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Sample records for brown rot fungi

  1. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi

  2. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Temporal changes in wood crystalline cellulose during degradation by brown rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, Caitlin; Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Goodell, Barry;

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of wood by brown rot fungi has been studied intensely for many years in order to facilitate the preservation of in-service wood. In this work we used X-ray diffraction to examine changes in wood cellulose crystallinity caused by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora...

  4. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade ...

  5. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A; Brown, Daren W; Nagy, Laszlo G; Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika A; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt M; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Walton, Jonathan D; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David S; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-07-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white-rot/brown-rot classification paradigm, we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically informed principal-components analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white-rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown-rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white-rot and brown-rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay. PMID:24958869

  6. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  7. Comparing lignocellulose physiochemistry after decomposition by brown rot fungi with distinct evolutionary origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Justin T; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2015-12-01

    Among wood-degrading fungi, lineages holding taxa that selectively metabolize carbohydrates without significant lignin removal (brown rot) are polyphyletic, having evolved multiple times from lignin-removing white rot fungi. Given the qualitative nature of the 'brown rot' classifier, we aimed to quantify and compare the temporal sequence of carbohydrate removal among brown rot clades. Lignocellulose deconstruction was compared among fungi using distinct plant substrates (angiosperm, conifer, grass). Specifically, aspen, pine and corn stalk were harvested over a 16-week time series from microcosms containing Gloeophyllum trabeum, Fomitopsis pinicola, Ossicaulis lignatilis, Fistulina hepatica, Serpula lacrymans, Wolfiporia cocos or Dacryopinax sp. After quantifying plant mass loss, a thorough compositional analysis was complemented by a saccharification test to determine wood cell wall accessibility. Mass loss and accessibility varied depending on fungal decomposer and substrate, and trajectories of loss for hemicellulosic components and cellulose differed among plant tissue types. At any given stage of decomposition, however, lignocellulose accessibility and the fraction remaining of carbohydrates and lignin within a plant tissue type were generally the same, regardless of fungal isolate. This suggests that the sequence of plant component removal at this typical scale of characterization is shared among these brown rot lineages, despite their diverse genomes and secretomes. PMID:25181619

  8. The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.), with special reference to Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwen, van

    2000-01-01

    The brown rot fungi of fruit crops ( Monilinia spp.) cause blossom blight, twig blight, and fruit rot in rosaceous fruit crops in the temperate regions of the world. Three species are distinguished, of which M. fructicola and M. laxa are predominant in stone fruit culture, whereas M. fructigena is in pome fruits. This thesis deals partly with taxonomy and identification of the brown rot fungi, and with the epidemiology of M. fructigena in pome fruits.M. fructicola is considered as a quarantin...

  9. Using a grass substrate to compare decay among two clades of brown rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Justin T; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2013-10-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of wood-degrading fungi has grown in tandem with lignocellulose bioconversion efforts, yet many potential biomass feedstocks are non-woody. Using corn stover (Zea mays) as a substrate, we tracked degradative capacities among brown rot fungi from the Antrodia clade, including Postia placenta, the first brown rot fungus to have its genome sequenced. Decay dynamics were compared against Gloeophyllum trabeum from the Gloeophyllum clade. Weight loss induced by P. placenta (6.2 %) and five other Antrodia clade isolates (average 7.4 %) on corn stalk after 12 weeks demonstrated inefficiency among these fungi, relative to decay induced by G. trabeum (44.4 %). Using aspen (Populus sp.) as a woody substrate resulted in, on average, a fourfold increase in weight loss induced by Antrodia clade fungi, while G. trabeum results matched those on stover. The sequence and trajectories of chemical constituent losses differed as a function of substrate but not fungal clade. Instead, chemical data suggest that characters unique to stover limit decay by the Antrodia clade, rather than disparities in growth rate or extractives toxicity. High p-coumaryl lignin content, lacking the methoxy groups characteristically cleaved during brown rot, is among potential rate-distinguishing characters in grasses. This ineptitude among Antrodia clade fungi on grasses was supported by meta-analysis of other unrelated studies using grass substrates. Concerning application, results expose a problem if adopting the strategy of the model decay fungus P. placenta to treat corn stover, a widely available plant feedstock. Overall, the results insinuate phylogenetically distinct modes of brown rot and demonstrate the benefit of using non-woody substrates to probe wood degradation mechanisms. PMID:23917637

  10. Role of brown-rot fungi in the bioremoval of azo dyes under different conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Naeem Ali; Abdul Hameed; Safia Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The present study is vital to the understanding of bioremediation of structurally different azo dyes by some unusual Brown-rot fungi. Bioremoval of each dye (20 mg l-1) was tested in two different culture media under static and shaking conditions by taking inocula from different fungi. Fungal strains showed varying dyes removal abilities, though considerable high in case of Acid Red (AR) 151(di-azo) as compared to Orange (Or) II (mono-azo). With an exception of Aspergillus tereus SA3, all the...

  11. Lignin demethylation and polysaccharide decomposition in spruce sapwood degraded by brown rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filley, T.R.; Cody, G.D.; Noser, C. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, DC (United States). Geophysical Lab.; Goodell, B. [University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Wood Science; Jellison, J.; Ostrofsky, A. [University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2002-07-01

    The organic residues produced in the brown-rot (BR) of wood by many basidiomycetes fungi are ubiquitous on most coniferous forest floors. This degraded wood tissue is characterized by low levels of polysaccharides and a high proportion of demethylated lignin with minor glycerol side chain oxidation. Because of the selective enrichment in an aromatic dihydroxy-rich lignin residue, the chemical and biological reactivity of BR degraded wood will be distinctly different from white rot, the other primary class of fungal wood decay, which typically produces oxidized, lignin-depleted residues. The biochemical mechanism by which BR fungi perform this distinctive degradative chemistry is only starting to become known, and molecular studies which examine the chemical changes imparted to lignin over the long-term decay process are lacking. Using {sup 13}C-labeled tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis ({sup 13}C -TMAH) and solid state {sup 13}C NMR, we investigated the relationship between lignin oxidation/demethylation and polysaccharide metabolism in a 32-week time series study of spruce sapwood inoculated with either of two BR fungi (Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum). Our findings demonstrate a close relationship between lignin demethylation and polysaccharide loss and suggest demethylation may play a mechanistic role in polysaccharide loss, possibly by assisting in Fenton reactions where catechol/quinone oxidation and cycling aids in iron reduction. The residue remaining after 16 weeks of decay is devoid of polysaccharides, in contrast to the 68% polysaccharide carbon present in the initial spruce, and exhibits an increased aromatic dihydroxy content (resulting from demethylation of the 3-methoxyl carbon) of up to 22% of the lignin, as determined by {sup 13}C-TMAH thermochemolysis. In a typical soil or porewater environment these chemical changes would make BR residues highly reactive toward redox sensitive polyvalent metals (e.g. ferric iron) and likely

  12. The Decay Resistance and Hyphae Penetration of Bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii Decayed by White and Brown Rot Fungi

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    Norul Hisham Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The decay resistance and hyphae penetration of bamboo Gigantochloa scortechinii decayed by white and brown rot fungi were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The bamboo grown in natural stand from three different age classes of 0.5, 3.5, and 6.5 years was harvested, oven dried, sterilised, and exposed to agar media containing 4% malt extract and 2% agar technical (no. 3 under laboratory condition for 8 weeks. The deterioration was expressed as percentage of weight loss, and the decay resistance classes were measured according to ASTM D 2017-81 (1986. This study found that the percentage weight loss was greatly reduced with the bamboo ageing. Regardless of age, the G. scortechinii was classified as highly resistant to decay by white and brown rot fungi. The scanning electron microscope (SEM observation showed that the fungi hyphae mostly penetrated into the vessel and proceeded to the pit and parenchyma cells.

  13. Role of brown-rot fungi in the bioremoval of azo dyes under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is vital to the understanding of bioremediation of structurally different azo dyes by some unusual Brown-rot fungi. Bioremoval of each dye (20 mg l-1 was tested in two different culture media under static and shaking conditions by taking inocula from different fungi. Fungal strains showed varying dyes removal abilities, though considerable high in case of Acid Red (AR 151(di-azo as compared to Orange (Or II (mono-azo. With an exception of Aspergillus tereus SA3, all the fungal isolates showed higher removal of dyes in SDB. Under static condition, the maximum decolorizing fungal strains were; Aspergillus flavus SA2 (67% and Alternaria spp. SA4 (57% in AR 151, while Penicillium spp. (34 and 33 % in Orange II, in SDB and STE, respectively. Bioremoval of dyes was considerably increased when experiments were shifted from static to shaking mode. It was specifically increased (% in; AR 151 (255 with Penicillium spp., Or II with A. flavus SA2 (112 and Alternaria spp. (111. The primary mechanism of dyes removal proved to be fungal biosorption. However, reduction of dyes (onto fungal with formation of their products (α. naphthol, sulphalinic acid and aniline furthermore revealed that dyes (specifically azo were actually biodegraded.

  14. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin;

    cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... significantly among strains of brown rot fungi and within strains in response to differing environmental conditions (Green and Clausen; Hastrup et al., 2006).  This variation is in part believed to be due to the level of oxalate decarboxylase (ODC). The enzyme breaks down oxalate into stoichiometric quantities...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in...

  15. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  16. FTIR and XPS analysis of the changes in bamboo chemical structure decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guoqi [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Wang, Lihai, E-mail: xu12nefu@sina.cn [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Liu, Junliang [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wu, Jinzhuo [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate different types of decay mechanisms in bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), the chemical structure and microstructure of bamboo samples decayed by P. chrysosporium (White-rot) and G. trabeum (Brown-rot) for 12 weeks were studied. The analysis methods include fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). By using the SEM method, it was found that attacks to parenchyma cells and places near the inner skin of bamboo were the most frequent and the vessels were the primary paths for the spread of mycelium in the bamboo. FTIR and XPS results showed that the crystallinity (I1425/I896) of bamboo decreased after being decayed by these two fungi and the crystalline cellulose in bamboo was degraded. The white-rot P. chrysosporium had stronger degradability on lignin compared to hemicellulose and cellulose in bamboo. And the brown-rot G. trabeum had preferential degradability on hemicellulose fraction over cellulose and lignin. Oxidation and hydrolysis surface reactions occurred during the process of decay, but the reaction rates for cellulose and lignin were different.

  17. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up some 37% of the described fungi and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To b...

  18. Changes in swelling and water absorption of wood degraded by brown rot fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frankl, Jiří

    Vol. 778. Stafa-Zürich : Trans Tech Publications, 2013, s. 818-822. ISBN 978-3-03785-812-7. ISSN 1022-6680. [International conference on Structural health assessment of timber structures, SHATIS 2013 /2./. Trento (IT), 04.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP105/11/P628 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : timber * physical properties * wood-destroying fungi Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering http://www.scientific.net/AMR.778

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD DECAY BY ROT FUNGI USING COLORIMETRY AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Mírian de Almeida Costa; Alexandre Florian da Costa; Tereza Cristina Monteiro Pastore; Jez Willian Batista Braga; Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez

    2011-01-01

    Wood samples of marupá (Simarouba amara) and andiroba (Carapa guianenis) were submitted to Trametes versicolor (white rot) and Gloeophylum trabeum (brown rot) fungi attack. Colorimetry was used to determine the color of the wood before and after wood decaying fungi. To evaluate the changes in chemical compounds levels in the wood samples, the diffuse reflectance medium infrared spectroscopy was used. Both wood were non resistant against white rot fungus, while with brown rot attack andiroba w...

  20. ACCELERATED LABORATORY TEST OF THREE AMAZONIAN WOOD SPECIES CALLED TAUARI, EXPOSED TO WHITE- AND BROWN-ROT FUNGI AND COLOR RESPONSE ACCORDING TO CIE L* A* B* SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to: evaluate de natural durability of three species of tauari ( Couratari guianensis Aublet , Couratari oblongifolia Ducke & R.Knuth and Couratari stellata A.C.Smith, report the colorimetric parameters according to CIE L*a*b* 1976 system and also show the appearance of control and attacked wood blocks. Two brown-rot [ Gloeophyllum trabeum (Persoon ex Fries Murril. and Lentinus lepideus Fr.] and two white-rot [ Trametes versicolor (Linnaeus ex Fries Pilat and Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. ex Wallr.] fungi were used . Tauari wood was classed as “moderately resistant” to “resistant” when exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum fungi. All extractives’ contents of attacked samples decreased when compared with the control (sound wood, except Couratari stellata exposed to Ganoderma applanatum. Conversely, all ash contents increased when compared with the control, except Couratari stellata exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum. All attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples were darker, except wood meal from Couratari stellata exposed to Trametes versicolor , and redder than the control. The ∆ E* mean value in attacked wood blocks and wood meal samples attained 29.5 and 14.3, respectively.

  1. EVIDENCE FOR CLEAVAGE OF LIGNIN BY A BROWN ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradation by brown-rot fungi is quantitatively one of the most important fates of lignocellulose in nature. It has long been thought that these fungi do not degrade lignin significantly, and that their activities on this abundant aromatic biopolymer are limited to minor oxidative modifications....

  2. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol. A.;

    2006-01-01

    for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi. This was done by treating copper citrate (CC)-treated Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood with a CaCl2 solution and estimating the decay rate and amount of soluble oxalic acid in an ASTM soil block test. Decay by S. lacrymans was found...... containing CaCl2. In summary, a marked decrease was observed in the decay capacity of S. lacrymans in pine treated with CC+CaCl2. The amount of soluble oxalic acid was measured in CC-treated blocks and blocks also treated with CaCl2. Of the comparative brown-rot fungi, both Antrodia vaillantii (TFFH 294) and...

  3. Ketahanan Komposit Kayu Plastik Polistirena terhadap Serangan Jamur Pelapuk Coklat Tyromyces palustris (Decay Resistance of Wood Polymer Composite (WPC Against Brown Rot Fungi Tyromyces palustris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G.K. Tapa Darma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood specimens, 50 x 25 x 15 mm were impregnated in styrene and vinil acetate solutions at four concentration levels, using tertbutyl hydroperoxide as acatalyst. The specimens were dried at 60OC for 48 hours after which the solution was polymerized in situ. All specimens, including untreated specimens as control and specimens impregnated with Impralit CKB, were exposed to monoculture a brown rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, a brown rot fungus for 3 months. All wood polymer composite (WPC specimens obviously showed higher resistance compared with the control. At four concentration levels, WPC of tusam showed excellent result with weight loss value less than specimens treated with Impralit CKB. WPC of karet (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg and sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria showed good resistance at high styrene concentration level.

  4. Biomethanation of white rotted and brown rotted rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A.; Bhattacharyya, B.C. [Chemical Engineeringg Dept., Biotechnology Unit, IIT Kharagpur, (India)

    1999-04-01

    Biomethanation of white rotted and brown rotted rice straw was taken for the present investigation and their efficiency on biomethanation has been tested. Rice straw was treated with white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P{sub C}) and brown rot fungus Polyporus ostreiformis (P{sub O}). Biogas and methane production was increased by about 34.73% and 46.19% in P{sub C}-treated straw and 21.12% and 31.94% in P{sub O}-treated straw respectively. VFA production has also been increased in P{sub C} and P{sub O} treated straw compared to control straw which were 76.73% and 30.69% respectively. Reduction of COD has also been found during biomethanation. The rate of reduction of COD during the initial period of digestion was 59.01%, 55.55% and 26.00% in P{sub C}-treated, P{sub O}-treated and control straw respectively after 21 days of digestion. (orig.) With 12 figs., 3 tabs., 14 refs.

  5. Eradicant and curative treatments of hexanal against peach brown rot

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    Juliana Silveira Baggio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp. , is one of the most important peach (Prunuspersica (L. Batsch diseases and the main cause of postharvest losses. Currently, alternative methods for postharvest disease control, such as the use of volatiles, are under investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hexanal on the in vitro development of Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa and on monocyclic components of brown rot on peaches. To evaluate the effect on pathogen development in vitro, a single dose of 215 µL of liquid hexanal was placed on glass jars in closed plastic containers (4.3 L at the moment of fungi transfer, 24 or 48 h after transferring to Petri dishes. After hexanal application, the Petri dishes were kept inside the containers that were closed for 24 h at 20 ºC. Mycelial growth was measured seven days after hexanal removal. For in vivo assays, inoculated fruits were kept in closed plastic containers, and hexanal was applied at the moment of fruit inoculation or 24 hours thereafter. The monocyclic components infection frequency, expressed as brown rot incidence, lesion diameter and lesion sporulation, were assessed daily for seven days. Overall, hexanal was more effective in inhibiting mycelial growth when applied at the moment of pathogen transfer. Hexanal did not prevent pathogen infection, but reduced lesion diameter and completely inhibited spore production on the fruit for both treatments. Hexanal provides a promising alternative for chemical control and can be used in postharvest handling systems.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD DECAY BY ROT FUNGI USING COLORIMETRY AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian de Almeida Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of marupá (Simarouba amara and andiroba (Carapa guianenis were submitted to Trametes versicolor (white rot and Gloeophylum trabeum (brown rot fungi attack. Colorimetry was used to determine the color of the wood before and after wood decaying fungi. To evaluate the changes in chemical compounds levels in the wood samples, the diffuse reflectance medium infrared spectroscopy was used. Both wood were non resistant against white rot fungus, while with brown rot attack andiroba was resistant and marupá was not. After Gloeophyllum trabeum attack both woods changed to a darken color, and after Trametes versicolor attack andiroba changed to a lighter color and marupá darkened slightly, The analysis showed a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, for both species, after Trametes versicolor attack and a reduction in the peak intensity of cellulose after Gloeophyllum trabeum attack.

  7. Brown rot on nuts of Castanea sativa Mill: an emerging disease and its causal agent

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    Maresi G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of nut production are fundamental to the economic viability of chestnut cultivation, yet recent reports indicate that severe damage due to moulds represents a significant problem for growers. We carried out an investigation of the agents of chestnut rot and internal fruit damage in three orchards in Italy. Black and brown rot, as well as insect damage, were found in all the areas examined. Brown rot appeared to be the main cause of damage, affecting 8% to 49% and 2% to 24% of nuts collected from the ground and from burrs, respectively. With respect to morphology and DNA sequencing analyses, fungal isolates obtained from brown rot were homologous with Gnomoniopsis sp. obtained from Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu galls and with Gnomoniopsis castanea and Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi described on chestnut in Italy and Australia, respectively. The same fungus was also isolated from the bark of one- and two-years-old healthy shoots at each site, supporting the endophytic behaviour of this rot agent. Brown rot symptoms on nuts associated with Gnomoniopsis sp. corresponded with those previously described by several authors and referred to as Phoma or Phomopsis endogena, suggesting a relationship between these fungi and Gnomoniopsis sp. It is to notice that the escalation of brown rot damage in Italy followed several periods of drought and probably the recent invasion of D. kuriphilus, both stress factors for chestnut trees.

  8. Evidence from Serpula lacrymans that 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone Is a lignocellulolytic agent of divergent brown rot basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korripally, Premsagar; Timokhin, Vitaliy I; Houtman, Carl J; Mozuch, Michael D; Hammel, Kenneth E

    2013-04-01

    Basidiomycetes that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers in coniferous forest ecosystems and a major cause of failure in wooden structures. Recent work indicates that distinct lineages of brown rot fungi have arisen independently from ligninolytic white rot ancestors via loss of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Brown rot thus proceeds without significant lignin removal, apparently beginning instead with oxidative attack on wood polymers by Fenton reagent produced when fungal hydroquinones or catechols reduce Fe(3+) in colonized wood. Since there is little evidence that white rot fungi produce these metabolites, one question is the extent to which independent lineages of brown rot fungi may have evolved different Fe(3+) reductants. Recently, the catechol variegatic acid was proposed to drive Fenton chemistry in Serpula lacrymans, a brown rot member of the Boletales (D. C. Eastwood et al., Science 333:762-765, 2011). We found no variegatic acid in wood undergoing decay by S. lacrymans. We found also that variegatic acid failed to reduce in vitro the Fe(3+) oxalate chelates that predominate in brown-rotting wood and that it did not drive Fenton chemistry in vitro under physiological conditions. Instead, the decaying wood contained physiologically significant levels of 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone, a reductant with a demonstrated biodegradative role when wood is attacked by certain brown rot fungi in two other divergent lineages, the Gloeophyllales and Polyporales. Our results suggest that the pathway for 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone biosynthesis may have been present in ancestral white rot basidiomycetes but do not rule out the possibility that it appeared multiple times via convergent evolution. PMID:23377930

  9. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes

  10. Visualization of the mycelia of wood-rotting fungi by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a peptide nucleic acid probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Yuji; Nakaba, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Hiroshi; Funada, Ryo; Yoshida, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    White rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and brown rot fungus, Postia placenta, grown on agar plates, were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Mycelia grown on wood chips were also clearly detected by PNA-FISH following blocking treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the visualization of fungi in wood by FISH. PMID:23391931

  11. Aggregation and feeding behavior of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on wood decayed by three species of wood rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggregation and feeding behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was evaluated on wood decayed by three species of fungus that use different enzymatic pathways to degrade lignocellulose, the brown rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum and two white rot fungi, Phanero...

  12. Reliability of Poly B-411, a Polymeric Anthraquinone-Based Dye, in Determining the Rot Type Caused by Wood-Inhabiting Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    In both Basidiomycotina and Ascomycotina, Poly B-411 decolorization was an excellent indicator of the ability to cause white rot: 109 of the 110 isolates of brown rot fungi tested definitely did not decolorize Poly B-411, and 392 of the 401 mainly active isolates of white rot fungi decolorized Poly B-411. The Bavendamm (tannic acid) reaction was a less reliable test: of 74 white rot isolates examined that could not decay wood, 6 decolorized Poly B-411, but 19 gave positive Bavendamm reactions...

  13. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Magan, Naresh; Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the ...

  14. Brown rot fungal early stage decay mechanism as a biological pretreatment for softwood biomass in biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Michael J.; Leak, David J.; Spanu, Pietro D.; Murphy, Richard J. [Division of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Porter Alliance, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    A current barrier to the large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuels is the cost associated with the energy and chemical inputs required for feedstock pretreatment and hydrolysis. The use of controlled partial biological degradation to replace elements of the current pretreatment technologies would offer tangible energy and cost benefits to the whole biofuel process. It has been known for some time from studies of wood decay that, in the early stages of growth in wood, brown rot fungi utilise a mechanism that causes rapid and extensive depolymerisation of the carbohydrate polymers of the wood cell wall. The brown rot hyphae act as delivery vectors to the plant cell wall for what is thought to be a combination of a localised acid pretreatment and a hydroxyl radical based depolymerisation of the cell wall carbohydrate polymers. It is this quality that we have exploited in the present work to enhance the saccharification potential of softwood forest residues for biofuel production. Here we show that after restricted exposure of pine sapwood to brown rot fungi, glucose yields following enzymatic saccharification are significantly increased. Our results demonstrate the potential of using brown rot fungi as a biological pretreatment for biofuel production. (author)

  15. Stabilization of lignin peroxidases in white rot fungi by tryptophan.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, P. J.; Field, J. A.; Teunissen, P; Dobson, A D

    1997-01-01

    Supplementation of various cultures of white rot fungi with tryptophan was found to have a large stimulatory effect on lignin peroxidase activity levels. This enhancement was greater than that observed in the presence of the lignin peroxidase recycling agent veratryl alcohol. Using reverse transcription-PCR, we found that tryptophan does not act to induce lignin peroxidase expression at the level of gene transcription. Instead, the activity enhancement observed is likely to result from the pr...

  16. Pengaruh Penambahan Jamur Pelapuk Putih (White Rot Fungi pada Proses Pengomposan Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Nasrul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Composting is nowadays a general treatment method for agriculture waste such as empty fruit bunch. This research article reported the composting process of the empty fruit bunches. The effect of addition of white rot fungi (Phanerochaete Chrysosporium as an activator on composting product was studied. Experiment results indicated that white rot fungi is a good activator to improve degradation process of the empty fruit bunch become an organic fertilizer. White rot fungi has capable to increase composting period become shorter in compare with original composting without addition of white rot fungi. The organic fertilizer product as regulation issued by the Standar Nasional Indonesia (NSI can be achieved in duration of 3 months, while for original process without addition of white rot fungi longer degradation time is necessary. Keyword: Composting, empty fruit bunch, white rot fungi

  17. Pengaruh Penambahan Jamur Pelapuk Putih (White Rot Fungi) pada Proses Pengomposan Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrul Nasrul; Teuku Maimun

    2010-01-01

    Composting is nowadays a general treatment method for agriculture waste such as empty fruit bunch. This research article reported the composting process of the empty fruit bunches. The effect of addition of white rot fungi (Phanerochaete Chrysosporium) as an activator on composting product was studied. Experiment results indicated that white rot fungi is a good activator to improve degradation process of the empty fruit bunch become an organic fertilizer. White rot fungi has capable to increa...

  18. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fun...

  19. Peaches tree genetic divergence for brown rot reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Américo Wagner Júnior; Keli Cristina Fabiane; Jéssica Scarlet Marth Alves de Oliveira; Juliano Zanela; Idemir Citadin

    2011-01-01

    It was evaluated the genetic divergence in peach genotypes for brown rot reaction. It was evaluated 26 and 29 peach genotypes in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 production cycle, respectively. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitossanidade, da UTFPR - Campus Dois Vizinhos. The experimental design was entirely randomized, considering each peach genotype a treatment, and it was use three replication of nine fruits. The treatment control use three replication of three peach. The ...

  20. Evidence of Subterranean Termite Feeding Deterrent Produced by Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto 1968 (Polyporales, Fomitopsidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, Nadia Nuraniya; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Shota; Fukunaga, Ayuko; Doi, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Horisawa, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    We found that decayed wood stakes with no termite damage collected from a termite-infested field exhibited a deterrent effect against the termite Reticulitermes speratus, Kolbe, 1885. The effect was observed to be lost or reduced by drying. After identification, it was found that the decayed stakes were infected by brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto, 1968. In a no-choice feeding test, wood blocks decayed by this fungus under laboratory condition deterred R. speratus feeding and n-hexane extract from the decayed stake and blocks induced termite mortality. These data provided an insight into the interaction between wood-rot fungi and wood-feeding termites. PMID:27548231

  1. Postharvest biological control of brown rot in peaches after cold storage preceded by preharvest chemical control 1

    OpenAIRE

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello; Auri Brackmann; Fabio Rodrigo Thewes; Thiago Liberalesso Venturini; Anderson Weber; Elena Blume

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pathogenic fungi cause skin darkening and peach quality depreciation in post harvest. Therefore, alternative techniques to chemical treatment are necessary in order to reduce risks to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of Trichoderma harzianum in association with different fungicides applied before harvest to 'Eldorado' peaches for brown rot control and other quality parameters during storage. The treatments consisted of five preharvest ...

  2. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Tadych, Mariusz; Vorsa, Nicholi; Wang, Yifei; Bergen, Marshall S.; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polashock, James J.; White, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry ge...

  3. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  4. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  5. First report of brown rot on apple fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey, is the most devastating disease of stone fruits in North America resulting in significant economic losses. The fungus has been recently reported to cause pre and postharvest brown rot on apple fruit in Germany, Italy, and Serbia. However, M...

  6. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz;

    2012-01-01

    chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular...... mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matterprotein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism by...... which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton...

  7. Monilinia species causing brown rot of peach in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jun Hu

    Full Text Available In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH, β-tubulin (TUB2 revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China.

  8. Peaches tree genetic divergence for brown rot reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the genetic divergence in peach genotypes for brown rot reaction. It was evaluated 26 and 29 peach genotypes in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 production cycle, respectively. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitossanidade, da UTFPR - Campus Dois Vizinhos. The experimental design was entirely randomized, considering each peach genotype a treatment, and it was use three replication of nine fruits. The treatment control use three replication of three peach. The fruit epidermis were inoculated individually with 0.15 mL of M. fructicola conidial suspension (1.0 x 10(5 spores mL-1. In the control treatment was sprayed with 0.15 mL of distilled water. The fruits were examined 72 and 120 hours after inoculation, and the incidence and severity disease were evaluated. These results allowed realized study for genetic divergence, used as dissimilarity measure the Generalized Mahalanobis distance. Cluster analysis using Tocher´s optimization method and distances in the plan were applied. There was smallest genetic divergence among peach trees evaluated for brown rot, what can difficult to obtain resistance in the genotypes.

  9. Efficient xylose fermentation by the brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Kanawaku, Ryuichi; Masumoto, Masaru; Yanase, Hideshi

    2012-02-10

    The efficient production of bioethanol on an industrial scale requires the use of renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. A limiting factor in developing efficient processes is identifying microorganisms that are able to effectively ferment xylose, the major pentose sugar found in hemicellulose, and break down carbohydrate polymers without pre-treatment steps. Here, a basidiomycete brown rot fungus was isolated as a new biocatalyst with unprecedented fermentability, as it was capable of converting not only the 6-carbon sugars constituting cellulose, but also the major 5-carbon sugar xylose in hemicelluloses, to ethanol. The fungus was identified as Neolentinus lepideus and was capable of assimilating and fermenting xylose to ethanol in yields of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.34 g of ethanol per g of xylose consumed under aerobic, oxygen-limited, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. A small amount of xylitol was detected as the major by-product of xylose metabolism. N. lepideus produced ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, cellobiose, maltose, and lactose with yields ranging from 0.34 to 0.38 g ethanol per g sugar consumed, and also exhibited relatively favorable conversion of non-pretreated starch, xylan, and wheat bran. These results suggest that N. lepideus is a promising candidate for cost-effective and environmentally friendly ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report on efficient ethanol fermentation from various carbohydrates, including xylose, by a naturally occurring brown rot fungus. PMID:22226194

  10. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadych, Mariusz; Vorsa, Nicholi; Wang, Yifei; Bergen, Marshall S; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polashock, James J; White, James F

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes (RR) showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS) secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase. PMID:26322038

  11. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz eTadych

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase.

  12. Fungos antagonistas e efeito de produtos químicos no controle da podridão parda em pomar de pessegueiro Antagonistic fungi and effect of chemical products in the control of brown rot in peach orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Martins Moreira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a eficiência de controladores biológicos e produtos químicos para controle da podridão parda, foi conduzido um experimento a campo na safra de 2002 no município da Lapa-PR, com a cultivar BR-1. O objetivo do experimento foi fazer seleção de tratamentos com controle biológico comparando-os com químicos em sistemas de manejo utilizados na região. Como tratamentos foram utilizados quatro antagonistas previamente selecionados em trabalho de pós-colheita, isolados F1, F2, F4 (Trichothecium roseum, isolado F9 (Penicillium sp (em 16 aplicações, sistema de Produção Integrada de Pêssegos (PIP (nove aplicações, fosfitos de Ca e de K + captan (11 aplicações, alternância de fungicidas (oito aplicações, tratamento convencional da propriedade (PC (nove aplicações, pulverizados desde a floração até a colheita, sendo a testemunha sem pulverização. Para avaliação, foi contado o número de frutos por ramo marcado após o raleio e no início da colheita. Para os frutos colhidos nos ramos foi determinada a incidência da doença na colheita e aos 3 e 5 dias em pós-colheita. O PIP, fosfito+captan, e isolado F4, não diferirem estatisticamente do padrão PC, e reduziram 95,5; 63,6 e 68,2%, respectivamente a doença em relação à testemunha que apresentou 44% dos frutos com podridão parda aos cinco dias. O tratamento com a alternância de fungicidas foi o melhor, e não foram observados frutos com a doença, entretanto apresentou uma redução do número de frutos entre o raleio e a colheita de 76,5% contra 50% em média dos demais tratamentos indicando um provável efeito fitotóxico.The efficiency of biological controllers and chemical products in the control of brown rot was investigated in a field experiment during the 2002 growing season in the municipality of Lapa-PR. The cultivar BR1 was used in the experiment. The objective of the experiment was to select treatments with biological control by comparing them

  13. Control of Ralstonia Solanacearum The Causal Agent of Brown Rot in Potato Using Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five essential oils, namely peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), caraway (Carium carvum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Staph.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), were used separately against Ralstonia solanacearum; the causal agent of brown rot in potato. The most two effective oils (peppermint and thyme) were used in vitro and in vivo after testing their effects on potato tubers buds germination. Peppermint inhibited buds germination but thyme have no effects on buds germination. In vivo, the control of brown rot using thyme oil in glass house experiment reduced the percentage of brown rot infection to 30.6% and reduced the severity of disease from 5 to 3.

  14. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs. PMID:27178300

  15. Optimization of Laccase Production using White Rot Fungi and Agriculture Wastes in Solid State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hendro Risdianto; Elis Sofianti; Sri Harjati Suhardi; Tjandra Setiadi

    2012-01-01

    Laccase has been produced in a solid state fermentation (SSF) using white rot fungi and various lignocellulosic based substrates. White rot fungi used were Marasmius sp, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete crysosporium. The solid substrates employed in this research were collected from agriculture waste which were empty fruit bunches (EFB), rice straw, corn cob, and rice husk. The objective of this research was to determine the most promising fungus, the best solid substra...

  16. Postharvest biological control of brown rot in peaches after cold storage preceded by preharvest chemical control 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogenic fungi cause skin darkening and peach quality depreciation in post harvest. Therefore, alternative techniques to chemical treatment are necessary in order to reduce risks to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of Trichoderma harzianum in association with different fungicides applied before harvest to 'Eldorado' peaches for brown rot control and other quality parameters during storage. The treatments consisted of five preharvest fungicide applications (control, captan, iprodione, iminoctadine and tebuconazole associated with postharvest application of T. harzianum, after cold storage (with and without application, in three evaluation times (zero, two and four days at 20 °C, resulting in a 5x2x3 factorial design. The application of T. harzianum only brought benefits to the control of brown rot when combined with the fungicide captan, at zero day shelf life. After two days, there was a greater skin darkening in peaches treated with T. harzianum compared with peaches without the treatment, except for peaches treated with the fungicide iprodione and T. harzianum The application of T. harzianum during postharvest showed no benefits for the control of brown rot, however, the association with fungicides reduced the incidence of Rhizopus stolonifer during the shelf life.

  17. Hendersonia Creberrima, the cause of soft brown rot of mango in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft brown rot of mangoes in South Africa, is especially severe in export fruit kept in cold storage for prolonged periods. At present mangoes can be exported most economically by sea. This involves storage at 110C for approximately 21 days. Unfortunately, these appear to be ideal conditions for the development of soft brown rot. Losses as high as 80% were recorded. The South African fungus agrees in morphology and cultural characters with Hendersonia Creberrima

  18. Potato brown rot incidence and severity under different management and amendment regimes in different soil types

    OpenAIRE

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Bruggen, van, C.; Diepeningen, van, A.D.; Vos; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, N.N.A.; Janse, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causative agent of potato brown rot (bacterial wilt), is an economically important disease in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. In view of previous reports on suppression of the disease by organic amendments, and the expansion of organic agriculture, it was timely to compare the effects of organic and conventional management and various amendments on brown rot development in different soils (type: sand or clay; origin: Egypt ...

  19. The Genetic Structure of Phellinus noxius and Dissemination Pattern of Brown Root Rot Disease in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chia-Lin; Huang, Shun-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Ann, Pao-Jen; Tsai, Jyh-Nong; Yang, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Hsin-Han; Huang, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Hsin-Yu; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Lee, Hui-Lin; Liou, Ruey-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner) Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained...

  20. Brown rot on nuts of Castanea sativa Mill: an emerging disease and its causal agent

    OpenAIRE

    Maresi G; Oliveira Longa CM; Turchetti T

    2013-01-01

    The quality and quantity of nut production are fundamental to the economic viability of chestnut cultivation, yet recent reports indicate that severe damage due to moulds represents a significant problem for growers. We carried out an investigation of the agents of chestnut rot and internal fruit damage in three orchards in Italy. Black and brown rot, as well as insect damage, were found in all the areas examined. Brown rot appeared to be the main cause of damage, affecting 8% to 49% and 2% t...

  1. Soft rot decay capabilities and interactions of fungi and bacteria from fumigated utility poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives were to (1) identify microfungi and bacterial associates isolated from fumigated southern pine poles from EPRI project RP 1471-72, (2) study the soft-rot capabilities of predominant fungi, and (3) study interactions among microorganisms in relation to wood decay. Methods for identification followed standard techniques using morphological and physiological criteria. Soft-rot by microfungi alone and with bacteria was determined as weight loss and anatomical examination of wood blocks using light microscopy and limited electron microscopy. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was the predominant bacterium. Twenty-one species of microfungi were identified including four new species. A book entitled IDENTIFICATION MANUAL FOR FUNGI FROM UTILITY POLES IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES was published. An improved soft-rot test was devised. Fifty-one of 84 species (60%) of microfungi from poles tested were soft-rot positive; that is much greater than previously reported. Three types of anatomical damage of wood of pine or birch caused by soft-rot fungi were described. Interaction tests showed that, in some cases, there was a strong synergism between bacteria and fungi in causing weight loss, but results were inconsistent. Although soft rot is often most apparent under conditions of very high moisture, intermediate moisture levels appear to be optimal, as with basidiomycete decayers

  2. Mycolytic enzymes produced by Streptomyces violaceusniger and their role in antagonism towards wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Anand; Choudhary, Bharti; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular mycolytic enzymes produced under submerged fermentation by the fungal antagonist Streptomyces violaceusniger MTCC 3959 were characterized. This streptomycete produced higher amounts of extracellular chitinase and protease during late exponential phase, whereas β-1,3-glucanase production was at peak in mid-stationary phase. Cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) exhibited a broad range of antifungal activity against both white rot and brown rot fungi. The inhibitory activity was completely lost after treatment with proteinase K and heat, indicating that extracellular antifungal metabolites are heat labile and proteinaceous in nature. Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were: 9.0 and 60 °C for chitinase; 6.0 and 60 °C for β-1,3-glucanase; and 9.0 and 70 °C for protease. Mycolytic enzymes were moderately thermostable, and had a wide pH stability range extending from pH 5.0 to 10.0. The zymogram analysis of CCF revealed five chitinase isoenzymes with an apparent molecular weight of 20.8, 33.3, 45.6, 67.4, and 114.8 kDa, one β-1,3-glucanase appeared as a single band of ∼131.8 kDa and four protease isoenzymes with approximate molecular weights of 22.8, 62.52, 74.64, and 120.5 kDa. S. violaceusniger MTCC 3959 produced mycolytic enzymes that can be effectively used for suppression of phytopathogenic basidiomycetes. It has the potential to be an effective biofungicide. PMID:23686763

  3. Characterization of a Brown Rot Fungus Isolated from Dwarf Flowering Almond in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Myoung Yong; Jeon, Young Jae; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2007-01-01

    The fruits showing brown rot symptom on dwarf flowering almond were found in Gongju, Chungchungnam-Do in Korea in July 2005. Small water-soaked lesions on the fruits were initiated, and gradually developed to soft rot covered with gray conidia. Then the diseased fruits were shrunk and became grayish-black mummies. A fungus was isolated from the diseased fruit and its morphological, cultural and molecular genetic characteristics were investigated. Typical blastospores of Monilinia spp. were ob...

  4. Detection of potato brown rot and ring rot by electronic nose: from laboratory to real scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, E; Blasioli, S; Galeone, A; Spinelli, F; Cellini, A; Lucchese, C; Braschi, I

    2014-11-01

    A commercial electronic nose (e-nose) equipped with a metal oxide sensor array was trained to recognize volatile compounds emitted by potatoes experimentally infected with Ralstonia solanacearum or Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, which are bacterial agents of potato brown and ring rot, respectively. Two sampling procedures for volatile compounds were tested on pooled tubers sealed in 0.5-1 L jars at room temperature (laboratory conditions): an enrichment unit containing different adsorbent materials (namely, Tenax(®) TA, Carbotrap, Tenax(®) GR, and Carboxen 569) directly coupled with the e-nose (active sampling) and a Radiello(™) cartridge (passive sampling) containing a generic Carbograph fiber. Tenax(®) TA resulted the most suitable adsorbent material for active sampling. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) correctly classified 57.4 and 81.3% total samples as healthy or diseased, when using active and passive sampling, respectively. These results suggested the use of passive sampling to discriminate healthy from diseased tubers under intermediate and real scale conditions. 80 and 90% total samples were correctly classified by LDA under intermediate (100 tubers stored at 4°C in net bag passively sampled) and real scale conditions (tubers stored at 4°C in 1.25 t bags passively sampled). Principal component analysis (PCA) of sensorial analysis data under laboratory conditions highlighted a strict relationship between the disease severity and the responses of the e-nose sensors, whose sensitivity threshold was linked to the presence of at least one tuber per sample showing medium disease symptoms. At intermediate and real scale conditions, data distribution agreed with disease incidence (percentage of diseased tubers), owing to the low storage temperature and volatile compounds unconfinement conditions adopted. PMID:25127615

  5. Wood Degradation by White Rot Fungi: Cytochemical Studies Using Lignin Peroxidase-Immunoglobulin-Gold Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Susana; Latge, Jean Paul; Prevost, Marie Christine; Leisola, Matti

    1987-01-01

    Using an anti-lignin peroxidase antiserum-protein A-gold complex, we found lignin peroxidase mainly intracellularly in several white rot fungi colonizing sawdust under laboratory conditions. This enzyme was also present in fungi found in naturally decayed wood. However, in all cases, lignin peroxidase was located mainly inside the fungal cells. Labeled lignin peroxidase did not bind to the lignocellulosic samples tested, with the exception of poplar milled-wood lignin. These results are discu...

  6. Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Rolz, C.; Leon, R.; de Arriola, M. C.; Cabrera, S. (Sonia)

    1986-01-01

    Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berk...

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF THREE FRUIT-ROT FUNGI OF BANANA BY 28S RIBOSOMAL DNA SEQUENCING

    OpenAIRE

    Supriya Sarkar*, S Girisham and SM Reddy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present investigation was to identify three fruit-rot fungi-Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend) and Nigrospora oryzae (Berk and Br.) Petch isolated from banana fruits [Rasthali (Silk AAB) and Cavendish (AAA) varieties]. Out of different fungal genera isolated, the above fungi were responsible for maximum loss of banana fruits as they spread rapidly into the fruit pulp and deteriorated the fruits. The amplification studies of fragment of D2 region ...

  8. Culturable bacterial microflora associated with nectarine fruit and their potential for control of brown rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2010-06-01

    Microflora of fruit surfaces have been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decay of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grape, apple, and citrus. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine fruit surfaces from the early stage of development until harvest. Identification of bacterial strains was made using MIDI (fatty acid methyl ester analysis) and Biolog systems. Biolog identified 35% and MIDI 53% of the strains. Thus results from MIDI were used to determine the frequency of occurrence of genera and species. The most frequently occurring genera were Curtobacterium (21.31%), followed by Pseudomonas (19.99%), Microbacterium (13.57%), Clavibacter (9.69%), Pantoea (6.59%), and Enterobacter (4.26%). The frequency of isolations of some bacteria - for example, the major pseudomonads (Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas savastanoi) or Pantoea agglomerans - tended to decline as fruit developed. As Pseudomonas declined, Curtobacterium became more dominant. Time of isolation was a significant factor in the frequency of occurrence of different bacteria, indicating succession of the genera. Throughput screening of the bacterial strains against Monilinia fructicola on nectarine fruit resulted in the detection of strains able to control brown rot. The 10 best-performing antagonistic strains were subjected to secondary screening. Four strains reduced decay severity by more than 50% (51.7%-91.4% reduction) at the high pathogen inoculum concentration of 105 conidia/mL. PMID:20657618

  9. Brown Rot Strikes Prunus Fruit: An Ancient Fight Almost Always Lost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Lino, Leandro; Pacheco, Igor; Mercier, Vincent; Faoro, Franco; Bassi, Daniele; Bornard, Isabelle; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte

    2016-05-25

    Brown rot (BR) caused by Monilinia spp., has been an economic problem for the stone fruit market due to dramatic losses, mainly during the postharvest period. There is much literature about basic aspects of Monilinia spp. infection, which indicates that environment significantly influences its occurrence in the orchard. However, progress is needed to sustainably limit this disease: the pathogen is able to develop resistance to pesticides, and most of BR resistance research programs in plant models perish. Solving this problem becomes important due to the need to decrease chemical treatments and reduce residues on fruit. Thus, research has recently increased, exploring a wide range of disease control strategies (e.g., genetic, chemical, physical). Summarizing this information is difficult, as studies evaluate different Monilinia and Prunus model species, with diverse strategies and protocols. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present the diversity and distribution of agents causing BR, focusing on the biochemical mechanisms of Monilinia spp. infection both of the fungi and of the fruit, and report on the resistance sources in Prunus germplasm. This review comprehensively compiles the information currently available to better understand mechanisms related to BR resistance. PMID:27133976

  10. Treatment of olive mill waste waters by white-rot fungi and radicals-generating reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nerud, František; Zervakis, G.; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, C.; Ntougias, S.; Merhautová, Věra

    Chania, 2005, s. 1-4. [European Bioremediation Conference /3./. Chania (GR), 04.07.2005-07.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : white-rot fungi * decolorization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Improving ruminal degradability of oil palm fronds using white rot fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.; Lourenco, M.; Hassim, H.A.; Baars, J.J.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Cone, J.W.; Boever, de J.L.; Fievez, V.

