S-28S rDNA ITS序列. BLAST结果显示,该序列与Neoscytalidium dimidiatum火龙果菌株的18S-28S rDNA ITS序列相似性最高,为99%~100%.这些研究结果表明,引起广东省霸王花褐腐病的病原菌为N.dimidiatum.%[Objective] To confirm the pathogen species that caused brown rot disease on Hylocereus unda-tus.[Method] Diseased tissue isolation , indoor pathogenicity test , morphological observation and rDNA sequence analysis were used to confirm the pathogen species .[Result and conclusion] The colonies of the fungus were dark grey and fluffy on potato dextrose agar ( PDA) medium.Two kinds of arthrospore were observed on PDA medium .One was columnar conidium with light-colored , thin-walled and (5.00-10.69) μm ×(2.61-4.52) μm in size, and the other was chained conidium with dark brown , thick-walled , circular or oval , base truncate and ( 5.15 -12.39 ) μm ×( 3.87 -6.07 ) μm in size .Using PCR with primers ITS1 and ITS4 for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of fungal 18S-28S rD-NA, the sequence was cloned to be 579 bp in length.The BLAST results showed that the sequence had the highest sequence identity with that of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum strains isolated from pitahaya (99%-100%).These results indicated that night-blooming cereus brown rot in Guangdong was

  18. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol;

    2005-01-01

    wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward copper components, a soil block test was undertaken to clarify the effect of two copper based preservatives, copper citrate and ACQ......Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based......-D, on the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans compared to an alternative non-copper containing wood preservative. The extensive use of copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. The copper tolerance of S. lacrymans and other brown...

  19. Effect of gamma radiation as a method of storing brown flaxseed after 6 months of storage, inhibiting contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Laury Francis; Silva, Edvane Borges da Silva, E-mail: lauryfrancis@gmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Idjane Santana, E-mail: idjaneoliveira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2013-07-01

    Flaxseed is an oilseed rich in proteins, lipids and dietary fiber. The brown flaxseed is grown in warm climates and humid, like Brazil, and has shelled tougher than the golden linseed. As the tropical climate is ideal environment for the growth of toxigenic fungi, flaxseed may be exposed to contamination. Four different samples of brown flaxseed were collected in sealed packages obtained from health food stores. Aliquots of grains were separated, packed with PVC film, identified according to the company (E1, E2, E3, E4) and subjected to the process of gamma irradiation doses: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 kGy, beyond the control sample that was not exposed. This material was stored in a cool dry place in the laboratory for six months. After that time, the grains were sown in DRBC, to check the growth of total fungi, and in AFPA, to check the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. After sowing grains, the Petri dishes were randomly distributed on the bench, at room temperature. There was no growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in irradiated samples after incubation, demonstrating that radiation could inhibit fungal contamination during the storage time. Germinated grains were observed in both culture media, in all doses and in the control samples. The germination of flaxseed was inversely proportional to the dose applied to the grains, to both culture media. Irradiation showed to be an effective method for brown flaxseed conservation and maintaining the germination. (author)

  20. Decolorization of different dyes by a newly isolated white-rot fungi strain Ganoderma sp.En3 and cloning and functional analysis of its laccase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Rui; Ma, Li; Fan, Fangfang; Gong, Yangmin; Wan, Xia; Jiang, Mulan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2011-08-30

    A laccase-producing white-rot fungi strain Ganoderma sp.En3 was newly isolated from the forest of Tzu-chin Mountain in China. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability of decolorizing four synthetic dyes, two simulated dye bath effluents and the real textile dye effluent. Induction in the activity of laccase during the decolorization process indicated that laccase played an important role in the efficient decolorization of different dyes by this fungus. Phytotoxicity study with respect to Triticum aestivum and Oryza sativa demonstrated that Ganoderma sp.En3 was able to detoxify four synthetic dyes, two simulated dye effluents and the real textile dye effluent. The laccase gene lac-En3-1 and its corresponding full-length cDNA were then cloned and characterized from Ganoderma sp.En3. The deduced protein sequence of LAC-En3-1 contained four copper-binding conserved domains of typical laccase protein. The functionality of lac-En3-1 gene encoding active laccase was verified by expressing this gene in the yeast Pichia pastoris successfully. The recombinant laccase produced by the yeast transformant could decolorize the synthetic dyes, simulated dye effluents and the real textile dye effluent. The ability of decolorizing different dyes was positively related to the laccase activity. In addition, the 5'-flanking sequence upstream of the start codon ATG in lac-En3-1 gene was obtained. Many putative cis-acting responsive elements were predicted in the promoter region of lac-En3-1.

  1. Co-inoculation with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. We investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different pho...

  2. Alternativas de controle pós-colheita da podridão-parda e da podridão-mole em frutos de pessegueiro Alternatives for post-harvest control of brown rot and soft rot in peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative products, used during the post-harvest, in order to control the brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and the soft rot (Rhizopus spp. in peaches. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Nepomuceno-MG in peaches of cultivar Diamond, of 10 years of planting. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions. For the study, it was selected fruits without injuries and symptoms of the diseases. The fruits were immersed for 30 seconds in a solution containing the following treatments: 1- clove oil 0.01%; 2-Chlorine dioxide 0.1%; 3-Chlorine dioxide 0.05%; 4-Benzalkonium chloride 0.25%; 5-Dichloran 0.12%, 6-Iprodione 0.15% and 7-control (water only. After the treatments, the fruits, in a number of 10, were placed in sterile trays, in three replicates. The experiment was carried out in uncontrolled environmental conditions, the development of the diseases were evaluated 3 and 5 days after the treatments in 2005 and 3, 6 and 9 days after treatment in 2006. The use of Iprodione controlled the incidence and severity of M. fructicola and Rhizopus spp. The Dichloran was the most effective treatment in the control of Rhizopus spp. and intermediate in the control of M. fructicola. The treatments with clove oil and chlorine dioxide, at the highest concentration, reduced the incidence of Rhizopus spp. and to severity they showed intermediate results.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF APHYLLOPHORALES CAUSING BROWN AND WHITE ROT IN WOODS: ANALYSIS OF ITS RESTRICTION POLYMORPHISM (PCR/RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba ZAREMSKI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific polymorphism exists for many fungus species, making their macroscopic identification difficult. Easily usable molecular markers providing access to information about variability have boosted the development of fungus diversity analyses. For this study, on wood-decaying Aphyllophorales, the main problem to be solved consisted in detecting any existence of intraspecific polymorphism in these fungi, in order to complete and clarify their identification. In order to characterize 98 strains in the CIRAD collection, we developed a rapid discriminant analysis method based on analysing the diversity of partial ribosomal DNA sequences independently of the macro- and microscopic morphological traits of the fruiting bodies required for the identification of genera and species. Adaptation of the Qiagen kit for higher plants made it possible to extract fungal DNA from a few milligrams of mycelium; with most of the strains studied, these DNA extracts enabled us to obtain an ITS amplificate of a size varying from 550 to 895 base pairs. We also found a large margin of error, of around 12%, for the DNA molecular weight readings on gel, leading us to prefer direct sequencing for precise determination of amplificate lengths. PCR-RFLP showed a good ability to characterize a given strain by providing different profiles obtained using several restriction enzymes. We thus demonstrated that studying ITS diversity using PCR-RFLP is a discriminant method making it possible to distinguish between strains. However, this method calls for the compilation of a database whose use remains partly subjected to interpretation, which cannot be used to work on a material unknown to the database. This simple, rapid technique is efficient and perfectly suitable for monitoring known strains in controlled trials.

  4. Bioremediation by wood-rotting fungi. 2. Relationship between enzyme activities of fungi having ability for degradation of dioxins and degradation of 2,7-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and an improved screening method of fungi having ability for degradation of dioxins; Mokuzai fukyukin ni yoru bioremediation. 2. Dioxin bunkaikin no koso kassei to 2,7-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin no bunkai tono kanren oyobi dioxin bunkaikin no screening ho no kairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K.; Okawa, H.; Tachibana, S. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirabayashi, T. [Osaka City Office, Osaka (Japan). Water Bureau

    1997-11-01

    Discussed is the relationship between the rate of 2,7-Dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,7-DCDD) decomposition by dioxin-decomposing fungi and the activity of Lignin peroxidase (Lip), Manganese peroxidase (MnP), and Laccase (Lac). In the experiment, three kinds of fungi found in nature and two kinds of wood-rotting fungi are evaluated. As the result, it is found that fungi higher in Lip activity and capable of sustaining the active state longer are also higher in 2.7-DCDD decomposition rate; that there exists a correlationship between the 2,7-DCDD decomposition rate and the accumulated Lip activity; and that there exists no correlationship between the 2,7-DCDD decomposition rate and the accumulated MnP activity or accumulated Lac activity. The above-obtained results enable an inference that, when highly decolorizing fungi are selected in the first screening by use of pigment Remazol brilliant blue R and then highly dioxin-decomposing ones are selected in the second screening by use of the accumulated Lip activity, fungi that are capable of effectively decomposing dioxins will be isolated. Eventually, three kinds of fungi are obtained. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  6. 白腐真菌对低阶煤模型化合物喹啉降解机理研究1%Degradation Mechanism of Low Rank Coal Model Compound Quinoline by White-rot fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石开仪; 陶秀祥; 籍永华; 任强; 舒伟; 严毅

    2013-01-01

    白腐真菌在低阶煤炭深加工方面有很大的应用潜力。为依据低阶煤降解机理,报道以喹啉作为低阶煤含氮模型化合物,利用白腐真菌在DOX培养基中对其进行微生物降解,通过测定降解体系中木质素过氧化物酶(LiP)、锰过氧化物酶(MnP)、漆酶(Lac)和多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活性,并利用红外光谱仪、气相色谱-质谱分析仪分析了降解产物。结果发现,喹啉在Lac、LiP和PPO等共同催化下发生了羟基化、醌基化、开环、C-N断裂、氧化等作用,得到对应的8种主要降解产物,从而推测出白腐真菌对喹啉的降解历程。%White rot fungi has great potential applications in low rank coal deep processing. To study degrada-tion mechanism of low rank coal, quinoline has been used as low rank coal model compound, and degraded by white rot fungi in DOX culture. Enzymes containing lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), laccase (Lac) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were detected in degradation systems, and degraded products were detected by FT-IR and GC-MS analyzer. Results show that Lac, LiP and PPO catalyze quino-line occur hydroxylation, quinonylation, ring opening, C-Nbreakage and oxidation reactions to receive 8 cor-responding degraded products. Thus, degradation mechanism of quinoline by white rot fungi was speculated.

  7. Identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the volatile organic compounds emitted from the wood-rotting fungi Serpula lacrymans and Coniophora puteana, and from Pinus sylvestris timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Richard J; Jones, Peter R H; Ratcliffe, Norman M; Spencer-Phillips, Peter T N

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by two wood-rotting basidiomycete fungi, Serpula lacrymans (dry rot fungus) and Coniophora puteana (cellar fungus), and the timber of Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine), were identified. Several volatile collection techniques were employed including dichloromethane solvent extraction, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and thermal desorption of VOCs entrained on Tenax GR. In addition, a new method of solid sample injection (SSI) is described which utilises a low injector temperature and an all-glass deactivated injector liner designed to minimise both the formation of pyrolysis products and analyte degradation. All the volatile compounds collected were analysed using electron impact capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on HP-5, HP-Innowax and beta-cyclodextrin columns. SSI and Tenax thermal desorption were found to be the most effective extraction methods. A total of 19 VOCs were observed from S. lacrymans grown on glass slides and pine, 15 from C. puteana grown on glass slides and 12 from P. sylvestris timber. S. lacrymans was found to emit, in low abundance, six unique VOCs, of which 2-methylbutanal was the greatest. The major volatile compound emitted by S. lacrymans was 1-octen-3-ol, which was also found in lower abundance from C. puteana. Six VOCs, including diethylene glycol and 4-methyl methylbenzoate, were found to be unique to C. puteana, all in medium abundance: From P. sylvestris, the major volatiles identified were S-alpha-pinene and 3-carene.

  8. 应用木腐菌处理松材线虫病疫木伐桩的研究%Study on Using Wood-rotting Fungi to Treat Stumps of Dead Wood Caused by PWN (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓习金; 刘晖; 罗惠文; 黄燕洪

    2014-01-01

    Diseased stumps is cure difficulty of pine wood nematode disease, it is an environmental protection, control technology effectively that using wood rotting fungi treated pine wood nematode infected stumps. In th is study, the 13 kinds of wood-rotting fungi were chosen to evaluate the irrelation with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus ( PWN ) , the ability to decompose the wood specimens of Pinus massoniana and the stumps of dead pine trees caused by PWN, by screening and propagating good strains of the wood-rotting fungi, and using to field test, the results showed that all the wood-rotting fungi tested had certa in nematicidal effects on PWN except Schizophyllum commune and Coriolus versicolor, and 6 strains could completely inhibit the pine wood nematode, they are Tremellodon gelatinosum, Fomitopsis pinicola, Pleurotus ostreatus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Poria cocos, Ganoderma lucidum. The test results of decomposing pine wood and disease stumps showed that they had played some decomposition effect to the diseased stumps, after treating stumps inoculating above 6 strains for 70 d, especially, Laetiporus sulphureus showed higher ability to decomposing and colonising the stumps,and inhibiting and killing nematodes, it could be used to treat stumps of dead wood caused by PWN in the future.%疫木伐桩是松材线虫病除治中的难点,利用木腐菌处理松材线虫病疫木伐桩是一项环保、有效的伐桩处理技术。本试验研究了13种木腐菌对松材线虫的抑制作用以及对马尾松木块和松材线虫病疫木伐桩的分解能力,通过对木腐菌的筛选、优良菌株的扩繁,将优良木腐菌应用于松材线虫病疫木伐桩野外试验,结果表明,供试菌株除裂褶菌和杂色云芝外,其他菌都能抑制松材线虫的生长与繁殖,其中虎掌菌、松生拟层孔菌、粗皮侧耳、硫磺菌、茯苓和灵芝等6个菌能完全抑制松材线虫的数量。对马尾松木块及疫木伐桩的分解试

  9. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  10. Comparative study on using carbon or nitrogen limited medium to culture white rot fungi for reactive brilliant red dye K-2BP decolotization under non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; DaWen; WEN; XiangHua; QIAN; Yi

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore ways for the application of white rot fungus in dye effluent treatment under non-sterile conditions, experiment on decolorization of reactive brilliant red was carried out, employing nitrogen-limited and carbon-limited medium with C/N ratio of 56/2.2 and 28/44 (in mmol/L), respectively. The results showed that the decolorization rate reached 92% while culturing white rot fungus with nitrogen-limited medium; however, the decolorization process ended in carbon-limited medium (n(C)/n(N) = 28/44) because of bacterial contamination. In addition, pH rose up to 9.31 after 4 d of decolorization, which was caused by bacterial contamination in the carbon-limited system. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen-limited medium can inhibit bacterial growth to some extent while carbon-limited medium is more easily contaminated by bacteria. Nitrogen-limited medium is more suitable in culture of white rot fungus for decolorization of reactive dye. Medium with the ability of inhibiting yeast growth should be developed by adjusting other components of nitrogen-limited medium.

  11. Natural Protection of Wood with Antagonism Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba ZAREMSKI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological environments contain a certain number of microbial populations which, within a givenecological niche, display various relations ranging from symbiosis to parasitism. Researchers have beeninterested in these types of relations for around fifty years, especially in one very particular type ofrelationship: the antagonism exerted between individuals of the same microbial population.Today, the role played by biological agents, bringing into play inhibitive or destructive antibioticsubstances, reveals a certain potential for their use in controlling microorganisms associated with suchdegradation processes.The work undertaken by HydroQuébec and CIRAD involved two types of experiment: 1 in Petri dishes toassess and characterize the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma against white rot and brown rot fungi; 2on pieces taken from untreated poles in order to study confrontation between the basidiomycete and theantagonistic strain in wood.This study investigated the antagonism of three ascomycetes of the genus Trichoderma against two whiterot basidiomycetes, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Coriolus versicolor, and two brown rot basidiomycetes,Antrodia sp. and Coniophora puteana, through direct confrontation in Petri dishes and in the wood ofHydroQuébec poles.The results obtained seemed to complete each other coherently. They revealed that the Trichodermagroup of fungi was not aggressive to wood and the results obtained after direct confrontation in Petri disheswere confirmed in wood.By directly exposing the different basidiomycetes and antagonists to each other in Petri dishes, two bytwo, we effectively revealed an antagonism effect for a large majority of the pairs. However, there wassubstantial variability in reactions from one pair to the next.

  12. Controle da podridão parda do pessegueiro com fungicidas e fosfitos avaliados em pré e pós-colheita Control of peach tree brown rot by fungicides and phosphites evaluated during preharvest and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Martins Moreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A podridão parda é a doença mais importante para a cultura do pessegueiro, entretanto, no Brasil são escassos os trabalhos realizados a campo visando o seu controle. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, selecionar fungicidas em laboratório e avaliar a sua eficiência e de fosfitos a campo, para o controle da podridão parda monitorando as fases de desenvolvimento de frutos e pós-colheita, além de avaliar as características qualitativas dos frutos. O experimento de campo foi realizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições: três fungicidas pré-selecionados in vitro (iminoctadine tris albesilate, myclobutanil e iprodione, dois fosfitos (CaB e de K e testemunha. Foi avaliada a incidência de infecções latentes de Monilinia fructicola em frutos em desenvolvimento e em frutos maduros após a colheita. Para os frutos em desenvolvimento observou-se maior incidência nas duas últimas coletas. No campo, o iprodione e o iminoctadine mostraram eficiência no controle da doença durante as avaliações. Após três dias no ambiente o iminoctadine foi melhor que os demais tratamentos mantendo a incidência da podridão parda em 1,0% contra 31,4% no tratamento com iprodione e 91,2% na testemunha. O fosfito de CaB não mostrou diferença em relação à testemunha no decorrer das avaliações, mas o fosfito de K, reduziu em 60 e 28% o número de frutos doentes aos três e cinco dias, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. Quanto aos parâmetros de qualidade, o peso médio dos frutos, o diâmetro e a firmeza da polpa, não mostraram diferenças significativas em relação à testemunha.Brown rot is the most important disease in peach tree cultivation, but field studies with control methods are currently rare in Brazil. One of the objectives of this study was to select fungicides in the laboratory then test them in the field, additionally to phosphites, for the control of the brown rot. The control was performed by observing the fruit development

  13. Resistência natural de nove madeiras do semi-árido brasileiro a fungos causadores da podridão-mole Natural resistance of nine woods of Brazilian semi-arid region to soft-rot fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resistência de nove madeiras de ocorrência no semi-árido brasileiro a fungos de podridão-mole, em condições de laboratório. As madeiras estudadas foram algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, angico (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, braúna (Schinopsis brasiliensis, cássia (Senna siamea, craibeira (Tabebuia aurea, cumaru (Amburana cearensis, pau-d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa e pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium. De cada espécie foram retirados corpos-de-prova de 3,0 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm, com a maior dimensão no sentido das fibras, em quatro posições na direção medula-casca do tronco. As amostras permaneceram por 120 dias sob a ação da microflora natural existente em solo orgânico. A resistência ao apodrecimento da aroeira, braúna e cássia não foi afetada pela posição na direção medula-casca, não esteve relacionada à densidade das madeiras ensaiadas. As madeiras de aroeira e braúna (cerne, pereiro e pau-d'arco apresentaram melhor desempenho. A resistência natural não esteve associada à concentração de extrativos solúveis em água quente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the wood natural resistance of nine species of woods of the Brazilian semi-arid region to soft-rot fungi, under laboratory conditions. The studied woods were Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera colubrinavar.cebil, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Senna siamea, Tabebuia aurea, Amburana cearensis, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. Specimens measuring 3.0 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm, with the largest dimension taken in the fiber direction, were obtained from four positions from pith to bark in the trunk. The specimens were submitted to action of organic soil natural micro-flora for 120 days. The wood resistance to soft-rot of Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis and Senna siameawas not affected by the pith to bark position, and was not associated to

  14. Fungi Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil with Loquat Root Rot Disease in Yunnan Province%云南蒙自枇杷根腐病植株根际土壤真菌多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨若鹏; 郑肖兰; 田学军; 李建平; 鲁海菊

    2012-01-01

    摘要摸清蒙自枇杷根腐病病株根际土壤真菌区系分布.为有效可持续防控枇杷根腐病提供理论依据。采用五点取样法采集土壤样品,稀释平板法在PDA培养基上分离纯化,获得114株枇杷根腐病病株根际土壤真菌,经显微镜形态鉴定。109株真菌鉴定为以下24种: A bs idia corymbifera, A bsidia cylindrospora, A bsidia spinosa,Acremonium cerealis, Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum dematium, Fusarium flocciferum, Mucor circineUoides f. janssenii, Mucor circinelloides f. wsitanicus, PeniciUium atrovenetum, Penicillium canescens, PeniciUium chrysogenum, Penicillium corylophilum, Penicillium daleae, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium nigricans, Penicillium oxalicum, Penicillium saceulum, Penicillium variabile,Pythium intermedium, Trichoderma strigosum, Verticillium fungicola,分属于11个属.其中青霉属(Penicillium)是优势属,另外5株真菌属于担子菌。%To establish the species and distribution of fungi of Loquat rhizosphere soil which had rot root disease at Mengzi in Yunnan Province and to provide theoretical basis for efficient control to disease of the root rot; Soil specimen were collected with the 5-point method. The fungi strains were isolated by the plate of gradient dilution with PDA medium. The strains were identified by morphology with microscope. The strains respectively belong to A bsidia corymbifera, A bsidia cylindrospora, A bsidia spinosa, A cremonium cerealis, Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum dematium, Fusarium flocciferum, Mucor circinelloides f. janssenii, Mucor circineUoides f. wsitanicus, Penicillium atrovenetum, Penicillium canescens, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium corylophilum, PeniciUium daleae, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium nigricans, PeniciUium oxalicum, Penicillium saceulum, PeniciUium variabile, Pythium intermedium, Trichoderma strigosum

  15. Effect of spent cotton stalks on color removal and chemical oxygen demand lowering in olive oil mill wastewater by white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, S; Yeşilada, O

    1999-01-01

    Wastewater from olive oil mill was decolorized (and its chemical oxygen demand reduced in static cultivation) using the fungi Coriolus versicolor, Funalia trogii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus sajor-caju. The effect of cotton stalk on decolorizing and COD removing capability was demonstrated. P. chrysosporium (in 20% medium with cotton stalk) reduced the COD by 48% and color by 58%, F. trogii (in 30% medium with cotton stalk)) by 51 and 55%, respectively.

  16. Production of xylooligosaccharides from enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan by white-rot fungi Pleurotus = Produção de xilooligossacarídeos pela hidrólise enzimática de xylana por fungos Pleurotus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicellulose consists of non-cellulosic polysaccharides, with xylans and mannans as their main examples. In nature, xylan can be first degraded to xylooligosaccharides and finally to xylose by certain microorganisms. White-rot fungi basidiomycetes Pleurotus sp. BCCB068 and Pleurotus tailandia were used to degrade oat-spelts xylan under submerged fermentation for a period of 40 days. The study obtained activities of endo-1,4-β-xylanase and β-xylosidase and determination of xylan products by degradation. The fungi reached significant levels of xylan degradation by Pleurotus sp. BCCB068 (75.1% and P. tailandia (73.4%, following formations of xylooligosaccharides and sugar monomers. These Pleurotus strains proved to be a feasible alternative for biotechnological processes related to degradation of hemicellulose sources. A hemicelulose é um polissacarídeo não-celulósico, tendo como exemplos principais as xilanas e mananas. Na natureza, as xilanas podem ser degradadas por microrganismos, primeiramente a xilooligossacarídeos e finalmente a xilose. Fungos basidiomicetos Pleurotus sp. BCCB068 e Pleurotus tailandia foram utilizados para degradar xilana de aveia em fermentação submersa durante o período de 40 dias. Foram obtidas as atividades de endo-1,4-β-xilanase e β-xilosidase e a determinação dos produtos de degradação da xilana. Os fungos atingiram níveis significativos de degradação da xilana porPleurotus sp. BCCB068 (75.1% and P. tailandia (73.4%, seguido da formação de xilooligossacarídeos e monômeros de açúcar. Essas cepas de Pleurotus demonstraram ser uma alternativa viável para os processos biotecnológicos relacionados à degradação de fontes dehemicelulose.

  17. Expression of Five Endopolygalacturonase Genes and Demonstration that MfPG1 Overexpression Diminishes Virulence in the Brown Rot Pathogen Monilinia fructicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chou

    Full Text Available Monilinia fructicola is a devastating pathogen on stone fruits, causing blossom blight and fruit rot. Little is known about pathogenic mechanisms in M. fructicola and related Monilinia species. In this study, five endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG genes were cloned and functionally characterized in M. fructicola. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR revealed that the five MfPG genes are differentially expressed during pathogenesis and in culture under various pH regimes and carbon and nitrogen sources. MfPG1 encodes the major endo-PG and is expressed to significantly higher levels compared to the other four MfPGs in culture and in planta. MfPG1 function during pathogenesis was evaluated by examining the disease phenotypes and gene expression patterns in M. fructicola MfPG1-overexpressing strains and in strains carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene fused with MfPG1 (MfPG1-GUS. The MFPG1-GUS reporter was expressed in situ in conidia and hyphae following inoculation of flower petals, and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed MfPG1 expression during pathogenesis. MfPG1-overexpressing strains produced smaller lesions and higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS on the petals of peach and rose flowers than the wild-type strain, suggesting that MfPG1 affecting fungal virulence might be in part resulted from the increase of ROS in the Prunus-M. fructicola interactions.

  18. Degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses by the brown rot fungus Piptoporus betulinus--production of extracellular enzymes and characterization of the major cellulases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valásková, Vendula; Baldrian, Petr

    2006-12-01

    Piptoporus betulinus is a common wood-rotting fungus parasitic for birch (Betula species). It is able to cause fast mass loss of birch wood or other lignocellulose substrates. When grown on wheat straw, P. betulinus caused 65% loss of dry mass within 98 days, and it produced endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (EG), endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-mannanase, 1,4-beta-glucosidase (BG), 1,4-beta-xylosidase, 1,4-beta-mannosidase and cellobiohydrolase activities. The fungus was not able to efficiently degrade crystalline cellulose. The major glycosyl hydrolases, endoglucanase EG1 and beta-glucosidase BG1, were purified. EG1 was a protein of 62 kDa with a pI of 2.6-2.8. It cleaved cellulose internally, produced cellobiose and glucose from cellulose and cellooligosaccharides, and also showed beta-xylosidase and endoxylanase activities. The K(m) for carboxymethylcellulose was 3.5 g l(-1), with the highest activity at pH 3.5 and 70 degrees C. BG1 was a protein of 36 kDa with a pI around 2.6. It was able to produce glucose from cellobiose and cellooligosaccharides, but also produced galactose, mannose and xylose from the respective oligosaccharides and showed some cellobiohydrolase activity. The K(m) for p-nitrophenyl-1,4-beta-glucoside was 1.8 mM, with the highest activity at pH 4 and 60 degrees C, and the enzyme was competitively inhibited by glucose (K(i)=5.8 mM). The fungus produced mainly beta-glucosidase and beta-mannosidase activity in its fruit bodies, while higher activities of endoglucanase, endoxylanase and beta-xylosidase were found in fungus-colonized wood.

