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Sample records for brown rice gbr

  1. HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC AND ANTI-OXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF GERMINATED BROWN RICE (GBR IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA-INDUCED RATS

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    Froilan Bernard Matias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia, as one of the causes of obesity, affects vital organs in the body, such as the liver and kidney, resulting to oxidative stress. Germinated Brown Rice (GBR as a food-based solution in dealing with this condition is highly recommended. In this study, the effects of GBR on hypercholesterolemia-induced rats were evaluated by measuring and analyzing the changes on body weight, serum lipid profiles (TC, TG, LDL and HDL, liver function (ALT and AST, kidney function (Crea and Urea and its antioxidant capacity (MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Thirty (30 SD male rats were divided into 5 groups (6 rats per group; Group A was given normal basal diet, Group B (hypercholesterolemic group was given a high fat diet, while Groups C, D, and E were given 12.5%, 25% and 50% GBR, respectively. Groups C, D and E were fed with high fat diet for 4 weeks, then fed with the GBR feeds, accordingly, for another 5 weeks. Sera and liver samples were collected for testing and evaluation. Hypercholesterolemia was successfully induced in Groups B, C, D, and E after 4 weeks. Noticeable responses were observed in groups fed with GBR after 5 weeks. Group E fed with 50% GBR showed the satisfactory results (significant at p<0.05 in weight gain, serum lipid profiles, liver function enzymes, creatinine, urea and oxidative stress markers compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties of GBR were found to have a dose-response effect where higher percentage of GBR showed acceptable results as compared to the normal and hypercholesterolemic groups. GBR showed to effectively lessen TC, TG and LDL while increases HDL. It effectively protects the liver while its kidney protective ability was associated to its hypocholesterolemic properties. Oxidative stress was reduced as shown by a decline in lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidant production. In addition, the abovementioned GBR‘s properties are combined effects of its

  2. Germinated brown rice (GBR) reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci with the involvement of beta-catenin and COX-2 in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats.

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    Latifah, Saiful Yazan; Armania, Nurdin; Tze, Tan Hern; Azhar, Yaacob; Nordiana, Abdul Hadi; Norazalina, Saad; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Saidi, Moin; Maznah, Ismail

    2010-03-26

    Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to the failure of current therapeutic modalities. Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that nutrition plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This study was conducted to determine the chemopreventive effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) in rats induced with colon cancer. GBR is brown rice that has been claimed to be richer in nutrients compared to the common white rice. The male Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 5 groups: (G1) positive control (with colon cancer, unfed with GBR), (G2) fed with 2.5 g/kg of GBR (GBR (g)/weight of rat (kg)), (G3) fed with 5 g/kg of GBR, (G4) fed with 10 g/kg of GBR and (G5) negative control (without colon cancer, unfed with GBR). GBR was administered orally once daily via gavage after injection of 15 mg/kg of body weight of azoxymethane (AOM) once a week for two weeks, intraperitonially. After 8 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colons were removed. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were evaluated histopathologically. Total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, and the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2 reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in all the groups treated with GBR (G2, G3 and G4) compared to the control group (G1). Spearman rank correlation test showed significant positive linear relationship between total beta-catenin and COX-2 score (Spearman's rho = 0.616, p = 0.0001). It is demonstrated that GBR inhibits the development of total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, reduces the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2, and thus can be a promising dietary supplement in prevention of colon cancer.

  3. Germinated brown rice (GBR reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci with the involvement of β-catenin and COX-2 in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats

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    Hairuszah Ithnin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to the failure of current therapeutic modalities. Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that nutrition plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This study was conducted to determine the chemopreventive effects of germinated brown rice (GBR in rats induced with colon cancer. GBR is brown rice that has been claimed to be richer in nutrients compared to the common white rice. The male Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks of age were randomly divided into 5 groups: (G1 positive control (with colon cancer, unfed with GBR, (G2 fed with 2.5 g/kg of GBR (GBR (g/weight of rat (kg, (G3 fed with 5 g/kg of GBR, (G4 fed with 10 g/kg of GBR and (G5 negative control (without colon cancer, unfed with GBR. GBR was administered orally once daily via gavage after injection of 15 mg/kg of body weight of azoxymethane (AOM once a week for two weeks, intraperitonially. After 8 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colons were removed. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF were evaluated histopathologically. Total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, and the expression of β-catenin and COX-2 reduced significantly (p p = 0.0001. It is demonstrated that GBR inhibits the development of total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, reduces the expression of β-catenin and COX-2, and thus can be a promising dietary supplement in prevention of colon cancer.

  4. Effect of Acid and Base Catalyzed Hydrolysis on the Yield of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Germinated Brown Rice (GBR

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    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of both acidic and basic hydrolysis on the yield, total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity of methanolic extract of germinated brown rice (GBR was studied. Total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP tests were used for the measurement of antioxidant ability. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05 in the TPC and DPPH radical scavenging assay results when comparing neutral with acidic and basic catalysed hydrolysis. The yield of the crude extract was slightly higher in acidic hydrolysis than in basic hydrolysis (p > 0.05. The TPC and TFC were highest in acidic hydrolysis. A significant correlation was observed between ABTS radical cation scavenging and FRAP. The antioxidant activity measured using DPPH radical scavenging assay showed high activity in acidic hydrolysis, while the ABTS radical cationscavenging activity and FRAP showed the highest values in basic hydrolysis. The samples were further evaluated using HPLC to determine the individual phenolic concentrations in different hydrolytic media contributing to the antioxidant effects. This study revealed that acidic and basic hydrolysis can improve the yield, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of germinated brown rice.

  5. Effect of acid and base catalyzed hydrolysis on the yield of phenolics and antioxidant activity of extracts from germinated brown rice (GBR).

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    Sani, Ismaila Muhammad; Iqbal, Shahid; Chan, Kim Wei; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-06-19

    The influence of both acidic and basic hydrolysis on the yield, total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity of methanolic extract of germinated brown rice (GBR) was studied. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests were used for the measurement of antioxidant ability. There was a significant difference p 0.05). The TPC and TFC were highest in acidic hydrolysis. A significant correlation was observed between ABTS radical cation scavenging and FRAP. The antioxidant activity measured using DPPH radical scavenging assay showed high activity in acidic hydrolysis, while the ABTS radical cationscavenging activity and FRAP showed the highest values in basic hydrolysis. The samples were further evaluated using HPLC to determine the individual phenolic concentrations in different hydrolytic media contributing to the antioxidant effects. This study revealed that acidic and basic hydrolysis can improve the yield, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of germinated brown rice.

  6. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

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    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations inst...

  7. Analysis of volatiles in brown rice, germinated brown rice, and selenised germinated brown rice during storage at different vacuum levels.

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    Liu, Kunlun; Zhao, Shuang; Li, Yang; Chen, Fusheng

    2017-10-09

    The quality of nutritionally enhanced foods can be determined by evaluating changes in the volatile compounds produced in these foods over time. In this work, selenium-enriched germinated brown rice (Se-GBR), germinated brown rice (GBR), and brown rice (BR) stored under 90% relative humidity, 38 °C, and various vacuum levels were investigated. The relative abundance and differences of volatile compounds in Se-GBR, GBR, and BR over various storage periods were detected. The correlation of volatile compound abundance with vacuum level and storage time was analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). Volatile compounds in the three samples were quantified at various storage periods (0, 90 and 150 days). Approximately 100 volatile compounds and eight species were identified and classified. Various proportions or types of volatile compounds were found in each sample at different sampling times. PCA results showed an isolation of volatile compounds in terms of sampling day and vacuum level at each storage period. Changes in volatile compounds over time and vacuum levels can provide bases for assessing of the nutritional quality of Se-GBR, GBR, and BR. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of white rice (WR), brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) starches from a mixed variety of MR219 and MR220, commonly consumed Malaysian varieties, were compared in this study. The granular size of the starch particles, measured using scanning electron microscope (SEM), ...

  9. Antioxidant activity of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice (in vivo and in vitro) and the effects on lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemic rabbits.

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    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2013-11-15

    Antioxidant activity of different rice extract and the effect on the levels of antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemia rabbits were investigated. Germinated brown rice (GBR) has the highest antioxidant activity compared to white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR). All rice grains increased the activity of SOD and GPx. However, vitamin E levels increased only in the groups that received the BR and GBR diets. The reduction of lipid peroxidation levels and activity of hepatic enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and aspartate transaminase, AST) were only significantly observed in the GBR group. In conclusion, GBR supplementation has the greatest impact on increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and vitamin E level and on reducing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemia rabbit, thereby preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, GBR diet can also reduce the level of hepatic enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Germinated brown rice as a value added rice product: A review.

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    Patil, Swati Bhauso; Khan, Md Khalid

    2011-12-01

    Rice is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered whole food because only the outermost layer i.e. the hull of the rice kernel is removed which causes least damage to its nutritional value. Brown rice can be soaked in water at 30 °C for specified hours for germination to get GBR. Soaking for 3 h and sprouting for 21 h has been found to be optimum for getting the highest gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in GBR, which is the main reason behind the popularity of GBR. The intake of GBR instead of white rice ameliorates the hyperglycemia, boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, inhibits development of cancer cells and assists the treatment of anxiety disorders. Germination process could be used as enzymatic modification of starch that affects pasting properties of GBR flour. GBR would improve the bread quality when substituted for wheat flour. It is concluded that GBR has potential to become innovative rice by preserving all nutrients in the rice grain for human consumption in order to create the highest value from rice.

  11. Effects of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice on antioxidant status of type 2 diabetic rats.

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    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-10

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to.

  12. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

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    Maznah Ismail

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR. Though brown rice (BR and germinated brown rice (GBR have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to.

  13. Study on evaluation of gamma oryzanol of germinated brown rice by near infrared spectroscopy

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    Kannapot Kaewsorn; Panmanas Sirisomboon

    2014-01-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is rich in gamma oryzanol which increase its consumption popularity, particularly in the health food market. The objective of this research was to apply the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for evaluation of gamma oryzanol of the germinated brown rice. The germinated brown rice samples were prepared from germinated rough rice (soaked for 24 and 48 h, incubated for 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h) and purchased from local supermarkets. The germinated brown rice sampl...

  14. Antidiabetic Properties of Germinated Brown Rice: A Systematic Review

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    Mustapha Umar Imam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important variable in the course of type 2 diabetes, which has generated interest in dietary options like germinated brown rice (GBR for effective management of the disease among rice-consuming populations. In vitro data and animal experiments show that GBR has potentials as a functional diet for managing this disease, and short-term clinical studies indicate encouraging results. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effects of GBR due to bioactive compounds like γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, γ-oryzanol, dietary fibre, phenolics, vitamins, acylated steryl β-glucoside, and minerals include antihyperglycemia, low insulin index, antioxidative effect, antithrombosis, antihypertensive effect, hypocholesterolemia, and neuroprotective effects. The evidence so far suggests that there may be enormous benefits for diabetics in rice-consuming populations if white rice is replaced with GBR. However, long-term clinical studies are still needed to verify these findings on antidiabetic effects of GBR. Thus, we present a review on the antidiabetic properties of GBR from relevant preclinical and clinical studies, in order to provide detailed information on this subject for researchers to review the potential of GBR in combating this disease.

  15. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt.

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    Kim, Mi-Hye; Ahn, Sung-Il; Lim, Chan-Mook; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product.

  16. Germinated brown rice ameliorates obesity in high-fat diet induced obese rats.

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    Lim, See Meng; Goh, Yong Meng; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Loh, Su Peng

    2016-05-23

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a novel functional food that is high in fiber and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. This study aims to evaluate anti-obesity effects of GBR in obese rats fed high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The rats were then administrated with GBR where the source of dietary carbohydrate of HFD was replaced by either 25 % GBR, 50 % GBR or 100 % GBR for another 8 weeks. Changes in anthropometry, dietary status, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and adipose tissue were measured. Rats fed with HFD were showed elevation in body weight gain and in white adipose tissue mass compared with rats consumed commercial diet. The GBR administration in 50 % GBR and 100 % GBR were significantly decreased body weight gains and food intakes as well as improved lipid profiles in obese rats. In addition, the administration of GBR  had reduced adiposity by showing declination in white adipose tissue mass, adipocytes size and leptin level concomitantly with a higher ratio of fat excretion into feces. Micro- and macrovesicular steatosis were evidently attenuated in obese rats fed GBR. These findings demonstrated that GBR exhibited anti-obesity effects through suppression of body weight gain and food intake, improvement of lipid profiles and reduction of leptin level and white adipose tissue mass in obese rats fed HFD.

  17. Germinated brown rice and its bio-functional compounds.

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    Cho, Dong-Hwa; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-04-01

    Brown rice (BR) contains bran layers and embryo, where a variety of nutritional and biofunctional components, such as dietary fibers, γ-oryzanol, vitamins, and minerals, exist. However, BR is consumed less than white rice because it has an inferior eating texture when cooked. Germination is one of the techniques used to improve the texture of the cooked BR. In addition, it induces numerous changes in the composition and chemical structure of the bioactive components. Moreover, many studies reported that the germination could induce the formation of new bioactive compounds, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR) is increasing in many Asian countries because of its improved eating quality and potential health-promoting functions. However, there is still a lack of studies on the compositional and functional changes of the bioactive components during germination. This review contains recent research findings, especially on the bioactive components in GBR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of germination on the structures and in vitro digestibility of starch from waxy brown rice.

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    You, Su-Yeon; Oh, Sea-Gwan; Han, Hye Min; Jun, Wujin; Hong, Young-Shick; Chung, Hyun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro digestibility as well as the molecular and crystalline structures of waxy rice starches isolated from brown rice, germinated brown rice (GBR), ultrasonicated GBR, and heat-moisture treated GBR were investigated. The germinated brown rice starch (GBRS) had a lower average molecular weight and a higher proportion of DP 6-12 in amylopectin than brown rice starch (BRS). The relative crystallinity, intensity ratio of the band at 1,047 cm(-1) and 1,022 cm(-1), gelatinization temperature and pasting temperature of waxy rice starch were reduced by germination. However, the ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS increased the relative crystallinity and gelatinization temperature. The digestibility of starch from brown waxy rice was increased by germination. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents were 50.5%, 42.4%, and 7.1% in BRS, and 69.0%, 27.9% and 3.1% in GBRS, respectively. The ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS reduced RDS content and increased RS content in raw and gelatinized starches. The decrease in starch digestibility of cooked GBR was more pronounced after heat-moisture treatment than after ultrasonication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of different germination conditions on antioxidative properties and bioactive compounds of germinated brown rice.

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    Lin, You-Tung; Pao, Cheng-Cheng; Wu, Shwu-Tzy; Chang, Chi-Yue

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds of ungerminated brown rice (UBR) and germinated brown rice (GBR). We used two rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.), Taiwan Japonica 9 (TJ-9) and Taichung Indica 10 (TCI-10), as the materials in our experiments. The conditions for inducing germination are soaking time in water 24, 48, or 72 h; temperature 26 or 36°C; incubation in light or darkness; and open or closed vessels, in which the antioxidative activities and bioactive compounds of GBR were determined. We found that, in order to maximize antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds, germination should be under higher temperature (36°C), long soaking time (72 h), darkness, and closed vessel. GBR contains much higher levels of antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds than ungerminated brown rice (UBR). We found a strong correlation between antioxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and bioactive compounds (γ-oryzanols, tocopherol, and tocotrienol). Higher temperature (36°C) is also conducive to the production of GABA in GBR. These results are considered very useful research references for the development of future functional foods and additives.

  20. Effect of Different Germination Conditions on Antioxidative Properties and Bioactive Compounds of Germinated Brown Rice

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    You-Tung Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds of ungerminated brown rice (UBR and germinated brown rice (GBR. We used two rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L., Taiwan Japonica 9 (TJ-9 and Taichung Indica 10 (TCI-10, as the materials in our experiments. The conditions for inducing germination are soaking time in water 24, 48, or 72 h; temperature 26 or 36°C; incubation in light or darkness; and open or closed vessels, in which the antioxidative activities and bioactive compounds of GBR were determined. We found that, in order to maximize antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds, germination should be under higher temperature (36°C, long soaking time (72 h, darkness, and closed vessel. GBR contains much higher levels of antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds than ungerminated brown rice (UBR. We found a strong correlation between antioxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds (γ-oryzanols, tocopherol, and tocotrienol. Higher temperature (36°C is also conducive to the production of GABA in GBR. These results are considered very useful research references for the development of future functional foods and additives.

  1. Improving the lipid profile in hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbit by supplementation of germinated brown rice.

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    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2011-07-27

    It is imperative that there be a diet designed specifically to improve lipid profile in order to impede the progress of atherosclerosis. Because rice is a staple food in Asia, it will be chosen as the diet of interest. This study sets out to discover whether consumption of different processed rice diets may result in a change of the lipid profile. The experiment was done on male New Zealand white rabbits after 10 weeks of treatment with diet containing 0.5% cholesterol. The experimental diets include white rice (WR), brown rice (BR), and germinated brown rice (GBR). Among them, rabbits fed a GBR diet demonstrated significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/HDL, and atherogenic index (AI) and a higher level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Results from atherosclerotic plaque assessment further support the findings. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), which acts as an indicator for oxidative stress, was also reduced by GBR diet. The positive change in lipid profile in the rabbits fed GBR appeared to correspond with the higher amounts of γ-oryzanol, tocopherol, and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content.

  2. Nutrigenomic effects of germinated brown rice and its bioactives on hepatic gluconeogenic genes in type 2 diabetic rats and HEPG2 cells.

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    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah

    2013-03-01

    Chronic sustained hyperglycemia underlies the symptomatology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dietary components contribute to it. Germinated brown rice (GBR) improves glycemic control but the mechanisms involved are still the subject of debate. We now show one mechanism by which GBR lowers blood glucose. Effects of GBR, brown rice, and white rice (WR) on fasting plasma glucose and selected genes were studied in type 2 diabetic rats. GBR reduced plasma glucose and weight more than metformin, while WR worsened glycemia over 4 weeks of intervention. Through nutrigenomic suppression, GBR downregulated gluconeogenic genes (Fbp1 and Pck1) in a manner similar to, but more potently than, metformin, while WR upregulated the same genes. Bioactives (gamma-amino butyric acid, acylated steryl glycoside, oryzanol, and phenolics) were involved in GBR's downregulation of both genes. Plasma glucose, Fbp1 and Pck1 changes significantly affected the weight of rats (p = 0.0001). The fact that GBR downregulates gluconeogenic genes similar to metformin, but produces better glycemic control in type 2 diabetic rats, suggests other mechanisms are involved in GBR's antihyperglycemic properties. GBR as a staple could potentially provide enhanced glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus better than metformin. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Microorganisms control during processing of germinated brown rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Maekawa, T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to limit the growth of microorganisms during processing of germinated brown rice (GBR), three kinds of operations for sanitation control were investigated. For a surface-disinfection treatment of brown rice, soaking in 1% of sodium hypochlorite for 10min. and 0.1% of calcium preparation solutions for 10min. at 30°C, resulted in 2log decrease by aerobic plate count in culture water after 1h of the germination processing. Soaking in 10% of sodium hypochlorite for 10min. and 1% of calcium preparation solutions for 10min at 30°C were found to inhibit germination, respectively. During the germination processing, including aeration stage and non-aeration stage, continuous ultraviolet irradiation on the culture water in the water tank resulted in limited bacterial growth in culture water below 102CFU/ml by aerobic plate count. Moreover, the turbidity of the culture water was improved by filtration of the stored water using activated carbon-hollow fiber filter. The filtration by activated carbon-hollow fiber filter during the germination processing was an effective method to eliminate microorganisms and contamination factor during GBR production. It also improved the efficiency of ultraviolet irradiation effect on the culture water

  4. Study on evaluation of gamma oryzanol of germinated brown rice by near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannapot Kaewsorn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germinated brown rice (GBR is rich in gamma oryzanol which increase its consumption popularity, particularly in the health food market. The objective of this research was to apply the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS for evaluation of gamma oryzanol of the germinated brown rice. The germinated brown rice samples were prepared from germinated rough rice (soaked for 24 and 48 h, incubated for 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h and purchased from local supermarkets. The germinated brown rice samples were subjected to NIR scanning before the evaluation of gamma oryzanol by using partial extraction methodology. The prediction model was established by partial least square regression (PLSR and validated by full cross validation method. The NIRS model established from various varieties of germinated brown rice bought from different markets by first derivatives+vector normalization pretreated spectra showed the optimal prediction with the correlation of determination (R2, root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV and bias of 0.934, 8.84 × 10-5 mg/100 g dry matter and 1.06 × 10-5 mg/100 g dry matter, respectively. This is the first report on the application of NIRS in the evaluation of gamma oryzanol of the germinated brown rice. This information is very useful to the germinated brown rice production factory and consumers.

  5. Effect of selenium enrichment on the quality of germinated brown rice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Kunlun; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-09-15

    Changes in the quality of selenized germinated brown rice (Se-GBR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) under controlled temperature storage were investigated. Samples were sealed in air-tight jars (75% RH) and stored at 15, 25, or 35 °C for 9 months. Fatty acid value (FAV), peroxide value (POV), and carbonyl value (CV) were determined every 45d. FAV, POV, and CV gradually increased with the storage period. Samples stored under low-temperature showed lower FAVs, POVs, and CVs than samples stored at higher temperatures. Compared with GBR, Se-GBR showed lower FAVs, POVs and CVs; this indicates Se exerted a positive effect on the preservation of rice quality. Over 100 volatile compounds were identified, and 15 volatile aldehydes were further studied. To determine the distribution pattern of volatile aldehydes, principal component analysis (PCA) was employed. The first two principal components determined from the PCA of volatile aldehydes explained 50.22% of the variance observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-obesity effects of germinated brown rice extract through down-regulation of lipogenic genes in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2012-01-01

    Lipid accumulation using Oil Red O dye was measured in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes to examine the anti-obesity effect of four types of germinated rice, including germinated brown rice (GBR), germinated waxy brown rice (GWBR), germinated black rice (GB-R), and germinated waxy black rice (GWB-R). GBR methanol extract exhibited the highest suppression of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cell line and also the anti-obesity effect of GBR on high fat induced-obese mice. The mice were divided into three groups and were administered: ND, a normal diet; HFD control, a high fat diet; and GBR, a high fat diet plus 0.15% GBR methanol extract for 7 weeks. GBR administration significantly decreased body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue as compared to the HFD control group. In addition, serum triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly decreased by following GBR administration compared with those in the HFD control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level increased. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, such as CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR)-γ, and related genes (aP2, FAS), decreased significantly. Taken together, GBR administration suppressed body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipocytes, and improved serum lipid profiles, in part, by controlling adipogenesis through a reduction in transcriptional factors. These results suggest that GBR is a potential agent against obesity.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of germinated brown rice against hydrogen peroxide induced cell death in human SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H(2)O(2)-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR, brown rice (BR and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  9. Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin

    2013-07-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Assessment on proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytic acid and protein hydrolysis of germinated Ecuatorian brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Amigo, Lourdes; Frias, Juana

    2014-09-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered healthier than brown rice (BR) but its nutritive value has been hardly studied. Since nutritive quality of GBR depends on genetic diversity and germination conditions, six Ecuadorian BR varieties were germinated at 28 and 34 ºC for 48 and 96 h in darkness and proximate composition, dietary fiber fractions, phytic acid content as well as degree of protein hydrolysis and peptide content were studied. Protein, lipids, ash and available carbohydrate ranged 7.3-10.4%, 2.0-4.0%, 0.8-1.5% and 71.6 to 84.0%, respectively, in GBR seedlings. Total dietary fiber increased during germination (6.1-13.6%), with a large proportion of insoluble fraction, while phytic acid was reduced noticeably. In general, protein hydrolysis occurred during germination was more accused at 28 ºC for 48 h. These results suggest that GBR can be consumed directly as nutritive staple food for a large population worldwide contributing to their nutritional requirements.