    2011-01-01

    The use of oil palm fronds (OPF) in livestock production is limited as up to 0.20 of their dry biomass is lignin. White rot fungi (WRF) are very effective basidiomycetes for biological pre-treatment as they degrade lignin extensively. Ten WRF were screened for their potential to increase OPF digesti

  12. HORMONAL ACTIVITIES OF NOVEL BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS AND THEIR BIODEGRADATION BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezechiáš, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2012), s. 233-233. ISSN 1843-3707. [ Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology. 10.04.2012-12.04.2012, Bologna] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : white rot fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Lignin degrading system of white-rot fungi and its exploitation for dye decolorization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, V.; Nerud, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2002), s. 857-870. ISSN 0008-4166 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/01/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : lignin degradation * white-rot fungi * laccase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.080, year: 2002

  14. Resident bacteria of plums and their potential for controlling brown rot after harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit microflora has been the richest source of antagonists against fruit decays and the active ingredient in all currently available commercial biocontrol products. A comprehensive evaluation of plum bacteria for biocontrol activity against Monilinia fructicola, causing brown rot of stone fruit, w...

  15. Short read sequencing for Genomic Analysis of the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The practical capability of short read sequencing for whole genome gene prediction was investigated for Fibroporia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant basidiomycete fungus that causes brown rot decay of wood. Illumina GAIIX reads from a single run of a paired-end library (75 nt read length, 300 bp insert...

  16. Control of brown rot of stone fruits by brief heated water immersion treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of brief (30 or 60 s) immersion in water at 24, 50, 55, 60, 65, or 70 ºC was evaluated for the control of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, on California-grown peaches, nectarines, and plums. Inoculated fruits were treated and either stored at 20 ºC for 5 days or at 0 ºC f...

  17. Culturable bacteria from plum fruit surfaces and their potential for controlling brown rot after harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit microflora has been the richest source of antagonists against fruit decays and the active ingredient in all currently available commercial biocontrol products. A comprehensive evaluation of plum bacteria for biocontrol activity against Monilinia fructicola, causing brown rot of stone fruit, w...

  18. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol;

    2005-01-01

    brown-rot fungi is thought to be due in part to oxalic acid production and accumulation. Oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by the formation of copper oxalate crystals. Twelve isolates of the dry rot fungus, S. lacrymans and four other brown rot species were evaluated for weight loss on...

  19. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C Krueger

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS. Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ, which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants.

  20. BIODEGRADATION OF AGRO-WASTES BY SOME NIGERIAN WHITE-ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseyi Damilola Adejoye

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Three white-rot fungi: Daedalea elegans, Polyporus giganteus, and Lenzites betulina were screened for their lignin degrading abilities on rice straw, maizecob, sawdust of Terminalia superba, and sugarcane bagasse at different time intervals (30, 60, and 90 days. All the fungi demonstrated varying levels of ligninolytic capability with different degrees of lignin degradation in all the fermented substrates. A significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in the mycelia extension of Daedalea elegans grown on the different agro-industrial wastes. D. elegans gave maximum extension of 4.5 cm on sugarcane bagasse. The highest lignin reduction of 92.9% (p<0.05 was recorded in maize cob fermented with Daedalea elegans after 90 days. On the basis of lignocellulosic material degraded, it is concluded that the white-rot fungi offer a better alternative to conventional ways of disposing these waste substances. This paper considers the ability of indigenous white-rot fungi to degrade lignin as a way of using them in effective waste management.

  1. Decay and stain fungi of north American conifers with special reference to the Prairie provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, P.

    1995-12-31

    Describes a comprehensive literature review of major decay (white rot, brown rot, heart rot, butt rot, and root rot) and stain of conifer trees caused by various species of wood decay and stain fungi in North America, with special emphasis on the Prairie Provinces. Includes descriptions of each type of decay and characteristics of decay and stain causing fungi to aid in identification. The appendix includes a list of fungal cultures deposited at the Northern Forestry Centre in Edmonton.

  2. Utilization of white rot fungi for textile dye decolourisation under alkaline condition and high salt concentration in solid medium

    OpenAIRE

    Ottoni, C. A.; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    A large amount of azo dyes are used for dyeing textiles. However, the dyes contaminate wastewaters and need to be treated. This is important because of the aesthetic, toxic and carcinogenic effects of the affected waters. Recently there has been an increase in interest in using white rot fungi (wrf) which degrade xenobiotic compounds including azo dyes. Wrf degrade lignin and others recalcitrant molecules using nonspecific extracellular enzymes. Four white rot fungi...

  3. Treatment of micropollutants in municipal wastewater using white-rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Margot, Jonas; Vargas, Micaela; Contijoch, Andreu; Barry, David Andrew; Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides in municipal wastewater is challenging due to their very low concentrations (ng/l to µg/l), their relatively low biodegradability, and their different physico-chemical characteristics. One potential way to improve micropollutant biodegradation in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is by using microorganisms such as white-rot fungi that produce powerful unspecific oxidative exo-enzymes (laccase, peroxidase) that are ab...

  4. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  5. Optimization of Laccase Production using White Rot Fungi and Agriculture Wastes in Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Risdianto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Laccase has been produced in a solid state fermentation (SSF using white rot fungi and various lignocellulosic based substrates. White rot fungi used were Marasmius sp, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete crysosporium. The solid substrates employed in this research were collected from agriculture waste which were empty fruit bunches (EFB, rice straw, corn cob, and rice husk. The objective of this research was to determine the most promising fungus, the best solid substrate and the optimal conditions for the production of laccase. The results showed that Marasmius sp. on all solid substrates displayed higher laccase activity than that of any other strain of white rot fungi. Marasmius sp. and solid substrate of rice straw demonstrated the highest laccase activity of 1116.11 U/L on day 10. Three significant factors, i.e. pH, temperature and yeast extract concentration were studied by response surface method on laccase production using Marasmius sp and rice straw. The optimized conditions were pH, temperature and yeast extract concentration of 4.9, 31ºC and 0.36 g/L respectively. The fermentation of Marasmius sp. in SSF on agricultural waste shows a great potential for the production of laccase.

  6. Resistance of particleboard panels made of agricultural residues and bonded with synthetic resins or PVC plastic to wood-rotting fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Eterno Teixeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the resistance of three types of particleboard panel to biodeterioration, two of which bonded with synthetic resins and one bonded with PVC plastic. Composite panels were made using sugar cane straw particles as raw material which were bonded together with urea-formaldehyde (UF, tannin-formaldehyde (TANI and PVC plastic (PVC resins. Decay tests were performed following procedures outlined in the ASTM D2017-81/1994 standard, whereby sample specimens were subjected to attack by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum using pine (Pinus sp. and embaúba (Cecropia sp. as reference timber. Panels bonded with PVC resin were rated ‘resistant’ to attack by both fungi while those bonded with UF and TANI resins were rated ‘slightly resistant’ to their attack.

  7. Efficiency of fungicides in the control of brown rot in peaches and its relationship with physiological parameters of the fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello; Auri Brackmann; Fabio Rodrigo Thewes; Vanderlei Both; Jorge Roque Alves dos Santos; Marcio Renan Weber Schorr

    2015-01-01

    The brown rot, caused by the fungus Monilinia fructicola, is the main cause for losses in pre and postharvest of peaches. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of preharvest application of fungicides on the control of brown rot in the field and during cold storage, and its relation to parameters of maturation and fruit quality. Therefore, we evaluated the following active ingredients: [1] control (water application), [2] captan; [3] iprodione; [4] iminoctadine; [5] tebuconazole; [6] proc...

  8. Biological Control Of The Egyptian Brown Rot In Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomonas fluorescence, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillus and streptomyces spp. Were used in control of Ralstonia solanacearum, the casual agent of brown rot in potato. In vitro, antagonistic activities showed that streptomyces spp. was the most antagonistic followed by P. fluorescence, Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa respectively. Also, in vivo, biological control of R. solanacearum showed that Streptomyces spp. was found to reduce the percentage of brown rot infection to 5% followed by P. fluorescence, Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa reducing the percentage of infection to 15 , 25 and 40%, respectively. Also, the disease severity when using Streptomyces spp. and P. fluorescence was reduced from 5 to 1 and reduced from 5 to 2 when using Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa.

  9. Reduced-risk fungicides help manage brown rot and other fungal diseases of stone fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Adaskaveg, James E.; Förster, Helga; Gubler, W. Doug; Teviotdale, Beth L.; Thompson, David F.

    2005-01-01

    New reduced-risk fungicides are highly effective in managing both pre- and postharvest diseases of stone fruit crops in California, and they have replaced most previously registered materials. These fungicides have a low impact on the environment, high specificity to target organisms, and low potential for groundwater contamination and human health risks. In stone fruit, they can be successfully used to manage brown rot blossom blight in a new delayed-bloom fungicide application program for l...

  10. Application of genomic and quantitative genetic tools to identify candidate resistance genes for brown rot resistance in peach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J Martínez-García

    Full Text Available The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a brown rot resistant introgression line, 'F8,1-42', derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity (ETI responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot.

  11. Application of genomic and quantitative genetic tools to identify candidate resistance genes for brown rot resistance in peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Parfitt, Dan E; Bostock, Richard M; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some cultivars and advanced selections developed in the UC Davis and USDA breeding programs. Whole genome sequencing of the Pop-DF parents lead to discovery of high-quality SNP markers for QTL genome scanning in this experimental population. Pop-DF created by crossing a brown rot moderately resistant cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a brown rot resistant introgression line, 'F8,1-42', derived from an initial almond × peach interspecific hybrid, was evaluated for brown rot resistance in fruit of harvest maturity over three seasons. Using the SNP linkage map of Pop-DF and phenotypic data collected with inoculated fruit, a genome scan for QTL identified several SNP markers associated with brown rot resistance. Two of these QTLs were placed on linkage group 1, covering a large (physical) region on chromosome 1. The genome scan for QTL and SNP effects predicted several candidate genes associated with disease resistance responses in other host-pathogen systems. Two potential candidate genes, ppa011763m and ppa026453m, may be the genes primarily responsible for M. fructicola recognition in peach, activating both PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) responses. Our results provide a foundation for further genetic dissection, marker assisted breeding for brown rot resistance, and development of peach cultivars resistant to brown rot. PMID:24244329

  12. Toxicity of organic and inorganic nanoparticles to four species of white-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, T.P.S., E-mail: pgalindo@ua.pt [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, R. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Freitas, A.C.; Santos-Rocha, T.A.P. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Rasteiro, M.G.; Antunes, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Rodrigues, D. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEIT, Instituto Piaget Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal); Soares, A.M.V.M.; Gonçalves, F. [CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2013-08-01

    The rapid development of nanoparticles (NP) for industrial applications and large-volume manufacturing, with its subsequent release into the environment, raised the need to understand and characterize the potential effects of NP to biota. Accordingly, this work aimed to assess sublethal effects of five NP to the white-rot fungi species Trametes versicolor, Lentinus sajor caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Each species was exposed to serial dilutions of the following NP: organic-vesicles of SDS/DDAB and of Mo/NaO; gold-NP, quantum dot CdSe/ZnS, and Fe/Co. Fungi growth rate was monitored every day, and at the end of assay the mycelium from each replicate was collected to evaluate possible changes in its chemical composition. For all NP-suspensions the following parameters were characterized: hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, aggregation index, zeta potential, and conductivity. All tested NP tended to aggregate when suspended in aqueous media. The obtained results showed that gold-NP, CdSe/ZnS, Mo/NaO, and SDS/DDAB significantly inhibited the growth of fungi with effects on the mycelium chemical composition. Among the tested NP, gold-NP and CdSe/ZnS were the ones exerting a higher effect on the four fungi. Finally to our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that different types of NP induce changes in the chemical composition of fungi mycelium. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles (NP) tend to aggregate when in aqueous suspensions. • Chemical composition revealed to be very important in the ecotoxicity of NP. • Observed effects suggested diversified modes of action of different NP. • White-rot fungi species exhibit great differences in their sensitivity to NP.

  13. Toxicity of organic and inorganic nanoparticles to four species of white-rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid development of nanoparticles (NP) for industrial applications and large-volume manufacturing, with its subsequent release into the environment, raised the need to understand and characterize the potential effects of NP to biota. Accordingly, this work aimed to assess sublethal effects of five NP to the white-rot fungi species Trametes versicolor, Lentinus sajor caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Each species was exposed to serial dilutions of the following NP: organic-vesicles of SDS/DDAB and of Mo/NaO; gold-NP, quantum dot CdSe/ZnS, and Fe/Co. Fungi growth rate was monitored every day, and at the end of assay the mycelium from each replicate was collected to evaluate possible changes in its chemical composition. For all NP-suspensions the following parameters were characterized: hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, aggregation index, zeta potential, and conductivity. All tested NP tended to aggregate when suspended in aqueous media. The obtained results showed that gold-NP, CdSe/ZnS, Mo/NaO, and SDS/DDAB significantly inhibited the growth of fungi with effects on the mycelium chemical composition. Among the tested NP, gold-NP and CdSe/ZnS were the ones exerting a higher effect on the four fungi. Finally to our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that different types of NP induce changes in the chemical composition of fungi mycelium. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles (NP) tend to aggregate when in aqueous suspensions. • Chemical composition revealed to be very important in the ecotoxicity of NP. • Observed effects suggested diversified modes of action of different NP. • White-rot fungi species exhibit great differences in their sensitivity to NP

  14. Fungi yang Berperan dalam Proses Biodelignifikasi pada Jaringan Kayu Mati Tanaman Eucalyptus sp. Di hutan Tanaman Industri PT. Toba Pulp Lestari Sektor Aek Nauli

    OpenAIRE

    Yanto, Tri

    2011-01-01

    Wood-rot fungi in ecological can be grouped in two part, which is white-rot fungi and brown-rot fungi. White-rot fungi can degradate lignin, hemiselulose, and selulose. White-rot fungi has special ability. It is to degradate lignin. Based on its ability, need to be done a research about this fungi that gets a role in lignin degradation (delignification). This research was conducted in Biotecnology Laboratory of forestry department in North Sumatera University from April to July 2011. The mate...

  15. Efficiency of fungicides in the control of brown rot in peaches and its relationship with physiological parameters of the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The brown rot, caused by the fungus Monilinia fructicola, is the main cause for losses in pre and postharvest of peaches. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of preharvest application of fungicides on the control of brown rot in the field and during cold storage, and its relation to parameters of maturation and fruit quality. Therefore, we evaluated the following active ingredients: [1] control (water application, [2] captan; [3] iprodione; [4] iminoctadine; [5] tebuconazole; [6] procymidone; [7 ] azoxystrobin; [8] difenoconazole; [9] azoxystrobin / difenoconazole; [10] trifloxystrobin / tebuconazole; [11] sequence iminoctadine + captan; [12] sequence iminoctadine + iprodione; [13] sequence of tebuconazole + captan; [14] sequence of tebuconazole + iprodione. All treatments were applied according recommended doses and grace period for culture. The fruits were evaluated at harvest and after 40 days storage at –0.5 ° C, plus six days at 20 º C. At harvest time, the best control of brown rot was obtained with difenoconazole, while the fungicide iminoctadine and its association with iprodione showed good results in controlling brown rot after 40 days of cold storage, plus six days shelf life at 20 º C. The preharvest application of captan cause skin browning. The fungicide azoxystrobin influences the fruit maturation by decreasing acidity and firmness at harvest. Good levels of control of brown rot of peach can be achieved with the use of iminoctadine and iprodione.

  16. Use of homeopathic drugs in combination with fertilizers for the control of root rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal effectiveness of homeopathic drugs in combination with fertilizers on the growth production and controlling of root rot fungi. Seeds treated with homeopathic drugs in addition of phosphorous and nitrogen fertilizers as soil amendment showed significant inhibitory effect on fungal growth as well as improved the plant growth. Remarkable control of root infecting fungi was shown by the seeds treated with Thuja occidentalis and Arnica montana at rate of 75 percentage v/v concentration and soil amended with urea at rate of 0.1 percentage w/w but greater increased in plant growth was observed by urea at rate of 0.01 percentage in the tested plants viz. mung bean, mash bean, sunflower and okra. Whereas, when A. montana and T. occidentalis at rate of 75 percentage v/v concentration along with the addition of DAP at rate of 0.01 and 0.1 percentage w/w respectively showed maximum suppression of Fusarium spp, R. solani and M. phaseolina and enhanced the plant height and weight followed by A. montana and T. occidentalis at rate of 50 percentage v/v concentration respectively showed a maximum control of root rot fungi and also strengthened the crop plant for better growth. (author)

  17. Molecular Detection of Monilinia fructigena as Causal Agent of Brown Rot on Quince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Hrustić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Monilinia are important causal agents of fruit rot on pome and stone fruits in Serbia. The pathogen is very harmful, especially on small properties and cottage plantations where intensive control measures are not applied. Quince is importanthost for the pathogens of this genus. During spring 2010, intensive occurrence of mummified fruits overwintering on branches of the quince was observed. The pathogen was isolated using standard phytopathological methods. Pathogenicity of eight obtained isolates was tested by artificial inoculation of injured apple fruits. Identification was performed according to pathogenic, morphological and ecological properties, and was confirmed by Multiplex polimeraze chain reaction, PCR. All the isolates studied caused brown rot on inoculated apple fruits. The isolates form light yellow colonies with lobate margins,with single-celled, transparent, elliptical or oval conidia in chains, regardless temperature or light presence. Sclerotia are observed in 14 days old cultures. The highest growth rate of most of the isolates is at 27°C and in dark. Based on studied pathogenic, morphological and ecological characteristics, it was found that the Monilinia fructigena is causal agent of brown rot of quince. Using specific primers (MO368-5, MO368-8R, MO368-10R, Laxa-R2for detection of Monilinia species in Multiplex PCR reaction, the expected fragment 402 bp in size was amplified, which confirmed that the studied isolates belonged to the speciesM. fructigena.

  18. Tow-step degradation of pyrene by white-rot fungi and soil microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of soil microorganisms on mineralization of 14C-labelled pyrene by white-rot fungi in solid-state fermentation was investigated. Two strains of white-rot fungi, Dichomitus squalens and a Pleurotus sp., were tested. The fungi were incubated on milled wheat straw contaminated with [14C]pyrene for 15 weeks. CO2 and 14CO2 liberated from the cultures were determined weekly. To study the effect of soil microorganisms on respiration and [14C]pyrene mineralization in different periods of fungal development, the fungal substrate was covered with soil at different times of incubation (after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 or 11 weeks). The two fungi showed contrasting ecological behaviour in competition with the soil microflora. Pleurotus sp. was highly resistant to microbial attack and had the ability to penetrate the soil. D. squalens was less competitive and did not colonize the soil. The resistance of the fungus was dependent on the duration of fungal preincubation. Mineralization of [14C]pyrene by mixed cultures of D. squalens and soil microorganisms was higher than by the fungus or the soil microflora alone when soil was added after 3 weeks of incubation or later. With Pleurotus sp., the mineralization of [14C]pyrene was enhanced by the soil microflora irrespective of the time of soil application. With D. squalens, which in pure culture mineralized less [14C]pyrene than did Pleurotus sp., the increase of [14C]pyrene mineralization caused by soil application was higher than with Pleurotus sp. (orig.)

  19. The Genetic Structure of Phellinus noxius and Dissemination Pattern of Brown Root Rot Disease in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chung

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained a draft genome of ~40 Mb. By comparing the 12,217 simple sequence repeat (SSR regions in Daxi42 with the low-coverage Illumina sequencing data for four additional P. noxius isolates, we identified 154 SSR regions with potential polymorphisms. A set of 13 polymorphic SSR markers were then developed and used to analyze 329 P. noxius isolates collected from 73 tree species from urban/agricultural areas in 14 cities/counties all around Taiwan from 1989 to 2012. The results revealed a high proportion (~98% of distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs and that none of the 329 isolates were genome-wide homozygous, which supports a possible predominant outcrossing reproductive mode in P. noxius. The diverse MLGs exist as discrete patches, so brown root rot was most likely caused by multiple clones rather than a single predominant strain. The isolates collected from diseased trees near each other tend to have similar genotype(s, which indicates that P. noxius may spread to adjacent trees via root-to-root contact. Analyses based on Bayesian clustering, FST statistics, analysis of molecular variance, and isolation by distance all suggest a low degree of population differentiation and little to no barrier to gene flow throughout the P. noxius population in Taiwan. We discuss the involvement of basidiospore dispersal in disease dissemination.

  20. The Genetic Structure of Phellinus noxius and Dissemination Pattern of Brown Root Rot Disease in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chia-Lin; Huang, Shun-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Ann, Pao-Jen; Tsai, Jyh-Nong; Yang, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Hsin-Han; Huang, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Hsin-Yu; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Lee, Hui-Lin; Liou, Ruey-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius (Corner) Cunningham has become a major tree disease in Taiwan. This fungal pathogen can infect more than 200 hardwood and softwood tree species, causing gradual to fast decline of the trees. For effective control, we must determine how the pathogen is disseminated and how the new infection center of brown root rot is established. We performed Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of a single basidiospore isolate Daxi42 and obtained a draft genome of ~40 Mb. By comparing the 12,217 simple sequence repeat (SSR) regions in Daxi42 with the low-coverage Illumina sequencing data for four additional P. noxius isolates, we identified 154 SSR regions with potential polymorphisms. A set of 13 polymorphic SSR markers were then developed and used to analyze 329 P. noxius isolates collected from 73 tree species from urban/agricultural areas in 14 cities/counties all around Taiwan from 1989 to 2012. The results revealed a high proportion (~98%) of distinct multilocus genotypes (MLGs) and that none of the 329 isolates were genome-wide homozygous, which supports a possible predominant outcrossing reproductive mode in P. noxius. The diverse MLGs exist as discrete patches, so brown root rot was most likely caused by multiple clones rather than a single predominant strain. The isolates collected from diseased trees near each other tend to have similar genotype(s), which indicates that P. noxius may spread to adjacent trees via root-to-root contact. Analyses based on Bayesian clustering, FST statistics, analysis of molecular variance, and isolation by distance all suggest a low degree of population differentiation and little to no barrier to gene flow throughout the P. noxius population in Taiwan. We discuss the involvement of basidiospore dispersal in disease dissemination. PMID:26485142

  1. Application of Genomic and Quantitative Genetic Tools to Identify Candidate Resistance Genes for Brown Rot Resistance in Peach

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Parfitt, Dan E; Bostock, Richard M.; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Vazquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a complete peach genome assembly and three different peach genome sequences created by our group provide new opportunities for application of genomic data and can improve the power of the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approaches to identify candidate genes for peach disease resistance. Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp., is the most important fungal disease of stone fruits worldwide. Improved levels of peach fruit rot resistance have been identified in some culti...

  2. Biological control of toxigenic citrus and papaya-rotting fungi by Streptomyces violascens MT7 and its extracellular metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Bharti; Nagpure, Anand; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2015-12-01

    An Indian indigenous, Loktak Lake soil isolate Streptomyces violascens MT7 was assessed for its biocontrol potential both in vitro and in vivo against toxigenic fruit-rotting fungi. Strain MT7 exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against various pathogenic postharvest fungi of citrus and papaya. In shake-flask fermentation, antagonist S. violascens MT7 highly produced extracellular antifungal metabolites in early stationary growth phase in glucose-yeast extract-malt extract (M93) broth. Both extracellular culture fluid (ECF) and its n-butanol extract showed significant broad-spectrum fungal mycelial inhibition of several tested fruit-rotting fungi. Antifungal metabolite was found to be heat stable, nonpeptidic, and polyene type antibiotic. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of n-butanol extract against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides MTCC 9664 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 was 0.0312 and 0.0625 mg/ml, respectively. Purification of n-butanol extract through silica gel chromatography resulted in partial purification of bioactive metabolite and the TLC autobiography revealed the presence of single antifungal metabolite with Rf value of 0.755. In vivo bioassays demonstrated the biocontrol potential of tested biocontrol agents on fruit-rotting fungi. Use of cell suspension of S. violascens MT7, extracellular metabolite(s), and n-butanol extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced sour-rot development on Citrus reticulata Blanco (oranges) and soft-rot development on papaya fruits. Therefore, these results strongly suggest a high potential for application of S. violascens MT7 and its extracellular metabolites as an effective eco-friendly alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling toxigenic citrus and papaya-rotting fungi. PMID:26214840

  3. Enhancement of β-Glucosidase Activity from a Brown Rot Fungus Fomitopsis pinicola KCTC 6208 by Medium Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ah Reum; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Jang, Ji Yeon; Yu, Byung Jo; Um, Byung-Hwan; Yoon, Jeong-Jun

    2015-03-01

    β-Glucosidase, which hydrolyzes cellobiose into two glucoses, plays an important role in the process of saccharification of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we optimized the activity of β-glucosidase of brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola KCTC 6208 using the response surface methodology (RSM) with various concentrations of glucose, yeast extract and ascorbic acid, which are the most significant nutrients for activity of β-glucosidase. The highest activity of β-glucosidase was achieved 3.02% of glucose, 4.35% of yeast extract, and 7.41% ascorbic acid where ascorbic acid was most effective. The maximum activity of β-glucosidase predicted by the RSM was 15.34 U/mg, which was similar to the experimental value 14.90 U/mg at the 16th day of incubation. This optimized activity of β-glucosidase was 23.6 times higher than the preliminary activity value, 0.63 U/mg, and was also much higher than previous values reported in other fungi strains. Therefore, a simplified medium supplemented with a cheap vitamin source, such as ascorbic acid, could be a cost effective mean of increasing β-glucosidase activity. PMID:25892916

  4. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot fungi on lignocellulosic wastes using novel pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Srivastava, A K; Pandey, V K; Agrawal, S; Singh, M P

    2014-01-01

    Production of extracellular ligninolytic enzymes (laccase and polyphenol oxidase) secreted by three species of white rot fungi (Pleurotus florida, P. flabellatus and P. sajor—caju) under in vivo condition was studied on two lignocellulosic substrates i.e., paddy straw and wheat straw. These lignocellulosic substrates were treated with neem (Azadirachta indica) oil and ashoka (Saraca indica) leaves extract. Between the two lignocellulosic substrates, paddy straw pretreated with neem oil supported maximum activity of laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The activities of both the enzymes were low on the 5th day of cultivation which increased on the 10th day and reached at peak on the 15th day. Thereafter, there was continuous decrease in the enzymatic activity. Among the three species, P. flabellatus (P3) showed maximum ligninolytic enzymatic activity followed by P. florida (P2)and P. sajor—caju (P1). PMID:25535711

  5. Degradation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl by selected white rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-limited stationary cultures of the white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, and Coriolopsis polysona mineralized 1.393 ± 0.353 (0.301 ± 0.023) and 0.398 ± 0.061 (0.112 ± 0.010), and 0.015 ± 0.004 (0.002 ± 0.0008) % of the originally supplied 30.14 nmol (513.7 nmol) of 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachloro[U-14C]biphenyl (PCB 77) during 4 weeks. The extent of PCB 77 degradation was followed by 14C-radioactivity partitioning into aqueous, organic soluble, biomass associated, aqueous (intracellular) and organic soluble (intracellular) fractions. After four weeks incubation the pattern of distribution of radioactivity was similar in P. chrysosporium and C. polysona at higher dose but not at the lower dose of PCB 77. T. versicolor differed in the distribution pattern of radiolabel

  6. 大白菜褐腐病(茎基腐病)的病原菌鉴定%Pathogen Identification of Chinese Cabbage Brown Rot (Base Stem Rot)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧敏; 谢学文; 石延霞; 郭英兰; 李宝聚

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the disease known as ' base stem rot' of Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour) Olsson ] was prevalent in Beijing, Hebei and Jiangsu Provinces. 12 fungi isolates were collected from rotten stem of Chinese cabbage. The morphological identification show the isolated bacteria strain is Rhizoctonia solani. PCR of rDNA-ITS was propagated by general primer ITS1/ITS4 and the sequencing result was compared and analyzed in GenBank. The results of molecular identification and morphological identification were the same. Then the isolated bacteria strains were inoculated to the healthy Chinese cabbage stems. The symptoms resembled the ones originally observed in the fields. Finally, the pathogen's identity was confirmed by re-isolation from lesions of infected plants. Based on the tests of morphological characteristics, pathogenicity and molecular biology, the pathogens of Chinese cabbage' base stem rot' found in Beijing, Hebei and Jiangsu Provinces were the same as brown rot, Rhizoctonia solani. etc.%2011年在北京、河北、江苏等地的部分大白菜种植区,当地俗称的大白菜“茎基腐病”普遍严重发生,实际调查后共采集到大白菜“茎基腐病”病样12份,分离获得12个真菌分离物,经形态学鉴定,分离到的菌株均为立枯丝核菌Rhizoctonia solani;采用真菌通用引物ITS1/ITS4对病原菌rDNA-ITS进行PCR扩增,并将测序结果在GenBank中进行同源性比对分析,分子生物学鉴定结果与形态学鉴定结果一致.将分离到的菌株分别回接健康的大白菜植株,植株表现出与田间相似的发病症状,重新进行病原菌的分离,得到相同的病原物.基于形态学、分子生物学鉴定和致病性试验最终确定北京、河北、江苏等地大白菜“茎基腐病”病原菌为立枯丝核菌Rhizoctonia solani,大白菜“茎基腐病”与大白菜褐腐病、大白菜立枯病属同病异名.

  7. Difference between chitosan and oligochitosan in growth of Monilinia fructicola and control of brown rot in peach fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan (CS) and oligochitosan (OCS), as natural antifungal agents, have been primarily used as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases of fruits. The effectiveness of these two agents on the growth of Monilinia fructicola to control brown rot has not yet been...

  8. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white rot-fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameles versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorisation studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorisation percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolics content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs

  9. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white rot-fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Fajardo, S.; Manzanares, P.

    1996-07-01

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameles versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorisation studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorisation percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolics content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs.

  10. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  11. Candida pruni sp. nov. is a new yeast species with antagonistic potential against brown rot of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dian-peng; Lu, Cai-ge; Zhang, Tao-tao; Spadaro, Davide; Liu, De-wen; Liu, Wei-cheng

    2014-07-01

    Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is among the most important postharvest diseases of commercially grown stone fruits, and application of antagonistic yeasts to control brown rot is one promising strategy alternative to chemical fungicides. In this research, new yeast strains were isolated and tested for their activity against peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Three yeast strains were originally isolated from the surface of plums (cv Chinese Angelino) collected in the north of China. In artificially wounded inoculation tests, the yeast reduced the brown rot incidence to 20 %. The population of the yeast within inoculated wounds on peaches significantly increased at 25 °C from an initial level of 5.0×10(6) to 4.45×10(7) CFU per wound after 1 day. The antagonistic strains were belonging to a new species of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26 S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region. The strains are most closely related to C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus on the basis of the phylogenetic trees based on the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. However, the strains are notably different from C. asparagi, C. musae and C. fructus, in morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the name Candida pruni is proposed for the novel species, with sp-Quan (=CBS12814T=KCTC 27526T=GCMC 6582T) as the type strain. Our study showed that Candida pruni is a novel yeast species with potential biocontrol against brown rot caused by M. fructicola on peaches. PMID:24908073

  12. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance the resistance of peach fruit to brown rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zengxin; Yang, Lingyu; Yan, Haixia; Kennedy, John F; Meng, Xianghong

    2013-04-15

    The effects of chitosan and oligachitosan on resistance induction of peach fruit against brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola were investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan showed significant effect on controlling this disease. Moreover, chitosan and oligochitosan delayed fruit softening and senescence. The two antifungal substances enhanced antioxidant and defense-related enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), β-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHI), and they also stimulated the transcript expression of POD and GLU. These findings suggest that the effects of chitosan and oligochitosan on disease control and quality maintenance of peach fruit may be associated with their antioxidant property and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. PMID:23544538

  13. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Formation in Norway Spruce Stems Infected by White-Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari M. Hietala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of tons of carbon sequestered in trees are annually recycled back to the atmosphere through wood decomposition by microbes. In Norway, every fifth Norway spruce shows at final harvest infection by pathogenic white-rot fungi in the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria. As these fungi can mineralize all components of wood, we predicted that they have a significant carbon footprint. Gas samples taken from infected stems were analyzed for CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and wood samples from different parts of the decay columns were incubated under hypoxic (4% O2 and anoxic laboratory conditions. In spring and summer the stem concentrations of CO2 were generally two times higher in trees with heartwood decay than in healthy trees. For most of the healthy trees and trees with heartwood decay, mean stem concentrations of CH4 were comparable to ambient air, and only some Armillaria infected trees showed moderately elevated CH4. Consistently, low CH4 production potentials were recorded in the laboratory experiment. Up-scaling of CO2 efflux due to wood decay in living trees suggests that the balance between carbon sequestration and emission may be substantially influenced in stands with high frequency of advanced root and stem heartwood decay.

  14. The Effect of Interaction Between White-rot Fungi and Indigenous Microorganisms on Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White-rot fungi applied for soil bioremediation have to compete with indigenous soil microorganisms. The effect of competition on both indigenous soil microflora and white-rot fungi was evaluated with regard to degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with different persistence in soil. Sterile and non-sterile soil was artificially contaminated with 14C-labeled PAH consisting of three (anthracene), four (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene) and five fused aromatic rings (benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene). The two fungi tested,Dichomitus squalens and Pleurotus ostreatus, produced similar amounts of ligninolytic enzymes in soil, but PAH mineralization by P. ostreatus was significantly higher. Compared to the indigenous soil microflora, P.ostreatus mineralized 5-ring PAH to a larger extent, while the indigenous microflora was superior in mineralizing 3-ring and 4-ring PAH. In coculture the special capabilities of both soil microflora and P. ostreatus were partly restricted due to antagonistic interactions, but essentially preserved. Thus, soil inoculation with P. ostreatus significantly increased the mineralization of high-molecular-weight PAH, and at the same time reduced the mineralization of anthracene and pyrene. Regarding the mineralization of low-molecular-weight PAH, the stimulation of indigenous soil microorganisms by straw amendment was more efficient than application of white-rot fungi

  15. Yeasts associated with plums and their potential for controlling brown rot after harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Jurick, Wayne M; Peter, Kari A; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial and yeast antagonists isolated from fruit surfaces have been effective in controlling various post-harvest diseases, and several microbial antagonists have been developed into commercial products. Our knowledge of the fruit microbial community, with the exception of grapes, apples and some citrus fruit, is rudimentary and the potential of the resident yeasts for biocontrol remains largely unknown. We determined the occurrence of yeasts on plum surfaces during fruit development from the pre-hardening stage until harvest for 2 years. A total of 16 species from 13 genera were isolated. Species from three genera, basidiomycetes Rhodotorula (29.5%) and Sporidiobolus (24.7%) and the dimorphic ascomycete genus Aureobasidium (24.7%), constituted 78.7% of all isolations and were recovered throughout fruit development, while Cryptococcus spp. constituted only 6.2% of the total plum isolates. The yeast community in the final sampling was significantly different from the first three samplings, reflecting a rapidly changing fruit habitat during the maturation of fruit. For example, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Zygosaccharomyces and Wickerhamomyces occurred only on the most mature fruit. Screening of the yeasts for antagonistic activity against Monilinia fructicola, a fungus that causes brown rot, revealed a range of biocontrol activities. Several isolates provided complete control of the decay on plums, challenged with a pathogen suspension of 10(3) conidia/ml and > 90% of control on fruit inoculated with the pathogen at a concentration 10 times higher. Some of the best antagonists included A. pullulans and R. phylloplana. Populations of both of these antagonists increased rapidly by several orders of magnitude in wounds of plums incubated at 24ºC and 4ºC. Our results indicate that plum surfaces harbour several yeast species, with excellent potential for use in biological control of brown rot of stone fruits. PMID:24687564

  16. Olive mill wastewater biodegradation potential of white-rot fungi - Mode of action of fungal culture extracts and effects of ligninolytic enzymes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ntougias, S.; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, C.; Nerud, František; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 189, č. 1 (2015), s. 121-130. ISSN 0960-8524 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Wood-rot fungi * Laccase * Peroxidase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.494, year: 2014

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF THREE FRUIT-ROT FUNGI OF BANANA BY 28S RIBOSOMAL DNA SEQUENCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Sarkar*, S Girisham and SM Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present investigation was to identify three fruit-rot fungi-Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid, Fusarium oxysporum (Schlechtend and Nigrospora oryzae (Berk and Br. Petch isolated from banana fruits [Rasthali (Silk AAB and Cavendish (AAA varieties]. Out of different fungal genera isolated, the above fungi were responsible for maximum loss of banana fruits as they spread rapidly into the fruit pulp and deteriorated the fruits. The amplification studies of fragment of D2 region of LSU (Large subunit 28S rDNA gene of three fungi understudy was carried out using PCR technique. Based on the nucleotide homology and phylogenetic analysis, the fungus M. phaseolina was identified as M. phaseolina strain R-4242 sp. (Genbank accession number: FJ415068.1, F. oxysporum as Fusarium sp.QJC-1403 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene sp. (Genbank accession number: EU193176.1 and N. oryzae as N. oryzae NRRL: 54030 sp. (Genbank accession number: GQ328855.1. Nucleic acid sequencing provides more objective separation of genera and species than that provided by the conventional techniques. This technique can best be used for the identification of organisms that could not be identified satisfactorily by their microscopic morphological features. Genetic characterization of plant pathogens prevalent in an area is necessary for efficient management and increased crop productivity. The data presented may help researchers to understand the host-pathogen interactions indetail in banana, to design effective strategies for deployment of resistant genes in banana (Musa paradisiaca L. growing regions in the country and worldwide.

  18. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these-two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12-have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component.

  19. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  20. Selection of white-rot fungi to formulate complex and coated pellets for Reactive Orange 165 decolourization

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Rubilar, Olga; Lima, Nelson; Diez, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Six strains of white-rot fungi isolated from southern Chile were evaluated for their ergosterol/biomass correlation and ligninolytic potential in solid medium to formulate pellets for Reactive Orange 165 (RO165) decolourization. The fungus Anthracophyllum discolor was selected to formulate complex pellets (fungal mycelium, sawdust, and activated carbon), coated pellets (complex pellet + alginate) and simple pellets (fungal mycelium). The activity of ligninolytic enzymes (laccase, manganese pe...

  1. Activity of Ligninolytic Enzymes during Growth and Fruiting Body Development of White Rot Fungi Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    HAPPY WIDIASTUTI; SUHARYANTO; AGUSTINA WULANINGTYAS; SUTAMIHARDJA

    2008-01-01

    The activity of ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi (WRF) Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus was observed during somatic and fruiting body development in solid substrate fermentation using empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFB). The enzyme activity was dominated by laccase both of Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus. The laccase activity on somatic phase (mycelium growth) was higher compared to that of fruiting body formation phase. The laccase activity of Omphalina sp. was slightly higher c...

  2. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Akiba, Mitsuteru; Ota, Yuko; Tsai, Isheng J.; Hattori, Tsutomu; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, where it has killed trees, incl...

  3. Temporal dynamics of brown rot in different apple management systems and importance of dropped fruit for disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemic development of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructigena, was monitored in integrated and organic apple orchards at two locations in eastern Hungary between 2002 and 2005 on three cultivars with early, midseason, and late ripening periods. Disease incidence and severity measures were affected significantly (P Mutsu. Disease intensity increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest and was considerably lower in integrated than in organic orchards. Final brown rot incidence on fruit in the tree was correlated with incidence on dropped fruit on the orchard floor (r > 0.75, P < 0.05), whereby the lag period from the appearance of the first symptomatic fruit on the ground to the occurrence of the first symptomatic fruit in the tree ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the cultivar. The inflection point of the disease progress curve was attained first by fruit on the ground, followed successively by fruit in the lower, middle, and upper thirds of the tree canopy. This may indicate that dropped fruit that became infected early provided a source of inoculum for subsequent epidemics by serving as a bridge between sporulation from overwintered fruit mummies in the spring and the first fruit with sporulating lesions in the tree in midsummer. Removal of dropped fruit from the orchard floor resulted in a significantly lower disease incidence on fruit in the tree on all cultivars; thus, drop-removal may be useful as a brown rot management practice in apple orchards. PMID:18944175

  4. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime;

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reduci...

  5. Transcriptional profiles of laccase genes in the brown rot fungus Postia placenta MAD-R-698.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongde; Wei, Dongsheng; Xiao, Tingting

    2015-09-01

    One of the laccase isoforms in the brown rot fungus Postia placenta is thought to contribute to the production of hydroxyl radicals, which play an important role in lignocellulose degradation. However, the presence of at least two laccase isoforms in this fungus makes it difficult to understand the details of this mechanism. In this study, we systematically investigated the transcriptional patterns of two laccase genes, Pplcc1 and Pplcc2, by quantitative PCR (qPCR) to better understand the mechanism. The qPCR results showed that neither of the two genes was expressed constitutively throughout growth in liquid culture or during the degradation of a woody substrate. Transcription of Pplcc1 was upregulated under nitrogen depletion and in response to a high concentration of copper in liquid culture, and during the initial colonization of intact aspen wafer. However, it was subject to catabolite repression by a high concentration of glucose. Transcription of Pplcc2 was upregulated by stresses caused by ferulic acid, 2, 6-dimethylbenzoic acid, and ethanol, and under osmotic stress in liquid culture. However, the transcription of Pplcc2 was downregulated upon contact with the woody substrate in solid culture. These results indicate that Pplcc1 and Pplcc2 are differentially regulated in liquid and solid cultures. Pplcc1 seems to play the major role in producing hydroxyl radicals and Pplcc2 in the stress response during the degradation of a woody substrate. PMID:26231371

  6. The expansion of brown rot disease throughout Bolivia: possible role of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, José Antonio; Plata, Giovanna

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating plant disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum species complex and affects different crops. Bacterial wilt infecting potato is also known as brown rot (BR) and is responsible for significant economic losses in potato production, especially in developing countries. In Bolivia, BR affects up to 75% of the potato crop in areas with high incidence and 100% of stored potatoes. The disease has disseminated since its introduction to the country in the mid-1980s mostly through contaminated seed tubers. To avoid this, local farmers multiply seed tubers in highlands because the strain infecting potatoes cannot survive near-freezing temperatures that are typical in the high mountains. Past disease surveys have shown an increase in seed tubers with latent infection in areas at altitudes lower than 3000 m a.s.l. Since global warming is increasing in the Andes Mountains, in this work, we explored the incidence of BR in areas at altitudes above 3000 m a.s.l. Results showed BR presence in the majority of these areas, suggesting a correlation between the increase in disease incidence and the increase in temperature and the number of irregular weather events resulting from climate change. However, it cannot be excluded that the increasing availability of latently infected seed tubers has boosted the spread of BR. PMID:26991236

  7. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure of Monilinia fructicola During Brown Rot Epidemics Within Individual Peach Tree Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, S E; Scherm, H

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the fine-scale genetic structure of populations of the brown rot pathogen Monilinia fructicola within individual peach tree canopies to better understand within-tree plant pathogen diversity and to complement previous work on spatiotemporal development of brown rot disease at the canopy level. Across 3 years in a total of six trees, we monitored disease development, collected isolates from every M. fructicola symptom during the course of the season, and created high-resolution three-dimensional maps of all symptom and isolate locations within individual canopies using an electromagnetic digitizer. Each canopy population (65 to 173 isolates per tree) was characterized using a set of 13 microsatellite markers and analyzed for evidence of spatial genetic autocorrelation among isolates during the epidemic phase of the disease. Results showed high genetic diversity (average uh=0.529) and high genotypic diversity (average D=0.928) within canopies. The percentage of unique multilocus genotypes within trees was greater for blossom blight isolates (78.2%) than for fruit rot isolates (51.3%), indicating a greater contribution of clonal reproduction during the preharvest epidemic. For fruit rot isolates, between 54.2 and 81.7% of isolates were contained in one to four dominant clonal genotypes per tree having at least 10 members. All six fruit rot populations showed positive and significant spatial genetic autocorrelation for distance classes between 0.37 and 1.48 m. Despite high levels of within-tree pathogen diversity, the contribution of locally available inoculum combined with short-distance dispersal is likely the main factor generating clonal population foci and associated spatial genetic clustering within trees. PMID:25317843

  8. Physiological attributes of fungi associated with stem end rot of mango (mangifera indica l.) cultivars in postharvest fruit losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem end rot majorly contribute in post-harvest losses of mango during storage. Maximum disease incidence (70%) was recorded in Sindhari cultivar followed by Chaunsa (64%), Fajri (62.5%) and 50% in both Langra and Anwar ratol. In vitro studies were carried out to identifyfungal pathogens responsible for rotting and decaying mango fruits during storage along with isolation and testing their pathogencity on healthy fruits. Results revealed that all selected commercial mango varieties infected by stem end rot. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasidodiplodia theobromae, Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus niger, Dothiorella domonicana were identified from Sindhri mango fruits, in which of C. gloeosporioides was found the most prevalent. Phomopsis mangiferae, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Altrnaria spp. Aspergillus niger, A. flavis were found in Chaunsa and Phomopsis mangiferae was most prevalent, while Botryodiplodia theobromae caused infection to locally cosumed Fajri variety. Effect of abiotic factors like pH, temperature, light intensity and carbon sources were tested against these isolates. The most efficient carbon source was glucose, which supported the maximum growth of the P. mangiferae and L. Theobromae, while C. gloeosporioides had maximum growth on lactose. All fungi had maximum growth at pH range of 6-6.5 and temperature range of 25-30 degree C on PDA medium. Alternate cycles of 12hr light and 12 hr darkness resulted maximum mycelial growth as compared to the 24 hour continuous exposure to either dark or light. Susceptibility of fungi with cultivars and intensity of spread under specific abiotic conditions provides basic information in this paper to minimize stem end rot of mango in field and storage conditions. (author)

  9. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lorenzo Quibod

    Full Text Available Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  10. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  11. Response of sugar beet recombinant inbred lines to post-harvest rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing. During this storage period the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. Resistance to three post harvest rots was identified in two sugar beet germplasm in the 1970s, but there has been little work done on host resistance to p...