  19. Queima das flores e podridão parda em pessegueiro sob sistema de cultivo orgânico Blossom blight and brown rot on organic peach production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Keske

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A queima das flores e a podridão parda, causadas por Monilinia fructicola, são as doenças mais importantes na cultura do pessegueiro. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a incidência de queima das flores e podridão parda latente em frutos verdes e na colheita sob condições naturais de infecção, em relação à posição dos ramos em pomar com cultivares de pessegueiro sob sistema de cultivo orgânico. As avaliações foram realizadas com as cultivares 'Aurora', 'Flordaking', 'Marli' e 'Della Nona' em 2006, e 'Aurora' e 'Marli' em 2007 e 2008 e conduzidas em sistema orgânico em Rio do Sul, Santa Catarina (SC. Foram monitorados semanalmente os conídios do patógeno em armadilhas tipo "cata-vento". A incidência média da doença na floração foi de 0,8 ('Della Nona' a 19,1% ('Marli'. A incidência na colheita foi de 15,4('Della Nona' a 65,7% ('Flordaking'. Correlações positivas e significativas foram verificadas entre número de conídios e fases fenológicas variando de 0,67 ('Flordaking a 0,99 ('Aurora'. A posição do ramo no pomar, na linha ou na entrelinha não influenciou a incidência da doença nas flores e nos frutos. A maior concentração de conídios foi observada na fase de maturação dos frutos.The blossom blight and brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola are the most important diseases of peach tree. This study aimed to verify the incidence of the blossom blight on flowers and latent brown rot in green fruits, and at harvest under natural infection, in relation to the position of branches in the orchard with peach cultivars under organic system. The evaluations were carried out with the cultivars 'Aurora', 'Flordaking', 'Marli' and 'Della Nona' in 2006, 'Aurora' and 'Marli' in 2007 and 2008 and conducted in an organic syste m in Rio do Sul, SC. Conidia were monitored weekly by "winddriven" traps. At flowering the average incidence was 0.8 ('Della Nona' to 19.1% ('Marli'. The incidence at harvest was 15

  20. 一种玉米新型细菌性褐腐病的病原鉴定%Identification of the bacteria causing a new brown stalk rot on maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾沁; 张昊; 黄海; 丁正; 伍辉军; 高学文

    2016-01-01

    本研究从河北省武邑、献县、阜城和永年采集感病玉米植株。病株症状为叶梢枯死卷曲,叶脉产生黄色病斑,茎秆处黄褐色干腐。从发病植株中分离得到了10株疑似病原细菌菌株,经过回接验证和16S rDNA 和 gyrB 基因的序列分析,结果表明,引起该病害的病原物为菠萝泛菌(Pantoea ananatis )和分散泛菌(Pantoea dispersa )。这是国内首次报道菠萝泛菌和分散泛菌引起玉米细菌性病害。%To identify the pathogens of newly occurred maize disease,we collected the samples of maize disease from four areas (Wuyi,Xianxian,Fucheng and Yongnian)in Hebei Province.The symptoms of the disease showed yellowish-brown dry rot in corn stalk,curl and blight symptoms on leaf tips and yellow spots on leaf veins. Pathogenic tests were assayed by inoculating the bacteria isolated from the diseased corn plants.The pathogens were identified as Pantoea ananatis and P .dispersa according to the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and gyrB gene .To our knowledge,it is the first report of P .ananatis and P .dispersa causing maize disease in China.

  1. On the reaction of some bacteria and fungi on coal tar creosote. Zur Verhalten einiger Bakterien und Pilze gegenueber Steinkohlenteeroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, O.; Dittberner, D.; Faix, O. (Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Ordinariat fuer Holzbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    To contribute to the waste management of wood preservatives, the biodegradability of coal tar creosote by bacteria and fungi has been investigated. Microorganisms comprised 24 bacterial strains and 31 fungi from different systematic and ecological groups as well as isolates from contaminated soils. Based on countings of viable cells, the experiments with various nutrient media, methods of cultivation, preservative concentrations, and organic solvents yielded some bacteria which could grow in the presence of creosote: {ital Aeromonas hydrophila}, {ital Flavobacterium} sp., {ital Pseudomonas arvilla}, {ital P. fluorescens}, and {ital P. putida}. The white-rot fungi {ital Bjerkandera adusta}, {ital Heterobasidion annosum}, {ital Hirschioporus abietinus}, {ital Lentinula edodes}, {ital Peniophora gigantea}, {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Schizophyllum commune}, and {ital Trametes versicolor}, the brown-rot fungus {ital Lentinus lepideus}, the staining fungi {ital Ceratocystis piceae} and {ital Stereum sanguinolentum}, and the moulds {ital Paecilomyces variotii} and {ital Trichoderma viride} also grew with creosote. To prepare samples for IR-measurements, continuous extraction of creosote from the nutrient liquid by percolation with methylene chloride was suitable. However, the IR-spectra of creosote did not show any measurable changes after incubation with 16 bacterial strains and 6 fungi. 42 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Research on the Optimum Degradation Conditions of Atrazine by White Rot Fungi Laccase%白腐菌漆酶对莠去津最适降解条件的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程科; 毕云枫; 沈明浩

    2012-01-01

    [目的]将白腐菌Coprinopsis cinerea okayama 7#130漆酶对三嗪类农药莠去津的降解条件进行了研究.[方法]向纯漆酶溶液中加入一定浓度的莠去津溶液进行降解反应,采用HPLC测定其含量,计算降解率.利用Box-Behnken设计对影响降解此农药的关键因素进行优化.[结果]经Design-Expert软件二次回归分析,得到莠去津降解的最适条件:pH值为6.9,温度为38.3℃,反应体系体积为5.3 mL,转速为186 r/min.在此条件下,莠去津降解率响应预测值为52.41%,验证值为52.32%.[结论]最适条件下的降解率提高了10%~15%,这为降低莠去津对环境的危害提供了科学依据.%[Aims] The degradation conditions of triazine pesticide atrazine by white-rot fungi Coprinopsis cinerea okayama7# 130 laccase were studied. [Methods] Some certain concentration of atrazine was added to the pure laccase solution before the degradation. The HPLC was performed to determine the content, and then the degradation rate was calculated. The key factors influencing the degradation of atrazine were optimized by Box-Behnken design. [Results] The result was undertaken by the second regression analysis using Design-Expert software, which showed that the optimal condition of the atrazine degrading was as follows: The pH value was 6.9, the temperature was 38.3 °C, the reaction volume was 5.3 mL, and the shaking speed was 186 r/min respectively. Under the optimal condition, the predicted value of the atrazine degradation rate was 52.41%, and the experimental value of atrazine degradation rate was 52.32%. [Conclusions] The degradation rate increased by 10-15% under the optimal condition, which provided the scientific basis to reduce the harm to the environment caused by atrazine.

  3. Decoloration of direct fast turquoise blue with white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus%Pleurotus ostreatus对直接耐晒翠蓝染料溶液脱色的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷国元; 丁翠萍; 张晓晴; 印露

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus in decolorizing the dye solution of direct fast turquoise blue as well the effects of pH value, temperature and concentration of nutriments on the decoloration efficiency. It shows that the solution of direct fast turquoise blue is decolorized efficiently with Pleurotus ostreatus under suitable conditions where the optimum pH value and temperature are about 5 and 22 ℃ ,respectively. Moreover, when the ratio of nutriment concentration in solution to liquid medium of Pleurotus ostreatus is greater than 20%, the increase of nutriment concentration in solution has no remarkable effect on decoloration efficiency. The bio adsorption of Pleurotus ostreatus to the dye accords with Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the saturated adsorption capacity of Pleurotus ostreatus is 20 mg dye/g gross biomass in the optimum condition. Furthermore, Freundlich adsorption model may be used to represent the bio adsorption, too.The adsorption kinetics of Pleurotus ostreatus for direct fast turquoise blue accords with the pseudo second rate equation. It is verified that decoloration of the dye solution by Pleurotus ostreatus is achieved by the mechanisms of both adsorption and biodegradation.%研究Pleurotus ostreatus(白腐真菌)对直接耐晒翠蓝GL染料溶液的脱色性能.结果表明,Pleurotus ostreatus能有效用于直接耐晒翠蓝染料溶液的脱色,pH值为5、温度为22 ℃左右脱色效果最佳;C溶液/C培养基>20%时,增大营养物浓度对脱色率无显著影响;Pleurotus ostreatu对 GL的生物吸附符合Langmuir吸附模式,饱和吸附量为20 mg/g(湿菌体);并可用Freundlich吸附模型表达,吸附动力学可用准二级速率方程描述;脱色是通过菌体吸附和菌酶降解双重机制实现的.

  4. Optimization of TRAP-PCR System and A Primary Study on Genetic Variation of Genes Related to Lignocellulose Enzyme of Three Wood-rotting Fungi%3种木腐菌木质纤维素相关酶基因的TRAP标记体系优化与遗传变异初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉英; 吕世翔; 王秋玉

    2012-01-01

    Collecting three typical wood-rotting fungi from Maoer Mountain Forest Farm of Northeast Forestry University as the experimental materials, a preliminary study on polymorphism of the encoding genes of five lignocellulose enzyme, including lip, mnp, lac, cbh II and cdh, have been done. At the same time, the reaction system and process of TRAP-PCR of three wood-rotting fungi have been optimized firstly, and then 11 pair primers were selected from 32 pair primers, including 3 pair primers of MnP encoding gene, 3 pair of Lae encoding gene, 3 pair of CBH encoding gene, as well as 2 pair of CDH encoding gene. The result shows that three wood-rotting fungi generated 265 bands by TRAP-PCR, among which 206 bands are polymorphic bands with 77.74% in potymorphic rate ranging from 60% in minimum and 100% in maximum. This experiment proved the possibility of genetic analysis of wood- rotting fungus by using TRAP marker.%以黑龙江省东北林业大学帽儿山实验林场的3种典型木材腐朽菌为试验材料,采用TRAP分子标记的手段,针对5种木质素与纤雏素相关酶基因LiP、MnP、Lac、CBHⅡ、CDH设计引物,初步分析这些编码基因的多态性。试验确定了3种木腐菌TRAP分子标记的反应体系和反应程序。经过对32对引物进行筛选试验,共确定11对引物,包括3对标记MnP编码基因的引物、3对标记Lac编码基因的引物、3对标记CBH编码基因的引物,以及2对标记CDH编码基因的引物。结果表明:3种木腐菌的TRAP.PCR标记共产生了265条条带,其中多态性条带206条,占总条带的77.74%,多态性最高为100%,最低为60%,证明了TRAP分子标记可以应用于木腐菌的遗传分析。

  5. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ROT-CAUSING FUNGI OF WINTER JUJUBE IN STORAGE PERIOD AND SCREENING OF BROAD SPECTRUM ANTAGONIST%冬枣储藏期致腐真菌分离鉴定及广谱拮抗菌株的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静琴; 陈亮; 岳贵龙; 蔡静平

    2013-01-01

    Four rot-causing fungi were isolated from the rotten tissues of winter jujube and identified as Rhizomorpha Roth.ex FT, Alternaria tenuissima, Coniothyrium olivaceum and Penicillium expansum. 142 bacteria strains were isolated from different samples by dilution method, and 7 strains with remarkable antagonistic effect against the four rot-causing fungi were screened from the 142 bacteria strains by antagonistic cultivation method, strain LM2303 had the best broad spectrum antagonistic effect, and the inhibition zone widths of strain LM2303 to the four rot-causing fungi were respectively (8.5± 0.5) mm, (8.0± 0.3) mm, (10.3± 0.6) mm and (7.5± 0.9) mm. Based on morphologic observation, physiological-biochemical characteristic analysis and 16S rDNA sequence comparison, strain LM2303 should be Bacillus subtilis. Accordingly, strain LM2303 has significant antagonistic effect against the main rot-causing fungi of winter jujube, thereby laying the foundation for biocontrol of rot-causing fungi on winter jujube during storage.%从不同腐烂病症的冬枣中分离得到致腐真菌4株,经鉴定分别为根菌索菌(Rhizomorpha Roth.ex Fr)、细极链格孢(Alternaria tenuissima)、橄榄色盾壳霉(Coniothyrium olivaceum)、扩展青霉(Penicillium expansum);采用稀释分离法从样品中分离得到细菌菌株142株,采用对峙培养法从中筛选到对4种致腐真菌均具有明显拮抗作用的细菌菌株7株,其中菌株LM2303的广谱拮抗效果最佳,其对上述4种致腐真菌的抑菌带宽度分别为(8.5±0.5) mm、(8.0±0.3)mm、(10.3±0.6) mm和(7.5±0.9) mm;通过形态学观察、生理生化特性分析及16S rDNA序列比对,菌株LM2303应为枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis).菌株LM2303对冬枣主要致腐真菌均具有显著的拮抗作用,为冬枣储藏期致腐真菌生物防控奠定了基础.

  6. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, T.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which produc

  7. Antagonism of Trichoderma spp.to Fungi Caused Root Rot of Sophora tonkinensis%木霉菌对山豆根根腐病菌的拮抗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃柳燕; 蒋妮; 唐美琼; 缪剑华; 李林轩

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究木霉菌对山豆根根腐病菌茄腐镰孢S9(Fusarium solani)的拮抗作用,探讨生物防治菌在防治中药材土传病害上的应用前景.方法:采用生长速度法、对峙培养法研究哈茨木霉H2(Trichoderma harsianum)、绿色木霉M6(Trichoderma viride)和康宁木霉K1(Trichoderma koningii)对山豆根根腐病菌S9的拮抗作用,并讨论了其作用机理.结果:发现H2、M6竞争优势显著,生长速度分别是S9的1.43~2.72倍和1.43~1.95倍;K1的空间竞争优势较弱,生长速度不如S9.3种木霉菌对S9均有不同程度的拮抗作用,其中,M6和H2对S9的拮抗作用较强,即使在提前3 d接入病原菌的情况下,M6和H2对S9的抑制率仍能分别达100%和82.35%,拮抗系数均达Ⅰ级;K1对S9的抑制率为46.36%,拮抗系数为Ⅳ级.在显微镜下观察到木霉菌通过缠绕、寄生等方式使S9发生菌丝断裂、缢缩、消解等现象.结论:哈茨木霉和绿色木霉作为生防菌在防治中药材土传病害上具有深入开发的前景.%Objective:To study the antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi S9 ( Fusarium solani)which caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis and discuss the further develop prospects of microbial biological control in soil-borne diseases on Chinese herbal medicines. Methods:Antagonism of H2 (Trichoderma harsianum ) , M6 (Trichoderma viride ) and K1 (Trichoderma koningii ) to Fusarium solani were researched by growth rate and confront culture. And their mechanisms were discussed. Results: H2 and M6 had obvious competitive advantage, the growth rate of which were 1.43 ~ 2. 72 times and 1.43 ~ 1.95 times as S9 respectively. The space competitive advantage of K1 was relatively weak ;the growth rate was slower than S9. The antagonism of three species of Trichoderma spp. to S9 was in varying degrees. The antagonism to S9 of M6 and H2 was better,the inhibition rate were 100% and 82. 35% respectively,even cultivated S9 for three days in advance. And their

  8. DEGRADATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY WHITE ROT BASIDIOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. PARMAR, P.N. MERVANA B.R.M. VYAS*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Dyes released by the textile industries pose a threat to environmental quality. Ligninolytic white-rot basidiomycetes can effectively degrade colored effluents and conventional dyes. White-rot fungi produce various isoforms of extracellular oxidases including laccase, Mn peroxidase and lignin peroxidase (LiP, which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates.  The textile industry, by far the most avid user of synthetic dyes, is in need of eco-efficient solutions for its colored effluents. White rot basidiomycetous fungi comprise the only group of organisms known to completely degrade lignin. Ligninolytic enzymes have potential applications in a large number of fields, including the chemical, fuel, food, agricultural, paper, textile, cosmetic industrial sectors and more. This ligninolytic system of white-rot fungi is also directly involved in the degradation of various xenobiotic compounds apart from textile dyes. Their capacities to remove xenobiotic substances make them a useful tool for bioremediation purposes. This paper reviews involvement of ligninolytic enzymes of white rot basidiomycetes in the degradation of textiles dyes and xenobiotic compounds for their industrial and biotechnological applications.

  9. ldentification and Control Methods of Eggplant Black Blight, Ascochyta Leaf Spot, Early Blight, Brown Leaf Spot, Anthracnose, Black Spot and Rhizopus Fruit Rot%茄子黑枯病、褐轮纹病、早疫病、褐斑病、炭疽病、黑斑病和黑根霉果腐病的识别与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杨林; 郑丹丹

    2013-01-01

    The symptom and disease characteristics of eggplant black blight, ascochyta leaf spot, early blight, brown leaf spot, anthracnose, black spot and rhizopus fruit rot were introduced. Then the integrated control methods were put forward, which contained measures of a-gricultural control, chemical control and so on.%介绍了茄子黑枯病、褐轮纹病、早疫病、褐斑病、炭疽病、黑斑病和黑根霉果腐病的危害症状、发病特点,并从农业措施、化学防治等方面总结了各病害的综合防治方法。

  10. Evaluation of two wild types of Pleurotus ostreatus (MCC07 and MCC20) isolated from nature for their ability to decolorize Benazol Black ZN textile dye in comparison to some commercial types of white rot fungi: Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus djamor, and Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmiş, Erbil; Azbar, Nuri; Kalyoncu, Fatih

    2008-05-01

    Biological decolorization of Benazol Black ZN, a reactive azo-type textile dyestuff, was comparatively studied using 3 different commercial-type white rot fungi strains (Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus, Pleurotus djamor, and 2 wild types of P. ostreatus (MCC07 and MCC20) isolated from the nature. The initial dye concentrations in the medium were 500 and 1000 mg.L-1. All the organisms studied decolorized Benazol Black ZN to varying degrees. At low dye concentration, both commercial and wild type of P. ostreatus resulted in the best decolorization, conversely, wild-type P. ostreatus (MCC07) was found to be much more robust against increasing dye concentration and provided the best decolorization efficiency at high dye concentration.

  11. WEIGHT LOSS AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CASTOR OIL-TREATED Pinus caribaea (Morelet WOOD EXPOSED TO FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewunmi Omobolaji ADENAIYA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for environmental sustainability calls for a radical change from the use of synthetic wood preservatives which persist in the environment even after wood has been taken out of service. There has therefore been a growing interest in the development of efficacious biocides from plants, prompting the exploration of castor seed oil as a potential wood antifungal in this study due to its reported antimicrobial properties. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the resistance of castor oil treated P. caribaea wood against two strains of wood basidiomycetes. Five trees of Pinus caribaea were harvested at Shasha Forest Reserve, Osun State. Wood samples were obtained from the top, middle and base of the trees. The samples were conditioned and treated with four formulated fungicides prepared from mechanically extracted oil of castor seeds. The treated and control samples were inoculated with Sclerotium rolfsii (Brown rot and Ganoderma lucidum (White rot for 24 weeks. Parameters such as oil yield, preservative absorption, weight loss and compressive strength of the treated wood samples were determined. ANOVA was used in analyzing the data generated. Results show that the oil yield of the seed of the plant is 41.75%. The preservative absorption of the wood ranged between 114.85 - 277.12 (Kgm-3 , weight loss (1.36 - 15.85% and MCS// (33.05 - 48.35N/mm2 . Sampling height and preservative concentration significantly influenced weight loss of the wood (p<0.05. The 30% preservative concentration performed best, having the least weight loss (1.71% and 1.61% and highest MCS// (47.06N/mm2 and 44.65N/mm2 after exposure to S. rolfsii and G. lucidum, respectively. The brown rot (4.12% was more virulent than the white rot (3.66% on the basis of wood weight loss, however, the MCS// results indicated otherwise. It is concluded that castor seed oil is effective in protecting wood against white and brown rot fungi.

  12. The plant cell wall decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, Daniel C.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Baker, Scott E.; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Vries, Ronald P. de; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hä; vard,; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José; L.; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José; A.; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kü; es, Ursula; Hibbett, David S.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hö; gberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Watkinson, Sarah C.

    2011-05-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood?residual lignin contributing up to 30percent of forest soil carbon?and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the ?dry rot? fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota

  13. 三种白腐菌及其组合菌种木质素降解酶比较研究%Comparative studies on lignin degradation enzymes produced by three species of white-rot fungi and combination of the strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段传人; 朱丽平; 姚月良

    2009-01-01

    朱红栓菌Trametes cinnabarina、糙皮侧耳Pleurotus ostreatus、黄孢原毛平革菌Phanerochaete chrysosporium是产生木质素降解酶能力强的菌株.对三种白腐菌及其组合菌种产生木质素降解酶能力和行为进行了比较分析和研究.结果表明,最佳培养方式为液体振荡培养;最佳培养基为酵母膏液体培养基.在产漆酶(laccases,lacs)方面,Pleurotus ostreatus和Phanerochaete chrysosporium的组合菌种的酶活最强,在第6天出现峰值,酶活达到450U/L;在产锰过氧化物酶(manganese peroxidases,maps)方面,Trametes cinnabarina和Pleurotus ostreatus的组合菌种的酶活最强,在第10天出现峰值,酶活达到1050U/L;在产木质素过氧化物酶(lignin peroxidases,lips)方面,Trametes cinnabarina和Phanerochaete chrysosporium的组合菌种的酶活最强,在第8天出现产酶峰值,酶活达到2990U/L.筛选结果表明,组合菌种比单菌种产生的三种主要木质素降解酶的活性强,这为白腐菌高效产酶提供了一条新的途径,并为白腐菌研究领域的后续工作奠定基础.%Trametes cinnabarina, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are high-yielding strains producing lignin degradation enzymes. Comparative studies on lignin degradation enzymes produced by these three species of white-rot fungi and combination of the swains were conducted. The results showed that liquid-shaking culture was the best culture method, yeast extract liquid medium was the best medium. As far as laccase (lacs) production was concerned, the enzyme activities of lacs produced by the combination of Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were the highest, reaching 450U/L on day 6; the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidases (mnps) produced by the combination of Trametes cinnabarina and Pleurotus ostreatus were the highest, reaching 1050U/L on day 10; the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidases (lips) produced by the combination of Trametes cinnabarina and

  14. Optimization of the Conditions for Ligninolytic Enzymes Production from White Rot Fungi Pleurotus eryngii-Co007%白腐菌Pleurotus eryngii-Co007产木质素降解酶条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 郭倩; 姚善泾

    2011-01-01

    Ligninolytic enzymes involved in lignin biodegradation are mainly produced by white-rot fungus. In order to enhance the ligninolytic enzymes activity of Pleurotus eryngii-Co007, the ligninolytic enzymes production curve and the influence on igninolytic enzymes production by fermentation conditions were studied. Pleurotus eryngii-Co007 was found to produce maximum amount of ligninolytic enzymes at the eighth day. The results of single factor tests were listed as follows: the optimum fermentation parameters were 10% ~ 15% (v/v) inoculation volume, 25 ~ 27℃ and pH 5.0 ~ 6.0, which the most significant factor was pH; maltose and organic nitrogen were propitious to strengthen the expression of ligninolytic enzyme. However, as far as the increase of the ligninolytic enzymes expression and production costs were concerned, the compositions of optimal fermentation medium were glucose 3% , yeast extract 0. 2%, beef extract 0.2%; the effective inducers were straw, Cu2+ and Tween 80.%木质素降解酶是参与降解木质素的酶类,广泛存在于白腐真菌中.为提高白腐菌Pleurotus eryngii-Co007的产木质素降解酶的活力,研究了该菌株的产酶曲线、发酵参数及培养基组分对其产木质素降解酶的影响.单因素试验结果表明该菌株发酵第8天时发酵液中木质素降解酶酶活最高;较优的发酵参数是pH 5.0~6.0、发酵温度25~27℃,接种量10%~15%,其中pH影响最显著;麦芽糖和有机氮源有利于木质素降解酶的表达.但考虑到酶表达的增加量和生产成本的经济性选择3%的葡萄糖、0.2%酵母粉和0.2%牛肉膏组合氮源;诱导剂中秸杆、Cu2+和吐温80诱导产酶效果明显.

  15. The Fungi and Insects Which Attack Rubberwood%危害橡胶木的真菌和昆虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢嘉琪

    2001-01-01

    The biological characteristics of the insects and fungi which seriously attack rubberwood and the present state of rubberwood biodeterioration in China were described. The fungi attaching rubberwood consist mainly of blue-stain fungi, moulds and rotting fungi. The insects include beetle borers, termites and some other Coleopteran species, such as longicorns and snout beetles etc., the total insect species are near to one hundred. The stain fungi, moulds and beetles should be paid more attention to in rubberwood preservation.

  16. The Study on the Reciprocity of the Lignin-degrading Enzymes Secretion by White-rot Fungi Under the Co-fermentation in Corn-cob Medium%白腐菌混菌发酵玉米芯木质素酶系分泌的种属互惠性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯丽霞; 方晶

    2011-01-01

    研究了在玉米芯为主要碳源的液态培养基中,白腐菌-香菇、平菇、灵芝菌株间两两混合培养,在胞外木质素酶系分泌上的互惠性。结果表明:单一菌种培养下,香菇的漆酶(Lac)、木质素过氧化物酶(LiP)和锰过氧化物酶(MnP)活性均于第10天达到峰值,分别为1120、358.2和875μ/L;平菇的Lac、LiP和MnP活性均于第6天达到峰值,分别为3060、567.8和1275μ/L;灵芝的Lac活性于第10天达峰值,为2945μ/L,LiP和MnP活性于第8天达到峰值,分别为428.2、975μ/L。混菌培养下,香菇+平菇、平菇+灵芝的混合培养体系表现了酶活峰值提高、峰面积增大的优势;其中又属平菇+灵芝组合的效果最明显,体系中Lac、LiP、MnP活性均于第10天达到峰值,分别为11400、924.5、2200μ/L。实验表明,不同种属白腐菌株混合培养对体系的木质素酶分泌存在影响。%The species mutualism of lignin-degrading enzymes secretion under co-fermentation in liquid corn-cob medium between white-rot fungi Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum were studied. The finding demonstrated that : in individual fermentation, the activities of laccase ( Lac), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase(MnP) of L. edodes all reached the peak values of 1120 μ/L,358.2 μ/L and 875 μ/L in the 10th day; and the activities of Lac, LiP and MnP of P. ostreatus reached the peak values as 3060 μ/L,567.8 μ/L and 1275 μ/L in the 6th day; G. lucidum' s Lac active value reached the peak in the 10th day as 2945 μ/L,its LiP and MnP active value reached the peak in the 8th day as 428.2 μ/L and 975 μ/L. Mixed culture of L. edodes and P. ostreatus, P. ostreatus and G. lucidum both can increase the enzymatic active peak value and the peak area. And the co-fermentation of P. ostreatus and G. lucidum has the most obvious effects. In the mixed culture system of

  17. Anatomical changes in Willow Wood Decayed by the brown rot fungus Coriolellus malicola (Basidiomycota Modificaciones anatómicas en madera de sauce por acción Coriolellus malicola (Aphyllophorales agente de pudrición castaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A. Murace

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina, Salix wood is employed mainly in pulp and paper industry. In this country, the brown rotter C oriolellus malicola was found in association with willow plantations. The purpose of this work was to study the anatomical changes caused by C. malicola in willow wood in order to provide information on the effects of brown rot decay in the yield and quality of pulp. Two willow clones were employed: Salix nigra 4 and Salix babylonica x Salix alba cv I 131-25 . Two exposure times were used: 75 and 150 days. The percentages of weight loss produced by this fungus in both clones was ca. 30% at 75 days and ca. 60% at 150 days of decay. C. malicola degraded mainly fibre walls. Microscopically, the loss of cell shape, the presence of transwall fractures and the loss of birefringence were the main anatomical modifications observed. According to our observations decayed Salix wood by C. malicola seems to be inadequate for pulp industry.En la República Argentina la madera de Salix es empleada principalmente en la industria papelera. En este país el hongo de pudrición castaña C oriolellus malicola se encontró asociado a plantaciones comerciales de sauce. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar las modificaciones anatómicas causada por C. malicola en la madera de sauce con el fin de aportar información sobre los efectos de la pudrición castaña en los rendimientos y calidad de la pulpa para papel. Se emplearon dos clones: Salix nigra 4 y Salix babylonica x Salix alba cv I. 131-25 . Se trabajó con dos tiempos de exposición: 75 y 150 días. Las pérdidas de peso producidas por esta cepa en ambos clones fueron de ca. del 30% a los 75 días y de ca. del 60% a los 150 días de incubación. C. malicola degradó principalmente las paredes de las fibras. Microscópicamente, las principales modificaciones anatómicas observadas fueron: deformación del tejido, presencia de fracturas transversales en las paredes celulares y pérdida de

  18. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt.