  11. The Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Germinated Brown Rice Involves the Upregulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Umar Imam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Germinated brown rice (GBR is rich in bioactive compounds, which confer GBR with many functional properties. Evidence of its hypocholesterolemic effects is emerging, but the exact mechanisms of action and bioactive compounds involved have not been fully documented. Using type 2 diabetic rats, we studied the effects of white rice, GBR, and brown rice (BR on lipid profile and on the regulation of selected genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results showed that the upregulation of apolipoprotein A1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes was involved in the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR. Additionally, in vitro studies using HEPG2 cells showed that acylated steryl glycoside, gamma amino butyric acid, and oryzanol and phenolic extracts of GBR contribute to the nutrigenomic regulation of these genes. Transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms are likely involved in the overall hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR suggesting that it may have an impact on the prevention and/or management of hypercholesterolemia due to a wide variety of metabolic perturbations. However, there is need to conduct long-term clinical trials to determine the clinical relevance of the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR determined through animal studies.

  12. Comparative proteomics and protein profile related to phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in germinated Oryza sativa 'KDML105' and Thai brown rice 'Mali Daeng' for better nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksup, Sarunyaporn; Pongpakpian, Sarintip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2018-01-01

    Brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) are considered as prime sources of carbohydrate and bioactive compounds for more than half of the populations worldwide. Several studies have reported on the proteomics of BR and GBR; however, the proteomic profiles related to the synthesis of bioactive compounds are less well documented. In the present study, BR and GBR were used in a comparative analysis of the proteomic and bioactive compound profiles for two famous Thai rice varieties: Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML) and Mali Daeng (MD). The proteomes of KDML and MD revealed differences in the expression patterns of proteins after germination. Total phenolic compound content, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity of red rice MD was approximately 2.6-, 2.2- and 9.2-fold higher, respectively, compared to that of the white rice KDML. Moreover, GBR of MD showed higher total anthocyanin content and greater antioxidant activity, which is consistent with the increase expression of several proteins involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and protection against oxidative stress. Red rice MD exhibits higher nutrient values compared to white rice KDML and the appropriate germination of brown rice could represent a method for improving health-related benefits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice in Rotenone-Induced Parkinson's-Like Disease Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompoopong, Supin; Jarungjitaree, Sunit; Punbanlaem, Tideeporn; Rungruang, Thanaporn; Chongthammakun, Sukumal; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Taechowisan, Thongchai

    2016-09-01

    The effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the motor deficits and the dopaminergic (DA) cell death were investigated in Parkinson's-like disease (PD) rats. Reactive oxidative species generated by chronic subcutaneous injection of rotenone (RT) lead to neuronal apoptosis particularly in the nigrostriatal DA system and produce many features of PD, bradykinesis, postural instability and rigidity. In this study, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), previously reported to inhibit RT-induced DA cell death, was used as the positive control. Results show that pretreatment with GBR as well as 4-PBA significantly enhanced the motor activity after RT injection, and GBR affected significantly in open field test, only in the ambulation but not the mobility duration, and ameliorated the time to orient down (t-turn) and total time to descend the pole (t-total) in pole test as compared to RT group, but significantly lowered both t-turn and t-total only in 4-PBA group. The percentage of apoptotic cells in brain measured by flow cytometry and the inflammatory effect measured by ELISA of TNF-α showed significant increase in RT group as compared to the control (CT) group at P < 0.05. Apoptotic cells in RT group (85.98 %) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase versus CT group (17.50 %), and this effect was attenuated in GBR+RT group by decreasing apoptotic cells (79.32 %), whereas, increased viable cells (17.94 %) versus RT group (10.79 %). GBR in GBR + RT group could decrease TNF-α both in the serum and in brain. In summary, GBR showed a neuroprotective effect in RT-induced PD rats, and it may be useful as a value-added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative disease or PD.

  14. Changes of tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels in the germinated brown rice of pigmented and nonpigmented cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lean-Teik; Huang, Shao-Hua; Chen, Yen-Ting; Su, Chun-Han

    2013-12-26

    This study examined the changes of tocopherols (Toc), tocotrienols (T3), γ-oryzanol (GO), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in germinated brown rice (GBR) of pigmented and nonpigmented cultivars under different germination conditions. Results showed that the Toc and T3 contents in GBR were significantly different between treatments in both rice cultivars. The pigmented GBR possessed higher total vitamin E, total Toc, total T3, and GO contents than the nonpigmented GBR; however, its level of GABA was lower. The order of the three highest vitamin E homologues in pigmented and nonpigmented GBR was γ-T3 > γ-Toc > α-Toc and α-Toc > γ-T3 > α-T3, respectively; β-Toc, β-T3, δ-Toc, and δ-T3 were present in only small amounts (≤1.0 mg/kg) in GBR of both cultivars. Although both cultivars showed an increase in GABA contents with increasing germination time, the GABA content in nonpigmented GBR was higher.

  15. Use of Green Coconut Pulp as Cream, Milk, Stabilizer and Emulsifier Replacer in Germinated Brown Rice Ice Cream

    OpenAIRE

    Naruemon Prapasuwannakul; Supitcha Boonchai; Nawapat Pengpengpit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical and sensory properties of germinated brown rice ice cream as affected by replacement of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with green coconut pulp. Five different formulations of ice cream were performed. Regular formulation of ice cream consisted of GBR juice, milk cream, milk powder, stabilizer, emulsifier, sucrose and salt. Replacing of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with coconut pulp resulted in an increase in viscosity ...

  16. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  17. Germinated brown rice and its role in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengfeng; Yang, Na; Touré, Alhassane; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2013-01-01

    Brown rice, unmilled or partly milled, contains more nutritional components than ordinary white rice. Despite its elevated content of bioactive components, brown rice is rarely consumed as a staple food for its dark appearance and hard texture. The germination of brown rice can be used to improve its taste and further enhance its nutritional value and health functions. Germinated brown rice is considered healthier than white rice, as it is not only richer in the basic nutritional components such as vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers, and essential amino acids, but also contains more bioactive components, such as ferulic acid, γ-oryzanol, and gamma aminobutyric acid. Moreover, germinated brown rice has been reported to exhibit many physiological effects, including antihyperlipidemia, antihypertension, and the reduction in the risk of some chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, it is likely that germinated brown rice will become a popular health food.

  18. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Inonotus obliquus and Germinated Brown Rice Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Inonotus obliquus (IO is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H2O2-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement.

  19. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-08-02

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H₂O₂-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE₂, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement.

  20. In utero exposure to germinated brown rice and its oryzanol-rich extract attenuated high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in F1 generation of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2017-01-21

    The development of insulin resistance is multifactorial, with maternal pre- and postnatal nutrition having significant influences. In this regard, high fat diet (HFD) feeding in pregnancy has been shown to increase risks of metabolic diseases. Thus, we investigated the effects of supplementation of HFD with germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma oryzanol-rich extract (OE) on insulin resistance and its epigenetic implications in pregnant rats and their offsprings. Pregnant female Sprague dawley rats were fed with HFD alone, HFD + GBR or HFD + OE (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Their offsprings were weaned at 4 weeks post-delivery and were followed up until 8 weeks. Serum levels of adipokines were measured in dams and their offsprings, and global DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns were estimated from the liver. The dams and offsprings of the GBR and OE groups had lower weight gain, glycemic response, 8-Iso prostaglandin, retinol binding protein 4 and fasting insulin, and elevated adiponectin levels compared with the HFD group. Fasting leptin levels were lower only in the GBR groups. Hepatic global DNA methylation was lower in the GBR groups while hepatic H4 acetylation was lower in both GBR and OE dams. In the offsprings, DNA methylation and H4 acetylation were only lower in the OE group. However, dams and offsprings of the GBR and OE groups had higher hepatic H3 acetylation. GBR and OE can be used as functional ingredients for the amelioration of HFD-induced epigeneticallymediated insulin resistance.

  1. Antioxidative Effects of Germinated Brown Rice-Derived Extracts on H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells

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    Nur Diyana Md Zamri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of germinated brown rice (GBR are likely mediated by multiple bioactives. To test this hypothesis, HepG2 cells pretreated with GBR extracts, rich in acylated steryl glycoside (ASG, gamma amino butyric acid GABA, phenolics or oryzanol, were incubated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and their hydroxyl radical (OH• scavenging capacities and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS generation were evaluated. Results showed that GBR-extracts increased OH• scavenging activities in both cell-free medium and posttreatment culture media, suggesting that the extracts were both direct- and indirect-acting against OH•. The levels of TBARS in the culture medium after treatment were also reduced by all the extracts. In addition, H2O2 produced transcriptional changes in p53, JNK, p38 MAPK, AKT, BAX, and CDK4 that were inclined towards apoptosis, while GBR-extracts showed some transcriptional changes (upregulation of BAX and p53 that suggested an inclination for apoptosis although other changes (upregulation of antioxidant genes, AKT, JNK, and p38 MAPK suggested that GBR-extracts favored survival of the HepG2 cells. Our findings show that GBR bioactive-rich extracts reduce oxidative stress through improvement in antioxidant capacity, partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and prosurvival genes.

  2. Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian P; Taylor, Vivien F; Karagas, Margaret R; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2012-05-01

    Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products. We determined the concentration and speciation of As in commercially available brown rice syrups and in products containing OBRS, including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high-energy foods used by endurance athletes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the Internet or in stores in the Hanover, New Hampshire, area. We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethyl-arsenate (DMA). An "organic" toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high-energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Asi was the main As species in most food products tested in this study. There are currently no U.S. regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi into an individual's diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.

  3. Effect of germinated brown rice extracts on pancreatic lipase, adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, See Meng; Goh, Yong Meng; Kuan, Wen Bin; Loh, Su Peng

    2014-11-03

    This study investigated anti-obesity effects of seven different solvent (n-hexane, toluene, dicholoromethane, ethyl acetate, absolute methanol, 80% methanol and deionized water) extracts of germinated brown rice (GBR) on pancreatic lipase activity, adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GBR were extracted separately by employing different solvents with ultrasound-assisted. Pancreatic lipase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate (p-NPB) to p-nitrophenol at 405 nm. Adipogenesis and lipolysis were assayed in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by using Oil Red O staining and glycerol release measurement. GBR extract using hexane showed the highest inhibitory effect (13.58 ± 0.860%) at concentration of 200 μg/ml followed by hexane extract at 100 μg/ml (9.98 ± 1.048%) while ethyl acetate extract showed the lowest (2.62 ± 0.677%) at concentration of 200 μg/ml on pancreatic lipase activity. Water extract at 300 μg/ml showed 61.55 ± 3.824% of Oil Red O staining material (OROSM), a marker of adipogenesis. It significantly decrease (p < 0.05) lipid accumulation than control (OROSM = 100%), follow by ethyl acetate extract at 300 μg/ml (OROSM = 65.17 ± 3.131%). All the GBR extracts induced lipolysis with 1.22-1.83 fold of greater glycerol release than control. GBR extracts especially the least polar and intermediate polar solvent extracts exhibited inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase, decrease fat accumulation by adipocyte differentiation inhibition, and stimulate lipolysis on adipocytes. Therefore, GBR could be furthered study and developed as a functional food in helping the treatment and/or prevention of obesity.

  4. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  5. Inhibition of microbial growth and enrichment of gamma-aminobutyric acid during germination of brown rice by electrolyzed oxidizing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhan-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Li, Li-Te; Curtis, Rempel B; Kong, Xiao-Lin; Fulcher, R Gary; Zhang, Gong; Cao, Wei

    2010-03-01

    Electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) has been regarded as a potential environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontaminant. EOW with a pH of 3.0 and oxidation reduction potential of 1,079.0 mV were generated by the electrolysis of a dilute NaCl solution (20 mM) in an electrochemical cell. The effects of EOW, 1% NaClO solution, and alkaline electrolyzed water on controlling microbial growth, germination ratio, and enrichment of gamma-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice (GBR) were evaluated in this study. Results show that EOW was the most effective at inhibiting microbial growth during germination. Rinsing the rice grains with EOW at 12-h intervals resulted in aerobic plate count reductions of 4.82 log CFU/g, while soaking resulted in bacterial count reductions of 5.38 log CFU/g after 72 h of germination. Moreover, EOW significantly enriched gamma-aminobutyric acid content in GBR (P < 0.05); content was increased 1.6 times in grain rinsed with EOW and 1.8 times in grain soaked in EOW. The findings indicate that EOW is a feasible disinfectant for industrial GBR production.

  6. Pre-germinated Parboiled Brown Rice Drying Using Fluidization Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapol Poomsa-ad; Lamul Wiset

    2012-01-01

    Pre-germinated parboiled brown rice or Khao hang (in Thai) is paddy which undergoing the processes of soaking, steaming, drying and dehusking to obtain the edible form for consumption. The objectives of this research were to study the kinetic of pre-germinated parboiled brown rice drying using fluidization technique and to study the properties of pre-germinated parboiled brown rice after drying. The dryings were performed at the different temperatures of 110, 120 and 130 oC at the bed depth o...

  7. Germinated Brown Rice Alters Aβ(1-42 Aggregation and Modulates Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Genes in Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanisah Azmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease involves complex etiological factors, of which the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ protein and oxidative stress have been strongly implicated. We explored the effects of H2O2, which is a precursor for highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, on neurotoxicity and genes related to AD on neuronal cells. Candidate bioactive compounds responsible for the effects were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR on the morphology of Aβ(1-42 were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and its regulatory effects on gene expressions were explored. The results showed that GBR extract had several phenolic compounds and γ-oryzanol and altered the structure of Aβ(1-42 suggesting an antiamyloidogenic effect. GBR was also able to attenuate the oxidative effects of H2O2 as implied by reduced LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, gene expression analyses showed that the neuroprotective effects of GBR were partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of multiple genes including Presenilins, APP, BACE1, BACE2, ADAM10, Neprilysin, and LRP1. Our findings showed that GBR exhibited neuroprotective properties via transcriptional regulation of APP metabolism with potential impact on Aβ aggregation. These findings can have important implications for the management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD and are worth exploring further.

  8. Germinated brown rice extract inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulation of adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-adipogenic effect of germinated brown rice methanol extract (GBR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The GBR inhibited adipocyte differentiation was measured by Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner without initiating any cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and adipogenic genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), were significantly down-regulated by treatment with GBR when compared to that of untreated control cells. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions were attenuated by GBR in mature adipocytes. These data suggest that GBR exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect through the suppression of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  9. High hydrostatic pressure treatments enhance volatile components of pre-germinated brown rice revealed by aromatic fingerprinting based on HS-SPME/GC-MS and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Mei, Jun; Yu, Wenjuan; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    Germination favors to significantly enhance functional components and health attributes of whole-grain brown rice (BR), but the production of germinated BR (GBR) compromises the typical rice flavor perception due to soaking process. Simultaneously, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is considered as an effective processing technique to enhance micronutrients utilization efficiency of GBR and improve products flavor, but no information about the effects of HHP treatments on volatile fingerprinting of GBR has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this work was to apply HHP to improve the flavor and odor of GBR grains by exploring HHP-induced changes in aroma compounds. GBR grains were obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h, and subsequently subjected to HHP treatments at pressures 100, 300 and 500MPa for 15min, using 0.1MPa as control. Headspace solid-phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to characterize process-induced shifts of volatile organic compounds fingerprinting, followed by multivariate analysis. Our results confirmed the significant reduction of total volatile fractions derived from germination process. Contrarily, the following HHP treatments greatly enhanced the flavor components of GBR, particularly characteristic odorants including aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Principal component analysis further indicated the different influence of germination and high pressure on the changes in volatile components. Partial least square-discrimination analysis suggested that 4-vinylguaiacol was closely linked to germination, whereas E,E-2,4-decadienal, E-2-hexenal, E,E-2,4-heptadienal and benzyl alcohol could be considered as volatile biomarkers of high pressure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethyl acetate extract of germinated brown rice attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: role of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival and antioxidant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Norsharina; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah

    2013-07-17

    There are reports of improved metabolic outcomes due to consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR). Many of the functional effects of GBR can be linked to its high amounts of antioxidants. Interestingly, dietary components with high antioxidants have shown promise in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). This effect of dietary components is mostly based on their ability to prevent apoptosis, which is believed to link oxidative damage to pathological changes in AD. In view of the rich antioxidant content of GBR, we studied its potential to modulate processes leading up to AD. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the ethyl acetate extract of GBR were compared to that of brown rice (BR), and the cytotoxicity of both extracts were determined on human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) Assay. Based on its higher antioxidant potentials, the effect of the GBR extract on morphological changes due to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells was examined using inverted light microscope and fluorescence microscope by means of acridine orange-propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining. Also, evaluation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and apoptotic genes was carried out using Multiplex Gene Expression System. The ethyl acetate extract of GBR had higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity compared to BR. The cytotoxicity results showed that GBR extract did not cause any damage to the human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells at concentrations of up to 20 ppm, and the morphological analyses showed that the GBR extract (up to 10 ppm) prevented H₂O₂-induced apoptotic changes in the cells. Furthermore, multiplex gene expression analyses showed that the protection of the cells by the GBR extract was linked to its ability to induce transcriptional changes in antioxidant (SOD 1, SOD 2 and catalase) and apoptotic

  11. Screening lowland rice varieties for resistance to brown spot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAT

    Twelve lowland rice varieties (BG 90-2, Cisadane, FARO 12, FARO 15 (early maturing), FARO 15 (late maturing), IR 5, ITA 123, ITA 306, MAS 2401, Suakoko 8 and TOS 2578) were planted in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons in Enyong creek rice field in Akwa Ibom State. The varieties were screened for resistance to brown ...

  12. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... foreign and domestic trade, and provide a uniform measure of quality by providing a common language to... learn more about Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standardization and quality...

  13. Fermentability of Brown Rice and Rice Bran for Growth of Human Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premsuda Saman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth on rice-based media of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 isolated from the human gut has been investigated. Fermentation broths were obtained from the whole grain brown rice and rice bran of two Thai rice cultivars, RD6 (glutinous and RD17 (nonglutinous. The rice used was not germinated and fermentations were carried out in a single step without growth supplementation. L. plantarum grew well in all tested broths, and a final biomass value of approx. 10.4 log CFU/mL was obtained. In addition, biomass production and substrate depletion were satisfactorily modelled using an unstructured mathematical model. There were no statistical differences observed among the four rice media. The results confirm that brown rice and rice bran are suitable substrates for the culture of the probiotic L. plantarum NCIMB 8826. Rice bran, currently a by-product of the traditional cereal processing industry, has shown similar fermentability to brown rice. This indicates that rice bran or rice bran extracts could be used in new probiotic food developments, while probably still maintaining other functional properties of the bran.

  14. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  15. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  16. Effects of germinated brown rice and its bioactive compounds on the expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Tubesha, Zaki; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-02-06

    Dysregulated metabolism is implicated in obesity and other disease conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, which are linked to abnormalities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ has been the focus of much research aimed at managing these diseases. Also, germinated brown rice (GBR) is known to possess antidiabetic, antiobesity and hypocholesterolemic effects. We hypothesized that GBR bioactive compounds may mediate some of the improvements in metabolic indices through PPARγ modulation. Cultured HEP-G2 cells were treated with 50 ppm and 100 ppm of extracts from GBR (GABA, ASG and oryzanol) after determination of cell viabilities using MTT assays. Results showed that all extracts upregulated the expression of the PPARγ. However, combination of all three extracts showed downregulation of the gene, suggesting that, in combination, the effects of these bioactives differ from their individual effects likely mediated through competitive inhibition of the gene. Upregulation of the gene may have therapeutic potential in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, while its downregulation likely contributes to GBR's antiobesity effects. These potentials are worth studying further.

  17. In utero Exposure to Germinated Brown Rice and Its GABA Extract Attenuates High-Fat-Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Der-Jiun, Ooi; Ismail, Maznah

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the influence of diet on insulin resistance. Our study provides insight into the effect of germinated brown rice (GBR) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on early environment-driven programming and susceptibility to insulin resistance in rat offspring. Male rat offspring from female Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone, HFD + GBR, or HFD + GABA extract throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned 4 weeks after delivery and followed up for 8 weeks. A biochemical analysis and an assessment of the hepatic expression of insulin signaling genes were performed. The results showed that intrauterine exposure to HFD caused metabolic perturbations in rat offspring which gravitated towards insulin resistance even though the rat offspring did not consume an HFD. GBR and GABA attenuated the HFD-induced changes by underlying regulation of the insulin signaling genes. The results suggest that intake of GBR and GABA during pregnancy and lactation can influence the programming of genes in rat offspring, thereby enhancing insulin sensitivity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Application of the sake cake from pre-germinated brown rice for food use

    OpenAIRE

    牛越, 静子; 小木曽, 加奈

    2010-01-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice prepared by soaking brown rice in 37℃ water for 24-48 hours to initiate germination of sprouts not exceeding 0.5-1.0 mm in length. On the other hand, the rice bran and the embryo bud are removed from the brewer's rice brown rice during the brewing of sake, because of removing a rough taste. It is thought that sake and sake cake that fermented the pre-germinated brown rice remained without removing the element of the rice bran and the embryo bud. However, the sake m...

  19. Germination conditions affect physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-01-01

    Germinated brown rice has been reported to be nutritious due to increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) and glutinous brown rice (GNBR) after germination as affected by different steeping times (24, 36, 48, and 72 h depending on the rice variety) and pHs of steeping water (3, 5, 7, and as-is) were determined and compared to those of the nongerminated one (control). As the steeping time increased or pH of steeping water decreased, germinated brown rice flours (GBRF) from both BR and GNBR had greater reducing sugar, free GABA and alpha-amylase activity; while the total starch and viscosity were lower than their respective controls. GBRFs from both BR and GNBR prepared after 24-h steeping time at pH 3 contained a high content of free GABA at 32.70 and 30.69 mg/100 g flour, respectively. The peak viscosity of GBRF obtained from both BR and GNBR (7.42 to 228.22 and 4.42 to 58.67 RVU, respectively) was significantly lower than that of their controls (255.46 and 190.17 RVU, respectively). The principal component analysis indicated that the important variables for discriminating among GBRFs, explained by the first 2 components at 89.82% of total explained variance, were the pasting profiles, alpha-amylase activity, and free GABA.