  12. Response of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) recombinant inbred lines to post-harvest rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing for food and animal feed. During this storage period the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. Resistance to three post harvest rots was identified in two sugar beet germplasm in the 1970s, but there has been...

  13. Quantitative relationships between different injury factors and development of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructigena in integrated and organic apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holb, I J; Scherm, H

    2008-01-01

    In a 4-year study, the incidence of various types of injuries (caused by insects, birds, growth cracks, mechanical wounding, and other, unidentified factors) was assessed in relation to brown rot development (caused by Monilinia fructigena) on fruit of three apple cultivars (Prima, Jonathan, and Mutsu) in integrated and organic blocks of two apple orchards in Hungary. In addition, populations of male codling moths (Cydia pomonella) were monitored with pheromone traps season-long in both management systems. On average, injury incidence on fruit at harvest was 6.1 and 19.2% in the integrated and organic treatments, respectively. Insect injury, which was caused primarily by C. pomonella, had the highest incidence among the five injury types, accounting for 79.4% of the total injury by harvest in the organic blocks and 36.6% in the integrated blocks. Levels of all other injury types remained close to zero during most of the season, but the incidence of bird injury and growth cracks increased markedly in the final 3 to 5 weeks before harvest in both production systems. Brown rot developed more slowly and reached a lower incidence in the integrated (6.4% final incidence on average) compared with the organic blocks (20.1% average incidence). In addition, the disease developed later but attained higher levels as the cultivar ripening season increased from early-maturing Prima to late-maturing Mutsu. Overall, 94.3 to 98.7% of all injured fruit were also infected by M. fructigena, whereas the incidence of brown-rotted fruit without visible injury was very low (0.8 to 1.6%). Correlation coefficients (on a per plot basis) and association indices (on a per-fruit basis) were calculated between brown rot and the various injury types for two selected assessment dates 4 weeks preharvest and at harvest. At both dates, the strongest significant (P < 0.05) relationships were observed between brown rot and insect injury and between brown rot and the cumulative number of trapped C

  14. Functional Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation in the Basidiomycete White Rot Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tegelaar, Martin [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Henrissat, Bernard [Univ. of Marseille (France); Brewer, Heather M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purvine, Samuel O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wosten, Han A. B. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Grigoriev, Igor V. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lugones, Luis G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    White and brown rot fungi are among the most important wood decayers in nature. Although more than 50 genomes of Basidiomycete white and brown rots have been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute, there is still a lot to learn about how these fungi degrade the tough polymers present in wood. In particular, very little is known about how these fungi regulate the expression of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation. Here, we used transcriptomics, proteomics, and promoter analysis in an effort to gain insight into the process of lignocellulose degradation.

  15. Fungi and bacteria associated with the wet and brown wood in trunk of Betula pendula trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and fungi were isolated from external and internal zone of brown and water saturated wood of trunk of Betula pendula trees aged 44-46. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the bacterial and fungal populations were found between both the zones. Populations of bacteria increased towards the internal sapwood, contrary to the fungi which more frequently colonised the external zone. The most common bacteria were Pseudomonas spp. (mainly P.fluorescens biovar I whereas Bacillus macerans, B. alvei and Erwinia heibicola were able to degrade the polygalacturonic acid and pectin gels. In case of the fungi population, the most common (more than 3% colonising the external zone were successively: Phialophora fastigiata, Trichoderma harzianum, Alternaria alternata, Mortierella isabellina, Cladosporium herbarum, T. viride, C. cladosporioides and Melanconium betulinum. In the community of fungi occurring in the internal zone, the most common (more than 6.5% were:Cladosporium herbarum, Phialophora lagerbergii and Ph.fastigiata.

  16. Antifungal modes of action of Saccharomyces and other biocontrol yeasts against fungi isolated from sour and grey rots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nally, M C; Pesce, V M; Maturano, Y P; Rodriguez Assaf, L A; Toro, M E; Castellanos de Figueroa, L I; Vazquez, F

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the putative modes of action of 59 viticultural yeasts (31 Saccharomyces and 28 non-Saccharomyces) that inhibited fungi isolated from sour and grey rot in grapes. Inhibition of fungal mycelial growth by metabolites, enzyme activities (laminarinases, chitinases), antifungal volatiles, competition for nutrients (siderophores, Niche Overlap Index (NOI)), inhibition of fungal spore germination and decreased germinal tube length and induction of resistance were assayed. Biofungicide yeasts were classified into "antifungal patterns", according to their mechanisms of action. Thirty isolates presented at least two of the mechanisms assayed. We propose that inhibition of fungal mycelial growth by metabolites, laminarinases, competition for nutrients, inhibition of fungal spore germination and decreased germinal tube length, and antifungal volatiles by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces viticultural yeasts is used as putative biocontrol mechanisms against phytopathogenic fungi. Twenty-four different antifungal patterns were identified. Siderophore production (N)and a combination of siderophore production and NOI>0.92 (M)were the most frequent antifungal patterns observed in the biofungicide yeasts assayed. Elucidation of these mechanisms could be useful for optimization of an inoculum formulation, resulting in a more consistent control of grey and sour rot with Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces biocontrol yeasts. PMID:25863340

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE OXIDATIVE ENZYME POTENTIAL IN WILD WHITE ROT FUNGI FROM MISIONES (ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel FONSECA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the potential of several native white rot fungi (WRF isolated from subtropical environments of Misiones (Argentina to produce different ligninolytic enzymes. Coriolus versicolor f. antarcticus BAFC 266, Pycnoporus sanguineus BAFC 2126 and Phlebia brevispora BAFC 633 showed the highest phenoloxidase activity. Ganoderma applanatum strain E, P. sanguineus BAFC 2126 and P. brevispora BAFC 633 revealed marked laccase and peroxidase activity. C. versicolor f. antarcticus, G. applanatum (strain A and Trametes villosa, gave high positive reactions with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol oxidation at the lowest tested pH. C. versicolor f. antarcticus, G. applanatum strains D and F, T. elegans BAFC 2127and T. villosa, showed the highest manganese peroxidase activity. C. versicolor f. antarcticus also produced the highest lignin peroxidase activity. Tyrosinase activity was mostly evident in G. applanatum strains (D and F and Phanerochaete chrysosporium HHB 11741. Kraft liquor decolorization results were variable and depended on the fungus and the liquor concentration. Some fungi with moderate ligninolytic activity showed high decolorization rates (e.g. Pleurotus sajor-caju and Steccherinium sp. BAFC 1171 indicating the significance of additional approach to evaluate a potential biotechnological application. Caracterización del potencial enzimático oxidativo de cepas nativas de hongos de pudrición blanca de la selva subtropical de Misiones (ArgentinaEl objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el potencial para producir enzimas ligninolíticas de diversas cepas de hongos de pudrición blanca, nativas de la Provincia de Misiones (Argentina. Coriolus versicolor v. antarcticus BAFC 266, Pycnoporus sanguineus BAFC 2126 y Phlebia brevispora BAFC 633 mostraron un gran potencial para producir fenoloxidasas. En Ganoderma applanatum cepa E, P. sanguineus BAFC 2126  y P. brevispora BAFC 633 se observó una marcada actividad lacasa y peroxidasa. C

  18. Effect of biodegradation on thermogravimetric and chemical characteristics of hardwood and softwood by brown-rot fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenzhong; Fan, Qi; He, Zesen; Wang, Zhinan; Wang, Xiaobo; Sun, Jin

    2016-07-01

    The thermogravimetric and chemical characterization of hardwood Eucalyptus urophylla (Ep) and softwood Pinus massoniana (Mp) pretreated by brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum were investigated. The results indicated that the brown-rot fungus pretreatment can optimize the thermal decomposition and decrease the initiation temperatures (8-11°C lower) of both the Ep and Mp pyrolysis. The mean activation energy values of the bio-treated samples were 29.7kJ/mol (for Ep) and 42.3kJ/mol (for Mp) lower than that of the un-treated samples at the conversion rate from 0.1 to 0.7 based on Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method. After the bio-pretreatment, the required temperatures were lower (4-7°C) for the pyrolysis rates of hemicellulose and cellulose in Mp reaching maximum and termination. However, the situation was just the opposite for Ep. The variations in chemical properties of hydrogen bonding, as well as the relative changes in lignin/carbohydrate composition of both wood species were also examined. PMID:27035476

  19. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools. PMID:22286995

  20. Immobilized Inocula of White-Rot Fungi Accelerate both Detoxification and Organic Matter Transformation in Two-Phase Dry Olive-Mill Residue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sampedro, I.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Marinari, S.; Stazi, S. R.; Grego, S.; Petruccioli, M.; Federici, F.; D´Annibale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2009), s. 5452-5460. ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : White-rot fungi * immobilized inocula * phenols Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  1. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    The main aim of this dissertation research was to understand the natural microbial degradation process of lignocellulosic materials in order to develop a new, green and more effective pretreatment technology for bio-fuel production. The biodegradation of wheat straw by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. The addition of nutrients significantly improved the performance of P.chrysosporium on wheat straw degradation. The proteomic analysis indicated that this fungus produced various pepetides related to cellulose and lignin degradation while grown on the biomass. The structural analysis of lignin further showed that P.chrysosporium preferentially degraded hydroxycinnamtes in order to access cellulose. In details, the effects of carbon resource and metabolic pathway regulating compounds on manganeses peroxidase (MnP) were studied. The results indicated that MnP activity of 4.7 +/- 0.31 U mL-1 was obtained using mannose as a carbon source. The enzyme productivity further reached 7.36 +/- 0.05 U mL-1 and 8.77 +/- 0.23 U mL -1 when the mannose medium was supplemented with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) respectively, revealing highest MnP productivity obtained by optimizing the carbon sources and supplementation with small molecules. In addition, the effects of nutrient additives for improving biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were studied. The pretreatment of wheat straw supplemented with inorganic salts (salts group) and tween 80 was examined. The extra nutrient significantly improved the ligninase expression leading to improve digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Among the solid state fermentation groups, salts group resulted in a substantial degradation of wheat straw within one week, along with the highest lignin loss (25 %) and ˜ 250% higher efficiency for the total sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis. The results were correlated with pyrolysis GC-MS (Py

  2. Isolation of autochthonous non-white rot fungi with potential for enzymatic upgrading of Venezuelan extra-heavy crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Leopoldo; Urbina, Hector; De Sisto, Angela; Leon, Vladimir

    2007-03-01

    The increasing world demand for fuels makes it necessary to exploit the largest reserve of extra-heavy crude oil (EHCO) of the Orinoco Oil Belt from Venezuela. We propose the use of extracellular oxidative enzymes, in particular, lignin-degrading enzyme systems (LDS) of fungi, for enzymatic improvement of EHCO. Autochthonous non-white rot fungal strains able to use EHCO, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as sole carbon source and energy, were isolated from EHCO-polluted soils and identified as belonging to the genera Fusarium, Penicillium , Trichoderma , Aspergillus , Neosartorya, Pseudallescheria, Cladosporium, Pestalotiopsis , Phoma and Paecillomyces. Phenotypic and biochemical assays revealed the ability of these filamentous fungi to synthesize extracellular oxidative enzymes, and suggested a relationship between the LDS and EHCO bioconversion. This work reports, for the first time, the use of o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD) as substrate to measure extracellular ligninolytic peroxidases (ELP) in culture broths of filamentous fungi (Fusarium solani HP-1), and constitutes the first formal study of the fungal community associated with the EHCO of the Orinoco Oil Belt. PMID:18833334

  3. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  4. INFLUENCE OF NPK AND LIME APLICATION ON ERVA-MATE GROWTH, ROOT-ROT SEVERITY AND SOIL FUNGI POPULATION1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poletto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the influence of the application of NPK and liming doses in the soil, on the growth of Erva-mate, the severity of rot-root and the fungi population of the soil. To do so, an experiment was installed at the green house, in the Forest Nursery of UFSM, using an experimental design completely randomized factorial 4x3x4 (Factor F: Fusarium spp. inoculation; Factor C: soil limestone; Factor A: NPK doses , totaling 48 treatments. The seedlings were cultivated in vases containing 2 kg of soil, classified as ‘Red-Yellow Argisoil’ (clay soil. At the end of the experiment was measured the stem diameter, height of the aerial part, leaves number, aerial dry biomass, root dry biomass and total dry biomass of the seedlings. Also, the soil was collected, from each treatment, for the chemical analysis and the counting of the fungi population. It was observed that the association among application of NPK and liming in the soil hampered the development of Erva-mate seedlings. The analysis of some variables suggests that the limestone absence provided greater resistance of seedlings to the attack of Fusarium spp. or the severity of Fusarium spp. was reduced in lower pH. The fungi population of the soil presented varied behavior depending on the applied treatments.

  5. Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F. Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Ikram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. It was noted that germination percentage, fresh weight, leaf area and number of nodules were significantly higher and the inhibitory effect on root rot fungi increased when the soil was amended with A. javanica leaves at 1%. Thus, among all the treatments, A. javanica leaves at 1% were found to be the most effective against root rot fungi.

  6. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  7. Role of Antagonistic Microorganisms and Organic Amendment in Stimulating the Defense System of Okra Against Root Rotting Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Hafiza Asma; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Without application of chemical pesticides control of soilborne diseases is a great challenge. Stimulation of natural plant's defense is considered as one of the most promising alternative strategy for crop protection. Organic amendment of soil besides direct suppressing the pathogen, has been reported to have an influence on phytochemicals in plants. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and Paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and cysts nematodes were examined individually and in combination in soil amended with cotton cake for suppressing the root rotting fungi and stimulating the synthesis of polyphenols and improving the antioxidant status in okra. Application of P. aeruginosa and P. lilacinus in soil amended with cotton cake significantly (P Rhizoctonia solani. Combine use of biocontrol agents in cotton cake amended soil showed maximum positive impact on plant growth, polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity in okra. PMID:26373176

  8. Lignin biodegradation and ligninolytic enzyme studies during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips by tropical white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, C Y; Husaini, A; Hussain, H; Muid, S; Liew, K C; Roslan, H A

    2011-06-01

    White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more compared to lignin peroxidase, suggesting that MnP might be the predominating enzymes causing lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. Cellulase enzyme assays showed that no significant cellulase activity was detected in the enzyme preparation of T. versicolor and Phellinus sp. This low cellulolytic activity further suggests that these two white rot strains are of more interest in lignin degradation. The results on lignin losses showed 20-30% of lignin breakdown at 60 days of biodegradation. The highest lignin loss was found in Acacia mangium biotreated with T. versicolor after 60 days and recorded 26.9%, corresponding to the percentage of their wood weight loss recorded followed by P. coccineus. In general, lignin degradation was only significant from 20 days onwards. The overall percentage of lignin weight loss was within the range of 1.02-26.90% over the biodegradation periods. Microscopic observations conducted using scanning electron microscope showed that T. versicolor, P. coccineus, Daedalea sp. and Phellinus sp. had caused lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. PMID:25187145

  9. Mn(II) regulation of lignin peroxidases and manganese-dependent peroxidases from lignin-degrading white rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two families of peroxidases-lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese-dependent lignin peroxidase (MnP)-are formed by the lignin-degrading white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other white rot fungi. Isoenzymes of these enzyme families carry out reactions important to the biodegradation of lignin. This research investigated the regulation of LiP and MnP production by Mn(II). In liquid culture, LiP titers varied as an inverse function of and MnP titers varied as a direct function of the Mn(II) concentration. The extracellular isoenzyme profiles differed radically at low and high Mn(II) levels, whereas other fermentation parameters, including extracellular protein concentrations, the glucose consumption rate, and the accumulation of cell dry weight, did not change significantly with the Mn(II) concentration. In the absence of Mn(II), extracellular LiP isoenzymes predominated, whereas in the presence of Mn(II), MnP isoenzymes were dominant. The release of 14CO2 from 14C-labeled dehydrogenative polymerizate lignin was likewise affected by Mn(II). The rate of 14CO2 release increased at low Mn(II) and decreased at high Mn(II) concentrations. This regulatory effect of Mn(II) occurred with five strains of P. chrysosporium, two other species of Phanerochaete, three species of Phlebia, Lentinula edodes, and Phellinus pini

  10. Bioremediation of a Chilean Andisol contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) by solid substrate cultures of white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, O; Tortella, G; Cea, M; Acevedo, F; Bustamante, M; Gianfreda, L; Diez, M C

    2011-02-01

    This study provides a first attempt investigation of a serie of studies on the ability of Anthracophyllum discolor, a recently isolated white-rot fungus from forest of southern Chile, for the treatment of soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) to future research on potential applications in bioremediation process. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with PCP (250 and 350 mg kg⁻¹ soil) was investigated with A. discolor and compared with the reference strain Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both strains were incorporated as free and immobilized in wheat grains, a lignocellulosic material previously selected among wheat straw, wheat grains and wood chips through the growth and colonization of A. discolor. Wheat grains showed a higher growth and colonization of A. discolor, increasing the production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity. Moreover, the application of white-rot fungi immobilized in wheat grains to the contaminated soil favored the fungus spread. In turn, with both fungal strains and at the two PCP concentrations a high PCP removal (70-85%) occurred as respect to that measured with the fungus as free mycelium (30-45%). Additionally, the use of wheat grains in soil allowed the proliferation of microorganisms PCP decomposers, showing a synergistic effect with A. discolor and P. chrysosporium and increasing the PCP removal in the soil. PMID:20512655

  11. Effects of white rot fungi on the composition and in vitro digestibility of crop by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.N.M.; Pearce, G.R.

    Eleven species of white rot fungi were inoculated on to samples of barley straw, pea straw, sugar cane bagasse and sunflower hulls and incubated at room temperature (14-25 degrees C) for 21 days. In barley straw, Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in lignin content of the dry matter and the greatest increase in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) (10 units). Sporotrichum priunosum caused the greatest depression in cellulose content and the greatest depression in IVDMD (13 units). In pea straw, Ganoderma lucidum caused the greatest depression in lignin content and the greatest increase in IVDMD (8 units); Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in cellulose content but Sporotrichum pruinosum caused the greatest depression in IVDMD (2 units). In bagasse, Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in lignin content and the greatest increase in IVDMD (7 units). Grifola berkleyi caused the greatest depression in cellulose content and the greatest depression in IVDMD (12 units). In sunflower hulls, Stereum frustulatum caused the greatest depression in lignin content but Peniophora cremea caused the greatest increase in IVDMD (7 units). Peniophora gigantea caused the greatest depression in cellulose content and the greatest depression in IVDMD (3 units). It was concluded that fungi needed to be selected specifically for particular by-products and that some control over the conditions of incubation may need to be exercised in order to achieve more substantial increases in digestibility.

  12. Decomposition of specifically 14C-labelled phenols and dehydropolymers of coniferyl alcohol as models for lignin degradation by soft and white rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several soft and white rot fungi were compared in their ability to degrade specifically 14C-labelled phenols and dehydropolymers of labelled coniferyl alcohol. Furthermore, plant material which was expected to be specifically labelled in the lignin part was used in the degradation studies. The experiments showed that both groups of fungi were able to release CO2 from methoxyl and carboxyl groups of phenol-carboxylic acids, to degrade side chains of cinnamic acids and cinnamyl alcohols and even to decompose aromatic structures. With the dehydropolymers and the plant material a CO2 release from the methoxyl groups, the side chains and the aromatic carbons was observed. The time dependent course of the CO2 release from these different groups showed in the beginning a higher CO2 evolution from the side chain carbons than from the methoxyl groups, which were later on released to a higher extent. No laccase activity could be detected in the soft rot fungi, and the peroxidase activity was lower than in the white rot fungi. (orig.)

  13. Utility of four strains of white-rot fungi for the detoxification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in liquid culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Chen, J.C.; Huebner, H.J.; Brown, K.W.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of four different strains of white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete sordida, Phlebia brevispora, and Cyathus stercoreus) to degrade 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in liquid medium. Loss of TNT from the culture medium was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the mutagenicity of the medium residues were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome bioassay. The data indicate that within 21 d of incubation, all fungi were able to reduce the TNT concentration in the liquid medium to below detection limits. In this study, P. sordida showed a relatively high growth rate and the fastest rate of TNT degradation. The fungal treatment also produced a significant reduction of TNT mutagenicity. Treatment with C. stercoreus, P. brevispora, P. sordida, and P. chrysosporium resulted in the elimination of 94%, 90%, 87%, and 67% of the initial TNT-amended medium mutagenicity, respectively. The data also demonstrate that during incubation, TNT was eliminated from the culture medium two to eight times faster than the reduction in mutagenic potential. These results suggest that TNT disappearance alone cannot be used as the sole criterion in TNT remediation. Chemical analysis revealed that the major metabolites in the initial transformation of TNT were the monoamino-dinitrotoluenes, which were also degraded by the selected white-rot fungi. The study demonstrated that the white-rot fungi are capable of metabolizing and detoxifying TNT under aerobic conditions in nonligninolytic liquid medium.

  14. Molecular detection of Monilinia fructigena as causal agent of brown rot on quince

    OpenAIRE

    Jovana Hrustić; Mila Grahovac; Milica Mihajlović; Goran Delibašić; Mirko Ivanović; Mihailo Nikolić; Brankica Tanović

    2012-01-01

    Species of the genus Monilinia are important causal agents of fruit rot on pome and stone fruits in Serbia. The pathogen is very harmful, especially on small properties and cottage plantations where intensive control measures are not applied. Quince is important host for the pathogens of this genus. During spring 2010, intensive occurrence of mummified fruits overwintering on branches of the quince was observed. The pathogen was isolated using standard phyt...

  15. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage. PMID:23575125

  16. Enhanced biodegradation of antibiotic combinations via the sequential treatment of the sludge resulting from pharmaceutical wastewater treatment using white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-07-01

    While anaerobic treatment is capable of treating pharmaceutical wastewater and removing antibiotics in liquid phases, solid phases may still contain significant amounts of antibiotics following this treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of white-rot fungi to remove erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline combinations from biosolids. The degradation potential of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta was evaluated via the sequential treatment of anaerobic sludge. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used to identify competition between the autochthonous microbial communities and white-rot fungi. Solid-phase treatment using white-rot fungi substantially reduced antibiotic concentrations and toxicity in sludge. According to PCR-DGGE results, there is an association between species of fungus and antibiotic type as a result of the different transformation pathways of fungal strains. Fungal post-treatment of sludge represents a promising method of removing antibiotic combinations, therefore holding a significant promise as an environmentally friendly means of degrading the antibiotics present in sludge. PMID:27033714

  17. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Luigi Rana; Vincenzo De Feo; Emilia Mancini; Luciana Altieri; Laura De Martino; Ippolito Camele

    2012-01-01

    Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare), previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, ca...

  18. Biodegradation of mixtures of pesticides by bacteria and white rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Gouma, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential for degradation of mixtures of pesticides (chlorpyrifos, linuron, metribuzin) by a range of bacteria and fungi and to relate this capability to enzyme production and quantify the rates of degradation of the components of the mixture of xenobiotic compounds. Overall, although bacteria (19 Bacillus and 4 Pseudomonas species) exhibited tolerance to the individual and micture of pesticides actual degradation was not eviden...

  19. Evaluation of technical scenarios for the peach-brown rot system using a virtual fruit model simulating quality and storage potential

    OpenAIRE

    GIBERT, CAROLINE; Rouet, Pierre; Bruchou, Claude; Vercambre, Gilles; Génard, Michel; Plénet, Daniel; Nicot, Philippe; Chadoeuf, Joel; Lescourret, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Improving fruit quality while reducing pesticide and water use supports both consumers’ requirements and environmental and health concerns. This objective promotes some alternative technical scenarios that use more cultural than chemical control for pest management. Our study focused on the peach-brown rot system (Monilinia laxa). It aims at determining sets of cultural options providing an optimal trade-off between revenue build-up, consumers’ requirements and environmental impacts. We used ...

  20. Activity of Ligninolytic Enzymes during Growth and Fruiting Body Development of White Rot Fungi Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPPY WIDIASTUTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of ligninolytic enzymes of white rot fungi (WRF Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus was observed during somatic and fruiting body development in solid substrate fermentation using empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFB. The enzyme activity was dominated by laccase both of Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus. The laccase activity on somatic phase (mycelium growth was higher compared to that of fruiting body formation phase. The laccase activity of Omphalina sp. was slightly higher compared to that of P. ostreatus. The peak activity of manganese peroxidase (MnP for Omphalina sp. was observed two weeks after inoculation, while P. ostreatus had two peaks i.e. two and four weeks after inoculation period. The MnP activity of P. ostreatus was higher compared to that of Omphalina sp. Omphalina sp. growth in EFB did not secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP in contrast to P. ostreatus. The peak of LiP activity of P. ostreatus was reached two and four weeks after inoculation. The MnP and LiP activities declined during the development of fruiting bodies while laccase increased both in Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus. It seems that the activities of ligninolytic enzyme profile were regulated in line with developmental phase of growth both in Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus.

  1. Short-term effects of prescribed burning on wood-rotting fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    PenttilÀ, Reijo; Kotiranta, Heikki

    1996-01-01

    The prefire fungal flora (polypores and corticoid fungi) of 284 dead trees, mainly fallen trunks of Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied in 1991 in an old, spruce-dominated mesic forest in southern Finland. Species diversity of the prefire fungal flora was very high, including a high proportion of locally rare species and four threatened polypore species in Finland. In 1992 part of the study area (7.3 ha) was clear-cut and a 1.7 ha forest stand in the center of study area was left standi...

  2. [Induction and measurement of cytochrome P450 in white rot fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Da-liang; Wang, Hui; Li, Dong

    2009-08-15

    The induction and measurement of cytochrome P450 in white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium were studied in this work. The spectrophotometric results demonstrated that n-hexane was able to induce the fungal P450 to high level, which facilitated isolation and measurement of microsomal P450. The highest concentration of microsomal P450 could reach 140-160 pmol/mg after 6-h-induction by addition of 2 microL/mL hexane each hour, and the concentration of hexane and incubation time had significant effect on the induction of P450s. After effective induction, the method for isolation and measurement of microsomal P450 with CO difference spectrum was studied and the optimized method was obtained as followed. High-speed disperser and glass homogenizer were used to disrupt cells, which obtained higher amount of microsomal P450 than those from cells disrupted by glass homogenizer, ultrasonicator and bead-beater respectively. To record CO difference spectrum,the sample was bubbled with CO for 40 s at a rate of 3 mL/min (300 microL sample), and the reference cuvette was bubbled with N2 to the same extent. Then, the reducer sodium dithionite was added to a concentration 0.4 mol/L. PMID:19799321

  3. Ability of some species of fungi of the Basidiomycetes class to degrade cellulose and lignocellulose substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Tagoński

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried-out on the ability of 18 strains of 15 white-rot and brown-rot basidiomycetons fungi to degrade wood components and to synthesize cellulolytic enzymes and laccase. 28,5% lignin and 26,1% carbohydrates of pine wood meal, 46,2% lignin and 67,8% carbohydrates of beech wood meal was degraded after 6 weeks incubation by the white-rot fungus Phanerochate chrysosporium. The highest activity of laccase was obtained in from fungi Coriotus zonatus and Fomes fomentarius.

  4. Soil amendment with Aerva javanica (Burm. F.) Juss. ex Schult. in the control of root rot fungi of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Naheed Ikram; Shahnaz Dawar

    2012-01-01

    Root rot fungi cause severe losses of crop plants, so the present work was carried out to determine the effect of Aerva javanica parts powder on root infecting fungi of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). A. javanica parts (stem, leaves and flower) were used as soil amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% to check the effectiveness on growth parameters. All the plant parts showed a significant reduction in root rot fungi like Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, an...

  5. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Mitsuteru; Ota, Yuko; Tsai, Isheng J; Hattori, Tsutomu; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands. PMID:26513585

  6. Genetic Differentiation and Spatial Structure of Phellinus noxius, the Causal Agent of Brown Root Rot of Woody Plants in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuteru Akiba

    Full Text Available Phellinus noxius is a pathogenic fungus that causes brown root rot disease in a variety of tree species. This fungus is distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, Australia, Central America and Africa. In Japan, it was first discovered on Ishigaki Island in Okinawa Prefecture in 1988; since then, it has been found on several of the Ryukyu Islands. Recently, this fungus was identified from the Ogasawara (Bonin Islands, where it has killed trees, including rare endemic tree species. For effective control or quarantine methods, it is important to clarify whether the Japanese populations of P. noxius are indigenous to the area or if they have been introduced from other areas. We developed 20 microsatellite markers from genome assembly of P. noxius and genotyped 128 isolates from 12 of the Ryukyu Islands and 3 of the Ogasawara Islands. All isolates had unique genotypes, indicating that basidiospore infection is a primary dissemination method for the formation of new disease foci. Genetic structure analyses strongly supported genetic differentiation between the Ryukyu populations and the Ogasawara populations of P. noxius. High polymorphism of microsatellite loci suggests that Japanese populations are indigenous or were introduced a very long time ago. We discuss differences in invasion patterns between the Ryukyu Islands and the Ogasawara Islands.

  7. Optimization of cellulase production by a brown rot fungus Fomitopsis sp. RCK2010 under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswal, Deepa; Khasa, Yogender Pal; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2011-05-01

    Culture conditions for enhanced cellulase production from a newly isolated brown rot fungus, Fomitopsis sp. RCK2010 were optimized under solid state fermentation. An initial pH of 5.5 and moisture ratio of 1:3.5 (solid:liquid) were found to be optimal for maximum enzyme production. Of the different carbon sources tested wheat bran gave the maximum production of CMCase (71.526 IU/g), FPase (3.268 IU/g), and β-glucosidase (50.696 IU/g). Among the nitrogen sources, urea caused maximum production of CMCase (81.832 IU/g), where as casein and soyabean meal gave the highest FPase (4.682 IU/g) and β-glucosidase (69.083 IU/g) production, respectively. Among amino acids tested glutamic acid gave the highest production for CMCase (84.127I U/g); however 4-hydroxy-l-proline stimulated maximum FPase production (6.762 IU/g). Saccharification of pretreated rice straw and wheat straw by crude enzyme extract from Fomitopsis sp. RCK2010 resulted in release of 157.160 and 214.044 mg/g of reducing sugar, respectively. PMID:21470856

  8. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Rana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare, previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  9. VALORIZATION AND BIODECOLORIZATION OF DYE ADSORBED ON LIGNOCELLULOSICS USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Ozmen,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of dyes by lignocelluloses may be an effective method for removing dyes from textile effluents. However, the resulting dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic materials may constitute another pollution problem. An integrated method can solve this problem. Here, various lignocelluloses were tested for their Astrazon Black and Astrazon Blue dyes removal activities. The dye adsorbed after 30 min contact time was 90% (45 mg/L, 70% (35 mg/L, and 98% (49 mg/L for wheat bran, pine cone, and cotton stalk, respectively. These dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic wastes then were used as solid substrates to produce laccase enzyme with Funalia trogii and Trametes versicolor under solid state fermentation (SSF. Among the lignocellulosic substrates, the dye-adsorbed wheat bran served as the best solid substrate for laccase production under SSF. Therefore, it was also tested as a solid source for laccase production under submerged fermentation. During solid state fermentation, these two fungi were able to highly decolorize these dyes. While F. trogii decolorized 80% of Astrazon Black dye adsorbed onto wheat bran, T. versicolor decolorized 86%. On the other hand, the decolorization values for Astrazon Blue dye were 69% and 84%, respectively.

  10. Biological removal of pharmaceutical compounds using white-rot fungi with concomitant FAME production of the residual biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadou, I A; Sánchez-Vázquez, R; Molina, R; Martínez, F; Melero, J A; Bautista, L F; Iglesias, J; Morales, G

    2016-09-15

    The efficiency of two white-rot fungi (WRF), Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum, to eliminate thirteen pharmaceutical pollutants with concomitant biodiesel production from the accumulating lipid content after treatment, was examined. The removal efficiency was studied using both individual and combined strains. The results of individual and combined strains showed a total removal (100%) of diclofenac (DCF), gemfibrozil (GFZ), ibuprofen (IBP), progesterone (PGT) and ranitidine (RNT). Lower removals were achieved for 4-acetamidoantipyrin (AAA), clofibric acid (ACF), atenolol (ATN), caffeine (CFN), carbamazepine (CZP), hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulpiride (SPD), although the combination of both strains enhanced the system's efficiency, with removals ranging from 15 to 41%. This increase of the removal efficiency when combining both strains was attributed to the interactions developed between them (i.e., competition). Results from enzymatic and cytochrome P450 examination suggested that both extracellular (laccase, MnP, LiP) and intracellular oxidation mechanisms participate in the biological removal of pharmaceuticals. On the other hand, the "green" potential of the fungal sludge generated during the biological removal process was assessed for biodiesel production by means of one-step direct (in-situ) transformation. This process consists of the simultaneous extraction and conversion of lipids contained in the sludge by catalytic esterification/transesterification using a robust acid heterogeneous Zr-SBA-15 catalyst. This catalytic system provided conversions close to 80% of the saponifiable fraction (including free fatty acids and glycerides) in the presence of high amount of impurities. The overall weight FAME yield, based on the initial dried mass, was close to 30% for both strains. PMID:27233048

  11. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  12. 白腐真菌处理玉米秸秆饲料的研究进展%Research Progress of White Rot Fungi Treatment Corn Straw Feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓翠; 王浩; 李杰

    2012-01-01

    目前我国的玉米秸秆饲料加工处理方法已日趋成熟,其在缓解饲粮压力、净化养殖环境、促进农业良性循环的作用也逐渐体现出来。在对玉米秸秆处理方法的,选择上,白腐真菌因其能选择性的降解秸秆木质素,提高秸秆的瘤胃干物质降解率和改善秸秆营养价值,而被国内外学者深入的研究,并取得一定的成果,文章就玉米秸秆饲料的特性、白腐真菌的概况,白腐真菌处理玉米秸秆的原理及处理后玉米秸秆的营养特性作一综述。%At present, treatment processing methods of corn straw feed is reach its maturity in China. It was reflected foot by foot that is efficacy relieve stress and purification of the culture environment and promote agricultural virtuous circle. Treatment of corn stalk in the choice, because of white rot fungi can selectively degrade lignin straw, degradation rate of dry matter of straw was increased in the tureen and the nutritional value of straw was improved, thus it was in-depth study by scholars at home and abroad, and then made some the results. This paper summaried characteristics of corn stalk silage, overview of white rot fungi and white rot fungi treatment principle of corn straw feed, as well as after processing the nutritional characteristics of feed corn stalks.

  13. Resistência à podridão parda em pessegueiro Resistance to brown rot in peach plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A podridão parda, causada por Monilinia fructicola, é a mais importante doença fúngica do pessegueiro, principalmente em áreas quentes e úmidas, como a região produtora de pêssegos no Sul do Brasil. A resistência genética é a forma mais eficiente de controle da doença, além de reduzir o custo de produção e o impacto ambiental. A cultivar Bolinha, considerada padrão de resistência à doença, produz frutos de baixa qualidade e suas flores não têm a mesma resistência ao fungo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo buscar novas fontes de resistência a esta doença. Além da cultivar Bolinha, foram submetidos à inoculação com suspensão de 1 x 10(5 conídios mL-1 do patógeno, flores de 11 seleções de pessegueiro, frutos de 12 seleções e 20 plantas de cinco "seedlings" oriundos de hibridações. Os resultados indicaram que a seleção Conserva 930 e a cultivar Jubileu foram as que tiveram maior nível de resistência nas flores. Frutos das seleções Conserva 1798, Conserva 1596, Conserva 1218 e Cascata 1493 proporcionaram níveis de resistência semelhantes aos da cultivar Bolinha, e destas, apenas a Conserva 1798 manteve o mesmo desempenho em estádio mais avançado de infecção por M. fructicola.Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, is the most important peach disease, especially in warm humid areas such as the production area in Southern Brazil. Genetic resistance is the most efficient way for controlling this disease, reducing production costs and environmental problems. The Bolinha cultivar, considered as resistant standard, produces fruits of low quality and is not resistant to blossom blight. The objective of this study was to find new resistance sources to brown rot. Besides Bolinha cultivar, flowers of 11 selections, fruits of 12 selections, and 20 seedlings from hybrid progenies were inoculated with a suspension of conidia of M. fructicola. The results indicated that Conserva 930 and Jubileu cultivar showed

  14. Bioremediation of Lindane by Wood-Decaying Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Ulčnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to study the ability of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Hypoxylon fragiforme, Chondrostereum purpureum, and Pleurotus ostreatus and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum to degrade the organochlorine insecticide lindane in liquid cultures. The evaluation of lindane biodegradation was performed using two analytical procedures. In order to extract and properly quantify the remaining lindane from fungal liquid cultures, two different extraction procedures were used: extraction from filtrates and extraction from homogenized fungal cultures. White-rot fungi were able to degrade lindane. The amount of degraded lindane increased with its exposure period in the liquid cultures of all white-rot fungi used, except C. purpureum. After 21 days of exposure, over 90 % of lindane was degraded by T. versicolor, H. fragiforme, and P. ostreatus. Degradation of lindane by the brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. The extraction procedures, when liquid cultures of T. versicolor, H. fragiforme, and P. ostreatus were used, had no noticeable effect on the determined degradation after 21 days of exposure. On the other hand, the amount of remaining lindane in liquid cultures of C. purpureum and G. trabeum depended strongly on the extraction procedure. Our study indicates that mycoremediation studies of lindane should also consider adsorption onto mycelial biomass as a possible reason for the removal of the insecticide from the liquid medium, especially where shorter exposure periods are studied or fungi with poorer degradation potentials are used.

  15. Heuristic Value of a “Virtual Fruit” Model of Peach Fruit Quality and Sensitivity to Brown Rot : Impact of a Single Mutation and Design of Ideotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Génard, Michel; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Ould Sidi, Mohamed Mahmoud; Kadrani, Abdeslam; Hilgert, Nadine; Lescourret, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at investigating the heuristic potential of a process-based model of peach fruit expressing seasonal changes in several quality attributes of fruit (e.g., size, percentages of flesh, water, sugar and acid contents) and fruit sensitivity to brown rot (skin density of cracks).[br/] Firstly, we showed that this “Virtual Fruit” could be used to analyze the impact of a single mutation which decreased the fruit’s requirement for carbon on peach fruit behavior. The mutation trigge...

  16. Influence of Hyphal Inoculum potential on the Competitive Success of Fungi Colonizing Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zewei; Vail, Andrew; Sadowsky, Michael J; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2015-05-01

    The relative amounts of hyphal inoculum in forest soils may determine the capacity for fungi to compete with and replace early colonizers of wood in ground contact. Our aim in this study was to test the flexibility of priority effects (colonization timing) by varying the timing of inoculum introduction (i.e., precolonization) and amount of inoculum (i.e., inoculum potential). We controlled these variables in soil-block microcosms using fungi with known competitive outcomes in similar conditions, tracking isolate-specific fungal biomass, and residue physiochemistry over time. In the precolonization trial (experiment I), a brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was given 1, 3, or 5 weeks to precolonize wood blocks (oak, birch, pine, and spruce) prior the introduction of a white rot fungus, Irpex lacteus, a more aggressive colonizer in this set-up. In the inoculum potential trial (experiment II), the fungi were inoculated simultaneously, but with eightfold higher brown rot inoculum than that of experiment I. As expected, longer precolonization duration increased the chance for the less-competitive brown rot fungus to outcompete its white rot opponent. Higher brown rot fungal inoculum outside of the wood matrix also resulted in competitive success for the brown rot isolate in most cases. These temporal shifts in fungal dominance were detectable in a 'community snapshot' as isolate-specific quantitative PCR, but also as functionally-relevant consequences of wood rot type, including carbohydrate depolymerization and pH. These results from a controlled system reinforce fungal-fungal interaction and suggest that relative inoculum availability beyond the wood matrix (i.e., soils) might regulate the duration of priority effects and shift the functional trajectory of wood decomposition. PMID:25750000

  17. Evaluation of white-rot fungi for detoxification and decolorization of effluents from the green olive debittering process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aggelis, G.; Ehaliotis, C.; Nerud, František; Stoychev, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2002), s. 353-360. ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : white * rot * detoxification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2002

  18. Development of variable number of tandem repeats typing schemes for Ralstonia solanacearum, the agent of bacterial wilt, banana Moko disease and potato brown rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'guessan, Carine Aya; Brisse, Sylvain; Le Roux-Nio, Anne-Claire; Poussier, Stéphane; Koné, Daouda; Wicker, Emmanuel

    2013-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is an important soil borne bacterial plant pathogen causing bacterial wilt on many important crops. To better monitor epidemics, efficient tools that can identify and discriminate populations are needed. In this study, we assessed variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping as a new tool for epidemiological surveillance of R. solanacearum phylotypes, and more specifically for the monitoring of the monomorphic ecotypes "Moko" (banana-pathogenic) and "brown rot" (potato-pathogenic under cool conditions). Screening of six R. solanacearum genome sequences lead to select 36 VNTR loci that were preliminarily amplified on 24 strains. From this step, 26 single-locus primer pairs were multiplexed, and applied to a worldwide collection of 337 strains encompassing the whole phylogenetic diversity, with revelation on a capillary-electrophoresis genotype. Four loci were monomorphic within all phylotypes and were not retained; the other loci were highly polymorphic but displayed a clear phylotype-specificity. Phylotype-specific MLVA schemes were thus defined, based on 13 loci for phylotype I, 12 loci for phylotype II, 11 loci for phylotype III and 6 for phylotype IV. MLVA typing was significantly more discriminative than egl-based sequevar typing, particularly on monomorphic "brown rot" ecotype (phylotype IIB/sequevar 1) and "Moko disease" clade 4 (Phylotype IIB/sequevar 4). Our results raise promising prospects for studies of population genetic structures and epidemiological monitoring. PMID:23376194

  19. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process proceeded by in-situ cellulolytic enzyme induction enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose from corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides). The yeast fermentation of hydrolyzate yielded 7.1, 8.6 and 4.1 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest corn-to-ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol/100 g corn fiber) was equivalent to 42 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. Cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities of these fungi were also investigated over a week long solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber. G. trabeum had the highest activities for starch (160 mg glucose/mg protein.min) and on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. P. chrysosporium had the highest activity for xylan (119 mg xylose/mg protein.min) on day five and carboxymethyl cellulose (35 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. T. reesei showed the highest activity for Sigma cell 20 (54.8 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day 5 of solid-substrate fermentation. The effect of different pretreatments on SSF of corn fiber by fungal processes was examined. Corn fiber was treated at 30 °C for 2 h with alkali [2% NaOH (w/w)], alkaline peroxide [2% NaOH (w/w) and 1% H2O 2 (w/w)], and by steaming at 100 °C for 2 h. Mild pretreatment resulted in improved ethanol yields for brown- and soft-rot SSF, while white-rot and Spezyme CP SSFs showed

  20. Presence of extracellular NAD(+) and NADH in cultures of wood-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Ryuta; Takeeda, Midori; Manabe, Mitsuhiro; Miyagawa, Yutaka; Itakura, Shuji; Tanaka, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that extracellular glycoproteins produced by some white-rot and brown-rot basidiomycetous fungi reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and O2 to H2O2 and produce hydroxyl radicals. The continuous generation of hydroxyl radicals requires a constant supply of O2 and an electron donor for the reduction of oxidized forms of the glycoproteins to the reduced forms. However, electron donors for this reaction, such as NADH, have not been identified. In this study, the amounts of the extracellular pyridine coenzymes, NAD(+) and NADH, were measured in agar cultures of four white-rot fungi, one brown-rot fungus, and three soft-rot fungi. The sums of NAD(+) and NADH detected in wood-containing cultures of all five basidiomycetes were greater than those in glucose cultures. The amounts of NAD(+) were higher than those of NADH in all wood-containing cultures except that of Irpex lacteus, and NAD(+) was greater than NADH in all glucose cultures except that of Fomitopsis palustris. Significant amounts of pyridine coenzymes were present in glucose and wood-containing cultures of the three soft-rot fungi. The non-wood-degrading fungus, Penicillium funiculosum, did not produce NAD(+) or NADH in either glucose or wood-containing cultures. The extracellular pyridine coenzyme levels were relatively high compared to the rates of extracellular hydroxyl radical generation in wood-degrading fungal cultures. Thus, white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi produce pyridine coenzymes that could serve as electron donors for the production of hydroxyl radicals during wood degradation. PMID:26133508

  1. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment. PMID:25492807

  2. Identification and mycotoxigenic capacity of fungi associated with pre- and postharvest fruit rots of pomegranates in Greece and Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanetis, Loukas; Testempasis, Stefanos; Goulas, Vlasios; Samuel, Stylianos; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-09-01

    Pre- and postharvest fruit rots of fungal origin are an important burden for the pomegranate industry worldwide, affecting the produce both quantitatively and qualitatively. During 2013, local orchards were surveyed and 280 fungal isolates from Greece (GR) and Cyprus (CY) were collected from pomegranates exhibiting preharvest rot symptoms, and additional 153 isolates were collected postharvest from cold-stored fruit in GR. Molecular identification revealed that preharvest pomegranate fruit rots were caused predominately by species of the genera Aspergillus (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis) and Alternaria (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria tenuissima, and Alternaria arborescens). By contrast, postharvest fruit rots were caused mainly by Botrytis spp. and to a lesser extent by isolates of Pilidiella granati and Alternaria spp. Considering that a significant quota of the fungal species found in association with pomegranate fruit rots are known for their mycotoxigenic capacity in other crop systems, their mycotoxin potential was examined. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl-ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) production was estimated among Alternaria isolates, whereas ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) production was assessed within the black aspergilli identified. Overall in both countries, 89% of the Alternaria isolates produced AOH and AME in vitro, while TEN was produced only by 43.9%. In vivo production of AOH and AME was restricted to 54.2% and 31.6% of the GR and CY isolates, respectively, while none of the isolates produced TEN in vivo. Among black aspergilli 21.7% of the GR and 17.8% of the CY isolates produced OTA in vitro, while in vivo OTA was detected in 8.8% of the isolates from both countries. FB2 was present in vitro in 42.0% of the GR and 22.2% of the CY isolates, while in vivo the production was limited to 27.5% and 4.5% of the GR and the CY isolates, respectively. Our data imply that mycotoxigenic Alternaria and Aspergillus

  3. 白腐菌在有机固体废弃物堆肥中的研究进展%Application of White-Rot Fungi on Organic Solid Waste Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 吴京科; 祁娜; 孙向阳; 张强; 郝利峰

    2011-01-01

    The white-rot fungus has been applied widely because of its strong degradation ability and special metabolic type. The current status of white-rot fungus applied in organic solid waste composting was reviewed in the paper. The degradation mechanism of lignin by white-rot fungus and the application of white-rot fungi in the bioremediation of heavy metal bio-sorption in composting have been introduced especially. The prospect of white-rot fungi usage in other aspects was put forward.%白腐菌因具有极强的降解能力和特殊的代谢类型,在生物降解和修复中有广阔的应用前景.本文综述了白腐菌应用于有机固体废弃物堆肥的研究现状,主要介绍了白腐菌在堆肥中对难降解木质素的作用以及对重金属污染的修复.同时对白腐菌的应用前景做出展望.