  19. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  20. Potential of non-ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2015-12-25

    In previous decades, white-rot fungi as bioremediation agents have been the subjects of scientific research due to the potential use of their unspecific oxidative enzymes. However, some non-white-rot fungi, mainly belonging to the Ascomycota and Zygomycota phylum, have demonstrated their potential in the enzymatic transformation of environmental pollutants, thus overcoming some of the limitations observed in white-rot fungi with respect to growth in neutral pH, resistance to adverse conditions and the capacity to surpass autochthonous microorganisms. Despite their presence in so many soil and water environments, little information exists on the enzymatic mechanisms and degradation pathways involved in the transformation of hydrocarbons by these fungi. This review describes the bioremediation potential of non-ligninolytic fungi with respect to chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also shows known conversion pathways and the prospects for future research.

  1. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

  2. Root rot of peas in the Netherlands: fungal pathogens, inoculum potential and soil receptivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarzun, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fungi associated to pea (Pisum sativum L.) root rot were studied. Fusarium and Oomycetes were most common. Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, Fsp, was widely distributed and the most frequent fungus in roots of diseased crops. The pathogens Thielaviopsis basicola , Tb, and Aphanomyces euteiches, Ae, wer

  3. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W. Severity of crown rot disease was determined through visual assessment of the first internode of 20 tillers obtained from each field. Incidence of crown rot pathogens per field was determined by plating the 20 tillers on Petri plates with 20% potato dextrose agar amended with lactic acid (aPDA medium. Resulting fungal colonies from monoxenic culture were identified by morphological or molecular-assisted identification. Severity of crown rot varied between 11.3% and 80% for individual fields. Culture plate analysis showed 72.2% of stems were infected with some fungus. Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, and F. culmorum, pathogens associated with Fusarium crown rot disease were isolated from 13.5% of tillers. Gaeumannomyces graminis, causal agent of take-all disease in cereals, was isolated from 11.1% of culms. Phaeosphaeria sp., an endophyte and possibly a non-pathogenic fungus, was isolated from 13.9% of tillers. Pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia spp. and Microdochium nivale, other saprophyte, and several unidentified non-sporulating fungi were isolated at frequencies lower than 3% of the total. Fusarium crown rot and take-all were the most prevalent and distributed crown rot diseases present in wheat crops in southern Chile.

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF A ORGANIC IODINE COMPOUND AGAINST WOOD DECAYING FUNGI AND TERMITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Weber Scheeren

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a low toxicity organic compound as fungicide and insecticide was studied by a accelerated laboratory bioassay according to the japanese standard. The compound was evaluated at concentrations of 0,5, 0,75 and 1,0% using ethanol as solvent. The subterraneous termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and the decay fungi Coriolus versicolor (white rot and Tyromyces palustris (brown rot were used in the trials to evaluate the insecticide and fungicide action respectively. The wood specimens with dimensions of 40 x 20 x 5mm were treated by surface coating (brushing method at a rate of 110±10g/m2. The percentage weight loss of the wood blocks and the termite mortality (insecticide action and the weight loss of the wood blocks before and after the fungi attack (fungicide action were determined. The efficiency of the formulations were evaluated according to the Value of Efficiency. Results showed that the compound was of little or no efficient as insecticide against Coptotermes formosanus in the three concentrations analysed. The compound showed a good performance as fungicide against Coriolus versicolor and Tyromyces palustris with a Value of Efficiency higher than 90 in the three concentrations analysed. The best results were obtained with the product at 1,0% concentration in the treated and unleached wood specimens. Tyromyces palustris caused a larger damage in the wood blocks than Coriolus versicolor. The product showed a low capacity of fixation in the wood; therefore, it is not indicated for treating wood that will be in direct contact with the soil or under outdoor conditions.

  5. Relationship between potassium chloride suppression of corn stalk rot and soil microorganism characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoyan; JIN Jiyun; HE Ping; LIU Hailong; LI Wenjuan

    2007-01-01

    Observations from a site-fixed field trial of 12 years in Jilin Province show that potassium chloride (KC1)application has a significant positive influence on corn stalk rot incidence.Incubation experiments were conducted to study the effects of KC1 and soil extracts on the growth of Fusarium graminearum,the most common stalk rot fungi in this area,and the population changes in rhizosphere fungi,bacteria and actinomyces at different growth stages of corn.The results show that KC1 addition to the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium could not directly suppress Fusarium graminearum development.Soil extracts from soil samples taken from the field plots with and without KC1 application affected Fusarium graminearum development,with soil extracts with KC1 treatments suppressing Fusarium graminearum development more significantly,compared with that from the KC1-free treatment.These results indicate that soil extracts play a role in the interaction between corn and Fusarium graminearum.Long-term KC1 application may increase the populations of rhizosphere fungi and actinomyces in the early growth stages,while there is no significant difference in the number of bacteria in rhizosphere among the treatments.Also,the populations of rhizosphere fungi are negatively correlated with the incidence of stalk rot in the early growth stages of corn.The sensitive infection stages of pathogen to corn consist of the stages when there is significant difference in the populations of rhizosphere fungi and actinomyces.The change of microorganism populations (especially fungi) in soil may be associated with the incidence decrease and is one of the mechanisms of KC1 suppressing corn stalk rot.

  6. Isolamento e seleção de fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira em florestas de Eucalyptus spp. com potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes Isolation and screening of wood white rot fungi from Eucalyptus spp. forests with potential for use in degradation of stumps and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kunieda de Alonso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou isolar fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira, a partir de basidiocarpos e de fragmentos de madeira de eucalipto coletados em várias regiões do país, bem como testar seu potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes mortas em plantios comerciais de eucalipto, após o corte raso. Para o isolamento dos fungos foi desenvolvido um meio de cultura de serragem de eucalipto-ágar. Dentre 292 isolados obtidos e submetidos ao teste de Bavendamm, 144 foram classificados como causadores de podridão-branca, capazes de produzir fenoloxidases. Dentre as nove relações C/N testadas, observou-se uma tendência de ocorrer maior degradação de cavacos naquelas iguais a 60 : 1, 200 : 1 e 300 : 1. Utilizando a relação C/N igual a 60 : 1, realizaram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a degradação de cavacos de Eucalyptus saligna por isolados fúngicos de podridão-branca. No primeiro experimento, avaliado aos 90 dias de incubação, foram selecionados sete isolados, que causaram perda de peso em cavacos superior ou igual à causada por Trametes versicolor, usado para comparação. No segundo experimento foram testados 46 isolados fúngicos. Dentre os mais eficientes estavam os sete isolados selecionados no primeiro teste, além de outros quatro isolados. Baseado na análise de DNA, seis isolados foram identificados, sendo três pertencentes à espécie Pycnoporus sanguineus, um ao gênero Peniophora sp., um ao gênero Pestalotiopsis sp. e um ao gênero Ganoderma sp.The aim of this work was to isolate native wood white-rot fungi from fungal fruit-bodies and eucalyptus wood fragments from different regions of Brazil and to test their potential for degrading dead stumps and roots in Eucalyptus plantings after harvest. Fungi isolates were obtained in a culture medium composed by Eucalyptus sawdust and agar. Among 292 isolates submitted to the Banvedamm test, 144 were classified as phenoloxidases producing isolates. Among nine C

  7. Isolation and Identification of Antagonistic Bacterium Strain JK-7Against the Pathogenic Fungi Causing Mulberry Root Rot Disease%桑树根腐病真菌病原拮抗细菌JK-7的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳东; 曹梦琪; 王俊; 王凯旋; 孙国霞; 吴福安

    2013-01-01

    Mulberry root rot is a soil-borne infectious disease in mulberry root. In order to implement biological control a-gainst mulberry root rot disease, 84 strains of Bacillus were isolated from mulberry rhizospheric soil. A Bacillus strain which has antagonistic activity against Fusarium solani strain FS-1, the pathogenic fungi causing mulberry root rot disease, was screened by confrontation culture method and numbered as JK-7. The colonial morphology of strain JK-7 on LB medium was translucent, smooth and waxy on surface, and irregular at edge. Strain JK-7 is a Gram positive bacterium, rod-shaped and 0. 5 ~0. 7 μm ×1. 0 ~1. 2 μm in size. The oval-shaped spores located on middle or sub-terminal of bacterium. This strain could make use of starch and tyrosine. Its parasporal crystal was determined to be negative and reaction with peroxidase was positive. 16S rDNA sequence of strain JK-7 was amplified by PCR using a pair of bacterial universal primers and the obtained fragment size was 1 477 bp. Phylogenetic tree revealed that strain JK-7 had the closest genetic relationship with Bacillus cereus. Taken together, strain JK-7 was identified as Bacillus cereus. Plate confrontation test showed that strain JK-7 had inhibitory effect on hypha growth of pathogenic strain FS-1. Scanning electron microscopic observation indicated that strain JK-7 colonized on the surface of hyphae of FS-1, and caused deformity and breakage of mycelia, showing antagonistic effect to FS-1.%桑树根腐病是一类土壤传染性桑树根部病害.为了实施对这类病害的生物防治,从桑树根际土壤分离到84株芽孢杆菌,通过对峙培养法从中筛选出一株对桑树根腐病真菌病原腐皮镰刀菌(Fusarium solani)FS-1具有拮抗作用的菌株,将该菌株编号为JK-7.JK-7菌株在LB培养基上的菌落呈半透明、光滑蜡状,边缘不规则;为革兰阳性菌,杆状,大小0.5~0.7μm×1.0~1.2 μm,芽孢呈椭圆形,位于菌体中部或亚末端;菌株能

  8. Root rot diseases of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L as affected by defloliation intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of sugar beet re-growth after water stress defoliation on root rots of three cultivars (Europa, Rival Corsica, which were spring sown in Thessaly, central Greece, for two growing seasons (2003-04. At the beginning of July, sugar beets were subjected to water deficit with irrigation withholding. A month later, three defoliation levels (control - C, moderate - MD, severe - SD and irrigation were applied. Thus, sugar beets were forced to re-grow and three harvests (15, 30 and 40 days after defoliation - DAD were conducted. Rotted roots per hectare were counted and pathogens were identified. Data were analyzed as a four-factor randomized complete block design with years, defoliation levels, sampling times and cultivars as main factors. The number of rotted roots was increased with the defoliation level and was significantly higher for SD sugar beets (3748 roots ha–1. No significant differences were found between C and MD treatments (1543 and 2116 roots ha–1, respectively. Rival was the most susceptible cultivar to root rots. Sugar beets were more susceptible to rotting 15 and 40 DAD (2778 and 2998 roots ha–1. The causal agents of root rots were the fungi, Fusarium spp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani.

  9. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize.

  10. Exopolysacharides from White Rot Fungi and Their Antibacterial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pranitha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In current investigation exopolysacharides are produced from the Trametes sp. and antibacterial activity of exopolysaccharides (EPS was studied. The antibacterial effect of EPS was observed that they were most effective against gram-positive bacteria, especially B. subtilis and S.aureaus with a zone of inhibition 24 mm and 28 mm, respectively, at a concentration of 80 mg/ml. Moreover, with the increasing concentration, the EPS showed significant increase in antibacterial activity. The activity was lowest in the inhibition of gram-negative bacterium, E. coli and P aerogenosa at a low concentration whose inhibition zones are between 5 to 15mm.

  11. Root rot of sugarbeet in the Vojvodina Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    identified in recent years as the agent of root rot, but its importance was much lower. Charcoal root rot and plant wilting (Macrophomina phaseolina have caused extensive damages in sugar beets, especially under the conditions of severe drought and high temperatures in summer. In some years, it was the dominant agent of root rot. Mixed infections caused by fungi from the genera Fusarium and M. phaseolina were encountered frequently. The extent of damage caused by these diseases was reduced by improved pro- duction technology. Rhizomania of sugar beet (caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus was identified in Serbia in the 1970s. Results of recent investigations have shown that BNYVV is widespread in Vojvodina, since the virus was found on 36,7% (24,674 ha of acreages from 67,213 ha of total sugar beet acreages inspected on incidence of BNYVV in the period from 1997 to 2004 year. In the last few years, the occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctonia solani was registered in some localities in Vojvodina.

  12. Oomycetes and fungi: similar weaponry to attack plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latijnhouwers, M.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Govers, F.

    2003-01-01

    Fungi and Oomycetes are the two most important groups of eukaryotic plant pathogens. Fungi form a separate kingdom and are evolutionarily related to animals. Oomycetes are classified in the kingdom Protoctista and are related to heterokont, biflagellate, golden-brown algae. Fundamental differences i

  13. Comparative Genomics of Early-Diverging Mushroom-Forming Fungi Provides Insights into the Origins of Lignocellulose Decay Capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, László G; Riley, Robert; Tritt, Andrew; Adam, Catherine; Daum, Chris; Floudas, Dimitrios; Sun, Hui; Yadav, Jagjit S; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Matsuura, Kenji; Barry, Kerrie; Labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Rita; Ohm, Robin A; Bhattacharya, Sukanta S; Shirouzu, Takashi; Yoshinaga, Yuko; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hibbett, David S

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of lignocellulose decomposition was one of the most ecologically important innovations in fungi. White-rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes (mushrooms and relatives) are the most effective microorganisms in degrading both cellulose and lignin components of woody plant cell walls (PCW). However,

  14. Higher marine fungi from mangroves (Manglicolous fungi)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ChinnaRaj, S.

    and place where the materials accumulate. This environment creates a unique habitat for a certain group of fungi called 'manglicolous fungi' which are well adapted to this type of environment. First review on manglicolous fungi recognised 42 species...

  15. Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Ascough, P.L.; Sturrock, C. J.; Bird, M. I.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C and 15N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood, and charcoal from the same speci...

  16. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem...

  17. Incidence and Severity of Maize Ear Rots and Factors Responsible for Their Occurrence in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigirwa, G.; Kaaya, A. N.; Sseruwu, G.; Adipala, E.; Okanya, S.

    Eleven major maize growing districts of Uganda were surveyed for three consecutive seasons between 2002 and 2003 to establish maize ear rot incidence and severity. Sternocarpella maydis and Fusarium species particularly F. graminearum and F. verticillioides were the identified maize ear rot causing fungi. Incidence of S. maydis ranged from 2.5 to 32.5% while that of Fusarium sp. was in the range of 1.9 and 15.3%. In districts of higher altitude (above 1,800 m above sea level) F. graminearum dominated in all seasons while in districts with an altitude between 900 and 1,500 m above sea level, S. maydis was the major cause of ear rots. This observation was attributed to differences in temperature, altitude and rainfall. There was a strong positive correlation (p = 0.001) between incidence and severity for S. maydis and a weak one for Fusarium sp. because the latter would rarely infect the entire cob unlike the former. All farmers expressed concern about the quality of maize due to ear rots and sort out infected grain after harvest. However, varied uses of infected grain were noted. For example, in Kapchorwa district 82% of the respondents indicated that the infected grain is used for making local brew because the moulds give it a good taste and aroma, while in Kamuli and Masaka districts, 36% use it as animal feed ingredient. This indicates that people and animals could be ingesting mycotoxins unknowingly thus the need for sensitization programmes.

  18. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  19. White-rot Fungus Growth Conditions and Its Metabolic Kinetic Models%白腐真菌生长条件及其代谢动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁峙; 韩宝平

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the growth conditions of white-rot fungus and simulate its metabolism kinetic models, the rules how the factors such as biomass, culture fluid, pH value, glucose consumption and exopolysaccharides generation, etc., changed during the batch culture process of white-rot fungi by using an air-lift fermenter, as well as metabolic kinetics of white-rot fungi were studied. Based on Logistic equation, Luedeking-Piret equation and experimental data, the correlation model parameters of mycelia biomass, glucose consumption and exopolysaccharide generation were obtained and found to be change with time in metabolism process. Detailedly, μm=0.071 8 h-1,α= 0.831 8 g/(g·h), β= 0.002 g/(g·h), b1=0.016 3 g/(g·h) and b2=3.023 3 g/(g·h). Hence the mycelial growth kinetic model, exopolysaccharide generation kinetic model and substrate consumption kinetic model which describe fermentation process of white-rot fungi were established. Meanwhile, the experimental data were verified by this model, and a good fitting result with an average relative error less than 10% between the data obtained from experiments and the model was yielded. The results show that these models can predict the growth and metabolic rules of white-rot fungus, the fermentation process of exopolysaccharides and the kinetic mechanism of white-rot fungus accurately.

  20. The delignification effects of white-rot fungal pretreatment on thermal characteristics of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yelin; Yang, Xuewei; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Fuying

    2012-06-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubesescens) is a major bamboo species which is widely used for temporary scaffolding in China. Its fast growing and low ash content make moso bamboo a potential renewable energy resource. In present work, thermal behaviors of moso bamboo and its lignocellulosic fractions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, to understand whether the delignification effect of white-rot fungi can promote the thermal decomposition of bamboo especially the lignin component, the changes in lignocellulose components as well as thermal behaviors of bamboo and acid detergent lignin were investigated. The results showed that the white-rot fungal pretreatment is advantageous to thermal decomposition of lignin in bamboo. The weight losses of ADL samples became greater and the thermal processes were accelerated after biopretreatment. The total pyrolysis weight loss increased from 57.14% to 65.07% for Echinodontium taxodii 2538 treated bamboo ADL sample.

  1. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies.

  2. The potato dry rot causal agent and severity in Ardabil storages and the resistance of cultivars to the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khoshnevis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dry rot is one of the most important diseases of potato in storages. The aim of this study was to determine dry rot severity in potato storages of Ardabil, identify the disease causal agents and evaluate some potato cultivars resistance to the disease. Materials and methods: Totally 150 infected samples were collected from thirty nine studied storages in Ardabil. Dry rot severity and the prevalence of infected tubers were determined by surveying three 50 kg bags of potato in the storages. Fungi isolated and purified from the tubers with dry rot symptoms. A factorial design with four replications was applied in order to evaluate the reaction of five potato cultivars to four Fusarium species and determining the resistant one to dry rot. Potato tuber slices were inoculated by conidial suspension of Fusarium species. Four days after inoculation and maintaining in darkness and 25oC, the cultivars susceptibility was  identified. Results: Four species of Fusarium were identified as dry rot causal agents in Ardabil as follows: F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. solani and F. sporotrichioides. There was no significant difference between Fusarium species in pathogenicity. The reaction of cultivars to various Fusarium species was different. Boren had the lowest infection (12.5% and Sabalan showed the highest (98.87 %. Sabalan ،Khavaran ،Agria and hybrid line 3970093 displayed the highest susceptibility to various studied Fusarium species. Discussion and conclusion: Based on the results, Boren is introduced as the most resistant cultivar to Fusarium dry rot and Sabalan, Agria and hybrid line 3970093 as the susceptible ones.

  3. Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2009-10-31

    The present study deals with evaluation of antifungal properties of Lippia alba essential oil (EO) and two of its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against legume-contaminating fungi. Seventeen different fungal species were isolated from 11 varieties of legumes, and aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified. Hydrodistillation method was used to extract the EO from fresh leaves. The GC and GC-MS analysis of EO revealed the monoterpene aldehydes viz. geranial (22.2%) and neral (14.2%) as the major components. The antifungal activity of EO, geranial and neral was evaluated by contact assay on Czapek's-dox agar. The EO (0.25-1 microL/mL) and its two constituents (1 microL/mL) showed remarkable antifungal effects against all the fungal isolates (growth inhibition range 32.1-100%). Their minimal inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations for A. flavus were lower than those of the systemic fungicide Bavistin. Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production by three isolates of A. flavus was strongly inhibited even at the lower fungistatic concentration of EO and its constituents. There was no adverse effect of treatments on seed germination, and rather, there was enhanced seedling growth in the EO-treated seeds. It is concluded that L. alba EO and two of its constituents could be safely used as effective preservative for food legumes against fungal infections and mycotoxins.

  4. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  5. Lignin degradation by a white-rot fungus lacking lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, C.B.; Eriksson, K.E.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been the organism of choice for studies of lignin degradation and much of this work has focused on two phenol oxidases, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), secreted by the fungus under ligninolytic conditions. However, many white-rot fungi, including a number of aggressive lignin degraders, seem to operate without expressing LiP activity. Laccase is another phenol oxidase that white-rot fungi often produce. However, the role played by laccase in lignin degradation has remained obscured since its low redox potential appeared to make it incapable of oxidizing non-phenolic lignin constituents. We have identified, Pychnoporus cinnabarinus lacking both LiP and MnP, but a high producer of laccase, to degrade lignin as efficiently as UP producing fungi. We have found that P. cinnabarinus, to overcome the redox potential barrier for laccase, produces a mediator for oxidation of non-phenolic lignin structures. This is the first description of how laccase may be used in a biological system for the degradation of lignin.

  6. Wood and humus decay strategies by white-rot basidiomycetes correlate with two different dye decolorization and enzyme secretion patterns on agar plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrasa, José M; Blanco, María N; Esteve-Raventós, Fernando; Altés, Alberto; Checa, Julia; Martínez, Angel T; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    During several forays for ligninolytic fungi in different Spanish native forests, 35 white-rot basidiomycetes growing on dead wood (16 species from 12 genera) and leaf litter (19 species from 10 genera) were selected for their ability to decolorize two recalcitrant aromatic dyes (Reactive Blue 38 and Reactive Black 5) added to malt extract agar medium. In this study, two dye decolorization patterns were observed and correlated with two ecophysiological groups (wood and humus white-rot basidiomycetes) and three taxonomical groups (orders Polyporales, Hymenochaetales and Agaricales). Depending on the above groups, different decolorization zones were observed on the dye-containing plates, being restricted to the colony area or extending to the surrounding medium, which suggested two different decay strategies. These two strategies were related to the ability to secrete peroxidases and laccases inside (white-rot wood Polyporales, Hymenochaetales and Agaricales) and outside (white-rot humus Agaricales) of the fungal colony, as revealed by enzymatic tests performed directly on the agar plates. Similar oxidoreductases production patterns were observed when fungi were grown in the absence of dyes, although the set of enzyme released was different. All these results suggest that the decolorization patterns observed could be related with the existence of two decay strategies developed by white-rot basidiomycetes adapted to wood and leaf litter decay in the field.

  7. Detection of phytohormones in temperate forest fungi predicts consistent abscisic acid production and a common pathway for cytokinin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Erin N; Knowles, Sarah; Hayward, Allison; Thorn, R Greg; Saville, Barry J; Emery, R J N

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormones, abscisic acid and cytokinin, once were thought to be present uniquely in plants, but increasing evidence suggests that these hormones are present in a wide variety of organisms. Few studies have examined fungi for the presence of these "plant" hormones or addressed whether their levels differ based on the nutrition mode of the fungus. This study examined 20 temperate forest fungi of differing nutritional modes (ectomycorrhizal, wood-rotting, saprotrophic). Abscisic acid and cytokinin were present in all fungi sampled; this indicated that the sampled fungi have the capacity to synthesize these two classes of phytohormones. Of the 27 cytokinins analyzed by HPLC-ESI MS/MS, seven were present in all fungi sampled. This suggested the existence of a common cytokinin metabolic pathway in fungi that does not vary among different nutritional modes. Predictions regarding the source of isopentenyl, cis-zeatin and methylthiol CK production stemming from the tRNA degradation pathway among fungi are discussed.

  8. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  9. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  11. Diverse fungi associated with partial irregular heartwood of Dalbergia odorifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sisheng; Zeng, Xu; Zhang, Dawei; Guo, Shunxing

    2015-02-16

    Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen is a medium-sized evergreen tree that produces purple-brown heartwood called JiangXiang in traditional Chinese medicine, the formation process of which takes several decades. In this study, a standard culture method was used to isolate fungi from the wounded and normal stems of D. odorifera aiming to investigate the difference between the two types of wood. To characterize the spatial colonisation of endophytic fungi, an anatomical study was undertaken using the two different types of wood of D. odorifera. A total of 320 wood segments were placed on PDA plates and 87 fungal isolates were obtained. Only two fungi were isolated from the healthy white wood tissue, whereas 85 fungi were found in the purple-brown wounded-wood tissues. The two isolates from 160 white healthy wood tissues were assigned to Bionectriaceae sp., and the rest in wounded wood tissues were analyzed to 12 fungal species, indicating both a high fungal diversity and colonization rate in the purple-brown wounded wood. There was a difference in fungal species composition between coloured and white wood samples collected from the same tree. Eutypa sp. was the most commonly isolated species in the purple-brown wounded wood.

  12. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Obligate marine fungi, those which grow and sporulate exclusively under marine conditions, have received all the attention from marine mycologists. Fungi originating from freshwater, or terrestrial environment and capable of growth and sporulation...

  13. Terpenoids from Endophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Jucimar Jorgeane de Souza; Ivo José Curcino Vieira; Edson Rodrigues-Filho; Raimundo Braz-Filho

    2011-01-01

    This work reviews the production of terpenoids by endophytic fungi and their biological activities, in period of 2006 to 2010. Sixty five sesquiterpenes, 45 diterpenes, five meroterpenes and 12 other terpenes, amounting to 127 terpenoids were isolated from endophytic fungi.

  14. Terpenoids from endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jucimar Jorgeane; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2011-12-19

    This work reviews the production of terpenoids by endophytic fungi and their biological activities, in period of 2006 to 2010. Sixty five sesquiterpenes, 45 diterpenes, five meroterpenes and 12 other terpenes, amounting to 127 terpenoids were isolated from endophytic fungi.

  15. Effects of glucose on the Reactive Black 5 (RB5 decolorization by two white rot basidiomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hadibarata

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacities of glucose in the decolorization process of an azo dye, Reactive Black 5 (RB5, by two white rot basidiomycetes, Pleurotus sp. F019 and Trametes sp. F054 were investigated. The results indicated that the dye degradation by the two fungi was extremely correlated with the presence of glucose in the culture and the process of fungi growth. Decolorization of 200 mg dye/l was increased from 62% and 69% to 100% within 20–25 h with the increase of glucose from 5 to 15 g/l, and the activity of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP increased by 2–9 fold in this case. Hydrogen peroxide of 0.55 mg/l and 0.43 mg/l were detected in 10 h in Pleurotus sp. F019 and Trametes sp. F054 cultures.

  16. Investigation on natural durability and sorption properties of Italian Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) from coppice stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Militz, H.; Busetto, D.; Hapla, F.

    2003-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. from coppice stands in Italy were evaluated. Fungi trials with different white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi showed, that the heartwood of chestnut can be classified following EN 350 in durability class 2 as ¿durable¿. However, the durability within the tested material (bet

  17. New source of bacterial soft rot resistance in potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial soft rot caused by Pectobacterium and Dickeya species can cause major losses to the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) industry, mostly due to tuber rot in storage. There are few germplasm resources for soft rot resistance breeding. Here, we introduce a resistant diploid wild potato relative, M...

  18. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Robin A; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-11-01

    Woody plants convert the energy of the sun into lignocellulosic biomass, which is an abundant substrate for bioenergy production. Fungi, especially wood decayers from the class Agaricomycetes, have evolved ways to degrade lignocellulose into its monomeric constituents, and understanding this process may facilitate the development of biofuels. Over the past decade genomics has become a powerful tool to study the Agaricomycetes. In 2004 the first sequenced genome of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed a rich catalog of lignocellulolytic enzymes. In the decade that followed the number of genomes of Agaricomycetes grew to more than 75 and revealed a diversity of wood-decaying strategies. New technologies for high-throughput functional genomics are now needed to further study these organisms.