  20. Gastric emptying rate and chyme characteristics for cooked brown and white rice meals in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Chang, Lucy Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    Rice structure is important to rice grain and starch breakdown during digestion. The objective of this study was to determine the gastric emptying and rice composition during gastric digestion of cooked brown and white medium-grain (Calrose variety) rice using the growing pig as a model for the adult human. Brown and white rice did not show significantly different gastric emptying rates of dry matter or starch, but brown rice had slower protein emptying (P pH was lower in the distal stomach compared to the proximal stomach (P gastric secretions observed after a brown or white rice meal may be related to the meal buffering capacity, and are accumulated in the distal stomach. The delayed rate of protein emptying in brown rice compared to white rice was most likely due to the accumulation of bran layers in the stomach. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. In vitro gastric digestion of cooked white and brown rice using a dynamic rat stomach model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Deng, Renpan; Wu, Xuee; Wang, Yong; Dong, Zhizhong; Dhital, Sushil; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-12-15

    The changes in physical, rheological and enzyme-digestive behaviours of cooked white and brown rice, with similar amylose content, were investigated using a dynamic in vitro rat stomach (DIVRS) model and a static soaking method. The brown rice had a higher resistance on disintegration and lower gastric emptying rate with 53% of the brown rice particles retained in the stomach at the end compared to 32% for the white rice. Furthermore, the release rate of maltose from the starch hydrolysis was higher in the white rice throughout the digestion suggesting the lower glycemic potency of the brown rice. These differences could be contributed from the rigid bran layer in the brown rice which would inhibit the moisture absorption into rice kernels, limit textural degradation, and generate higher gastric digesta viscosity leading to lower mixing and mass transfer efficiency. This study suggests that the structural difference could affect physiochemical properties during gastric digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice and Its Bioactive Compounds on the Expression of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Tubesha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated metabolism is implicated in obesity and other disease conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, which are linked to abnormalities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. PPARγ has been the focus of much research aimed at managing these diseases. Also, germinated brown rice (GBR is known to possess antidiabetic, antiobesity and hypocholesterolemic effects. We hypothesized that GBR bioactive compounds may mediate some of the improvements in metabolic indices through PPARγ modulation. Cultured HEP-G2 cells were treated with 50 ppm and 100 ppm of extracts from GBR (GABA, ASG and oryzanol after determination of cell viabilities using MTT assays. Results showed that all extracts upregulated the expression of the PPARγ. However, combination of all three extracts showed downregulation of the gene, suggesting that, in combination, the effects of these bioactives differ from their individual effects likely mediated through competitive inhibition of the gene. Upregulation of the gene may have therapeutic potential in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, while its downregulation likely contributes to GBR’s antiobesity effects. These potentials are worth studying further.

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of brown rice as influenced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabularse, V.C.; Liuzzo, J.A.; Rao, R.M.; Grodner, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Brown rice samples prepared from medium grain (Mars) and long grain (Lemont and Tebonnet) varieties were irradiated at 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy and analyzed. The amount of solids leached upon cooking increased with increased dose levels indicating the degradation off the rice grain structure. Damaged starch for Mars decreased to the 1.0 kGy level and increased thereafter. Moisture content remained constant between 13% and 14%. Amylose content was not greatly affected by irradiation. Peak viscosity, setback values, final viscosity, viscosity at 50 degrees C, and consistency all decreased with increasing levels of irradiation. As radiation increased, an increase in the yellow color of the rice samples was noted

  4. Pre-germinated brown rice could enhance maternal mental health and immunity during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shigeko; Hayashi, Takashi; Hayashi, Keiko; Murai, Fumie; Hori, Miyo; Kimoto, Koichi; Murakami, Kazuo

    2007-10-01

    Rice is a dietary staple worldwide, especially pre-germinated brown rice has recently been widely served in Japan because of its abundant nutrition. Relationship between lactation and pre-germinated brown rice has attracted interest in terms of mental health and immunity. To demonstrate that Japanese foods are beneficial for psychosomatic health, the effects of pre-germinated brown rice on the mental status and immunological features during lactation were investigated. Forty-one breast-feeding mothers were recruited, and randomly divided into two groups. One group took pre-germinated brown rice and the other white rice (control) as their staple diet for 2 weeks. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and salivary amylase activity as psychological indices and secretory IgA (s-IgA) and lactoferrin (LTF) in breast milk as immunological indices were determined before and after dietary intervention, and changes were investigated. In the psychological assessment, the scores of depression, anger-hostility, and fatigue were decreased on POMS analysis in the pre-germinated brown rice diet group, resulting in a significant decrease in total mood disturbance (TMD). The salivary amylase activity measurement suggested that resistance to stress was increased in the pre-germinated brown rice diet group. On the immunological assessment, the s-IgA level was significantly increased in the pre-germinated brown rice diet group. We have shown that pre-germinated brown rice may have beneficial effects on psychosomatic health.

  5. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P Archimede’s principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r2 = 0.737, P = 0.004). Conclusion Our study shows that GBR bioactives increase bone density, which might be via the activation of zinc formation and increased calcium content, and that X-ray edge detection technique is effective in the measurement of bone density and can be employed effectively in this respect. PMID:24187491

  6. Germinated brown rice and its bioactives modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomised rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani I; Ismail, Maznah; Mahmud, Rozi B; Salisu, Abubakar M; Zakaria, Zuki A

    2013-07-30

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause. Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations. GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina. GBR and its bioactives could be a potential

  7. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede's principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede's principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P < 0.05). Bone density increased significantly (P < 0.05) in groups treated with estrogen, GBR, Remifemin®, and gamma oryzanol compared to the ovariectomized nontreated group. Histological sections revealed more osteoblasts in the treated groups when compared with the untreated groups. A polyclonal nuclear antigen reaction showing proliferating new cells was observed in groups treated with estrogen, Remifemin®, GBR, acylated steryl glucosides, and gamma oryzanol. There was a good correlation between bone mass densities estimated using Archimede's principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r (2) = 0.737, P = 0.004). Our study shows that GBR

  8. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  9. Recognition of Paddy, Brown Rice and White Rice Cultivars Based on Textural Features of Images and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Golpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of rice cultivars is very important in modern agriculture. Texture properties could be used to identify of rice cultivars among of the various factors. The digital images processing can be used as a new approach to extract texture features. The objective of this research was to identify rice cultivars using of texture features with using image processing and back propagation artificial neural networks. To identify rice cultivars, five rice cultivars Fajr, Shiroodi, Neda, Tarom mahalli and Khazar were selected. Finally, 108 textural features were extracted from rice images using gray level co-occurrence matrix. Then cultivar identification was carried out using Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network. After evaluation of the network with one hidden layer using texture features, the highest classification accuracy for paddy cultivars, brown rice and white rice were obtained 92.2%, 97.8% and 98.9%, respectively. After evaluation of the network with two hidden layers, the average accuracy for classification of paddy cultivars was obtained to be 96.67%, for brown rice it was 97.78% and for white rice the classification accuracy was 98.88%. The highest mean classification accuracy acquired for paddy cultivars with 45 features was achieved to be 98.9%, for brown rice cultivars with 11 selected features it was 93.3% and it was 96.7% with 18 selected features for rice cultivars.

  10. Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jianling [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71st East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu Zhengyi, E-mail: zhyhu@gucas.ac.c [College of Resources and Environment, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Ziadi, Noura [Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2560 Hochelaga Boulevard, Quebec, QC, G1V 2J3 (Canada); Xia Xu; Wu Congyanghui [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71st East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Human activities have resulted in cadmium (Cd) and sulfur (S) accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of excessive S supply on iron plaque formation and Cd accumulation in rice plants, using two Cd levels (0, 1.5 mg kg{sup -1}) combined with three S concentrations (0, 60, 120 mg kg{sup -1}). The results showed that excessive S supply significantly decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice due to the decrease of Cd availability and the increase of glutathione in rice leaves. But excessive S supply obviously increased Cd accumulation in roots due to the decrease of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice. Therefore, excessive S supply may result in loss of rice yield, but it could effectively reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice exposed to Cd contaminated soils. - Excessive sulfur reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice.

  11. The Role of Node Restriction on Cadmium Accumulation in the Brown Rice of 12 Chinese Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gaoxiang; Ding, Changfeng; Guo, Fuyu; Li, Xiaogang; Zhou, Zhigao; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2017-11-29

    For selection or breeding of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars with low Cd affinity, the role of node Cd restriction on Cd accumulation in brown rice was studied. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the concentration of Cd in different sections of 12 Chinese rice cultivars. The results indicated that the Cd accumulation in the brown rice was mainly dependent on the root or shoot Cd concentration. Among the cultivars with nearly equal shoot Cd concentrations, Cd accumulation in brown rice was mainly dependent on the transport of Cd in the shoot. However, the Cd transport in the shoot was significantly restricted by the nodes, especially by the first node. Furthermore, the area of the diffuse vascular bundle in the junctional region of the flag leaf and the first node was a key contributor to the variations in Cd restriction by the nodes.

  12. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Bint; Saeed, Mohammed Ibrahim; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ishaka, Aminu

    2013-01-01

    The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms. Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and γ-oryzanol (ORZ) at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM) at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST) at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (m)RNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k), complement protein (C3), heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70), and interleukin (IL)-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry. The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg) upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P0.05) in the progesterone levels in the OVX untreated group compared to the sham and other treated groups. There was a significant increase at 8 weeks in the level of FSH (P0.05) in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) between the OVX untreated group and other groups. The sham and GBR phenolics treated group showed ER-β reactivity at the glandular epithelium, while the group treated with EST showed immunoreactivity at the glandular, luminal, and stromal epithelium. GBR phenolics moderately regulate the expression of ER-β, HSP70, and IL-4 receptor genes, and gave a positive immunoreaction to ER-β antigen in the uterus. ASG regulates the expression of CaBP9k and IL-4 receptor genes, and ORZ regulates the expression of the CaBP9k gene, while GABA at 100 mg/kg regulates the expression of the HSP70 gene. GBR and its bioactives might have an effect on estrogen

  13. A Mixed-Methods Study on Acceptability, Tolerability, and Substitution of Brown Rice for White Rice to Lower Blood Glucose Levels among Nigerian Adults

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    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhole-grain products such as brown rice have been associated with lower risk of metabolic disorders including diabetes. We examined the acceptability and tolerability of substituting brown rice for white rice and the feasibility of introducing brown rice into the diet through a long-term trial to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.MethodsFifty-one adults residing in Abuja, Nigeria, participated in this study. Using purposeful sampling for focus group discussions (FGDs, participants were enrolled based on their age (19–25 vs. 40–60 years and body mass index (BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese. Participants tasted four meals with different constitution of brown and white rice (25:75%, 50:50%, 75:25%, and 100% brown rice. Twelve FGDs were conducted, six before and six after the food tasting. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was measured after consumption of each rice meal.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 39 (±14 years, their mean BMI was 25.6 (±5.2 and about half of them were male. Most of the participants (61% reported that rice was their main source of carbohydrate and 67% consumed rice at least five times/week. Before the food tasting, participants considered white polished rice superior to brown rice with regard to quality, taste, and nutritional value. After the food tasting, most of the participants (49% indicated a preference for the 100% brown rice, 19% preferred the 25% brown rice, 18% preferred the 50% brown rice, and 7% preferred the 75% brown rice meals. Factors that may affect the acceptability of brown rice include its appearance, longer cooking time, cost, limited availability, and poor appreciation of its nutritional value. In general, 2-h postprandial glucose levels were lower, after consumption of meals with higher proportion of brown rice.ConclusionThis study provides valuable insight into the acceptability of brown rice as a substitute for white rice in Nigeria. If confirmed in larger studies

  14. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

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    Muhammad SI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Binti Mahmud,4 Maher Faik Esmaile,5 Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria6 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 6Department of Pre-clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods: In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated; ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results: Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized

  15. A bioaccessible fraction of parboiled germinated brown rice exhibits a higher anti-inflammatory activity than that of brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Muangnoi, Chawanphat; Thiyajai, Parunya; Srichamnong, Warangkana; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Praengam, Kemika

    2015-05-01

    Parboiled germinated brown rice (PGBR) has been suggested as a functional food because it is relatively rich in a number of nutrients and health promoting compounds. Here we compared the bioaccessibility of several of the bioactive compounds in cooked PGBR and brown rice (BR) by simulating oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion. The uptake and retention of bioactive compounds from a bioaccessible fraction also was determined using Caco-2 human intestinal cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the bioaccessible fraction from digested BR and PGBR was then assessed with Caco-2 cells that were activated with H2O2 + IL-1β. PGBR had a higher content of GABA, γ-oryzanol, γ-tocotrienol, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid than BR. The amounts of these compounds transferred to the aqueous fraction during digestion and the quantities accumulated by Caco-2 cells were proportional to those in cooked PGBR and BR. The anti-inflammatory activity of the bioaccessible fraction from digested BR and PGBR was then assessed for Caco-2 cells that were activated with H2O2 + IL-1β. Pre-treatment of the cells with the bioaccessible fractions from PGBR and BR suppressed the secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 and the ROS content in activated cells. Inhibitory activities were attenuated to a greater extent after cells had been pre-exposed to the bioaccessible fraction from digested PGBR compared to BR. These results suggest that digested PGBR contains and delivers greater amounts of compounds with anti-inflammatory activity to absorptive epithelial cells than digested BR.

  16. An improved process for high nutrition of germinated brown rice production: Low-pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua Han; Chang, Hung Chia; Chen, Yu Kuo; Hung, Chien Lun; Lin, Su Yi; Chen, Yi Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Brown rice was exposed to low-pressure plasma ranging from 1 to 3kV for 10min. Treatment of brown rice in low-pressure plasma increases the germination percentage, seedling length, and water uptake in laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 3-kV plasma exposure for 10min yielded the best results. In germinating brown rice, α-amylase activity was significantly higher in treated groups than in controls. The higher enzyme activity in plasma-treated brown rice likely triggers the rapid germination and earlier vigor of the seedlings. Low-pressure plasma also increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels from ∼19 to ∼28mg/100g. In addition, a marked increase in the antioxidant activity of brown rice was observed with plasma treatments compared to controls. The main finding of this study indicates that low-pressure plasma is effective at enhancing the growth and GABA accumulation of germinated brown rice, which can supply high nutrition to consumer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

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    Muhammad SI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Bint Mahmud,4 Mohammed Ibrahim Saeed,1 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Aminu Ishaka11Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Usmanu, Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaPurpose: The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms.Methods: Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides (ASG, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA, and γ-oryzanol (ORZ at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (mRNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β, calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k, complement protein (C3, heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70, and interleukin (IL-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry.Results: The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P<0.001. GBR phenolics (200 mg/kg treatment upregulated the ER-β gene almost to the level of the sham non-treated group. The CaBP9k gene showed upregulation in groups treated with ASG (200 mg/kg, EST (0.2 mg/kg, and ORZ (200 mg/kg (P<0.05. Estrogen levels increased in groups treated with EST, ASG, and ORZ (200 mg/kg compared

  18. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also... brown rice for processing, see § 868.263(a). 2 For the special grade Glutinous brown rice for processing...

  19. The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in cooked rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang-Hee [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Ree Kim, Mee [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Gung-Dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government Complex-Gwacheon, Kyunggi 427-715 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-05-15

    The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in a sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice generated by gamma irradiation was evaluated in the present study. When the sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice were irradiated at room temperature, the browning reaction was dramatically increased during the post-irradiation period. In the case of irradiation at below the freezing point, the browning by irradiation was retarded during not only irradiation but also a post-irradiation period. The changes of the sugar profile, such as a sugar loss or reducing power of the irradiated sugar-glycine solution and the electron spin resonance signal intensity of the irradiated cooked rice were also decreased with lower irradiation temperature. The present results may suggest that the production of free radicals and a radiolysis product is inhibited during gamma irradiation in the frozen state and it may prevent the browning reaction generated by gamma irradiation from occurring.

  20. Effect of pre-germination time of brown rice on serum cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohinejad, Shahin; Omidizadeh, Alireza; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yusof, Rokiah Mohd; Hussin, Anis Shobirin Meor; Hamid, Azizah; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2010-01-30

    Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health. Brown rice (BR) and pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol, dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In the present study, the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR (24, 48 h pre-germination) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Hypercholesterolaemia and elevation of LDL-cholesterol were successfully ameliorated by the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR (24 and 48 h pre-germination). As compared to the control sample, the pre-germination time had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on blood cholesterol of Sprague-Dawley male rats. It was also found that the significantly (P < 0.05) better effect on lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats was observed by prolonging the pre-germination time. As compared to non-germinated brown rice, the germinated brown rice showed the higher cardio-protective effect on hypercholesterolaemic Sprague-Dawley male rats. The present study suggests that the changes of blood cholesterol can be mainly modulated by using the PGBR rather than BR. The prolonging of pre-germination time led to an increase in the bioactive components, thereby providing a more efficient functional diet affecting the high blood cholesterol. This study suggests that PGBR can be used instead of BR and polished rice in the human diet. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

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    Md Mamunur Rashid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K, on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  2. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats

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    Toshiya Kuno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172 was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer.

  3. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (ΔH) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ΔH did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (pbatter.

  4. Effects of incorporating germinated brown rice on the antioxidant properties of wheat flour chapatti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V

    2012-02-01

    Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48 h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144 µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9 µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%.

  5. Effect of ferrous sulfate fortification in germinated brown rice on seed iron concentration and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Shohag, M J I; Ying, Feng; Yang, Xiaoe; Wu, Chunyong; Wang, Yuyan

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of germination and iron fortification on iron concentration and bioavailability of brown rice. Iron fortification during germination process with 0.05-2 g/L ferrous sulfate increased the iron concentration in germinated brown rice from 1.1 to 15.6 times than those in raw brown rice. Based on the recommended dietary allowance of iron, maximum germination rate and γ-aminobutyric acid, we recommend the brown rice fortified with 0.25 g/L FeSO(4) as a suitable fortification level to use in germination process. Iron fortification during the germination process has a positive effect on iron concentration and bioavailability. A significant difference was observed among the cultivars in respect to the capacity for iron accumulation and bioavailability. Germination alone could improve in vitro iron solubility, but had no effect on iron bioavailability in Caco-2 cell, the additional fortification process should be combined to get high amount of bioavailable iron from the brown rice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Occurrence of arsenic in brown rice and its relationship to soil properties from Hainan Island, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yangrong; Chen Mulong; Bi Xiangyang; He Yusheng; Ren Limin; Xiang Wu; Qiao Shengying; Yan Sen; Li Zhonggen; Ma Zhendong

    2011-01-01

    The acquaintance of arsenic concentrations in rice grain is vital in risk assessment. In this study, we determined the concentration of arsenic in 282 brown rice grains sampled from Hainan Island, China, and discussed its possible relationships to the considered soil properties. Arsenic concentrations in the rice grain from Hainan Island varied from 5 to 309 μg/kg, with a mean (92 μg/kg) lower than most published data from other countries/regions and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for As i in rice. The result of correlation analysis between grain and soil properties showed that grain As concentrations correlated significantly to soil arsenic speciation, organic matter and soil P contents and could be best predicted by humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions. Grain arsenic rises steeply at soil As concentrations lower than 3.6 mg/kg and gently at higher concentrations. - Highlights: → Arsenic concentration in brown rice from Hainan was lower than most published data. → Grain As was affected by soil As speciation, OM, and P. → Humic acid and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions were important pools for rice plant. → Grain arsenic rises steeply at lower soil As concentrations and gently at higher concentrations. - Arsenic in brown rice grain from Hainan, China showed low concentrations and correlated most closely to soil humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions.

  7. Tablet-based two-dimensional measurement for estimating the embryo area of brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaravanne, Yuttana; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chaitavon, Kosom; Chanhorm, Sataporn; Pongsoon, Prasit; Prasertsak, Anchalee

    2014-10-01

    The embryo or germ of a rice seed is growing to the shoot and the root parts of a seedling. In the early stage, the germinated embryo directly receives food from the endosperm. How healthy of the seedling can be physically predicted by measuring the areas of the embryo and endosperm. In this work, we show for the first time how the embryo and endosperm areas of a brown rice can be spatially measured. Our key design is based on the utilization of a tablet equipped with our lens module for capturing the rice seed image under white light illumination. Our Windows-based program is developed to analyze and separate the image of the whole brown rice into the embryo and endosperm parts within 2 seconds per seed. Our tablet-based system is just 30×30×6 cm3 with 1 kilogram in weight, capable to easily carry to perform in the field.

  8. Optimizing soaking and germination conditions to improve gamma-aminobutyric acid content in japonica and indica germinated brown rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Xiang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Germinated brown rice is a well-known functional food due to its high content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This study was designed to test the difference of producing GABA in two domesticated rice genotypes (indica and japonica rice), and the effects of adding exogenous glutamic acid or

  9. Characterizing and Estimating Fungal Disease Severity of Rice Brown Spot with Hyperspectral Reflectance Data

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    Zhan-yu LIU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale farming of agriculture crops requires real-time detection of disease for field pest management. Hyperspectral remote sensing data generally have high spectral resolution, which could be very useful for detecting disease stress in green vegetation at the leaf and canopy levels. In this study, hyperspectral reflectances of rice in the laboratory and field were measured to characterize the spectral regions and wavebands, which were the most sensitive to rice brown spot infected by Bipolaris oryzae (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda. de Hann. Leaf reflectance increased at the ranges of 450 to 500 nm and 630 to 680 nm with the increasing percentage of infected leaf surface, and decreased at the ranges of 520 to 580 nm, 760 to 790 nm, 1550 to 1750 nm, and 2080 to 2350 nm with the increasing percentage of infected leaf surface respectively. The sensitivity analysis and derivative technique were used to select the sensitive wavebands for the detection of rice brown spot infected by B. oryzae. Ratios of rice leaf reflectance were evaluated as indicators of brown spot. R669/R746 (the reflectance at 669 nm divided by the reflectance at 746 nm, the following ratios may be deduced by analogy, R702/R718, R692/R530, R692/R732, R535/R746, R521/R718, and R569/R718 increased significantly as the incidence of rice brown spot increased regardless of whether it's at the leaf or canopy level. R702/R718, R692/R530, R692/R732 were the best three ratios for estimating the disease severity of rice brown spot at the leaf and canopy levels. This result not only confirms the capability of hyperspectral remote sensing data in characterizing crop disease for precision pest management in the real world, but also testifies that the ratios of crop reflectance is a useful method to estimate crop disease severity.