  4. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rotting bacteria vectored by the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determine the capacity of the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus) to transmit an infective Pantoea agglomerans into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) bolls. A laboratory colony of the brown stink bug (BSB) was maintained on fresh green beans. The P. agglomerans mutant strain Sc 1-R that holds rifamp...

  5. Removal of trace organic contaminants by an MBR comprising a mixed culture of bacteria and white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Yang, Shufan; Kang, Jinguo; Leusch, Frederic D L; Roddick, Felicity; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-11-01

    The degradation of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOC) by a white-rot fungus-augmented membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The results show that white-rot fungal enzyme (laccase), coupled with a redox mediator (1-hydroxy benzotriazole, HBT), could degrade TrOC that are resistant to bacterial degradation (e.g. diclofenac, triclosan, naproxen and atrazine) but achieved low removal of compounds (e.g. ibuprofen, gemfibrozil and amitriptyline) that are well removed by conventional activated sludge treatment. Overall, the fungus-augmented MBR showed better TrOC removal compared to a system containing conventional activated sludge. The major role of biodegradation in removal by the MBR was noted. Continuous mediator dosing to MBR may potentially enhance its performance, although not as effectively as for mediator-enhanced batch laccase systems. A ToxScreen3 assay revealed no significant increase in the toxicity of the effluent during MBR treatment of the synthetic wastewater comprising TrOC, confirming that no toxic by-products were produced. PMID:24050925

  6. Production of xylooligosaccharides from enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan by white-rot fungi Pleurotus = Produção de xilooligossacarídeos pela hidrólise enzimática de xylana por fungos Pleurotus

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes; Ísis Serrano Silva; Érika Cristina Pavarina; Andréia Fonseca de Faria; Elisângela Franciscon; Lucia Regina Durrant

    2010-01-01

    Hemicellulose consists of non-cellulosic polysaccharides, with xylans and mannans as their main examples. In nature, xylan can be first degraded to xylooligosaccharides and finally to xylose by certain microorganisms. White-rot fungi basidiomycetes Pleurotus sp. BCCB068 and Pleurotus tailandia were used to degrade oat-spelts xylan under submerged fermentation for a period of 40 days. The study obtained activities of endo-1,4-β-xylanase and β-xylosidase and determination of xylan products by d...

  7. Identification of volatile markers in potato brown rot and ring rot by combined GC-MS and PTR-MS techniques: study on in vitro and in vivo samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasioli, Sonia; Biondi, Enrico; Samudrala, Devasena; Spinelli, Francesco; Cellini, Antonio; Bertaccini, Assunta; Cristescu, Simona M; Braschi, Ilaria

    2014-01-15

    Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) are the bacterial causal agents of potato brown and ring rot, respectively, and are included in the A2 list of quarantine pathogens in Europe. Identification by GC-MS analysis of volatile organic compounds from Rs or Cms cultured on different nutrient media was performed. GC-MS and PTR-MS analysis were carried out also on unwounded potato tubers infected with the same pathogens. Infected tubers were produced by experimental inoculations of the plants. In in vitro experiments, Rs or Cms emitted volatile compounds, part of which were specific disease markers of potato (2-propanol and 3-methylbutanoic acid), mainly originating from bacterial metabolism (i.e., amino acid degradation, carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation). In potato tubers, pathogen metabolism modified the volatile compound pattern emitted from healthy samples. Both bacteria seem to accelerate metabolic processes ongoing in potatoes and, in the case of Rs, disease markers (1-hepten-3-ol, 3,6-dimethyl-3-octanone, 3-ethyl-3-methylpentane, 1-chloroctane, and benzothiazole) were identified. PMID:24313381

  8. Autochthonous white rot fungi from the tropical forest: Potential of Cuban strains for dyes and textile industrial effluents decolourisation

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Lopez, Maria I.; Vanhulle, Sophie F.; Mertens, Valerie; Guerra, Gilda; Figueroa, Sara Herrera; Decock, Cony; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Penninckx, Michel J.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen strains of wood-inhabiting pores fungi, representing thirteen species and ten genera, collected from both natural and "anthropic" ( urban) ecosystems in Cuba were tested for their ability to decolourise the industrial anthraquinonic dye Acid Blue 62 ( AB 62) in laboratory conditions, in both solid and liquid media. On the basis of their decolourisation rate and growth inhibition, seven strains viz. Tinctoporellus epimiltinus, Trametes maxima, Perenniporia tephropora, Coriolopsis rigi...

  9. Integrated Control Effects for Brown Rot of Volvariella volvacea%草菇褐腐病综合防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林德锋; 袁滨; 柯丽娜; 吴顺章

    2015-01-01

    以疣孢霉 Mycogone perniciosa Magn .引起的草菇褐腐病为试验对象,采用化学和物理相结合方法对该病害进行综合防治措施研究。药剂筛选结果表明:药后5 d和10 d ,50%施保功W P 1500倍对草菇褐腐病的防效分别为90.70%和89.66%,均优于45%噻菌灵W P 1200倍、50%福美双W P 1000倍和50%多菌灵W P 800倍的处理。物理措施结果表明:在培养料堆制前对相应环境进行全面清扫及冲洗,并用50%施保功W P 1500倍进行喷雾消毒,防效最高达87.97%;二次发酵时,利用蒸汽对菇房和培养料进行灭菌,当灭菌时间为24 h、灭菌温度60℃时防效最高,达92.47%;采用物理和化学防治相结合的综合措施结果表明,该方法对草菇褐腐病防效达97.97%,可以有效控制草菇褐腐病。%Brown rot caused by Mycogone perniciosa Magn. is a main disease of straw mushroom. In the present study ,the effect of integrated control technologies including chemical control and physical control on the brown rot of straw mushroom was investigated. The results showed that the control efficacy after application for 5 or 10 days were attributed to 1∶1 500 dilution of 50% sporgon (90.70% ,89.66% ) >1∶1 200 dilution of 45% thiabendazole>1∶ 1 000 dilution of 50% thiram > 1∶ 800 dilution of 50% carbendazim . Cleaning of the environment before composting and spray disinfection with 1∶1 500 dilution of 50% sporgon could significantly decreased the damage of M. perniciosa and the control efficiency was 87.97% ,but the control efficacy reached 92.47% after sterilizing the mushroom house and culture components at 60℃ for 24 h. Our results suggest that the integrated control including chemical control and physical control could control the brown rot on straw mushroom efficiently with 97.97%.

  10. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Civardi

    Full Text Available Recently introduced micronized copper (MC formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH2 nanoparticles (NPs, were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA. In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles.

  11. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles. PMID:26554706

  12. Identifying and characterizing microflora of stone fruits to select antagonists for control of brown rot with emphasis on latent infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit surface microflora has been the richest source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. The establishment of populations of these organisms and their interaction with decay causing pathogens in fruit wounds has been the basis for the development of current postharvest ...

  13. Identifying and characterizing microflora of stone fruits to select antagonists for control of brown rot with emphasis on latent infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit surface microflora has been the most productive source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. The establishment of populations of these organisms and their interaction with decay causing pathogens in fruit wounds has been the basis for the development of current pos...

  14. Identification and Characterisation of New Microbial Antagonists for Biocontrol of Monilinia laxa, the Causal Agent of Brown Rot on Stone Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jeffries

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monilinia laxa is the causal agent of brown rot disease on stone fruits, and also causes blossom wilt and twig canker. The common practice used to manage this disease is through fungicide treatments. However the demand to reduce fungicide inputs has been increasing and there is a growing number of reports of M. laxa strains that are resistant to fungicides. There is an urgent need to search for an alternative strategy to control the disease. This study focused on the isolation and characterisation of biological control agents (BCAs using indigenous isolates isolated from cherries and plums collected within the UK. A total of 192 isolates were screened against two strains of M. laxa in a series of in vitro dual culture tests. From this in vitro screen, 12 isolates were selected for a subsequent in vivo screen on detached fruits, which then narrowed these isolates down to two potential BCAs. These two strains were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/subtilis (isolate B91 and Aureobasidium pullulans (isolate Y126. The capability of these two potential BCAs to grow and survive at a range of temperatures likely to be experienced under field and storage conditions was studied in order to gain knowledge for product formulation and field application. Bacillus sp. B91 was shown to be a mesophilic bacterium that could grow at 10–25 °C but suffered significant mortality at 0 and 5 °C, while A. pullulans Y126 was both mesophilic and psychrotolerant as it grew between 0–25 °C with the optimum at 20 °C. When all nutrients were removed, Y126 was able to survive for several weeks in all test temperatures (0–25 °C but showed significant mortality at 25 °C. The capability of B91 to survive at 20 and 25 °C was higher than at low temperatures (0–15 °C. In addition, the modes of action of the potential BCAs were studied. B91 was shown to produce soluble and volatile organic compounds that inhibited M. laxa, while A. pullulans Y126 did not

  15. Biological characteristics of Monilia fructigena as pathogen of brown rot in sweet cherry%大樱桃褐腐病菌生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志恒; 白海涛; 杨红; 唐爽爽; 魏美娜; 黄欣阳; 李俞涛

    2012-01-01

    Brown rot is occurring seriously in some areas of Liaoning which is one of the main sweet cherry producing areas. The biological characteristics of Moniliafructigena of sweet cherry brown rot was studied in order to provide the basis for further study and prevention of this disease. In this study, mycelia growth, spore production and spore germination were detected in relation to temperature, illumination, pH and nu- tritional conditions. The results showed that the optimum temperature for mycelia growth of pathogen was 25 ℃ ; PSA was the best of the 8 culture media in the experiment; the Optimum pH was 6.0 ; dark condi- tion was suitable for mycelia growth. PDA, xylose, NH4H2PO4, 25 ℃ and pH 6.0 were the best for spore production. The rate of spore germination was highest under this condition which includes the optimum carbon sources, nitrogen source, temperature and pH: amidulin, NH4H2PO4, 25 ℃ and pH 7.0. The mycelium could not survive at 56 ℃ for 10 min.%褐腐病在辽宁大樱桃产区严重发生,对大樱桃褐腐病菌(Monilia fructigena)生物学特性进行了研究。试验从温度、光照、pH以及营养条件几方面对病菌菌丝生长、孢子产生及萌发的环境条件进行测定。结果表明,大樱桃褐腐病菌菌丝在PSA培养基、25℃、pH6.0及黑暗条件下生长最好;产孢最佳条件为PDA、木糖、NH4H2PO4、25℃、pH6.0;分生孢子在可溶性淀粉、NH4H2PO4、25℃、pH7.0的条件下萌发率最高。病菌菌丝致死温度为56℃、10min。

  16. Effect of gamma radiation as a method of storing brown flaxseed after 6 months of storage, inhibiting contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaxseed is an oilseed rich in proteins, lipids and dietary fiber. The brown flaxseed is grown in warm climates and humid, like Brazil, and has shelled tougher than the golden linseed. As the tropical climate is ideal environment for the growth of toxigenic fungi, flaxseed may be exposed to contamination. Four different samples of brown flaxseed were collected in sealed packages obtained from health food stores. Aliquots of grains were separated, packed with PVC film, identified according to the company (E1, E2, E3, E4) and subjected to the process of gamma irradiation doses: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 kGy, beyond the control sample that was not exposed. This material was stored in a cool dry place in the laboratory for six months. After that time, the grains were sown in DRBC, to check the growth of total fungi, and in AFPA, to check the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. After sowing grains, the Petri dishes were randomly distributed on the bench, at room temperature. There was no growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in irradiated samples after incubation, demonstrating that radiation could inhibit fungal contamination during the storage time. Germinated grains were observed in both culture media, in all doses and in the control samples. The germination of flaxseed was inversely proportional to the dose applied to the grains, to both culture media. Irradiation showed to be an effective method for brown flaxseed conservation and maintaining the germination. (author)

  17. Effect of gamma radiation as a method of storing brown flaxseed after 6 months of storage, inhibiting contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Laury Francis; Silva, Edvane Borges da Silva, E-mail: lauryfrancis@gmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Idjane Santana, E-mail: idjaneoliveira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria

    2013-07-01

    Flaxseed is an oilseed rich in proteins, lipids and dietary fiber. The brown flaxseed is grown in warm climates and humid, like Brazil, and has shelled tougher than the golden linseed. As the tropical climate is ideal environment for the growth of toxigenic fungi, flaxseed may be exposed to contamination. Four different samples of brown flaxseed were collected in sealed packages obtained from health food stores. Aliquots of grains were separated, packed with PVC film, identified according to the company (E1, E2, E3, E4) and subjected to the process of gamma irradiation doses: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 kGy, beyond the control sample that was not exposed. This material was stored in a cool dry place in the laboratory for six months. After that time, the grains were sown in DRBC, to check the growth of total fungi, and in AFPA, to check the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi. After sowing grains, the Petri dishes were randomly distributed on the bench, at room temperature. There was no growth of aflatoxigenic fungi in irradiated samples after incubation, demonstrating that radiation could inhibit fungal contamination during the storage time. Germinated grains were observed in both culture media, in all doses and in the control samples. The germination of flaxseed was inversely proportional to the dose applied to the grains, to both culture media. Irradiation showed to be an effective method for brown flaxseed conservation and maintaining the germination. (author)

  18. Characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rot of citrus in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccotelli, Angela; Schena, Leonardo; Sanzani, Simona M; Cacciola, Santa O; Mosca, Saveria; Faedda, Roberto; Ippolito, Antonio; di San Lio, Gaetano Magnano

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of Basidiomycetes associated with wood rots in commercial citrus orchards in southern Italy revealed that both white and brown rot fungi are implicated in this disease. Fomitiporia mediterranea was the most prevalent species causing a white rot, followed by Fomitopsis sp. which, by contrast, was associated with brown rot wood decay. Furthermore, Phellinus spp. and other nonidentified basidiomycetous fungi showing genetic affinity with the genera Phellinus and Coniophora were occasionally isolated. Artificial inoculations on lemon (Citrus limon) branches showed a faster wood colonization by Fomitopsis sp. compared with F. mediterranea, indicating that the former species as a potentially serious pathogen of citrus trees. The analysis of F. mediterranea internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a high level of genetic variability, with 13 genotypes which were both homozygous (6 genotypes) and heterozygous (7 genotypes). The presence of heterozygous genomes based on ITS sequences has never been reported before for F. mediterranea. This, together with the high frequency of basidiomata on infected wood, unambiguously confirms the outcrossing nature of reproduction in F. mediterranea and the primary role of basidiospores in the dissemination of inoculum. Similarly, high genetic variability was observed analyzing Fomitopsis sp. Because basidiomata of this fungus have not been observed on citrus trees, it can be hypothesized that basidiospores are produced on alternative host plants. PMID:24502208

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Synthetic Compounds on Fungi Associated with Post Harvest Rot of Red Pepper (Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. KOLAWOLE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp, Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were isolated but pathogenic test revealed that Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were the most pathogenic of all the isolates. Ni2+ + Azo has the highest inhibitory effect, closely followed by Ni2+ + PAN while Copper (II complex of Thiourea has the lowest inhibitory effect. However, 10mg/ml concentration proved to be the most effective when radial mycelial growth of the test fungi was measured. The inhibitory effects of each complex on the isolates increases with increase in incubation period. There is the feasibility of using synthetic associated with the symptoms. The three synthetic compounds, Copper (II complex of Thiourea, Ni2+ + compounds as preservatives for harvested red pepper.

  20. Efeito de sanificantes no controle pós-colheita da podridão parda (Monilinia fructicola e da podridão mole (Rhizopus stolonifer em pêssegos Effect of sanitizing products on the postharvest control of brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and soft rot (Rhizopus stolonifer in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Marchi de Abreu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito in vitro e in vivo dos sanificantes cloreto de benzalcônio (Fegatex®, biomassa cítrica (Ecolife40® e ozônio no controle da podridão parda (Monilinia fructicola e da podridão mole (Rhizopus stolonifer em pêssegos das cultivares Aurora, Dourado e Flor da Prince. Cloreto de benzalcônio e biomassa cítrica, aplicados in vitro, ambos na concentração de 1000 mL L-1, inibiram totalmente o crescimento radial (micelial de M. fructicola, porém nenhum deles foi eficiente no controle de R. stolonifer. Cloreto de benzalcônio aplicado de forma preventiva, na concentração de 3000 mL L-1, reduziu a podridão parda em frutos inoculados sem ferimentos. Quando aplicado de forma curativa em frutos não feridos esse produto foi eficiente em todas as concentrações testadas. Nenhum produto aplicado nos frutos de forma curativa foi eficiente no controle da podridão parda, quando a inoculação do fungo foi realizada através de ferimentos. Nenhum dos produtos foi eficiente no controle da podridão mole. O ozônio (0,1 mL L-1 não foi eficiente no controle das podridões parda e mole.The purpose of this work was to study the in vitro and in vivo effects of the sanitizing products benzalkonium chloride (Fegatex®, citric biomass (Ecolife40® and ozone gas on the control of brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and soft rot (Rhizopus stolonifer in peaches cultivars "Aurora", "Dourado" and "Flor da Prince". Benzalkonium chloride and citric biomass, both at 1000 mL L-1, completely inhibited the radial (mycelial growth of M. fructicola, although none of them controlled R. stolonifer in vitro. The preventive use of benzalkonium chloride at 3000 mL L-1 reduced brown rot in non-injured peaches. Benzalkonium chloride applied as curative in non-injured peaches was effective against M. fructicola at all concentrations. None of the products tested curatively was effective in preventing the development of brown rot when the

  1. Identification of the pathogen causing brown rot of Hylocereus undatus%霸王花褐腐病的病原鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝国兵; 何自福; 罗方芳; 汤亚飞; 佘小漫; 杜振国

    2014-01-01

    [目的]明确导致广东省霸王花Hylocereus undatus褐腐病的病原种类.[方法]通过病组织分离、致病性测定、形态学观察及rDNA序列分析等方法对广东省霸王花褐腐病病原进行了种类鉴定.[结果和结论]在PDA培养基上,病原菌的菌落为深灰色,绒毛状.产生2种类型的节孢子:一种为浅色、薄壁的柱状孢子,大小为(5.00~10.69)μm ×(2.61~4.52)μm;另一种为褐色、厚壁、圆形或椭圆形、基部平截、成链的孢子,大小为(5.15~12.39)μm ×(3.87~6.07)μm.应用真菌通用引物ITS1和ITS4进行PCR,获得该病原菌579 bp的18S-28S rDNA ITS序列. BLAST结果显示,该序列与Neoscytalidium dimidiatum火龙果菌株的18S-28S rDNA ITS序列相似性最高,为99%~100%.这些研究结果表明,引起广东省霸王花褐腐病的病原菌为N.dimidiatum.%[Objective] To confirm the pathogen species that caused brown rot disease on Hylocereus unda-tus.[Method] Diseased tissue isolation , indoor pathogenicity test , morphological observation and rDNA sequence analysis were used to confirm the pathogen species .[Result and conclusion] The colonies of the fungus were dark grey and fluffy on potato dextrose agar ( PDA) medium.Two kinds of arthrospore were observed on PDA medium .One was columnar conidium with light-colored , thin-walled and (5.00-10.69) μm ×(2.61-4.52) μm in size, and the other was chained conidium with dark brown , thick-walled , circular or oval , base truncate and ( 5.15 -12.39 ) μm ×( 3.87 -6.07 ) μm in size .Using PCR with primers ITS1 and ITS4 for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of fungal 18S-28S rD-NA, the sequence was cloned to be 579 bp in length.The BLAST results showed that the sequence had the highest sequence identity with that of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum strains isolated from pitahaya (99%-100%).These results indicated that night-blooming cereus brown rot in Guangdong was

  2. Efficacy of wild plant in combination with microbial antagonists for the control of root rot fungi on mungbean and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work was carried out to investigate the efficacy of Aerva javanica in combination with different microbial antagonists namely Rhizobium meliloti, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger. Soil amended with A. javanica stem, leaves, flower powder at the rate1% w/w and seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) were coated with microbial antagonists for the control of root infecting fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani Kiihn. Infection of M. phaseolina and R. solani were completely suppressed when seeds were coated with P. aeruginosa, T. harzianum, A. niger, R. meliloti and A. javanica leaves powder mixed in soil at the rate 1% w/w. All antagonists showed reduction in combination with A. javanica leaves powder at the rate1% but T. harzianum and P. aeruginosa in combination with A. javanica leaves showed promising results in complete reduction of R. solani and M. phaseolina on both crops. All growth parameters were maximum when soil was amended with A. javanica leaves powder at the rate 1% w/w and seeds were coated with T. harzianum and P. aeruginosa. (author)

  3. ACCELERATED LABORATORY TEST OF RUBBERWOOD ORIENTED STRANDBOARD EXPOSED TO WOOD DECAY FUNGI

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    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the natural durability of oriented strandboards (OSB manufactured with strands of Hevea brasiliensis Müll.Arg. bonded with 5% and 8% of urea-formaldehyde (UF and phenol-formadehyde (FF resins, exposed to xilophagous fungi under laboratory conditions. In accelerated laboratory test decay, samples of OSB were exposed to the following fungi: the brown-rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fries Murr., Coniophora puteana (Schumach. : Fr.P. Karst., Meruliporia incrassata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Murrill as well as the white-rot fungi Fomes annosus (Fr. : Fr. Cooke, Trametes versicolor (L. : Fr. Pilát, Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. Pat., Bjerkandera fumosa (Pers. : Fr. P. Karst. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. Among the brown-rot fungi, the Gloeophyllum trabeum was the most aggressive, showing the highest loss of mass. Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum confirmed the preference for broadleave species. All oriented strandboards at lower UF resin contents were more degraded by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Ganoderma applanatum, Merulia incrassata, Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum, with high rate of loss of mass. Coniophora puteana showed small loss of mass when FF resin was applied. Bjerkandera fumosa showed low loss of mass only at higher resin content. Oriented strandboards exposed to Coniophora puteana showed insignificant OSB degradation.

  4. Postharvest application of a novel chitinase cloned from Metschnikowia fructicola and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris to control brown rot of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Houda; Spadaro, Davide; Zhang, Dianpeng; Matic, Slavica; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2015-04-16

    Metschnikowia fructicola strain AP47 is a yeast antagonist against postharvest pathogens of fruits. The yeast was able to produce chitinase enzymes in the presence of pathogen cell wall. A novel chitinase gene MfChi (GenBank accession number HQ113461) was amplified from the genomic DNA of Metschnikowia fructicola AP47. Sequence analysis showed lack of introns, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1098 bp encoding a 365 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 40.9 kDa and a predicted pI of 5.27. MfChi was highly induced in Metschnikowia fructicola after interaction with Monilinia fructicola cell wall, suggesting a primary role of MfChi chitinase in the antagonistic activity of the yeast. The MfChi gene overexpressed in the heterologous expression system of Pichia pastoris KM71 and the recombinant chitinase showed high endochitinase activity towards 4-Nitrophenyl β-d-N,N',N″-triacetylchitotriose substrate. The antifungal activity of the recombinant chitinase was investigated against Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa in vitro and on peaches. The chitinase significantly controlled the spore germination and the germ tube length of the tested pathogens in PDB medium and the mycelium diameter in PDA. The enzyme, when applied on peaches cv. Redhaven, successfully reduced brown rot severity. This work shows that the chitinase MfChi could be developed as a postharvest treatment with antimicrobial activity for fruit undergoing a short shelf life, and confirms that P. pastoris KM71 is a suitable microorganism for cost-effective large-scale production of recombinant chitinases. PMID:25632799

  5. 19种杀菌剂对桃褐腐病离体抑菌活性%Control Effect of 19 Fungicides against Peach Brown Rot in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何献声

    2011-01-01

    [方法]采用含毒介质法明确了19种杀菌剂对桃褐腐病菌丝生长的影响及对桃褐腐病的离体抑菌活性.[结果]质量浓度10 mg/L时,啶菌(噁)唑、腈苯唑、戊唑醇和多菌灵对桃褐腐病菌丝生长抑菌率达100%;1 mg/L时,以上4种药剂对菌丝生长抑菌率达98%以上.[结论]啶菌(噁)唑、腈苯唑、戊唑醇、多菌灵和氟啶胺的离体抑菌活性高于其他药剂,0.1 mg/L质量浓度下,啶菌(噁)唑和腈苯唑的抑菌活性较为突出,明显高于戊唑醇和多菌灵.%[Methods] The effect on mycelial growth and antibacterial activity of 19 fungicides on peach brown rot in vitro were tested by a medium of containing a poison. [Results] The results showed that the inhibitory ratio of mycelial growth of SYP-Z048, fenbuconazole, tebuconazole and carbendazim was 100% at 10 mg/L, and over 98% at 1 mg/L. [Conclusions] The antibacterial activity in vitro of four fungicides were all higher than others, SYP-Z048 and fenbuconazole had more significant activity at the low concentration of 0.1 mg/L, much higher than tebuconazole and carbendazim.

  6. Morphological and molecular identification of bamboo culm brown rot%刚竹秆褐腐病病原形态及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春来; 吴小芹; 叶利芹; 叶建仁; 徐旭凌; 曹云

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo culm brown rot occurs generally, especially in Nanjing,and influences the growth of bamboo such as Phyllostachys glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana,especially for the former. There was no any reports about Ph. glauca infected the disease previously. By isolation and culture of diseased tissue、artificial inoculation test, morphological observation of isolated strain and amplification with universal primer ITS1/ITS4, finally molecular identification with fragment amplified of 559 bp by ITS analysis, the pathogen of Ph. glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana was identified as Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.. The research result could provide the reference basis for the effective monitoring and control of the disease.%刚竹秆褐腐病在南京地区发生较普遍,影响竹林生长.其主要危害刚竹属的淡竹(Phyllostachys glauca)、黄槽刚竹(Ph.viridis f.houzeauana),其中以淡竹受害最为严重.笔者通过对刚竹秆褐腐病病组织分离培养、人工接种试验、分离菌形态学观察及采用通用引物ITS1/ITS4扩增,对扩增出的约559 bp的片段进行ITS序列分子鉴定,最终将在淡竹和黄槽刚竹等上发生的病原鉴定为木贼镰刀菌(Fusarium equiseti(Corda)Sacc.).

  7. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by fungi, fungal and bacterial laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulčnik, A; Kralj Cigić, I; Pohleven, F

    2013-12-01

    The ability of two white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus) and one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) to degrade two organochlorine insecticides, lindane and endosulfan, in liquid cultures was studied and dead fungal biomass was examined for adsorption of both insecticides from liquid medium. Lindane and endosulfan were also treated with fungal laccase and bacterial protein CotA, which has laccase activities. The amount of degraded lindane and endosulfan increased with their exposure period in the liquid cultures of both examined white-rot fungi. Endosulfan was transformed to endosulfan sulphate by T. versicolor and P. ostreatus. A small amount of endosulfan ether was also detected and its origin was examined. Degradation of lindane and endosulfan by a brown rot G. trabeum did not occur. Mycelial biomasses of all examined fungi have been found to adsorb lindane and endosulfan and adsorption onto fungal biomass should therefore be considered as a possible mechanism of pollutant removal when fungal degradation potentials are studied. Bacterial protein CotA performed more efficient degradation of lindane and endosulfan than fungal laccase and has shown potential for bioremediation of organic pollutants. PMID:23736895

  8. Alternativas de controle pós-colheita da podridão-parda e da podridão-mole em frutos de pessegueiro Alternatives for post-harvest control of brown rot and soft rot in peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative products, used during the post-harvest, in order to control the brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and the soft rot (Rhizopus spp. in peaches. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Nepomuceno-MG in peaches of cultivar Diamond, of 10 years of planting. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions. For the study, it was selected fruits without injuries and symptoms of the diseases. The fruits were immersed for 30 seconds in a solution containing the following treatments: 1- clove oil 0.01%; 2-Chlorine dioxide 0.1%; 3-Chlorine dioxide 0.05%; 4-Benzalkonium chloride 0.25%; 5-Dichloran 0.12%, 6-Iprodione 0.15% and 7-control (water only. After the treatments, the fruits, in a number of 10, were placed in sterile trays, in three replicates. The experiment was carried out in uncontrolled environmental conditions, the development of the diseases were evaluated 3 and 5 days after the treatments in 2005 and 3, 6 and 9 days after treatment in 2006. The use of Iprodione controlled the incidence and severity of M. fructicola and Rhizopus spp. The Dichloran was the most effective treatment in the control of Rhizopus spp. and intermediate in the control of M. fructicola. The treatments with clove oil and chlorine dioxide, at the highest concentration, reduced the incidence of Rhizopus spp. and to severity they showed intermediate results.

  9. Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctoni solani K ü h n of sugar beet in province Vojvodina

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    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet root rot appears regularly each year, but its intensity depends on agro ecological conditions. The predominant causers of root rot in Vojvodina are fungi from Fusarium genus and species Macrophomina phaseolina. Over the last couple of years, more intense occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot has been observed. Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot is present in sugar beet fields. During 2000-2005, on the territory of Vojvodina, the frequency of Rhizoctonia solani in phytopathological isolations from rotted sugar beet roots was between 0,0-18,2%. The intensity of the disease depends on localities, agro ecological conditions and genotypes. Symptoms of Rhizoctonia root rot were registered at some localities in all regions of Vojvodina: Srem, Banat and Bačka. The disease appearance is above all local. It occurs in small patches, on heavy, non-structured soil and on depressed wet parts of plots. Individual diseased plants can be found during July. Brown rot appears on sugar beet roots, with dried tissue on surface, which is present on the tail as well as on the middle part and the head of root. Tissues with described symptoms are deeper regarding the healthy part of root. On vertical root section, the necrotic changes are clearly visible comparing to tissue section without symptoms. The heavily infected tissue forms fissures on roots in most cases. Besides the above-mentioned symptoms on roots, the plant wilting and leaf handle necrosis as well as leaf dying are also observed. When rot spreads to the whole root head, plants quickly die.

  10. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi for bioethanol production from renewable biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is a necessary step in the process of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol; by changing the structure of lignocellulose, enhances enzymatic hydrolysis, but, often, it consumes large amounts of energy and/or needs an application of expensive and toxic chemicals, which makes the process economically and ecologically unfavourable. Application of lignocellulolytic fungi (from the class Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes is an attractive method for pre-treatment, environmentally friendly and does not require the investment of energy. Fungi produce a wide range of enzymes and chemicals, which, combined in a variety of ways, together successfully degrade lignocellulose, as well as aromatic polymers that share features with lignin. On the basis of material utilization and features of a rotten wood, they are divided in three types of wood-decay fungi: white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi. White rot fungi are the most efficient lignin degraders in nature and, therefore, have a very important role in carbon recycling from lignified wood. This paper describes fungal mechanisms of lignocellulose degradation. They involve oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase and enzymes able to catalyze formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH such as glyoxal oxidase, pyranose-2-oxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase are responsible for oxidative processes, while cellulases and hemicellulases are involved in hydrolytic processes. Throughout the production stages, from pre-treatment to fermentation, the possibility of their application in the technology of bioethanol production is presented. Based on previous research, the advantages and disadvantages of biological pre-treatment are pointed out.

  11. Natural Protection of Wood with Antagonism Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba ZAREMSKI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological environments contain a certain number of microbial populations which, within a givenecological niche, display various relations ranging from symbiosis to parasitism. Researchers have beeninterested in these types of relations for around fifty years, especially in one very particular type ofrelationship: the antagonism exerted between individuals of the same microbial population.Today, the role played by biological agents, bringing into play inhibitive or destructive antibioticsubstances, reveals a certain potential for their use in controlling microorganisms associated with suchdegradation processes.The work undertaken by HydroQuébec and CIRAD involved two types of experiment: 1 in Petri dishes toassess and characterize the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma against white rot and brown rot fungi; 2on pieces taken from untreated poles in order to study confrontation between the basidiomycete and theantagonistic strain in wood.This study investigated the antagonism of three ascomycetes of the genus Trichoderma against two whiterot basidiomycetes, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Coriolus versicolor, and two brown rot basidiomycetes,Antrodia sp. and Coniophora puteana, through direct confrontation in Petri dishes and in the wood ofHydroQuébec poles.The results obtained seemed to complete each other coherently. They revealed that the Trichodermagroup of fungi was not aggressive to wood and the results obtained after direct confrontation in Petri disheswere confirmed in wood.By directly exposing the different basidiomycetes and antagonists to each other in Petri dishes, two bytwo, we effectively revealed an antagonism effect for a large majority of the pairs. However, there wassubstantial variability in reactions from one pair to the next.

  12. Rhizoctonia root rot of lentil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia root rot is a soilborne disease of lentil caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, and is favored by cool (11-19 C or 52 - 66 F) and wet soil conditions. The disease starts as reddish or dark brown lesions on lentil plants near the soil line, and develops into sunken lesions an...

  13. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Hitoshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  14. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  15. Comparative study on using carbon or nitrogen limited medium to culture white rot fungi for reactive brilliant red dye K-2BP decolotization under non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore ways for the application of white rot fungus in dye effluent treatment under non-sterile conditions, experiment on decolorization of reactive brilliant red was carried out, employing nitrogen-limited and carbon-limited medium with C/N ratio of 56/2.2 and 28/44 (in mmol/L), respectively. The results showed that the decolorization rate reached 92% while culturing white rot fungus with nitrogen-limited medium; however, the decolorization process ended in carbon-limited medium (n(C)/n(N) = 28/44) because of bacterial contamination. In addition, pH rose up to 9.31 after 4 d of decolorization, which was caused by bacterial contamination in the carbon-limited system. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen-limited medium can inhibit bacterial growth to some extent while carbon-limited medium is more easily contaminated by bacteria. Nitrogen-limited medium is more suitable in culture of white rot fungus for decolorization of reactive dye. Medium with the ability of inhibiting yeast growth should be developed by adjusting other components of nitrogen-limited medium.

  16. Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-12-01

    Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24°C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time. PMID:25288973

  17. Metodologia de inoculação de fungos causadores da podridão peduncular em mamão Inoculation methodology's of papaya fruits with fungi causing stem-end-rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Andrea Nery-Silva

    2007-10-01

    method for inoculating papaya fruits to reproduce the symptons of the stem-end-rot through tree procedures: 1 cut of the stem followed by deposition of fungal mycelium in agar discs; 2 deposition of the spore suspension into the stem's region followed by injuries, and 3 application of spore suspension in the stem's region without injuries. The inoculation was performed with the fungi P. caricae-papayae, C. gloeosporioides, B. theobromae e F. solani, and inoculated fruits were placed under temperatures of 20º and 25ºC. The results indicate that there were no effects of the tested temperatures in the development of all fungi, in the different methods of inoculation. The highest severity of stem-end-rot (score 1-5 was observed in fruits inoculated by the methods of injection in the stem, independing of the fungus used. The fungi C. gloeosporioides and P. carica-papaya presented the highest levels of severity in the disease followed by B. theobromae and F. solani.

  18. 利用葡萄籽油防治桃子采后褐腐病的研究%Application of Grape Seed Oil to Control Brown Rot of Postharvest Peaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张殿朋; 韩雪梅; 卢彩鸽; 张晓元; 刘伟成

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the efficacy of grape seed oil (GFO) at different concentrations (0.5%,0.1%,0.05%,0.01%) in controlling brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on postharvest peaches was evaluated in artificially-wounded peaches or under storage conditions,and moreover,the effects of GFO on fruit quality parameters including firmness,total soluble solids,ascorbic acid and titratable acidity were investigated.In vitro,when M.fructicola at 5 × 104 cfu/mL was cultured at the presence of GFO at the concentration of ≥0.05 %,the pathogen spore germination was completely inhibited by GFO; In vivo,when M.fructicola at 5 × 104 cfu/mL was inoculated into artificially-wounded peaches followed by inoculating GFO,GFO at the concentration of≥0.05% reduced the brown rot diameter by more than 50%,but no significant difference was observed between 0.1% and 0.5%.However,when the concentration of GFO was 0.01%,the control efficacy in vivo was significantly decreased.Therefore,the optimal concentration of GFO in controlling brown rot on postharvest peaches was defined as 0.1%.When stored at 1 ℃ and 96% RH for 21 days,the disease incidence of 0.1% GFO-treated peaches was 20.0%,the disease incidence of the fungicide (tebuconazole)-treated peaches was 18.7 %,and the disease incidence of the control group was 45.5%,showing that the efficacy of 0.1% GFO in controlling brown rot was 56.0%,which was very similar to that of fungicide(58.9%).Fruit quality parameter assessment indicated that GFO had no significant effects on the peach quality.As far as we know,this is the first report on application of non-harmful grape seed oil to control the brown rot on postharvest peaches as an alternative to fungicide.%为探索桃采后褐腐病的新型非化学农药防治手段,研究了不同用量葡萄籽油处理(体积分数分别为0.5%、0.1%、0.05%、0.01%)对桃采后褐腐病的抑制效果.将褐腐病菌(Monilinia fructicola)(终浓度:5

  19. Resistência natural de nove madeiras do semi-árido brasileiro a fungos causadores da podridão-mole Natural resistance of nine woods of Brazilian semi-arid region to soft-rot fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resistência de nove madeiras de ocorrência no semi-árido brasileiro a fungos de podridão-mole, em condições de laboratório. As madeiras estudadas foram algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, angico (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, braúna (Schinopsis brasiliensis, cássia (Senna siamea, craibeira (Tabebuia aurea, cumaru (Amburana cearensis, pau-d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa e pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium. De cada espécie foram retirados corpos-de-prova de 3,0 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm, com a maior dimensão no sentido das fibras, em quatro posições na direção medula-casca do tronco. As amostras permaneceram por 120 dias sob a ação da microflora natural existente em solo orgânico. A resistência ao apodrecimento da aroeira, braúna e cássia não foi afetada pela posição na direção medula-casca, não esteve relacionada à densidade das madeiras ensaiadas. As madeiras de aroeira e braúna (cerne, pereiro e pau-d'arco apresentaram melhor desempenho. A resistência natural não esteve associada à concentração de extrativos solúveis em água quente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the wood natural resistance of nine species of woods of the Brazilian semi-arid region to soft-rot fungi, under laboratory conditions. The studied woods were Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera colubrinavar.cebil, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Senna siamea, Tabebuia aurea, Amburana cearensis, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. Specimens measuring 3.0 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm, with the largest dimension taken in the fiber direction, were obtained from four positions from pith to bark in the trunk. The specimens were submitted to action of organic soil natural micro-flora for 120 days. The wood resistance to soft-rot of Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis and Senna siameawas not affected by the pith to bark position, and was not associated to

  20. Fungi Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil with Loquat Root Rot Disease in Yunnan Province%云南蒙自枇杷根腐病植株根际土壤真菌多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨若鹏; 郑肖兰; 田学军; 李建平; 鲁海菊

    2012-01-01

    摘要摸清蒙自枇杷根腐病病株根际土壤真菌区系分布.为有效可持续防控枇杷根腐病提供理论依据。采用五点取样法采集土壤样品,稀释平板法在PDA培养基上分离纯化,获得114株枇杷根腐病病株根际土壤真菌,经显微镜形态鉴定。109株真菌鉴定为以下24种: A bs idia corymbifera, A bsidia cylindrospora, A bsidia spinosa,Acremonium cerealis, Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum dematium, Fusarium flocciferum, Mucor circineUoides f. janssenii, Mucor circinelloides f. wsitanicus, PeniciUium atrovenetum, Penicillium canescens, PeniciUium chrysogenum, Penicillium corylophilum, Penicillium daleae, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium nigricans, Penicillium oxalicum, Penicillium saceulum, Penicillium variabile,Pythium intermedium, Trichoderma strigosum, Verticillium fungicola,分属于11个属.其中青霉属(Penicillium)是优势属,另外5株真菌属于担子菌。%To establish the species and distribution of fungi of Loquat rhizosphere soil which had rot root disease at Mengzi in Yunnan Province and to provide theoretical basis for efficient control to disease of the root rot; Soil specimen were collected with the 5-point method. The fungi strains were isolated by the plate of gradient dilution with PDA medium. The strains were identified by morphology with microscope. The strains respectively belong to A bsidia corymbifera, A bsidia cylindrospora, A bsidia spinosa, A cremonium cerealis, Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum dematium, Fusarium flocciferum, Mucor circinelloides f. janssenii, Mucor circineUoides f. wsitanicus, Penicillium atrovenetum, Penicillium canescens, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium corylophilum, PeniciUium daleae, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium nigricans, PeniciUium oxalicum, Penicillium saceulum, PeniciUium variabile, Pythium intermedium, Trichoderma strigosum

  1. Borate-treated strand board from southern wood species: Resistance against decay and mold fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwu Xu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Combined decay and mold resistance of zinc borate-(ZB and calcium borate-(CB treated oriented strand board (OSB from southern mixed hardwood (MHW and southern yellow pine (SYP was investigated. Tests were done with a brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, and a white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, for 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Wood species and fungus type had significant influence on the decay resistance. Decay caused by the brown-rot fungus was evident for all untreated SYP and mixed MHW controls. White-rot fungus did not cause significant sample weight loss for either species group. In the SYP OSB control inoculated with G. trabeum, the hyphae were abundant in wood rays and cell walls where they primarily penetrated through bordered and simple pits. The incorporation of ZB and CB into OSB provided significant protection against the fungi with no significant weight loss observed in the treated OSB. Microscopic analysis showed distinct evidence of fungal colonization and a thinning pattern of cell wall material. Untreated OSB samples from MHW and commercial OSBs were most susceptible to mold growth after 6 weeks. The borate-modified OSB from MHW and SYP effectively prevented the mold growth.

  2. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    are capable of growth under oxygen-deficient conditions while performing anaerobic denitrification, a characteristic that is bound to interest biotechnologists.  *3. Enzymes from marine fungi  Fungi produce a variety of extracellular enzymes... and poplar wood shavings as carbon and nitrogen source (Raghukumar et al. 1999). Yet another marine-derived, white-rot fungus isolated from decaying mangrove wood, designated NIOCC #2a produced enhanced levels of laccase in the presence of several phenolics...