  19. Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Ailsa D; Leong, Su-Lin L; Kazi, Benozir A; Emmett, Robert W; Scott, Eileen S

    2007-10-20

    Many fungi may occur on grapes during growth in the vineyard, but the main concern from the viewpoint of mycotoxin contamination is the black Aspergilli, Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger. These fungi are capable of producing ochratoxin A (OA) which may contaminate grapes and grape products such as wine, grape juice and dried vine fruit. Understanding the ecology and physiology of the black Aspergilli can provide tools for management of OA at all stages of grape production and processing. In the vineyard, careful management of cultivation, irrigation and pruning can assist in minimising the levels of black Aspergilli in the soil, which in turn, can minimise contamination of grapes by these fungi. Minimising damage to grapes on the vine by the use of open vine canopies, grape varieties with resistance to rain damage and by the management of insect pests and fungal diseases (e.g., mildew, Botrytis bunch rot) can reduce the incidence of Aspergillus rot in mature berries. The risk of OA in table grapes can be minimised by careful visual inspection to avoid damaged and discoloured berries. In wine, harvesting grapes with minimal damage, rapid processing and good sanitation practices in the winery assist in minimising OA. During vinification, pressing of grapes, and clarification steps which remove grape solids, grape proteins and spent yeast can also remove a significant proportion of OA. For dried vine fruit production, avoiding berry damage, rapid drying, and final cleaning and sorting to remove dark berries can reduce overall OA levels in finished products.

  20. Exploring Antagonistic Candidate Fungi for Controling Pathogenic Fungi (Colletotricum gloeosporioides Causing Anthracnose Disease in Kintamani Siam Orange Plants (Citrus Nobillis Lour Var. Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Darsini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange plantation center in Bali are located in Bangli Regency, Kintamani District. Kintamani orange plantations cultivated three types of oranges: tangerine, selayer, and mandarin oranges. The famous orange in Bali today is Kintamani orange,  tangerine type.  The typical flavor and aroma of Kintamani tangerine make it is favored by consumers from various regions. Based on the information from Bangli District Agriculture Office and the results of field surveys in the last two years (in 2013 and 2014, cultivation of orange in Kintamani has been infected with anthracnose disease. The disease is characterized by symptoms whereby brown twigs spread to the leaves and fruit, and the fruits which are about to be harvested rot simultaneously and eventually fall due to decay. This condition causes farmers to suffer significant losses. The cause of anthracnose on Kintamani orange is Colletotrichum gloeosporioides .  The Control of these diseases has been carried out by farmers with various synthetic fungicides but the disease is still widespread.   It is feared that the uncontrolled use of synthetic pesticides can harm the environment, cause resistance to C. gloeosporioides fungi, and kill non-target beneficial micro-organism. It is necessary to conduct research that aims to control anthracnose biologically to maintain the ecological balance and environmental safety. Based on the results of this research by exploring the fungi on healthy plants around orange trees infected with anthracnose diseases, nine isolates of antagonist candidate fungus were obtained based on colony color of fungal hyphae (IS1, IS2, IS3, IS4, IS5. IS6, IS7, IS8, IS9.   Based on the test results of the in vitro dual culture, two candidates of antagonistic fungal isolates were selected,  the isolates IS4 and IS7. It was because on day 7 after the second dual culture, these two isolates had the highest percentage of inhibition,  89.22% and 85.11 % respectively. Based on the

  1. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  2. Mechanisms of humic substances degradation by fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hadar, Y.; Grinhut, T.

    2012-04-01

    Humic substances (HS) are formed by secondary synthesis reactions (humification) during the decay process and transformation of biomolecules originating from plants and other dead organisms. In nature, HS are extremely resistant to biological degradation. Thus, these substances are major components in the C cycle and in the biosphere and therefore, the understanding of the process leading to their formation and transformation and degradation is vital. Fungi active in the decomposition process of HS include mainly ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that are common in the upper layer of forest and grassland soils. Many basidiomycetes belong to the white-rot fungi (WRF) and litter-decomposing fungi (LDF). These fungi are considered to be the most efficient lignin degraders due to their nonspecific oxidizing enzymes: manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase. Although bacteria dominate compost and participate in the turnover of HS, their ability to degrade stable macromolecules such as lignin and HS is limited. The overall objectives of this research were to corroborate biodegradation processes of HS by WRF. The specific objectives were: (i) To isolate, identify and characterize HS degrading WRF from biosolids (BS) compost; (ii) To study the biodegradation process of three types of HS, which differ in their structure, by WRF isolated from BS compost; and (iii) To investigate the mechanisms of HA degradation by WRF using two main approaches: (a) Study the physical and chemical analyses of the organic compounds obtained from direct fungal degradation of HA as well as elucidation of the relevant enzymatic reactions; and (b) Study the enzymatic and biochemical mechanisms involved during HA degradation. In order to study the capability of fungi to degrade HS, seventy fungal strains were isolated from biosolids (BS) compost. Two of the most active fungal species were identified based on rDNA sequences and designated Trametes sp. M23 and Phanerochaetesp., Y6

  3. Basal Root Rot, a new Disease of Teak (Tectona grandis in Malaysia caused by Phellinus noxius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal root rot of teak was first reported from Sabak Bernam, Selangor making this the first report of the disease on teak in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungus found associated with the disease was Phellinus noxious. The disease aggressively killed its host irrespective of the host health status. Bark depression at the root collar which was visible from a distance was the characteristic symptom and the main indicator in identifying the disease in the plantation since above ground symptoms of the canopy could not be differentiated from crowns of healthy trees. However, although above ground symptoms were not easily discernible, the disease was already advanced and the trees mostly beyond treatment; 3.4 % of the trees in the plantation were affected and the disease occurred both on solitary trees and in patches. Below ground, infected trees had rotted root systems, mainly below and around the collar region with brown discolored wood and irregular golden-brown honeycomb-like pockets of fungal hyphae in the wood. Pathogenicity tests showed that the fungus produced symptoms similar to those observed in the plantation and killed two year-old teak plants. The disease killed all the inoculated hosts within three months, irrespective of wounded or unwounded treatments.

  4. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  5. Reduction of Fusarium rot and maintenance of fruit quality in melon using eco-friendly hot water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuan; Droby, Samir; Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Significant losses in harvested fruit can be directly attributable to decay fungi and quality deterioration. Hot water treatment (HWT) has been demonstrated to be an effective and economic environment-friendly approach for managing postharvest decay and maintaining fruit quality. In this study, the effects of HWT (45 °C for 10, 15, 20, and 25 min) on in vitro growth of Fusarium oxysporum, in vivo Fusarium rot, and natural decay of melon were investigated. HWT inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of F. oxysporum. Protein impairment and ATP consumption triggered by HWT contributed to the inhibitory effect. Results of in vivo studies showed that HWT effectively controlled Fusarium rot and natural decay of melon. Correspondingly, HWT induced a significant increase in content of total phenolic compounds and lignin of melon. These findings indicate that the effects of HWT on Fusarium rot may be associated with the direct fungal inhibition and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. Importantly, HWT used in this study had beneficial effects on fruit quality as well. HWT may represent an effective non-chemical approach for management of postharvest Fusarium rot.

  6. Isolation and functional characterization of Sporothrix schenckii ROT2, the encoding gene for the endoplasmic reticulum glucosidase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Ortiz, Claudia I; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Hernández-Cervantes, Arturo; Álvarez-Vargas, Aurelio; Lee, Keunsook K; Díaz-Jiménez, Diana F; Munro, Carol A; Cano-Canchola, Carmen; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2012-08-01

    The N-linked glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification in eukaryotic cells. During the N-linked glycan synthesis, the precursor Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) is processed by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) glucosidases I, II and α1,2-mannosidase, before transporting to the Golgi complex for further structure modifications. In fungi of medical relevance, as Candida albicans and Aspergillus, it is well known that ER glycosidases are important for cell fitness, cell wall organization, virulence, and interaction with the immune system. Despite this, little is known about these enzymes in Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of human sporotrichosis. This limited knowledge is due in part to the lack of a genome sequence of this organism. In this work we used degenerate primers and inverse PCR approaches to isolate the open reading frame of S. schenckii ROT2, the encoding gene for α subunit of ER glucosidase II. This S. schenckii gene complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae rot2Δ mutant; however, when expressed in a C. albicans rot2Δ mutant, S. schenckii Rot2 partially increased the levels of α-glucosidase activity, but failed to restore the N-linked glycosylation defect associated to the mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first report where a gene involved in protein N-linked glycosylation is isolated from S. schenckii.

  7. Etiology of phomopsis root rot in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cecília Ghissi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of damages caused by soybean root rot to crops in the south of Brazil for several years, a root rot caused by Phomopsis sp has been found with increasing frequency. The primary symptoms are seen when the main root is cut longitudinally, including the death of the wood which shows white coloration and well-defined black lines that do not have a defined format. Thus, based on similarity, it has been called geographic root rot due to its aspect resembling irregular lines that separate regions on a map. In isolations, colonies and alpha spores of Phomopsis have prevailed. Pathogenicity test was done by means of inoculation in the crown of plants cultivated in a growth chamber. The geographic symptoms were reproduced in plants and the fungus Phomopsis sp. was reisolated. In soybean stems naturally infected with pod and stem blight, geographic symptoms caused by Phomopsis phaseoli are found. To the known symptoms on stems, pods and grains, that of root rot caused by P. phaseoli is now added.

  8. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  9. Pathogenicity, Ovicidal Action, and Median Lethal Concentrations (LC 50 ) of Entomopathogenic Fungi against Exotic Spiralling Whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell

    OpenAIRE

    Boopathi Thangavel; Karuppuchamy Palaniappan; Kalyanasundaram Manickavasagam Pillai; Mohankumar Subbarayalu; Ravi Madhaiyan

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be a promising alternative to chemical control. Entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmerm.) Zare and Gams, and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith, were tested for their pathogenicity, ovicidal effect, and median lethal concentrations (LC50) against exotic spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell. The applications were...

  10. Fungi of the genus Penicillium on apples and pears during the storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Borecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of Penicilium fungi in 1391 cases confirmed their presence on and pathogenicity to apples and pears. Four species were the cause of rotting of the fruits: P. expansum, P. diversum, P. cyclopium and P. spinulosum. All those species may occur separately or coexist in the mould spots. P. expansum spores may infect fruit with injured skin, only if they have an additional source of sugar and nitrogen.

  11. Widespread ability of fungi to drive quinone redox cycling for biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin C; Bergmann, Michael; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Wood-rotting fungi possess remarkably diverse extracellular oxidation mechanisms, including enzymes, such as laccase and peroxidases, and Fenton chemistry. The ability to biologically drive Fenton chemistry by the redox cycling of quinones has previously been reported to be present in both ecologically diverging main groups of wood-rotting basidiomycetes. Therefore, we investigated whether it is even more widespread among fungal organisms. Screening of a diverse selection of a total of 18 ascomycetes and basidiomycetes for reduction of the model compound 2,6-dimethoxy benzoquinone revealed that all investigated strains were capable of reducing it to its corresponding hydroquinone. In a second step, depolymerization of the synthetic polymer polystyrene sulfonate was used as a proxy for quinone-dependent Fenton-based biodegradation capabilities. A diverse subset of the strains, including environmentally ubiquitous molds, white-rot fungi, as well as peatland and aquatic isolates, caused substantial depolymerization indicative for the effective employment of quinone redox cycling as biodegradation tool. Our results may also open up new paths to utilize diverse fungi for the bioremediation of recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  12. Evaluation of natural plant extracts, antagonists and fungicides in controlling root rot, collar rot, fruit (brown rot and gummosis of citrus caused by Phytophthora spp. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Jagtap

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The results revealed that all the six bioagents tested in vitro applying dual culture technique against Phytophthora nicotianae, Phytophthora citrophthora and Phytophthora palmivora significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control. However, bioagent, Trichoderma harzianum recorded minimum mean colony diameter (7.73 cm2 and highest inhibition (87.85% of mycelial growth of P. nicotianae over untreated control followed by the bioagent T. viride, T. koningii which recorded mean colony diameter of 9.95 cm2, 14.15 cm2 and mean mycelial inhibition of 84.36 %, 77.76%, respectively. Evaluation of different botanicals by Poisoned Food Technique showed that all plant extracts tested in vitro were found significantly effective in reducing the percentage mycelial growth of P. nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora over untreated control. However, plant extract (@ 5, 10 and 15% of Garlic, recorded lowest mean colony diameter (47.45 mm and highest mean mycelial growth inhibition (47.26% followed by Neem, Onion which recorded the mycelial growth of 55.20 mm, 60.85 mm, and the mean mycelial growth inhibition of 38.65%, 32.38%, respectively. Results revealed that all the nine fungicides tested in vitro applying Poisoned Food Technique against P. nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control. However, fungicide, Cymoxynil 8% + Mancozeb 64% (Curzate M-8 recorded minimum mean colony diameter (16.12 mm and maximum mean inhibition (82.09% of mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control (mean colony diameter 90.00 mm and mean inhibition 0.00 followed by the fungicide Metalaxyl-M 4% + Mancozeb 64% (Ridomil Gold, Metyram (Polyram, which recorded mean colony diameter of 20.16 mm, 24.16 mm and mean mycelial inhibition of 77.59%, 73.14%, respectively.

  13. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with technologica

  14. Terpenoids from Endophytic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucimar Jorgeane de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews the production of terpenoids by endophytic fungi and their biological activities, in period of 2006 to 2010. Sixty five sesquiterpenes, 45 diterpenes, five meroterpenes and 12 other terpenes, amounting to 127 terpenoids were isolated from endophytic fungi.

  15. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  16. MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT IN AVOCADO TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE RODRIGUES DA SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is one of the most restrictive factors to avocado growing in main producing regions worldwide. In Brazil, scientific reports on the effectiveness of control methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of gypsum applications and dolomitic limestone to the soil and potassium phosphite sprays in controlling this disease in ‘Hass’ avocado, grown without irrigation. The application of dolomitic limestone or gypsum alone is not effective to recover plants affected by root rot. The application of potassium phosphite, combined or not with dolomitic lime or gypsum enables the partial recovery ‘Hass’ avocado plants affected by the disease.

  17. Rot is a key regulator of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootz, Joe M.; Benson, Meredith A.; Heim, Cortney E.; Crosby, Heidi A.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Dunman, Paul M.; Kielian, Tammy; Torres, Victor J.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    AUTHOR SUMMARY Staphylococcus aureus is a significant cause of chronic biofilm infections on medical implants. We investigated the biofilm regulatory cascade and discovered that the repressor of toxins (Rot) is part of this pathway. A USA300 community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strain deficient in Rot was unable to form a biofilm using multiple different assays, and we found rot mutants in other strain lineages were also biofilm deficient. By performing a global analysis of transcripts and protein production controlled by Rot, we observed that all the secreted protease genes were upregulated in a rot mutant, and we hypothesized that this regulation could be responsible for the biofilm phenotype. To investigate this question, we determined that Rot bound to the protease promoters, and we observed that activity levels of these enzymes, in particular the cysteine proteases, were increased in a rot mutant. By inactivating these proteases, biofilm capacity was restored to the mutant, demonstrating they are responsible for the biofilm negative phenotype. Finally, we tested the rot mutant in a mouse catheter model of biofilm infection and observed a significant reduction in biofilm burden. Thus S. aureus uses the transcription factor Rot to repress secreted protease levels in order to build a biofilm. PMID:25612137

  18. [Effects of soil factors on arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi around roots of wild plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Jingping; Liu, Runjin

    2003-03-01

    150 rhizospheric soil samples were collected from 45 wild plants distributed in Shandong Province during 1995-1997. More than forty species of AM fungi were isolated, and the effects of some soil factors on AM fungi were also investigated. It was proved that soil conditions were important factors to the colonization, growth, and distribution of AM fungi. Spore numbers were highest in brown earth, and lowest in alkali-saline soil. Glomus occurred in all types of soil. The occurrence frequency of Gigaspora and Scutellospora was much higher in brown earth. The distribution of AM fungi was also affected by soil pH. Glomus occurred in soil with a wide pH range. The greater of soil alkalinity, the more Glomus were found, while the greater of soil acidity, the more Acaulospora were isolated. Scutellospora occurred mostly in soil with pH of 6.0-7.0, and Gigaspora distributed mainly in acid soil.

  19. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Damare, S.

    ealco fluor (72), which enhances fluorescence of the cellulose and chitin, the latter being a fin gerprint molecule of mycelial fungi (58). A total of48 out of 255 sediment samples exam ined by u') showed the presence of fungi by this method (18...> and can reach fresh habitats. It has been recently reported that spores of Aspergillus sydowii are croTied from the Saharan deserts across the Atlantic Ocean during dust storm!) to the Carihhean islands and cause aspergillosis disease in seafan~(87). Fungi...

  20. The diversity of fungi colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Żołna; Barbara Kierpiec-Baran; Maria Kowalik

    2013-01-01

    The infection of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.) inflorescence buds caused by pathogenic fungi induces its browning, withering, and dieback. The identification of fungi causing the infection of rhododendron inflorescence buds can be a reason for creating new improved cultivars with genetically determined resistance to pathogens. The investigations were carried out in 2010–2011 on the collection of ornamental plants of the Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Kraków. The materi...

  1. Adaptive immunity to fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George; Klein, Bruce

    2014-11-06

    Life-threatening fungal infections have risen sharply in recent years, owing to the advances and intensity of medical care that may blunt immunity in patients. This emerging crisis has created the growing need to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi with the ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention. We describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses that are deployed against pathogenic fungi. We focus on adaptive immunity to the major medically important fungi and emphasize three elements that coordinate the response: (1) dendritic cells and subsets that are mobilized against fungi in various anatomical compartments; (2) fungal molecular patterns and their corresponding receptors that signal responses and shape the differentiation of T-cell subsets and B cells; and, ultimately (3) the effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these invaders while constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. These insights create a foundation for the development of new, immune-based strategies for prevention or enhanced clearance of systemic fungal diseases.

  2. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...

  3. Maarja Unduski 'Fungi'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    24. nov.-st Linnagaleriis Tallinnas Maarja Unduski kolmas isiknäitus 'Fungi'. Eksponeeritud hiigelseened ja rida värviliste lehtedega ramatuid, mille kaante valmistamisel on autor esmakordselt kasutanud ka lõuendit ja paberreljeefi.

  4. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  5. Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (solanum tuberosum l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Olusola Abiodun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal control effect on the incidence of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Solanum tuberosum (potato was investigated in this study. Three cultivars of potato tuber whose local names are, Patiska, Mai Bawondoya and Nicola were used for the study. Five pathogenic fungi viz: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium redolens, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae associated with post harvest storage rot of root-tubers, were isolated from diseased potatoes. Among the three species of potatoes used in the study, Patiska was found most resistant followed by Mai Bawondoya, while Nicola was the least resistant. Increase in substrate (i.e. soluble starch or CMC concentration enhanced a proportional increase in mycelial growth and in the amount of extracellular enzymes produced. Some of these test pathogens were found to produce cell wall degrading enzymes (i.e. amylase and cellulase. Preferential utilization of carbohydrate sources was established in this study based on the growth of test pathogens. Growth on potato broth medium was highest followed by growth on Cocoyam and Sweet potato broth media and least on Cassava broth medium. Growth of the test pathogens on carbohydrate sources was found at variant. The use of hot water treatment at different temperatures was found to significantly reduce post-harvest fungal populations on the surface of root-tubers. The efficacy of blanching in hot water at 60˚C was significantly higher than that of blanching in hot water at other temperatures. The control method adopted in this study showed that the problems of potatoes’ rot disease in storage (especially by the peasant farmers can be eradicated by thermal treatments without reducing the quality of the Irish tuber.

  6. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit.

  7. Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D/Souza, T.M.; Merritt, C.S.; Reddy, C.A.

    1999-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was readily seen in cultures grown with pine or poplar as the sole carbon and energy source. Cultures containing both pine and poplar showed 5- to 10-fold-higher levels of laccase than cultures containing pine or poplar alone. Since syringyl units are structural components important in poplar lignin and other hardwoods but much less so in pine lignin and other softwoods, pine cultures were supplemented with syringic acid, and this resulted in laccase levels comparable to those seen in pine-plus-poplar cultures. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated extracellular culture fluid from HM cultures showed two laccase activity bands, where as isoelectric focusing revealed five major laccase activity bands with estimated pIs of 3.0, 4.25, 4.5, and 5.1. Low levels of MnP activity were detected in poplar-grown cultures but not in cultures grown with pine, with pine plus syringic acid, or in HN medium. No LiP activity was seen in any of the media tested; however, probing the genomic DNA with the LiP cDNA (CLG4) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed distinct hybridization bands suggesting the presence of lip-like sequences in G. lucidum.

  8. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Poten tial Mycotoxin Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  9. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-21

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B₁, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  10. Integrated Management of Causal Agents of Postharvest Fruit Rot of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Grahovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of poor quality and fruit loss (during storage and transportare diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Economic losses which are the consequenceof the phytopathogenic fungus activity after harvest exceed the losses in the field.Themost important postharvest fungal pathogens of apple fruits are: Botrytis cinerea Pers. exFr., Penicillium expansum (Lk. Thom., Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck. Grem., Colletotrichumgloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., Monilinia sp., Gloeosporium album Osterw, Alternaria alternata(Fr. Keissler, Cladosporium herbarium Link., Cylindrocarpon mali (Alles. Wollenw., Stemphyliumbotryosum Wallr. The use of available protection technologies can significantly reducelosses caused by pathogens in storage. The concept of integrated pest management (IPMin apple fruits i.e. sustainable approach in control of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot,using cultural, physical, biological and chemical measures, to minimize economic, healthand risks to consumers and environment, is presented in the paper.

  11. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  12. Fungi Associated with Females and Cysts of Heterodera glycines in a Florida Soybean Field

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Senyu; Dickson, D. W.; Kimbrough, J. W.; McSorley, R.; Mitchell, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fungal colonization was determined for females and cysts of Heterodera glycines on soybean roots or in rhizosphere soil from a Florida soybean field. A total of 1,620 females and cysts were examined in 1991, and 1,303 were examined in 1992. More than 35 species of fungi were isolated from females and cysts. The frequency of fungi colonizing white and yellow females was low, but a high frequency of fungi was encountered in brown cysts, which increased with time of exposure of the cysts to the ...

  13. The structure of tree stand and wood-destroying fungi of native pine biogeocoenoses of the Russian plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Storozhenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The author considered age structures of virgin indigenous pine forests of natural origin as well as plantations in the subzones of taiga, zones of mixed forests, deciduous forests and forest-steppe of the Russian plain. Native pine forests are heterogeneous by their structural characteristics. This heterogeneity is caused by high demands of the species to understory light requirements as well as by frequent pyrogenic influence that determine the age structure of stand forests. Virgin pine forests have up to 14 age generations and from 5 to 20 % of stand trees affected by fungi of biotrophic complex. That has a direct connection with their dynamic status. In the pine forests of digressive dynamic faze, where the initial age generations accommodate the major biomass amount, this volume may grow up to 50 %. Pine species planted discounting regularities of formation of stable forest communities are subject to spotty attacks by fungi of biotrophic complex. A species composition of wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex causing rot defects of pines in the entire longitudinal gradient of pine distribution within the Russian Plain stays virtually unchanged. Significant changes can be noted only in the occurrence of certain types of wood destroying fungi. The main types of wood biotrophic fungi include: Climacocystis borealis (Fr. Kotl. et Pouzar, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr. Bref., Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr. Pat.; Porodaedalea chrysoloma (Fr. Fiasson et Niemelä; Phellinus pini (Thore: Fr. A. Ames [= Porodaedalea pini (Brot.: Fr. Murrill]. In the uneven-aged pine forests of natural origin, mottled butt rot does not form drying out spots and exists in the stands as an ordinary component of the total biotrophic defeat. Wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex are evolutionary determined as one of the endogenic mechanisms of destruction of unstable forest structures and formation of stable ones. The author also evaluated the volumes of biotrophic

  14. [Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes in Panax notoginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Chen, Di; Zhao, Dandan; Jin, Hang; Li, Lingfei

    2011-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) colonizing Panax notoginseng in three main producing areas in Wenshan Prefecture of Yunan province were investigated. The fungal colonization of 144 roots samples including healthy and rot roots of P. notoginseng with different age were observed by means of acid fuchsin stain. The results showed that P. notoginseng was the typical arbuscular mycorrhizal plant. Although there was no significant difference in AMF and DSE colonization among three sites, the total colonization of AMF was significantly higher than that of DSE. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the fresh weight of P. notoginseng root was positively significantly correlated with the colonization of AMF, but not with the colonization of DSE. These results suggest that AMF may play more important role than DSE in improving the yield and quality of P. notoginseng. Furthermore, AMF colonization of healthy P. notoginseng was higher than that of plant with root rot, which suggested that AMF could defend P. notoginseng against root rot pathogens. AMF have great potentiality and broad prospect to control root rot of P. notoginseng.

  15. Rapid and sensitive diagnoses of dry root rot pathogen of chickpea (Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler) using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Mamta

    2017-02-20

    Dry root rot (DRR) caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, is an emerging disease in chickpea. The disease is often mistaken with other root rots like Fusarium wilt, collar rot and black root rot in chickpea. Therefore, its timely and specific detection is important. Current detection protocols are either based on mycological methods or on protocols involving DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report the rapid and specific detection of R. bataticola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting fungal specific 5.8S rDNA sequence for visual detection of R. bataticola. The reaction was optimized at 63 °C for 75 min using minimum 10 fg of DNA. After adding SYBR Green I in LAMP products, the amplification was found to be highly specific in all the 94 isolates of R. bataticola collected from diverse geographical regions as well as DRR infected plants and sick soil. No reaction was found in other pathogenic fungi infecting chickpea (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium solani) and pigeonpea (Fusarium udum and Phytophthora cajani). The standardised LAMP assay with its simplicity, rapidity and specificity is very useful for the visual detection of this emerging disease in chickpea.

  16. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests.

  17. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  18. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......-proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for elucidating...

  19. Efficacy of Oryza sativa husk and Quercus phillyraeoides extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of fungal rot disease of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Victor Ohileobo; Fadina, Olubunmi Omowunmi; Ayodele, Maria; Kumar, P Lava

    2014-01-01

    Tuber rot disease is a major constraint to white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) production, accounting for 50-60% of annual yield losses in Nigeria. The main method of control using synthetic fungicides is being discouraged due to human and environmental health hazards. The potential of Oryza sativa husk (OSH) and Quercus phillyraeoides (QP) extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of six virulent rot-causing fungal pathogens, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia solani, Penicillium oxalicum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum was evaluated, using five different extract concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.5%, and 3.5% w/v. These fungi were isolated from rotted tubers of D. rotundata, across three agroecological zones in Nigeria-the Humid rainforest, Derived savanna, and southern Guinea savanna. All treatments were subjected to three methods of inoculation 48 hours before the application of both extracts and stored at 28 ± 2°C for 6 months. Radial mycelial growth of the test pathogens was effectively inhibited at concentrations ≤ 3.5% w/v in vitro for both OSH and QP extracts. Rotting was significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) to between 0 to 18.8% and 0% to 20.9% for OSH and QP extracts respectively. The extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited percent rot of the test pathogens at 3.5% concentration w/v in vivo. Rot incidence was, however, lower in replicate tubers that were inoculated, treated with extracts and exposed than treatments that were covered. Phytochemical analysis of OSH and QP extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, ferulic acid, phlobatanins, Terpenoids, phenols, anthraquinone and pyroligneous acid. The efficacy of both extracts in reducing rot in this study recommends their development as prospective biopesticide formulation and use in the management of post-harvest rot of yam tubers.

  20. Fungi in Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, G. M.

    2001-12-01

    Bioremediation research has concentrated on organic pollutants, although the range of substances that can be transformed or detoxified by microorganisms includes both natural and synthetic organic materials and inorganic pollutants. The majority of applications developed to date involve bacteria, with a distinct lack of appreciation of the potential roles and involvement of fungi in bioremediation, despite clear evidence of their metabolic and morphological versatility. This book highlights the potential of filamentous fungi, including mycorrhizas, in bioremediation and discusses the physiology and chemistry of pollutant transformations.