  10. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytochemical profiles of black, red, brown, and white rice from the Camargue region of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Cros, Gerard; Yokota, Takao; Crozier, Alan

    2013-08-21

    Secondary metabolites in black, red, brown, and white rice grown in the Camargue region of France were investigated using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). The main compounds in black rice were anthocyanins (3.5 mg/g), with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and peonidin 3-O-glucoside predominating, followed by flavones and flavonols (0.5 mg/g) and flavan-3-ols (0.3 mg/g), which comprised monomeric and oligomeric constituents. Significant quantities of γ-oryzanols, including 24-methylenecycloartenol, campesterol, cycloartenol, and β-sitosterol ferulates, were also detected along with lower levels of carotenoids (6.5 μg/g). Red rice was characterized by a high amount of oligomeric procyanidins (0.2 mg/g), which accounted >60% of secondary metabolite content with carotenoids and γ-oryzanol comprising 26.7%, whereas flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins were rice contained lower quantities of phytochemicals, in the form of flavones/flavonols (21-24 μg/g) and γ-oryzanol (12.3-8.2 μg/g), together with trace levels of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. Neither anthocyanins nor procyanidins were detected in brown and white rice. By describing the profile of the heterogeneous mixture of phytochemicals present in different rice varieties, this study provides a basis for defining the potential health effects related to pigmented and nonpigmented rice consumption by humans.

  12. Influence of grain activation conditions on functional characteristics of brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit

    2017-09-01

    Grain activation is a natural processing technique that can be used to produce modified flours without chemical modification. Functional characteristics of brown rice flour as influenced by grain activation time and temperatures were investigated. Germination temperatures at 25 ℃, 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ and time for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h significantly influenced the functional properties of flour with modification of starch, protein and high enzymatic activity. Significant decrease in the bulk density, water absorption and swelling power of brown rice flour was observed in comparison to non-germinated flour. Gel consistency and oil absorption capacity of brown rice flour increased as the grain activation time and temperature were increased. Native flour had lowest emulsion and foaming properties, while increase in grain activation time and temperature enhanced the emulsifying and foaming properties of flour. Paste clarity of native flour was 54% which was reduced to 25.17%; however, increase in germination time and temperature increased the % synersis values of germinated flour. Native flour had least gelation concentration of 12% which increased to 25% after 48 h of germination at 35 ℃. Overall, germination can be used as a natural way to modify the functional properties of brown rice flours for their utilization in variety food products.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Li; Zhao, Jiaming; Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Fuyu; Lu, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH), has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979) and the susceptible (Fengjin) varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  15. Effect of apple pomace on quality characteristics of brown rice based cracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir Ahmad Mir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of gluten free crackers based on brown rice flour from two varieties and apple pomace was studied during the present investigation. Pomace flour blends were prepared by incorporating 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% apple pomace in brown rice flour. Viscosity profile showed decrease in pasting properties except pasting temperature which increased with increase in pomace level. The hunter colour value (L∗ and fracture force of crackers are decreased with increase in pomace level. The crackers were investigated and compared for composition, antioxidant properties (DPPH, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, reducing power, minerals and sensory properties. The increased amount of apple pomace in the flour formulation resulted in higher antioxidant properties, total dietary fibre and minerals in the final product. Based on the present study, pomace based rice crackers have good potential for consumer and regarded as health promoting functional food, especially for coeliac disease patients.

  16. Hypocholesterolemic action of pre-germinated brown rice in hepatoma-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Daiki; Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2006-06-13

    The effect of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on cholesterol metabolism was studied in Donryu rats subcutaneously implanted with the ascites hepatoma cell line AH109A and compared with that of white rice (WR). The effect of brown rice (BR), the source of PGBR, was also studied. Hepatoma-bearing rats fed a WR diet exhibited hypercholesterolemia compared with normal rats fed the same diet. Feeding hepatoma-bearing rats a PGBR or BR diet suppressed hepatoma-induced hypercholesterolemia, and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion and the activity of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid biosynthesis, in the microsomal fraction of the liver without affecting cholesterol synthesis in the host liver of hepatoma-bearing rats. These results suggest that PGBR as well as BR suppresses hypercholesterolemia induced by hepatoma growth by up-regulating cholesterol catabolism.

  17. [Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid-rich germinated brown rice on indexes of life-style related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Uno, Yoshihiro; Umemoto, Takao; Sugiyama, Chiyo; Matsumoto, Masami; Wada, Yuji; Ishizuka, Tatsuo

    2004-03-01

    We examined the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid-rich germinated brown rice (germinated brown rice) on principal indexes of life-style related diseases in 67 volunteers aged 71 +/- 8. They were divided into two groups; germinated brown rice group, which had an equal amount of the germinated brown rice to polished rice for 11 to 13 months, and control group, which had polished rice alone for the same period. Differences of indexes before and after the examination between the two groups were compared. Significant increases in body fat ratio, hemoglobin A1c and mean red cell volume and a significant decrease in mean red cell hemoglobin concentration were observed in the germinated brown rice group. However, there was no difference of changes in body mass index, blood pressure, serum lipid, hepatic and renal functions, bone metabolic markers, bone density, depression score, red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance between the two groups. These findings suggested that germinated brown rice might not improve glucose metabolism.

  18. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  19. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  20. Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization.

  1. Palatable and bio-functional wheat/rice products developed from pre-germinated brown rice of super-hard cultivar EM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    It became possible to produce high-quality and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles by blending, pre-germinated and cooked brown rice of a super-hard cultivar with wheat flour. Super-hard rice (SHR) is not suitable for table rice because of its low palatability. Nevertheless, it was found to be suitable as a blending material for bread-making or noodle-making due to its hard texture and high content of resistant starch. We developed a novel rapid germination method to improve the quality and to save the time needed for germination. By blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR (30% w/w on a dry basis) as a rice gel with wheat flour (70% w/w on a dry basis), the bread became very soft and any hardening after bread-making was markedly retarded. Similarly, blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR as cooked a rice gel with wheat flour gave high-quality noodles with a similar texture to that of durum semolina noodles. The resistant starch of the SHR-blended bread and noodles was also markedly increased. White waxy rice (9%) soaked and cooked with the pre-germinated brown rice of SHR (21%) produced a rice gel that was very useful as a material for bread-making and noodle-making by blending with wheat flour (70%) to prepare soft, tasty and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles.

  2. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Elham; Sadravi, Mehdi; Naeimi, Shahram; Khosravi, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran.

  3. Biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khalili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot caused by Bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in Southern coast of Caspian Sea, the major rice growing region in Iran. A total of 45 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in Golestan and Mazandaran provinces which belonged to Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and T. atroviride species. Initially, they were screened against B. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. Results showed that Trichoderma isolates can significantly inhibit mycelium growth of pathogen in vitro by producing volatile and nonvolatile metabolites Light microscopic observations showed no evidence of mycoparasitic behaviour of the tested isolates of Trichoderma spp. such as coiling around the B. oryzae. According to in vitro experiments, Trichoderma isolates were selected in order to evaluate their efficacy in controlling brown spot in glasshouse using seed treatment and foliar spray methods. Concerning the glasshouse tests, two strains of T. harzianum significantly controlled the disease and one strain of T. atroviride increased the seedling growth. It is the first time that the biological control of rice brown spot and increase of seedling growth with Trichoderma species have been studied in Iran.

  4. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further

  5. Effects of different heat-moisture treatments on the physicochemical properties of brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Okumura, Hisako; Sugawara, Masayoshi; Noro, Wataru; Homma, Noriyuki; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on the main chemical components, physical properties, and enzyme activities of two types of brown rice flour: high-amylose Koshinokaori and normal-quality Koshiibuki. Five different HMTs using brown rice (moisture content was 12.0%) were assessed: 0.1 MPa/120 °C for 5 or 10 min, 0.2 MPa/134 °C for 5 or 10 min and 0.3 MPa/144 °C for 10 min. HMT, decreased the α-amylase and lipase activities, and fat acidity, and slightly increased the dietary fiber and resistant starch levels. After 2 months' storage at 35 °C, rice samples that were treated with 0.2 MPa/134 °C or 0.3 MPa/144 °C for 10 min had a lower fat acidity than untreated samples, which would be useful for long-term storage and export of rice flour. And HMT exhibited inhibition of retrogradation in the pasting and physical properties, which is profitable to promote the qualities of the rice products.

  6. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat flour, where it was 58.8%. In the dough made from rice flour, a gluten network had thinner filaments, about 2 and 1 μm in width for white and brown rice flour, respectively, compared to those in the dough from wheat flour only, where it was about 7 μm. The dough from rice flour had almost twice higher gelatinization maximum than the gelatinization maximum of the wheat flour only. The energetic values of the dough from rice flour were smaller than the energetic value of the wheat flour, for only 1.32%. Based on Cluster analysis, the white or brown rice flour share of 20% was pointed out.

  7. Study on the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during germination by using segmented moisture conditioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yinping; Jia, Fuguo; Han, Yanlong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during the process of germination. The process of water addition in brown rice could be divided into three stages according to different water absorption speeds in soaking process. Water was added with three different speeds in three stages to get the optimal water adding rate in the whole process of germination. Thus, the technology of segmented moisture conditioning which is a method of adding water gradually was put forward. Germinated brown rice was produced by using segmented moisture conditioning method to reduce the loss of water-soluble nutrients and was beneficial to the accumulation of gamma aminobutyric acid. The effects of once moisture adding amount in three stages on the gamma aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice and germination rate of brown rice were investigated by using response surface methodology. The optimum process parameters were obtained as follows: once moisture adding amount of stage I with 1.06 %/h, once moisture adding amount of stage II with 1.42 %/h and once moisture adding amount of stage III with 1.31 %/h. The germination rate under the optimum parameters was 91.33 %, which was 7.45 % higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (84.97 %). The content of gamma aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice under the optimum parameters was 29.03 mg/100 g, which was more than two times higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (12.81 mg/100 g). The technology of segmented moisture conditioning has potential applications for studying many other cereals.

  8. Increasing the bio-active compounds contents by optimizing the germination conditions of Southern Thai Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraporn Banchuen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three Thailand rice varieties (cv. Niaw Dam Peuak Dam, Sangyod Phatthalung and Chiang Phatthalung were germinatedand their -aminobutyric acid (GABA content was monitored. Optimum germination conditions to maximize GABAcontent in brown rice were determined. The brown rice was first soaked in various solutions (buffer solution pH 2, 3, 5, and 7and distilled water at room temperature (30±2°C for 5 hours, followed by germinating in either open or closed vessel for 12,24, 36, and 48 hours. Results indicated that the highest GABA content was obtained when the rice was soaked in a citratebuffer with pH 3 and germinated in closed vessel for 36 hours, Sangyod Phatthalung and Chiang Phatthalung, and for 48hours, Niaw Dam Peuak Dam. Compared to regular brown rice, the GABA content in germinated brown rice increased 9.43-16.74 times. Germination also increased the ferulic acid 1.12-1.43 times and significantly decreased the phytate content whilethe -oryzanol content was in the same level for both un-germinated and germinated brown rice.

  9. Production of optically pure D-lactic acid from brown rice using metabolically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenji; Hama, Shinji; Kihara, Maki; Noda, Hideo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of D-lactic acid was performed using brown rice as both a substrate and a nutrient source. An engineered Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain, in which the ʟ-lactate dehydrogenase gene was disrupted, produced 97.7 g/L D-lactic acid from 20% (w/v) brown rice without any nutrient supplementation. However, a significant amount of glucose remained unconsumed and the yield of lactic acid was as low as 0.75 (g/g-glucose contained in brown rice). Interestingly, the glucose consumption was significantly improved by adapting L. plantarum cells to the low-pH condition during the early stage of SSF (8-17 h). As a result, 117.1 g/L D-lactic acid was produced with a high yield of 0.93 and an optical purity of 99.6% after 144 h of fermentation. SSF experiments were repeatedly performed for ten times and D-lactic acid was stably produced using recycled cells (118.4-129.8 g/L). On average, D-lactic acid was produced with a volumetric productivity of 2.18 g/L/h over 48 h.

  10. A preliminary study of the protease activities in germinating brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuijuan; Cao, Xiaohong; Gu, Zhenxin; Wen, Huanbin

    2011-03-30

    Proteases hydrolyse storage proteins to provide precursors for perpetuating species. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise different proteases in germinating brown rice. The protease activity of brown rice increased sevenfold during 7 days of germination. It was highest on day 6 when determined at pH 3.5. With casein as substrate the proteases showed two catalytic groups: acidic proteases with an optimal pH of 3.5 and alkaline proteases with an optimal pH of 8.0. The acidic protease activity was inhibited by Ba(2+) and Pb(2+) but stimulated by Zn(2+) , while the alkaline protease activity was inhibited by Ca(2+) and Pb(2+) but stimulated by Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) . SDS-gelatin-PAGE assay showed two protease activity bands at pH 3.5, while two different bands with higher molecular weights were observed at pH 8.0. Inhibition assay revealed that pepstatin A and E-64 inhibited 67.63 and 38.26% respectively of the protease activity at pH 3.5, indicating the presence of aspartic and cysteine proteases. Metalloproteases played a major role under alkaline conditions (88.37% inhibition with EDTA). Germinated brown rice proteases fall into different classes with different properties. This study is helpful for their further purification. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Susceptible and Resistant Rice Plants during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, Homoptera, Delphacidae-SBPH is one of the major destructive pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.. Understanding on how rice responds to SBPH infestation will contribute to developing strategies for SBPH control. However, the response of rice plant to SBPH is poorly understood. In this study, two contrasting rice genotypes, Pf9279-4 (SBPH-resistant and 02428 (SBPH-susceptible, were used for comparative analysis of protein profiles in the leaf sheath of rice plants in responses to SBPH infestation. One hundred and thirty-two protein spots that were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible rice lines were identified with significant intensity differences (≥2-fold, P < 0.05 at 0, 6, and 12 h after SBPH infestation. Protein expression profile analysis in the leaf sheath of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice lines after SBPH infestation showed that proteins induced by SBPH feeding were involved mainly in stress response, photosynthesis, protein metabolic process, carbohydrate metabolic process, energy metabolism, cell wall-related proteins, amino acid metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Gene expression analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs showed that more than 50% DEPs were positively correlated with their mRNA levels. Analysis of some physiological indexes mainly involved in the removal of oxygen reactive species showed that the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH were considerably higher in Pf9279-4 than 02428 during SBPH infestation. The catalase (CAT activity and hydroxyl radical inhibition were lower in Pf9279-4 than 02428. Analysis of enzyme activities indicates that Pf9279-4 rice plants defend against SBPH through the activation of the pathway of the salicylic acid (SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance. In conclusion, this study provides some insights into the molecular networks involved on cellular and

  12. Physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of wheat-germinated brown rice bread during storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; No, Hong Kyoon; King, Joan M

    2010-08-01

    Selected physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of bread prepared from composite flour (wheat:germinated brown rice:germinated glutinous brown rice flours at 60:30:10 ratio) were evaluated during storage for 0, 3, and 5 d, and compared with wheat bread (0 d, control). During storage, color profiles and water activity (from 0.947 to 0.932) of crumbs of composite flour breads slightly changed, but moisture content drastically decreased along with increasing crumb hardness (from 4.16 N to 10.37 N). Higher retrogradation in bread crumb was observed particularly for 5-d stored bread (DeltaH = 2.24 J/g) compared to that of the fresh composite bread and the control (DeltaH = 0.70 and 0.51 J/g, respectively). Mean (n = 116) overall liking score of the fresh composite flour bread (0 d) was slightly lower than that of the control (7.1 compared with 7.6 based on a 9-point hedonic scale). At least 76% of consumers would purchase the fresh composite flour bread if commercially available. Breads were differentiated by textural (moistness, smoothness, and softness) acceptability with canonical correlation of 0.84 to 0.87. The signal-to-noise ratio values of the 5-d stored breads were lower than the control, due mainly to the non-JAR (not-enough) intensity responses for moistness, smoothness, and softness; the mean drop of liking scores for these attributes ranged from 2.42 to 2.98. Flavor acceptability and overall liking were factors influencing consumers' purchase intent of composite flour breads based on logistic regression analysis. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 40% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 40% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation

  13. Evaluation of rice mutant lines for resistance to brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens stall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono

    1985-01-01

    The most important and common insect in rice cultivation in South East Asia is brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens stall. Seven rice mutant lines produced by the National Atomic Energy Agency, Indonesia, were tested at IRRI, the Philippines for resistance to brown planthopper. Those mutant lines were Atomita 1, 627/10-3/PsJ, Atomita 2 and 627/4-E/PsJ originated from Pelita 1/1 which was irradiated with 0.2 kGy of gamma rays and A227/2/PsJ, A227/3/PsJ and A227/5/PsJ, originated from early maturing mutant A23/PsJ/72K from irradiated Pelita 1/1 which was irradiated with 0.1 kGy of gamma rays. Evaluation of resistance was carried out by seedling bulk screening, honeydew excretion, survival and population build up tests by using brown planthopper biotype 1, 2 and 3. Results of these tests showed that the seven tested mutant lines were resistant to biotype 1 but susceptible to biotype 2. Reaction to biotype 3 showed that six mutant lines tested were moderately resistant and only one mutant of 627/4-E/PsJ was susceptible. Reactions of the mutant lines to biotype 1, 2 and 3 were different from the resistant varieties, Mudgo or ASD-7. This indicated that mutant lines might have gene(s) for resistance which differed from those of resistant varieties. The results showed that resistance to brown planthopper is possible to be introduced in Indonesian rice varieties by means of mutations. (author)

  14. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to pre-germinated brown rice in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi

    2005-08-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.

  15. Effect of zinc sulfate fortification in germinated brown rice on seed zinc concentration, bioavailability, and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Shohag, M J I; Wang, Yuyan; Lu, Lingli; Wu, Chunyong; Yang, Xiaoe

    2012-02-22

    Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population and, hence, the main source of a vital micronutrient, zinc (Zn). Unfortunately, the bioavailability of Zn from rice is very low not only due to low content but also due to the presence of some antinutrients such as phytic acid. We investigated the effect of germination and Zn fortification treatment on Zn bioavailability of brown rice from three widely grown cultivars using the Caco-2 cell model to find a suitable fortification level for producing germinated brown rice. The results of this study showed that Zn content in brown rice increased significantly (p 0.05) on germination percentage of rice was observed when the Zn supply was lower than 150 mg/L. Zn fortification during the germination process has a significant impact on the Zn content and finally Zn bioavailability. These findings may result from the lower molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and higher Zn content in Zn fortified germinated brown rice, leading to more bioavailable Zn. Likewise, a significant difference (p germinated brown rice fortified with 100 mg/L ZnSO(4) as a suitable concentration to use in the germination process, which contains high Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability. In the current study, the cultivar Bing91185 fortified with Zn through the germination process contained a high amount as well as bioavailable Zn, which was identified as the most promising cultivar for further evaluation to determine its efficiency as an improved source of Zn for target populations.

  16. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  17. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lorenzo Quibod

    Full Text Available Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  18. Parboiled Germinated Brown Rice Protects Against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunjuntuk, Kansuda; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Rungruang, Thanaporn

    2016-01-01

    Parboiled germinated brown rice (PGBR) of Khao Dawk Mali 105 variety was produced by steaming germinated paddy rice, which is well-known for its nutrients and bioactive compounds. In this study we determined the in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of PGBR in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced oxidative stress in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, (weight 200-250 g) were randomly divided into (1) control, (2) CCl(4), (3) white rice (WR)+CCl(4), (4) brown rice (BR)+CCl(4), and (5) PGBR+CCl(4) groups. PGBR, BR, and WR diets were produced by replacing corn starch in the AIN76A diet with cooked PGBR, BR, and WR powders, respectively. All rats except the control group were gavaged with 50% CCl4 in olive oil (v/v, 1 mL/kg) twice a week for 8 weeks. CCl(4)-treated rats exhibited significant liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as obvious changes to liver histopathology compared to control. In addition, CCl(4) treatment decreased the activities of CYP2E1 and antioxidant enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and glutathione (GSH) content. However, the PGBR+CCl(4) group exhibited less liver injury, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, as well as better antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH content. Furthermore, PGBR inhibited degradation of CYP2E1 in CCl(4)-induced decrease of CYP2E1 activity. These data suggest that PGBR may prevent CCl(4)-induced liver oxidative stress and injury through enhancement of the antioxidant capacities, which may be due to complex actions of various bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids, γ-oryzanol, tocotrienol, and GABA.

  19. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot

    OpenAIRE

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30??C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other impo...

  20. Comparative study on the hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects of fermented paste (doenjang) prepared from soybean and brown rice mixed with rice bran or red ginseng marc in mice fed with high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo Im; Rico, Catherine W; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-10-22

    The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  1. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobadifar, F; Wayayok, A; Shattri, M; Shafri, H

    2014-01-01

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-07-27

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaolin Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  4. Non-essential element concentrations in brown grain rice: Assessment by advanced data mining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Roxana; Hidalgo, Melisa; Piccoli, Analía; Marchevsky, Eduardo; Pellerano, Roberto

    2017-04-20

    The concentrations of 17 non-essential elements (Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Ce, Cr, Hg, La, Li, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Th, Ti, and Tl) were determined in brown grain rice samples of two varieties: Fortuna and Largo Fino. The samples were collected from the four main producing regions of Corrientes province (Argentina). Quantitative determinations were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), using a validated method. The contents of As, Be, Cd, Ce, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn, Th, and Tl were very low or not detected in most samples. The non-essential element levels detected were in line with studies conducted in rice from different parts of the world. In order to characterize the influence of geographical origin in the samples, the following classification methods were carried out: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), support vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF). The best performance was obtained by using RF (96%) and SVM (96%). The results reported here showed the variation in the non-essential element profiles in rice grain depending on the geographical origin.

  5. Physicochemical properties of brown rice as influenced by gamma irradiation, variety and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabularse, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation, variety and storage on physicochemical properties of brown rice from three Louisiana rice varieties: Mars, a medium grain variety, Lemont and Tebonnet, long grain varieties, were determined. Cooking time was significantly reduced in Mars and Lemont at doses of 200 and 300 Krads. Irradiation increased cooking rate, water uptake at 80 degree C, water uptake ratios, total solids content in residual cooking liquid and starch damage from 100 to 300 Krad samples. Water uptake at 96 degree C generally decreased with increasing dose levels. Evidence indicated alterations in the rice grain structures and composition. The component drastically affected by gamma irradiation was starch as shown by reduced cooking time, increased water uptake, increased amounts of starch and protein in residual cooking liquid, reduced volume expansion, increased damage starch and changes in amylographic pasting characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy showed more simple starch granules in irradiated samples than in nonirradiated samples. Structural changes in the bran layer due to gamma irradiation were not evident from electron micrographs

  6. Identification of rice cultivars with low brown rice mixed cadmium and lead contents and their interactions with the micronutrients iron, zinc, nickel and manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Wang, Xun; Qi, Xiaoli; Huang, Lu; Ye, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    Paddy fields in mining areas are usually co-contaminated by a cocktail of mixed toxic heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb in Pb/Zn mines). However, previous studies on rice cultivars screened for effective metal exclusion have mostly focused on individual metals, and have been conducted under pot-trial or hydroponic solution conditions. This study identified rice cultivars with both low Cd and Pb accumulation under Cd- and Pb-contaminated field conditions, and the interactions of the toxic elements Cd and Pb with the micronutrient elements Fe, Zn, Mn and Ni were also studied. Among 32 rice cultivars tested, there were significant differences in Cd (0.06-0.59 mg/kg) and Pb (0.25-3.15 mg/kg) levels in their brown rice, and similar results were also found for the micronutrient elements. Significant decreases in concentrations of Fe and Mn were detected with increasing Cd concentrations and a significant elevation in Fe, Mn and Ni with increasing Pb concentrations. A similar result was also shown by Cd and Ni. Three cultivars were identified with a combination of low brown rice Cd and Pb, high micronutrient and grain yield (Wufengyou 2168, Tianyou 196 and Guinongzhan). Present results suggest that it is possible to breed rice cultivars with low mixed toxic element (Cd, Pb) and high micronutrient contents along with high grain yields, thus ensuring food safety and quality.