  3. Controle da podridão parda do pessegueiro com fungicidas e fosfitos avaliados em pré e pós-colheita Control of peach tree brown rot by fungicides and phosphites evaluated during preharvest and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Martins Moreira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A podridão parda é a doença mais importante para a cultura do pessegueiro, entretanto, no Brasil são escassos os trabalhos realizados a campo visando o seu controle. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, selecionar fungicidas em laboratório e avaliar a sua eficiência e de fosfitos a campo, para o controle da podridão parda monitorando as fases de desenvolvimento de frutos e pós-colheita, além de avaliar as características qualitativas dos frutos. O experimento de campo foi realizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições: três fungicidas pré-selecionados in vitro (iminoctadine tris albesilate, myclobutanil e iprodione, dois fosfitos (CaB e de K e testemunha. Foi avaliada a incidência de infecções latentes de Monilinia fructicola em frutos em desenvolvimento e em frutos maduros após a colheita. Para os frutos em desenvolvimento observou-se maior incidência nas duas últimas coletas. No campo, o iprodione e o iminoctadine mostraram eficiência no controle da doença durante as avaliações. Após três dias no ambiente o iminoctadine foi melhor que os demais tratamentos mantendo a incidência da podridão parda em 1,0% contra 31,4% no tratamento com iprodione e 91,2% na testemunha. O fosfito de CaB não mostrou diferença em relação à testemunha no decorrer das avaliações, mas o fosfito de K, reduziu em 60 e 28% o número de frutos doentes aos três e cinco dias, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. Quanto aos parâmetros de qualidade, o peso médio dos frutos, o diâmetro e a firmeza da polpa, não mostraram diferenças significativas em relação à testemunha.Brown rot is the most important disease in peach tree cultivation, but field studies with control methods are currently rare in Brazil. One of the objectives of this study was to select fungicides in the laboratory then test them in the field, additionally to phosphites, for the control of the brown rot. The control was performed by observing the fruit development

  4. Effects of pretreatment by six species of white rot fungi on enzymatic hydrolysis of Populus tomentosa wood%六种白腐菌预处理对毛白杨木材酶水解效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 崔宝凯; 李牧洁

    2012-01-01

    The pretreatment efficiency of different fungi and the effects of different components on enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated through chemical analysis and enzymatic hydrolysis experiments. Chemical components of Populus tomentosa were all degraded after pretreatment by six species of white rot fungi for 30 days. Hemicellulose loss was found to be the most significant, and 47.19% of the loss was caused by Trametes ochracea C6888. The losses of cellulose and acid insoluble lignin were less than those of hemicellulose. The samples treated by six species of white rot fungi displayed different patterns in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Reducing sugar yields were higher in the samples treated by Trametes ochracea C6888, T. pubescens C7571 and T. versicolor C6915 during the whole of the hydrolysis periods. 15.93% of reducing sugar yield was achieved by T. ochracea C6888 in 96h, increasing by 25% as compared with the untreated sample. The relationships between the loss of acid insoluble lignin and the yield of reducing sugar, and hemicellulose loss and reducing sugar yield were investigated. It was found that different fungi varied greatly during pretreatment with the same substrate, and the losses of lignin and hemicellulose could influence on the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose.%通过化学分析和酶水解试验,研究了不同的白腐菌对毛白杨的预处理效果及不同组分的降解对酶水解的影响.毛白杨木片经6种白腐菌预处理30d后,各组分都发生了降解,其中半纤维素的损失最为显著,Trametes ochracea C6888引起半纤维素降解率高达47.19%,其次是纤维素和酸不溶木素的降解.在后续酶水解过程中,6种白腐菌处理后的样品显示出不同的水解模式,菌株Trametes ochracea C6888、T.pubescens C7571和T.versicolor C6915预处理效果最为显著,还原糖得率在整个酶水解过程中一直高于对照,其中T.ochracea C6888在水解96h后还原糖得率达到15.93

  5. In vitro decomposition of Sphagnum-derived acrotelm and mesotelm peat by indigenous and alien basidiomycetous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Thormann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Northern peatlands have accumulated significant quantities of peat, and it has been predicted that rates of peat decomposition may increase due to climate warming. In peatlands, organic matter decomposition in the acrotelm is accomplished primarily by fungi that act differentially through time on various peat constituents. After four months of decomposition in vitro, I show a distinct microbiological limitation to the decomposition of Sphagnum-derived peat (mean mass losses of 1.1–7.1 % by indigenous and alien basidiomycetous fungi of both acrotelm and mesotelm peat (the mesotelm is the lower part of the acrotelm sensu lato, in which conditions fluctuate between oxic and anoxic. Neither acrotelm nor mesotelm Sphagnum peat can be degraded effectively by many fungi (mean mass losses of 2.7 % and 4.3 % for acrotelm and mesotelm peat, respectively, including the ubiquitous wood decomposing basidiomycetes known to decompose some of nature’s most complex polymers. Peatland basidiomycetes caused significantly greater mass losses of acrotelm and mesotelm peat than wood decay basidiomycetes (mean mass losses of 5.7 % and 1.4 %, respectively. Brown rot fungi caused significantly greater mass losses to acrotelm and mesotelm peat than white rot fungi and non-wood-decay fungi (mean mass losses of 10.1 %, 1.7 %, and 2.3 %, respectively. Rates of peat decomposition may not increase to the extent previously predicted, and peatlands may not necessarily be long-term sources of CO2 in response to a warming climate.

  6. 木雕文物的褐腐菌害%Degradation of wooden-carved Buddha caused by brown-rot fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元生; 解玉林; 徐文娟

    2003-01-01

    为对一尊唐代木雕佛像严重朽蚀的原因进行调查,用扫描电镜观察,对样品的综纤维素、木质素含量等进行分析测定,并对菌进行培养.实验结果表明,木材纤维中有菌丝,真菌孢子,经一定温湿度培养后,腐朽木材上的孢子有发展,说明该真菌在原介质上存活,在合适的环境条件下,将会继续起菌害作用.分析数据说明,综纤维素含量大大降低,木质素的相对百分比含量大大升高,这是综纤维素及其相伴生的戊聚糖受真菌破坏分解的结果.此等菌害的表现应该是属褐腐菌对木材破坏的结果.由于褐腐菌对木材短时间内就能产生强大的破坏力,因此,对木质文物的保护要特别重视褐腐菌的侵害.

  7. Research Progress of Brown Rot Fungi in Lignocellulose Degradation%褐腐菌在木质纤维素降解中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭木; 王秋玉; 訾晓雪

    2014-01-01

    为了研究褐腐菌在木质纤维素降解中的作用,综述了国内外近5年褐腐菌对木质纤维素的预处理、生物降解、生物质转化、发酵能力等方面的研究进展,发现其在环境价值和生物技术方面的潜能,而有关生物降解或转化方面的研究大部分都是单独的,缺乏系统化.因此,加强褐腐菌对木质纤维素剩余物的降解与利用,能为其今后的生产应用提供理论基础.

  8. Study of lignin biotransformation by Aspergillus fumigatus and white-rot fungi using 14C-labeled and unlabeled kraft lignins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodegradation of lignin by fungi was studied in shake flasks using 14C-labeled kraft lignin and in a deep-tank fermentor using unlabeled kraft lignin. Among the fungi screened, A. fumigatus - isolated in our laboratories - was most potent in lignin biotransformation. Dialysis-type fermentation, designed to study possible accumulation of low MW lignin-derived products, showed no such accumulation. Recalcitrant carbohydrates like microcrystalline cellulose supported higher lignolytic activity than easily metabolized carbohydrates like cellobiose. An assay developed to distinguish between CO2 evolved from lignin and carbohydrate substrates demonstrated no stoichiometric correlation between the metabolism of the two cosubstrates. The submerged fermentations with unlabeled liqnin are difficult to monitor since chemical assays do not give accurate and true results. Lignolytic efficiencies that allowed monitoring of such fermentations were defined. Degraded lignins were clearly superior to C. versicolor in all aspects of lignin degradation; A fumigatus brought about substantial demethoxylation and dehydroxylation, whereas C. versicolor degraded lignins closely resembled undegraded kraft lignin. There was a good agreement among the different indices of lignin degradation, namely, 14CO evolution, OCH3 loss, OH loss, and monomer and dimer yield after permanganate oxidation

  9. 双孢蘑菇褐腐病病原菌的分离及分子鉴定%Isolation and Molecular Identification of a Pathogen Causing Brown Rot in Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李河; 周国英; 刘君昂

    2009-01-01

    Strain CSUFT0821, a pathogen causing brown rot of Agaricus bisporus, has been identified by determining the sequence of a ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and comparing with corresponding sequences deposited in GenBank. Homology was highest (99%) with an ITS sequence from Mycogone perniciosa (EU380317). A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of ITS sequences revealed very close proximity between EU380317 and the ITS sequence from strain CSUFT0821, and confirmed that the latter was M. perniciosa.%对引起双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)褐腐病的病原菌进行分离和分子鉴定.分离培养褐腐病病原菌,采用CTAB法抽提其基因组总DNA,利用真菌通用引物ITS1和ITS4扩增菌株rDNA ITS区序列,扩增产物纯化后克隆转化至大肠杆菌,挑选克隆成功的菌株进行测序.测序结果在GenBank中进行同源性搜索,并下载部分具有代表性种的ITS序列,利用软件MEGA4 构建分子系统发育树,通过序列分析,鉴定出引起双孢蘑菇褐腐病的病原菌为Mycogone perniciosa.

  10. Screening,Identification and Biocontrol Potential of Antagonistic Fungi Against Strawberry Root Rot and Plant Growth Promotion%草莓根腐病拮抗真菌筛选鉴定及其防病促生作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申光辉; 薛泉宏; 张晶; 段佳丽; 王东胜; 杨兴华

    2012-01-01

    fungi based on root-zone microflora differentiae between healthy and root rot diseased strawberry plants. [Method] The isolated antagonistic fungi were identified according to colony and morphological characteristics observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and rDNA-ITS sequences analysis. Mycelium growth rate method and slide dual culture method were used to investigate antagonistic activity of cell-free culture filtrate and the antagonistic effect of antagonistic fungi against soil-borne pathogens, respectively. The seed germination promotion activity of culture filtrate was measured by Petri dish assays: A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the control efficiency of antagonistic fungi against strawberry root rot caused by Cylindrocarpon macrodidyma CF9 and plant growth promotion effect. Colonization capacity and microbial flora were also determined by dilution plate count method. [Result] Strain HF3 and strain HF7 were identified as Penicillium griseofulvum and Aspergillus terreus, respectively. The cell-free culture filtrate both of two strains exhibited strong antagonistic effect on mycelium growth of test pathogens. The mycelium inhibitory rate of strain HF3 culture filtrate on Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae were 100.0% after 96 h. It was also observed that HF3 broke the hyphae of C. macrodidyma CF9, such as contorting, slimmer, bulging, dissolved, protoplasm condense. It was observed that 103 and 104 diluted-fold filtrate of two strains enhanced the melon seed germination and growth, 104 diluted-fold filtrate of HF7 promoted seed germination, plumule and radicle growth of watermelon. In a pot experiment, the control efficiency against root rot of strawberry of HF3 and HF7 were 53.0% and 46.9%, respectively. Moreover, two antagonistic strains exhibited strawberry plant growth promotion as well as fruit yield enhancement. HF3 and HF7 efficiently colonized strawberry root with rhizoplane densities 2.23×105, 1.02×l05 CFU·g-1 dry soil

  11. Expression of Five Endopolygalacturonase Genes and Demonstration that MfPG1 Overexpression Diminishes Virulence in the Brown Rot Pathogen Monilinia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien-Ming; Yu, Fang-Yi; Yu, Pei-Ling; Ho, Jia-Fang; Bostock, Richard M; Chung, Kuang-Ren; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lee, Miin-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Monilinia fructicola is a devastating pathogen on stone fruits, causing blossom blight and fruit rot. Little is known about pathogenic mechanisms in M. fructicola and related Monilinia species. In this study, five endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in M. fructicola. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the five MfPG genes are differentially expressed during pathogenesis and in culture under various pH regimes and carbon and nitrogen sources. MfPG1 encodes the major endo-PG and is expressed to significantly higher levels compared to the other four MfPGs in culture and in planta. MfPG1 function during pathogenesis was evaluated by examining the disease phenotypes and gene expression patterns in M. fructicola MfPG1-overexpressing strains and in strains carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene fused with MfPG1 (MfPG1-GUS). The MFPG1-GUS reporter was expressed in situ in conidia and hyphae following inoculation of flower petals, and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed MfPG1 expression during pathogenesis. MfPG1-overexpressing strains produced smaller lesions and higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the petals of peach and rose flowers than the wild-type strain, suggesting that MfPG1 affecting fungal virulence might be in part resulted from the increase of ROS in the Prunus-M. fructicola interactions. PMID:26120831

  12. Expression of Five Endopolygalacturonase Genes and Demonstration that MfPG1 Overexpression Diminishes Virulence in the Brown Rot Pathogen Monilinia fructicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chou

    Full Text Available Monilinia fructicola is a devastating pathogen on stone fruits, causing blossom blight and fruit rot. Little is known about pathogenic mechanisms in M. fructicola and related Monilinia species. In this study, five endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG genes were cloned and functionally characterized in M. fructicola. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR revealed that the five MfPG genes are differentially expressed during pathogenesis and in culture under various pH regimes and carbon and nitrogen sources. MfPG1 encodes the major endo-PG and is expressed to significantly higher levels compared to the other four MfPGs in culture and in planta. MfPG1 function during pathogenesis was evaluated by examining the disease phenotypes and gene expression patterns in M. fructicola MfPG1-overexpressing strains and in strains carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene fused with MfPG1 (MfPG1-GUS. The MFPG1-GUS reporter was expressed in situ in conidia and hyphae following inoculation of flower petals, and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed MfPG1 expression during pathogenesis. MfPG1-overexpressing strains produced smaller lesions and higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS on the petals of peach and rose flowers than the wild-type strain, suggesting that MfPG1 affecting fungal virulence might be in part resulted from the increase of ROS in the Prunus-M. fructicola interactions.

  13. Soft Rot on Citrus unshiu Caused by Rhizopus oryzae in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon; Jinwoo Kim; Jae-Wook Hyun; Yong Hwan Lee; Hong-Sik Shim

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot caused by Rhizopus oryzae occurred on unshiu orange (Citrus unshiu Marc.) sampled from commercial markets in Jinju, Korea, 2010. The first symptom of soft rot on orange is a water-soaked appearance of the affected tissue. The infected parts later disintegrated into a mushy mass of disorganized cells followed by rapid softening of the diseased tissue. The lesion on orange was rapidly softened and rotted, then became brown or dark brown. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth of the c...

  14. Variabilidade morfocultural e genética de fungos associados a podridão peduncular do mamão Morphocultural and genetic variability of fungi associated with stem-end rot of papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Pimenta Peres

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, verificar a variabilidade morfocultural e genética de fungos associados à podridão peduncular do mamão (Carica papaya L.. As avaliações morfoculturais foram feitas pelo índice de crescimento micelial e características das colônias, como coloração e tipo de micélio, quando os isolados foram crescidos em diferentes meios de cultura (BDA, MDA e Czapek. A variabilidade genética foi verificada por meio de análises de AFLP. Os isolamentos foram feitos em frutos obtidos de diferentes regiões produtoras do Brasil. Foram estudados oito isolados de cada uma das três espécies mais incidentes (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phoma caricae-papayae e Fusarium solani. Foi verificado que os meios BDA e MDA promoveram um maior e mais rápido crescimento micelial para a maioria dos isolados testados e houve variações nas colorações das colônias desses isolados nos diferentes meios. A análise de AFLP gerou um total de 339 bandas polimórficas, indicando uma variabilidade genética entre os isolados de cada espécie fúngica, com alguns desses microrganismos formando grupos divergentes dos demais. Não foi observada uma correlação entre características morfológicas e análises de AFLP.The objective of this work was to look at the variability between isolates of the three fungal species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani and Phoma caricae-papayae associated with stem-end rot in papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. which were produced in different regions of Brazil. In one trial, comparisons were made considering morphological and cultural characteristics exhibited by the fungi grown in different media: Potato dextrose agar (PDA, Papaya extract agar (PEA and Czapek. In general, mycelial growth of all fungi was higher in PDA and PEA and no correlation was seen between growth rates and other morphocultural characteristics such as color, colony type and others for all isolates compared. The analysis of

  15. On the reaction of some bacteria and fungi on coal tar creosote. Zur Verhalten einiger Bakterien und Pilze gegenueber Steinkohlenteeroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, O.; Dittberner, D.; Faix, O. (Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Ordinariat fuer Holzbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    To contribute to the waste management of wood preservatives, the biodegradability of coal tar creosote by bacteria and fungi has been investigated. Microorganisms comprised 24 bacterial strains and 31 fungi from different systematic and ecological groups as well as isolates from contaminated soils. Based on countings of viable cells, the experiments with various nutrient media, methods of cultivation, preservative concentrations, and organic solvents yielded some bacteria which could grow in the presence of creosote: {ital Aeromonas hydrophila}, {ital Flavobacterium} sp., {ital Pseudomonas arvilla}, {ital P. fluorescens}, and {ital P. putida}. The white-rot fungi {ital Bjerkandera adusta}, {ital Heterobasidion annosum}, {ital Hirschioporus abietinus}, {ital Lentinula edodes}, {ital Peniophora gigantea}, {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Schizophyllum commune}, and {ital Trametes versicolor}, the brown-rot fungus {ital Lentinus lepideus}, the staining fungi {ital Ceratocystis piceae} and {ital Stereum sanguinolentum}, and the moulds {ital Paecilomyces variotii} and {ital Trichoderma viride} also grew with creosote. To prepare samples for IR-measurements, continuous extraction of creosote from the nutrient liquid by percolation with methylene chloride was suitable. However, the IR-spectra of creosote did not show any measurable changes after incubation with 16 bacterial strains and 6 fungi. 42 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. 中国木本植物病原木材腐朽菌研究%Pathogenic wood-decaying fungi on woody plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玉成

    2012-01-01

    简要论述了中国木本植物致病木材腐朽菌,报道危害活立木的木腐菌152种,其中49种(占总数的34%)在中国首次报道为林木病原菌.对每个种的寄主、侵染部位、腐朽类型、发生频率及分布进行了报道.它们中有135种(占总数的89%)造成木材白色腐朽,17种导致褐色腐朽;67种为常见种,33种为偶见种,52种为少见种.%The paper deals with the pathogenic wood-decaying fungi on woody plants in China. One hundred and fifty-two species have been recorded, of which 49 species (accounting for 34% of the total pathogenic species) are firstly reported as pathogenic fungi in China. Their host, type of rot, occurrence and distribution were given according to field inventories. Among these fungi, 135 species (accounting for 89%) cause a white rot, while 17 species resulted in a brown rot. Among these fungi 67, 33 and 52 species belong to common, occasional and rare species respectively.

  17. Identification of the pathogen causing brown rot of Chinese Dwarf Cherry( Cerasus humilis%欧李褐腐病病原菌鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐成楠; 周宗山; 吴玉星; 迟福梅; 张红军

    2011-01-01

    欧李[ Cerasus humilis( Bge.) Sok.]为蔷薇科樱桃属果树,别名钙果,原产中国,分布于我国的黑龙江、辽宁、内蒙古、河北、山东、山西等省区.多生长在向阳山坡或沙丘边缘,资源相当丰富.欧李株高0.3~1.5m,多为0.5~0.7m左右,是目前世界上最矮小的木本果树.果实可鲜食或加工,含糖、蛋白质、维生素C,特别是矿质元素铁和钙的含量很高,每100果肉干分别含有58和360 mg种仁可作药用,中药称之为"郁李仁"可消毒化肿.%One serious disease happened on the fruit of Chinese Dwarf Cherry in Liaoning Province recently. The typical symptom was brown spot formed on the fruit surface. The spot spread quickly through the whole fruits, then the fruits were rotten. There were tomentum round shaped mildew formed on the surface of symptomatic fruits. The pathogen was isolated from infected fruits. After pathogenicity tests in lab and field and re-isolation, the isolate HI was determined to be responsible for the disease. HI colony on PDA was 70 -75 mm in diameter, with concentric rings in grayish or light brown color after 7 days incubation at 221 with illumination of 12 h near-UV/12 h dark. The conidia were one-celled, hyaline, lemon-shaped, (10-27) jun x (7-17) jun on PDA, produced in branched monilioid chains. The rDNA ITS sequence of islolates HI and Gl had 100% similarity with those of Monilinia fructicola in GenBank. The amplification results with three Monilinia specific primer pairs showed that only primer pair ITSlMfcl and ITS4Mfcl could amplify a 356 bp fragment. Based on the morphological characteristics and rDNA molecular analysis, the pathogen was finally identified as M. Fructicola.

  18. Queima das flores e podridão parda em pessegueiro sob sistema de cultivo orgânico Blossom blight and brown rot on organic peach production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Keske

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A queima das flores e a podridão parda, causadas por Monilinia fructicola, são as doenças mais importantes na cultura do pessegueiro. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a incidência de queima das flores e podridão parda latente em frutos verdes e na colheita sob condições naturais de infecção, em relação à posição dos ramos em pomar com cultivares de pessegueiro sob sistema de cultivo orgânico. As avaliações foram realizadas com as cultivares 'Aurora', 'Flordaking', 'Marli' e 'Della Nona' em 2006, e 'Aurora' e 'Marli' em 2007 e 2008 e conduzidas em sistema orgânico em Rio do Sul, Santa Catarina (SC. Foram monitorados semanalmente os conídios do patógeno em armadilhas tipo "cata-vento". A incidência média da doença na floração foi de 0,8 ('Della Nona' a 19,1% ('Marli'. A incidência na colheita foi de 15,4('Della Nona' a 65,7% ('Flordaking'. Correlações positivas e significativas foram verificadas entre número de conídios e fases fenológicas variando de 0,67 ('Flordaking a 0,99 ('Aurora'. A posição do ramo no pomar, na linha ou na entrelinha não influenciou a incidência da doença nas flores e nos frutos. A maior concentração de conídios foi observada na fase de maturação dos frutos.The blossom blight and brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola are the most important diseases of peach tree. This study aimed to verify the incidence of the blossom blight on flowers and latent brown rot in green fruits, and at harvest under natural infection, in relation to the position of branches in the orchard with peach cultivars under organic system. The evaluations were carried out with the cultivars 'Aurora', 'Flordaking', 'Marli' and 'Della Nona' in 2006, 'Aurora' and 'Marli' in 2007 and 2008 and conducted in an organic syste m in Rio do Sul, SC. Conidia were monitored weekly by "winddriven" traps. At flowering the average incidence was 0.8 ('Della Nona' to 19.1% ('Marli'. The incidence at harvest was 15

  19. 一种玉米新型细菌性褐腐病的病原鉴定%Identification of the bacteria causing a new brown stalk rot on maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾沁; 张昊; 黄海; 丁正; 伍辉军; 高学文

    2016-01-01

    本研究从河北省武邑、献县、阜城和永年采集感病玉米植株。病株症状为叶梢枯死卷曲,叶脉产生黄色病斑,茎秆处黄褐色干腐。从发病植株中分离得到了10株疑似病原细菌菌株,经过回接验证和16S rDNA 和 gyrB 基因的序列分析,结果表明,引起该病害的病原物为菠萝泛菌(Pantoea ananatis )和分散泛菌(Pantoea dispersa )。这是国内首次报道菠萝泛菌和分散泛菌引起玉米细菌性病害。%To identify the pathogens of newly occurred maize disease,we collected the samples of maize disease from four areas (Wuyi,Xianxian,Fucheng and Yongnian)in Hebei Province.The symptoms of the disease showed yellowish-brown dry rot in corn stalk,curl and blight symptoms on leaf tips and yellow spots on leaf veins. Pathogenic tests were assayed by inoculating the bacteria isolated from the diseased corn plants.The pathogens were identified as Pantoea ananatis and P .dispersa according to the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and gyrB gene .To our knowledge,it is the first report of P .ananatis and P .dispersa causing maize disease in China.

  20. 复合白腐真菌茵剂修复原油污染土壤%Restoration of Oil Polluted Soil using Combined Fungus of White-rot Fungi and Microbial Inoculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付辉; 孟瑶; 梁红; 董义兴; 程方志; 郝伟; 朱逸格; 高大文

    2012-01-01

    The oil polluted soil in Daqing was simulated under different soil moisture content and inoculation amount, and the effects of complex microbial inoculum ( the most famous northeastern white-rot fungi with high enzyme production : Polyporellus picipes + Pleurotus ostreatus + Pseudotrametes gibbosa) on oil degradation rates and the changes of soil FH values were analyzed. The re- suits showed that the higher the inoculum concentration of complex microbial inoculum, the bigger the effects on oil degradation rates. The effects on oil degradation are remarkable in the first 40 days, especially in the first 20 days. A certain amount of soil moisture is maintained, which is helpful for complex microbial inoculum to work on oil degradation. On the 20th day, the degradation rate reaches 33.43% after adding distilled water regularly, and the oil residue quantity decreases by 16. 571 g/kg, which is 8. 762g/kg more than the oil without adding distilled water in the same period.%模拟大庆原油污染土壤,研究不同接种量和土壤湿度条件下,复合菌剂(采用产酶量高的东北土著白腐真菌:青顶拟多孔菌Polyporelluspicipes’糙皮侧耳菌Pleurotusostreatus’偏肿拟栓菌Pseudotrametesgibbosa)对原油的降解效果及土壤的pH变化规律。结果表明,复合菌剂的接种量越高,对石油的降解率也越高。复合菌剂在投加前40dx,t-石油的降解效果明显,尤其前20d降解效果极其显著。保持一定的土壤湿度,有利于复合菌剂对石油的降解.在第20d,在定期添加蒸馏水的条件下降解率达到33.43%,原油的残余量减少了16.571g/kg,比同期不添加蒸馏水的多去除8.762g/kg。

  1. Efeito da irradiação UV-C no controle da podridão parda (Monilinia fructicola e da podridão mole (Rhizopus stolonifer em pós-colheita de pêssegos Effect of UV-C irradiation on postharvest control of brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and soft rot (Rhizopus stolonifer of peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bassetto

    2007-10-01

    W.cm-2. Peach fruits were treated with UV-C irradiation in a protective and curative way. In the protector treatment, fruits were exposed to 1.04 kJ.m-2 for 1 min. and were inoculated immediately and after 16, 24 and 40 hours. In the curative treatment, peach fruits were inoculated, incubated and irradiated with 0, 1.04, 5.22, 10.44, 15.66 and 31.32 kJ.m-2 UV-C concentrations. Disease incidence and severity of brown rot were evaluated. In vitro, only the concentrations applied during 1 and 10 min. of exposure reduced the mycelial growth of M. fructicola, while the application of UV-C for 10-15 minutes reduced the mycelial growth of R. stolonifer and the concentration applied for 30 minutes completely inhibited the mycelial growth of this pathogen. There was no effect caused by UV-C light in the protective control, or by UV-C light in the curative control of brown rot. The irradiation of fruits with UV-C was effective in the curative control of soft rot, and the best results were observed with an exposure time of 10 minutes.

  2. 甘肃省马铃薯束梗褐腐病病原鉴定及其生物学特性研究%Identification and biological characteristics of Solanum tuberosum brown rot caused by Doratomyces stemonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泰祥; 陈秀蓉; 杨成德; 朱海波; 王涵琦; 卞静

    2014-01-01

    The identification and biological characteristics of the pathogen isolated from brown rot of Solanum tu-berosum were studied.The pathogen was identified as Doratomyces stemonitis (Pers.ex Fr.)F.J.Morton &G. Smith based on morphological characteristics as well as rDNA-ITS sequences.The optimum temperature for myce-lial growth was 25-30 ℃ at pH 6.The pathogen could use monosaccharide,disaccharide and polysaccharide;the best carbon source was sucrose,and the best nitrogen source was glycine.Illumination had no obvious promotion effect on mycelial growth.The optimum temperature for sporangium sprout was 25 ℃ at pH 7.Spores could ger-minate only in water drop.The filtrate of potato and glucose solution had obvious promotion effect on spore ger-mination.Soil solution had no effects on spore germination.%对甘肃省马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum L.)束梗褐腐病病原进行了分离鉴定和生物学特性研究。经形态特征观察与 rDNA-ITS 序列分析,将病原菌鉴定为细基束梗霉[Doratomyces stemonitis (Pers.ex Fr.)F.J.Morton &G.Smith]。生物学特性研究结果表明,病菌菌丝生长最适温度为25~30℃,最适 pH 为6,病菌能利用多种碳源,但以蔗糖最好,氮源以甘氨酸最适,光照对菌丝生长没有影响。分生孢子在5~40℃范围内均能萌发,最适25℃,最适 pH 为7,分生孢子萌发需液态水,湿度低于99%几乎不萌发,马铃薯汁液和葡萄糖液对孢子萌发有较好的促进作用。本研究为马铃薯束梗褐腐病的防治提供了理论依据。

  3. Occurrence of Sclerotium Rot of Cucumber Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon; Sang-Dae Lee; Okryun Choi; Shun-Shan Shen; Hong-Sik Shim

    2015-01-01

    Sclerotium rot of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) occurred at the experimental field of Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services in July 2012. The typical symptoms included wilt, rot, and water-soaking on stems and fruits and severely infected plants eventually died. White mycelial mats spread over lesions, and then sclerotia were formed on fruit and near soil line. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, white to brown in color and 1−3 mm in size and the hyphal wi...

  4. The Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on Pawpaw Fruit Rot in South-Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Baiyewu; N.A. Amusa

    2005-01-01

    Fungi found associated with fruit rot of pawpaw (Carica papaya L. ) in South-western Nigeria includes Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergilus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Curvularia lunata and Collectotrichum capsicis. All were pathogenic on the test pawpaw fruits varieties (Isolo, JS22 and Homestead) in this study. The most pathogenic being C. lunata followed by R. nigricans, while the least rot was induced by C. capsicis. Results reveal that optimum temperature for maximum rot, range f...

  5. Stand tending and root rot in Norway spruce stands - economical effects caused by root rot at different thinning regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into three parts: 1) a literature study describing the most common fungi causing rot in wood and descriptions of various strategies to reduce economic loss from root rot, 2) a check of a model describing the development of butt rot in pure Norway spruce plantations in southern Sweden, and 3) simulated economic effects of root rot in stands with various stand tending. The rot model was used to estimate future rot frequencies in the economic calculations. In order to avoid overestimations of rot frequencies, the calculations were also executed when assuming slower growth of rot than shown in the model. When analysing the economical effects of rot, the following three thinning programmes were used: Program 1: thinning at the ages of 30- and 45 years. Final felling at the ages 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, and 70 years. Program 2: thinning at the ages of 40- and 60- years. Final felling at the ages 65 and 75 years. Program 3: thinning at the ages of 30-, 40-, 55-, and 70 years. Final felling at the ages 80 and 90 years. With an interest rate of 3%, programme 2 (final felling at the age of 65 years) had the highest value at present. This result was valid when presuming butt rot in the stand as well as when presuming no butt rot in the stand. There was a small difference between the value at present in programme 1 (final felling at the age of 60 years) and in programme 3 (final felling at the age of 80 years). When presuming butt rot in the stand, the value at present in programme 3 decreased somewhat more in comparison to the value at present in programme 1. Compared to no butt rot in the stand, the optimal final felling time appeared five to ten years earlier when assuming butt rot in the stand. Stand tending programme 1 and an interest rate of 3% were used. Interest rates 2 and 4% did not indicate shorter rotation. The calculated optimal time of final felling appeared at the same stand age whether assuming rot preset or not. The results in this study

  6. Antagonism of Trichoderma spp.to Fungi Caused Root Rot of Sophora tonkinensis%木霉菌对山豆根根腐病菌的拮抗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃柳燕; 蒋妮; 唐美琼; 缪剑华; 李林轩

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究木霉菌对山豆根根腐病菌茄腐镰孢S9(Fusarium solani)的拮抗作用,探讨生物防治菌在防治中药材土传病害上的应用前景.方法:采用生长速度法、对峙培养法研究哈茨木霉H2(Trichoderma harsianum)、绿色木霉M6(Trichoderma viride)和康宁木霉K1(Trichoderma koningii)对山豆根根腐病菌S9的拮抗作用,并讨论了其作用机理.结果:发现H2、M6竞争优势显著,生长速度分别是S9的1.43~2.72倍和1.43~1.95倍;K1的空间竞争优势较弱,生长速度不如S9.3种木霉菌对S9均有不同程度的拮抗作用,其中,M6和H2对S9的拮抗作用较强,即使在提前3 d接入病原菌的情况下,M6和H2对S9的抑制率仍能分别达100%和82.35%,拮抗系数均达Ⅰ级;K1对S9的抑制率为46.36%,拮抗系数为Ⅳ级.在显微镜下观察到木霉菌通过缠绕、寄生等方式使S9发生菌丝断裂、缢缩、消解等现象.结论:哈茨木霉和绿色木霉作为生防菌在防治中药材土传病害上具有深入开发的前景.%Objective:To study the antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi S9 ( Fusarium solani)which caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis and discuss the further develop prospects of microbial biological control in soil-borne diseases on Chinese herbal medicines. Methods:Antagonism of H2 (Trichoderma harsianum ) , M6 (Trichoderma viride ) and K1 (Trichoderma koningii ) to Fusarium solani were researched by growth rate and confront culture. And their mechanisms were discussed. Results: H2 and M6 had obvious competitive advantage, the growth rate of which were 1.43 ~ 2. 72 times and 1.43 ~ 1.95 times as S9 respectively. The space competitive advantage of K1 was relatively weak ;the growth rate was slower than S9. The antagonism of three species of Trichoderma spp. to S9 was in varying degrees. The antagonism to S9 of M6 and H2 was better,the inhibition rate were 100% and 82. 35% respectively,even cultivated S9 for three days in advance. And their

  7. Assessment of Biodegradation by Fungi and Termites on Heat-Treated Grevillea robusta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat treatment of Gravillea robusta, a tropical wood species of low natural durability, was carried out at 240 d egress to 260 d egress centigrade for 0.5 to 15 hours under insert conditions to improve it's decay resistance. Heat-treated and untreated 50 '25 '50 '25 '25 specimens were buried testing according to procedures of AWAPA E-10-91. Similar sized untreated specimens of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus saligna were included in the test fro comparison. Fungal resistance were evaluated by malt agar block tests after three month exposure. Six specimens of each species were put in a bucket filled with forest soil rich in fungi. Termite attack was assessed through observation of tunneling into wood, light microscopy and weight loss every two weeks.. Microscopic (Fourier Transform Infra Red) FTIR and 13C MAS NMR analysis were performed to characterize wood chemical and anatomical modifications. Results showed that fungi attacked untreated specimens and did not attack treated wood significantly. Evolution of NMR and FTIR spectra indicate that the main modifications of G. robusta were due to heat hemicellulose degradation as confirmed by the disappearance of menthyl and acetyl groups. Microscopic analysis of heat treated wood showed only marginal modification of it's anatomical structure and almost complete disappearance of extractives deposited in the vessels. Decay resistance was well correlated to mass loss, with mass loss of 0 to 0.82% compared to 11 to 14% for the control. Soft rot, white rot and brown rot fungi attacked untreated specimens with full colonization after four weeks. Untreated E saligna has less mass loss than untreated G. robusta, P. syslvestris and P. patula. This study showed that heat treatment is a viable alternative to toxic wood preservation chemicals. However further laboratory and field investigation is needed covering broad treatment conditions

  8. Population Structure of the North American Cranberry Fruit Rot Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry fruit rot is caused by a complex of pathogenic fungi. Variation in the populations within this complex from region to region could delay identification of the causal agents(s) and complicate management strategies. Our objective was to assess genetic variation within the four major fruit ro...

  9. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  10. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants. PMID:15151303

  11. Sclerotium Rot of Sponge Gourd Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Hwan Lee; Jinwoo Kim; Jin-Hyeuk Kwon; Hong-Sik Shim

    2012-01-01

    Sclerotium rot of sponge gourd occurred at the experimental field of Gyeongsangnam-do AgriculturalResearch and Extension Services in August 2010. The infected fruits showed water-soaked and rot symptoms.White mycelial mats spread over lesions, and then sclerotia were formed on fruit and near soil line. Thesclerotia were globoid in shape, 1−3 mm in size and white to brown in color. The optimum temperature formycelial growth and sclerotia formation on PDA was 30oC and the hyphal width was 4−8 μ...

  12. Effect of debarking water from Norway spruce (Picea abies) on the growth of five species of wood-decaying fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edfeldt, Amelie Fagerlund; Hedenström, Erik; Edman, Mattias; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste. PMID:25711043

  13. Antifungal activities of 20 kinds of Chinese herbal extracts of water wood white-rot fungi and wood brown-rot fungi%20种中草药水提液对白腐菌和褐腐菌的抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋世一; 王喜明; 王雅梅

    2014-01-01

    以大量对真菌有抑菌效果的中草药作为实验材料,旨在寻找筛选对抑制木腐菌生长有效的单味中药,寻找新型木材防腐剂.通过对20种中草药的抑菌圈实验,得出对白腐菌抑菌效果最好的中药是皂角和川椒,皂角的抑菌效果最好,其余中药也有不同程度的抑菌作用.而对褐腐菌抑菌效果最好的中药是皂角,其余中药对木腐菌的抑菌效果不明显.

  14. Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chiloé, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings. PMID:24407313

  15. Endophytic fungi from plums (Prunus domestica) and their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; da Silva, Juliana F Moreira; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Janisiewicz, Wojciech J

    2012-10-01

    Enophytic fungi were isolated from plum (Prunus domestica) leaves, identified with ITS1 and ITS4 primers, and their antagonistic activity was tested against Monilinia fructicola, which causes brown rot, blossom blight, and twig blight of stone fruits, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which causes anthracnose on a variety of fruit crops. The production of antifungal compounds was determined in agar-diffusion and volatile inverted-plate tests. A total of 163 fungi were recovered from 30 plum trees, representing 22 cultivars. Twenty-nine morphotypes were detected, but only 14 species were identified genetically. The most frequently isolated species was Phaeosphaeria nodorum, constituting 86.5% of the total isolates. Four isolates produced inhibitory volatiles to M. fructicola; however, no isolate produced volatiles inhibitory to C. gloeosporioides. The volatiles produced by these fungi were identified as ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetic acid, 2-propyn-1-ol, and 2-propenenitrile. The fungal volatiles inhibited growth and reduced width of the hyphae, and caused disintegration of the hyphal content. This is the first study describing fungal endophytes in stone fruits. The P. nodorum strains producing inhibitory volatiles could play a significant role in reduction of M. fructicola expansion in plum tissues. Potential of these strains for biological control of this pathogen on stone fruits warrants further investigation. PMID:23043843

  16. 津黑两地大白菜褐腐病病原菌鉴定及生物学特性的比较%Identification and comparison of the biological characteristics of the pathogen causing brown rot of Chinese cabbage in Tianjin and Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗国辉; 闻凤英; 张耀伟

    2012-01-01

    采用形态特征观察、致病性测定及rDNA-ITS序列分析等方法对天津、黑龙江两地大白菜褐腐病的病原菌进行鉴定.结果表明,天津、黑龙江两地大白菜褐腐病的病原菌为立枯丝核菌(Rhizoctonia solani Kühn),分离鉴定出TJ和DB两个菌株,分属立枯丝核菌AG-2融合群和AG-1融合群;DB菌株为一新菌株.两菌株菌丝生长最适温度均为25℃,最适pH为7,最适光照为12h.DB菌株菌丝生长速率快于TJ菌株;但TJ菌株先于DB菌株形成菌核,且形成量多.两菌株在碳源、氮源利用和菌核致死温度上也存在差异.%The pathogen of Chinese cabbage brown rot was studied through morphological characteristics, patho-genicity, and ribosomal DNA-ITS sequence. The results showed that the two strains from Chinese cabbage brown rot collected from Tianjin and Heilongjiang were Rhizoctonia solani Kiihn TJ and DB, belonging to anastomosis group AG-2 and anastomosis group AG-1. The DB strain was a new strain. The optimal temperature, pH and illumination for mycelial growth of the two strains were 25 "C , 7 and 12 h, respectively. The mycelial growth rate of the TJ strain was lower than the DB strain. The quantity and rate of sclerotia formation of the TJ strain were greater. There were obvious differences in the use of carbon sources, nitrogen sources and lethal temperature in the two strains.

  17. The plant cell wall decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, Daniel C.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Baker, Scott E.; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Vries, Ronald P. de; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hä; vard,; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José; L.; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José; A.; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kü; es, Ursula; Hibbett, David S.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hö; gberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Watkinson, Sarah C.

    2011-05-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood?residual lignin contributing up to 30percent of forest soil carbon?and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the ?dry rot? fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota

  18. Qualidade sanitária de grãos de milho com e sem inoculação a campo dos fungos causadores de podridões de espigaspiga Sanitary quality of corn grains with and without in-field inoculation with corn ear rot causing fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cruz Mendes

    2011-10-01

    experiment was carried out under field conditions, using an experimental randomized blocks design, with three replications. In the laboratory, the severity of F. verticilioides and the incidence of S. maydis and S. macrospora ,the causative agents of ear rot in corn, were evaluated by the "blotter test" method. The blotter test evaluation allowed us to detect differences between the hybrids in their reactions to the fungi F. verticilioides, S. maydis and S. macrospora. The crop season and cultivation system used had the most influence on fungal infection in the hybrids. The direct sowing system showed an increase in the fungal infection responsible for causing grain rot. The use of artificial inoculation, in-field, to select genotypes resistant to the fungal agents causing the "grain rot complex" is efficient.

  19. Using the Resistograph®to distinguish different types of wood rot on living silver fir in Molise (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasserre B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available he study was performed in two silver-fir forests (Abies alba Mill. located in Alto Molise, Province of Isernia: Collemeluccio, near Pescolanciano and Abeti Soprani near Capracotta. The aim of this work was to distinguish different types of wood rot on living silver fir individuals by using the Resistograph® (IML-RESI E400, a device that allows to estimate the variation of wood density by measuring the resistance to micro-perforation. The occurrence of different types of wood rot (white rot and brown rot in living trees was pointed out and discriminated by the device. In the detected deteriorated zones, fungal pathogens and decomposers were isolated and identified, causing either white (Phellinus hartigii, Ganoderma adspersum, Heterobasidion abietinum and Armillaria ostoyae or brown rot (Fomitopsis pinicola.

  20. 木腐菌及其腐朽机理研究进展%Review of Research Progress on Wood-decay Fungi and the Decay Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明月; 钱俊; 李光耀

    2012-01-01

    Wood decay fungi can effectively improve the permeability of the conifer heartwood and help identify the annual rings of the broadleaved tree diffuse-porous wood. In wood industry wood-decay fungi and their enzymes can also be used as biotechnological materials in biopulping pretreatment, biobleaching, wood enzymolysis and so on. In this paper the research progress on the decay mechanisms home and abroad was introduced systematically and comprehensively from the aspects of the brown rot, white rot, soft rot, bamboo and wood-based panel. The aim is to make scholars have a general understanding of the knowledge regarding the chemical compositions of wood and bamboo and parts of the cells degraded selectively by fungi in order to provide reference for the ~rotection and rational utilization of wood and bamboo.%木腐菌可以有效地改善针叶材心材的渗透性,可用于辅助阔叶材散孔材年轮的鉴定,木腐菌及其所分泌的酶还可作为生物技术应用于木材工业,如生物制浆预处理、生物漂白以及木材酶解为糖的预处理等领域。本文从褐腐、白腐、软腐、竹材及人造板等几个方面出发,对国内外腐朽机理的研究现状进行了较为系统、全面的介绍,旨在使学者了解真菌选择性地降解木竹材的化学成分和细胞各部分的知识,为木竹材的保护和合理利用提供参考。

  1. Prospects for Inhibition of lignin degrading enzymes to control ganoderma white rot of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; Meon, Sariah; Abidin, M. A. Zainal; Lima, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Oil palm (OP) is prone to a rot by the fungus Ganoderma which may be capable of being controlled by enzyme inhibitors. Palm oil is used in the production of vegetable oil for foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and, most recently, biodiesel. However, the fundamental process of the disease as “white rot” has been ignored by researchers. White rot fungi are capable of degrading lignin ultimately to carbon dioxide and water: Celluloses become available as nutrients for the fungus. One potential co...

  2. Zwalczanie zgnilizny powodowanej przez grzyby z rodzaju Penicillium [Control of Penicillium apple rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Borecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of Pezicula spp. fungi reduced Penicillium apple rot. The Penicillium apple rot process began slowly under the modified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 3% O2. The lower concentration of Benlate – 0.05% did not influence this fungicide's effectiveness, The lower concentration– 0.05% of Topsin M decreased the effectiveness of this fungicide. The resistant strains of Penicillium spp. to benzimidazole fungicides under laboratory conditions were obtained.

  3. Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (solanum tuberosum l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Salami Olusola Abiodun; Popoola Omololu Olumide

    2007-01-01

    Thermal control effect on the incidence of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Solanum tuberosum (potato) was investigated in this study. Three cultivars of potato tuber whose local names are, Patiska, Mai Bawondoya and Nicola were used for the study. Five pathogenic fungi viz: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium redolens, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae associated with post harvest storage rot of root-tubers, were isolated from diseased potatoes. Among the three specie...

  4. Zwalczanie zgnilizny powodowanej przez grzyby z rodzaju Penicillium [Control of Penicillium apple rot

    OpenAIRE

    H. Borecka

    2015-01-01

    Control of Pezicula spp. fungi reduced Penicillium apple rot. The Penicillium apple rot process began slowly under the modified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 3% O2. The lower concentration of Benlate – 0.05% did not influence this fungicide's effectiveness, The lower concentration– 0.05% of Topsin M decreased the effectiveness of this fungicide. The resistant strains of Penicillium spp. to benzimidazole fungicides under laboratory conditions were obtained.

  5. Endophytic and pathogenic fungi of developing cranberry ovaries from flower to mature fruit: diversity and succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culturable fungal population diversity and succession were investigated in developing cranberry ovaries of fruit rot-resistant and rot-susceptible cranberry selections, from flower through mature fruit. Fungi were recovered in culture from 1185 of 1338 ovary tissues collected from June to September,...

  6. The Fungi and Insects Which Attack Rubberwood%危害橡胶木的真菌和昆虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢嘉琪

    2001-01-01

    The biological characteristics of the insects and fungi which seriously attack rubberwood and the present state of rubberwood biodeterioration in China were described. The fungi attaching rubberwood consist mainly of blue-stain fungi, moulds and rotting fungi. The insects include beetle borers, termites and some other Coleopteran species, such as longicorns and snout beetles etc., the total insect species are near to one hundred. The stain fungi, moulds and beetles should be paid more attention to in rubberwood preservation.

  7. Maize Cob Rot in Kenya and Its Association with Stalk Borer Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cob rots are a major cause of crop loss in areas such as western Kenya that experience prolonged rainfall during the period of crop maturation. Cob rot fungi cause spoilage of the grain and some of them produce mycotoxins which can pose a health risk to humans and animals consuming foods prepared from contaminate grain. survey conducted in western Kenya in 1998 showed that cob rot incidence exceeded 20%. In the following year when rainfall was greater around the harvest period, cob rot fungi affected 68% of cobs. in 1998 stalk borer larvae (mainly Busseola fusca) damaged 20% of the cobs and there was a strong correlation (R= 0.87) between cob rot incidence and borer damage. In 1999 almost half of the cobs sampled showed evidence of borer damage. The result indicate that the high cob rot incidence in this pert of Kenya is due to stalk bore damage, which predisposes the cobs to fungal infection, and that management of the borer would greatly decrease cob rot incidence

  8. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    OpenAIRE

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata; Lević Jelena; Maširević Stevan; Grozdanović-Varga Jelica; Vasić Mirjana; Aleksić Svjetlana

    2008-01-01

    Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, express...