  1. Lead effects on fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullino, M.L.; Fiussello, N.

    1976-01-01

    Addition of 0.01M lead nitrate to media caused complete inhibition of most of a group of 80 strains of fungi of several genera. Those which did grow at all had an extended lag period in comparison to controls. At 0.001M all the fungi grew, but had thinner-than-normal mycelia and delayed fruiting body formation. Fusarium species and members of Class Basidiomycetes were among the most sensitive, and Penicillium and Aspergillus species were the most tolerant. Lead uptake rates varied positively with lead nitrate concentration in the media. 9 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa L; Sturrock, Craig J; Bird, Michael I

    2010-03-01

    We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry ((13)C and (15)N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood, and charcoal from the same species produced at 300 degrees C and 400 degrees C. Both species of fungi colonise the surface and interior of wood and charcoals over time periods of less than 70 days; however, distinctly different growth forms are evident between the exterior and interior of the charcoal substrate, with hyphal penetration concentrated along lines of structural weakness. Although the fungi were able to degrade and metabolise the pine wood, charcoal does not form a readily available source of fungal nutrients at least for these species under the conditions used in this study.

  3. Aromatic metabolism of filamentous fungi in relation to the presence of aromatic compounds in plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Marinović, Mila; Nousiainen, Paula; Liwanag, April J M; Benoit, Isabelle; Sipilä, Jussi; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

    2015-01-01

    The biological conversion of plant lignocellulose plays an essential role not only in carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems but also is an important part of the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The presence of the recalcitrant aromatic polymer lignin is one of the major obstacles in the biofuel/biochemical production process and therefore microbial degradation of lignin is receiving a great deal of attention. Fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass, and in particular the basidiomycete white rot fungi are of major importance in converting plant aromatics due to their ability to degrade lignin. However, the aromatic monomers that are released from lignin and other aromatic compounds of plant biomass are toxic for most fungi already at low levels, and therefore conversion of these compounds to less toxic metabolites is essential for fungi. Although the release of aromatic compounds from plant biomass by fungi has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been given to the metabolic pathways that convert the resulting aromatic monomers. In this review we provide an overview of the aromatic components of plant biomass, and their release and conversion by fungi. Finally, we will summarize the applications of fungal systems related to plant aromatics.

  4. 丹参根腐病原菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of root rot pathogen of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁孟娟; 藏香银; 韩军; 陈芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to further understand the variety and biology characteristics of the pathogens of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge root rot, one strain of fungi was isolated from the root rot samples of S.miltiorrhiza Bunge by tissue isolation.According to the pathogenicity test and the morphological observation of the pathogen, as well as molecular biological identification, it was identified as Fusarium solani.%为进一步了解丹参( Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge)根腐病病原菌的种类及生物学特性,采用组织分离法从丹参根腐病样本中分离到1株真菌,经致病性测定、形态学观察和分子生物学鉴定,将其鉴定为腐皮镰刀菌( Fu-sarium solani )。

  5. The occurrence of root rot and crown rot of rice in Gilan and Zanjan provinces, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, H; Okhovat, S M

    2004-01-01

    Root rot and crown rot of rice is one of the important fungal diseases of rice in Gilan and Zanjan provinces, Iran. During 1999--2002, samples of plant and soil around the roots of infected rice plants were collected and used to identify the causal agent. Root and crown parts were surface sterilized with sodium hypochlorite and then cultured on PDA (potato dextrose agar), PPA (pepton pentacholoritobenzene agar) and CLA (carnation leaf agar) media. Soil samples prepared in water agar were used to isolate the pathogen. The causal agent was identified as Fusarium moniliforme. Colonies were initially white but turned violet to grey late. Microconidia were arranged in chain and macroconidia were cylindrical and long with 3-5 septa. The disease was severe in Zanjan province particularly along Ghezel Ozan river where the infection ranged from 70-80%. Root and crown rot was more prevalent in areas where Champa and Gerdeh were being cultivated continuously. On the other hand, Sadri cultivars had relatively less infection. Persistent cultivation of rice and seed sowing method intensified disease development and caused significant economic losses.

  6. Adaptive Immunity to Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George; Klein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening fungal infections have risen sharply in recent years, owing to the advances and intensity of medical care that may blunt immunity in patients. This emerging crisis has created the growing need to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi with the ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention. We describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses that are deployed against pathogenic fungi. We focus on adaptive immunity to the major medically important fungi and emphasize three elements that coordinate the response: (1) dendritic cells and subsets that are mobilized against fungi in various anatomical compartments; (2) fungal molecular patterns and their corresponding receptors that signal responses and shape the differentiation of T-cell subsets and B cells; and, ultimately (3) the effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these invaders while constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. These insights create a foundation for the development of new, immune-based strategies for prevention or enhanced clearance of systemic fungal diseases. PMID:25377140

  7. Fun with Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  8. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived...

  9. Bioconversion of sugar cane crop residues with white-rot fungiPleurotus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, G M; Martínez, E O; Betancourt, D; González, A E; Otero, M A

    1992-07-01

    Four mushroom strains ofPleurotus spp. were cultivated on sugar cane crop residues for 30 days at 26°C. Biochemical changes affected the substrate as a result of fungal growth, in terms of nitrogen, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents. All strains showed a strong ligninolytic activity together with variable cellulolytic and xylanolytic action.Pleurotus sajor-caju attacked lignin and cellulose at the same rate, showing a degradation of 47% and 55%, respectively. A better balance was shown by theP. ostreatus-P. pulmonarius hybrid, which exhibited the poorest cellulolytic action (39%) and the highest ligninolytic activity (67%). The average composition of mushroom fruit bodies, in terms of nitrogen, carbohydrates, fats and amino acid profiles, was determined. Crude protein and total carbohydrate varied from 23% to 33% and 36% to 68% of dry matter, respectively. Fat ranged from 3.3% to 4.7% and amino acid content from 12.2% to 22.2%. Slight evidence for a nitrogen fixing capability was encountered in the substrate to fruit body balance.

  10. Isolation and selection of white-rot fungi for decolourisation of industrial dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Manzano-León

    2011-01-01

    varios ecosistemas de La Habana y Sancti Spíritus, en el período del 2000 al 2004. Los aislados correspondieron a once especies diferentes de basidiomicetos ligninolíticos, de ellos, Ganoderma aff. zonatum (B-18 y Pleurotus djamor (B-36 fueron los más efectivos en la decoloración de once colorantes químicamente diferentes y dos efluentes textiles simulados. Como referencias en los ensayos de decoloración se utilizaron las cepas Trametes membranacea (B-1, Lentinus hirtus (B-8 y Pleurotus djamor (B-9 procedentes del Jardín Botánico Nacional y con probada capacidad para degradar lignina y el colorante violeta cristal. Las enzimas lacasa y manganeso peroxidasa de G. aff. zonatum (B-18 fueron inducidas por la mezcla de los colorantes reactivos Cibacron marino FN-B, Cibacron rojo FN-3G y Cibacron amarillo P-6GS y por un efluente textil simulado, lo que sugiere su participación en los procesos de decoloración.

  11. Decolorization of alcohol distillery wastewater by thermotolerant white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairattanamanokorn, P; Imai, T; Kondo, R; Sekine, M; Higuchi, T; Ukita, M

    2005-01-01

    To detect thermotolerant fungus strain for decolorization of alcohol distillery wastewater (WAD), 38 fungus strains were studied. Ability of ligninolytic enzyme production was examined at 35 and 43 degrees C on agar media containing 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and MnCl2. At 43 degrees C, four of Pycnoporus coccineus strains showed their higher potential for WAD decolorization both on agar media and in liquid media. Immobilized mycelia on polyurethane foam removed total phenol about threefold higher than free mycelia did in shaking condition at 43 degrees C. Moreover, color removed by immobilized mycelia nearly 50% higher than free mycelia did.

  12. Proteases of Wood Rot Fungi with Emphasis on the Genus Pleurotus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Dorneles Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are present in all living organisms and they play an important role in physiological conditions. Cell growth and death, blood clotting, and immune defense are all examples of the importance of proteases in maintaining homeostasis. There is growing interest in proteases due to their use for industrial purposes. The search for proteases with specific characteristics is designed to reduce production costs and to find suitable properties for certain industrial sectors, as well as good producing organisms. Ninety percent of commercialized proteases are obtained from microbial sources and proteases from macromycetes have recently gained prominence in the search for new enzymes with specific characteristics. The production of proteases from saprophytic basidiomycetes has led to the identification of various classes of proteases. The genus Pleurotus has been extensively studied because of its ligninolytic enzymes. The characteristics of this genus are easy cultivation techniques, high yield, low nutrient requirements, and excellent adaptation. There are few studies in the literature about proteases of Pleurotus spp. This review gathers together information about proteases, especially those derived from basidiomycetes, and aims at stimulating further research about fungal proteases because of their physiological importance and their application in various industries such as biotechnology and medicine.

  13. Comparative genomics of Dothideomycete fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der A.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are a diverse group of eukaryotic micro-organisms particularly suited for comparative genomics analyses. Fungi are important to industry, fundamental science and many of them are notorious pathogens of crops, thereby endangering global food supply. Dozens of fungi have been sequenced in the la

  14. Transcriptional response of lignin-degrading enzymes to 17α-ethinyloestradiol in two white rots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přenosilová, L; Křesinová, Z; Amemori, A Slavíková; Cajthaml, T; Svobodová, K

    2013-05-01

    Fungal, ligninolytic enzymes have attracted a great attention for their bioremediation capabilities. A deficient knowledge of regulation of enzyme production, however, hinders the use of ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation applications. In this work, a transcriptional analyses of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) production by two white rots was combined with determination of pI of the enzymes and the evaluation of 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) degradation to study regulation mechanisms used by fungi during EE2 degradation. In the cultures of Trametes versicolor the addition of EE2 caused an increase in laccase activity with a maximum of 34.2 ± 6.7 U g⁻¹ of dry mycelia that was observed after 2 days of cultivation. It corresponded to a 4.9 times higher transcription levels of a laccase-encoding gene (lacB) that were detected in the cultures at the same time. Simultaneously, pI values of the fungal laccases were altered in response to the EE2 treatment. Like T. versicolor, Irpex lacteus was also able to remove 10 mg l⁻¹ EE2 within 3 days of cultivation. While an increase to I. lacteus MnP activity and MnP gene transcription levels was observed at the later phase of the cultivation. It suggests another metabolic role of MnP but EE2 degradation.

  15. Biodegradation of Gaseous Chlorobenzene by White-rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAN WANG; JIN-YING XI; HONG-YING HU; XIANG-HUA WEN

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on removal of gaseous chlorobenzene.Methods Fungal mycelium mixed with a liquid medium was placed into airtight bottles.A certain amount of chlorobenzene was injected into the headspace of the bottles under different conditions.At a certain interval,the concentrations in the headspace were analyzed to evaluate the degradation of chlorohenzene by P.chtysosporium.Results The degradation effects of P chrysosporium on chlorobenzene under different conditions were investigated.The difference in the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi and chlorobenzene degradation was observed.The data indicated that a lower temperature (28℃) would promote the degradation of chlorobenzene than the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi (37℃).A low nitrogen source concentration (30 mg N/L) had a better effect on degrading chlorohenzene than a high nitrogen source concentration (higher than 100 mg N/L).A high initial concentration (over 1100 mg/m3) of chlorobenzene showed an inhibiting effect on degradation by P.chrysosporium.A maximum removal efficiency of 95% was achieved at the initial concentration of 550 mg/m3.Conclusion P.chrysosporium has a rather good ability to remove gaseous chlorobenzene.A low nitrogen source concentration and a low temperature promote the removal of chlorohenzene by P.chrysosporium.However,a high initial chlorobenzene concentration can inhibit chlorobenzene degradation.

  16. Visualization of the structural changes in plywood and gypsum board during the growth of Chaetomium globosum and Stachybotrys chartarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewinska, Anna Malgorzata; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Peuhkuri, Ruut H.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal growth in indoor environments is associated with many negative health effects. Many studies focus on brown- and white-rot fungi and their effect on wood, but there is none that reveals the influence of soft-rot fungi, such as Stachybotrys spp. and Chaetomium spp., on the structure of build...

  17. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  18. Co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils.

  19. Etiology and Epidemiological Conditions Promoting Fusarium Root Rot in Sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, A C; Quesada-Ocampo, L M

    2016-08-01

    Sweetpotato production in the United States is limited by several postharvest diseases, and one of the most common is Fusarium root rot. Although Fusarium solani is believed to be the primary causal agent of disease, numerous other Fusarium spp. have been reported to infect sweetpotato. However, the diversity of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina is unknown. In addition, the lack of labeled and effective fungicides for control of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato creates the need for integrated strategies to control disease. Nonetheless, epidemiological factors that promote Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato remain unexplored. A survey of Fusarium spp. infecting sweetpotato in North Carolina identified six species contributing to disease, with F. solani as the primary causal agent. The effects of storage temperature (13, 18, 23, 29, and 35°C), relative humidity (80, 90, and 100%), and initial inoculum level (3-, 5-, and 7-mm-diameter mycelia plug) were examined for progression of Fusarium root rot caused by F. solani and F. proliferatum on 'Covington' sweetpotato. Fusarium root rot was significantly reduced (P Fusarium spp. revealed the production of fumonisin B1 by F. proliferatum when infecting sweetpotato. This study is a step toward characterizing the etiology and epidemiology of Fusarium root rot in sweetpotato, which allows for improved disease management recommendations to limit postharvest losses to this disease.

  20. Repression of hla by rot is dependent on sae in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Cheung, Ambrose

    2008-03-01

    The regulatory locus sae is a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus that regulates many important virulence factors, including alpha-toxin (encoded by hla) at the transcriptional level. The SarA homologs Rot and SarT were previously shown to be repressors of hla in selected S. aureus backgrounds. To delineate the interaction of rot and sae and the contribution of sarT to hla expression, an assortment of rot and sae isogenic single mutants, a rot sae double mutant, and a rot sae sarT markerless triple mutant were constructed from wild-type strain COL. Using Northern blot analysis and transcriptional reporter gene green fluorescent protein, fusion, and phenotypic assays, we found that the repression of hla by rot is dependent on sae. A rot sae sarT triple mutant was not able to rescue the hla defect of the rot sae double mutant. Among the three sae promoters, the distal sae P3 promoter is the strongest in vitro. Interestingly, the sae P3 promoter activities correlate with hla expression in rot, rot sae, and rot sae sarT mutants of COL. Transcriptional study has also shown that rot repressed sae, especially at the sae P3 promoter. Collectively, our data implicated the importance of sae in the rot-mediated repression of hla in S. aureus.

  1. Decomposition of /sup 14/C-labelled lignin, holocellulose and lignocellulose by mycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojanowski, J.; Huettermann, A.; Haider, K.

    1984-01-01

    Five different species of known ecto-mycorrhizal fungi: Cenococcum geophilum, Amanita muscaria, Tricholoma aurantium, Rhizopogon luteolus and Rhizopogon roseolus were studied for their ability to metabolize the major components of plant cell walls. All strains were able to decompose /sup 14/C-labelled plant lignin, /sup 14/C-lignocellulose and /sup 14/C-DHP-lignin at a rate which was lower than the one observed for the known white rot fungi Heterobasidion annosum and Sporotrichum pulverulentum. Also /sup 14/C-(U)-holocellulose was relatively less degradable for the mycorrhizal fungi than for the white rotters. On the other hand, aromatic monomers like /sup 14/C-vanillic acid were decomposed to a much higher extent by two species of mycorrhizal fungi compared to the activity observed for Heterobasidion annosum. The results of the experiments reveal that these stains of mycorrhizal fungi are well able to utilize the major components of plant material and thus can contribute to litter decomposition in the forest floor.

  2. Enumeration of fungi in fruits by the most probable number method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Tsutsumi, Fumiyuki; Lee, Ken-ichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu; Takatori, Kosuke; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Konuma, Hirotaka

    2010-01-01

    In this study, enumeration methods for fungi in foods were evaluated using fruits that are often contaminated by fungi in the field and rot because of fungal contaminants. As the test methods, we used the standard most probable number (MPN) method with liquid medium in test tubes, which is traditionally used as the enumeration method for bacteria, and the plate-MPN method with agar plate media, in addition to the surface plating method as the traditional enumeration method for fungi. We tested 27 samples of 9 commercial domestic fruits using their surface skin. The results indicated that the standard MPN method showed slow recovery of fungi in test tubes and lower counts than the surface plating method and the plate-MPN method in almost all samples. The fungal count on the 4th d of incubation was approximately the same as on the 10th d by the surface plating method or the plate-MPN method, indicating no significant differences between the fungal counts by these 2 methods. This result indicated that the plate-MPN method had a number agreement with the traditional enumeration method. Moreover, the plate-MPN method has a little laborious without counting colonies, because fungal counts are estimated based on the number of plates with growing colonies. These advantages demonstrated that the plate-MPN method is a comparatively superior and rapid method for enumeration of fungi.

  3. Durabilidade natural de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com Eucalyptus grandis e Bambusa vulgaris em ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado Natural durability of Eucalyptus grandis and Bambusa vulgaris particleboards under accelerated fungi decay test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2011-08-01

    dry mass of each panel while the remainder was formed by the urea-formaldehyde adhesive (8% and paraffin (1%. The panels were tested in the laboratory and Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown rot and Trametes versicolor (white rot were used to determine the natural resistance to attack by wood decay fungi. It was observed that panels which were made with a mixture of particles of wood and bamboo were less resistant to attack by decay fungi. Panels that were made from bamboo or wood only showed similar biological resistance. Among fungi, T. versicolor was the one that attacked panels more severely.

  4. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi.

  5. Keratinophilic fungi from Nigerian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonna, C I; Pugh, G J

    1987-08-01

    During a survey of keratinophilic fungi in Nigerian soil samples, twelve species of fungi were isolated. These included Chrysosporium keratinophilum, C. tropicum, Curvularia lunata, Microsporum audouinii, M. canis, M. fulvum, M. gypseum, M. vanbreuseghemii, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense and T. yaoundei. These keratinophilic fungi had a higher incidence by occurrence of individual species during the rainy season (May-October) than the dry season (November-April).

  6. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  7. Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid inhibit growth of three sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage rots contribute to postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and increasing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses during processing. They also increase root respiration rate, which causes additional sucrose loss and contributes to pile warming. Currently, storage rots ...

  8. Control of storage rot by induction of plant defense mechanisms using jasmonic acid and salicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage rots contribute to sugarbeet postharvest losses by consuming sucrose and producing carbohydrate impurities that increase sugar loss to molasses. Presently, storage rots are controlled by cooling storage piles. This method of control, however, requires favorable weather conditions for stora...

  9. 桑叶褐斑病病原菌的生物学特性研究%Bilolgical Characteristics of Pathogenic Fungus Causing Brown Spot on Mulberry Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庭观; 章一鸣; 叶政平; 何永宏; 张泽; 徐升胜; 洪逗

    2014-01-01

    Through cultivating pathogenic fungi of mulberry brown rot disease under 6 conditions such as different media, temperature, carbon source and nitrogen source after 6 days, research on the biological characteristics of pathogenic fungus causing brown spot on mulberry leaves was conducted .The results showed that nutrition , tem-perature and pH had significant influence on mycelial growth . It was found that the best medium for mycelial growth was oatmeal medium , the proper temperature was 20~30℃, the optimal temperature for mycelial growth was 25℃, the light had no obvious promotion effect on mycelial growth .It was also found that the optimal pH was 9 to 10 , the best carbon source and nitrogen source for mycelial grow are α-Galoctaose and Carbamide , and the mycelial could not survive above 55℃more than 10 min.%通过对桑叶褐斑病病原菌在不同种类培养基培养、不同氮源与碳源、不同温度等6种条件下培养6天后,测定菌落直径,观察菌丝颜色和菌落形态,分析了桑褐斑病病原菌的生物学特性。结果表明,在室内培养条件下,不同的营养成分、 pH值、温度、光照都对菌丝的生长有影响。病原菌菌丝生长的最适宜培养基是燕麦片培养基,适宜生长温度范围是20~30℃,最适生长温度为25℃,光照对菌丝生长无显著影响,最适pH值为9~10,最适碳源为α-乳糖,最适氮源为尿素,菌丝在55℃水浴10 min后则不能生长。

  10. Reaction of Cauliflower Genotypes to Black Rot of Crucifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lincon Rafael; da Silva, Renan César Dias; Cardoso, Atalita Francis; de Mello Pelá, Gláucia; Carvalho, Daniel Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate six cauliflower genotypes regarding their resistance to black rot and their production performance. To do so, it was conducted two field experiments in Ipameri, Goiás, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013. It was used a randomized block design, with four replications (total of 24 plots). Each plot consisted of three planting lines 2.5 m long (six plants/line), spaced 1.0 m apart, for a total area of 7.5 m2. Evaluations of black rot severity were performed at 45 days after transplanting, this is, 75 days after sowing (DAS), and yield evaluations at 90 to 105 DAS. The Verona 184 genotype was the most resistant to black rot, showing 1.87 and 2.25% of leaf area covered by black rot symptom (LACBRS) in 2012 and 2013. However, it was not among the most productive materials. The yield of the genotypes varied between 15.14 and 25.83 t/ha in both years, Lisvera F1 (21.78 and 24.60 t/ha) and Cindy (19.95 and 23.56 t/ha) being the most productive. However, Lisvera F1 showed 6.37 and 9.37% of LACBRS and Cindy showed 14.25 and 14.87% of LACBRS in 2012 and 2013, being both considered as tolerant to black rot. PMID:26060437

  11. Reaction of Cauliflower Genotypes to Black Rot of Crucifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincon Rafael da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate six cauliflower genotypes regarding their resistance to black rot and their production performance. To do so, it was conducted two field experiments in Ipameri, Goiás, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013. It was used a randomized block design, with four replications (total of 24 plots. Each plot consisted of three planting lines 2.5 m long (six plants/line, spaced 1.0 m apart, for a total area of 7.5 m². Evaluations of black rot severity were performed at 45 days after transplanting, this is, 75 days after sowing (DAS, and yield evaluations at 90 to 105 DAS. The Verona 184 genotype was the most resistant to black rot, showing 1.87 and 2.25% of leaf area covered by black rot symptom (LACBRS in 2012 and 2013. However, it was not among the most productive materials. The yield of the genotypes varied between 15.14 and 25.83 t/ha in both years, Lisvera F1 (21.78 and 24.60 t/ha and Cindy (19.95 and 23.56 t/ha being the most productive. However, Lisvera F1 showed 6.37 and 9.37% of LACBRS and Cindy showed 14.25 and 14.87% of LACBRS in 2012 and 2013, being both considered as tolerant to black rot.

  12. Antifungal Substances from Streptomyces sp. A3265 Antagonistic to Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Nguyen; Woo, E-Eum; Kim, Ji-Yul; Kim, Dae-Won; Hwang, Byung Soon; Lee, Yoon-Ju; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2015-09-01

    In a previous study, we identified a Streptomyces sp., A3265, as exhibiting potent antifungal activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Rhizoctonia solani. This strain also exhibited a biocontrolling effect against ginseng root rot and damping-off disease, common diseases of ginseng and other crops. In this study, we isolated two antifungal substances responsible for this biocontrolling effect via Diaion HP-20 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, medium pressure liquid chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. These compounds were identified as guanidylfungin A and methyl guanidylfungin A by spectroscopic methods. These compounds exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against various plant pathogenic fungi as well as against bacteria.

  13. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by manganese peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiao; Ogata, Makoto; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1) ) is a potent mycotoxin with mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic, and immunosuppressive properties. In order to develop a bioremediation system for AFB(1) -contaminated foods by white-rot fungi or ligninolytic enzymes, AFB(1) was treated with manganese peroxidase (MnP) from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. AFB(1) was eliminated by MnP. The maximum elimination (86.0%) of AFB(1) was observed after 48 h in a reaction mixture containing 5 nkat of MnP. The addition of Tween 80 enhanced AFB(1) elimination. The elimination of AFB(1) by MnP considerably reduced its mutagenic activity in an umu test, and the treatment of AFB(1) by 20 nkat MnP reduced the mutagenic activity by 69.2%. (1) H-NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis suggested that AFB(1) is first oxidized to AFB(1) -8,9-epoxide by MnP and then hydrolyzed to AFB(1) -8,9-dihydrodiol. This is the first report that MnP can effectively remove the mutagenic activity of AFB(1) by converting it into AFB(1) -8,9-dihydrodiol.

  14. Biological Control of Phacidiopycnis Rot in ‘d’Anjou’ Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phacidiopycnis rot, caused by Phacidiopycnis piri, is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of pears (Pyrus) in the U.S. and a major disease of ‘d’Anjou’ pears grown in Washington State. Phacidiopycnis rot can originate from infection of wounds on the fruit. In this study, two biocontrol...

  15. Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikemo, H.; Klemsdal, S.S.; Riisberg, I.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Stensvand, A.; Tronsmo, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of 44 isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by AFLP showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from P. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from Europe, Japan, Australia

  16. Black rot of cabbage in The Netherlands: studies on spatial and temporal development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocks, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Black rot in cabbage is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris . An exploratory survey at farm level suggested that major aspects contributing to black rot development are cultivar, initial inoculum, refuse management, origin of transplants, and seed quality. Black rot develop

  17. Decay threshold of acetylated rattan (Calamus manan) against soft rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norul Hisham Hamid; Mike Hale

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the resistance of acetylated rattan against soft rot and other soil inhabiting micro-organisms in comparison with wood of beech and Scots pine.Calamus manan of 10 and 13 years old under rubber tree canopy was acetylated to different levels by reaction times (0.25 to 30 hours) and was tested for soft rot decay for 32 weeks.Acetylated rattan at decay protection thresholds of 15.4% and 16.2% weight gain (WG) were fully protected,as shown by both weight loss and strength loss criteria.The static bending properties of untreated rattan decayed by soft rot were significantly lower than for acetylated rattan.

  18. Metabolomics protocols for filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummer, Joel P A; Krill, Christian; Du Fall, Lauren; Waters, Ormonde D C; Trengove, Robert D; Oliver, Richard P; Solomon, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics and transcriptomics are established functional genomics tools commonly used to study filamentous fungi. Metabolomics has recently emerged as another option to complement existing techniques and provide detailed information on metabolic regulation and secondary metabolism. Here, we describe broad generic protocols that can be used to undertake metabolomics studies in filamentous fungi.

  19. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum and...

  20. Plant biomass degradation by fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the

  1. Wood decomposition and fungal community dynamics mediated by temperature and endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z.; Schilling, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Wood decomposition is primarily fulfilled by brown rot and white rot fungi in temperate and boreal forests. The competition balance between these fungi determines the patterns of wood decomposition and carbon cycle in forests. But this balance may shift in a warmer future, especially in high latitude forests. Additionally, endophytes may assert influence over the fungal competition through priority effect and interact with the effect of climate change. In this study, we use paper birch and two common fungi to answer two questions 1) How does increased temperature affect the competition between brown rot and white rot fungi? 2) How do endophytes interact with fungi from the soil and influence wood decomposition? A microcosm system was used to simulate competition between Piptoporus betulinus (brown rot fungi) and Fomes fomentarius (white rot fungi) on small birch stem on the effect of increased temperature and endophytes. Activity of P. betulinus was slower in higher temperature, but F. fomentarius was not affected. Character of residue showed that when both fungi were present, wood tend to have white rot in higher temperature. Presence of endophytes significantly reduced the decay rate when they were competing with external fungi, indicating that part of their energy was allocated to interspecies antagonism from metabolizing wood. In the absence of external fungus, endophytes alone caused significant amount of wood decay. Higher temperature also tends to shift the community of endophyte toward more white rot fungi. Our results highlighted the role of endophytes in wood decomposition. Major wood decomposers, not just plant pathogen, may remain dormant in live trees and regain their activity right after tree death. The endophytes could be an important part of assembly history in forming microbial community in dead wood and may have complex interactions with fungi and bacteria in soil. An increased temperature obviously favors white rot fungi, which is in accordance

  2. Analysis of the community compositions of rhizosphere fungi in soybeans continuous cropping fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Cui, Jiaqi; Jie, Weiguang; Cai, Baiyan

    2015-11-01

    We used rhizosphere soil sampled from one field during zero year and two years of continuous cropping of high-protein soybean to analyze the taxonomic community compositions of fungi during periods of high-incidence of root rot. Our objectives were to identify the dominant pathogens in order to provide a theoretical basis for the study of pathogenesis as well as control tactics for soybean root rot induced by continuous cropping. A total of 17,801 modified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained from three different soybean rhizosphere soil samples after zero year and 1 or 2 years of continuous cropping using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The dominant eumycote fungal were identified to be Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the three soil samples. Continuous cropping of soybean affected the diversity of fungi in rhizosphere soils and increased the abundance of Thelebolus and Mortierellales significantly. Thanatephorus, Fusarium, and Alternaria were identified to be the dominant pathogenic fungal genera in rhizosphere soil from continuously cropped soybean fields.