  7. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice on beta-amyloid protein-induced learning and memory deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, Takayoshi; Asanuma, Takamasa; Kise, Mitsuo; Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Aoto, Hiromichi; Ukai, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of pre-germinated brown rice (hatsuga genmai, PGR) on learning and memory and compared them with those of polished rice or cornstarch. In mice that were fed pellets of polished rice or PGR for two weeks, the learning ability in the Morris water maze test was significantly enhanced compared with mice that were fed cornstarch pellets. In the Y-maze test, the intake of food pellets for two weeks failed to affect spontaneous alternation behavior. Beta-amyloid(25-35) (Abeta(25-35): 3 nmol/mouse, i.c.v.) protein impaired spontaneous alternation behavior in mice that were fed pellets of cornstarch or polished rice. In contrast, PGR pellets prevented the Abeta(25-35)-induced impairment of spontaneous alternation behavior. These results suggest that polished rice and PGR have facilitating effects on spatial learning. In particular, it is surmised that PGR may prevent Alzheimer's disease associated with Abeta.

  8. Characterization of mercury species in brown and white rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in water-saving paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E., E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Feng Xinbin, E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Dong Bin, E-mail: dongbin@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shang Lihai, E-mail: shanglihai@vip.gyig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yin Runsheng, E-mail: yinrunsheng2002@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yuan Xiaobo, E-mail: xiantao_131@163.com [College of Resources and the Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China)

    2011-05-15

    In China, total Hg (Hg{sub T}) and methylmercury (MeHg) were quantified in rice grain grown in three sites using water-saving rice cultivation methods, and in one Hg-contaminated site, where rice was grown under flooded conditions. Polished white rice concentrations of Hg{sub T} (water-saving: 3.3 {+-} 1.6 ng/g; flooded: 110 {+-} 9.2 ng/g) and MeHg (water-saving 1.3 {+-} 0.56 ng/g; flooded: 12 {+-} 2.4 ng/g) were positively correlated with root-soil Hg{sub T} and MeHg contents (Hg{sub T}: r{sup 2} = 0.97, MeHg: r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.05 for both), which suggested a portion of Hg species in rice grain was derived from the soil, and translocation of Hg species from soil to rice grain was independent of irrigation practices and Hg levels, although other factors may be important. Concentrations of Hg{sub T} and other trace elements were significantly higher in unmilled brown rice (p < 0.05), while MeHg content was similar (p > 0.20), indicating MeHg infiltrated the endosperm (i.e., white rice) more efficiently than inorganic Hg(II). - Highlights: > First time that Hg{sub T} and MeHg were characterized in both brown and white rice. > MeHg translocation into the endosperm was more efficient than inorganic Hg(II). > In this respect, MeHg behaved like dimethylarsinic acid and organic Se species. > In white rice, Hg{sub T} and MeHg were positively correlated with soil Hg{sub T} and MeHg. > Uptake rates of Hg{sub T} and MeHg were independent of irrigation methods and Hg content. - Methylmercury was more efficiently translocated to the endosperm than inorganic mercury.

  9. Enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice by repeated treatment of soaking and incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitinunsomboon, Somboon; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Boonsiriwit, Athip

    2013-02-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), commonly produced by germination of brown rice grain, is a free amino acid which could help relieving or preventing non-communicable diseases in human. Several research works have been conducted on GABA production from germinated brown rice. However, the yielded GABA (10.1-69.2 mg/100 g germinated brown rice) was comparatively low; thus the amount was insufficient to be used as active ingredients in functional foods. The objective of this study was to explore alternative methods in order to gain higher yield of GABA. A new process of repeated soaking (in tap water at 35 °C, 3 h) and incubation (at 37 °C, 21 h) during germination was developed. The amount of GABA produced was highest at 116.88 ± 9.24 mg/100 g germinated brown rice (dry basis). However, an unpleasant odour was generated by some microorganisms during long germination. Lactic acid was applied at soaking step to overcome this problem; whereby 0.5% lactic acid solution (vol./vol.) could effectively control the microorganisms without impairing GABA producing ability and sensory qualities.

  10. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  11. Upregulation of genes related to bone formation by γ-amino butyric acid and γ-oryzanol in germinated brown rice is via the activation of GABAB-receptors and reduction of serum IL-6 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Imam, Mustapha Umar

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis and other bone degenerative diseases are among the most challenging non-communicable diseases to treat. Previous works relate bone loss due to osteoporosis with oxidative stress generated by free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Alternative therapy to hormone replacement has been an area of interest to researchers for almost three decades due to hormone therapy-associated side effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), gamma-oryzanol (ORZ), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), and phenolic extracts from germinated brown rice (GBR) on the expression of genes related to bone metabolism, such as bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), osteoblast-specific transcription factor osterix (Osx), periostin, osteoblast specific factor (Postn), collagen 1&2 (Col1&2), calcitonin receptor gene (CGRP); body weight measurement and also serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteocalcin, in serum and bone. Rats were treated with GBR, ORZ, GABA, and ASG at (100 and 200 mg/kg); estrogen (0.2 mg/kg), or remifemin (10 and 20 mg/kg), compared to ovariectomized non-treated group as well as non-ovariectomized non-treated (sham) group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the IL-6 and osteocalcin levels at week 2, 4, and 8, while the gene expression in the bone tissue was determined using the Genetic Analysis System (Beckman Coulter Inc., Brea, CA, USA). The results indicate that groups treated with GABA (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed significant upregulation of SPARC, calcitonin receptor, and BMP-2 genes (P < 0.05), while the ORZ-treated group (100 and 200 mg/kg) revealed significant (P < 0.05) upregulation of Osx, Postn, RUNX-2, and Col1&2. Similarly, IL-6 concentration decreased, while osteocalcin levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups as compared to ovariectomized non-treated groups. GABA and ORZ from

  12. Fiber-rich diet with brown rice improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Ishikado, Atsushi; Arima, Hisatomi; Nakao, Keiko; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Nikami, Fumio; Sekine, Osamu; Nemoto, Ken-Ichi; Suwa, Makoto; Matsumoto, Motonobu; Miura, Katsuyuki; Makino, Taketoshi; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    A fiber-rich diet has a cardioprotective effect, but the mechanism for this remains unclear. We hypothesized that a fiber-rich diet with brown rice improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at a single general hospital in Japan were randomly assigned to a brown rice (n = 14) or white rice (n = 14) diet and were followed for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was changes in endothelial function determined from flow debt repayment by reactive hyperemia using strain-gauge plethysmography in the fasting state. Secondary outcomes were changes in HbA1c, postprandial glucose excursions, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. The area under the curve for glucose after ingesting 250 kcal of assigned rice was compared between baseline (T0) and at the end of the intervention (T1) to estimate glucose excursions in each group. Improvement in endothelial function, assessed by fasting flow debt repayment (20.4% vs. -5.8%, p = 0.004), was significantly greater in the brown rice diet group than the white rice diet group, although the between-group difference in change of fiber intake was small (5.6 g/day vs. -1.2 g/day, pdiet group compared with the white rice diet group (0.01 μg/L vs. -0.04 μg/L, p = 0.063). The area under the curve for glucose was subtly but consistently lower in the brown rice diet group (T0: 21.4 mmol/L*h vs. 24.0 mmol/L*h, p = 0.043, T1: 20.4 mmol/L*h vs. 23.3 mmol/L*h, p = 0.046) without changes in HbA1c. Intervention with a fiber-rich diet with brown rice effectively improved endothelial function, without changes in HbA1c levels, possibly through reducing glucose excursions.

  13. Rice brown spot and susceptibility of some cultivars in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari-Motlagh, M R; Hedjaroude, Gh A; Zad, S J; Okhovvat, S M

    2002-01-01

    Rice brown spot is one of the important diseases in the world including Iran. 91 samples of the infected plants such as leaves and panicles were collected from different locations of Guilan province, North of Iran and the fungi isolated and studied for pathogenicity. Three species of Bipolaris (B. oryzae, Bipolaris sp. and B. cf. victoriae) were isolated more than other species with serious effects on the plants respectively. Reactions of 8 cultivars of rice, Neda, Nemat, Sepeed-rood, Bejar, Khazar, Domsephid, Hassan-saraee and Binam were studied in greenhouse to Bipolaris sp. and B. cf. victoriae in two stages of growth, on leaves and panicles, respectively. The results showed that in seedling stage on leaf there was no significant difference between these cultivars in case of infection rates. In heading stage, although there was no significant difference according to variance analysis, but according to Duncan test (5%) they could be divided into 3 groups. Neda, Sepeed-rood, Khazar and Binam, with the lowest infection rate, were in the first group Bejar, Domsephid and Hassan-saraee were classified into the second group and Nemat was in the third one. Curvularia sp., Nigrospora sp., Pyricularia grisea and Alternaria sp. were with minor prevalence in infection of the plants.

  14. Development and evaluation of near-isogenic lines for brown planthopper resistance in rice cv. 9311.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cong; Hu, Jie; Ao, Yi-Ting; Cheng, Ming-Xing; Gao, Guan-Jun; Zhang, Qing-Lu; He, Guang-Cun; He, Yu-Qing

    2016-11-30

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive pest of rice in Asia. To date 29 BPH resistance genes have been identified, but only a few genes are being used in breeding due to inefficient markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and little knowledge of the real effects of the genes. In this study we individually transferred 13 genes or QTLs (Bph14, QBph3, QBph4, Bph17, Bph15, Bph20, Bph24, Bph6, Bph3, Bph9, Bph10, Bph18 and Bph21) into cultivar 9311 by marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB). Through positive and negative selection we narrowed the segments from donors containing Bph14, Bph15, Bph6 and Bph9 to 100-400 kb. Whole-genome background selection based on a high resolution SNP array was performed to maximize reconstitution of the recurrent parent genome (RPG 99.2-99.9%). All genes reduced BPH growth and development and showed antibiotic responses in seedlings. Based on genetic effects and amino acid sequences of genes in three clusters we inferred that Bph10 and Bph21 might be identical to Bph26, whereas Bph9 and Bph18 were different. Bph15 might be same with Bph17, but QBph4, Bph20 and Bph24 might be different. We believe that these NILs will be useful in rice BPH resistance research and breeding.

  15. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice on depression-like behavior in mice.

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    Mamiya, Takayoshi; Kise, Mitsuo; Morikawa, Keiko; Aoto, Hiromichi; Ukai, Makoto; Noda, Yukihiro

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the antidepressant-like effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) and polished rice (PR) pellets, respectively, in comparison with control (AIN-93G) pellets in the forced swimming test and the learned helplessness paradigm in mice. Mice were fed respective pellets for 30 days. The immobility time on the 2nd day of the forced swimming test was shorter in mice fed with PR or PGBR pellets than in mice fed with control pellets. In the learned helplessness paradigm, the number of escape failures in mice fed with PGBR pellets was significantly smaller than that in mice fed with control pellets. Compared to the control group, an increase in serotonin (5-HT) levels, but not in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, and a decrease in the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio were observed in the frontal cortex of the PGBR group. There were no differences among the three groups in terms of 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels and their ratios in the hippocampus and striatum. The levels of noradrenaline and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol were not affected by the food pellets in all the brain regions tested. Additionally, we could not detect any differences in the expression of the 5-HT1A receptor and the 5-HT transporter in the frontal cortex of the three groups. These results suggest that the increase of 5-HT levels in the mouse frontal cortex contributes to the antidepressant-like effects of PGBR pellets.

  16. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yu; Zhu, Tingping; Li, Mengtong; He, Jieyi; Huang, Ruixue

    2017-01-01

    Background. Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. Methods. This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb) concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Results. Local soil contaminati...

  18. Cooking quality properties and free and bound phenolics content of brown, black, and red rice grains stored at different temperatures for six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Chaves, Fábio Clasen; Vanier, Nathan Levien; de Oliveira, Maurício; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2018-03-01

    The changes in cooking quality and phenolic composition of whole black and red rice grains stored during six months at different temperatures were evaluated. Brown rice with known cooking quality properties and low phenolic levels was used for purposes comparison. All rice genotypes were stored at 13% moisture content at temperatures of 16, 24, 32, and 40°C. Cooking time, hardness, free and bound phenolics, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and free radical scavenging capacity were analysed. The traditional rice with brown pericarp exhibited an increase in cooking time and free phenolics content, while rice with black pericarp exhibited a reduction in cooking time after six months of storage at the highest studied temperature of 40°C. There as increases in ferulic acid levels occurred as a function of storage temperature. Red pericarp rice grains showed decreased antioxidant capacity against ABTS radical for the soluble phenolic fraction with increased time and storage temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Antioxidant Activity of Chinese Brown Rice by Fourier-Transformed Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

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    Xianshu Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a rapid method using near infrared (NIR spectroscopy for analyzing the antioxidant activity of brown rice as total phenol content (TPC and radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE. Brown rice (n=121 collected from five producing areas was analyzed for TPC and DPPH by reference methods. The NIR reflectance spectra were measured with compact powders of samples and no treatment was used. Full-spectrum partial least squares (FS-PLS and interval PLS (iPLS were used as the regression methods to relate the antioxidant activity values to the NIR data. The spectral range of 4800–5600 cm−1 plus 6000–6400 cm−1 has the best correlation with TPC, while the range of 4400–5200 cm−1 plus 6000–6400 cm−1 is the most suitable for predicting DPPH. With standard normal variate (SNV transformation and the selected wavelength ranges, the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP is 0.062 mg GAE g−1 for TPC and 0.141 mg GAE g−1 for DPPH radical, respectively. The multiple correlation coefficients of predictions for TPC and DPPH are 0.962 and 0.974, respectively. The developed NIR method might have a potential application to quality control of brown rice in the domestic market.

  20. Effect of germination on chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics of wheat, brown rice and triticale: a comparative study.

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    Sibian, Mandeep S; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S

    2017-10-01

    Germination is accompanied by various metabolic reactions in the seed, which lead to alteration of its chemical composition as compared to raw seed. Among the micromolecules, amino acids play an important role in various growth and metabolic activities in seeds. Results indicated that germination altered seeds' chemical composition, which improved/changed the functional properties investigated such as bulk density, foaming capacity, water holding capacity, oil binding capacity and emulsification properties. Essential amino acids were increased during germination, which contributed in enhancing the nutritional quality of protein in seeds. Germination also improved protein-based quality parameters such as essential amino acid index, biological value, protein efficiency ratio and nutritional index in seeds of brown rice, wheat and triticale. Among the grains, the essential amino acid index of brown rice was reported to be highest after germination. Indispensable/essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine and valine showed a significant increase during germination. As a result, amino acid scoring based on the reference pattern of an FAO Expert Consultation Report (2013) for infants and adults was appreciably improved after germination along with an increase in the essential amino acid indices for brown rice (78.78), wheat (76.55) and triticale (73.99). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. Methods. This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, arsenic (As, manganese (Mn, and antimony (Sb concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Results. Local soil contamination was observed, with mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, and As of 0.472, 193.133, 36.793, and 89.029 mg/kg, respectively. Mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, Mn, and As in brown rice were 0.103, 0.131, 5.175, 6.007, and 0.524 mg/kg, respectively. Daily intakes of Cd, As, Sb, Pb, and Mn through brown rice consumption were estimated to be 0.011, 0.0002, 0.004, 0.0001, and 0.0003 mg/(kg/day, respectively. The combined hazard index for the five heavy metals was 22.5917, and the total cancer risk was 0.1773. Cd contributed most significantly to cancer risk, accounting for approximately 99.77% of this risk. Conclusions. The results show that potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks exist for local inhabitants and that regular monitoring of pollution to protect human health is urgently required.

  2. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Zhu, Tingping; Li, Mengtong; He, Jieyi; Huang, Ruixue

    2017-01-01

    Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb) concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Local soil contamination was observed, with mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, and As of 0.472, 193.133, 36.793, and 89.029 mg/kg, respectively. Mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, Mn, and As in brown rice were 0.103, 0.131, 5.175, 6.007, and 0.524 mg/kg, respectively. Daily intakes of Cd, As, Sb, Pb, and Mn through brown rice consumption were estimated to be 0.011, 0.0002, 0.004, 0.0001, and 0.0003 mg/(kg/day), respectively. The combined hazard index for the five heavy metals was 22.5917, and the total cancer risk was 0.1773. Cd contributed most significantly to cancer risk, accounting for approximately 99.77% of this risk. The results show that potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks exist for local inhabitants and that regular monitoring of pollution to protect human health is urgently required.

  3. The effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on blood glucose and PAI-1 levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Hiromi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2004-02-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied. The feeding of a PGBR diet to diabetic rats ameliorated the elevation of blood glucose and PAI-1 concentrations significantly, and tended to decrease the plasma lipid peroxide concentrations in comparison with rats fed a white rice diet. These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of white rice is effective for the prevention of diabetic vascular complications.

  4. Upregulation of genes related to bone formation by γ-amino butyric acid and γ-oryzanol in germinated brown rice is via the activation of GABAB-receptors and reduction of serum IL-6 in rats

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    Muhammad SI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Mahmud,4 Abu Bakar Zakaria Zuki,5 Mustapha Umar Imam1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Osteoporosis and other bone degenerative diseases are among the most challenging non-communicable diseases to treat. Previous works relate bone loss due to osteoporosis with oxidative stress generated by free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Alternative therapy to hormone replacement has been an area of interest to researchers for almost three decades due to hormone therapy-associated side effects. Methods: In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA, gamma-oryzanol (ORZ, acylated steryl glucosides (ASG, and phenolic extracts from germinated brown rice (GBR on the expression of genes related to bone metabolism, such as bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2, osteoblast-specific transcription factor osterix (Osx, periostin, osteoblast specific factor (Postn, collagen 1&2 (Col1&2, calcitonin receptor gene (CGRP; body weight measurement and also serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 and osteocalcin, in serum and bone. Rats were treated with GBR, ORZ, GABA, and ASG at (100 and 200 mg/kg; estrogen (0.2 mg/kg, or remifemin (10 and 20 mg/kg, compared to ovariectomized non-treated group as well as non-ovariectomized non-treated (sham group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the IL-6 and osteocalcin levels at week 2, 4, and 8, while the gene expression in the

  5. Fermentation and quality of yellow pigments from golden brown rice solid culture by a selected Monascus mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsmith, Busaba; Thongpradis, Panida; Klinsupa, Worawan; Chantrapornchai, Withida; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai

    2013-10-01

    A single peak (λmax 370) yellow pigment-producing mutant derived from Monascus sp. TISTR 3179 was used for the pigment production in solid rice culture. Various factors affecting yellow tones were investigated. Hom-mali rice variety was the best amongst five Thai local varieties used for fungus culture. It was also better than corn, mungbean, soybean, potato, sweet potato, or cassava tubers. The moisture content and temperature were the key environmental factors affecting the color tones of creamy, tangerine, and golden brown rice solid cultures. The golden brown rice culture gave the highest yellow pigment concentration. Under an optimum room temperature of 28-32 °C, an initial moisture content of 42 %, and 7-day-old inoculum size of 2 % (v/w) the maximum yield at 2,224.63 A370U/gdw of yellow pigment was produced. A mellow yellow powder at 550 A370U/gdw could be obtained using spray-drying techniques. The powder had a moisture content of 5.15 %, a water activity value of 0.398, a hue angle of 73.70 ° (yellowish orange), high lightness (L) of 74.63, color saturation (C) of 28.97, a neutral pH of 7.42, 0.12 % acidity and solubility of 0.211 g/10 ml. It was noteworthy that the Chinese fresh noodle with spray-dried yellow powder showed no discoloration during 8-day storage.

  6. Donors for Resistance to Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål from Wild Rice Species

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    Preetinder S. Sarao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Out of 1 989 wild accessions sown in seed boxes for screening, only 1 003 wild accessions with good germination were screened against brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål under greenhouse conditions. The collection comprised of accessions from 11 wild species and African cultivated rice. The germplasm was screened for BPH following standard seed box screening technique in the greenhouse. As many as 159 accessions were identified as resistant during the year 2012 based on one year screening. A selected set of BPH resistant accessions were screened again during 2013. Based on the two years screening, seven accessions of O. nivara (AA, one accession of O. officinalis (CC, seven accessions of O. australiensis (EE, five accessions of O. punctata (BB and BBCC and nine accessions of O. latifolia (CCDD were confirmed to be resistant to BPH. So far no BPH resistance genes have been identified and designated from O. nivara and O. punctata, hence these may act as new sources of resistance.

  7. Structural analysis of novel bioactive acylated steryl glucosides in pre-germinated brown rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Seigo; Ariga, Toshio; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Kasama, Takeshi; Morikawa, Keiko; Nonaka, Shota; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Kise, Mitsuo; Yu, Robert K

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that pre-germinated brown rice (PR) contained certain unknown bioactive lipids that activated two enzymes related to diabetes: Na+/K+ATPase and homocysteine-thiolactonase. In this paper, we report on the isolation and structural characterization of the activator lipids from PR bran as acylated steryl glucosides (ASGs). The activator lipid was isolated by silica gel column chromatography, and its chemical structure was determined by NMR, GC-MS, and tandem mass spectrometry. We demonstrated that the bioactive component consists of a mixture of acylated steryl beta-glucosides. Delta8-cholesterol and 2-hydroxyl stearic acid were identified as constituents of ASGs. The steryl glucosides (SGs) subsequent to alkaline hydrolysis lost this enzyme activator activity. Soybean-derived ASGs were not active. This activity may be quite peculiar to PR-derived ASGs. Our findings suggest that the molecular species of ASG may play an important contributing role in the anti-diabetic properties of a PR diet.