  9. 褐腐真菌木质纤维素降解机制的研究进展%Progress in the Studies of Decomposition of Lignocellulose by Brown-Rot Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 高培基

    2002-01-01

    褐腐菌降解木材机理的研究日益受到关注,发现褐腐菌不具有对结晶纤维素降解十分重要的外切葡聚糖酶,而以一种独特的方式降解纤维素.近年来,关于其以自由基氧化降解机制进行作用的报道很多,并且各国研究工作者从褐腐菌中分离得到了不同性质的物质,提出了羟基自由基HO@循环形成的各种假说,但褐腐菌降解木材的确切机制仍未搞清楚,这些分离得到的具有一些特殊性质的胞外物质在降解中的作用还有待于证明.在此,对近年来褐腐菌纤维素降解机制的研究进展作一简单介绍.

  10. 木材褐腐真菌泊氏孔菌属生态学研究%A Preliminary Study on Ecology of Wood Brown-rot Fungi of Postia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉莲; 戴玉成; 王林; 左洪文

    2008-01-01

    木材腐朽真菌在森林生态系统中起着关键的降解还原作用,是森林生态系统物质循环中不可缺少的重要组成部分.泊氏孔菌属的种类具有降解木材中的纤维素和半纤维素,造成木材褐色腐朽的功能,而混合于针叶林土壤中的褐腐残余物是针叶林生态系统更新所必不可少的.本文对中国地区泊氏孔菌属进行生态学的研究,结果表明树木腐烂程度与泊氏孔菌属的种类分布具有高度相关性,相关系数为0.885.寄主树木选择性的研究结果表明,泊氏孔菌属的种类主要生长在针叶树倒木上,有19种,占总数的86%,其中生长在云杉属和松属树木上的种类最多,而阔叶树中最适宜该属物种生长的树种是桦属和杨属树木.

  11. FTIR Studies of Masson Pine Wood Decayed by Brown-Rot Fungi%马尾松木材褐腐降解的红外光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李改云; 黄安民; 秦特夫; 黄洛华

    2010-01-01

    用傅立叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)研究了马尾松木材被茯苓褐腐菌降解过程中化学成分的变化.测量了木质素和综纤维素的相关红外吸收峰的峰高比值,用湿化学方法测定了末褐腐和不同褐腐时间木材的Klason木质素含量和综纤维素含量,分析了红外吸收峰峰高比值与Klason木质素含量和综纤维素含量的相关性.褐腐15周内,1 736和1 372 cm-1处归属于综纤维素的吸收峰强度逐渐减弱,1 510和1 225 cm-1处归属于木质素的吸收峰强度逐浙增强;但褐腐15周后,1 736和1 372 cm 1处的吸收强度却开始略微增强,1 510和1 225 cm 1处吸收强度略微下降.I1 510/I1 736,J1 510/I1 1372,/I1 225/I1 736和 I1 225/I1 372与Klason木质索和综纤维素含量之间均存在非常好的线性相关,R2为0.96~0.99.I1 736/J1 510和I1 372/I1 510与综纤维素含量之间存在高度线性相关,R2=0.96.结果说明用红外光谱技术可以对木材褐腐过程中的综纤维素含量和Klason木质素含量进行准确分析.

  12. 桃褐腐病菌抗药性分子机理研究进展%Progress in molecular mechanisms of fungicide resistance in peach brown rot fungi Monilinia spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹良芬; 胡勐郡; 金鑫; Guido Schnabel; 罗朝喜

    2010-01-01

    桃褐腐病是严重危害桃生产的重要病害之一.在实际生产中,该病害的控制主要以化学防治为主.由于杀菌剂的大量使用,桃褐腐病菌已对几类常用的杀菌剂产生了不同程度的抗药性.本文就桃褐腐病菌(Monilinia spp.)对生产上使用的几大类杀菌刺的抗药性情况及抗药性分子机制研究进展进行简单概述和分析,以供国内同行借鉴与参考.

  13. EFFECTS OF HYDROXYL RADICAL HO˙ON CELLULOSE DEGRADATION BY BROWN-ROT FUNGI%褐腐真菌产生的羟基自由基HO˙对纤维素作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 段新源; 孙彩云; 高培基

    2002-01-01

    由褐腐真菌的典型菌株--密粘褶菌Gloeophyllum trabeum的胞外培养液中分离纯化得到一能还原Fe3+,产生羟基自由基HO˙的多肽组分(称作Gt因子). 采用HO˙特异性的抑制剂硫脲,对Gt因子产生的HO˙在纤维素降解中的作用进行了对照研究,结果表明Gt因子及其产生的HO˙在纤维素降解中起着重要的作用,为褐腐菌HO˙氧化降解纤维素机制假说的确立提供了一些依据.

  14. 4种耐腐性树种心材提取物抑菌作用的研究%Inhibitory effects of heartwood extracts from four decay-resistant tree species to white and brown rot fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素英; 王伦; 刘连新; 黄秋娴; 卜志国; 王志刚

    2009-01-01

    为了探索强耐腐性树种心材提取物的抑菌活性,开发新型木材防腐剂,本研究选用甲醇、丙酮、乙酸乙酯和氯仿4种溶剂,采用浸渍法对桑、水曲柳、圆柏和华北落叶松4种树种心材进行提取,共计获得16种提取物,利用生长速率法测定其对白腐菌和褐腐菌,即彩绒革盖菌(Coriolus versicolor)和密粘褶菌(Gloeophyllum trabeum)的抑菌活性,并研究了提取物对这2种真菌的实验室木材防腐性能,与水基防腐剂ACQ-D进行比较.结果表明:桑甲醇、桑丙酮和桑乙酸乙酯提取物对白腐菌具有较强的抑制活性,桑甲醇、桑乙酸乙酯及圆柏乙酸乙酯提取物对褐腐菌抑制活性较强,其它各提取物对2种菌的抑制率均在70%以下,抑菌活性相对较弱.其中桑乙酸乙酯提取物的抑菌效果最佳,在浓度1 g/L时对2种菌的抑制率均达到了90%以上,EC50分别为0.173 g/L和0.324 g/L;浓度为8 g/L时桑乙酸乙酯提取物的抑菌效果达到Ⅰ级.

  15. Diagnostic utility of melanin production by fungi: Study on tissue sections and culture smears with Masson-Fontana stain

    OpenAIRE

    Challa Sundaram; G Uppin Shantveer; Pamidi Umabala; Vemu Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dematiaceous fungi appear brown in tissue section due to melanin in their cell walls. When the brown color is not seen on routine H and E and culture is not available, differentiation of dematiaceous fungi from other fungi is difficult on morphology alone. Aims and Objective: To study if melanin production by dematiaceous fungi can help differentiate them from other types of fungi. Materials and Methods: Fifty tissue sections of various fungal infections and 13 smears from culture...

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF A ORGANIC IODINE COMPOUND AGAINST WOOD DECAYING FUNGI AND TERMITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Weber Scheeren

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a low toxicity organic compound as fungicide and insecticide was studied by a accelerated laboratory bioassay according to the japanese standard. The compound was evaluated at concentrations of 0,5, 0,75 and 1,0% using ethanol as solvent. The subterraneous termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and the decay fungi Coriolus versicolor (white rot and Tyromyces palustris (brown rot were used in the trials to evaluate the insecticide and fungicide action respectively. The wood specimens with dimensions of 40 x 20 x 5mm were treated by surface coating (brushing method at a rate of 110±10g/m2. The percentage weight loss of the wood blocks and the termite mortality (insecticide action and the weight loss of the wood blocks before and after the fungi attack (fungicide action were determined. The efficiency of the formulations were evaluated according to the Value of Efficiency. Results showed that the compound was of little or no efficient as insecticide against Coptotermes formosanus in the three concentrations analysed. The compound showed a good performance as fungicide against Coriolus versicolor and Tyromyces palustris with a Value of Efficiency higher than 90 in the three concentrations analysed. The best results were obtained with the product at 1,0% concentration in the treated and unleached wood specimens. Tyromyces palustris caused a larger damage in the wood blocks than Coriolus versicolor. The product showed a low capacity of fixation in the wood; therefore, it is not indicated for treating wood that will be in direct contact with the soil or under outdoor conditions.

  17. Indução de resistência à podridão-parda em pêssegos pelo uso de eliciadores em pós-colheita Induction of resistance to brown-rot on peaches by elicitors use in post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos eliciadores acibenzolar-S-metil e proteína harpina, aplicados em pós-colheita, na indução de resistência sistêmica à podridão-parda em pêssegos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas - com e sem ferimentos provocados aos frutos -, e os tratamentos foram constituídos por: acibenzolar-S-metil (50 mg do i.a. L-1, dois produtos comerciais com proteína harpina (80 mg do i.a. L-1 e uma testemunha (água destilada. Os frutos foram pulverizados, individualmente, com 1 mL de solução aquosa com os tratamentos e, após 12 horas, efetuou-se a inoculação com Monilinia fructicola (0,2 mL da suspensão com concentração de 10(5 esporos mL-1, em cada lado do fruto. Após 60 horas da inoculação, avaliaram-se: a área lesionada, a esporulação e o percentual de controle. Determinaram-se os teores de proteínas totais, açúcares redutores e totais, fenóis, além da atividade da enzima fenilalanina amônia-liase (FAL. Os eliciadores induziram resistência dos frutos a M. fructicola, com redução do desenvolvimento do fungo. O uso dos eliciadores aumentou os teores dos parâmetros bioquímicos avaliados e a atividade da FAL, que esteve relacionada à redução da área lesionada em pêssegos. Os indutores podem contribuir para o manejo integrado da podridão-parda em pêssegos, em pós-colheita.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl and harpin protein elicitors, applied in post-harvest, in systemic resistance induction to brown-rot, on peaches. A completely randomized design was utilized, with four replicates, in a split plot scheme - injured or noninjured peaches -, and treatments were constituted of : acibenzolar-S-methyl (50 mg of a.i. L-1, two commercial products with harpin protein (80 mg of a.i. L-1; and control (distilled water. Peaches were sprayed individually with 1 mL of

  18. Rhizoctonia solani as a component in the bottom rot complex of glasshouse lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Kooistra, T

    1983-01-01

    The basal parts of maturing glasshouse lettuce can be attacked by several soil fungi, which cause bottom rot. Until recently quintozene was generally applied against this disease complex. The study of the causal fungi - especially Rhizoctonia solani - and their control was undertaken in view of the need for quintozene replacing fungicides.A survey revealed that Botrytis cinerea was the most frequently observed pathogen, especially in winter crops. The incidence of Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotin...

  19. Anatomical changes in Willow Wood Decayed by the brown rot fungus Coriolellus malicola (Basidiomycota Modificaciones anatómicas en madera de sauce por acción Coriolellus malicola (Aphyllophorales agente de pudrición castaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A. Murace

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina, Salix wood is employed mainly in pulp and paper industry. In this country, the brown rotter C oriolellus malicola was found in association with willow plantations. The purpose of this work was to study the anatomical changes caused by C. malicola in willow wood in order to provide information on the effects of brown rot decay in the yield and quality of pulp. Two willow clones were employed: Salix nigra 4 and Salix babylonica x Salix alba cv I 131-25 . Two exposure times were used: 75 and 150 days. The percentages of weight loss produced by this fungus in both clones was ca. 30% at 75 days and ca. 60% at 150 days of decay. C. malicola degraded mainly fibre walls. Microscopically, the loss of cell shape, the presence of transwall fractures and the loss of birefringence were the main anatomical modifications observed. According to our observations decayed Salix wood by C. malicola seems to be inadequate for pulp industry.En la República Argentina la madera de Salix es empleada principalmente en la industria papelera. En este país el hongo de pudrición castaña C oriolellus malicola se encontró asociado a plantaciones comerciales de sauce. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar las modificaciones anatómicas causada por C. malicola en la madera de sauce con el fin de aportar información sobre los efectos de la pudrición castaña en los rendimientos y calidad de la pulpa para papel. Se emplearon dos clones: Salix nigra 4 y Salix babylonica x Salix alba cv I. 131-25 . Se trabajó con dos tiempos de exposición: 75 y 150 días. Las pérdidas de peso producidas por esta cepa en ambos clones fueron de ca. del 30% a los 75 días y de ca. del 60% a los 150 días de incubación. C. malicola degradó principalmente las paredes de las fibras. Microscópicamente, las principales modificaciones anatómicas observadas fueron: deformación del tejido, presencia de fracturas transversales en las paredes celulares y pérdida de

  20. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  1. Species Identification and Variation in the North American Cranberry Fruit Rot Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex mixtures of pathogenic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot, with the contribution by any given fungus to the disease varying from bed to bed, cultivar to cultivar, season to season, and across regions. Furthermore, population variability within the individual fungal species across growing region...

  2. Irpex lacteus, a white-rot fungus with biotechnological potential — review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Čeněk; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Svobodová, Kateřina; Šušla, Martin; Šašek, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2009), s. 375-390. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00200901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : White-rot fungi * degradation * irpex lacteus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  3. Rhizoctonia root rot of lentil caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentil root rot symptoms were observed in commercial fields in the US Pacific Northwest during the unusually cool and moist spring weather of 2010. Symptoms included sunken lesions on root and stem with brown discoloration, resembling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Rhizoctonia solani was i...

  4. Colonization Of Exopolysaccharide Producing Paenibacillus Polymyxa On Maize ( Zea Mays L.) Roots For Enhancing Resistance Against Root Rot Disease

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sheela; Usharani

    2013-01-01

    Root rot disease of maize (zae mays L) caused by the highly virulent strain of Aspergillus niger and Fusairum graminearam . The very important plant disease in India and other countries. Maize seeds infected by seed-borne fungi have been reported to produce seed abortion, reduced seed size, seed rot, seed necrosis, seed discoloration, reduce seed germination capacity and physiological alternation of seed. Biological control represents an attractive alternative for the future because for the m...

  5. Rumen Fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kaerger, K.; Kirk, P.; Voigt, K.

    India : Springer India , 2015 - (Puniya, A.; Singh, R.; Kamra, D.), s. 97-112 ISBN 978-81-322-2400-6 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : rumen fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  6. Pink Mold Rot on Unishiu Orange (Citrus unshiu Mac.) Caused by Trichothecium roseum (Pers.) Link ex Gray in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon; Dong-Wan Kang; Okhee Choi; Hong-Sik Shim

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, a pink mold rot was observed on unishiu orange (Citrus unshiu Mac.) fruits at the Wholesale Market for Agricultural Products, Jinju, Korea. The symptom on unishiu orange was a water-soaked lesion on the surface of fruit, which later on enlarged to form softened brown rot lesions. The diseased fruits were covered with pink-colored mold, consisting of conidia and conidiophores of the pathogen. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth was 25oC. Conidia were hyaline, smooth, 2...

  7. Diplodia seriata, cause of black fruit rot in organically grown apples in Holland, Belgium and Northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc; Maxin, Peter; Weber, Roland W. S.

    2008-01-01

    A fruit rot resembling Gloeosporium infections but appearing on fruits prior to harvest was noticed in organic apple orchards in Holland, Belgium and Northern Germany in 2007. Infections were most commonly observed on ‘Elstar’, but other cultivars were also affected. Fruit colonisation progressed in two steps, whereby a latent stage of sunken black lesions in immature fruits gave rise to a rapidly spreading firm brown rot upon fruit ripening. Isolation experiments from both sta...

  8. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  9. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W. Severity of crown rot disease was determined through visual assessment of the first internode of 20 tillers obtained from each field. Incidence of crown rot pathogens per field was determined by plating the 20 tillers on Petri plates with 20% potato dextrose agar amended with lactic acid (aPDA medium. Resulting fungal colonies from monoxenic culture were identified by morphological or molecular-assisted identification. Severity of crown rot varied between 11.3% and 80% for individual fields. Culture plate analysis showed 72.2% of stems were infected with some fungus. Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, and F. culmorum, pathogens associated with Fusarium crown rot disease were isolated from 13.5% of tillers. Gaeumannomyces graminis, causal agent of take-all disease in cereals, was isolated from 11.1% of culms. Phaeosphaeria sp., an endophyte and possibly a non-pathogenic fungus, was isolated from 13.9% of tillers. Pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia spp. and Microdochium nivale, other saprophyte, and several unidentified non-sporulating fungi were isolated at frequencies lower than 3% of the total. Fusarium crown rot and take-all were the most prevalent and distributed crown rot diseases present in wheat crops in southern Chile.

  10. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, expressed as a slower inhibition of growth of the former, and faster of the latter pathogen. Antagonistic abilities of species from genus Trichoderma (T. asperellum are important, and have already been exploited in formulated biocontrol products in organic and conventional production, in order to prevent soil borne pathogens inducing fusarium wilt and rot. The importance of preventing onion infection by Fusarium spp., possible mycotoxin producers, has been underlined.

  11. Isolamento e seleção de fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira em florestas de Eucalyptus spp. com potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes Isolation and screening of wood white rot fungi from Eucalyptus spp. forests with potential for use in degradation of stumps and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kunieda de Alonso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou isolar fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira, a partir de basidiocarpos e de fragmentos de madeira de eucalipto coletados em várias regiões do país, bem como testar seu potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes mortas em plantios comerciais de eucalipto, após o corte raso. Para o isolamento dos fungos foi desenvolvido um meio de cultura de serragem de eucalipto-ágar. Dentre 292 isolados obtidos e submetidos ao teste de Bavendamm, 144 foram classificados como causadores de podridão-branca, capazes de produzir fenoloxidases. Dentre as nove relações C/N testadas, observou-se uma tendência de ocorrer maior degradação de cavacos naquelas iguais a 60 : 1, 200 : 1 e 300 : 1. Utilizando a relação C/N igual a 60 : 1, realizaram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a degradação de cavacos de Eucalyptus saligna por isolados fúngicos de podridão-branca. No primeiro experimento, avaliado aos 90 dias de incubação, foram selecionados sete isolados, que causaram perda de peso em cavacos superior ou igual à causada por Trametes versicolor, usado para comparação. No segundo experimento foram testados 46 isolados fúngicos. Dentre os mais eficientes estavam os sete isolados selecionados no primeiro teste, além de outros quatro isolados. Baseado na análise de DNA, seis isolados foram identificados, sendo três pertencentes à espécie Pycnoporus sanguineus, um ao gênero Peniophora sp., um ao gênero Pestalotiopsis sp. e um ao gênero Ganoderma sp.The aim of this work was to isolate native wood white-rot fungi from fungal fruit-bodies and eucalyptus wood fragments from different regions of Brazil and to test their potential for degrading dead stumps and roots in Eucalyptus plantings after harvest. Fungi isolates were obtained in a culture medium composed by Eucalyptus sawdust and agar. Among 292 isolates submitted to the Banvedamm test, 144 were classified as phenoloxidases producing isolates. Among nine C

  12. Oomycetes and fungi: similar weaponry to attack plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latijnhouwers, M.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Govers, F.

    2003-01-01

    Fungi and Oomycetes are the two most important groups of eukaryotic plant pathogens. Fungi form a separate kingdom and are evolutionarily related to animals. Oomycetes are classified in the kingdom Protoctista and are related to heterokont, biflagellate, golden-brown algae. Fundamental differences i

  13. Relationship between potassium chloride suppression of corn stalk rot and soil microorganism characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoyan; JIN Jiyun; HE Ping; LIU Hailong; LI Wenjuan

    2007-01-01

    Observations from a site-fixed field trial of 12 years in Jilin Province show that potassium chloride (KC1)application has a significant positive influence on corn stalk rot incidence.Incubation experiments were conducted to study the effects of KC1 and soil extracts on the growth of Fusarium graminearum,the most common stalk rot fungi in this area,and the population changes in rhizosphere fungi,bacteria and actinomyces at different growth stages of corn.The results show that KC1 addition to the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium could not directly suppress Fusarium graminearum development.Soil extracts from soil samples taken from the field plots with and without KC1 application affected Fusarium graminearum development,with soil extracts with KC1 treatments suppressing Fusarium graminearum development more significantly,compared with that from the KC1-free treatment.These results indicate that soil extracts play a role in the interaction between corn and Fusarium graminearum.Long-term KC1 application may increase the populations of rhizosphere fungi and actinomyces in the early growth stages,while there is no significant difference in the number of bacteria in rhizosphere among the treatments.Also,the populations of rhizosphere fungi are negatively correlated with the incidence of stalk rot in the early growth stages of corn.The sensitive infection stages of pathogen to corn consist of the stages when there is significant difference in the populations of rhizosphere fungi and actinomyces.The change of microorganism populations (especially fungi) in soil may be associated with the incidence decrease and is one of the mechanisms of KC1 suppressing corn stalk rot.

  14. Marker recycling via 5-fluoroorotic acid and 5-fluorocytosine counter-selection in the white-rot agaricomycete Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takehito; Tsuzuki, Masami; Irie, Toshikazu; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Honda, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    Of all of the natural polymers, lignin, an aromatic heteropolymer in plant secondary cell walls, is the most resistant to biological degradation. White-rot fungi are the only known organisms that can depolymerize or modify wood lignin. Investigating the mechanisms underlying lignin biodegradation by white-rot fungi would contribute to the ecofriendly utilization of woody biomass as renewable resources in the future. Efficient gene disruption, which is generally very challenging in the white-rot fungi, was established in Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom). Some of the genes encoding manganese peroxidases, enzymes that are considered to be involved in lignin biodegradation, were disrupted separately, and the phenotype of each single-gene disruptant was analysed. However, it remains difficult to generate multi-gene disruptants in this fungus. Here we developed a new genetic transformation marker in P. ostreatus and demonstrated two marker recycling methods that use counter-selection to generate a multigene disruptant. This study will enable future genetic studies of white-rot fungi, and it will increase our understanding of the complicated mechanisms, which involve various enzymes, including lignin-degrading enzymes, underlying lignin biodegradation by these fungi. PMID:27567720

  15. Higher marine fungi from mangroves (Manglicolous fungi)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ChinnaRaj, S.

    and place where the materials accumulate. This environment creates a unique habitat for a certain group of fungi called 'manglicolous fungi' which are well adapted to this type of environment. First review on manglicolous fungi recognised 42 species...

  16. Effect of gamma radiation treatment on some fungi causing storage diseases of banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana is one of the most popular fruits in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. in recent years, the quality of egyptian banana markedly declined. A major factor contributing to this decline is the development of fruit rot, which is the most widely occurring disease either in the field or in storage. Different fungi attack banana fruits causing considerable losses. Most of the fungi responsible for post harvest rots of banana are usually carried from the field, on the surface of the fruit itself or in injured and rotting fruits causing severe rats during storage. These rots make the fruits difficult to handle and undesirable to the consumers. Botryodiplodia theobromae is known to be the most important pathogen responsible for the infection in storage

  17. ENDOCRINE DISUPTIVE CHEMICALS: MECHANISMS OF WHITE ROT FUNGI BIODEGRADATION

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cajthaml, Tomáš; Křesinová, Zdena; Čvančarová, Monika; Maternová, H.; Filipová, A.

    Praha : Vodní zdroje Ekomonitor, 2013, s. 176-181. ISBN 978-80-86832-73-9. [Inovativní sanační technologie ve výzkumu a praxi /6./. Praha (CZ), 16.10.2013-17.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : biodegradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  18. Exopolysacharides from White Rot Fungi and Their Antibacterial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pranitha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In current investigation exopolysacharides are produced from the Trametes sp. and antibacterial activity of exopolysaccharides (EPS was studied. The antibacterial effect of EPS was observed that they were most effective against gram-positive bacteria, especially B. subtilis and S.aureaus with a zone of inhibition 24 mm and 28 mm, respectively, at a concentration of 80 mg/ml. Moreover, with the increasing concentration, the EPS showed significant increase in antibacterial activity. The activity was lowest in the inhibition of gram-negative bacterium, E. coli and P aerogenosa at a low concentration whose inhibition zones are between 5 to 15mm.

  19. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by cultures of white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Ewa B; Jankiewicz, Urszula; Dobrzyński, Jakub; Agnieszka Gałązka; Sitarek, Monika; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Russel, Stefan; Kowalczyk, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Some Basidiomycota were chosen for studies of key ligninases synthesis (25°C, 30 days) in modified medium (shaken or not cultures) with added wheat straw. Liquid Czapek medium with straw yielded a higher amount of laccase than peroxidase, ground straw induced enzyme worse than chopped straw. With peroxidase the reverse dependencies were observed. Laccase of Lentinus edodes synthesized two enzyme isoforms (ca 30 and 16 kDa). In T. versicolor culture active laccase protein with highest molecular mass ca 65 kDa was found. P. sajor-caju yielded three different peroxidase isoforms. Ligninase biosynthesis depended on strain, straw fragmentation extent, culture method and growth medium. PMID:25804067

  20. Effect of irradiation on the potato tubers rotting during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potato tubers subjected to irradiation in autumn were found dry and soft rotting more numerous than non-irradiated ones for the whole period of storage and especially in April and May. The above mentioned phenomenon brought about a little quicker elimination of tubers naturally infected by pectinolytic bacteria. Susceptibility of both kinds of tubers was similar to Fusarium sulphureum introduced under a cover tissue. The irradiation of potato tubers in autumn 1986 led to the appearance of some hard tubers with brown ring spots in spring 1987

  1. 中国伏革菌科二新记录种%Two Corticiaceous fungi (Aphyllophorales) new to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊红霞; 戴玉成; MIENTTINEN Otto

    2007-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Changbaishan Nature Reserve is one of the most important forest reserves in China and it is very rich in wood-rotting fungi (Dai, 1997, 2000, 2003; Dai et al., 2003). Nearly 100 species of the Corticiaceae sensu lato were reported from the reserve by Hjortstam & Ryvarden (1988), but the corticioid fungi in the reserve are still not well known.

  2. Occurrence of Soft Rot on Raspberry (Rubus crataegifolius) Caused by Rhizopus oryzae in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon; Dong-Wan Kang; Jae-Uk An; Okhee Choi; Youn-Sig Kwak

    2011-01-01

    Soft rot disease on Raspberry (Rubus crataegifolius Bunge) was observed in sale boxes at Jinju CityWholesale Market of Agricultural Products in June 2010. The infected fruits were rapidly water-soaked,softened, black and eventually rotted. The colonies on the infected fruits were white to light brown, formednumerous sporangiospores. Optimum temperature for the mycelial growth of the causal fungus on PDA was30oC and growth was still apparent at 37oC. Sporangia were globose, white at early and ...

  3. Occurrence of Fruit Rot of Melon Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Chi, Tran Thi Phuong; Park, Chang-Seuk

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 to 2008, a fruit rot of Melon (Cucumis melo L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii occurred sporadically in a farmer's vinyl house in Jinju City. The symptoms started with watersoaking lesion and progressed into the rotting of the surface of fruit. White mycelial mats appeared on the lesion at the surface of the fruit and a number of sclerotia formed on the fruit near the soil line. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, 1~3 mm in size, and white to brown in color. The hyphal width was measur...

  4. Root rot diseases of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L as affected by defloliation intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of sugar beet re-growth after water stress defoliation on root rots of three cultivars (Europa, Rival Corsica, which were spring sown in Thessaly, central Greece, for two growing seasons (2003-04. At the beginning of July, sugar beets were subjected to water deficit with irrigation withholding. A month later, three defoliation levels (control - C, moderate - MD, severe - SD and irrigation were applied. Thus, sugar beets were forced to re-grow and three harvests (15, 30 and 40 days after defoliation - DAD were conducted. Rotted roots per hectare were counted and pathogens were identified. Data were analyzed as a four-factor randomized complete block design with years, defoliation levels, sampling times and cultivars as main factors. The number of rotted roots was increased with the defoliation level and was significantly higher for SD sugar beets (3748 roots ha–1. No significant differences were found between C and MD treatments (1543 and 2116 roots ha–1, respectively. Rival was the most susceptible cultivar to root rots. Sugar beets were more susceptible to rotting 15 and 40 DAD (2778 and 2998 roots ha–1. The causal agents of root rots were the fungi, Fusarium spp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani.

  5. Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Kendall, Brian A; Griffin, Allen T; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-06-01

    Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i.e., neutrophils, natural killer [NK] cells, and macrophages) combined with T-cell responses are the main immunologic mechanisms of protection. The most common potential mold pathogens include certain hyaline hyphomycetes, endemic fungi, the Mucorales, and some dematiaceous fungi. Laboratory diagnostics aimed at detecting and differentiating these organisms are crucial to helping clinicians make informed decisions about treatment. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the medically important fungal pathogens, as well as to discuss the patient characteristics, antifungal-therapy considerations, and laboratory tests used in current clinical practice for the immunocompromised host. PMID:27337469

  6. Sugarcane residue decomposition by white and brown rot microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvesting sugarcane with chopper harvesters results in up to 10 tons of field crop residue per acre. Residue management by soil microorganism decomposition offers numerous ecological and economical benefits to growers; however, this natural process is dependent on the biotic density, diversity and...

  7. Root rot of sugarbeet in the Vojvodina Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    identified in recent years as the agent of root rot, but its importance was much lower. Charcoal root rot and plant wilting (Macrophomina phaseolina have caused extensive damages in sugar beets, especially under the conditions of severe drought and high temperatures in summer. In some years, it was the dominant agent of root rot. Mixed infections caused by fungi from the genera Fusarium and M. phaseolina were encountered frequently. The extent of damage caused by these diseases was reduced by improved pro- duction technology. Rhizomania of sugar beet (caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus was identified in Serbia in the 1970s. Results of recent investigations have shown that BNYVV is widespread in Vojvodina, since the virus was found on 36,7% (24,674 ha of acreages from 67,213 ha of total sugar beet acreages inspected on incidence of BNYVV in the period from 1997 to 2004 year. In the last few years, the occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctonia solani was registered in some localities in Vojvodina.

  8. Use of fungi in bioremediation of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Fragoeiro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    Eight isolates (7 species) of white rot fungi were grown on soil extract agar amended with 0, 5 10 and 20 mg l- simazine, trifluralin and dieldrin, individually and as a mixture, under two different water regimes (-0.7 and -2.8 MPa water potential). The best isolates were T.versicolor (R26 and R101) and P.ostreatus, exhibiting good tolerance to the pesticides and water stress and the ability to degrade lignin and produce laccase in the presence of these pesticides. As a res...

  9. [Resistant fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehreschild, M J G T; Cornely, O A

    2015-11-01

    Particularly in the area of hematology/oncology and intensive care medicine, infections due to resistant fungi are to be expected. Emergence of resistance in fungi is a less dynamic process than in bacteria; it can, however, have an equally important impact on treatment strategies. In the following article, the most important resistance patterns of yeasts and molds (Candida albicans , Aspergillus fumigatus, the order Mucorales and the genus Fusarium) will be presented and discussed. Their diagnosis mostly being based on blood cultures, resistance testing for yeasts is usually readily available. Culture-based therapeutic adjustments in mold infections are, however, only rarely possible, as most antifungal therapies for these infections are initiated on an empirical basis after identification of typical infiltrates on a CT scan. Response to therapy is then evaluated on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms in combination with follow-up CT scans. In case of therapeutic failure or appearance of suspicious infiltrates under antifungal prophylaxis, an open or CT-guided biopsy is recommended to allow efficient adaptation of antifungal treatment. In individual cases, particularly in patients diagnosed with mucormycosis, resection of the focus of infection may be necessary to achieve a satisfactory treatment response. PMID:26432089

  10. Fusarium oxysporum as causal agent of tomato wilt and fruit rot

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Ignjatov; Dragana Milošević; Zorica Nikolić; Jelica Gvozdanović-Varga; Dušica Jovičić; Gordana Zdjelar

    2012-01-01

    Tomatoes are parasitized by a number of pathogens, including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, causal agent of fusarium wilt. Fresh vegetable fruits can be contaminated with various fungi that produce mycotoxins, which is an important issue for human health. The objective of this paper was to isolate, determine, and identify causal organisms of tomato wilt and fruit rot, based on the pathogens morphological and molecular characteristics. Samples of dis...

  11. Incidence of root rot diseases of soybean in Multan Pakistan and its management by the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight villages in Multan district were surveyed to record incidence of disease and losses of soybean (Glycine max L.) caused by root rot fungi. The root incidence ranged 10-17% and losses ranged 6.75-15.5%. The evaluation of four PGPR isolates was used in combination with organic amendment for the management of root-rot disease incidence and to reduce the population of root pathogenic fungi and to increase the yield in field. This study demonstrated effective biological control by the PGPR isolates tested, thereby indicating the possibility of application of rhizobacteria for control of soil bor ne diseases of soybean in Pakistan and other countries. (author)

  12. Effect of (/sup 60/cobalt) gamma rays on growth and root rot diseases in mungbean (vigna radiata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present investigation showed that gamma rays influences suppressive effect on root rot fungi such as Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Fusarium spp., and inducive effect on growth parameters of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). Seeds of mung bean were treated with gamma rays (/sup 60/Cobalt) at time periods of 0 and 4 minutes and stored for 90 days at room temperature to determine its effect on growth parameters and infection of root infecting fungi. All treatments of gamma rays enhanced the growth parameters as compared to untreated plants. Infection of M. phaseolina, R. solani and Fusarium spp., were significantly decreased on mung bean seeds treated with gamma rays. Gamma rays significantly increased the growth parameters and controlled the root rot fungi up to 90 days of storage of seeds. (author)

  13. Isolation and characterization of mold fungi and insects infecting sawmill wood, and their inhibition by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalawate, Aparna; Mehetre, Sayaji

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the isolation, identification, and characterization of wood-rotting fungi and insects, and their inhibition was studied using gamma radiation. Products manufactured from plantation timber species are deteriorated by wood-rotting fungi such as Hypocrea lixii, Fusarium proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus, and insects such as powderpost beetles. Proper preservation methods are necessary for ensuring a long service life of wood products. In this study, wood samples were treated with 2.5% copper ethanolamine boron (CEB) (10% w/v) and subsequently irradiated with gamma rays (10 kGy). It was observed that CEB-treated and gamma-irradiated samples controlled fungi and powderpost beetles significantly. As wood is a dead organic material, penetration of chemicals into it is very difficult. Gamma rays easily pass through wooden objects with hidden eggs and dormant spores of insects and fungi, respectively. Gamma irradiation was proved very effective in reducing damage caused by both fungi and insects.

  14. Use ligninolytic fungi and their extracellular enzymes for the degradation of PCBs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linhartová, Lucie; Filipová, Alena; Svobodová, Kateřina; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    Chrudim: Vodní zdroje Ekomonitor spol. s.r.o, 2010. s. 14-15. ISBN 978-80-86832-51-7 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : White rot fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Biotransformation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by ligninolytic fungi - Metabolites, enzymes and residual antibacterial activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čvančarová, Monika; Moeder, M.; Filipová, Alena; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 136, OCT 2015 (2015), s. 311-320. ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218; GA ČR GA13-28283S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Fluoroquinolone antibiotics * White rot fungi * Residual antibacterial activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2014

  16. Biodegradation of tetrabromobisphenol A by oxidases in basidiomycetous fungi and estrogenic activity of the biotransformation products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhnáková, Bronislava; Ludwig, R.; Pěknicová, Jana; Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Šulc, Miroslav; Petříčková, Alena; Elzeinová, Fatima; Pelantová, Helena; Monti, D.; Křen, Vladimír; Haltrich, D.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 20 (2011), s. 9409-9415. ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : White rot fungi * Cellobiose dehydrogenase * Laccase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.980, year: 2011

  17. Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

  18. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identifie...

  19. Identification and characterization of Pestalotiopsis-like fungi related to grapevine diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Ruvishika S; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Mei; Maharachchikumbura, Sajeewa S N; Zhou, Ying; Huang, JinBao; Nilthong, Somrudee; Wang, ZhongYue; Li, XingHong; Yan, JiYe; Hyde, Kevin D

    2015-05-01

    Pestalotiopsis-like fungi are an important plant pathogenic genus causing postharvest fruit rot and trunk diseases in grapevine in many countries. Pestalotiopsis-like fungi diseases were studied in vineyards in nine provinces across China. Multi-gene (ITS, β-tubulin and tef1) analysis coupled with morphology showed that a Neopestalotiopsis sp. and Pestalotiopsis trachicarpicola are associated in causing grapevine fruit rot and trunk diseases in China. Pestalotiopsis trachicarpicola is reported as the causative agent of grapevine diseases in the world for the first time. Neopestalotiopsis sp. caused significantly longer lesions than the other taxon present. This study represents the first attempt to identify and characterize the Pestalotiopsis-like fungi causing grapevine diseases in China using both morphological and molecular approaches. PMID:25937063

  20. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  1. 竹材受不同败坏真菌危害的宏观和微观变化%Macro-and Micro-Structural Changes in Bamboo after Attack by Various Fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马星霞; 蒋明亮; 覃道春

    2012-01-01

    采用扫描电镜技术(SEM)观察研究各种不同真菌败坏竹材的宏观和微观变化.结果表明:霉菌的菌丝和孢子团仅聚集在竹材表面,不能进入竹材内部,不会破坏竹材的内部结构或影响内部颜色变化;变色菌不仅在竹材的表面聚集,还深入到竹材内部使其内外都发生青色、褐色或黑色等颜色变化,但对竹材的质量没有大的影响;腐朽菌不仅侵入竹材内部,还造成竹材明显质量损失.变色菌和腐朽菌侵入竹材的过程为:菌丝由外部细胞壁纹孔侵入竹材内部,沿着后生木质部导管、原生木质部和薄壁组织细胞壁之间的孔隙蔓延,填充到竹材的维管束中.腐朽菌密粘褶菌降解竹材的过程为:穿过细胞壁的菌丝在周围的胞壁上形成孔洞,孔洞逐步扩展,各孔洞连成片,最终导致组织的破损和崩解.竹材组织受褐腐菌侵染发生降解的顺序是:先是木质部导管细胞壁,而后基本薄壁组织细胞壁,最后是纤维.%Mould, stain and decay fungi are the common microorganisms that can damage bamboo. Scanning electron microscope ( SEM) was used in this study to investigate the macro- and micro-structural changes in bamboo after attack by these three types of fungi. The results showed that the mycelia of the mould and stain fungi were found only on the surfaces of the bamboo specimens and no hyphae were detected inside. The hyphae of the stain fungi were found to penetrate into bamboo and grew in metaxylem vessels, and then expand through the pits between cells; the stain fungi caused blue, brown and black discolorations from deep inside of the bamboo specimens. Similar to the stain fungi, the hyphae of the brown-rot fungus was also found to intrude from cell to cell through pits between cells; moreover, they gradually became denser and thicker causing very visible boreholes in the cell walls which then led to large-area cell wall rupture and collapse. It was observed from the

  2. Rhizoctonia seed, seedling, and wet root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn can cause seed and seedling rot of both lentil and chickpea as well as many other agricultural crops worldwide. The pathogen is favored in cool, sandy soil with high organic matter under no-till or reduced-till soil management practices. Survival spor...

  3. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    Obligate marine fungi, those which grow and sporulate exclusively under marine conditions, have received all the attention from marine mycologists. Fungi originating from freshwater, or terrestrial environment and capable of growth and sporulation...

  4. Incidence and Severity of Maize Ear Rots and Factors Responsible for Their Occurrence in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigirwa, G.; Kaaya, A. N.; Sseruwu, G.; Adipala, E.; Okanya, S.

    Eleven major maize growing districts of Uganda were surveyed for three consecutive seasons between 2002 and 2003 to establish maize ear rot incidence and severity. Sternocarpella maydis and Fusarium species particularly F. graminearum and F. verticillioides were the identified maize ear rot causing fungi. Incidence of S. maydis ranged from 2.5 to 32.5% while that of Fusarium sp. was in the range of 1.9 and 15.3%. In districts of higher altitude (above 1,800 m above sea level) F. graminearum dominated in all seasons while in districts with an altitude between 900 and 1,500 m above sea level, S. maydis was the major cause of ear rots. This observation was attributed to differences in temperature, altitude and rainfall. There was a strong positive correlation (p = 0.001) between incidence and severity for S. maydis and a weak one for Fusarium sp. because the latter would rarely infect the entire cob unlike the former. All farmers expressed concern about the quality of maize due to ear rots and sort out infected grain after harvest. However, varied uses of infected grain were noted. For example, in Kapchorwa district 82% of the respondents indicated that the infected grain is used for making local brew because the moulds give it a good taste and aroma, while in Kamuli and Masaka districts, 36% use it as animal feed ingredient. This indicates that people and animals could be ingesting mycotoxins unknowingly thus the need for sensitization programmes.

  5. Incidence and Severity of Maize Ear Rots and Factors Responsible for Their Occurrence in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bigirwa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven major maize growing districts of Uganda were surveyed for three consecutive seasons between 2002 and 2003 to establish maize ear rot incidence and severity. Sternocarpella maydis and Fusarium species particularly F. graminearum and F. verticillioides were the identified maize ear rot causing fungi. Incidence of S. maydis ranged from 2.5 to 32.5% while that of Fusarium sp. was in the range of 1.9 and 15.3%. In districts of higher altitude (above 1,800 m above sea level F. graminearum dominated in all seasons while in districts with an altitude between 900 and 1,500 m above sea level, S. maydis was the major cause of ear rots. This observation was attributed to differences in temperature, altitude and rainfall. There was a strong positive correlation (p = 0.001 between incidence and severity for S. maydis and a weak one for Fusarium sp. because the latter would rarely infect the entire cob unlike the former. All farmers expressed concern about the quality of maize due to ear rots and sort out infected grain after harvest. However, varied uses of infected grain were noted. For example, in Kapchorwa district 82% of the respondents indicated that the infected grain is used for making local brew because the moulds give it a good taste and aroma, while in Kamuli and Masaka districts, 36% use it as animal feed ingredient. This indicates that people and animals could be ingesting mycotoxins unknowingly thus the need for sensitization programmes.

  6. MEDIA SELECTION FOR MYCELIA GROWTH, ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY AGAINST WOOD-DEGRADING FUNGI, AND GC-MS STUDY BY PYCNOPORUS SANGUINEUS

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Peng Teoh; Mashitah Mat Don; Salmiah Ujang

    2011-01-01

    Wood-decaying fungi present a serious threat to items made from rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis). Though conventional chemical control has been a successful method for preserving wood against stain and decay fungi growth, the effects of these chemicals are of concern because they create problems for the environment and public health. Pycnoporus sanguineus (P. sanguineus), is a white-rot fungus that invades wood during its growth, storage, or use, causing decay or other property changes. It was...

  7. Breeding for fruit rot resistance in Vaccinium macrocarpon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cranberry fruit rot complex can cause severe crop loss and requires multiple fungicide applications each year. To identify sources of fruit rot resistance, fungicides were withheld from our germplasm collection in 2003 and 2004 and the collection was rated for fruit rot (1-5 scale, 1=no rot, 5=...

  8. Mechanisms of humic substances degradation by fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hadar, Y.; Grinhut, T.

    2012-04-01

    Humic substances (HS) are formed by secondary synthesis reactions (humification) during the decay process and transformation of biomolecules originating from plants and other dead organisms. In nature, HS are extremely resistant to biological degradation. Thus, these substances are major components in the C cycle and in the biosphere and therefore, the understanding of the process leading to their formation and transformation and degradation is vital. Fungi active in the decomposition process of HS include mainly ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that are common in the upper layer of forest and grassland soils. Many basidiomycetes belong to the white-rot fungi (WRF) and litter-decomposing fungi (LDF). These fungi are considered to be the most efficient lignin degraders due to their nonspecific oxidizing enzymes: manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase. Although bacteria dominate compost and participate in the turnover of HS, their ability to degrade stable macromolecules such as lignin and HS is limited. The overall objectives of this research were to corroborate biodegradation processes of HS by WRF. The specific objectives were: (i) To isolate, identify and characterize HS degrading WRF from biosolids (BS) compost; (ii) To study the biodegradation process of three types of HS, which differ in their structure, by WRF isolated from BS compost; and (iii) To investigate the mechanisms of HA degradation by WRF using two main approaches: (a) Study the physical and chemical analyses of the organic compounds obtained from direct fungal degradation of HA as well as elucidation of the relevant enzymatic reactions; and (b) Study the enzymatic and biochemical mechanisms involved during HA degradation. In order to study the capability of fungi to degrade HS, seventy fungal strains were isolated from biosolids (BS) compost. Two of the most active fungal species were identified based on rDNA sequences and designated Trametes sp. M23 and Phanerochaetesp., Y6

  9. Thraustochytrid and fungal component of marine detritus. 1. Field studies on decomposition of the brown alga Sargassum cinereum J. Ag.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe-Pathak, V.; Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.

    Thraustochytrid protists and fungi were isolated and enumerated in culture from detritus of the brown alga Sargassum cinereum. Both groups occurred epi- and endobiontically in the detritus. The thraustochytrid Labyrinthuloides minuta occurred...

  10. Root and crown rot and wilt of tomatoes caused by fungal diseases in Ankara province.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozan, S.; Maden, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted in Ayaş, Beypazarı and Nallıhan districts of Ankara province during May-November 2003-2004 in order to detect fungal pathogens of tomato, and to find out the incidence, prevalence and occurrence times of these pathogens. It is detected that wilt and root rot pathogens causes important yield losses in tomato fields in Ankara. The incidences of the fungi isolated roots and crowns were 17.2 %, 0.96 %, 0.32 %, 0.91 %, 2.95 %,% 0.52 for Pyrenochaeta lycopersici, Fusa...

  11. Endocytosis in filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkman, Edward R I C

    2007-01-01

    Endocytosis is little understood in filamentous fungi. For some time it has been controversial as to whether endocytosis occurs in filamentous fungi. A comparative genomics analysis between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 10 genomes of filamentous fungal species showed that filamentous fungi possess complex endocytic machineries. The use of the endocytic marker dye FM4-64, and various vesicle trafficking inhibitors revealed many similarities between endocytosis in the filamentous ...