  3. Ineraction between some saprophytic and entomopathogenis fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-01-01

    The studies on interactions between selected entomopathogenic fungi: Beaweria bassiana, Conidiobolus thromboides (= Entomophthora virulenta), Paecilomyces farinosus, Verticillium lecanii and four species of saprophytic fungi were carried out.

  4. Identification of soil-borne pathogens in a common bean root rot nursery in Isabela, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited research has been completed on the root rot complex of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Caribbean, while yield losses of over 50% due to root rot disease have been reported worldwide. In this study, the predominant root rot pathogens in a 40-year old common bean root rot nurser...

  5. Repression of hla by rot Is Dependent on sae in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dongmei; Cheung, Ambrose

    2008-01-01

    The regulatory locus sae is a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus that regulates many important virulence factors, including alpha-toxin (encoded by hla) at the transcriptional level. The SarA homologs Rot and SarT were previously shown to be repressors of hla in selected S. aureus backgrounds. To delineate the interaction of rot and sae and the contribution of sarT to hla expression, an assortment of rot and sae isogenic single mutants, a rot sae double mutant, and a rot sae sarT m...

  6. Do jasmonates play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced local bioprotection of Medicago truncatula against root rot disease caused by Aphanomyces euteiches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilou, Adama; Zhang, Haoqiang; Franken, Philipp; Hause, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Bioprotective effects of mycorrhization with two different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis, against Aphanomyces euteiches, the causal agent of root rot in legumes, were studied in Medicago truncatula using phenotypic and molecular markers. Previous inoculation with an AM-fungus reduced disease symptoms as well as the amount of pathogen within roots, as determined by the levels of A. euteiches rRNA or transcripts of the gene sterol C24 reductase. Inoculation with R. irregularis was as efficient as that with F. mosseae. To study whether jasmonates play a regulatory role in bioprotection of M. truncatula by the AM fungi, composite plants harboring transgenic roots were used to modulate the expression level of the gene encoding M. truncatula allene oxide cyclase 1, a key enzyme in jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Neither an increase nor a reduction in allene oxide cyclase levels resulted in altered bioprotection by the AM fungi against root infection by A. euteiches. These data suggest that jasmonates do not play a major role in the local bioprotective effect of AM fungi against the pathogen A. euteiches in M. truncatula roots.

  7. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Siddhartha N; Goswami, Debahuti; Sarma, Hridip K; Cameotra, Swaranjit S; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs) has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.). F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l(-1) resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides.

  8. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Narayan Borah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.. F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l-1 resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides.

  9. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C; Pascual, Jose A; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67-75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases.

  10. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Siddhartha N.; Goswami, Debahuti; Sarma, Hridip K.; Cameotra, Swaranjit S.; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs) has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.). F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l-1 resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides. PMID:27708638

  11. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  12. Rice Sheath Rot: An Emerging Ubiquitous Destructive Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigirimana, Vincent de P; Hua, Gia K H; Nyamangyoku, Obedi I; Höfte, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Around one century ago, a rice disease characterized mainly by rotting of sheaths was reported in Taiwan. The causal agent was identified as Acrocylindrium oryzae, later known as Sarocladium oryzae. Since then it has become clear that various other organisms can cause similar disease symptoms, including Fusarium sp. and fluorescent pseudomonads. These organisms have in common that they produce a range of phytotoxins that induce necrosis in plants. The same agents also cause grain discoloration, chaffiness, and sterility and are all seed-transmitted. Rice sheath rot disease symptoms are found in all rice-growing areas of the world. The disease is now getting momentum and is considered as an important emerging rice production threat. The disease can lead to variable yield losses, which can be as high as 85%. This review aims at improving our understanding of the disease etiology of rice sheath rot and mainly deals with the three most reported rice sheath rot pathogens: S. oryzae, the Fusarium fujikuroi complex, and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae. Causal agents, pathogenicity determinants, interactions among the various pathogens, epidemiology, geographical distribution, and control options will be discussed.

  13. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, S.M.; Hansen, K.; Romanish, M.; Thorn, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia res

  14. Susceptibility of highbush blueberry cultivars to Phytophthora root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  15. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L., cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham., chatim (Alstonia scholaris L., mander (Erythrina variegata, bael (Aegle marmelos L., marigold (Tagetes erecta, onion (Allium cepa, garlic (Allium sativum L., neem (Azadiracta indica, lime (Citrus aurantifolia, and turmeric (Curcuma longa L. were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  16. Phytophthora root rot resistance in soybean E00003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a devastating disease in soybean production. Using resistant cultivars has been suggested as the best solution for disease management. Michigan elite soybean E00003 is resistant to P. sojae and has been used as a PRR resist...

  17. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  18. Utilization of Fatliquors by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sharma

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available wenty five fungi isolated from deteriorated finished leathers have been tested to know their relative capacity to utilize the fatliquors viz., raw fish oil, castor oil, fish oil (sulphated, spindle oil turkey red oil and coconut oil. All these fatty substances supported the growth of all the fungi except a few species of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Drechslera which showed moderate growth. The studies support the contention that fatliquors initially provide a substrate for the growth of fungi on finished leather and its products.

  19. A New Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Forveille, T; Delfosse, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of three brown dwarf candidates identified in the first 1% of the DENIS sky survey. Low resolution spectra from 6430--9000A show these objects to have similar spectra to the uncertain brown dwarf candidate GD 165B. High resolution spectroscopy shows that one of the objects -- DBD 1228-1547 -- has a strong EW=2.3+-0.05A absorption line of Li I 6708A, and is therefore a brown dwarf with mass below 0.065 Msol. DBD 1228-1547 can now be the considered proto-type for objects JUST below the hydrogen burning limit.

  20. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  3. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  4. Fungi: Strongmen of the Underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Patricia D.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that stresses the role of fungi and decomposers, highlights the rapidity by which they complete this process, and allows students to experiment with ways to control the rate of decomposition. (CCM)

  5. Studies on foliicolous fungi VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosagoudar, V.B.

    2002-01-01

    An account is given of three foliicolous fungi from India. Two new species, viz. Clasterosporium cyperacearum and Questieriella grewiae are described. Dysrhynchis uncinata forms a new generic and specific record to India and is reported on an endemic host.

  6. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay.

  7. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  8. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekimova V. B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of high-quality seed, not affected by pathogens and fungi promote the high and stable yields. The condition of seeds determines their germination, seedling damage and adult plants, which ultimately affects the yield and on their quality. The significant risk of seed infection was registered in years with high humidity in the pre-harvest and harvest period. Therefore, along with the traditional seed control it is necessary to conduct phytopahtology expertise, allowing to identify the species composition of the microflora of seeds and the degree of infection with different pathogens. Smut disease - a solid and loose smut of wheat, hard and loose smut of barley - cause crop losses are clear - in the form of the destruction of the ear, and hidden - in the form of a reduction in seed germination, reduce winter hardiness, plant growth inhibition. Pathogens root rot causing blight, Fusarium and Helminthosporium that insignificantly demand on environmental conditions and extremely plastic. They have large set of enzymes that can exist on a variety of substrates, and therefore are widely distributed in nature and cause considerable damage to crops. Especially significant losses occur if the humidity during the ripening grain observed for several seasons, which leads to accumulation of the infection naturally. The aim of research was to assess the contamination of grain of spring wheat and barley phytopathogenic fungi in one of the main grain regions of Ukraine - the southern forest. The research conducted during the summer 2014 and compared with the results of previous years. Samples were taken from different plots. Seed contamination of samples by various phytopathogenic fungi was determined by the number of infected kernels per 100 seed sample. Frequency of registered species was recorded. For every studied sample we set the percentage of species. Analysis of the grain on the fungal infection and avdelenie in pure culture was performed

  9. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of reactive Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye by the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Duraisamy; Velmurugan, Natarajan; Shim, Jae Hong; Oh, Byung-Taek; Senthil, Kalaiselvi; Lee, Yang Soo

    2012-11-30

    The treatment of effluents from textile industry with microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi, has recently gained attention. The present study was conducted using white rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes sp., and Lentinula edodes for the decolorization of reactive textile Levafix Blue E-RA granulate dye. I. lacteus resulted in the best decolorization and degradation of the dye within four days. Therefore, more detailed studies were carried out using I. lacteus. The decolorization was evaluated at various concentration, pH values, and temperatures. The activities of laccase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase enzymes were estimated to reveal the roles of enzymes in decolorization. The colorless nature of the fungal cells revealed that decolorization occurred through degradation, and confirmed by analysis of the metabolites by UV-visible spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography after decolorization. The metabolites were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and functional group analysis was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The degraded dye metabolites were assessed for phytotoxicity using Vigna radiata and Brassica juncea, which demonstrated nontoxic nature of the metabolites formed after degradation of dye.

  10. 玉米抗穗腐病研究进展%Advances in Research on Maize Resistance to Ear Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段灿星; 王晓鸣; 宋凤景; 孙素丽; 周丹妮; 朱振东

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops in the world. The percentage of maize yields is 38.12% in gross cereal yields of China. Ear rot is a serious disease of maize, which often leads to a decline in yield and quality, and that hazards animals and human health because of the toxins that are produced in the ear rot. The development and utilization of resistant cultivars is the most economical, safe, and effective method for controlling ear rot. So far, many studies on pathogens causing maize ear rot have been reported and more than 40 pathogenic fungi have been isolated and identified. The ear rots caused byFusarium verticillioides,F. graminearum andAspergillusflavus are very common and serious diseases. The four methods of resistance identification have been established, i.e. two toothpicks method, silk spraying, silk channel injection and kernel injection. Thousands of maize germplasm have been identified and evaluated for resistance to ear rot, and some accessions with resistance toF. verticillioides,F. graminearum orA.flavus also have been screened out. Resistance inheritance and gene mapping have been conducted for some materials, and more than 60 quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance toA. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation in maize have been mapped on chromosomes 1-8. Furthermore, 55, 29 and 16 QTLs resistance toF. verticillioides,F. graminearum and fumonisin and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation have been discovered, respectively. Based on QTL associated with ear rot resistance in maize, the meta-QTL analysis has been projected and some stable QTLs have been detected. Also, more than 10 ear rot resistant accessions have been developed and some new varieties with different levels of resistance have been bred. In addition, physical and biochemical resistance mechanisms were demonstrated, which mainly reflected in anti-infection and anti-diffusion. However, there are few successful cases that the resistance research and disease

  11. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  12. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clifford Sutton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydroponic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances, the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and phenolic substances in the nutrient solution, microbial communities and temperature and human interferences (cropping practices and control measures are reviewed. Recent findings on predisposition of roots to Pythium attack by environmental stress factors are highlighted. The commonly minor impact on epidemics of measures to disinfest nutrient solution as it recirculates outside the crop is contrasted with the impact of treatments that suppress Pythium in the roots and root zone of the crop. New discoveries that infection of roots by P. aphanidermatum markedly slows the increase in leaf area and whole-plant carbon gain without significant effect on the efficiency of photosynthesis per unit area of leaf are noted. The platform of

  13. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  14. Application of scan line filling to leaf image segmentation of sugarcane red rot disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinhui; Liu, Muhua; Yao, Mingyin

    2009-07-01

    Red rot disease is a common disease at the seedling stage of sugarcane. In order to identify red rot disease effectively, a segmentation algorithm for leaf images of sugarcane red rot disease using scan line filling is proposed. The proposed algorithm has six stages. During the first stage, the class of green plants is separated from the class of non-green plants using the color feature of 2G-R-B. At the second stage, connected regions of the class of green plants are labeled. At the third stage, outer contours are extracted. At the fourth stage, the regions surrounded by outer contours are filled using scan line filling. At the fifth stage, the images are colorized. At the sixth stage, red rot diseased spots are extracted using the color feature. The experimental results show that this algorithm can extract red rot diseased spots effectively, and the accurate rate of image segmentation for red rot diseases is 96%.

  15. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  16. Rice Sheath Rot: An Emerging Ubiquitous Destructive Disease Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent de Paul Bigirimana; Khuong Hoang Gia Hua; Obedi Ishibwela Nyamangyoku; Monica eHöfte

    2015-01-01

    Around one century ago, a rice disease characterized mainly by rotting of sheaths was reported in Taiwan. The causal agent was identified as Acrocylindrium oryzae, later known as Sarocladium oryzae. Since then it has become clear that various other organisms can cause similar disease symptoms, including Fusarium spp. and fluorescent pseudomonads. These organisms have in common that they produce a range of phytotoxins that induce necrosis in plants. The same agents also cause grain discolorati...

  17. The First Report of Postharvest Stem Rot of Kohlrabi Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Young; Aktaruzzaman, Md; Afroz, Tania; Hahm, Young-Il; Kim, Byung-Sup

    2014-12-01

    In March 2014, a kohlrabi stem rot sample was collected from the cold storage room of Daegwallyong Horticultural Cooperative, Korea. White and fuzzy mycelial growth was observed on the stem, symptomatic of stem rot disease. The pathogen was isolated from the infected stem and cultured on potato dextrose agar for further fungal morphological observation and to confirm its pathogenicity, according to Koch's postulates. Morphological data, pathogenicity test results, and rDNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS 1 and 4) showed that the postharvest stem rot of kohlrabi was caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This is the first report of postharvest stem rot of kohlrabi in Korea.

  18. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  19. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  20. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  1. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  2. Enzymatic activity of myccorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pachlewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigations included assays of enzymatic activity of ectomycorrhizal fungi from the genera: Amanita, Cenococcum, Coltricia, Hebeloma, Lactarius, Rhizopogon, Russula, Suillus, Tricholoma and the pine ectendomycorrhizal strain MrgX. Among the 22 investigated strains of fungi 18 could decompose starch, 14 urea, 11 asparagine, 7 protein, 6 pectin and 3 ce1lulose. The most varied enzyme activities were found in Amanita muscaria, A. verna, Hebeloma, mesophaeum, ectendomycorrhizal isolate MrgX, Rhizopogon luteolus and Suillus bovinus, the highest cellolotytic activity was shown by the ectendomycorrhizal strain.

  3. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola O. Adeyemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Arsenic is a known toxic element and its presence and toxicity in nature is a worldwide environmental problem. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation is a potential method to reduce as concentration in contaminated areas. Approach: In order to explore the possible bioremediation of this element, three filamentous fungi-Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor were investigated for their potential abilities to accumulate (and possibly solubilize arsenic from an agar environment consisting of non buffered mineral salts media amended with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% (w/v arsenopyrite (FeAsS. Growth rates, dry weights, arsenic accumulation and oxalate production by the fungi as well as the pH of the growth media were all assessed during this study. Results: There was no visible solubilization of FeAsS particles underneath any of the growing fungal colonies or elsewhere in the respective agar plates. No specific patterns of growth changes were observed from the growth ratios of the fungi on agar amended with different amounts of FeAsS although growth of all fungi was stimulated by the incorporation of varying amounts of FeAsS into the agar with the exception of A. niger on 0.4% (w/v amended agar and T. versicolor on 0.8% (w/v amended agar. The amounts of dry weights obtained for all three fungi also did not follow any specific patterns with different amounts of FeAsS and the quantities obtained were in the order A. niger > S. himantioides > T. versicolor. All fungi accumulated as in their biomasses with all amounts of FeAsS although to varying levels and T. versicolor was the most effective with all amounts of FeAsS while A. niger was the least effective. Conclusion: The accumulation of arsenic in the biomasses of the test fungi as shown in this study may suggested a role for fungi through their bioaccumulating capabilities as agents in the possible bioremediation of arsenic contaminated environments.

  4. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Agnes Lumi; Faria, Carla Bertechini; de Castro, Fausto Fernandes; de Souza, Sandra Regina; dos Santos, Fabiane Cristina; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri José; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

    2015-07-07

    Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases.

  5. Effect of growth substrate, method of fermentation, and nitrogen source on lignocellulose-degrading enzymes production by white-rot basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Penninckx, Michel

    2008-11-01

    The exploration of seven physiologically different white rot fungi potential to produce cellulase, xylanase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase (MnP) showed that the enzyme yield and their ratio in enzyme preparations significantly depends on the fungus species, lignocellulosic growth substrate, and cultivation method. The fruit residues were appropriate growth substrates for the production of hydrolytic enzymes and laccase. The highest endoglucanase (111 U ml(-1)) and xylanase (135 U ml(-1)) activities were revealed in submerged fermentation (SF) of banana peels by Pycnoporus coccineus. In the same cultivation conditions Cerrena maxima accumulated the highest level of laccase activity (7,620 U l(-1)). The lignified materials (wheat straw and tree leaves) appeared to be appropriate for the MnP secretion by majority basidiomycetes. With few exceptions, SF favored to hydrolases and laccase production by fungi tested whereas SSF was appropriate for the MnP accumulation. Thus, the Coriolopsis polyzona hydrolases activity increased more than threefold, while laccase yield increased 15-fold when tree leaves were undergone to SF instead SSF. The supplementation of nitrogen to the control medium seemed to have a negative effect on all enzyme production in SSF of wheat straw and tree leaves by Pleurotus ostreatus. In SF peptone and ammonium containing salts significantly increased C. polyzona and Trametes versicolor hydrolases and laccase yields. However, in most cases the supplementation of media with additional nitrogen lowered the fungi specific enzyme activities. Especially strong repression of T. versicolor MnP production was revealed.

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1986. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  8. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1985. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1987. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1984. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1980. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  14. Ineraction between some saprophytic and entomopathogenis fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The studies on interactions between selected entomopathogenic fungi: Beaweria bassiana, Conidiobolus thromboides (= Entomophthora virulenta, Paecilomyces farinosus, Verticillium lecanii and four species of saprophytic fungi were carried out.

  15. Marine fungi: their ecology and molecular diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas A; Jones, Meredith D M; Leonard, Guy; Bass, David

    2012-01-01

    Fungi appear to be rare in marine environments. There are relatively few marine isolates in culture, and fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences are rarely recovered in marine clone library experiments (i.e., culture-independent sequence surveys of eukaryotic microbial diversity from environmental DNA samples). To explore the diversity of marine fungi, we took a broad selection of SSU rDNA data sets and calculated a summary phylogeny. Bringing these data together identified a diverse collection of marine fungi, including sequences branching close to chytrids (flagellated fungi), filamentous hypha-forming fungi, and multicellular fungi. However, the majority of the sequences branched with ascomycete and basidiomycete yeasts. We discuss evidence for 36 novel marine lineages, the majority and most divergent of which branch with the chytrids. We then investigate what these data mean for the evolutionary history of the Fungi and specifically marine-terrestrial transitions. Finally, we discuss the roles of fungi in marine ecosystems.

  16. The diversity of fungi colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Żołna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The infection of rhododendron (Rhododendron L. inflorescence buds caused by pathogenic fungi induces its browning, withering, and dieback. The identification of fungi causing the infection of rhododendron inflorescence buds can be a reason for creating new improved cultivars with genetically determined resistance to pathogens. The investigations were carried out in 2010–2011 on the collection of ornamental plants of the Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Kraków. The material comprised infected inflorescence buds collected from nine newly bred taxa and one botanical species of rhododendron. 596 colonies of fungi belonging to 31 species were isolated from infected rhododendron inflorescence buds. The dominant species were: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Truncatella truncata, Alternaria alternata, Phialophora asteris, and Trichoderma viride, which constituted almost 74% of the isolated fungi population. Boeremia exigua var. exigua, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium poae, Mammaria echinobotryoides, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora cyclaminis, Phoma eupyrena, Talaromyces wortmannii, Umbelopsis isabellina, and other fungi were isolated in a lower number. The results of mycological analysis confirm the diversity of species colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron. .

  17. Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi and Oomycetes are notorious plant pathogens and use similar strategies to infect plants. The majority of plants, however, is not infected by pathogens as they recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors that mediate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) ,

  18. Indoor fungi: companions and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, A; Täubel, M; Hyvärinen, A

    2015-04-01

    This review discusses the role of fungi and fungal products in indoor environments, especially as agents of human exposure. Fungi are present everywhere, and knowledge for indoor environments is extensive on their occurrence and ecology, concentrations, and determinants. Problems of dampness and mold have dominated the discussion on indoor fungi. However, the role of fungi in human health is still not well understood. In this review, we take a look back to integrate what cultivation-based research has taught us alongside more recent work with cultivation-independent techniques. We attempt to summarize what is known today and to point out where more data is needed for risk assessment associated with indoor fungal exposures. New data have demonstrated qualitative and quantitative richness of fungal material inside and outside buildings. Research on mycotoxins shows that just as microbes are everywhere in our indoor environments, so too are their metabolic products. Assessment of fungal exposures is notoriously challenging due to the numerous factors that contribute to the variation of fungal concentrations in indoor environments. We also may have to acknowledge and incorporate into our understanding the complexity of interactions between multiple biological agents in assessing their effects on human health and well-being.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  1. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  2. Bioactive terpenes from marine-derived fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissawy, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S; Singab, AbdelNasser B; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-03

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years' reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  3. Isolation of Bacteria with Antifungal Activity against the Phytopathogenic Fungi Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petatán-Sagahón, Iván; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel; Silva-Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Arana-Cuenca, Ainhoa; Tellez-Jurado, Alejandro; Cárdenas-Álvarez, Isabel Oyuki; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2011-01-01

    Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora are the causal agents of ear rot in corn, which is one of the most destructive diseases in this crop worldwide. These fungi are important mycotoxin producers that cause different pathologies in farmed animals and represent an important risk for humans. In this work, 160 strains were isolated from soil of corn crops of which 10 showed antifungal activity against these phytopathogens, which, were identified as: Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pantoea agglomerans by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and the phylogenetic analysis. From cultures of each strain, extracellular filtrates were obtained and assayed to determine antifungal activity. The best filtrates were obtained in the stationary phase of B. subtilis cultures that were stable to the temperature and extreme pH values; in addition they did not show a cytotoxicity effect against brine shrimp and inhibited germination of conidia. The bacteria described in this work have the potential to be used in the control of white ear rot disease. PMID:22016606

  4. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  5. Differential regulation of manganese peroxidases and characterization of two variable MnP encoding genes in the white-rot fungus Physisporinus rivulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Terhi K; Hildén, Kristiina; Maijala, Pekka; Olsson, Cia; Hatakka, Annele

    2006-12-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) production in the white-rot basidiomycete Physisporinus rivulosus T241i was studied. Separate MnP isoforms were produced in carbon-limited liquid media supplemented with Mn(2+), veratryl alcohol, or sawdust. The isoforms had different pH ranges for the oxidation of Mn(2+) and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. Although lignin degradation by white-rot fungi is often triggered by nitrogen depletion, MnPs of P. rivulosus were efficiently produced also in the presence of high-nutrient nitrogen, especially in cultures supplemented with veratryl alcohol. Two MnP encoding genes, mnpA and mnpB, were identified, and their corresponding cDNAs were characterized. Structurally, the genes showed marked dissimilarity, and the expression of the two genes implicated quantitative variation and differential regulation in response to manganese, veratryl alcohol, or sawdust. The variability in regulation and properties of the isoforms may widen the operating range for efficient lignin degradation by P. rivulosus.

  6. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  7. Development of dry gram-negative bacteria biocontrol products and small pilot tests against dry rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains S11:P:12, P22:Y:05, and S22:T:04 suppress four important storage potato maladies; dry rot, late blight, pink rot, and sprouting. Studies were designed to identify methods for producing a dried, efficacious biological control product. The strains were evaluated individ...

  8. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  9. First report of Fusarium hostae causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown rot disease of wheat is caused by a complex of Fusarium species. To identify species associated with crown rot in Turkey, crowns and stems of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) were collected from the Central and Southeast Anatolia, Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterr...

  10. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot and yellow

  11. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  12. Vine kill interval and temperature effects on Fusarium dry rot development in Russet Burbank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot disease development in potato storage is universal to all market sectors and regions. The objective of this 2-year study was to evaluate three possible management decisions that may impact Fusarium dry rot development in storage: a) vine kill to harvest time, b) harvested tuber pulp...

  13. First Report of Calonectria hongkongensis Causing Fruit Rot of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Latoni-Brailowsky, E.I.; Rivera-Vargas, L.I.; Goenaga, R.J.; Crous, P.W.; French-Monar, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit rot of rambutan is a pre- and post-harvest disease problem of rambutan orchards. In 2011, fruit rot was observed at USDA-ARS orchards in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and 1 mm2 tissue sections were surface disinfested with 70% ethanol followed by 0.5% sodium hypochlorite

  14. The presence and survival of soft rot (Erwinia) in flower bulb production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Vreeburg, P.J.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Dees, R.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot is causing increasing damage in the flower bulb industry. Bulbous ornamentals such as Hyacinthus, Dahlia, Iris, Muscari, Freesia and Zantedeschia can be infected. Soft rot in flower bulbs is mainly caused by Dickeya spp. (Dickeya spp.) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Pectobacteriu

  15. Efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the efficacy of management tools for control of Pythium root rot of Douglas fir seedlings. This effort was conducted as part of the IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture program to evaluate fungicides and biopesticides for management of root, crown and stem rot of ornamental plants ca...

  16. BIO-DEINKING OF ONP AND ITS EFFLUENT TREATMENT BY WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Lin; Chunsheng Pang; Deqing Zhao; Liping Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Deinking of secondary fiber of ONP and effluent treatment with white rot fungus were studied in this paper. Results showed that white rot fungus exerted significant effect on deinking of ONP and CODcr decrease and degradation of pollutants of deinking effluent.

  17. Leaf Spot and Stem Rot on Wilford Swallowwort Caused by Stemphylium lycopersici in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee; Shim, Hong Sik; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2012-12-01

    In June 2012, leaf spot and stem rot were observed on Wilford Swallowwort plants grown in Cheonan, Korea. Three fungal isolates obtained from the diseased leaves and stems were identified as Stemphylium lycopersici, based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics and pathogenicity. This is the first report of leaf spot and stem rot on Wilford Swallowwort caused by S. lycopersici.

  18. Postharvest salicylic acid treatment reduces storage rots in water-stressed but no unstressed sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) reduces storage rots in a number of postharvest crops. SA’s ability to protect sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots from common storage rot pathogens, however, is unknown. To determine the potential of SA to reduce storage losses caused by three common...

  19. Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer Causing Root Rot of Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, growers in Michigan and other sugar beet production areas of the United States have reported increasing incidence of root rot with little or no crown or foliar symptoms in sugar beet with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. In addition, Rhizoctonia-resistant beets have been reported wit...

  20. Infection of apple fruit by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in the orchard in relation to Sphaeropsis rot in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sphaeropsis rot, caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens, is a recently recognized postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in the United States. The objectives of this study were to determine the timing of apple fruit infection in the orchard in relation to development of Sphaeropsis rot in storage and ...

  1. Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti either used as seed dressing or as soil drench significantly suppressed root-rot infection caused by M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani in okra, a non-1eguminous crop under greenhouse conditions. Biomass of plants was also higher in the presence of rhizobia.