  8. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  9. Replacing white rice with pre-germinated brown rice mildly ameliorates hyperglycemia and imbalance of adipocytokine levels in type 2 diabetes model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimitsu, Mariko; Nagase, Ryouhei; Yanagi, Megumi; Homma, Miyuki; Sasai, Yousuke; Ito, Yukihiko; Hayamizu, Kousuke; Nonaka, Shouta; Hosono, Takashi; Kise, Mitsuo; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PR) has been developed industrially in order to enhance the nutritional functions of its source material, brown rice (BR). The present study was aimed at clarifying the effect of PR on the type 2 diabetes mellitus. We employed Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a model of type-2 diabetes mellitus. OLETF rats were fed on either PR or white rice (WR) from the age of 4 to 35 wk. Age-matched male Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as a non-diabetic control were also fed on WR. The HbA(1c) level in OLETF rats was significantly higher than that in LETO rats. However, the level was lower in PR-fed OLETF rats than in WR-fed OLETF rats. The plasma concentrations of TNF-α and PAI-1 in OLETF rats were higher than those in LETO rats. However, both elevated levels were decreased by the PR-feeding, but not by the WR-feeding. On the other hand, the plasma adiponectin concentration in OLETF rats was lower than that in LETO rats. The decrease in adiponectin level of OLETF rats was ameliorated by PR-feeding. The size of adipocytes in PR-fed OLETF rats was smaller than that in WR-fed OLETF rats. In summary, intake of PR instead of WR ameliorates both insulin resistance and imbalance of the levels of plasma adipocytokines leading to diabetic complications.

  10. Glycaemic index values and physicochemical properties of five brown rice varieties cooked by different domestic cooking methods

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    Madan Kumar Chapagai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes has increased dramatically in recent decades in the regions where people excessively consume white rice. Due to higher nutritional values and bioactive components, low to medium glycaemic index (GI brown rice could be a potential alternative to white rice in these regions. Methods: Five varieties, Chiang (CH, Sungyod (SY, Lepnok (LP from Thailand, Long grain specialty 1 (LS 1 and Long grain specialty 2 (LS 2 from Malaysia were tested for GI. Ten test foods were prepared from 5 varieties by 2 cooking techniques (pressure cooker, PC and rice cooker, RC. Overnight fasted 10 healthy subjects were fed with 25 g glucose as a reference food (RF on 3 occasions and amount equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate portion of test food (TF on 1 occasion in separate days. Fasting and post-prandial capillary blood glucose was measured via finger-prick methods at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, and the incremental area under curve (iAUC was determined. The GI of each TF was calculated as percentage of incremental area under curve (iAUC of TF over RF. Results: The mean GI values of SY (72 – 81, high, CH and LP (59 – 65, medium and LS 1 and LS 2 (64 – 73, medium to high for cooking were discovered by PC and RC methods. The GI did not vary significantly (p>0.05 among varieties as well as between cooking methods. GI showed a significant negative correlation with the amylose content (r = –0.70, p<0.05 and significant positive correlation with cold peak viscosity (r = 0.80, p<0.01. Conclusions: All five rice varieties irrespectively of the cooking method used are classified as medium to high GI foods. Medium GI varieties could have potential of being used in diabetic diet. Cooking methods did not significantly alter the glycaemic characteristics of the studied varieties. Amylose content and pasting properties can be used for predicting GI of brown rice. It is urgent to explore low GI brown rice varieties in these

  11. Effects of hydrothermal processes on antioxidants in brown, purple and red bran whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Byungrok; McClung, Anna; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-09-15

    The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E and γ-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics, and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from six cultivars having different bran colours were investigated. Parboiling rough and brown rice increased the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in whole grain rice but decreased the concentrations of total phenolics and antioxidant capacities found in the soluble fraction. After hydrothermal processing of purple bran rice, the retention of extractable anthocyanins was low, but was high for simple phenolics. For proanthocyanidins found in red bran rice, the extractable oligomers with a degree of polymerization (DP) less than 4, increased up to 6-fold; while for oligomers with DP⩾4 and polymers, there was a significant decrease that was positively correlated with the DP and the temperature of the processing methods. The presence of hulls helped to retain water-soluble antioxidants during parboiling. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT.

  13. Detecting Rice stripe virus (RSV) in the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) with high specificity by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijun, Cai; Xizhi, Ma; Lin, Kang; Kejing, Deng; Shouyuan, Zhao; Changben, Li

    2003-09-01

    Rice stripe disease, caused by Rice stripe virus (RSV), may lead to severe or even crippling losses in many rice-cultured countries and regions. As the most important vector of RSV, the small brown planthopper (SBPH) (Laodelphax striatellus) is largely responsible for the epidemic phase of the disease. Therefore, a rapid identification of RSV in the SBPH is of a great need for disease forecasting. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is described to amplify a RSV gene in individual L. striatellus. By using primers matched to the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene in RNA1, a 445 bp product was detected in viruliferous SBPHs. Meanwhile, the PCR products produced by the SBPH actin primers constructed across the boundary of an intron and an exon were used as RNA specific positive control for each stage of the experiment to ensure the validity of the negative results. Duplex RT-PCR conditions were established for the simultaneous detection of RSV and actin. This approach can be used for the early detection of RSV in L. striatellus and the subsequent rice stripe disease forecasting.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of two populations of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, that differ in virulence.

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    Rui Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, a destructive rice pest in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. Herbivore saliva plays an important role in plant-herbivore interactions, including in plant defense and herbivore virulence. However, thus far little is known about BPH saliva at the molecular level, especially its role in virulence and BPH-rice interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using cDNA amplification in combination with Illumina short-read sequencing technology, we sequenced the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations with different virulence; the populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population and Mudgo (M population. In total, 37,666 and 38,451 unigenes were generated from the salivary glands of these populations, respectively. When combined, a total of 43,312 unigenes were obtained, about 18 times more than the number of expressed sequence tags previously identified from these glands. Gene ontology annotations and KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism, binding and transport were significantly active in the salivary glands. A total of 352 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins, and some might play important roles in BPH feeding and BPH-rice interactions. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the two populations revealed that the genes related to 'metabolism,' 'digestion and absorption,' and 'salivary secretion' might be associated with virulence. Moreover, 67 genes encoding putative secreted proteins were differentially expressed between the two populations, suggesting these genes may contribute to the change in virulence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study was the first to compare the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our data provide a rich molecular resource for

  15. Determination of Mycotoxins in Brown Rice Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and UHPLC–MS-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2016-01-01

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4–25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81–101% with relative standard deviations of 5–19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0–1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49–5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10–14.88 µg/kg of ZON. PMID:26796964

  16. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  17. The concentration and distribution of essential elements in brown rice associated with the polishing rate: Use of ICP-AES and Micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    The concentration and distribution of essential elements in brown rice grains (Oryza sativa L. var. japonica) associated with the polishing rate was determined. Rice samples were collected in Japan and polished to 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% loss of the total weight of brown rice. Concentrations of eight essential elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and distributions of the elements in a single grain were visualized as elemental distribution maps of a cross section by micro particle induced X-ray emission (Micro-PIXE) analysis. Results of ICP-AES analysis indicated that in rice which polished from 0% to 10% loss of weight, there were three patterns in the P/B ratio, which is the mean concentration of an element in polished rice divided by that of the element in the brown rice: no change (Cu and Zn), a gradual decrease (P, Mg, Mn and Fe), and a decrease after a constant phase (Ca and K). There was no remarkable change of the P/B ratio in rice grains which polished from 10% to 20% loss of weight. Micro-PIXE analysis images showed that P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn were present in large amounts in the surface layer (approx. <200 {mu}m thickness) of brown rice. Two sub-layers were mainly recognized in the grain surface layer in the elemental distribution maps of a cross section. The first sub-layer was approximately 130-170 {mu}m thick. The second sub-layer was approximately 20-50 {mu}m thick, and the primary part of the grain (endosperm cells and starch granules) was under it. The images showed Cu and Zn were uniformity distributed in brown rice, and their concentrations of polished rice were not affected by the polishing rate. Although ICP-AES measurements could not provide the detail structure of the surface layer of the rice grains, the trend of concentration of the elements generally agreed with the elemental distribution maps obtained Micro-PIXE analysis.

  18. Bebidas saborizadas obtidas de extratos de quirera de arroz, de arroz integral e de soja Flavored drinks obtained from extracts of broken rice and brown rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de desenvolver bebidas elaboradas com extratos de quirera de arroz e de arroz integral e comparar as características químicas e sensoriais destas com bebida elaborada com extrato de soja. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com três tratamentos (bebidas de extrato de quirera de arroz, extrato de arroz integral e extrato soja. As seguintes análises foram realizadas: umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, valor energético, cálcio, magnésio, cobre, manganês, ferro e zinco. Também determinou-se a aceitabilidade e a intenção de compra. A bebida elaborada com o extrato de soja contém maiores teores de cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos e minerais em relação ao extrato de quirera de arroz, que possui o maior teor de carboidratos e valor energético. Todas as bebidas obtiveram boa aceitação, com intenção de compra pela população entrevistada acima de 95%, sendo que mais de 99% dos provadores comprariam a bebida elaborada com o extrato de arroz integral (tratamento de maior aceitação. As bebidas elaboradas com extrato de arroz integral ou de quirera de arroz são uma alternativa viável para as pessoas que possuam intolerância à lactose do leite de origem animal e/ou alergia às proteínas da soja.The aim of this work was to develop drinks based on extracts of broken rice and brown rice and to compare their chemical and sensory characteristics with a drink made of soy extract. A totally randomized design was applied, with three treatments (broken rice extract, brown rice extract and soy extract drinks. The following analyses were performed: moisture, ash, protein, lipids, total carbohydrates, caloric value, calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese, iron and zinc, besides the determination of consumer acceptability and buying intention. The soy-based drink has the highest ash, protein, lipids and mineral contents when compared to broken rice extract, which in

  19. Estimation of the age and amount of brown rice plant hoppers based on bionic electronic nose use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-09-29

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  20. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of growing Wistar rats. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of whole grain (WG) rice based diets on the lipid profile and antioxidant status was evaluated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesterol and malondialdehyde equivalent (MDA eq.) in serum and liver were determined. Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities and Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized (GSSG) in the liver were analyzed. Animals consuming B and S diets presented lower body weight gain. All WG diets reduced TAGs in serum and MDA eq. content in liver in comparison with the C diet. WG rice diets improved the redox status in animals mainly fed G due to their higher GR activity and GSH/GSSG ratio.

  1. Low-temperature brown rice storage by using renewable energy from snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, S.; Kawamura, S.; Fujita, H.; Doi, T.; Okada, K. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan). Graduate School of Agricultural Science; Homma, K. [Itogumi Construction Co. Ltd, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsuchiya, F. [Obihiro Univ. of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in Japan to determine whether renewable energy generated from snow can be used to replace the cooling system and electricity used for cooling a rice storehouse that maintained the grain temperature below 15 degrees C. However, the low-temperature storage system required a cooling system and electricity to cool rice in summer. In this study, a snow pile using 890 t of snow was made at the beginning of March next to the rice storehouse. The shape of the snow pile was a trapezium, 17 x 23 m at the bottom and 4 x 10 m at the top and 5 m in height. The snow pile was covered with 200 to 300 mm of wood chips to act as an insulation layer. Approximately 27 per cent of the energy for cooling the rice storehouse could be replaced by using the snow pile in summer. The quality of stored rice was almost similar to that of freshly harvested rice. The study showed that renewable energy generated from snow piles can be used for cooling a high-quality rice storehouse without using electricity.

  2. True phosphorus digestibility and the endogenous phosphorus outputs associated with brown rice for weanling pigs measured by the simple linear regression analysis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Li, A K; Yin, Y L; Li, T J; Wang, Z R; Wu, G; Huang, R L; Kong, X F; Yang, C B; Kang, P; Deng, J; Wang, S X; Tan, B E; Hu, Q; Xing, F F; Wu, X; He, Q H; Yao, K; Liu, Z J; Tang, Z R; Yin, F G; Deng, Z Y; Xie, M Y; Fan, M Z

    2007-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine true phosphorus (P) digestibility, degradability of phytate-P complex and the endogenous P outputs associated with brown rice feeding in weanling pigs by using the simple linear regression analysis technique. Six barrows with an average initial body weight of 12.5 kg were fitted with a T-cannula and fed six diets according to a 6 × 6 Latin-square design. Six maize starch-based diets, containing six levels of P at 0.80, 1.36, 1.93, 2.49, 3.04, and 3.61 g/kg per kg dry-matter (DM) intake (DMI), were formulated with brown rice. Each experimental period lasted 10 days. After a 7-day adaptation, all faecal samples were collected on days 8 and 9. Ileal digesta samples were collected for a total of 24 h on day 10. The apparent ileal and faecal P digestibility values of brown rice were affected ( P brown rice feeding could be determined by using the simple regression analysis technique. There were no differences ( P>0.05) in true P digestibility values (57.7 ± 5.4 v. 58.2 ± 5.9%), phytate P degradability (76.4 ± 6.7 v. 79.0 ± 4.4%) and the endogenous P outputs (0.812 ± 0..096 v. 0.725 ± 0.083 g/kg DMI) between the ileal and the faecal levels. The endogenous faecal P output represented 14 and 25% of the National Research Council (1998) recommended daily total and available P requirements in the weanling pig, respectively. About 58% of the total P in brown rice could be digested and absorbed by the weanling pig. Our results suggest that the large intestine of the weanling pigs does not play a significant role in the digestion of P in brown rice. Diet formulation on the basis of total or apparent P digestibility with brown rice may lead to P overfeeding and excessive P excretion in pigs.

  3. Effects of Yamase climatic condition during the pollen mother cell developmental stage on concentrations of Cs and Sr in brown rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Masumi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Effects of the Yamase climatic condition on the concentration of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in brown rice were examined in relation to the soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Rice plants (Oryza sativa L cv. Yumeakari) were cultivated in an artificial climate chamber, and exposed to a simulated Yamase condition for 3 or 7 d during the pollen mother cell developmental stage. In these simulated treatments, temperature and light intensity were set to 5degC lower and 50% lower than the respective control values. Fog was generated with visibility of 70±30 m. Concentrations of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and the other minor elements in brown rice samples were analyzed. Measured Cs and Sr concentrations were found to be unaffected by the Yamase treatments, while concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mo were increased. (author)

  4. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Grown on Germinated Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnat, Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-06-07

    In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR) were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  6. Development and reproductive performance of beef heifers supplemented with brown rice meal and/or protected fat on temperate grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of energy supplementation was evaluated on the development and reproductive performance of beef heifers on temperate grasslands. Twenty-eight Charolais × Nellore heifers, with initial average age of 18 months and initial live weight of 274.9 kg were utilized. The animals were maintained on oat + ryegrass pasture and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation (NS: heifers kept exclusively on pasture; MEG: supplementation with protected fat Megalac®; BRM: supplementation with brown rice meal; BRM+MEG: supplementation with BRM + protected fat. The average final weight of the heifers was of 403.4 kg and corresponded to 89.5% of the adult weight. The body condition of heifers increased linearly with daily increase of 0.012 points, correlating positively with the final weight. There was interaction between treatment and period for average daily weight gain. The highest daily weight gain, 1.395 kg, occurred in the first period when the animals were supplemented with BRM+MEG. In the last period, the NS animals presented the lowest daily weight gain, 0.888 kg. Supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat does not interfere in the intake of pasture by heifers or increase the total intake of dry matter, not changing, therefore, the average daily weight gain at the end of the period of grazing. The daily weight gain does not change during supplementation. The use of temperate pasture with and without supplementation promotes the proper development of the structure and reproductive tract of heifers, benefiting the animal performance indexes in the first mating at 25-27 months of age.

  7. Identification of an anticancer compound against HT-29 cells from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Tae-Il; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Park, Dong Ki; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-10-01

    To isolate and identify the anticancer compound against proliferation of human colon cancer cells from ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PB). EtOAc extract of PB was partitioned with n-hexane, EtOAc, and water-saturated n-butanol. Anticancer compound of n-hexane layer was isolated and identified by HPLC and NMR, respectively. Cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells was tested by SRB assay. The n-hexane layer obtained after solvent fractionation of PB EtOAc extracts showed a potent anticancer activity against the HT-29 cell line. Atractylenolide I, a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, a major anticancer substance of PB, was isolated from the n-hexane layer by silica gel column chromatography and preparative-HPLC. This structure was elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Atractylenolide I has not been reported in mushrooms or rice as of yet. The isolated compound dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Atractylenolide I might contribute to the anticancer effect of PB. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Seigo; Ito, Yukihiko; Morikawa, Keiko; Kise, Mitsuo; Ariga, Toshio; Rivner, Michael; Yu, Robert K

    2007-11-23

    To study the effects of a pre-germinated brown rice diet (PR) on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The effects of a PR diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with those fed brown rice (BR) or white rice (WR) diets with respect to the following parameters: blood-glucose level, motor-nerve conduction velocity (NCV), sciatic-nerve Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and serum homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase) activity. Compared with diabetic rats fed BR or WR diets, those fed a PR diet demonstrated significantly lower blood-glucose levels (p < 0.001), improved NCV (1.2- and 1.3-fold higher, respectively), and increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity (1.6- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively). The PR diet was also able to normalize decreased serum homocysteine levels normally seen in diabetic rats. The increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity observed in rats fed PR diets was associated with elevations in HTase activity (r = 0.913, p < 0.001). The in vitro effect of the total lipid extract from PR bran (TLp) on the Na+/K+-ATPase and HTase activity was also examined. Incubation of homocysteine thiolactone (HT) with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro resulted in generation of HT-modified LDL, which possessed high potency to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the sciatic nerve membrane. The inhibitory effect of HT-modified LDL on Na+/K+-ATPase activity disappeared when TLp was added to the incubation mixture. Furthermore, TLp directly activated the HTase associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). PR treatment shows efficacy for protecting diabetic deterioration and for improving physiological parameters of diabetic neuropathy in rats, as compared with a BR or WR diet. This effect may be induced by a mechanism whereby PR intake mitigates diabetic neuropathy by one or more factors in the total lipid fraction. The active lipid fraction is able to protect the Na+/K+-ATPase of the sciatic-nerve membrane from the

  9. Effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariga Toshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the effects of a pre-germinated brown rice diet (PR on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods The effects of a PR diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with those fed brown rice (BR or white rice (WR diets with respect to the following parameters: blood-glucose level, motor-nerve conduction velocity (NCV, sciatic-nerve Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and serum homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase activity. Results Compared with diabetic rats fed BR or WR diets, those fed a PR diet demonstrated significantly lower blood-glucose levels (p +/K+-ATPase activity (1.6- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively. The PR diet was also able to normalize decreased serum homocysteine levels normally seen in diabetic rats. The increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity observed in rats fed PR diets was associated with elevations in HTase activity (r = 0.913, p in vitro effect of the total lipid extract from PR bran (TLp on the Na+/K+-ATPase and HTase activity was also examined. Incubation of homocysteine thiolactone (HT with low-density lipoprotein (LDL in vitro resulted in generation of HT-modified LDL, which possessed high potency to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the sciatic nerve membrane. The inhibitory effect of HT-modified LDL on Na+/K+-ATPase activity disappeared when TLp was added to the incubation mixture. Furthermore, TLp directly activated the HTase associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Conclusion PR treatment shows efficacy for protecting diabetic deterioration and for improving physiological parameters of diabetic neuropathy in rats, as compared with a BR or WR diet. This effect may be induced by a mechanism whereby PR intake mitigates diabetic neuropathy by one or more factors in the total lipid fraction. The active lipid fraction is able to protect the Na+/K+-ATPase of the sciatic-nerve membrane from the toxicity of HT-modified LDL and to directly

  10. Molecular Breeding of Rice Restorer Lines and Hybrids for Brown Planthopper (BPH) Resistance Using the Bph14 and Bph15 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Ye, Shengtuo; Mou, Tongmin

    2016-12-01

    The development of hybrid rice is a practical approach for increasing rice production. However, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, causes severe yield loss of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and can threaten food security. Therefore, breeding hybrid rice resistant to BPH is the most effective and economical strategy to maintain high and stable production. Fortunately, numerous BPH resistance genes have been identified, and abundant linkage markers are available for molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs. Hence, we pyramided two BPH resistance genes, Bph14 and Bph15, into a susceptive CMS restorer line Huahui938 and its derived hybrids using MAS to improve the BPH resistance of hybrid rice. Three near-isogenic lines (NILs) with pyramided Bph14 and Bph15 were obtained by molecular marker-assisted backcross (MAB) and phenotypic selection. The genomic components of these NILs were detected using the whole-genome SNP (Single nucleotide polymorphism) array, RICE6K, suggesting that the recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery of the NILs was 87.88, 87.70 and 86.62 %, respectively. BPH bioassays showed that the improved NILs and their derived hybrids carrying homozygous Bph14 and Bph15 were resistant to BPH. However, the hybrids with heterozygous Bph14 and Bph15 remained susceptible to BPH. The developed NILs showed no significant differences in major agronomic traits and rice qualities compared with the recurrent parent. Moreover, the improved hybrids derived from the NILs exhibited better agronomic performance and rice quality compared with the controls under natural field conditions. This study demonstrates that it is essential to stack Bph14 and Bph15 into both the maternal and paternal parents for developing BPH-resistant hybrid rice varieties. The SNP array with abundant DNA markers is an efficient tool for analyzing the RPG recovery of progenies and can be used to monitor the donor segments in NILs, thus being extremely important

  11. Vibigaba (germinated brown rice) and maintenance of normal blood pressure: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Vibigaba (germinated brown rice) and contribution to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food proposed by the applicant...... is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that the applicant did not perform a comprehensive literature search to identify human intervention studies which could be pertinent to the claim. The applicant did not reply to a specific request from EFSA to provide this information. The applicant identified...... is insufficient for a complete scientific evaluation. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Vibigaba (germinated brown rice...

  12. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando José González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27% were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19% on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC, radial expansion (E, specific volume (SV, water absorption (WA, and solubility (S were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp. than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g. Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18. Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  13. Effect of additional of Hoodia Gordonii and seaweed powder on the sensory and physicochemical properties of brown rice bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Masturah Ebni; Ghani, Maaruf Abd; Daud, Norlida Mat

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of the nutritional content of food has increased with the emergence of various health products in the market. Cereal bar is one of the beneficial foods among consumer that concern on their healthy food. This study was conducted to develop a brown rice bar that contain active ingredients (H. gordonii and seaweed powder) and to determine the effect on sensory evaluation and physicochemical properties (colour, texture and proximate analysis) of this product. This study consisted of two phases in which the first phase consisted of development of ten formulations including control. All of the formulations were undergo analysis of colour, texture and sensory evaluation. Based on the sensory evaluation, Control (H. gordonii: 0%, seaweed: 0%) and two best formulations that consist of formulation 6 (H. gordonii: 1.6%; seaweed: 2.8%) and formulation 9 (H. gordonii: 2.4%, seaweed: 2.8%) were chosen to undergo the second phase which is proximate analysis. Base on the result, were significant different (pprotein and moisture content. Therefore, it can be concluded that H. gordonii is a good source of fiber when adding in a bar.