  12. Heterobasidion root rot in Norway spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Thor, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its biological and economic impact on Swedish forestry, root rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu lato has received no or little attention in forest planning. This thesis summarizes and discusses two experiments involving prophylactic treatment of stumps, and three investigations on the modelling and simulation of root rot in coniferous stands with special emphasis on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). In 14 previously unthinned stands of Norway spruce, the...

  13. Soft Rot of Rhizopus oryzae as a Postharvest Pathogen of Banana Fruit in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Ryu, Jae-San; Chi, Tran Thi Phuong; Shen, Shun-Shan; Choi, Okhee

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot on banana fruit caused by Rhizopus oryzae was identified for the first time in Korea. Colonies were white to light brown and formed numerous sporangiospores. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth was 30℃. Sporangia were globose and 30~200 µm. Sporangiophores were usually straight, 8~20 µm, and rhizoids usually in groups of 3~5. Columella were globose to sub-globose and 90~110 µm. Sporangiospores were sub-globose or oval and 4~10 µm. Based on its mycological characteristics, molecul...

  14. Soft Rot of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Jee, Hyeong-Jin

    2005-01-01

    In April 2002 and 2003, soft rot on fruit of eggplant (Solanum melongena) caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum was observed in the experimental fields at Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services in Korea. The disease began with water-soaking and dark-green lesions, and then the infected tissues were rapidly rotten. Sporangium was subglobose in shape and sized 40~130 µm. Monosporous sporangiola were elliptic, fusiform or ovoid, brown in color, and measured as 12~20 × 6~14 µm. Spora...

  15. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  16. Degradation of cellulose by basidiomycetous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrian, Petr; Valásková, Vendula

    2008-05-01

    Cellulose is the main polymeric component of the plant cell wall, the most abundant polysaccharide on Earth, and an important renewable resource. Basidiomycetous fungi belong to its most potent degraders because many species grow on dead wood or litter, in environment rich in cellulose. Fungal cellulolytic systems differ from the complex cellulolytic systems of bacteria. For the degradation of cellulose, basidiomycetes utilize a set of hydrolytic enzymes typically composed of endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and beta-glucosidase. In some species, the absence of cellobiohydrolase is substituted by the production of processive endoglucanases combining the properties of both of these enzymes. In addition, systems producing hydroxyl radicals based on cellobiose dehydrogenase, quinone redox cycling or glycopeptide-based Fenton reaction are involved in the degradation of several plant cell wall components, including cellulose. The complete cellulolytic complex used by a single fungal species is typically composed of more than one of the above mechanisms that contribute to the utilization of cellulose as a source of carbon or energy or degrade it to ensure fast substrate colonization. The efficiency and regulation of cellulose degradation differs among wood-rotting, litter-decomposing, mycorrhizal or plant pathogenic fungi and yeasts due to the different roles of cellulose degradation in the physiology and ecology of the individual groups. PMID:18371173

  17. Maize kernel antioxidants and their potential involvement in Fusarium ear rot resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Adeline; Atanasova-Pénichon, Vessela; Pons, Sebastien; Marchegay, Gisèle; Barreau, Christian; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Roucolle, Joël; Daveau, Florie; Caron, Daniel; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2013-04-10

    The potential involvement of antioxidants (α-tocopherol, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and ferulic acid) in the resistance of maize varieties to Fusarium ear rot was the focus of this study. These antioxidants were present in all maize kernel stages, indicating that the fumonisin-producing fungi (mainly Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum ) are likely to face them during ear colonization. The effect of these compounds on fumonisin biosynthesis was studied in F. verticillioides liquid cultures. In carotenoid-treated cultures, no inhibitory effect of fumonisin accumulation was observed while a potent inhibitory activity was obtained for sublethal doses of α-tocopherol (0.1 mM) and ferulic acid (1 mM). Using a set of genotypes with moderate to high susceptibility to Fusarium ear rot, ferulic acid was significantly lower in immature kernels of the very susceptible group. Such a relation was nonexistent for tocopherols and carotenoids. Also, ferulic acid in immature kernels ranged from 3 to 8.5 mg/g, i.e., at levels consistent with the in vitro inhibitory concentration. Overall, our data support the fact that ferulic acid may contribute to resistance to Fusarium ear rot and/or fumonisin accumulation. PMID:23484637

  18. Biodegradation of endocrine-disrupting compounds and suppresion of estrogenic activity by ligninolytic fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cajthaml, Tomáš; Křesinová, Zdena; Svobodová, Kateřina; Moeder, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 6 (2009), s. 745-750. ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk 2B06156; GA AV ČR KJB600200613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Biodegradation * Endocrine disrupters * White rot fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2009

  19. Elimination of Bisphenol A and Triclosan Using the Enzymatic System of Autochthonous Colombian Forest Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Arboleda; Cabana, H.; E. De Pril; J. Peter Jones; G. A. Jiménez; A. I. Mejía; Agathos, S. N.; Penninckx, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) are known or suspected potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which may pose a risk to human health and have an environmental impact. Enzyme preparations containing mainly laccases, obtained from Ganoderma stipitatum and Lentinus swartzii, two autochthonous Colombian forest white rot fungi (WRF), previously identified as high enzyme producers, were used to remove BPA and TCS from aqueous solutions. A Box-Behnken factorial design showed that pH, t...

  20. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Agnes Lumi Abe; Carla Bertechini Faria; Fausto Fernandes de Castro; Sandra Regina de Souza; Fabiane Cristina dos Santos; Cleiltan Novais da Silva; Dauri José Tessmann; Ione Parra Barbosa-Tessmann

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precip...

  1. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. PMID:26725152

  2. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  3. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  5. Rhizoctonia damping-off stem canker and root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani has been reported to cause damping-off and root rot of rhododendrons and azaleas. Damping-off often includes groups of dying and dead seedlings. Decline of rooted plants in containers results from both root rot and stem necrosis below or above the soil line. Root rot is usually no...

  6. Basal Root Rot, a new Disease of Teak (Tectona grandis in Malaysia caused by Phellinus noxius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal root rot of teak was first reported from Sabak Bernam, Selangor making this the first report of the disease on teak in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungus found associated with the disease was Phellinus noxious. The disease aggressively killed its host irrespective of the host health status. Bark depression at the root collar which was visible from a distance was the characteristic symptom and the main indicator in identifying the disease in the plantation since above ground symptoms of the canopy could not be differentiated from crowns of healthy trees. However, although above ground symptoms were not easily discernible, the disease was already advanced and the trees mostly beyond treatment; 3.4 % of the trees in the plantation were affected and the disease occurred both on solitary trees and in patches. Below ground, infected trees had rotted root systems, mainly below and around the collar region with brown discolored wood and irregular golden-brown honeycomb-like pockets of fungal hyphae in the wood. Pathogenicity tests showed that the fungus produced symptoms similar to those observed in the plantation and killed two year-old teak plants. The disease killed all the inoculated hosts within three months, irrespective of wounded or unwounded treatments.

  7. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Damare, S.

    • Institut fur Biotechno\\ogle. Biotechnikum. Walter Rathenau Strasse 49A, 17489GrcJf~wald.Germany. 265 266 Raghukumar and Damare from water samples collected from the subtropical Atlantic Ocean, from the surface to a depth of 4,500 m using sterile van Dom... Calcareous shells %5, Bay ofBengal 73 Only preserved specimens CFU CFt.: Chapter IS • Deep-Sea Fungi 267 fungi were isolated from surface-sterilized calcareous fragments collected from a depth of 300 to 860 m in the Bay of Bengal (73). These fungi were...

  8. Reduction of Fusarium rot and maintenance of fruit quality in melon using eco-friendly hot water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuan; Droby, Samir; Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Significant losses in harvested fruit can be directly attributable to decay fungi and quality deterioration. Hot water treatment (HWT) has been demonstrated to be an effective and economic environment-friendly approach for managing postharvest decay and maintaining fruit quality. In this study, the effects of HWT (45 °C for 10, 15, 20, and 25 min) on in vitro growth of Fusarium oxysporum, in vivo Fusarium rot, and natural decay of melon were investigated. HWT inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of F. oxysporum. Protein impairment and ATP consumption triggered by HWT contributed to the inhibitory effect. Results of in vivo studies showed that HWT effectively controlled Fusarium rot and natural decay of melon. Correspondingly, HWT induced a significant increase in content of total phenolic compounds and lignin of melon. These findings indicate that the effects of HWT on Fusarium rot may be associated with the direct fungal inhibition and the elicitation of defense responses in fruit. Importantly, HWT used in this study had beneficial effects on fruit quality as well. HWT may represent an effective non-chemical approach for management of postharvest Fusarium rot. PMID:25030787

  9. Development of a DNA Microarray-Based Assay for the Detection of Sugar Beet Root Rot Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Christ, Daniela S; Ehricht, Ralf; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet root rot diseases that occur during the cropping season or in storage are accompanied by high yield losses and a severe reduction of processing quality. The vast diversity of microorganism species involved in rot development requires molecular tools allowing simultaneous identification of many different targets. Therefore, a new microarray technology (ArrayTube) was applied in this study to improve diagnosis of sugar beet root rot diseases. Based on three marker genes (internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor 1 alpha, and 16S ribosomal DNA), 42 well-performing probes enabled the identification of prevalent field pathogens (e.g., Aphanomyces cochlioides), storage pathogens (e.g., Botrytis cinerea), and ubiquitous spoilage fungi (e.g., Penicillium expansum). All probes were proven for specificity with pure cultures from 73 microorganism species as well as for in planta detection of their target species using inoculated sugar beet tissue. Microarray-based identification of root rot pathogens in diseased field beets was successfully confirmed by classical detection methods. The high discriminatory potential was proven by Fusarium species differentiation based on a single nucleotide polymorphism. The results demonstrate that the ArrayTube constitute an innovative tool allowing a rapid and reliable detection of plant pathogens particularly when multiple microorganism species are present. PMID:26524545

  10. 褐腐真菌纤维素降解初期产生羟基自由基的普遍性研究%STUDY ON THE GENERALITY OF HO· PRODUCTION IN EARLY STAGE OF CELLULOSE DEGRADATION BY BROWN-ROT FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 张齐翔; 卢雪梅; 赵越; 高培基

    2003-01-01

    本文通过对11株褐腐菌的研究,发现其普遍具有产生HO@的特性;而且于褐腐菌的胞外培养液中均得到了部分分离纯化的、非酶的III组分,III组分普遍具有还原Fe3+为Fe2+的能力.III组分对纤维素底物的作用实验表明,HO@的氧化机制在褐腐菌对纤维素降解的初期普遍存在,HO@氧化断裂纤维素链内或链间的氢键,继而断裂糖苷键,使纤维素暴露出更多的还原性和非还原性末端,为纤维素酶的进一步降解提供有利条件.

  11. 密粘褶菌Gloeophyllum trabeum胞外低分子量多肽的分离纯化及其对纤维素生物降解作用%The Purification and Role in Fungal Oxidative Cellulose Degradation of a Low Molecular Weight Peptide from Brown-rot Fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 胡玮; 高培基

    2002-01-01

    通过HPLC高效液相层析由褐腐真菌中能强烈降解木质纤维素的代表菌株密粘褶菌Gloeo-phyllumtrabeum的胞外培养液,分离纯化得到一低分子量的活性多肽组分(Gt因子).Gt因子具有较好热稳定性,在pH 2.5~6.5范围内保持稳定.Gt因子分子量在4 000左右,等电点pI6.6.Gt因子具有络合Fe3+的能力,且能够将Fe3+还原为Fe2+.在O2存在时,能以纤维素物质为电子供体形成羟基自由基HO.利用循环伏安法,观察到Gt因子与纤维素底物之间的氧化还原过程.研究表明,Gt因子极有可能在褐腐菌的纤维素降解初期起着重要的作用.

  12. 密褐褶孔菌Gloeophyllum trabeum对几种杀虫剂跟踪反应及对水坝白蚁诱杀效果的影响%Effect of Brown-rot Fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum, on Trail-following Responses to Several Insecticides and on Field Efficacy for Dam Termite Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少南; 赫键; 等

    2001-01-01

    Oral toxicity of 4 insecticides, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, abamectin and fipronil to two termites, Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flaviceps, was tested using different baits material. Trail-following activity of the toxic baits to R. Flavicps was evaluated. The oral test showed that sugarcane was more attractive bait than that of starch and pinewood. Sugarcane bait decayed by Gloeophyllum trabeum was more attractive than the fresh one. Three of the 4 insecticides tested (except fenvalerate) maintained their attraction to the termites without losing the toxicity. A 30-day field-tests with chlorpyrifos bait gave a 66.7% rate of a termite population control on a dam.%测定了毒死蜱、氰戊菊酯、阿维菌素和氟虫腈等4种杀虫剂与不同饵料混合后对家白蚁Coptotermes formosanus和黄肢散白蚁Reticulitermes flaviceps的口服毒性。在此基础上比较了各种饵料及由它们配成的毒饵对黄肢散白蚁的引诱力。结果表明,白蚁对甘蔗粉的喜好程度远超过对淀粉和松木粉。而受密褐褶孔菌Gloeophyllum trabeum侵染的甘蔗粉对白蚁的引诱力又远超过未受侵染的甘蔗粉。4种杀虫剂中除氰戊菊酯外,另3种与受侵染甘蔗粉制成的毒饵均能够在不损失杀白蚁活性的同时保留其对白蚁的引诱力。其中毒死蜱毒饵在为期30 d的水坝白蚁诱杀防治中取得最高(66.7%)的防治效果。

  13. Manglicolous fungi from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chinnaraj, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    This paper deals with nine Ascomycetous fungi viz. Rhizophila marina Hyde et Jones, Trematosphaeria striatispora Hyde, Lineolata rhizophorae (Kohlm. et. Kohlm.) Kohlm. et. Volkm.-Kohlm., Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm., Passeriniella savoryellopsis...

  14. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John;

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...

  15. Maarja Unduski 'Fungi'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    24. nov.-st Linnagaleriis Tallinnas Maarja Unduski kolmas isiknäitus 'Fungi'. Eksponeeritud hiigelseened ja rida värviliste lehtedega ramatuid, mille kaante valmistamisel on autor esmakordselt kasutanud ka lõuendit ja paberreljeefi.

  16. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  17. Modelling interactions in fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Falconer, Ruth E; Bown, James L; White, Nia A.; Crawford, John W.

    2007-01-01

    Indeterminate organisms have received comparatively little attention in theoretical ecology and still there is much to be understood about the origins and consequences of community structure. The fungi comprise an entire kingdom of life and epitomize the indeterminate growth form. While interactions play a significant role in shaping the community structure of indeterminate organisms, to date most of our knowledge relating to fungi comes from observing interaction outcomes between two species...

  18. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  19. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floudas, Dimitrios; Held, Benjamin W; Riley, Robert; Nagy, Laszlo G; Koehler, Gage; Ransdell, Anthony S; Younus, Hina; Chow, Julianna; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Lipzen, Anna; Tritt, Andrew; Sun, Hui; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A; Kües, Ursula; Blanchette, Robert A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Minto, Robert E; Hibbett, David S

    2015-03-01

    Wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina have been traditionally separated in two categories termed white and brown rot. Recently the accuracy of such a dichotomy has been questioned. Here, we present the genome sequences of the white-rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown-rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. C. torrendii is closely related to the white-rot root pathogen Armillaria mellea, while F. hepatica is related to Schizophyllum commune, which has been reported to cause white rot. Our results suggest that C. torrendii and S. commune are intermediate between white-rot and brown-rot fungi, but at the same time they show characteristics of decay that resembles soft rot. Both species cause weak wood decay and degrade all wood components but leave the middle lamella intact. Their gene content related to lignin degradation is reduced, similar to brown-rot fungi, but both have maintained a rich array of genes related to carbohydrate degradation, similar to white-rot fungi. These characteristics appear to have evolved from white-rot ancestors with stronger ligninolytic ability. F. hepatica shows characteristics of brown rot both in terms of wood decay genes found in its genome and the decay that it causes. However, genes related to cellulose degradation are still present, which is a plesiomorphic characteristic shared with its white-rot ancestors. Four wood degradation-related genes, homologs of which are frequently lost in brown-rot fungi, show signs of pseudogenization in the genome of F. hepatica. These results suggest that transition toward a brown-rot lifestyle could be an ongoing process in F. hepatica. Our results reinforce the idea that wood decay mechanisms are more diverse than initially thought and that the dichotomous separation of wood decay mechanisms in Agaricomycotina into white rot and brown rot should be revisited. PMID:25683379

  20. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) and Humic Acid on the Growth of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plant and Root Rot Disease Caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian

    OpenAIRE

    ASLANPAY, Burcu; Semra DEMİR

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of singular and double combinations of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and humic acid (HA) were investigated on the growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and rot root disease caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian which has been known as an important problem of pepper cultivation and leading yield losses. Under controlled conditions, four F1 pepper cultivars (Ergenekon, Bafra, Sirena and Yıldız) were inoculated with three different AMF strains (Glomus intraradice...

  1. Myxomycetes of the rotting cherry wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1974-1975 on rotting cherry wood development of some Myxomycetes was observed. In that time 6 species of slime molds were noted: Arcyria denudata, Comatricha typhoides, Dyctidium cancellatum, Lycogala epidendrum, Physarum cinereum, Stemonitis ferruginea. In the decomposition of organic compounds apart from Myxomycetes other organism (Coprinus dessiminafus also take part.

  2. Everbearing strawberry cultivars - susceptibility to crown rot

    OpenAIRE

    Parikka, Päivi; Karhu, Saila; Hietaranta, Tarja

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the production of everbearing strawberry cultivars were started at MTT Plant Production Research in 2007. MTT Horticulture makes trials in tunnel and open fields to study the growth, yield and overwintering of cultivars in northern conditions. Resistance to crown rot is also being tested.

  3. Etiology of phomopsis root rot in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cecília Ghissi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of damages caused by soybean root rot to crops in the south of Brazil for several years, a root rot caused by Phomopsis sp has been found with increasing frequency. The primary symptoms are seen when the main root is cut longitudinally, including the death of the wood which shows white coloration and well-defined black lines that do not have a defined format. Thus, based on similarity, it has been called geographic root rot due to its aspect resembling irregular lines that separate regions on a map. In isolations, colonies and alpha spores of Phomopsis have prevailed. Pathogenicity test was done by means of inoculation in the crown of plants cultivated in a growth chamber. The geographic symptoms were reproduced in plants and the fungus Phomopsis sp. was reisolated. In soybean stems naturally infected with pod and stem blight, geographic symptoms caused by Phomopsis phaseoli are found. To the known symptoms on stems, pods and grains, that of root rot caused by P. phaseoli is now added.

  4. Inhibition of Green and Blue Rots in Orange Fruits by using Clove and Thyme Essential Oils Treated by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clove, thyme essential oils and their mixture (at ratio of 1 :1) were tested for their inhibitory activity against two important post harvest green and blue rots of navel orange fruits (in vitro) by Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum fungi, respectively. Mixture of clove and thyme essential oils exhibited the best inhibitory activity against these fungi. Consequently, the mixture of clove and thyme essential oils were irradiated at doses of 0, 4, 8 and 12 kGy to study the effect of gamma irradiation on their efficiency for controlling the tested fungi (in vitro). The results showed that irradiated mixture of thyme and clove essential oils at dose of 12 kGy was the most effective for inhibition the growth of tested fungi. Moreover, emulsifiable concentrates were prepared from the irradiated mixture essential oils at dose of 12 kGy using different emulsifiers (Emulgator B.L.M. and tween 80) and additive oil (soybean oil). Physico-chemical properties of the formulated oils mixture (spontaneous emulsification, emulsion stability; cold stability and heat stability, viscosity, surface tension and ph) were measured, In addition, navel orange fruits inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or P. italicum spores were treated by different concentrations of formulated oils mixture at different soaking periods. The results revealed that treating inoculated navel orange fruits with concentration of 11000 ppm of the prepared formulation and soaked for a period of 5 and 10 minutes was the most effective concentration and corresponding soaking period for inhibition the growth of the tested fungi. The formulated essential oils were found to inhibit the development of green and blue rots on navel orange fruits when applied as protective and therapeutic agents

  5. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. PMID:27131325

  6. Fungi Associated with Females and Cysts of Heterodera glycines in a Florida Soybean Field

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Senyu; Dickson, D W; Kimbrough, J.W.; McSorley, R.; Mitchell, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Fungal colonization was determined for females and cysts of Heterodera glycines on soybean roots or in rhizosphere soil from a Florida soybean field. A total of 1,620 females and cysts were examined in 1991, and 1,303 were examined in 1992. More than 35 species of fungi were isolated from females and cysts. The frequency of fungi colonizing white and yellow females was low, but a high frequency of fungi was encountered in brown cysts, which increased with time of exposure of the cysts to the ...

  7. Dichoptic perception of brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLawyer, Tanner; Morimoto, Takuma; Buck, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments assessed mechanisms underlying brown induction by presenting a foveal target disk and concentric annular surround stimuli that varied in contrast relative to larger backgrounds. Stimuli were presented under monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing conditions. Observers adjusted the luminance of the target disk to a criterion brown level. We found evidence for at least two separate mechanisms for brown induction: one mechanism that is dependent on physically contiguous contrast and operates in monocular pathways and another mechanism that responds to high luminance contrast anywhere in the visual field and can operate after convergence of signals from the two eyes. PMID:26974916

  8. Evaluation of natural plant extracts, antagonists and fungicides in controlling root rot, collar rot, fruit (brown rot and gummosis of citrus caused by Phytophthora spp. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Jagtap

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The results revealed that all the six bioagents tested in vitro applying dual culture technique against Phytophthora nicotianae, Phytophthora citrophthora and Phytophthora palmivora significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control. However, bioagent, Trichoderma harzianum recorded minimum mean colony diameter (7.73 cm2 and highest inhibition (87.85% of mycelial growth of P. nicotianae over untreated control followed by the bioagent T. viride, T. koningii which recorded mean colony diameter of 9.95 cm2, 14.15 cm2 and mean mycelial inhibition of 84.36 %, 77.76%, respectively. Evaluation of different botanicals by Poisoned Food Technique showed that all plant extracts tested in vitro were found significantly effective in reducing the percentage mycelial growth of P. nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora over untreated control. However, plant extract (@ 5, 10 and 15% of Garlic, recorded lowest mean colony diameter (47.45 mm and highest mean mycelial growth inhibition (47.26% followed by Neem, Onion which recorded the mycelial growth of 55.20 mm, 60.85 mm, and the mean mycelial growth inhibition of 38.65%, 32.38%, respectively. Results revealed that all the nine fungicides tested in vitro applying Poisoned Food Technique against P. nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control. However, fungicide, Cymoxynil 8% + Mancozeb 64% (Curzate M-8 recorded minimum mean colony diameter (16.12 mm and maximum mean inhibition (82.09% of mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control (mean colony diameter 90.00 mm and mean inhibition 0.00 followed by the fungicide Metalaxyl-M 4% + Mancozeb 64% (Ridomil Gold, Metyram (Polyram, which recorded mean colony diameter of 20.16 mm, 24.16 mm and mean mycelial inhibition of 77.59%, 73.14%, respectively.

  9. Glutaredoxins in fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Perpiñán, Enrique; Ros Salvador, Joaquim; Tamarit Sumalla, Jordi; Bellí i Martínez, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) can be subdivided into two subfamilies: dithiol GRXs with the CPY/FC active site motif, and monothiol GRXs with the CGFS motif. Both subfamilies share a thioredoxin-fold structure. Monothiol GRXs exist with a single Grx domain while others have a thioredoxin-like domain (Trx) and one or more Grx domains in tandem. Most fungi have both dithiol and monothiol GRXs with different subcellular locations. GRX-like molecules also exist in fungi that separate in one residue fro...

  10. Fungi and minerals occurring in heartwood discolorations in Ouercus robur trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The studied Quercus robur trees were oaks protected as monuments of nature (200-350 years old and oaks growing in forest stands (200-300 years old. The most visible symptoms occurring in aboveground organs included defoliation (25-75%, dying of twigs and branches. Discoloured heartwood, obtained with an 80-cm Pressler borer, differed in colour intensity from normal wood and was divided into two groups: stained brown and dark brown. The brown-stained heartwood was a more active site, considering the number of fungi and their ability to produce enzymes (phenoloxidase, pectinase and cellulase in comparison with the dark-brown-stained heartwood. This brown-stained heartwood contained also statistically more Ca, Mg and Mn.

  11. The structure of tree stand and wood-destroying fungi of native pine biogeocoenoses of the Russian plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Storozhenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The author considered age structures of virgin indigenous pine forests of natural origin as well as plantations in the subzones of taiga, zones of mixed forests, deciduous forests and forest-steppe of the Russian plain. Native pine forests are heterogeneous by their structural characteristics. This heterogeneity is caused by high demands of the species to understory light requirements as well as by frequent pyrogenic influence that determine the age structure of stand forests. Virgin pine forests have up to 14 age generations and from 5 to 20 % of stand trees affected by fungi of biotrophic complex. That has a direct connection with their dynamic status. In the pine forests of digressive dynamic faze, where the initial age generations accommodate the major biomass amount, this volume may grow up to 50 %. Pine species planted discounting regularities of formation of stable forest communities are subject to spotty attacks by fungi of biotrophic complex. A species composition of wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex causing rot defects of pines in the entire longitudinal gradient of pine distribution within the Russian Plain stays virtually unchanged. Significant changes can be noted only in the occurrence of certain types of wood destroying fungi. The main types of wood biotrophic fungi include: Climacocystis borealis (Fr. Kotl. et Pouzar, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr. Bref., Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr. Pat.; Porodaedalea chrysoloma (Fr. Fiasson et Niemelä; Phellinus pini (Thore: Fr. A. Ames [= Porodaedalea pini (Brot.: Fr. Murrill]. In the uneven-aged pine forests of natural origin, mottled butt rot does not form drying out spots and exists in the stands as an ordinary component of the total biotrophic defeat. Wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex are evolutionary determined as one of the endogenic mechanisms of destruction of unstable forest structures and formation of stable ones. The author also evaluated the volumes of biotrophic

  12. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    Fungi produce a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during their primary or secondary metabolism and with a wide range of functions. The main focus of this research work has been put on flavour molecules that are produced during fermentation processes, mainly esters and alcohols derived...

  13. The Rust Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rust fungi are a monophyletic group of approximately 7,0000 species in the basidiomycota and are highly specialized obligate parasites of plants. The life cycle of rusts can be complex. Some rusts have up to five spore stages that alternate between haploid and dikaryotic nuclear conditions and t...

  14. Cryopreservation of Filamentous Fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, Ladislav

    New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2013 - (Colvert, A.; Coty, H.), s. 1-66 ISBN 978-1-62618-474-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cryopreservation * filamentous fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Fun with Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  16. Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D/Souza, T.M.; Merritt, C.S.; Reddy, C.A.

    1999-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was readily seen in cultures grown with pine or poplar as the sole carbon and energy source. Cultures containing both pine and poplar showed 5- to 10-fold-higher levels of laccase than cultures containing pine or poplar alone. Since syringyl units are structural components important in poplar lignin and other hardwoods but much less so in pine lignin and other softwoods, pine cultures were supplemented with syringic acid, and this resulted in laccase levels comparable to those seen in pine-plus-poplar cultures. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated extracellular culture fluid from HM cultures showed two laccase activity bands, where as isoelectric focusing revealed five major laccase activity bands with estimated pIs of 3.0, 4.25, 4.5, and 5.1. Low levels of MnP activity were detected in poplar-grown cultures but not in cultures grown with pine, with pine plus syringic acid, or in HN medium. No LiP activity was seen in any of the media tested; however, probing the genomic DNA with the LiP cDNA (CLG4) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed distinct hybridization bands suggesting the presence of lip-like sequences in G. lucidum.

  17. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit. PMID:26267542

  18. Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (solanum tuberosum l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Olusola Abiodun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal control effect on the incidence of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Solanum tuberosum (potato was investigated in this study. Three cultivars of potato tuber whose local names are, Patiska, Mai Bawondoya and Nicola were used for the study. Five pathogenic fungi viz: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium redolens, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae associated with post harvest storage rot of root-tubers, were isolated from diseased potatoes. Among the three species of potatoes used in the study, Patiska was found most resistant followed by Mai Bawondoya, while Nicola was the least resistant. Increase in substrate (i.e. soluble starch or CMC concentration enhanced a proportional increase in mycelial growth and in the amount of extracellular enzymes produced. Some of these test pathogens were found to produce cell wall degrading enzymes (i.e. amylase and cellulase. Preferential utilization of carbohydrate sources was established in this study based on the growth of test pathogens. Growth on potato broth medium was highest followed by growth on Cocoyam and Sweet potato broth media and least on Cassava broth medium. Growth of the test pathogens on carbohydrate sources was found at variant. The use of hot water treatment at different temperatures was found to significantly reduce post-harvest fungal populations on the surface of root-tubers. The efficacy of blanching in hot water at 60˚C was significantly higher than that of blanching in hot water at other temperatures. The control method adopted in this study showed that the problems of potatoes’ rot disease in storage (especially by the peasant farmers can be eradicated by thermal treatments without reducing the quality of the Irish tuber.

  19. Integrated Management of Causal Agents of Postharvest Fruit Rot of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Grahovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of poor quality and fruit loss (during storage and transportare diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Economic losses which are the consequenceof the phytopathogenic fungus activity after harvest exceed the losses in the field.Themost important postharvest fungal pathogens of apple fruits are: Botrytis cinerea Pers. exFr., Penicillium expansum (Lk. Thom., Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck. Grem., Colletotrichumgloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., Monilinia sp., Gloeosporium album Osterw, Alternaria alternata(Fr. Keissler, Cladosporium herbarium Link., Cylindrocarpon mali (Alles. Wollenw., Stemphyliumbotryosum Wallr. The use of available protection technologies can significantly reducelosses caused by pathogens in storage. The concept of integrated pest management (IPMin apple fruits i.e. sustainable approach in control of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot,using cultural, physical, biological and chemical measures, to minimize economic, healthand risks to consumers and environment, is presented in the paper.

  20. Production of cellobiose dehydrogenase from a newly isolated white rot fungus Termitomyces sp. OE147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gupteshwar; Gangwar, Rishabh; Gautam, Ashwani; Kumar, Lalit; Dhariwal, Anuj; Sahai, Vikram; Mishra, Saroj

    2014-08-01

    Class I cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular hemoflavo enzymes produced at low levels by the Basidiomycetes (white rot fungi). In presence of suitable electron acceptors, e.g., cytochrome c, 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol, or metal ions, it oxidizes cellobiose to cellobionolactone. A stringent requirement for disaccharides makes CDH also useful for conversion of lactose to lactobionic acid, an important ingredient in pharma and detergent industry. In this work, class I CDH was produced using a newly identified white rot fungus Termitomyces sp. OE147. Four media were evaluated for CDH production, and maximum enzyme activity of 0.92 international unit (IU)/ml was obtained on Ludwig medium under submerged conditions. Statistical optimization of N source, which had significant effect on CDH production, using Box-Behnken design followed by optimization of inoculum size and age resulted in an increase in activity to 2.9 IU/ml and a productivity of ~25 IU/l/h. The nearly purified CDH exhibited high activity of 26.4 IU/mg protein on lactose indicating this enzyme to be useful for lactobionic acid synthesis. Some of the internal peptide sequences bore 100 % homology to the CDH produced in Myceliophthora thermophila. The fungal isolate was amenable to scale up, and an overall productivity of ~18 IU/l/h was obtained at 14-l level. PMID:24929309

  1. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B₁, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. PMID:27338476

  2. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. PMID:27338476

  3. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Poten tial Mycotoxin Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  4. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  5. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for...

  6. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Sławiński; Danuta Sławińska; Irena Majchrowicz

    2014-01-01

    Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candoll...

  7. Sex in Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Min; Feretzaki, Marianna; Sun, Der Sheng; Wang, Xuying; Heitman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Sexual reproduction enables genetic exchange in eukaryotic organisms as diverse as fungi, animals, plants, and ciliates. Given its ubiquity, sex is thought to have evolved once, possibly concomitant with or shortly after the origin of eukaryotic organisms themselves. The basic principles of sex are conserved, including ploidy changes, the formation of gametes via meiosis, mate recognition, and cell-cell fusion leading to the production of a zygote. Although the basic tenants are shared, sex d...

  8. Phenotypic Switching in Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Neena; Hasan, Fahmi; Fries, Bettina C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past three decades new fungal diseases have emerged that now constitute a major threat, especially for patients with chronic diseases and/or underlying immune defi ciencies. Despite the epidemiologic data, the emergence of stable drug-resistant or hyper-virulent fungal strains in human disease has not been demonstrated as seen in emerging viral and bacterial infections. Fungi are eukaryotic microbes that capitalize on a sophisticated built-in ability to generate phenotypic variabilit...

  9. Tolerance to Phytophthora Fruit Rot in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici is distributed worldwide, and is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Fruit rot, caused by P. capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast US. Resistance to fruit rot o...

  10. Cultivar Selection for Sugar Beet Root Rot Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal and bacterial root rots in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Rs) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum (Lm) can lead to root yield losses greater than 50%. To reduce the impact of these root rots on sucrose loss in the field, storage, and factories, studies were conducted t...

  11. Isolation and selection of white-rot fungi for decolourisation of industrial dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Manzano-León

    2011-01-01

    varios ecosistemas de La Habana y Sancti Spíritus, en el período del 2000 al 2004. Los aislados correspondieron a once especies diferentes de basidiomicetos ligninolíticos, de ellos, Ganoderma aff. zonatum (B-18 y Pleurotus djamor (B-36 fueron los más efectivos en la decoloración de once colorantes químicamente diferentes y dos efluentes textiles simulados. Como referencias en los ensayos de decoloración se utilizaron las cepas Trametes membranacea (B-1, Lentinus hirtus (B-8 y Pleurotus djamor (B-9 procedentes del Jardín Botánico Nacional y con probada capacidad para degradar lignina y el colorante violeta cristal. Las enzimas lacasa y manganeso peroxidasa de G. aff. zonatum (B-18 fueron inducidas por la mezcla de los colorantes reactivos Cibacron marino FN-B, Cibacron rojo FN-3G y Cibacron amarillo P-6GS y por un efluente textil simulado, lo que sugiere su participación en los procesos de decoloración.

  12. Interactions of white-rot fungi with soil microbes and its consequences for in situ biodegradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Šnajdr, Jaroslav

    Cancun, 2004, s. 7. [International Symposium on Microbial Ecology ISME /10./. Cancun (MX), 22.08.2004-27.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5020202 Keywords : cfu * pleurotus ostreatus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Factors affecting the evaluation of long-term PCB biodegradation in soils by white rot fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubátová, Alena; Erbanová, Pavla

    Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999 - (Baveye, P.), s. 141-146 ISBN 0-7923-5944-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2020602 Grant ostatní: US AID(US) TA-MOU-95-C15-190 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. White rot fungi in bioremediation – Ecology in the soil environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr

    Chania: Technical University of Crete, 2008, s. 1-4. ISBN 978-960-8475-12-0. [European Bioremediation Conference /4./. Chania (GR), 03.09.2008-06.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 155; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : basidiomycetes * bioremediation * forest soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Wood-Destroying Soft Rot Fungi in the Historic Expedition Huts of Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchette, Robert A.; Held, Benjamin W.; Jurgens, Joel A.; McNew, Douglas L.; Thomas C. Harrington; Duncan, Shona M.; Farrell, Roberta L.

    2004-01-01

    Three expedition huts in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica, built between 1901 and 1911 by Robert F. Scott and Ernest Shackleton, sheltered and stored the supplies for up to 48 men for 3 years during their explorations and scientific investigation in the South Pole region. The huts, built with wood taken to Antarctica by the early explorers, have deteriorated over the past decades. Although Antarctica has one of the coldest and driest environments on earth, microbes have colonized the wood an...

  16. Bioremediation of the pesticides Dieldrin, Simazine, Trifluralin using tropical and temperate white-rot fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Elyassi, Ali

    1997-01-01

    The natural breakdown of three pesticides on the UK Red Lis~ dieldrin~ simazine and trifluralin in water and soil varied with environmental conditions. In both sterile and unsterile water trifluralin was degraded to some extent at 20 and 30°C. In contras~ dieldrin and simazine were stable over the 42 days incubation period. A gradient HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of the three pesticides in soil. In field capacity soil mixtures of the three pesti...

  17. BATCH BIOREACTORS: WASTE WATER ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR BIODEGRADATION BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křesinová, Zdena; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    Praha: Vodní zdroje Ekomonitor, 2013, s. 193-198. ISBN 978-80-86832-73-9. [Inovativní sanační technologie ve výzkumu a praxi /6./. Praha (CZ), 16.10.2013-17.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : organopollutants Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  18. Increase of laccase activity during interspecific interactions of white-rot fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2004), s. 245-153. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB5020202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : laccase * interspecific interaction * pleurotus ostreatus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.769, year: 2004

  19. Ecological aspects of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes production during bioremediation with white-rot fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Gabriel, Jiří; Nerud, František

    Durban, 2004, s. 163-165. [International Conference of Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry /9./. Durban (ZA), 10.10.2004-14.10.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5020202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : pah * hplc Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. Proteases of Wood Rot Fungi with Emphasis on the Genus Pleurotus

    OpenAIRE

    Fabíola Dorneles Inácio; Roselene Oliveira Ferreira; Caroline Aparecida Vaz de Araujo; Tatiane Brugnari; Rafael Castoldi; Rosane Marina Peralta; Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are present in all living organisms and they play an important role in physiological conditions. Cell growth and death, blood clotting, and immune defense are all examples of the importance of proteases in maintaining homeostasis. There is growing interest in proteases due to their use for industrial purposes. The search for proteases with specific characteristics is designed to reduce production costs and to find suitable properties for certain industrial sectors, as well as good p...

  1. Ligninolytic capacity of selected white rot fungi cultivated in their immobilized form

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šušla, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Tavčar, M.; Pavko, A.; Novotný, Čeněk

    Ostrava: Verlag, 2006, s. 16-16. [Environmental Changes and Biological Assessment III. Ostrava (CZ), 26.04.2006-28.04.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP526/06/P102; GA AV ČR IAA6020411; GA MŠk 1P05ME827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : irpex lacteus * immobilized cultures Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. VALORIZATION AND BIODECOLORIZATION OF DYE ADSORBED ON LIGNOCELLULOSICS USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Nesrin Ozmen,; Ozfer Yesilada

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of dyes by lignocelluloses may be an effective method for removing dyes from textile effluents. However, the resulting dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic materials may constitute another pollution problem. An integrated method can solve this problem. Here, various lignocelluloses were tested for their Astrazon Black and Astrazon Blue dyes removal activities. The dye adsorbed after 30 min contact time was 90% (45 mg/L), 70% (35 mg/L), and 98% (49 mg/L) for wheat bran, pine cone, and cott...

  3. The potential of white rot fungi oxidative enzymes systems for removal of organic micropollutants in wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Debaste, Frédéric; Penninckx, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Wastewaters produced by industry and municipalities contain numerous synthetic compounds in varying concentrations. Micro pollutants can be defined as inorganic and organic substances present at low concentrations (pg/L to ng/L) in the environment having adverse consequences for living organisms at these low concentrations. To date, an effective and sustainable global strategy against this insidious contamination of aquatic environments barely exists. Source controls and technical systems, su...

  4. Occurrence of fungi on Sparaxis sp. corms cultivated near Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Piwoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The healthiness analysis of Sparaxis sp. corms was carried out in the years 2002-2003 on the experimental fields of The Agricultural University near Lublin. Plants were cultivated in trials treated with: Asahi SL (sodium nitrophenole derivates, Tytanit (tytanium, herbicides: Afalon 450 SC (linuron, Devrinol 450 SC (napropamide, Stomp 400 SC (pendimethaline and in control trial without treatment. The healthiness was evaluated after digging and after storage. Among fungi isolated from sparaxis corms after digging and storage, the species Fusarium oxysporum predominated. The corms infected with it were deformed, wrinkled and covered with brown, scaby lesions. This species also dominated among fungi isolated from all the trials, regardless a preparation applied. The disease index values ranged within 6.0 - 9.25 after digging and within 9.25 - 15.75 after storage respectively. There was no a marked positive effect of a used preparation on the healthiness of sparaxis corms.

  5. Natural substrata for corticioid fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene O. Yurchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the types of substrata inhabited by non-poroid resupinate Homobasidiomycetes in situ in global scale with both examples from literature sources and from observations on Belarus corticioid fungi biota. The groups of organic world colonized by corticioid basidiomata and vegetative mycelium are arboreous, semi-arboreous, and herbaceous vascular plants, Bryophyta, epiphytic coccoid algae, lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, and occasionally myxomycetes and invertebrates. The fungi occur on living, dying, and dead on all decay stages parts of organisms. Besides, the fungi are known on soil, humus, stones, artificial inorganic and synthetic materials and dung.

  6. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sławiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candollei, Mucor lausanensis, Paecilomyces farinosus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma lignorum and Tricholoma equestre failed to do it. Illumination put down biochemiluminescence and stimulated colour formation in both mycelia and in the medium.

  7. Enumeration of fungi in fruits by the most probable number method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Tsutsumi, Fumiyuki; Lee, Ken-ichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu; Takatori, Kosuke; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Konuma, Hirotaka

    2010-01-01

    In this study, enumeration methods for fungi in foods were evaluated using fruits that are often contaminated by fungi in the field and rot because of fungal contaminants. As the test methods, we used the standard most probable number (MPN) method with liquid medium in test tubes, which is traditionally used as the enumeration method for bacteria, and the plate-MPN method with agar plate media, in addition to the surface plating method as the traditional enumeration method for fungi. We tested 27 samples of 9 commercial domestic fruits using their surface skin. The results indicated that the standard MPN method showed slow recovery of fungi in test tubes and lower counts than the surface plating method and the plate-MPN method in almost all samples. The fungal count on the 4th d of incubation was approximately the same as on the 10th d by the surface plating method or the plate-MPN method, indicating no significant differences between the fungal counts by these 2 methods. This result indicated that the plate-MPN method had a number agreement with the traditional enumeration method. Moreover, the plate-MPN method has a little laborious without counting colonies, because fungal counts are estimated based on the number of plates with growing colonies. These advantages demonstrated that the plate-MPN method is a comparatively superior and rapid method for enumeration of fungi. PMID:21535611

  8. 丹参根腐病原菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of root rot pathogen of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁孟娟; 藏香银; 韩军; 陈芳

    2015-01-01

    为进一步了解丹参( Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge)根腐病病原菌的种类及生物学特性,采用组织分离法从丹参根腐病样本中分离到1株真菌,经致病性测定、形态学观察和分子生物学鉴定,将其鉴定为腐皮镰刀菌( Fu-sarium solani )。%In order to further understand the variety and biology characteristics of the pathogens of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge root rot, one strain of fungi was isolated from the root rot samples of S.miltiorrhiza Bunge by tissue isolation.According to the pathogenicity test and the morphological observation of the pathogen, as well as molecular biological identification, it was identified as Fusarium solani.

  9. 茄褐纹病研究进展%Research Progress of Eggplant Brown Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马珂; 丁克坚; 汪爱娥

    2005-01-01

    茄褐纹病是茄子的主要病害,在我国南北均有分布.其致病菌是茄褐纹拟茎点霉属,属半知菌亚门真菌.综述了茄褐纹病病原学和抗病技术的研究进展,并指出了存在的问题.

  10. Selecting antagonists for control of postharvest brown rot of stone fruits originating from latent infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    In contrast to biological control of postharvest decays (BCPD) of fruits originating from wound infections after harvest, BCPD originating from latent infections occurring in the orchard has not been developed. This is largely due to the lack of methodology to screen and evaluate microbes for bioco...

  11. Study on Gastrodia elata Brown Rot%天麻褐腐病的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大椿; 秦亚平; 秦锋

    2002-01-01

    天麻(Gastrodia elata)球茎变褐腐烂是近年发生的新病害,病球茎率达42.1%.经病原分离鉴定,是由灰葡萄孢(Botrytis cinerea Pers.ex Fr.)所引起.通过室内毒力测定,多菌灵和快宁对该菌EC50分别为66×10-4 mg*mL-1和68×10-4 mg*mL-1.讨论了病害流行的原因,并提出了防治方法.