  2. Mechanical and physical properties of Tipuana tipu Wood deteriorated by decaying fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brazolin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The tipuana was widely used in urban arborization. In general, inadequate management exposes the wood to the action of wood decaying fungi and insects, often associated with the fall of the trees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of sound and rotten tipuana wood from São Paulo City´s afforestation. Thirteen old trees with symptoms of wood deterioration were removed. From the basal region of the trunk were cut 1 m-length stem segments, to characterize the physical and mechanical properties of sound and decayed wood. The results indicated that through the radial wood density profile by X-ray densitometry were classified seven pattern of wood biodeterioration, named (EXS with accumulation of extractives and sound, (ZR with the reaction zone and sound, (NS normal and sound, (PBINC; PBINT incipient and intense white rot (PMINC; PMINT incipient and intense soft rot, with apparent densities of 0.94, 0.92, 0.82, 0.66, 0.41, 0.67 and 0.44 g.cm-3, respectively. The mechanical tests showed that wood classified as (ZR (EXS presented the highest values of strength and stiffness of 84 and 80 MPa and 6461 MPa and 5826, respectively; the (NS showed values of 62 and 4642 MPa, and the (PBINC (PMINTthe significant and lowest values of strength and stiffness, enhancing (PBINT with values of 5 and 571 MPa. The reduction of density, strength and stiffness of wood is related to the biodeterioration of wood cell walls of trees tipuana by decaying fungi.

  3. Bacteriophages of Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae-a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp., formerly pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) are ubiquitous necrotrophic bacterial pathogens that infect a large number of different plant species worldwide, including economically important crops. Despite the fact that these bacteria have been studied for more than 50 years, little is known of their corresponding predators: bacteriophages, both lytic and lysogenic. The aim of this minireview is to critically summarize recent ecological, biological and molecular research on bacteriophages infecting Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. with the main focus on current and future perspectives in that field.

  4. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of brown-rot control strategies : development of a bio-economic model of brown-rot prevalence in the Dutch potato production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, M.L.H.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Werf, van der W.; Kettenis, D.L.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Quarantine diseases comprise a distinct class of plant diseases. In contrast to other plant diseases, direct losses through crop damage are often limited. Yet, quarantine diseases may have serious economic consequences for a country as they threaten the country¿s export of affected crops. In particu

  5. Application of Plant Waste to Immobilized White-rot Fungal Biodegradation of Refractory Organic Pollutants%植物废料应用于白腐真菌处理难降解有机污染物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈诚; 何岩; 高尚; 黄民生; 陶芳

    2009-01-01

    综述了植物废料在白腐真菌处理难降解有机污染物反应体系中的应用优势以及研究现状,指出目前国内外相关研究存在的问题主要集中在植物废料的选材、投量、染菌以及废渣最终处理等方面,因此解决以上方面中的瓶颈将是今后植物废料固定化白腐真菌处理难降解有机污染物的主要研究方向.%Plant waste generated from agricultural and other human activities can serve as a sort of carbon source substrate and growing media for white-rot fungi which can be used to break down organics especially the refractory pollutants such as dying stuff, pesticide and PAHs. This paper reviews the recent progress in both application and research in this field, focusing on the problems regarding materials selection, dosing, bacterial contamination and the final disposal of plant waste, which the author poses are the bottleneck for treating of recalcitrant organic pollutants by means of white-rot fungi immobilized by plant waste.

  6. Biodegradation of lignin and nicotine with white rot fungi for the delignification and detoxification of tobacco stalk

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yulong; Xian, He; Shi, Sujuan; Zhang, Chengsheng; Manik, S. M. Nuruzzaman; Mao, Jingjing; Zhang, Ge; Liao, Weihong; Wang, Qian; Liu, Haobao

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco stalk is one kind of abundant crop residues in China. The high lignification of tobacco stalk increases its reusing cost and the existing of nicotine will cause serious pollution. The biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass has been demonstrated to be an environmental and economical approach for the utilization of plant stalk. Meanwhile, many nicotine-degrading microorganisms were found in nature. However, microorganisms which could degraded both nicotine and lignin haven...

  7. Ambrosia fungi in the insect-fungi symbiosis in relation to cork oak decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Joana; Inácio, Maria Lurdes; Sousa, Edmundo

    2006-09-01

    Ambrosia fungi live associated with beetles (Scolytidae and Platypodidae) in host trees and act as a food source for the insects. The symbiotic relation is important to the colonizing strategies of host trees by beetles. Ambrosia fungi are dimorphic: they grow as ambrosial form and as mycelium. The fungi are highly specialized, adapted to a specific beetle and to the biotope where they both live. In addition other fungi have been found such as tree pathogenic fungi that may play a role in insects host colonization success. Saprophytic fungi are also present in insects galleries. These may decompose cellulose and/or be antagonistic to other less beneficial fungi. This paper summarizes the importance of ambrosia fungi and the interaction with insects and hosts. The possibility of the transport of pathogenic fungi by Platypus cylindrus to cork oak thus contributing for its decline is discussed.

  8. Transforming Fabry-Pérot resonances into a Tamm mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durach, Maxim; Rusina, Anastasia

    2012-12-01

    We propose an optical structure composed of two metal nanolayers enclosing a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror. The structure is an open photonic system whose bound modes are coupled to external radiation. We apply the special theoretical treatment based on inversion symmetry of the structure to classify its resonances. We show that the structure supports resonances transitional between Fabry-Pérot modes and Tamm plasmons. When the dielectric contrast of the DBR is removed these modes are a pair of conventional Fabry-Pérot resonances. They spectrally merge into a Tamm mode at high contrast. The optical properties of the structure in the frequency range of the DBR stop band, including highly beneficial 50% transmittivity through thick structures with sub-skin-depth metal films, are determined by the hybrid quasinormal modes of the open nonconservative structure under consideration. The results can find a broad range of applications in photonics and optoelectronics, including the possibility of coherent control over optical fields in the class of structures similar to the one proposed here.

  9. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  10. Improvement of Biocontrol of Damping-off and Root Rot/Wilt of Faba Bean by Salicylic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy

    2013-03-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rott and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fieldes in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40) causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride and Bacillus megaterium) and chemical inducers (salicylic acid [SA] and hydrogen peroxide) individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promoting of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi. Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/wilt severity and increased of survival plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and weights of the survival plants in pots compared with control. The combination between biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than used of them individually and SA + T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Also, under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and number of branches per plant) and yield components (number of pods per plant and number of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seeds and total yield per feddan) and protein content in both seasons (2010~2011 and 2011~2012). Faba bean seeds soaked in SA + T. viride and SA + B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the

  11. Modulation of brown adipocyte activity by milk by-products: Stimulation of brown adipogenesis by buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Muto, Kengo; Nara, Takayuki Y; Kato, Ken; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes. The treatment with buttermilk modulated brown adipogenesis, depending on the product tested; during brown adipogenesis, buttermilk 1 inhibited the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. In contrast, buttermilk 3 and 5 increased the expression of Ucp1 in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting the stimulation of brown adipogenesis. In addition, the Iso-induced expression of Ucp1 was enhanced by buttermilk 2 and 3. The treatment with buttermilk did not affect the basal or induced expression of Ucp1 by Iso in HB2 brown adipocytes, except for buttermilk 5, which increased the basal expression of Ucp1. Conversely, butter oil did not significantly affect the expression of Ucp1, irrespective of the cell phase of HB2 cells, ie, treatment during brown adipogenesis or of brown adipocytes. The results of the present study indicate that buttermilk is a regulator of brown adipogenesis and suggest its usefulness as a potential food material for antiobesity.

  12. Disease symptoms occurring in caterpillars of Malacosoma neustria L. (Lepidoptera infected by some fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The infection of M. neustria caterpillars by Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill., Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok., Paecilomyces farinosus (Dicks. ex Fr. Brown et Smith, Verticillium lecanii (Zimm. Viegas causes the decrease of their viability, paralysis and mummification of the body. Only in the case of B. bassiana the character distinguishing infection by this fungus are black spots on the surface of the cuticle. The easy development and aboundant spore formation of the above-mentioned hyphomycetous fungi on M. neustria facilitate the determination of the causes of the disease.

  13. Releasing nitrogen from ammoniated lignin by white rot fungus cometabolizes environmental pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Lu; ZHAO De-qing; ZHOU Xian-tao; QIU Yu-gui; ZHANG Gan

    2003-01-01

    The nitrogen-modified lignocelluloses(NML) produced under oxic ammoniation was metabolized by white rot fungus, NH4+-N was released, NO3--N concentration was decreased and total nitrogen loss was blocked within incubation period. During releasing nitrogen from the metabolism of NML, white rot fungus cometabolized recalcitrant environmental pollutants and showed higher degradation capability. Results indicated that this NML complex colonized by white rot fungus might be effective with economic feasibility when they are applied into the vast field ecosystem, it might stabilize NH4+ nitrogen flux and bioremediate the polluted environmental sites.

  14. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  15. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  16. Deep-sea fungi: Occurrence and adaptations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.

    belonged to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa while those from the pore water to Rhodosporidium paludigenum. One of the main reasons for fungi remaining neglected is that they cannot be easily visualized in the sediments. In this study, an optical brightener..., Calcofluor, was used in order to facilitate easy visualization of fungi in the sediments. But even with this, fungi could be visualized in only ~5 % of the sediment subsections. But when the same samples were treated with EDTA prior to staining...

  17. Ecology of entomopathogenic fungi in agroecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.

    2008-01-01

    Fungi that infect insects have received considerable attention by scientists for their potential for biological control of pests. Many research projects have focussed on the selection of virulent strains for target pests and their development as biological control agents. In contrast, surprisingly little is known about the fundamental ecology of most of these fungi in nature. This knowledge is essential in order to receive the most ecosystem services provided by entomopathogenic fungi in agri...

  18. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  19. Entomopathogenic fungi associated with Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsbeek, Vibeke; Frandsen, F.; Steenberg, Tove

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the tick stage, engorgement and season. Ticks were collected from the vegetation, from small rodents and from deer. All entomopathogenic fungi found belonged...... infected with fungi. Thirty-three out of 149 engorged females were infected, whereas males and engorged larvae were not infected. Throughout the season, a significantly higher proportion of ticks collected in autumn were infected. Entomopathogenic fungi may have a significant impact on the size of the I...

  20. Diaporthaceae associated with root and crown rot of maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamprecht, S.C.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Tewoldemedhin, Y.T.; Marasas, W.F.O.

    2011-01-01

    Several isolates of coelomycetous fungi with pigmented conidia were consistently isolated from diseased roots of Zea mays in irrigated plots monitored in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Based on their morphology, these isolates could be identified as representative of Stenocarpella macro

  1. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  2. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  3. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  4. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  5. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological contro

  6. Biodegradation of Textile Dyes by Fungi Isolated from North Indian Field Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshi Shahid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study one azo dye "Congo red", two triphenymethane dyes "Crystal violet" and "Methylene blue" have been selected for biodegradation using three soil fungal isolates A. niger, F. oxysporum and T. lignorum. These fungal strains were isolated from field soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25°C. The experiment was conducted for 10 days and the results were periodically observed. Aspergillus niger decolorized maximum Congo red (74.07% followed by Crystal violet (33.82% and Methylene blue (22.44% under liquid medium (stationary condition. Whereas, under same conditions, T. lignorum decolorized maximum crystal violet (92.7%, Methylene blue (48.3% and Congo red (35.25%. Use of T. lignorum as dye bio degrader or decolorizer has been done first time in this study. Fusarium oxysporum performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary and overlay method. It can be concluded that among soil fungus T. lignorum could be used as efficient dye decolorizer especially for crystal violet and A. niger for Congo red. The excellent performance of T. lignorum and F. oxysporum in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination similar to white rot fungi.

  7. Saturnispora bothae sp. nov., isolated from rotting wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Camila G; Lara, Carla A; Borelli, Beatriz M; Cadete, Raquel M; Moreira, Juliana D; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    Two strains representing a novel species of the genus Saturnispora were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in an Atlantic Rainforest site in Brazil. Analyses of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the rRNA gene showed that this novel species belongs to a subclade in the Saturnispora clade formed by Saturnispora sanitii, Saturnispora sekii, Saturnispora silvae and Saturnisporasuwanaritii. The novel species differed in D1/D2 sequences by 60 or more nucleotide substitutions from these species. The strains produced asci with one to four hemispherical ascospores. A novel species named Saturnispora bothae sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates. The type strain is UFMG-CM-Y292T (=CBS 13484T). The MycoBank number is MB 817127.

  8. Resistance to Fusarium dry root rot disease in cassava accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alves Santos de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify sources of resistance to dry root rot induced by Fusarium sp. in cassava accessions. A macroconidial suspension (20 µL of 11 Fusarium sp. isolates was inoculated in cassava roots, from 353 acessions plus seven commercial varieties. Ten days after inoculation, the total area colonized by the pathogen on the root pulp was evaluated by digital image analysis. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five groups regarding resistance. The root lesion areas ranged from 18.28 to 1,096.07 mm² for the accessions BGM 1518 and BGM 556, respectively. The genotypes BGM 1042, BGM 1552, BGM 1586, BGM 1598, and BGM 1692 present the best agronomical traits.

  9. Synthetic dye decolorization capacity of white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Nerud, Frantisek

    2006-11-01

    The ability to decolorize eight chemically different synthetic dyes (Orange G, Amaranth, Orange I, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Cu-phthalocyanin, Poly R-478, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet) by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens was evaluated on agar plates. The fungus showed high decolorization capacity and was able to decolorize all dyes tested, but not to the same extent. Some of the dyes did not limit the decolorization capacity of the strain tested even at a concentration of 2g/l. The presence of the dyes in solid media reduced the mycelial growth rate of D. squalens; a positive correlation was found between the growth rate and the decolorization ability. Decolorization of Orange G and RBBR was studied also in liquid culture, where both dyes caused an enhancement of ligninolytic enzyme and overall hydrogen peroxide production and a decrease of biomass production. RBBR was removed to a higher extent than Orange G.

  10. Production of a biocontrol agent for crucifers black rot disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Luna

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Of nine epiphytic isolates of the genus Bacillus, only B. subtilis R14, B. pumilus C116, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, and B. cereus C210 showed antibiotic activity when tested in vitro against the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris LFR-3. Aiming product a biocontrol agent for black rot in crucifers, the production of B. subtilis R14 was evaluated in a batch bioreactor. Rapid growth was observed in a medium containing molasses and yeast extract as C-source and N-source, respectively. During the exponential growth phase, the specific growth rate was 1.2 h-1. A quick sporulation was also observed in a C/N well-balanced medium. After the sporulation phase, maximum viable spore concentrations around 10(9 CFU/mL were obtained. Preliminary sedimentation tests at different pH values showed better biomass separation efficiencies at low pH values.

  11. Could basidiomycetes fungi be an alternative for the treatment of fibrous feedstuffs? application of enzymatic complexes and future prospects Fungos basidiomicetos podem ser uma alternativa para o tratamento de alimentos fibrosos? aplicação de complexos enzimáticos e perspectivas futuras

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel António Machado Rodrigues; Rui Manuel Furtado Bezerra; José Albino Gomes Alves Dias; Cristina Vitória de Miranda Guedes; Luis Miguel Mendes Ferreira; Fernando Nunes

    2010-01-01

    This presentation intends to make a brief description of the studies being investigated by our research group in the area valorization of fibrous feed utilizing the white-rot fungi (basidiomycetes fungi) enzyme complexes.Esta apresentação pretende fazer uma breve descrição dos estudos que têm sido investigados pelo nosso grupo de pesquisa na área de valorização de alimentos fibrosos, utilizando o fungo de podridão branca (fungos basidiomicetos) complexos enzimáticos.

  12. Could basidiomycetes fungi be an alternative for the treatment of fibrous feedstuffs? application of enzymatic complexes and future prospects Fungos basidiomicetos podem ser uma alternativa para o tratamento de alimentos fibrosos? aplicação de complexos enzimáticos e perspectivas futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel António Machado Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation intends to make a brief description of the studies being investigated by our research group in the area valorization of fibrous feed utilizing the white-rot fungi (basidiomycetes fungi enzyme complexes.Esta apresentação pretende fazer uma breve descrição dos estudos que têm sido investigados pelo nosso grupo de pesquisa na área de valorização de alimentos fibrosos, utilizando o fungo de podridão branca (fungos basidiomicetos complexos enzimáticos.

  13. Bioprospecting--fuels from fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Gary Allan

    2015-05-01

    The world has a continuing demand and utility for liquid fuels to power its societies. The utilization of crude oil based fuels is leading to a dramatic increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere which is being related to a dangerously warming earth. Having liquid fuels that are derived from biological sources is one solution to this growing problem since the carbon being utilized is only from recycled sources. Presently, the microbes, having the greatest impact on the world's economies, producing liquid fuel are various yeasts producing ethanol. Other microbial sources need to be sought since ethanol is not the most desirable fuel and yeasts require simple sugars to carry out the fermentation processes. Recently, several endophytic fungi have been described that make hydrocarbons with fuel potential (Mycodiesel). Among others the compounds found in the volatile phases of these cultures include alkanes, branched alkanes, cyclohexanes, cyclopentanes, and alkyl alcohols/ketones, benzenes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Most importantly, generally these organisms make hydrocarbons while utilizing complex carbohydrates found in all plant-based agricultural wastes. Also discussed in this review is a rationale for finding hydrocarbon producing endophytes as well as examples of other promising hydrocarbon producers-Nodulisporium spp. which make 1,8-cineole and families of other hydrocarbons. Extremely favorable results of engine and fuel testing experiments recently completed on cineole and other products of Nodulisporium sp. are also presented. Finally, there is a brief discussion on the main limiting steps in the domestication of these fungi.

  14. Leuconostoc spp. Associated with Root Rot in Sugar Beet and Their Interaction with Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, Carl A

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is an important disease problem in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani and also shown to be associated with Leuconostoc spp. Initial Leuconostoc studies were conducted with only a few isolates and the relationship of Leuconostoc with R. solani is poorly understood; therefore, a more thorough investigation was conducted. In total, 203 Leuconostoc isolates were collected from recently harvested sugar beet roots in southern Idaho and southeastern Oregon during 2010 and 2012: 88 and 85% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 6 and 15% L. pseudomesenteroides, 2 and 0% L. kimchi, and 4 and 0% unrecognized Leuconostoc spp., respectively. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, haplotype 11 (L. mesenteroides isolates) comprised 68 to 70% of the isolates in both years. In pathogenicity field studies with commercial sugar beet 'B-7', all Leuconostoc isolates caused more rot (P rot (P rot when both Leuconostoc spp. and R. solani are present in sugar beet roots.

  15. Field Efficiency Trial of 72% Streptomycin against Konjac Bacterial Soft Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Yongsheng; Li; Xiaojun; Zhu; Shijin; Ma; Yongsheng; Wang; Li

    2014-01-01

    72% Streptomycin soluble powder was used to control konjac bacterial soft rot in the study. The control efficiency and yield of different treatments were investigated,and the benefit was analyzed. The control scheme against konjac bacterial soft rot was as follows: spraying 72% atreptomycinon twice on rotation fields after all the seedlings were strong and uniform,or irrigating roots with 72% atreptomycinon once and spraying twice on continuous cropping fields.

  16. No Reported Species, Botrytis aclada Causing Gray Mold Neck Rot Disease on Onion Bulbs in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Sun–Kyoung; Lee, Seung–Yeol; Back, Chang–Gi; Kang, In–Kyu; Lee, Hyang–Burm; Jung, Hee-Young; Ohga, Shoji; Oga, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Gray mold neck rot was observed on onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) in low–temperature warehouses in Changnyeong–gun, Korea. The causative pathogen was isolated from rotted onion bulb lesions and identified as Botrytis aclada based on morphological and culture characteristics, the sequences of three nuclear genes (G3PDH, HSP60, and RPB2), and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) for Botrytis spp. identification. Although onion gray mold disease caused by B...

  17. First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae; Park, Mi-Jeong

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide.

  18. White-rot fungal response to fresh and photolytically-weathered pyrogenic organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C. D.; Berry, T. D.; Wang, R.; Bird, J. A.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) is the product of the incomplete combustion of biomass. A better understanding of the microbial-mediated degradation of PyOM is critical to assess its role in soil C sequestration and to serve as an agricultural amendment. Recent studies have shown that PyOM additions can prime native soil C but results have been inconsistent, with studies reporting no effect, an increase, or decrease in C mineralization. This study investigated the ability of saprotrophic white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, to decompose an unaltered 'fresh' PyOM and a photo-oxidized PyOM. In addition, we measured PyOM-induced priming effects on the mineralization of malt extract agar media (MEA). Enriched (13C) Pinus banksiana-derived PyOM, produced at 450oC under N2, was added fresh and after 4 weeks exposure to 254 nm light to MEA. Vials containing the various types of media were then monitored for CO2 evolution and oxidative enzyme activity. We found that MEA C respired was stimulated (positive priming) by photolyzed PyOM and was inhibited with fresh PyOM addition (negative priming) relative to controls. Vetryl alcohol addition, a laccase production stimulant, resulted in less activity in the presence of PyOM compared with a control, indicating PyOM may disrupt enzyme induction processes. Loss of PyOM-13CO2 was 0.2% (× 0.001) for fresh PyOM and 1.2% (×0.001) for photolyzed PyOM C during 10 weeks averaged across media treatments. While MEA C mineralization decreased after fresh PyOM addition, both oxidative (laccase and manganese peroxidase) and hydrolytic (β glucosidase) enzyme production increased with fresh PyOM in the absence of veratryl alcohol. However, there was a decrease in its presence. These results suggest that the physiological response of this common wood decay fungus to PyOM is complex and responsive to enzymatic triggers but that PyOM itself can act to promote or suppress overall litter or soil decay by fungi.

  19. Symptoms of sclerotinia stem rot on Ligusticum chuanxiong and Identification of its pathogen%川芎菌核病的症状及病原菌鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玲; 黄云; 王靖; 何苗; 万英

    2009-01-01

    @@ 中药川芎为伞形科藁本属植物川芎(Ligus-ticum chuanxiong Hort)的根茎,在我国栽培已有1500多年的历史.川芎是四川著名道地中药材,主产于四川省.川芎性温,昧辛,微苦,具有活血行气祛风止痛之功效.已报道的川芎病害有根腐病(Fusarium solani)、褐斑病(Ahernaria tenuissima)、灰霉病(Botrytis cinerea)和白粉病(Erysiphe polygoni)[1,2]等.%Symptoms of sclerotinia stem rot of Ligusticum chuanxiong were observed and the causal agent of the disease was identified. The results showed that the symptoms of this disease began with the formation of dark brown hygrophanous splotch on the basal leaves, followed by the appearance of dark brown circular spot on the basal stem. Finally, the whole plant stoped growing and died. White mycelium and/or sclerotia were formed under moisturized conditions. On PDA medium, the pathogen of this disease formed brown sclerotia with various shapes and 2-5 mm in diameter . The diameter of apothecia was 0.3 -0.8 cm and the length of stipes was 2 -8 cm. Asci were columniform in shape and (100 - 135) ×9 μm in size, each containing 8 ascospores sized by (6-12) μm × (3 -7) μm. No asexual spore formation was observed. Based on the morphological characteristics and the sequence of ribosomal DNA-ITS, the pathogen was identified as Sclero-tinia sclerotiorum (Lib. ) de Bary.

  20. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  1. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  2. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  3. In Defense of Roger Brown Against Himself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbach, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In response to Roger Brown's memorial tribute to Eric Lenneberg, (Cognition, June, 1976), the author disagrees with Brown's conclusion that a Whorfian interpretation of both Lenneberg's and his own results regarding the problem of codability and the recognition of colors, is no longer valid. (Author/MV)

  4. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  5. Growth of fungi on volatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta Boldú, F.X.

    2002-01-01

    The present study aimed the better understanding of the catabolism of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by fungi. This knowledge can be used to enhance the biodegradation of BTEX pollutants. Fungi with the capacity of using toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated by enriching environme

  6. Biologically Active Substances from Higher Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jikai

    2007-01-01

    As a part of our search for naturally occurring bioactive metabolites of mushrooms, we have investigated the chemical constituents of more than 100 Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and isolated over 300 including 150 new terpenoids,phenolics and nitrogen-containing compounds. The isolation, structural elucidation and biologically activity of the natural products from the higher fungi are briefly discussed.

  7. Aquatic fungi growing on substrates containing chitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The chitinophilic fungi in various types of water bodies (slough. ponds. lakes and rivers was studied with reference to the chemical environment. The wings of flies, dragonfly and crayfish carapace were used as bait Fifty-six species of chitinophilic fungi were found in various types of water bodies.

  8. Antibacterial activity of marine-derived fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Carsten; Crescente, Oscar; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    A total of 227 marine isolates of ubiqituous fungi were cultivated on different media and the secondary metabolite content of the extracts (ethyl acetate/chlorofonn/methanol 3 : 2 : 1) characterized by HPLC. The fungi were secured from animals, plants and sediments of Venezuelan waters (0-10 m...

  9. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved Carbonifer

  10. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  11. The Brown Dwarf-Exoplanet Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are commonly regarded as easily-observed templates for exoplanet studies, with comparable masses, physical sizes and atmospheric properties. There is indeed considerable overlap in the photospheric temperatures of the coldest brown dwarfs (spectral classes L and T) and the hottest exoplanets. However, the properties and processes associated with brown dwarf and exoplanet atmospheres can differ significantly in detail; photospheric gas pressures, elemental abundance variations, processes associated with external driving sources, and evolutionary effects are all pertinent examples. In this contribution, I review some of the basic theoretical and empirical properties of the currently known population of brown dwarfs, and detail the similarities and differences between their visible atmospheres and those of extrasolar planets. I conclude with some specific results from brown dwarf studies that may prove relevant in future exoplanet observations.

  12. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution.

  13. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chengqun; Huang, Baoling; Qiao, Mengji; Wei, Jiguang; Ding, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.

  14. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqun Lv

    Full Text Available Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.

  15. Structure-based functional characterization of repressor of toxin (Rot), a central regulator of Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killikelly, April; Benson, Meredith A; Ohneck, Elizabeth A; Sampson, Jared M; Jakoncic, Jean; Spurrier, Brett; Torres, Victor J; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of diverse infections worldwide. In order to support its pathogenic lifestyle, S. aureus has to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a coordinated fashion. One of the central regulators of the S. aureus virulence regulatory networks is the transcription factor repressor of toxin (Rot). Rot plays a key role in regulating S. aureus virulence through activation or repression of promoters that control expression of a large number of critical virulence factors. However, the mechanism by which Rot mediates gene regulation has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of Rot and used this information to probe the contribution made by specific residues to Rot function. Rot was found to form a dimer, with each monomer harboring a winged helix-turn-helix (WHTH) DNA-binding motif. Despite an overall acidic pI, the asymmetric electrostatic charge profile suggests that Rot can orient the WHTH domain to bind DNA. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that R(91), at the tip of the wing, plays an important role in DNA binding, likely through interaction with the minor groove. We also found that Y(66), predicted to bind within the major groove, contributes to Rot interaction with target promoters. Evaluation of Rot binding to different activated and repressed promoters revealed that certain mutations on Rot exhibit promoter-specific effects, suggesting for the first time that Rot differentially interacts with target promoters. This work provides insight into a precise mechanism by which Rot controls virulence factor regulation in S. aureus.

  16. In Vitro Antagonism of Bacillus thuringiensis NCIM2130 against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., A Stem Rot Pathogen of Groundnut

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra. R. Rakh; Laxman S. Raut; Anand V. Manwar

    2016-01-01

    Stem rot is one of the most drastic diseases of groundnut that cause major crop loss. Stem rot pathogen of groundnut, Sclerotium rolfsii, was isolated from the infected groundnut stem. Present investigation was started to search for effective biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii. To find effective biocontrol agent, 120 Bacillus spp. isolated from various rhizospheric soils of healthy plants, screened in vitro against the stem rot pathogen by dual culture technique. Out of these Bacillu...