  14. Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Differentiation and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice (CBR was prepared to suppress melanoma development. CBR extracts were divided into hexane, EtOAc, BuOH, and water fractions. Among all the fractions, EtOAc fraction showed the best suppressive effect on B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay. It also showed the increased cell death and the changed cellular morphology after CBR treatment. Annexin V-FITC/PI, flow cytometry, and western blotting were performed to elucidate anticancer activity of CBR. The results showed that CBR induced p53-mediated apoptotic cell death of B16F10. CBR EtOAc treatment increased melanin content and melanogenesis-related proteins of MITF and TRP-1 expressions, which supports its anticancer activity. Its potential as an anticancer agent was further investigated in tumor-xenografted mouse model. In melanoma-xenografted mouse model, melanoma tumor growth was significantly suppressed under CBR EtOAc fraction treatment. HPLC analysis of CBR extract showed peak of adenosine. In conclusion, CBR extracts notably inhibited B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation through the p53-mediated apoptosis induction and increased melanogenesis. These findings suggest that CBR EtOAc fraction can act as an effective anticancer agent to treat melanoma.

  15. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice on blood glucose and lipid levels in free-living patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Kise, Mitsuo; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ito, Yukihiko; Yang, Mei-Due; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi; Kunii, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2008-04-01

    White rice (WR) is made by polishing brown rice (BR) and has lost various nutrients; however, most people prefer it to BR, maybe because of the hardness of BR. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) improves the problem of BR. It is made by soaking BR kernels in water to germinate and becomes softer than BR. In this study we compared the effects of WR and PGBR on blood glucose and lipid concentrations in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes patients. Six men and 5 women with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 6 wk on WR or PGBR diet separated by a 2 wk washout interval in a crossover design. Each subject was instructed to consume 3 packs of cooked WR or PGBR (180 g/pack) daily in each intervention phase. Blood samples were collected 4 times (in study weeks 0, 6, 8 and 14) for biochemical examination. Blood concentrations of fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were favorably improved on the PGBR diet (p<0.01), but not on the WR diet. The present results suggest that diets including PGBR may be useful to control blood glucose level.

  16. Aflatoxins contamination in Pakistani brown rice: a comparison of TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Advancement in the field of analytical food-chemistry has explored various experimental techniques for aflatoxins (AFs) quantification. The present study was aimed to compare four different techniques; thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) in brown rice (n = 120) being collected from Karachi, Pakistan. All the four assays provide precised, accurate and comparable results. However, some differences were observed. For instance, TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies offered the advantage of the quantification of individual toxins in contrast to ELISA technique. The contamination ranges of AFB₁/AFB₂ as determined by TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS were 1.18-9.97/0.59-1.52, 0.16-10.54/0.26-1.35 and 0.11-10.88/0.38-1.48 µg/kg, respectively. However, AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected in any tested samples. Furthermore, owing to low-detection limit and sensitivity, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies have identified greater number of contaminated samples in comparison to TLC and ELISA techniques. The overall average results of total AFs as provided by HPLC (3.79 µg/kg) and LC-MS/MS (3.89 µg/kg) were found higher in comparison to TLC (3.68 µg/kg) and ELISA (3.70 µg/kg). On the basis of achieved results, it was concluded that TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques are valuable tool for the quantification of AFs in cereals and grains. Furthermore, HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques offer an added advantage for the detection of AFs in diminutive levels.

  17. Preventive effects of fermented brown rice and rice bran against N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in male hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Toshiya; Takahashi, Satoru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hara, Akira; Hirata, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mori, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Fermented brown rice by Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is known to have the potential to prevent chemical carcinogenesis of the colon, liver, esophagus, urinary bladder, stomach and lungs in rodents. The present study examined the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA on N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in hamsters. Five-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were divided into seven groups. Groups 1-5 were subcutaneously injected with BOP (10 mg/kg body weight) four times during week 6 to induce pancreatic tumors, while groups 6 and 7 were injected with saline. Groups 2 and 3 were fed diets containing 5 and 10% FBRA, respectively, during the initiation phase. By contrast, groups 4 and 5 were fed diets containing 5 and 10% FBRA, respectively, during the post-initiation phase. Group 6 received a diet containing 10% FBRA throughout the experiment, and group 7 was kept on the basal diet alone and served as the untreated control. At the termination of the study (week 22), oral intake of 10% FBRA (group 5) during the post-initiation phase was identified to have significantly reduced the multiplicity (number of lesions/animal) of ductal adenocarcinoma [pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (PanIN3); carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma] in comparison with group 1 control hamsters (0.24±0.44 vs. 0.71±0.72; P<0.05). Treatment with 10% FBRA in the post-initiation phase inhibited the progression of normal/precancerous lesions (PanIN1, mild hyperplastic lesions; and PanIN2, papillary hyperplasia) to ductal adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, dietary exposure to 10% FBRA during the initiation (group 3) and post-initiation phases (group 5) significantly reduced the multiplicity of PanIN2 (group 3, 0.55±0.69; group 5, 0.45±0.69; versus group 1, 1.26±1.24; P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). A significant reduction of Ki-67 positivity of PanIN2 in group 5 was also confirmed (group 5, 0.05±0.03; group 1, 0.22±0.12; P<0.01). Using terminal

  18. Same, same but different: symbiotic bacterial associations in GBR sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S Webster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbioses in marine sponges involve diverse consortia of microorganisms that contribute to the health and ecology of their hosts. The microbial communities of 13 taxonomically diverse Great Barrier Reef (GBR sponge species were assessed by DGGE and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine intra and inter species variation in bacterial symbiont composition. Microbial profiling revealed communities that were largely conserved within different individuals of each species with intra species similarity ranging from 65-100%. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospira and Cyanobacteria. Sponge-associated microbes were also highly host-specific with no operational taxonomic units (OTUs common to all species and the most ubiquitous OTU found in only 5 of the 13 sponge species. In total, 91% of the OTUs were restricted to a single sponge species. However, GBR sponge microbes were more closely related to other sponge-derived bacteria than they were to environmental communities with sequences falling within 50 of the 173 previously defined sponge-(or sponge-coral specific sequence clusters. These sequence clusters spanned the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira and the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum. The number of sequences assigned to these sponge-specific clusters across all species ranged from 0% to 92%. No relationship between host phylogeny and symbiont communities were observed across the different sponge orders, although the highest level of similarity was detected in two closely related Xestospongia species. This study identifies the core microbial inhabitants in a range of GBR sponges thereby providing the basis for future studies on sponge symbiotic function and research aiming to predict how sponge holobionts will respond to environmental

  19. Same, same but different: symbiotic bacterial associations in GBR sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, N S; Luter, H M; Soo, R M; Botté, E S; Simister, R L; Abdo, D; Whalan, S

    2012-01-01

    Symbioses in marine sponges involve diverse consortia of microorganisms that contribute to the health and ecology of their hosts. The microbial communities of 13 taxonomically diverse Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sponge species were assessed by DGGE and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine intra and inter species variation in bacterial symbiont composition. Microbial profiling revealed communities that were largely conserved within different individuals of each species with intra species similarity ranging from 65-100%. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospira, and Cyanobacteria. Sponge-associated microbes were also highly host-specific with no operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all species and the most ubiquitous OTU found in only 5 of the 13 sponge species. In total, 91% of the OTUs were restricted to a single sponge species. However, GBR sponge microbes were more closely related to other sponge-derived bacteria than they were to environmental communities with sequences falling within 50 of the 173 previously defined sponge-(or sponge-coral) specific sequence clusters (SC). These SC spanned the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, and the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum. The number of sequences assigned to these sponge-specific clusters across all species ranged from 0 to 92%. No relationship between host phylogeny and symbiont communities were observed across the different sponge orders, although the highest level of similarity was detected in two closely related Xestospongia species. This study identifies the core microbial inhabitants in a range of GBR sponges thereby providing the basis for future studies on sponge symbiotic function and research aiming to predict how sponge holobionts will respond to environmental perturbation.

  20. Same, same but different: symbiotic bacterial associations in GBR sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, N. S.; Luter, H. M.; Soo, R. M.; Botté, E. S.; Simister, R. L.; Abdo, D.; Whalan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Symbioses in marine sponges involve diverse consortia of microorganisms that contribute to the health and ecology of their hosts. The microbial communities of 13 taxonomically diverse Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sponge species were assessed by DGGE and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine intra and inter species variation in bacterial symbiont composition. Microbial profiling revealed communities that were largely conserved within different individuals of each species with intra species similarity ranging from 65–100%. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospira, and Cyanobacteria. Sponge-associated microbes were also highly host-specific with no operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all species and the most ubiquitous OTU found in only 5 of the 13 sponge species. In total, 91% of the OTUs were restricted to a single sponge species. However, GBR sponge microbes were more closely related to other sponge-derived bacteria than they were to environmental communities with sequences falling within 50 of the 173 previously defined sponge-(or sponge-coral) specific sequence clusters (SC). These SC spanned the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospira, and the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum. The number of sequences assigned to these sponge-specific clusters across all species ranged from 0 to 92%. No relationship between host phylogeny and symbiont communities were observed across the different sponge orders, although the highest level of similarity was detected in two closely related Xestospongia species. This study identifies the core microbial inhabitants in a range of GBR sponges thereby providing the basis for future studies on sponge symbiotic function and research aiming to predict how sponge holobionts will respond to environmental perturbation. PMID:23346080

  1. IGF-1 induction by acylated steryl β-glucosides found in a pre-germinated brown rice diet reduces oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Seigo; Tsai, Ying-Ying; Morikawa, Keiko; Nonaka, Shota; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Kise, Mitsuo; Yu, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    The pathology of diabetic neuropathy involves oxidative stress on pancreatic β-cells, and is related to decreased levels of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Acylated steryl β-glucoside (PR-ASG) found in pre-germiated brown rice is a bioactive substance exhibiting properties that enhance activity of homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase), reducing oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. The biological importance of PR-ASG in pancreatic β-cells remains unknown. Here we examined the effects of PR-ASG on IGF-1 and glucose metabolism in β-cells exposed to oxidative stress. In the present study, a pre-germinated brown rice (PR)-diet was tested in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Compared with diabetic rats fed control diets, the PR-diet fed rats showed an improvement of serum metabolic and neurophysiological parameters. In addition, IGF-1 levels were found to be increased in the serum, liver, and pancreas of diabetic rats fed the PR-diet. The increased IGF-1 level in the pancreas led us to hypothesize that PR-ASG is protective for islet β-cells against the extensive injury of advanced or severe diabetes. Thus we examined PR-ASG to determine whether it showed anti-apoptotic, pro-proliferative effects on the insulin-secreting β-cells line, INS-1; and additionally, whether PR-ASG stimulated IGF-1 autocrine secretion/IGF-1-dependent glucose metabolism. We have demonstrated for the first time that PR-ASG increases IGF-1 production and secretion from pancreatic β-cells. These findings suggest that PR-ASG may affect pancreatic β-cells through the activation of an IGF-1-dependent mechanism in the diabetic condition. Thus, intake of pre-germinated brown rice may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of diabetes, in particular diabetic neuropathy.

  2. IGF-1 induction by acylated steryl β-glucosides found in a pre-germinated brown rice diet reduces oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Usuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathology of diabetic neuropathy involves oxidative stress on pancreatic β-cells, and is related to decreased levels of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1. Acylated steryl β-glucoside (PR-ASG found in pre-germiated brown rice is a bioactive substance exhibiting properties that enhance activity of homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase, reducing oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. The biological importance of PR-ASG in pancreatic β-cells remains unknown. Here we examined the effects of PR-ASG on IGF-1 and glucose metabolism in β-cells exposed to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a pre-germinated brown rice (PR-diet was tested in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with diabetic rats fed control diets, the PR-diet fed rats showed an improvement of serum metabolic and neurophysiological parameters. In addition, IGF-1 levels were found to be increased in the serum, liver, and pancreas of diabetic rats fed the PR-diet. The increased IGF-1 level in the pancreas led us to hypothesize that PR-ASG is protective for islet β-cells against the extensive injury of advanced or severe diabetes. Thus we examined PR-ASG to determine whether it showed anti-apoptotic, pro-proliferative effects on the insulin-secreting β-cells line, INS-1; and additionally, whether PR-ASG stimulated IGF-1 autocrine secretion/IGF-1-dependent glucose metabolism. We have demonstrated for the first time that PR-ASG increases IGF-1 production and secretion from pancreatic β-cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that PR-ASG may affect pancreatic β-cells through the activation of an IGF-1-dependent mechanism in the diabetic condition. Thus, intake of pre-germinated brown rice may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of diabetes, in particular diabetic neuropathy.

  3. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on cecum health, calcium absorption and bone parameters of growing Wistar rats. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of diets with whole rice processed ingredients on cecum health, calcium absorption and bone parameters was studied using an animal model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. The cecum weight, cecal content pH, cecal sIgA content, and β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase activities were determined. Calcium apparent absorption, total bone mineral content and density and right femur parameters (ashes, organic content, calcium and P) were evaluated. The results showed that animals fed with whole grain diets have lower food intake in comparison with the C diet, and decreased cecal content pH (7.06 vs. 6.33) and β-glucosidase activity (1.66 vs. 0.21 μmol p-nitrophenol g(-1) cc h(-1)). Even though calcium apparent absorption was not different among treatments (∼70%), none of the whole grain diets improved calcium related bone parameters over the control fed rats (cellulose as dietary fibre).

  4. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Song, Yeong Ok

    2017-10-01

    Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik , was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase ( P RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group ( P RCD group. GBRD decreases the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory status in HFD-fed mice via CAT and GPx upregulation and NF-κB downregulation. These effects were significantly higher than those of RCD.

  5. [A comparative study of cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, selenium, manganese, copper and zinc in brown rice and fish by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Harumi; Ueno, Eiji; Saito, Isao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of ICP-MS techniques for determination of metals in brown rice and fish. Cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, selenium, manganese, copper and zinc were determined by this method. An open digestion with nitric acid (Method A) and a rapid open digestion with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (Method B) were used to solubilize analytes in samples, and these procedures were followed by ICP-MS analysis. Recovery of certified elements from standard reference materials by Method A and Method B ranged from 92 to 110% except for mercury (70 to 100%). Analytical results of brown rice and fish samples obtained by this ICP-MS agreed with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results of this study demonstrate that quadrupole ICP-MS provides precise and accurate measurements of the elements tested in brown rice and fish samples.

  6. Effects of alkaline and bioorganic amendments on cadmium, lead, zinc, and nutrient accumulation in brown rice and grain yield in acidic paddy fields contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaidong; Tam, Nora F Y; Yao, Aijun; Qiu, Rongliang; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2016-12-01

    Paddy soils and rice (Oryza sativa L.) contaminated by mixed heavy metals have given rise to great concern. Field experiments were conducted over two cultivation seasons to study the effects of steel slag (SS), fly ash (FA), limestone (LS), bioorganic fertilizer (BF), and the combination of SS and BF (SSBF) on rice grain yield, Cd, Pb, and Zn and nutrient accumulation in brown rice, bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil as well as soil properties (pH and catalase), at two acidic paddy fields contaminated with mixed heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). Compared to the controls, SS, LS, and SSBF at both low and high additions significantly elevated soil pH over both cultivation seasons. The high treatments of SS and SSBF markedly increased grain yields, the accumulation of P and Ca in brown rice and soil catalase activities in the first cultivation season. The most striking result was from SS application (4.0 t ha -1 ) that consistently and significantly reduced the soil bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn by 38.5-91.2 % and the concentrations of Cd and Pb in brown rice by 20.9-50.9 % in the two soils over both cultivation seasons. LS addition (4.0 t ha -1 ) also markedly reduced the bioavailable Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil and the Cd concentrations in brown rice. BF remobilized soil Cd and Pb leading to more accumulation of these metals in brown rice. The results showed that steel slag was most effective in the remediation of acidic paddy soils contaminated with mixed heavy metals.

  7. Application of Brown Planthopper Salivary Gland Extract to Rice Plants Induces Systemic Host mRNA Patterns Associated with Nutrient Remobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Petrova

    Full Text Available Insect saliva plays an important role in modulation of plant-insect interactions. Although this area of research has generated much attention in recent years, mechanisms of how saliva affects plant responses remain poorly understood. To address this void, the present study investigated the impact of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, Stål; hereafter BPH salivary gland extract (SGE on rice (Oryza sativa systemic responses at the mRNA level. Differentially expressed rice mRNAs were generated through suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH and classified into six functional groups. Those with the most representatives were from the primary metabolism (28%, signaling-defense (22% and transcription-translation-regulation group (16%. To validate SSH library results, six genes were further analyzed by One-Step Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-PCR. Five of these genes exhibited up-regulation levels of more than 150% of those in the control group in at least one post-application time point. Results of this study allow assignment of at least two putative roles of BPH saliva: First, application of SGE induces immediate systemic responses at the mRNA level, suggesting that altering of the rice transcriptome at sites distant to hoppers feeding locations may play an important role in BPH-rice interactions. Second, 58% of SGE-responsive up-regulated genes have a secondary function associated with senescence, a process characterized by remobilization of nutrients. This suggests that BPH salivary secretions may reprogram the rice transcriptome for nutritional enhancement. When these findings are translated onto 'whole plant' scale, they indicate that BPH saliva may play the 'wise investment' role of 'minimum input today, maximum output tomorrow'.

  8. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Changes in properties of starch isolated from whole rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp after storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Goebel, Jorge Tiago Schwanz; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Santetti, Gabriela Soster; Gutkoski, Luiz Carlos; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration. The time and storage temperature not influence the swelling power and solubility of starch isolated from grains with brown pericarp, while for the grains with black and red pericarp there was reduction in swelling power and solubility of starches isolated of grains stored at 40°C. Grains stored at 16°C showed minimum changes in starch properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7531-a) for the determination of trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Hioki, Akiharu; Chiba, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour was developed at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The CRM was provided as a dry powder after drying and frozen pulverization of fresh brown rice obtained from a Japanese domestic market. Characterization of the property value for each element was carried out exclusively by NMIJ with at least two independent analytical methods, including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ICP high-resolution mass spectrometry, isotope-dilution ICP-MS, ICP optical emission spectrometry, and graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. Property values were provided for six elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd). The concentration range of the property values was from 0.280 mg kg(-1) of As to 31.8 mg kg(-1) of Zn. The combined relative standard uncertainties of the property values were estimated by considering the uncertainties of the homogeneity, characterization, difference among analytical methods, dry-mass correction factor, and calibration standard. The range of the relative combined standard uncertainties was from 1.1% of Zn to 1.6% of As.

  11. Risk assessment of insecticides used in rice on miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter, the important predator of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, G; Stanley, J; Suresh, S; Samiyappan, R

    2010-07-01

    The green miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, an important natural enemy of the rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens plays a major role as a predator in suppressing the pest population. The study assessed the impact of certain potential insecticides used in the rice ecosystem on the miridbug predator and brown planthopper through contact toxicity. Eleven insecticides, including neonicotinoids, diamides, azomethine pyridines, carbamates, pyrethroids, organophosphates and cyclodienes were selected to test their toxicities against the nymphs of C. lividipennis and N. lugens. Median lethal concentration (LC(50)) was determined for each insecticide using an insecticide-coated vial (scintillation) residue bioassay, which revealed BPMC as the highly toxic chemical with an LC(50) of 0.003mga.iL(-1) followed by ethofenprox and clothianidin with LC(50) of 0.006mga.iL(-1) at 48 HAT against C. lividipennis and ethofenprox as the highly toxic chemical with an LC(50) of 0.009mga.iL(-1) followed by clothianidin with an LC(50) of 0.211mga.iL(-1) at 48h after treatment (HAT) against N. lugens. Among the insecticides tested, the cyclodiene compound, endosulfan had the lowest acute contact toxicity (LC(50)=66.65mga.iL(-1) at 48 HAT) to C. lividipennis. Among the insecticides tested, endosulfan, chlorpyriphos, acephate and methyl parathion are regarded as safer to C. lividipennis based on selectivity ratio, hazard quotient and probit substitution method of risk assessments. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Simple and rapid determination of free fatty acids in brown rice by FTIR spectroscopy in conjunction with a second-derivative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkawa, Takuma; Ahamed, Tofael; Noguchi, Ryozo; Takigawa, Tomohiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-01-15

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of free fatty acid (FFA) content in brown rice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in conjunction with second-derivative treatment was proposed. Ground brown rice (10g) was soaked in toluene (20mL) for 30min, and the filtrate of the extract was placed in a 1mm CaF2 liquid cell. The transmittance spectrum of the filtrate was recorded using toluene for the background spectrum. The absorption band due to the CO stretching mode of FFAs was detected at 1710cm(-1), and the Savitzky-Golay second-derivative treatment was performed for band separation. A single linear regression model for FFA was developed using the 1710cm(-1) band in the second-derivative spectra of oleic acid in toluene (0.25-2.50gL(-1)), and the model displayed high prediction accuracy with a determination coefficient of 0.998 and a root mean square error of 0.03gL(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice diet on low levels of Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Hongzhi; Tian, Su; Yin, Jie; Chen, Qing; Ma, Li; Cui, Shijie; Niu, Yujie

    2010-03-30

    Lead (Pb) is a known neurotoxicant in humans and experimental animals. Numerous studies have provided evidence that humans, especially young children, and animals chronically intoxicated with low levels of Pb show learning and memory impairments. Unfortunately, Pb-poisoning cases continue to occur in many countries. Because the current treatment options are very limited, there is a need for alternative methods to attenuate Pb toxicity. In this study, the weaning (postnatal day 21, PND21) rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group (AIN-93G diet, de-ionized water), the lead acetate (PbAC) group (AIN-93G diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water), the lead acetate+WR group (white rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+WR), the lead acetate+BR group (brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+BR) and the lead acetate+PR group (pre-germinated brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+PR). The animals received the different diets until PND60, and then the experiments were terminated. The protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PR) on Pb-induced learning and memory impairment in weaning rats were assessed by the Morris water maze and one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The anti-oxidative effects of feeding a PR diet to Pb-exposed rats were evaluated. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were determined by HPLC. Our data showed that feeding a PR diet decreased the accumulation of lead and decreased Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rats. The mechanisms might be related to the anti-oxidative effects and large amount of GABA in PR. Our study provides a regimen to reduce Pb-induced toxicity, especially future learning and memory deficits in the developing brain.