  12. Gene expression analysis of copper tolerance and wood decay in the brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Juliet D; Parker, Leslie A; Perkins, Andy D; Sonstegard, Tad S; Schroeder, Steven G; Nicholas, Darrel D; Diehl, Susan V

    2013-03-01

    High-throughput transcriptomics was used to identify Fibroporia radiculosa genes that were differentially regulated during colonization of wood treated with a copper-based preservative. The transcriptome was profiled at two time points while the fungus was growing on wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ). A total of 917 transcripts were differentially expressed. Fifty-eight of these genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ was protecting the wood from strength loss and had putative functions related to oxalate production/degradation, laccase activity, quinone biosynthesis, pectin degradation, ATP production, cytochrome P450 activity, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. Sixty-one genes were more highly expressed when the MCQ lost its effectiveness (>50% strength loss) and had functions related to oxalate degradation; cytochrome P450 activity; H(2)O(2) production and degradation; degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin; hexose transport; membrane glycerophospholipid metabolism; and cell wall chemistry. Ten of these differentially regulated genes were quantified by reverse transcriptase PCR for a more in-depth study (4 time points on wood with or without MCQ treatment). Our results showed that MCQ induced higher than normal levels of expression for four genes (putative annotations for isocitrate lyase, glyoxylate dehydrogenase, laccase, and oxalate decarboxylase 1), while four other genes (putative annotations for oxalate decarboxylase 2, aryl alcohol oxidase, glycoside hydrolase 5, and glycoside hydrolase 10) were repressed. The significance of these results is that we have identified several genes that appear to be coregulated, with putative functions related to copper tolerance and/or wood decay. PMID:23263965

  13. Induction of in vitro mutation for resistance to potato brown rot (ralstonia solanacearum) disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six genotypes were selected from M1 V2 generation on the bases on their high yield for assessment of genetic variability using protein and RAPD analysis. The results of RAPD analysis showed that 11 primers generated 56 distinct bands of which 31 (55.4%) were polymorphic. The similarity indices of the six mutants of potato and their parents ranged from 70 to 91%. The highest genetic similarity 91% was found between D 20 mutant and Do (Diamant parent), on the other hand, the lowest genetic similarity 705 was found between S 30, S 40 mutants and their parent S 0 (Spunta). In the artificial experiment under in vitro condition, the irradiated and non-irradiated plant lets of potato were cultured on medium inoculates of the selected genotypes form irradiated population of Diamant and Spunta Cultivar were susceptible except S 20 mutant which was resistant. Protein analysis showed that S 20 genotype (Resistant Mutant) displayed 2 negative unique bands that might be responsible for resistance to R. solanacea rum. (Author)

  14. Yeast microflora of nectarines and their potential for biocontrol of brown rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resident fruit microflora has been the source of biocontrol agents for the control of postharvest decays of fruits and the active ingredient in commercialized biocontrol products. With the exception of grapes and apples, information on the resident microflora of other fruits is only fragmentary; ho...

  15. Durabilidade natural de painéis aglomerados confeccionados com Eucalyptus grandis e Bambusa vulgaris em ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado Natural durability of Eucalyptus grandis and Bambusa vulgaris particleboards under accelerated fungi decay test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2011-08-01

    dry mass of each panel while the remainder was formed by the urea-formaldehyde adhesive (8% and paraffin (1%. The panels were tested in the laboratory and Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown rot and Trametes versicolor (white rot were used to determine the natural resistance to attack by wood decay fungi. It was observed that panels which were made with a mixture of particles of wood and bamboo were less resistant to attack by decay fungi. Panels that were made from bamboo or wood only showed similar biological resistance. Among fungi, T. versicolor was the one that attacked panels more severely.

  16. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...

  17. Fungi colonizing diseased plants of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum x grandiflorum /Ramat./ Kitam grown under covers in Sandomierz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kopacki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental plants growing under covers in Poland but it is often infected by soil fungi. Investigations were carried out in 1999-2001 (summer and autumn in 9 horticultural farms in Sandomierz district. Plants with symptoms of stem and root rot, leaves yellows and wilt were noticed on the investigated plantations. The results of mycological analysis showed that chrysanthemum plants were colonized by Fusarium spp., Cylindrocarpon spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Sclerotinia spp. and Alternaria spp. Among isolated fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium avenaceum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were predominating pathogenic species. Cv. Snowdon was colonized by pathogens most frequently, while the population of pathogenic fungi from cv. Royalys was the lowest.

  18. Antifungal Substances from Streptomyces sp. A3265 Antagonistic to Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Nguyen; Woo, E-Eum; Kim, Ji-Yul; Kim, Dae-Won; Hwang, Byung Soon; Lee, Yoon-Ju; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2015-09-01

    In a previous study, we identified a Streptomyces sp., A3265, as exhibiting potent antifungal activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Rhizoctonia solani. This strain also exhibited a biocontrolling effect against ginseng root rot and damping-off disease, common diseases of ginseng and other crops. In this study, we isolated two antifungal substances responsible for this biocontrolling effect via Diaion HP-20 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, medium pressure liquid chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. These compounds were identified as guanidylfungin A and methyl guanidylfungin A by spectroscopic methods. These compounds exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against various plant pathogenic fungi as well as against bacteria. PMID:26539051

  19. Ineraction between some saprophytic and entomopathogenis fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-01-01

    The studies on interactions between selected entomopathogenic fungi: Beaweria bassiana, Conidiobolus thromboides (= Entomophthora virulenta), Paecilomyces farinosus, Verticillium lecanii and four species of saprophytic fungi were carried out.

  20. Co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils.

  1. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Aung; He, Hui Ling; Chua, Si Hui; Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Chen, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue expends energy in the form of heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Recent studies showed that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans and may be exploited for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetes actions. Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism. Here, we report that apelin-APJ signaling promotes brown adipocyte differentiation by increasing the expressions of brown adipogenic and thermogenic transcriptional factors via the PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. It is also found that apelin relieves the TNFα inhibition on brown adipogenesis. In addition, apelin increases the basal activity of brown adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased PGC1α and UCP1 expressions, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxygen consumption. Finally, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that apelin is able to increase the brown-like characteristics in white adipocytes. This study, for the first time, reveals the brown adipogenic and browning effects of apelin and suggests a potential therapeutic route to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25931124

  2. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  3. 桑叶褐斑病病原菌的生物学特性研究%Bilolgical Characteristics of Pathogenic Fungus Causing Brown Spot on Mulberry Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庭观; 章一鸣; 叶政平; 何永宏; 张泽; 徐升胜; 洪逗

    2014-01-01

    Through cultivating pathogenic fungi of mulberry brown rot disease under 6 conditions such as different media, temperature, carbon source and nitrogen source after 6 days, research on the biological characteristics of pathogenic fungus causing brown spot on mulberry leaves was conducted .The results showed that nutrition , tem-perature and pH had significant influence on mycelial growth . It was found that the best medium for mycelial growth was oatmeal medium , the proper temperature was 20~30℃, the optimal temperature for mycelial growth was 25℃, the light had no obvious promotion effect on mycelial growth .It was also found that the optimal pH was 9 to 10 , the best carbon source and nitrogen source for mycelial grow are α-Galoctaose and Carbamide , and the mycelial could not survive above 55℃more than 10 min.%通过对桑叶褐斑病病原菌在不同种类培养基培养、不同氮源与碳源、不同温度等6种条件下培养6天后,测定菌落直径,观察菌丝颜色和菌落形态,分析了桑褐斑病病原菌的生物学特性。结果表明,在室内培养条件下,不同的营养成分、 pH值、温度、光照都对菌丝的生长有影响。病原菌菌丝生长的最适宜培养基是燕麦片培养基,适宜生长温度范围是20~30℃,最适生长温度为25℃,光照对菌丝生长无显著影响,最适pH值为9~10,最适碳源为α-乳糖,最适氮源为尿素,菌丝在55℃水浴10 min后则不能生长。

  4. Erwinia carotovora extracellular proteases : characterization and role in soft rot

    OpenAIRE

    Kyöstiö, Sirkka R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) strain EC14, a Gram-negative bacterium, causes soft rot on several crops, including potato. Maceration of potato tuber tissue is caused by secreted pectolytic enzymes. Other cell-degrading enzymes may also have roles in pathogenesis, including cellulases, phospholipases, and protease(s). The objectives of this research were to (1) characterize Ecc extracellular protease (Prt) and (2) elucidate its role in potato soft rot. A gene enc...

  5. Studies Of Enoinia Soft Rot Disease On Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Safni, Irda

    2008-01-01

    E. caroiooora subsp. caroiouora (Ecc), the soft rot bacteria of potato, survives for a long period in lenticels and suberized wounds during storage. The disease is more severe when the environmental conditions favour its development, therefore, managing soft rot disease is a difficult task. Washed and brushed potato tubers, which were artificially inoculated using different inoculation methods, were used in this study to detect the population of Ecc in tuber. The number of Ecc were assessed b...

  6. IMPROVMENT BIOCONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF AND ROOT ROT/WILT OF FABA BEAN BY SALICYLIC ACID AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser F. Abdel-Monaim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina were found to be associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of faba bean plants collected from different fields in New Valley governorate, Egypt. All the obtained isolates were able to attack faba bean plants (cv. Giza 40 causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases. R. solani isolates 2 and 5, F. solani isolate 8, F. oxysporum isolate 12 and M. phaseolina isolate 14 were the more virulent ones in the pathogenicity tests. Biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride, Bacillus megaterium and chemical inducers (salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide individually or in combination were examined for biological control of damping-off and root rot/wilt and growth promotion of faba bean plants in vitro and in vivo. Both antagonistic biocontrol agents and chemical inducers either individually or in combination inhibited growth of the tested pathogenic fungi.Biocontrol agents combined with chemical inducers recorded the highest inhibited growth especially in case SA + T. viride and SA+ B. megaterium. Under green house and field conditions, all treatments significantly reduced damping-off and root rot/ wilt severity and increased survival of plants. Also, these treatments increased fresh and dry weights of the survived plants in pots compared with control.  The combination of biocontrol agents and chemical inducers were more effective than using them individually and SA+ T. viride was the best treatment in this respect. Under field conditions, all these treatments significantly increased growth parameters (plant height and No. of branches plant-1 and yield components (No. of pods and seedsplant-1, weight of 100 seeds and total yield feddan-1 and protein content in both seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012. Faba bean seeds soaked in SA+ T. viride and SA+ B. megaterium were recorded the highest growth parameters and yield components. Generally, the combination of biocontrol agents and

  7. Geographic distribution of Sarcoporia polyspora and S-longitubulata sp nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Josef; Vlasák, J.; Kinnunen, J.; Spirin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 1 (2015), s. 279-287. ISSN 0093-4666 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Basidiomycota * brown rot fungi * molecular taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.705, year: 2014

  8. Daedalea americana sp nov (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) evidenced by morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Han, M.L.; Vlasák, Josef; Cui, B.-K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 204, č. 4 (2015), s. 277-286. ISSN 1179-3155 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : brown-rot fungi * taxonomy * Fomitopsidaceae * Phylogeny Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.318, year: 2014

  9. Hispidaedalea gen. nov and Griseoporia taiwanense sp nov (Gloeophyllales, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and molecular characters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    He, S.H.; Vlasák, Josef; Dai, Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2014), s. 833-839. ISSN 1617-416X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Brown rot * Hispidaedalea * Wood-decaying fungi Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.913, year: 2014

  10. Relationship of Soilborne Mycoflora of Cassava Growing Fields to Incidence of Postharvest Rots of Cassava Tubers in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maccido Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the fungi associated with cassava growing fields in Sokoto were isolated and identified using soil dilution technique. A total of 215 fungal colonies from 9 fungal species were isolated from soil samples of different cassava fields between the month of June and August, 2012. It was observed that soil samples from Lambara recorded the highest number (64 of fungal species followed by Damba and the least number (44 of fungal species was observed in Wamakko.The fungi isolated were Alternaria species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor hiemalis, Rhizopus orgyzae and Scopulariopsis candida.The highest percentage frequency of occurrence was observed in Aspergillus niger (39.5% seconded by Fusarium oxysporum (18.2% and the least was seen in Rhizopus oryzae ( 2.3%. The pathogenicity test indicated that all the fungal isolates were pathogenic on cassava tubers.The fungus M. hiemalis is the most pathogenic followed by F. oxysporum and the least was recorded by R. oryzae. Therefore, it would be concluded that there is relationship between soilborne fungi and incidence of postharvest rots of cassava tubers.

  11. Evaluation of Potential Fungal Species for the in situ Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) of Cellulosic Material

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, J.; Vincent, M; Pometto III, A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Three fungal species were evaluated for their abilities to saccharify pure cellulose. The three species chosen represented three major wood-rot molds; brown rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum), white rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and soft rot (Trichoderma reesei). After solid state fermentation of the fungi on the filter paper for four days, the saccharified cellulose was then fermented to ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The efficiency of the fungal species in saccharifying the filter p...

  12. Enzymatic activity of mycorrhizal fungi. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pachlewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An attempt bas been made to evaluate the participation of mycorrhizal fungi in the process of degradation of some aromatic compounds. 24 strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi, l ectendomycorrhizal stram and 11 nonmycorrhizal strains which decomposed wood were investigated. The observations were aimed at showing the synthesis by these fungi of laccase, peroxidase and tyrosinase. None of these fungi synthetized peroxidase.

  13. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena;

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  14. Studies on foliicolous fungi VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosagoudar, V.B.

    2002-01-01

    An account is given of three foliicolous fungi from India. Two new species, viz. Clasterosporium cyperacearum and Questieriella grewiae are described. Dysrhynchis uncinata forms a new generic and specific record to India and is reported on an endemic host.

  15. Fungi: Strongmen of the Underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Patricia D.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that stresses the role of fungi and decomposers, highlights the rapidity by which they complete this process, and allows students to experiment with ways to control the rate of decomposition. (CCM)

  16. Seasonality and Photoperiodism in Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha

    2001-01-01

    This review gives a retrospective of what is known about photoperiodism in fungi, which is largely based on reports about seasonal spore concentrations. Relatively few species have been investigated under laboratory conditions, so that our knowledge whether seasonal reproduction in fungi is mainly a direct response to environmental conditions or whether it involves a photoperiodic machinery with memory capacities and a relationship to the circadian system is extremely limited. To form a basis...

  17. Microcyle Conidiation in Filamentous Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Boknam; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-01-01

    The typical life cycle of filamentous fungi commonly involves asexual sporulation after vegetative growth in response to environmental factors. The production of asexual spores is critical in the life cycle of most filamentous fungi. Normally, conidia are produced from vegetative hyphae (termed mycelia). However, fungal species subjected to stress conditions exhibit an extremely simplified asexual life cycle, in which the conidia that germinate directly generate further conidia, without formi...

  18. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports c...

  19. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  20. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...... unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  1. Wood decomposition and fungal community dynamics mediated by temperature and endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z.; Schilling, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Wood decomposition is primarily fulfilled by brown rot and white rot fungi in temperate and boreal forests. The competition balance between these fungi determines the patterns of wood decomposition and carbon cycle in forests. But this balance may shift in a warmer future, especially in high latitude forests. Additionally, endophytes may assert influence over the fungal competition through priority effect and interact with the effect of climate change. In this study, we use paper birch and two common fungi to answer two questions 1) How does increased temperature affect the competition between brown rot and white rot fungi? 2) How do endophytes interact with fungi from the soil and influence wood decomposition? A microcosm system was used to simulate competition between Piptoporus betulinus (brown rot fungi) and Fomes fomentarius (white rot fungi) on small birch stem on the effect of increased temperature and endophytes. Activity of P. betulinus was slower in higher temperature, but F. fomentarius was not affected. Character of residue showed that when both fungi were present, wood tend to have white rot in higher temperature. Presence of endophytes significantly reduced the decay rate when they were competing with external fungi, indicating that part of their energy was allocated to interspecies antagonism from metabolizing wood. In the absence of external fungus, endophytes alone caused significant amount of wood decay. Higher temperature also tends to shift the community of endophyte toward more white rot fungi. Our results highlighted the role of endophytes in wood decomposition. Major wood decomposers, not just plant pathogen, may remain dormant in live trees and regain their activity right after tree death. The endophytes could be an important part of assembly history in forming microbial community in dead wood and may have complex interactions with fungi and bacteria in soil. An increased temperature obviously favors white rot fungi, which is in accordance

  2. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  3. Gliotoxin-producing endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale found antagonistic to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2015-04-01

    Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M + H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus. PMID:25820297

  4. Survey on the role of brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) as carriers of zoonotic dermatophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Mancianti; Ranieri Verin; Maria Grazia Gallo; Simona Nardoni; Roberto Papini

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi was investigated by hair-brush technique on the coat of 986 apparently healthy brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) caught in 9 restocking and capture zones in Central Italy. Overall, 7.5% hair samples gave positive results. Trichophyton terrestre (2.1%), Chrysosporium sp, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton gloriae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.6% each), Trichophyton erinacei and Scopulariopsis br...

  5. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekimova V. B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of high-quality seed, not affected by pathogens and fungi promote the high and stable yields. The condition of seeds determines their germination, seedling damage and adult plants, which ultimately affects the yield and on their quality. The significant risk of seed infection was registered in years with high humidity in the pre-harvest and harvest period. Therefore, along with the traditional seed control it is necessary to conduct phytopahtology expertise, allowing to identify the species composition of the microflora of seeds and the degree of infection with different pathogens. Smut disease - a solid and loose smut of wheat, hard and loose smut of barley - cause crop losses are clear - in the form of the destruction of the ear, and hidden - in the form of a reduction in seed germination, reduce winter hardiness, plant growth inhibition. Pathogens root rot causing blight, Fusarium and Helminthosporium that insignificantly demand on environmental conditions and extremely plastic. They have large set of enzymes that can exist on a variety of substrates, and therefore are widely distributed in nature and cause considerable damage to crops. Especially significant losses occur if the humidity during the ripening grain observed for several seasons, which leads to accumulation of the infection naturally. The aim of research was to assess the contamination of grain of spring wheat and barley phytopathogenic fungi in one of the main grain regions of Ukraine - the southern forest. The research conducted during the summer 2014 and compared with the results of previous years. Samples were taken from different plots. Seed contamination of samples by various phytopathogenic fungi was determined by the number of infected kernels per 100 seed sample. Frequency of registered species was recorded. For every studied sample we set the percentage of species. Analysis of the grain on the fungal infection and avdelenie in pure culture was performed

  6. Sixteenth Quarterly Report Regulation of Coal Polymer Degradation by Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Bumpus

    1998-07-31

    Three phenomena which concern coal solubilization and depolymerization were studied during this reporting period. Previous investigations have shown that lignin peroxidases mediate the oxidation of soluble coal macromolecule. Because it appears to be a substrate, soluble coal macromolecule is also an inhibitor of veratryl alcohol oxidation, a reaction that is mediated by these enzymes. The mechanism of inhibition is complex in that oxidation (as assayed by decolorization) of soluble coal macromolecule requires the presence of veratryl alcohol and veratryl alcohol oxidation occurs only after a substantial lag period during which the soluble coal macromolecule is oxidized. In a previous quarterly report we proposed a reaction mechanism by which this may occur. During the present reporting period we showed that our proposed reaction mechanism is consistent with classical enzyme kinetic theory describing enzyme activity in the presence of a potent inhibitor (i.e., an inhibitor with a very low KI ). The oxidative decolorization and depolymerization of soluble coal macromolecule was also studied. Because wood rotting fungi produce hydrogen peroxide via a variety of reactions, we studied the effect of hydrogen peroxide on soluble coal macromolecule decolorization and depolymerization. Results showed that substantial decolorization occurred only at hydrogen peroxide concentrations that are clearly non-physiological (i.e., 50 mM or greater). It was noted, however, that when grown on solid lignocellulosic substrates, wood rotting fungi, overtime, cumulatively could produce amounts of hydrogen peroxide that might cause significant oxidative degradation of soluble coal macromolecule. Thirdly, we have shown that during oxalate mediated solubilization of low rank coal, a pH increase is observed. During this reporting period we have shown that the pH of solutions containing only sodium oxalate also undergo an increase in pH, but to a lesser extent than that observed in mixtures

  7. Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Eikemo, H; Klemsdal, S.S.; Riisberg, I.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Stensvand, A.; Tronsmo, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of 44 isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by AFLP showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from P. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, were identical in an analysis based on 96 polymorphic bands from seven primer combinations. Leather rot isolates of strawberry could not be distinguished from isolates from other...

  8. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  9. Persistence of Gliocephalotrichum spp. causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, fruit rot of rambutan is an important problem that limits the storage, marketing and long-distance transportation of the fruit. A complex of pathogens has been reported to cause fruit rot of rambutan and significant post-harvest economic losses. During 2009 and 2011 rambutan fruit rot was...

  10. Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikemo, H.; Klemsdal, S.S.; Riisberg, I.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Stensvand, A.; Tronsmo, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of 44 isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by AFLP showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from P. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from Europe, Japan, Australia

  11. Several genes encoding enzymes with the same activity are necessary for aerobic fungal degradation of cellulose in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Mette; Pilgaard, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas...

  12. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  13. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  14. Integrated Management of Damping-off, Root and/or Stem Rot Diseases of Chickpea and Efficacy of the Suggested Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eleven fungal isolates were isolated from naturally infected chickpea roots collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate (Egypt. The isolated fungi were purified and identified as Rhizoctonia solani (5 isolates, Fusarium solani (4 isolates and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (2 isolates. The isolated fungi proved their pathogenicity on cv. �Giza 3�. Response of chickpea cvs. �Giza 1�, �Giza 2�, �Giza 3�, �Giza 4�, �Giza 88�, �Giza 195�, �Giza 531� to infection by the tested fungi was significantly varied. �Giza 1� was the most resistant one followed by �Giza 531�, while the other tested cvs. were highly susceptible. Seven biocontrol agents, namely Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, B. cereus, Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. isolated from chickpea rhizosphere, were tested for their antagonistic action against the tested pathogens. B. subtilis isolate BSM1, B. megaterium isolate TVM5, T. viride isolate TVM2 and T. harzianum isolate THM4 were the most antagonistic ones to the tested fungi in vitro, while the other isolates were moderate or weak antagonists. The most antagonistic isolates as well as the commercial biocide Rhizo-N were applied as seed treatment for controlling damping-off, root and/or stem rot diseases caused by the tested fungi under greenhouse conditions. The obtained data showed that all tested antagonistic isolates were able to cause significant reduction of damping-off, root and/or stem rot diseases in chickpea plants. T. viride (isolate TVM2 and B. megaterium (isolate BMM5 proved to be the most effective isolates for controlling the diseases. Under field condition, the obtained data indicated that all the tested antagonistic isolates significantly reduced damping-off, root and/or stem rot. T. viride (isolate TVM2 and B. megaterium (isolate BMM5 recorded the highest reduction of damping-off, root and/or stem rot in all sowing dates. Sowing of

  15. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  16. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  17. A Conversation with Larry Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence D. Brown was born on December 16, 1940 in Los Angeles, California. He obtained his Ph.D. in mathematics from Cornell University in 1964. He has been on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, Cornell University, Rutgers University and, most recently, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the Miers Busch Professorship of Statistics. Professor Brown was President of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1992–1993, Coeditor of The Anna...

  18. Bioaccumulation of Arsenic by Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola O. Adeyemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Arsenic is a known toxic element and its presence and toxicity in nature is a worldwide environmental problem. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation is a potential method to reduce as concentration in contaminated areas. Approach: In order to explore the possible bioremediation of this element, three filamentous fungi-Aspergillus niger, Serpula himantioides and Trametes versicolor were investigated for their potential abilities to accumulate (and possibly solubilize arsenic from an agar environment consisting of non buffered mineral salts media amended with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% (w/v arsenopyrite (FeAsS. Growth rates, dry weights, arsenic accumulation and oxalate production by the fungi as well as the pH of the growth media were all assessed during this study. Results: There was no visible solubilization of FeAsS particles underneath any of the growing fungal colonies or elsewhere in the respective agar plates. No specific patterns of growth changes were observed from the growth ratios of the fungi on agar amended with different amounts of FeAsS although growth of all fungi was stimulated by the incorporation of varying amounts of FeAsS into the agar with the exception of A. niger on 0.4% (w/v amended agar and T. versicolor on 0.8% (w/v amended agar. The amounts of dry weights obtained for all three fungi also did not follow any specific patterns with different amounts of FeAsS and the quantities obtained were in the order A. niger > S. himantioides > T. versicolor. All fungi accumulated as in their biomasses with all amounts of FeAsS although to varying levels and T. versicolor was the most effective with all amounts of FeAsS while A. niger was the least effective. Conclusion: The accumulation of arsenic in the biomasses of the test fungi as shown in this study may suggested a role for fungi through their bioaccumulating capabilities as agents in the possible bioremediation of arsenic contaminated environments.

  19. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67–75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases. PMID:27490955

  20. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C; Pascual, Jose A; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67-75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases. PMID:27490955

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of the white rot fungus Polyporus brumalis provides insight into sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Myungkil; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Choi, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Object of this study was to identify genes and enzymes that are involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis in the wood rotting fungus, Polyporus brumalis. Sesquiterpenes, β-eudesmane and β-eudesmol, were produced by the mycelium of P. brumalis cultured in modified medium. However, theses final products were not observed when the fungus was grown in potato dextrose medium. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to terpene metabolism. This approach generated 25,000 unigenes and 127 metabolic pathways that were assigned to Kyoto Encyclopedia Genes Groups (KEGG). Further analysis of samples from modified medium indicated significant upregulation of 8 unigenes involved in the mevalonate (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) biosynthetic pathways. These pathways generate isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), which are precursors for the synthesis of sesquiterpenes. Furthermore, genes encoding germacrene A synthase, which facilitate the cyclization of FPP, were only differentially expressed in mycelium from fungi grown in modified medium. Our data provide a resource for studying the molecular mechanisms underpinning sesquiterpene biosynthesis and terpene metabolism. PMID:26686622

  2. Molecular characterization of manganese peroxidases from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Boyeong; Kim, Myungkil; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-03-01

    The cDNAs of six manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs) were isolated from white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis. The MnP proteins shared similar properties with each other in terms of size (approximately 360-365 amino acids) and primary structure, showing 62-96 % amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR analysis indicated that these six genes were predominantly expressed in shallow stationary culture (SSC) in a liquid medium. Gene expression was induced by treatment with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and wood chips. Expression of pbmnp4 was strongly induced by both treatments, whereas that of pbmnp5 was induced only by DBP, while pbmnp6 was induced by wood chips only. Then, we overexpressed pbmnp4 in P. brumalis under the control of the GPD promoter. Overexpression of pbmnp4 effectively increased MnP activity; the transformant that had the highest MnP activity also demonstrated the most effective decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye. Identification of MnP cDNAs can contribute to the efficient production of lignin-degradation enzymes and may lead to utilization of basidiomycetous fungi for degradation of lignin and numerous recalcitrant xenobiotics. PMID:23828244

  3. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

    2005-01-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents. PMID:15750748

  4. Microscopic fungi associated with bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena

    Košice: Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, 2012. s. 78. [International Conference on Subterranean Biology /21./. 02.09.2012-07.09.2012, Košice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microscopic fungi * bats Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Methods of Cryopreservation in Fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, Ladislav; Gupta, V. K. (ed.); Tuohy, M. G. (ed.)

    New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London: Springer, 2013, s. 9-16. ISBN 978-1-4614-2355-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cryopreservation * fungi collections * liquid nitrogen Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  6. Overview of Pathogen Groups: Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fungi comprise a diverse array of taxa that exhibit a great diversity of properties and requirements. These microorganisms collectively occupy virtually every niche in which arthropods are also found, and, consequently, there has been great interest in the use of these pathogens as microbial bi...

  7. Screening of ligninolytic fungi for biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunyan; Singh, Deepak; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Shulin

    2015-10-01

    To identify white rot fungi with high potential in biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, preliminary screening was carried out on plates by testing different strains for their ability to oxidize guaiacol and decolorize the dyes azure B and Poly R-478. Of the 86 strains screened, 16 were selected for secondary screening for their ligninolytic ability; however, low manganese peroxidase activity and no lignin peroxidase activity were detected. Strain BBEL0970 proved to be the most efficient in laccase production and was subsequently identified as Trametes versicolor by analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer gene sequence. In combining laccase production with biological pretreatment, the replacement of glucose with barley straw significantly improved the laccase activity by up to 10.3 U/mL, which provided evidence toward potential utilization of barley straw in laccase production by BBEL0970. Simultaneously, comparison by thermogravimetric analysis of the untreated and pretreated barley straw in liquid fermentation of laccase also demonstrated the high potential of BBEL0970 in biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. This work sheds light on further exploration on the integrated process of low-cost laccase production and efficient biological pretreatment of barley straw by T. versicolor BBEL0970. PMID:26286682

  8. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  9. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M. Elissawy; Mohamed El-Shazly; Ebada, Sherif S.; AbdelNasser B. Singab; Peter Proksch

    2015-01-01

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  10. Taxonomy and systematic position of tremellaceous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomy of fungi from the orders Tremellales, Auriculariales. Septobasidiales and related groups (Tulasnellales, Dacrymycetales, Exobasidiales, Sporobolomycetaceae) and the taxonomic position of these fungi within class Basidiomycetes is discussed. The author also presents ideas on the origin, evolution and age of tremellaceous fungi.

  11. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L.) Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Agnes Lumi; Faria, Carla Bertechini; de Castro, Fausto Fernandes; de Souza, Sandra Regina; dos Santos, Fabiane Cristina; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri José; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases. PMID:26198227

  12. Fungi Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. Grains and Production of Associated Enzyme Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Agnes Lumi Abe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi produce a great variety of enzymes, and research on their biotechnological potential has recently intensified. The objective of this work was to identify, at the species level, using DNA barcoding, 46 fungal isolates obtained from maize grains with rot symptoms. We also analyzed the production of extracellular amylases, cellulases, proteases and lipases of 33 of those fungal isolates. The enzymatic activities were evaluated by the formation of a clear halo or a white precipitate around the colonies in defined substrate media. The found fungi belong to the genera Talaromyces, Stenocarpella, Penicillium, Phlebiopsis, Cladosporium, Hyphopichia, Epicoccum, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Irpex, Fusarium, Microdochium, Mucor and Sarocladium. In the genus Fusarium, the species Fusarium verticillioides was predominant and this genus presented the highest diversity, followed by the genera Aspergillus. The best genera for lipase production were Cladosporium and Penicillium; while Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were best for cellulase activity; Hyphopichia, Aspergillus and Irpex for amylase activity; and Cladosporium and Sarocladium for proteases activity. In conclusion, a collection of fungi from maize seeds presenting rotten symptoms were obtained, among which exist important producers of hydrolases.

  13. The effect of mangroves amendments to soil on root rot and root knot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marium Tariq

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, stem and pneumatophore of Avicennia marina and leaves and stem of Rhizophora mucronata were used as the organic amendments at 0.1, 1 and 5% concentrations in the control of root rot fungi like (Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phasoelina and root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on potato. In pot experiments, germination of seeds, shoot length, shoot weight, root length, root weight and number of knots were significantly increased when plant parts like leaves, stem and pneumatophore of A. marina and R. mucronata were used at 1 and 5% concentrations. There was a complete suppression in infection of R. solani and M. phaseolina when A. marina and R. mucronata were used at 5% concentration on potato. Maximum inhibition of knots of M. javanica was observed when powder made from mangrove plant parts was used at 1 and 5% concentrations. Powder from all plant parts, like leaves, stem and pneumatophore, was effective in suppression of root infecting fungi and root knot nematode.

  14. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, S.M.; Hansen, K; Romanish, M.; Thorn, R. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia resembling those of Botrytis. Although the corticoid basidiomycetes Phanerochaete omnivora (Polyporales) and Sistotrema brinkmannii (Cantharellales; both Agaricomycetes) have been suggested as teleomo...

  15. Genome Sequence of Mushroom Soft-Rot Pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Katharina; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum causes soft-rot disease of the cultured button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and is thus responsible for agricultural losses. Here, we present the genome sequence of J. agaricidamnosum DSM 9628. The 5.9-Mb genome harbors several secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, which renders this neglected bacterium a promising source for genome mining approaches. PMID:25883287

  16. Characterisation of erwinias causing blackleg and soft rot in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, Jaana; Joutsjoki, Tiina; Lehtinen, Ari; Ahola, Virpi; Hannukkala, Asko; Pirhonen, Minna

    2006-01-01

    Potato stems showing blackleg or wilting were collected during 2003-2004 and the erwinias were isolated based on cavity forming on pectate-containing media followed by anaerobic growth test. Bacteri were also isolated from rotting tubers and from water samples collected from rivers in southern and western Finland.

  17. Phenolic Compound Utilization by the Soft Rot Fungus Lecythophora hoffmannii

    OpenAIRE

    Bugos, Robert C.; Sutherland, John B.; Adler, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Nine phenolic compounds were metabolized by the soft rot fungus Lecythophora hoffmannii via protocatechuic acid and subsequently cleaved by protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase as determined by oxygen uptake, substrate depletion, and ring cleavage analysis. Catechol was metabolized by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Fungal utilization of these aromatic compounds may be important in the metabolism of wood decay products.

  18. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  19. Genome Sequence of Mushroom Soft-Rot Pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum

    OpenAIRE

    Graupner, Katharina; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum causes soft-rot disease of the cultured button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and is thus responsible for agricultural losses. Here, we present the genome sequence of J. agaricidamnosum DSM 9628. The 5.9-Mb genome harbors several secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, which renders this neglected bacterium a promising source for genome mining approaches.

  20. Calibrating echelle spectrographs with Fabry-Pérot etalons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. F.; Zechmeister, M.; Reiners, A.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Over the past decades hollow-cathode lamps have been calibration standards for spectroscopic measurements. Advancing to cm/s radial velocity precisions with the next generation of instruments requires more suitable calibration sources with more lines and fewer dynamic range problems. Fabry-Pérot interferometers provide a regular and dense grid of lines and homogeneous amplitudes, which makes them good candidates for next-generation calibrators. Aims: We investigate the usefulness of Fabry-Pérot etalons in wavelength calibration, present an algorithm to incorporate the etalon spectrum in the wavelength solution, and examine potential problems. Methods: The quasi-periodic pattern of Fabry-Pérot lines was used along with a hollow-cathode lamp to anchor the numerous spectral features on an absolute scale. We tested our method with the HARPS spectrograph and compared our wavelength solution to the one derived from a laser frequency comb. Results: The combined hollow-cathode lamp/etalon calibration overcomes large distortion (50 m/s) in the wavelength solution of the HARPS data reduction software. The direct comparison to the laser frequency comb shows differences of only 10 m/s at most. Conclusions: Combining hollow-cathode lamps with Fabry-Pérot interferometers can lead to substantial improvements in the wavelength calibration of echelle spectrographs. Etalons can provide economical alternatives to the laser frequency comb, especially for smaller projects.

  1. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, S.M.; Hansen, K.; Romanish, M.; Thorn, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia res

  2. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  3. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  4. Control of lettuce bottom rot by isolates of Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IB, is an important disease affecting lettuce in Brazil, where its biological control with Trichoderma was not developed yet. The present study was carried out with the aim of selecting Trichoderma isolates to be used in the control of lettuce bottom rot. Forty-six Trichoderma isolates, obtained with baits containing mycelia of the pathogen, were evaluated in experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo in a greenhouse in two steps. In the laboratory, the isolates were evaluated for their capabilities of parasitizing and producing toxic metabolic substances that could inhibit the pathogen mycelial growth. In the first step of the in vivo experiments, the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings of the cultivar White Boston were evaluated. In the second step, 12 isolates that were efficient in the first step and showed rapid growth and abundant sporulation in the laboratory were tested for their capability of controlling bottom rot in two repeated experiments, and had their species identified. The majority of the isolates of Trichoderma spp. (76% showed high capacity for parasitism and 50% of them produced toxic metabolites capable of inhibiting 60-100% of R. solani AG1-IB mycelial growth. Twenty-four isolates increased the number and 23 isolates increased the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with the pathogen in the first step of the in vivo experiments.In both experiments of the second step, two isolates of T. virens, IBLF 04 and IBLF 50, reduced the severity of bottom rot and increased the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with R. solani AG1-IB. These isolates had shown a high capacity for parasitism and production of toxic metabolic substances, indicating that the in vitro and in vivo steps employed in the present study were efficient in selecting antagonists to be used for the control of lettuce bottom rot.

  5. Leptin receptor overlapping transcript (LepROT) gene participates in insulin pathway through FoxO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan-Xu; Zhao, Ai-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Leptin receptor overlapping transcript (LepROT) is co-transcribed with the leptin receptor (LepR). However, the function and mechanism of LepROT in insulin pathway is unclear. In this study, we report the function of LepROT in maintaining consistent FoxO transcription. LepROT is constitutively expressed during larval development. 20-Hydroxyecdysone, methoprene, and insulin have no effect on the transcription of LepROT. However, the knockdown of LepROT by dsRNA injection in larvae causes delay of the development of Helicoverpa armigera. Knockdown of LepROT results in the upregulation of FoxO and downregulation of PI3K. The knockdown of LepROT also results in the subcellular translocation of FoxO from cytoplasm to nuclei. By contrast, overexpression of LepROT in the HaEpi cell line inhibits FoxO expression. Results suggest that LepROT participates in insulin signaling. PMID:27106118

  6. Quorum sensing mechanisms in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Barriuso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, cells from microorganisms can communicate to each other through the secretion of signal molecules, so-called autoinducers, which accumulate in the medium as the population density grows. When the concentration of these molecules reaches a threshold, different genes are induced or repressed, and processes such as sporulation, pathogenesis or symbiosis are initiated. These mechanisms, known as quorum sensing (QS, were first discovered in bacteria, and more recently have been identified in fungi. The model eukaryote organism for this kind of studies is the dimorphic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. However, QS mechanisms have been described in a variety of fungi with clinical or biotechnological interest. Hence, the study of these mechanisms may be useful to prevent fungal infections, and interesting for its exploitation in industrial biotechnology.

  7. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  10. Evolution of entomopathogenicity in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, Richard A

    2008-07-01

    The recent completions of publications presenting the results of a comprehensive study on the fungal phylogeny and a new classification reflecting that phylogeny form a new basis to examine questions about the origins and evolutionary implications of such major habits among fungi as the use of living arthropods or other invertebrates as the main source of nutrients. Because entomopathogenicity appears to have arisen or, indeed, have lost multiple times in many independent lines of fungal evolution, some of the factors that might either define or enable entomopathogenicity are examined. The constant proximity of populations of potential new hosts seem to have been a factor encouraging the acquisition or loss of entomopathogenicity by a very diverse range of fungi, particularly when involving gregarious and immobile host populations of scales, aphids, and cicadas (all in Hemiptera). An underlying theme within the vast complex of pathogenic and parasitic ascomycetes in the Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) affecting plants and insects seems to be for interkingdom host-jumping by these fungi from plants to arthropods and then back to the plant or on to fungal hosts. Some genera of Entomophthorales suggest that the associations between fungal pathogens and their insect hosts appear to be shifting away from pathogenicity and towards nonlethal parasitism. PMID:18423482

  11. Microcyle conidiation in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Boknam; Kim, Soyeon; Lee, Jungkwan

    2014-03-01

    The typical life cycle of filamentous fungi commonly involves asexual sporulation after vegetative growth in response to environmental factors. The production of asexual spores is critical in the life cycle of most filamentous fungi. Normally, conidia are produced from vegetative hyphae (termed mycelia). However, fungal species subjected to stress conditions exhibit an extremely simplified asexual life cycle, in which the conidia that germinate directly generate further conidia, without forming mycelia. This phenomenon has been termed as microcycle conidiation, and to date has been reported in more than 100 fungal species. In this review, first, we present the morphological properties of fungi during microcycle conidiation, and divide microcycle conidiation into four simple categories, even though fungal species exhibit a wide variety of morphological differences during microcycle conidiogenesis. Second, we describe the factors that influence microcycle conidiation in various fungal species, and present recent genetic studies that have identified the genes responsible for this process. Finally, we discuss the biological meaning and application of microcycle conidiation. PMID:24808726

  12. Coprophilous fungi of the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointelli, E; Santa-maria, M A; Caretta, G

    1981-05-01

    A total of 1267 microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these 395 were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, 363 on 20 race-horses and 509 on 20 working horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common coprophilous fungi are in decreasing order Pilobolus kleinii, Saccobolus depauperatus, Mucor hiemalis, Lasiobolus ciliatus, Podospora curvula, Petriella guttulata, M. circinelloides, Coprinus radiatus, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Sordaria fimicola, C. miser, C. stercorariusm, Acremonium sp., Coprotus granuliformis, Graphium putredinis, Iodophanus carneus, Chaetomium murorum, Podospora communis, P. inaequalis, P. setosa, Saccobolus versicolor and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Species of Myrothecium verrucaria, Actinomucor elegans, Kernia nitida, Spiculostilbella dendritica and Mucor parvispora were found exclusively in working-horses feces. Badhamia sp., Anixiopsis stercoraria, Echinobotryum state of D. stemonitis, Geotrichum candidum and Oidiodendron sp. were found only in saddle-horses feces. Chlamidomyces palmarum, Philocopra sp. were found exclusively in race-horses feces. Notes on infrequent or interesting fungi include Thamnostylum piriforme, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Rhopalomyces elegans and Spiculostilbella dendritica. PMID:7242651

  13. Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti either used as seed dressing or as soil drench significantly suppressed root-rot infection caused by M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani in okra, a non-1eguminous crop under greenhouse conditions. Biomass of plants was also higher in the presence of rhizobia.

  14. Lactic acid bacteria from fresh fruit and vegetables as biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, Rosalia; Bañeras, Lluís; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables as biocontrol agents against the phytopathogenic and spoilage bacteria and fungi, Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia laxa, and Botrytis cinerea. The antagonistic activity of 496 LAB strains was tested in vitro and all tested microorganisms except P. expansum were inhibited by at least one isolate. The 496 isolates were also analyzed for the inhibition of P. expansum infection in wounds of Golden Delicious apples. Four strains (TC97, AC318, TM319, and FF441) reduced the fungal rot diameter of the apples by 20%; only Weissella cibaria strain TM128 decreased infection levels by 50%. Cell-free supernatants of selected antagonistic bacteria were studied to determine the nature of the antimicrobial compounds produced. Organic acids were the preferred mediators of inhibition but hydrogen peroxide was also detected when strains BC48, TM128, PM141 and FF441 were tested against E. carotovora. While previous reports of antifungal activity by LAB are scarce, our results support the potential of LAB as biocontrol agents against postharvest rot. PMID:19204894

  15. Isolation of Bacteria with Antifungal Activity against the Phytopathogenic Fungi Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuridia Mercado-Flores

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora are the causal agents of ear rot in corn, which is one of the most destructive diseases in this crop worldwide. These fungi are important mycotoxin producers that cause different pathologies in farmed animals and represent an important risk for humans. In this work, 160 strains were isolated from soil of corn crops of which 10 showed antifungal activity against these phytopathogens, which, were identified as: Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pantoea agglomerans by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and the phylogenetic analysis. From cultures of each strain, extracellular filtrates were obtained and assayed to determine antifungal activity. The best filtrates were obtained in the stationary phase of B. subtilis cultures that were stable to the temperature and extreme pH values; in addition they did not show a cytotoxicity effect against brine shrimp and inhibited germination of conidia. The bacteria described in this work have the potential to be used in the control of white ear rot disease.

  16. The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits α-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses

    OpenAIRE

    Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin; Liers, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g−1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g−1). Following the ester-clea...

  17. Control of Postharvest Fusarium Rot and Trichothecium Rot in Harvested Muskmelon (cv. Yindi) by Harpin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yong-hong; BI Yang; LI Mei; LI Xuan

    2005-01-01

    Preharvest and postharvest application of Harpin was evaluated for its ability to induce resistance in muskmelon fruit and control rots. Preharvest treatments were 30 mg L-1, 60 mg L-1 Harpin or 1 mg L-1 Imazalil either 1 week or 1 day before harvest.The CK was untreated. Fruit were then inoculated with Fusarium semitectum or Trichothecium roseum 48 h after harvest,and stored at 23 ± 1℃, RH (relative humidity) 50-60% for 4 d. All treatments were effective in reducing the lesion area with 60 mg L-1 Harpin the most effectively. No treatments inhibited infection rate. Postharvest treatment was fruit dips of 30 mg L-1, 60 mg L-1 Harpin, 0.1 mg L-1 Imazalil. Fruit were inoculated with F. semitectum or T. roseum 24, 72, 120 or 168 h after treatment, and stored at 23 ± 1 ℃, RH 50-60% for 4 days. All treatments were effective in reducing the lesion area with 60 mg L-1 Harpin the most effectively. No treatments inhibited the infection rate. Postharvest Harpin treatment induced the peroxidase activity increase, peroxidase activity reached maximum after 8 d and the activation lasted at least 10 d.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  19. Mechanical and physical properties of Tipuana tipu Wood deteriorated by decaying fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brazolin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The tipuana was widely used in urban arborization. In general, inadequate management exposes the wood to the action of wood decaying fungi and insects, often associated with the fall of the trees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of sound and rotten tipuana wood from São Paulo City´s afforestation. Thirteen old trees with symptoms of wood deterioration were removed. From the basal region of the trunk were cut 1 m-length stem segments, to characterize the physical and mechanical properties of sound and decayed wood. The results indicated that through the radial wood density profile by X-ray densitometry were classified seven pattern of wood biodeterioration, named (EXS with accumulation of extractives and sound, (ZR with the reaction zone and sound, (NS normal and sound, (PBINC; PBINT incipient and intense white rot (PMINC; PMINT incipient and intense soft rot, with apparent densities of 0.94, 0.92, 0.82, 0.66, 0.41, 0.67 and 0.44 g.cm-3, respectively. The mechanical tests showed that wood classified as (ZR (EXS presented the highest values of strength and stiffness of 84 and 80 MPa and 6461 MPa and 5826, respectively; the (NS showed values of 62 and 4642 MPa, and the (PBINC (PMINTthe significant and lowest values of strength and stiffness, enhancing (PBINT with values of 5 and 571 MPa. The reduction of density, strength and stiffness of wood is related to the biodeterioration of wood cell walls of trees tipuana by decaying fungi.

  20. Identification of potential protein markers of noble rot infected grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Millioni, Renato; Franchin, Cinzia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Simonato, Barbara

    2015-07-15

    The evaluation of Botrytis cinerea as noble rot on withered grapes is of great importance to predict the wine sensory/organoleptic properties and to manage the winemaking process of Amarone, a passito dry red wine. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of grapes infected by noble rot under withering conditions to identify possible markers of fungal infection. 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed that protein profiles of infected and not infected grape samples are significantly different in terms of number of spots and relative abundance. Protein identification by MS analysis allowed to identify only in infected berries proteins of B. cinerea that represent potential markers of the presence of the fungus in the withered grapes. PMID:25722151