  17. An Antarctic hot spot for fungi at Shackleton's historic hut on Cape Royds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Robert A; Held, Benjamin W; Arenz, Brett E; Jurgens, Joel A; Baltes, Nicolas J; Duncan, Shona M; Farrell, Roberta L

    2010-07-01

    The historic expedition huts located in the Ross Sea Region of the Antarctic and the thousands of artifacts left behind by the early explorers represent important cultural heritage from the "Heroic Era" of Polar exploration. The hut at Cape Royds built by Ernest Shackleton and members of the 1907-1908 British Antarctic Expedition has survived the extreme Antarctic environment for over 100 years, but recent studies have shown many forms of deterioration are causing serious problems, and microbial degradation is evident in the historic wood. Conservation work to reduce moisture at the hut required removal of fodder, wood, and many different types of organic materials from the stables area on the north side of the structure allowing large numbers of samples to be obtained for these investigations. In addition, wood from historic food storage boxes exposed in a ravine adjacent to the hut were also sampled. Fungi were cultured on several different media, and pure cultures were obtained and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. From the 69 cultures of filamentous fungi obtained, the most predominant genera were Cadophora (44%) followed by Thielavia (17%) and Geomyces (15%). Other fungi found included Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and isolates identified as being in Pezizomycotina, Onygenales, Nectriaceae, and others. No filamentous basidiomycetes were found. Phylogenetic analyses of the Cadophora species showed great species diversity present revealing Cadophora malorum, Cadophora luteo-olivacea, Cadophora fastigiata, as well as Cadophora sp. 4E71-1, a C. malorum-like species, and Cadophora sp. 7R16-1, a C. fastigiata-like species. Scanning electron microscopy showed extensive decay was present in the wood samples with type 1 and type 2 forms of soft rot evident in pine and birch wood, respectively. Fungi causing decay in the historic wooden structures and artifacts are of great concern, and this investigation provides insight into the

  18. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  19. Some new and noteworthy diseases of poplars in India. [Botryodiplodia sett-rot; Alternaria tip blight; Cladosporium leaf spot; Fusarium pink incrustation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.

    1983-09-01

    Four new diseases of poplars namely Botryodiplodia sett-rott, Alternaria tip blight, Cladosporium leaf spot and Fusarium pink incrustation are described in this paper. Botryodiplodia palmarum causes sett-rott of poplars both at pre-sprouting and post-sprouting stage. The pathogen also causes mortality of poplar plants in the field within 4-6 weeks after planting. Alternaria stage of Pleuspora infectoria has been found as the cause of blackening and dying of growing tips and young leaves of a Populus sp. and P. deltoides in nurseries. Cladosporium humile has been recorded as the cause of brown spot followed by crumpling and premature shedding of leaves in P. ciliata, P. nigra and P. alba. The cause of Fusarium incrustation disease on P. cilata has been identified as Fusarium sp. of Gibbosum group. Pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia palmarum and Alternaria stage of Pleospora infectoria was confirmed by artificial inoculations. Brief descriptions of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Fusarium are also given. The paper also gives a short account of some noteworthy diseases recorded on poplars namely Ganoderma root rot, foliage ruts and stem cankers. Ganoderma root-rot is found to reach alarming proportions in closely spaced poplar plantations. Melampsora ciliata, an indigenous rust, is found to attack mainly clones of P. deltoides, P. yunnanensis, P. trichocarpa, P. alba and some cultivars of P. x euramericana in nurseries. A brief account of three types of stem cankers i.e. cankers due to pink disease fungus, Corticium salmonicolor, sun-scaled cankers and cankers associated with slime flux on various clones of P. deltoides is also given.

  20. Advances in Genomics of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J B; St Leger, R J; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification. In particular, their evolutionary transition from plant pathogens or endophytes to insect pathogens provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. Importantly, genomic resources have helped make entomopathogenic fungi ideal model systems for answering basic questions in parasitology, entomology, and speciation. At the same time, identifying the selective forces that act upon entomopathogen fitness traits could underpin both the development of new mycoinsecticides and further our understanding of the natural roles of these fungi in nature. These roles frequently include mutualistic relationships with plants. Genomics has also facilitated the rapid identification of genes encoding biologically useful molecules, with implications for the development of pharmaceuticals and the use of these fungi as bioreactors.

  1. Biodiversity of Fungi : Inventory and Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, G.M.; Bills, G.F.; Foster, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biodiversity of Fungi is essential for anyone collecting and/or monitoring any fungi. Fascinating and beautiful, fungi are vital components of nearly all ecosystems and impact human health and our economy in a myriad of ways. Standardized methods for documenting diversity and distribution have been lacking. An wealth of information, especially regrading sampling protocols, compiled by an international team of fungal biologists, make Biodiversity of Fungi an incredible and fundamental resource for the study of organismal biodiversity. Chapters cover everything from what is a fungus, to maintaining and organizing a permanent study collection with associated databases; from protocols for sampling slime molds to insect associated fungi; from fungi growing on and in animals and plants to mushrooms and truffles. The chapters are arranged both ecologically and by sampling method rather than by taxonomic group for ease of use. The information presented here is intended for everyone interested in fungi, anyone who needs tools to study them in nature including naturalists, land managers, ecologists, mycologists, and even citizen scientists and sophiscated amateurs. Fungi are among the most important organisms in the world; they play vital roles in ecosystem functions and have wide-ranging effects, both positive and negative, on humans and human-related activities. There are about 1.5 million species of fungi. The combination of fungal species and abundances in an ecosystem are often used as indicators of ecosystem health and as indicators of the effects of pollution and of different management and use plans. Because of their significance, it is important that these organisms be monitored. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of fungal inventory and monitoring, including standardized sampling protocols as well as information on study design, sample preservation, and data analysis.

  2. Transgenic sweet potato expressing thionin from barley gives resistance to black rot disease caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata in leaves and storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Tomoko; Shimamura, Takashi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Hori, Etsuko; Koda, Katsunori; Otani, Motoyasu; Hirai, Masana; Nakamura, Kenzo; Imaeda, Takao

    2012-06-01

    Black rot of sweet potato caused by pathogenic fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata severely deteriorates both growth of plants and post-harvest storage. Antimicrobial peptides from various organisms have broad range activities of killing bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi. Plant thionin peptide exhibited anti-fungal activity against C. fimbriata. A gene for barley α-hordothionin (αHT) was placed downstream of a strong constitutive promoter of E12Ω or the promoter of a sweet potato gene for β-amylase of storage roots, and introduced into sweet potato commercial cultivar Kokei No. 14. Transgenic E12Ω:αHT plants showed high-level expression of αHT mRNA in both leaves and storage roots. Transgenic β-Amy:αHT plants showed sucrose-inducible expression of αHT mRNA in leaves, in addition to expression in storage roots. Leaves of E12Ω:αHT plants exhibited reduced yellowing upon infection by C. fimbriata compared to leaves of non-transgenic Kokei No. 14, although the level of resistance was weaker than resistance cultivar Tamayutaka. Storage roots of both E12Ω:αHT and β-Amy:αHT plants exhibited reduced lesion areas around the site inoculated with C. fimbriata spores compared to Kokei No. 14, and some of the transgenic lines showed resistance level similar to Tamayutaka. Growth of plants and production of storage roots of these transgenic plants were not significantly different from non-transgenic plants. These results highlight the usefulness of transgenic sweet potato expressing antimicrobial peptide to reduce damages of sweet potato from the black rot disease and to reduce the use of agricultural chemicals.

  3. Pathogenic seed-borne fungi of triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pathogenic fungi on 86 triticale seed samples was studied during the years 1992-1994. From each samples 400 seeds were tested using the blotter method with prefreezing and keeping under lights. In the greenhouse experiment pathogenicity of isolated fungi was evaluated. It was found that 20% of tested kernels were transmitting pathogenic fungi. Species of the genus Fusarium (including Microdochium nivale were isolated from 9,7 % of tested kernels, Drechslera tritici-repentis from 4,6 %, Stagonospora nodorum from 4,2 %, Bipolaris sorokiniana from 1,2%, Botryris cinerea from 0,9% and Drechslera dematioidea was noted sporadically.

  4. Alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Han, Ting; Ming, Qianliang; Wu, Lingshang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, a number of alkaloids have been discovered from endophytic fungi in plants, which exhibited excellent biological properties such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anticancer activities. This review mainly deals with the research progress on endophytic fungi for producing bioactive alkaloids such as quinoline and isoquinoline, amines and amides, indole derivatives, pyridines, and quinazolines. The biological activities and action mechanisms of these alkaloids from endophytic fungi are also introduced. Furthermore, the relationships between alkaloid-producing endophytes and their host plants, as well as their potential applications in the future are discussed.

  5. Metabolites from Alternaria Fungi and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species. At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen-containing metabolites, steroids, terpenoids, pyranones, quinones, and phenolics. This review aims to briefly summarize the structurally different metabolites produced by Alternaria fungi, as well as their occurrences, biological activities and functions. Some considerations related to synthesis, biosynthesis, production and applications of the metabolites from Alternaria fungi are also discussed.

  6. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  7. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  8. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount.

  9. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  10. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Amrine, Katherine C H; Collins, Thomas S; Rivero, Rosa M; Vicente, Ariel R; Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Doyle, Carolyn L; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Cantu, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines.

  11. Temperature requirements of four entomopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Infection potential of Beauvaria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus and P. fumosoroseus to G. mellonella larvae in pine litter was established. The growth of these fungi on the Czapek's Dox medium exposed to different temperature was determined.

  12. Biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase in phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A J; Minocha, S C

    1989-01-01

    It has been reported that while bacteria and higher plants possess two different pathways for the biosynthesis of putrescine, via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and arginine decarboxylase (ADC); the fungi, like animals, only use the former pathway. We found that contrary to the earlier reports, two of the phytopathogenic fungi (Ceratocystis minor and Verticillium dahliae) contain significant levels of ADC activity with very little ODC. The ADC in these fungi has high pH optimum (8.4) and low Km (0.237 mM for C. minor, 0.103 mM for V. dahliae), and is strongly inhibited by alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), putrescine and spermidine, further showing that this enzyme is probably involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and not in the catabolism of arginine as in Escherichia coli. The growth of these fungi is strongly inhibited by DFMA while alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has little effect.

  13. Distribution of sterigmatocystin in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    . Six new ST producing fungi were discovered: Aspergillus asperescens, Aspergillus aureolatus, Aspergillus eburneocremeus, Aspergillus protuberus, Aspergillus tardus, and Penicillium inflatum and one new aflatoxin producer: Aspergillus togoensis (=Stilbothamnium togoense). ST was confirmed in 23...

  14. Impedimetric method for physiologically characterisation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Petersen, Karina

    1998-01-01

    Fungi are playing an important role in the food and pharmaceutical industry today, both as starter cultures, fermentation organisms, and as contaminants. Characterisation of fungal growth is normally time consuming as it includes measurements and study on a wide range of media at different...... temperatures, pH, water activity and atmosphere composition. Nevertheless is it important information in ecophysiological studies, where the growth potential by fungi are related to composition and storage of food. It is therefore of great interest to device a rapid method for characterisation of fungi.......The objective was to determine the growth phases of various fungi using an impedimetric method and compare this with traditional methods using agar plates, in order to determine if this rapid method can replace the traditional method.The method is based on impedimetric assessment of growth on the Bactometer 128...

  15. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  16. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  2. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  3. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  20. Involvement of phenolic compounds in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassois, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot of bananas, caused by a fungal parasitic complex, is one of the main quality defects of exported bananas. Major variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot have been observed in different production zones. The physiological state of the banana fruit at harvest is said to influence its response to pathogenic attack and thus to modulate its susceptibility to crown rot. The susceptibility of bananas to this disease, however, appears to be influenced by many pre-harvest factors, although the underlying defense mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A recent report based on molecular analyses suggests that phenolic compounds might be involved in the different variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot. Results of other earlier studies point to an involvement of phenolic compounds in the defensive reactions of banana plants against various pathogens. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the variations in the susceptibility of bananas to crown rot and takes stock of what is known about phenolic compounds in relation to their potential involvement in the defense mechanisms of the banana plant.

  1. Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouzadeh Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is one of the major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs implicated in partial resistance to basal stem rot disease were identified using 99 recombinant inbred lines (RILs from the cross between sunflower parental lines PAC2 and RHA266. The study was undertaken in a completely randomized design with three replications under controlled conditions. The RILs and their parental lines were inoculated with a moderately aggressive isolate of S. sclerotiorum (SSKH41. Resistance to disease was evaluated by measuring the percentage of necrosis area three days after inoculation. QTLs were mapped using an updated high-density SSR and SNP linkage map. ANOVA showed significant differences among sunflower lines for resistance to basal stem rot (P≤0.05. The frequency distribution of lines for susceptibility to disease showed a continuous pattern. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed 5 QTLs for percentage of necrotic area, localized on linkage groups 1, 3, 8, 10 and 17. The sign of additive effect was positive in 5 QTLs, suggesting that the additive allele for partial resistance to basal stem rot came from the paternal line (RHA266. The phenotypic variance explained by QTLs (R2 ranged from 0.5 to 3.16%. Identified genes (HUCL02246_1, GST and POD, and SSR markers (ORS338, and SSL3 encompassing the QTLs for partial resistance to basal stem rot could be good candidates for marker assisted selection.

  2. Behavior of hybrid corn crop as second rot incidence in West Region Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and influence of stalk rot and ear in cultivation of hybrid corn second crop in west region Paraná. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six transgenic corn hybrids (DKB 330PRO, P4285HX, P3646HX, 30F53HX, P3340HX and P3161HX with four replications at spacing of 0.90 m between rows and 0.20 m between plants. The characteristics evaluated were: number of healthy and symptomatic plants, number of ears healthy and symptomatic and total number of spikes. After harvest, we assessed the length of ears healthy and symptomatic, bulk grain ears healthy and symptomatic, thousand grain weight of ears healthy and symptomatic, and grain mass per spike weighted, thousand grain weight and weighted productivity. The hybrid P3646HX showed 100% of plants with stem base rot (Colletotrichum graminicola and soft rot cob (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Zeae and 100% of ears with symptoms of soft rot, followed by hybrid 30F53HX, DKB 330PRO with 34.9 and 29.1% of ears with symptoms of soft rot respectively. The hybrid DKB330PRO showed healthy spikes and patients with superior size, resulting in less interference in the grain yield. The hybrid P3340 productivity was higher, with 7952 kg ha-1 , followed by hybrid 30F53HX and DKB330PRO. A positive correlation between agronomic characteristics and grain yield.

  3. Use of stable isotope probing to assess the fate of emerging contaminants degraded by white-rot fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Rosell, Mònica; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Marco-Urrea, Ernest

    2014-05-01

    The widespread of emerging contaminants in the environment and their potential impact on humans is a matter of concern. White-rot fungi are cosmopolitan organisms able to remove a wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) through cometabolism (i.e. laccases and peroxidases) or detoxification mechanisms (i.e. cytochrome P450 system). However, the use of PPCP as carbon source for these organisms is largely unexplored. Here, we used carbon stable isotope tracer experiments to assess the fate of anti-inflammatory diclofenac (DCF) and UV filter benzophenone-3 (BP3) during degradation by Trametes versicolor. The comparison between carbon isotopic composition of emitted carbon dioxide from 13C-labelled DCF ([acetophenyl ring-13C6]-DCF) and 13C-BP3 ([phenyl-13C6]-BP3) versus their 12C-homologue compounds showed mineralization of about 45% and 10% of the 13C contained in their respective molecules after 9 days of incubation. The carbon isotopic composition of the bulk biomass and the application of amino acid-stable isotope probing (SIP) allowed distinguishing between incorporation of 13C from BP3 into amino acids, which implies the use of this emerging contaminant as carbon source, and major intracellular accumulation of 13C from DCF without implying the transformation of its labelled phenyl ring into anabolic products. A mass balance of 13C in different compartments over time provided a comprehensive picture of the fate of DCF and BP3 across their different transformation processes. This is the first report assessing biodegradation of PPCP by SIP techniques and the use of emerging contaminants as carbon source for amino acid biosynthesis.

  4. Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Bin; DONG Yuan-Rong; HOU Wei-Guo; TONG Li-Hua; YUAN Sheng

    2007-01-01

    A survey was conducted for about 3 years to study the abundance and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) in Jiangsu Province, China. The identification of the fungal species was based on the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of their fruiting bodies. About 126 species of EMF were found in Jiangsu Province. These fungi were largely categorized into three orders (of 121 species), four families (of 96 species), and six genera (of about 86 species).

  5. Fungi causing dying out of heather seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the fungi causing dying out of one-yearold heather seedlings. Observations were carried out on: 'Amethyst', 'Annemarie', 'Colette', 'Perestroika' and 'Reini'. The shoots revealing necrotic symptoms were plated on PDA medium. 25 species of fungi were isolated. Among them Pestalotia sydowiana, Alternaria alternata, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Leptosphaeria coniothyrium and Epicoccum purpurascens were dominant, while Mammaria echinobotryoides, Phoma leveillei, Kaissleriella subalpina, Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora cinnamomi occurred less frequently.

  6. Fungi causing dying out of heather seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kowalik; Agnieszka Wandzel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the fungi causing dying out of one-yearold heather seedlings. Observations were carried out on: 'Amethyst', 'Annemarie', 'Colette', 'Perestroika' and 'Reini'. The shoots revealing necrotic symptoms were plated on PDA medium. 25 species of fungi were isolated. Among them Pestalotia sydowiana, Alternaria alternata, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Leptosphaeria coniothyrium and Epicoccum purpurascens were dominant, while Mammaria echinobotryoides, Phoma leveille...

  7. Identification of fungi associated with rotylenchulus reniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Juan D; Lawrence, Kathy S; Morgan-Jones, Gareth; Ramírez, Camilo A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this work was to isolate and identify fungi associated with R. reniformis in cotton roots. Soil samples were collected in cotton fields naturally infested with R. reniformis and from cotton stock plants cultured in the greenhouse. Nematodes extracted from the soil were observed under the stereoscope, and discolored eggs and vermiform stages colonized with mycelia were cultured on 1.5% water agar supplemented with antibiotics, and incubated at 27°C. Identification of the nematophagous fungi was based on the morphological characters, and the ITS regions and 5.8S rDNA amplified by PCR using the primers ITS1 and ITS4. The parasitism percentage on vermiform nematodes from greenhouse samples was 21.2%, and the percentages from cotton fields in Limestone, Henry, and Baldwin counties in Alabama were 3%, 23.2%, and 5.6%, respectively. A total of 12 fungi were identified from R. reniformis vermiform stages and eggs. The most frequently isolated fungi were Arthrobotrys dactyloides (46%) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (14%), followed by Phoma exigua (4.8%), Penicillium waksmanii and Dactylaria brochophaga (3.6%), Aspergillus glaucus group (2.4%). Cladosporium herbarum, Cladosporium cladiosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Torula herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and an unidentified basidiomycete were less frequent (1.2%). A high percentage (16.8%) of fungi from colonized nematodes was not cultivable on our media. Out of those 12 fungi, only four have been previously reported as nematophagous fungi: three isolates of Arthrobotrys dactyloides, and one isolate of Dactylaria brochopaga, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Fusarium oxysporum. Molecular identification of Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Dactylaria brochopaga was consistent with the morphological identification, placing these two fungi in the new genus Drechslerella as proposed in the new Orbilaceae classification.

  8. Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Ebel

    2010-01-01

    Terpenes from marine-derived fungi show a pronounced degree of structural diversity, and due to their interesting biological and pharmacological properties many of them have aroused interest from synthetic chemists and the pharmaceutical industry alike. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the structural diversity of terpenes from marine-derived fungi, highlighting individual examples of chemical structures and placing them in a context of other terpenes of fungal origin. Wherever ...

  9. What Brown saw and you can too

    CERN Document Server

    Pearle, Philip; Bilderback, David; Collett, Brian; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A discussion is given of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant \\textit{Clarkia pulchella} undergoing what is now called Brownian motion. We consider the nature of those particles, and how he misinterpreted the Airy disc of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a ``homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's, are presented.

  10. Epiparasitic plants specialized on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidartondo, Martin I; Redecker, Dirk; Hijri, Isabelle; Wiemken, Andres; Bruns, Thomas D; Domínguez, Laura; Sérsic, Alicia; Leake, Jonathan R; Read, David J

    2002-09-26

    Over 400 non-photosynthetic species from 10 families of vascular plants obtain their carbon from fungi and are thus defined as myco-heterotrophs. Many of these plants are epiparasitic on green plants from which they obtain carbon by 'cheating' shared mycorrhizal fungi. Epiparasitic plants examined to date depend on ectomycorrhizal fungi for carbon transfer and exhibit exceptional specificity for these fungi, but for most myco-heterotrophs neither the identity of the fungi nor the sources of their carbon are known. Because many myco-heterotrophs grow in forests dominated by plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; phylum Glomeromycota), we proposed that epiparasitism would occur also between plants linked by AMF. On a global scale AMF form the most widespread mycorrhizae, thus the ability of plants to cheat this symbiosis would be highly significant. We analysed mycorrhizae from three populations of Arachnitis uniflora (Corsiaceae, Monocotyledonae), five Voyria species and one Voyriella species (Gentianaceae, Dicotyledonae), and neighbouring green plants. Here we show that non-photosynthetic plants associate with AMF and can display the characteristic specificity of epiparasites. This suggests that AMF mediate significant inter-plant carbon transfer in nature.

  11. Investigation on Macro Fungi Resources in Liziping Nature Reserve of Sichuan Province%四川栗子坪自然保护区大型真菌资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2012-01-01

    The macro fungi resources in Liziping Nature Reserve were investigated from July 2006 to September 2010. The species of macro fungi in Liziping region was studied through field investigation, collection and identification. It was found that there were 217 species of macro fungi in the nature reserve, belonging to 100 genera and 36 families, among which there were 127 species of edible fungi, 35 species of toadstools, 17 species of medicinal fungi, 39 species of wood-rotting fungi, 90 species of mycorrhizal fungi and 6 species of unknown use. The macro fungi re-sources in Liziping Nature Reserve was abundant and had a good prospect for development and utilization.%连续5年对四川栗子坪自然保护区的大型真菌资源进行了调查.采用踏查的方式采集,记录并鉴定保护区内大型真菌的种类.结果表明,栗子坪自然保护区大型真菌种类极为丰富,有36科100属217种,其中食用菌127种、毒菌35种、药用菌17种、木腐菌39种、菌根菌90种、未知用途6种.该地区的大型真菌资源有良好的开发利用前景.

  12. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance the resistance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to rhizome rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5 g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, relative to the untreated control, with...

  13. Mucor rot - An emerging postharvest disease of mandarin fruit caused by Mucor piriformis and other Mucor spp. in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, an emerging, undescribed postharvest fruit rot disease was observed on mandarin fruit after extended storage in California. We collected decayed mandarin fruit from three citrus packinghouses in the Central Valley of California in 2015 and identified this disease as Mucor rot caused...

  14. New insights into the ecological interaction between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila flies during the development of sour rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, André; Santos, Sara Correia; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked a clear shift in yeast diversity from basidiomycetes to ascomycetous fermentative species. The latter were mostly Pichia terricola, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, and Zygoascus hellenicus. However, these species were not able to produce the metabolites characteristic of sour rot (gluconic and acetic acids) in inoculated berries. On the contrary, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans produced high levels of these acids, mainly when berries were incubated in the presence of the insect Drosophila sp. Sour rot was not observed when grape bunches were physically separated from insects, even when berries were artificially injured. The wounds made in berry skin healed in the absence of insects, thus preventing the development of sour rot. Therefore, in the vineyard, the induction of sour rot depends on the contamination of wounded berries by a microbial consortium--yeasts and acetic acid bacteria--transported by drosophilid insects which disseminate sour rot among damaged berries. In the absence of these insects, plant defense mechanisms are effective and lead to skin healing, preventing disease spread. Thus, we showed that Drosophila sp. act as a vector for microorganisms associated with grape sour rot disease.

  15. Multiplex detection and identification of bacterial pathogens causing potato blackleg and soft rot in Europe, using padlock probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slawiak, M.; Doorn, van R.; Szemes, M.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Waleron, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Lojkowska, E.; Schoen, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex detection and identification protocol for bacterial soft rot coliforms, namely Pectobacterium wasabiae (Pw), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba) and Dickeya spp., responsible for potato blackleg and tuber soft rot. The procedures were derived from

  16. rDNA-based characterization of a new binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing root rot on kale in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Buzeto, A.L.; Nakatani, A.K.; Souza, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the first report of the occurrence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing hypocotyl and root rot in kale in Brazil. Rhizoctonia spp. were isolated from kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with symptoms of hypocotyl and root rot. The isolates, characterized as binucleate

  17. Effect of Chitosan on Rhizome Rot Disease of Turmeric Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusuya, Sathiyanarayanan; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan was evaluated for its potential to induce antifungal hydrolases in susceptible turmeric plant (Curcuma longa L.). Under field conditions, the application of chitosan (crab shell) to turmeric plants by foliar spray method induces defense enzymes such as chitinases and chitosanases. Such an increase in enzyme activity was enhanced by spraying chitosan (0.1% w/v) on leaves of turmeric plants at regular intervals. Gel electrophoresis revealed new chitinase and chitosanase isoforms in leaves of turmeric plants treated with chitosan. Treated turmeric plants showed increased resistance towards rhizome rot disease caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, whereas control plants expressed severe rhizome rot disease. Increased activity of defense enzymes in leaves of chitosan treated turmeric plants may play a role in restricting the development of disease symptoms. The eliciting properties of chitosan make chitosan a potential antifungal agent for the control of rhizome rot disease of turmeric.

  18. Control of Fusarium verticillioides, cause of ear rot of maize, by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Shankar, Akarere C. Udaya; Reddy, Munagala S.;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Maize is one of the staple food crops grown in India. Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is the most important fungal pathogen of maize, associated with diseases such as ear rot and kernel rot. Apart from the disease, it is capable of producing fumonisins, which have...... elicited considerable attention over the past decade owing to their association with animal disease syndromes. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate ecofriendly approaches by using a maize rhizosphere isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Trev.) Mig. and its formulation to control ear rot...... disease and fumonisin accumulation, and also to study the capacity to promote growth and yield of maize. In vitro assays were conducted to test the efficacy of P. fluorescens as a seed treatment on seed germination, seedling vigour and also the incidence of F. verticillioides in different maize cultivars...

  19. Survey of root rot diseases of sugar bett in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive survey was conducted during the summer and autumn of 2004 in sugar beet fields in the area of Larissa, Thessaly region, with plants showing symptoms of root rot diseases. The aim of the monitoring was to identify the causal agents of root rot diseases. In total, 76 sugar beet fields were surveyed and 5-10 diseased roots were examined from each field. Isolations, carried out on PDA, showed that two main fungal pathogens causing root rot were Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora cryptogea. The former was isolated in 46% of the fields and the latter in 38% of the fields. In addition, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp., Scerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia violacea were isolated in 14%, 7%, 4% and 1% of the fields respectively. In most of the surveyed fields only one pathogen species was isolated and only in a few of them more than one fungal species was identified.

  20. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL CAUSED SOFT ROT DISEASE ON CARROT (Daucus carota L. LOCAL VARIETY IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Desi Bintari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot bacteria infection in carrot tuber (D. carota L. causes severe economic losses. Soft rot disease can be caused by various bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria as causal agent of soft rot disease in local carrot variety in Bali. Samples were collected at Badung Tradisional Market, Denpasar, Bali. Isolation was carried out by serial dilution method (Platting Method. Eight bacteria (BL1, BL2, BL3, BL4, BL5, BL6, BL7 and BL8 were isolated from soft rot tuber. BL6 isolate showed positive result in Postulat Koch test that caused soft rot on carrot tuber. The result of identification by Microgen™ GnA+B-ID System and identification book Bergeys’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Ninth Edition (Holt et al., 1994, BL6 was identified as Citrobacter.