  14. Effects of soaking, germination and fermentation on phytic acid, total and in vitro soluble zinc in brown rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rice is an important staple food in Asian countries. In rural areas it is also a major source of micronutrients. Unfortunately, the bioavailability of minerals, e.g. zinc from rice, is low because it is present as an insoluble complex with food components such as phytic acid. We investigated the

  15. Prediction of Cadmium uptake by brown rice and derivation of soil–plant transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Guo, H.Y.; Liu, T.S.; Chiang, C.F.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) levels in paddy fields across Taiwan have increased due to emission from industry. To ensure the production of rice that meets food quality standards, predictive models or suitable soil tests are needed to evaluate the quality of soils to be used for rice cropping. Levels of Cd in soil

  16. Effect of replacing corn with brown rice in a total, mixed, ration silage on milk production, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effects of substituting corn grain with brown rice (BR) grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage on milk yield, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen (N) balance. The TMR silages were made from the ensiling of TMR containing (dry matter basis) 50.1% forage in rice silage and corn silage combination, and 49.9% concentrate. The grain portion of the diets contained 31.2% steam-flaked corn, 31.2% steam-flaked BR or an equal mixture of corn and BR. Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat, protein and lactose yields. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The urinary N excretion decreased linearly (P excretion. Our results indicate that steam-flaked BR is a suitable replacement for steam-flaked corn in dairy cow diets, and that it can be included in rations to a level of at least 31.2% of dry matter without adverse effects on milk production, when cows were fed rice silage and corn silage-based diets. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Tagging of Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in F2s of IR50 × Ptb33 of Rice by Using Bulked Segregant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu YADAVALLI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål is one of the most damaging pests causing hopper burn in rice, and thereby reducing the productivity and also the quality of the product. The effective management strategy to control this pest is the identification and transfer of desirable genes to local rice cultivars. The most important approach for developing resistant cultivars is the identification of markers, which can help in marker-assisted selection of more durable resistant genotype. The susceptible parent IR50 and the resistant parent Ptb33, and their F2 populations were used in bulked segregant analysis for identification of resistant genes with random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (RAPD primers. The primers OPC7 and OPAG14 showed both dominant and susceptible specific banding pattern so called co-dominant markers. Moreover, OPC7697 and OPAG14680 showed resistant specific bands and thus being in coupling phase, whereas OPC7846 and OPAG14650 showed susceptible specific genotypic bands in bulked segregant analysis. Therefore, the coupling phase markers, OPC7697 and OPAG14680, are considered to be more useful in marker-assisted selection of rice genotypes in crop improvement.

  18. Photoaffinity labeling of the dopamine reuptake carrier protein with 3-azido 3H GBR-12935

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, S.P.; Martenson, R.E.; Laing, P.; Thurkauf, A.; Decosta, B.; Rice, K.C.; Paul, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    A high affinity tritiated azido-diphenylpiperazine derivative, 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935, was synthesized as a potential photoaffinity probe of the dopamine transporter. Initially, the reversible binding of 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935 to crude synaptosomal membranes from the rat striatum was characterized. Specific binding was sodium dependent and inhibited by a variety of drugs that are known to potently inhibit dopamine uptake. Other neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors, as well as cis-flupenthixol, a potent inhibitor of 3 H GBR-12935 binding to piperazine binding sites, failed to inhibit specific binding at concentrations of less than or equal to 10 microM. A good correlation was observed between the relative potencies of these drugs in inhibiting dopamine uptake into synaptosomes and in inhibiting specific 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935 binding to rat striatal membranes. These data suggest that 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935, like other diphenylpiperazines such as 3 H GBR-12935 and 3 H GBR-12909, binds primarily to the dopamine transporter under defined assay conditions. After UV photolysis of crude synaptosomal membranes preincubated with 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935 (1-2 nM), a single radiolabeled polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 80 kDa was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Photoincorporation of 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935 into this polypeptide was inhibited selectively by compounds that inhibit the uptake of dopamine and was completely dependent on the presence of Na+. No photolabeled proteins were observed when cerebellar membranes were substituted for striatal membranes. Essentially complete adsorption of the radiolabeled 80-kDa polypeptide to wheat germ agglutinin and elution with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine strongly suggest that the dopamine transporter polypeptide photolabeled by 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935 is glycosylated

  19. Inhibitory effect and mode of action of chitosan solution against rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunlan; Li, Bin; Ge, Mengyu; Zhou, Kaile; Wang, Yanli; Luo, Ju; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2014-06-04

    Inhibitory effect and mode of action of chitosan solution against rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) strain RS-1 was examined in this study. Result from this study indicated that chitosan solutions at 0.10, 0.20, and 0.40mg/mL inhibited the in vitro growth of Aaa strain RS-1, and in general the inhibitory efficiency increased with the increase of both chitosan concentration and the incubation time. Antibacterial activity of chitosan in this study may be mainly due to the damage of cell membrane, which was evidenced by both the cell lysis observed by transmission electron microscopy, and the increased release of cell materials based on the measurement of cell membrane integrity. Furthermore, chitosan solutions at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4mg/mL markedly inhibited bacterial biofilm formation compared to the control, and the inhibitory effect increased with the increase of chitosan concentration. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR of the 10 secretion system related genes revealed the differential expression of genes in particular ompA/motB, emphasizing the importance of this gene in the response of Aaa strain RS-1 to chitosan stress. These results indicated that the antibacterial mode of action of chitosan may be mainly due to membrane disruption and lysis, reduction of biofilm formation, and gene expression change. Overall, the results clearly indicated that chitosan had the potential to control bacterial brown stripe of rice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Insoluble fiber is a major constituent responsible for lowering the post-prandial blood glucose concentration in the pre-germinated brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Taiichiro; Nagase, Ryohei; Torimitsu, Mariko; Yanagi, Megumi; Ito, Yukihiko; Kise, Mitsuo; Mizukuchi, Aya; Fujimura, Naoko; Hayamizu, Kohusuke; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2005-08-01

    The intake of pre-germinated brown rice (PR) instead of white rice (WR) ameliorates the hyperglycemia. To clarify the mechanism(s) to decrease the post-prandial blood glucose concentration, the effect of water-soluble/oil-soluble fraction-depleted PR bran (termed as "DB"; which is destarched and defatted PR bran) on post-prandial blood glucose was compared with that of full-fat PR bran (PB) or WR. The test diets, WR diet, PB diet and DB diet which are containing identical amount of available carbohydrate (1.5 g) were fed to Wistar strain rats. Post-prandial blood glucose concentration and incremental area under the curve (IAUC) for DB diet were lower than those for WR diet, and there was no difference between the DB diet and PB diet. Changes in plasma insulin concentration and the IAUC obtained also revealed the same tendency as those observed in blood glucose concentration. These results indicate that the blood glucose-lowering effect of PB diet may be derived from the properties of PB involving substantially higher content of dietary fiber than WR, and that the potential benefit of intake of PR instead of WR in the prevention of diabetic vascular complications.

  1. In vivo binding of (/sup 18/F)GBR 13119 to the brain dopamine uptake system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Regional rat brain uptake of (/sup 18/F)GBR 13119, a high specific activity, positron-emitter labeled derivative of the potent dopamine uptake antagonist GBR 12935, is reported. Striatum to cerebellum ratios of 3 are obtained at 90 minutes post injection. Specific binding in striatum can be blocked by pretreatment with dopamine uptake system antagonists (mazindol, nomifensine) but not with receptor antagonists (spiperone, flupenthixol). (/sup 18/F)GBR 13119 is proposed as a new positron-emitting radioligand for in vivo PET studies of the pre-synaptic dopamine uptake system.

  2. In vivo binding of [18F]GBR 13119 to the brain dopamine uptake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Regional rat brain uptake of [ 18 F]GBR 13119, a high specific activity, positron-emitter labeled derivative of the potent dopamine uptake antagonist GBR 12935, is reported. Striatum to cerebellum ratios of 3 are obtained at 90 minutes post injection. Specific binding in striatum can be blocked by pretreatment with dopamine uptake system antagonists (mazindol, nomifensine) but not with receptor antagonists (spiperone, flupenthixol). [ 18 F]GBR 13119 is proposed as a new positron-emitting radioligand for in vivo PET studies of the pre-synaptic dopamine uptake system

  3. Resistance and tolerance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), in rice infested at different growth stages across a gradient of nitrogen applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G; Peñalver Cruz, Ainara; Bernal, Carmencita C; Ramal, Angelee Fame; Almazan, Maria Liberty P; Wilby, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    High resource availability can reduce anti-herbivore resistance (a plant's ability to defend against herbivores and reduce damage) in rice, Oryza sativa L, but may also increase tolerance (a plant's ability to withstand damage by, for example, compensatory growth). Through a series of greenhouse, screenhouse and field experiments, this study examines fitness (survival and development × reproduction) of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), on resistant (IR62) and susceptible (IR22) rice varieties and age-related rice tolerance to planthopper damage under varying resource (nitrogenous fertilizer) availability. Planthoppers reared on IR62 in the greenhouse had lower fitness than planthoppers on IR22. IR62 became increasingly resistant as plants aged. IR22 was generally more tolerant of planthopper damage, and tolerance increased in IR22, but declined in IR62, as the plants aged. Rice plants infested at pre-tillering stages (3-4 leaf stage) in the screenhouse had greater losses to root, shoot and grain yield per unit weight of planthopper than plants infested at tillering stages, particularly in IR22. These trends were mainly due to the impact of planthoppers during pre-tillering stages and the length of exposure to the planthoppers. High nitrogen compromised IR62 resistance, particularly in tillering plants in the greenhouse study; however, high nitrogen did not increase planthopper biomass-density on IR62 in greenhouse or field cages. Tolerance to damage in IR62 at mid-tillering stages declined under increasing levels of nitrogen, but nitrogen increased tolerance during late-tillering stages. Planthopper damage to IR22 in field cages was severe and hopperburn (plant death) occurred in 83% of IR22 plants under high nitrogen (60-150 kg N ha -1 ). In contrast, despite planthopper infestations, damage to IR62 was low in field-grown plants and productivity (tillers, roots, shoots and grain) increased in IR62 under increasing nitrogen. Our results

  4. Vibigaba (germinated brown rice) and reduction of body weight in the context of an energy-restricted diet: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Vibigaba (germinated brown rice) and reduction of body weight in the context of an energy-restricted diet. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food proposed...... of body weight in the context of an energy-restricted diet is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that the applicant did not perform a comprehensive literature search to identify human intervention studies which could be pertinent to the claim. The applicant identified one human...... for a complete scientific evaluation. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Vibigaba (germinated brown rice) and reduction...

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice on dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis in mice and LPS-activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minjung; Park, Hye-Jin

    2014-06-11

    Phellinus linteus is a herb used in traditional Asian medicine to treat stomachache, inflammation, and tumors. Recent studies show that the extract of Phellinus linteus has anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. However, Phellinus linteus extract has limitation of high cost and limited availability because of supply shortage. Here, we grew Phellinus linteus on germinated brown rice to address the issue of supply shortage and investigated anti-inflammatory effect in vivo as well as in vitro. Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PBR) were extracted using filtration steps, which included γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The PBR (200, 500mg/kg/day) was applied into the mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. We used sulfasalazine as a reference drug. In addition, mechanism related to anti-inflammatory was investigated by Western blotting. In the mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, PBR ameliorated the pathological characteristics of colitis such as shortening of colon length and improved the disease activity index score. In addition, we showed that PBR reduced the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in colitis. Western blotting showed that PBR decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) proteins. Further, PBR treatment reduced the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (e.g., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38) in the mouse model of DSS-induced colitis. Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with a combination of PBR and LPS showed a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. In addition, we determined the ability of PBR to reduce the iNOS and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression. PBR inhibited the expression of iNOS, NF-κB, and Cox-2 proteins in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. This study

  6. Structure and functional interaction of the extracellular domain of human GABA[subscript B] receptor GBR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Yong; Xiong, Dazhi; Mosyak, Lidia; Malito, David L.; Kniazeff, Julie; Chen, Yan; Burmakina, Svetlana; Quick, Matthias; Bush, Martin; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Fan, Qing R. (CNRS-UMR); (Columbia)

    2012-10-24

    Inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated primarily by GABA. The metabotropic GABA{sub B} receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor central to mammalian brain function. Malfunction of GABA{sub B} receptor has been implicated in several neurological disorders. GABA{sub B} receptor functions as a heterodimeric assembly of GBR1 and GBR2 subunits, where GBR1 is responsible for ligand-binding and GBR2 is responsible for G protein coupling. Here we demonstrate that the GBR2 ectodomain directly interacts with the GBR1 ectodomain to increase agonist affinity by selectively stabilizing the agonist-bound conformation of GBR1. We present the crystal structure of the GBR2 ectodomain, which reveals a polar heterodimeric interface. We also identify specific heterodimer contacts from both subunits, and GBR1 residues involved in ligand recognition. Lastly, our structural and functional data indicate that the GBR2 ectodomain adopts a constitutively open conformation, suggesting a structural asymmetry in the active state of GABA{sub B} receptor that is unique to the GABAergic system.

  7. Screening of IR50 x Rathu Heenati F7 RILs and identification of SSR markers linked to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sanju; M Sheba, Jennifer; Marappan, Maheshwaran; Ponnuswamy, Shanmugasunderam; Seetharaman, Suresh; Pothi, Nagarajan; Subbarayalu, Mohankumar; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Natesan, Senthil

    2010-09-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is one of the major insect pests of rice. A Sri Lankan indica rice cultivar Rathu Heenati was found to be resistant to all biotypes of the brown planthopper. In the present study, a total of 268 F(7) RILs of IR50 and Rathu Heenati were phenotyped for their level of resistance against BPH by the standard seedbox screening test (SSST) in the greenhouse. A total of 53 SSR primers mapped on the chromosome 3 were used to screen the polymorphism between the parents IR50 and Rathu Heenati, out of which eleven were found to be polymorphic between IR50 and Rathu Heenati. The eleven primers that have shown polymorphism between the IR50 and Rathu Heenati parents were genotyped in a set of five resistant RILs and five susceptible RILs along with the parents for co-segregation analysis. Among the eleven primers, two primers namely RM3180 (18.22 Mb) and RM2453 (20.19 Mb) showed complete co-segregation with resistance. The identification of SSR markers linked with BPH resistant could be used for the maker assisted selection (MAS) program in rice breeding and to map the resistant genes on rice chromosomes for further gene cloning.

  8. Stereoselective determination of a novel chiral insecticide, sulfoxaflor, in brown rice, cucumber and apple by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zenglong; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Youpu; Liu, Na; Tao, Yan; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-02-01

    An effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the stereoselective determination of a new sulfoximines insecticide, sulfoxaflor, in brown rice, cucumber and apple. Target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile and an aliquot cleaned with Cleanert PestiCarb/PSA (primary and secondary amine) cartridge. Five polysaccharide-based columns were investigated on the separation of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers and the best was achieved on a ChromegaChiral CCA column with n-hexane/ethanol/methanol (90:2:8, v/v/v) as mobile phase by UV detection at 220 nm at 20ºC. The resolutions of the four stereoisomers were 1.85, 1.54 and 3.08, and the elution order was identified by optical rotation and stereoisomers ratio. The mean recoveries of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers ranged from 77.1% to 99.3%, with relative standard deviations less than 8.9% at three concentration levels in all matrices. The limits of detection for all stereoisomers varied from 0.05 mg/kg to 0.07 mg/kg, while the limit of quantification did not exceed 0.22 mg/kg. The method was then successfully applied to determine the sulfoxaflor stereoisomers in authentic samples, confirming that it is convenient and reliable for stereoselective determination of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers in food. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Pre-germinated brown rice prevents high-fat diet induced hyperglycemia through elevated insulin secretion and glucose metabolism pathway in C57BL/6J strain mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Wu, Bin-Nan; Lin, Hui-Li

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect and mechanism of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) prevented hyperglycemia in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat-diet (HFD). Normal six-week-old mice were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 was fed standard-regular-diet (SRD) and group 2 was fed HFD for 16 weeks. In group 3, the mice were fed a HFD with its carbohydrate replaced with PGBR for 16 weeks. Comparing the SRD and HFD groups, we found the HFD group had higher blood pressure, higher concentrations of blood glucose and HbA1c. The HFD group had less protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) and glucokinase (GCK) and greater expression of glucogen synthase kinase (GSK) in skeletal muscle. The HFD group also had less expression of IR, serine/threonine kinase PI3K-linked protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), GCK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in liver. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR could reverse the disorders of blood pressure, blood glucose, HbA1c and increase insulin concentration. PGBR increased the IR, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 proteins, and ameliorated AMPK, GCK, GSK and PPARγ proteins. Together, PGBR prevented HFD-induced hyperglycemia through improving insulin levels, insulin receptor, glucose transporters and enhancing glucose metabolism.

  10. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice treatment high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Hui-Li; Hao, Chi-Long; Chen, Fu-Chih; Chen, Chun-Yun; Chen, Jia-Hao; Shen, Kuo-Ping

    2017-05-01

    To investigate using pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) to treat metabolic syndrome, we fed one group of mice standard-regular-diet (SRD) for 20 weeks and another group of mice high-fat-diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. We subdivided them into HFD group and HFD + PGBR group whose dietary carbohydrate was replaced with PGBR for 4 weeks. The HFD group gained more weight, had higher blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose and lipids, liver levels of TG, feces TG and bile acid, lower adipose levels of adipocytokine, lower skeletal muscle IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3 K, Akt/PKB, GLUT-1, GLUT-4, GCK and PPAR-γ; higher liver SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α, and higher adipose SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, and lower adipose PPAR-α and adiponectin. The HFD + PGBR group had clearly improved blood pressure, biochemical parameters and above proteins expressions. PGBR successful treatment of metabolic syndrome was achieved through improvements in glucose and lipid synthesis and metabolism.

  11. Pre-germinated brown rice prevented high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia through ameliorating lipid synthesis and metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Jia-Hao; Chen, Fu-Chih; Lin, Hui-Li

    2016-07-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) can ameliorate hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism is not clear. We focus the mechanisms of PGBR prevented hyperlipidemia. Six-week-old mice were divided into: standard-regular diet (SRD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD with PGBR (HFD + PGBR) groups for 16 weeks. The HFD group has higher concentrations of TG, TC, HDL and Non-HDL in the blood, and a higher atherosclerosis index (AI). The TG levels in the liver, and TG, bile acid levels in the feces were enhanced; and the total adipocytokines level in adipose tissue was reduced. The HFD group had higher protein expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, LDLR, and CYP7α1 in the liver. Moreover, the greater expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS and the less expressions of PPAR-α and adiponectin were in adipose tissue. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR regulated the levels of TG, TC, HDL, Non-HDL, AI and adipocytokines. PGBR increased more cholesterol and bile acid exhaust in feces. The SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α proteins in the liver; and the SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, PPAR-α and adiponectin proteins in adipose tissue were reversed by PGBR. Taken together, PGBR can improve lipid synthesis and metabolism, and we suggest PGBR is a recommendable food for controlling hyperlipidemia.

  12. Recovery effect of pre-germinated brown rice on the alteration of sperm quality, testicular structure and androgen receptor expression in rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roboon, J; Nudmamud-Thanoi, S; Thanoi, S

    2017-02-01

    Depression and antidepressant drugs induce adverse effects in male reproduction. Therefore, it is important to investigate alternative treatment for depression without adverse effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on sperm quality, testicular structure and androgen receptor (AR) expression in rat model of depression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups including control (distilled water only), depression induced by forced swimming test (FST), FST + fluoxetine (antidepressant drug), FST + GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) (standard) and FST + PGBR. When compared with the control, sperm motility showed a significant decrease in FST + fluoxetine group. Sperm morphology also decreased significantly in depression and FST + fluoxetine groups. The morphological changes of seminiferous tubules showed significant increases in depression and FST + fluoxetine groups, while AR expression showed significant decreases in depression, FST + fluoxetine and FST + GABA groups. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in all sperm quality parameters, testicular structure and AR expression in FST + PGBR group. These findings reflect the recovery effects of PGBR treatment on sperm quality, morphological changes of seminiferous tubules and AR expression in stress-induced rats. Therefore, PGBR may potentially develop for the treatment for depression without adverse effect on male reproduction. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J B; Pang, E; Bramall, L

    1992-12-01

    We determined the glycemic (GI) and insulin-index (II) values for 12 rice products, using eight healthy subjects. The products were brown and white versions of three commercial varieties of rice [two varieties with normal amylose content (20%) and the other with 28% amylose], a waxy rice (0-2% amylose), a converted rice, a quick-cooking brown rice, puffed rice cakes, rice pasta, and rice bran. The GI of the rices ranged from 64 +/- 9 to 93 +/- 11, where glucose = 100. The high amylose rice gave a lower GI and II (P rice varieties. The converted rice and most other rice products gave a high GI. Insulin indices correlated positively with GI (r = 0.75, P rice, whether white, brown, or parboiled, should be classified as high GI foods. Only high-amylose varieties are potentially useful in low-GI diets.

  14. Effects of Population Density and Host Availability on The Migration Process of Brown Planthopper Fed Using Susceptible and Resistant Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Habibi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, is an important pest of rice. This pest can cause hopperburn and field failure. This research aimed to determine the effects of population density and host availability on migration of N. lugens. The criteria used to justify the effects of host availability and population density on migration of N. lugens were based the hardness and tannin tests of the rice stems, fecundity of N. lugens, and the life cycle of N. lugens. The research was conducted under the temperature of 29.42°C with relative humidity of 61% and Light 12: Dark 12 times, using ten pairs of N. lugens brachypterous (F0 constant and then was added with five male adults on fifth days after the first infestation (F0 changed. The varieties used were IR64, as a resistant variety, and Ketan Lusi, as a susceptible variety. The results showed that the adding of the macropterous males did not affect the number of macropterous, because of that has been preplanned by the F0. Therefore, the percentage of existing macropterous was 51−52%.   INTISARI   Wereng Batang Cokelat (WBC merupakan salah satu hama tanaman padi yang sangat penting. Kerusakan parah dapat menyebabkan hopperburn dan puso (gagal panen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh kepadatan populasi dan tanaman inang sebagai tempat migrasi WBC. Parameter yang dikaji untuk mengetahui pengaruh kepadatan populasi WBC dan tanaman inang tempat migrasi WBC berdasarkan tingkat kekerasan dan kandungan tanin batang tanaman padi, fekunditas WBC, dan siklus hidup WBC. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada temperatur 29.42˚C dengan kelembapan relatif 61% dan durasi siang hari 12 jam: durasi malam hari 12 jam. Metode yang dilakukan adalah dengan menggunakan 10 pasang imago WBC brakhiptera (F0 konstan, kemudian dilakukan penambahan 5 ekor imago jantan pada hari kelima setelah infestasi awal (F0 diubah. Varietas padi yang digunakan yaitu padi varietas IR64 sebagai varietas

  15. Role of the Genes of Type VI Secretion System in Virulence of Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae Strain RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahidul Islam Masum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Type VI secretion system (T6SS is a class of macromolecular machine that is required for the virulence of gram-negative bacteria. However, it is still not clear what the role of T6SS in the virulence of rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa is. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of T6SS in Aaa strain RS2 virulence using insertional deletion mutation and complementation approaches. This strain produced weak virulence but contains a complete T6SS gene cluster based on a genome-wide analysis. Here we compared the virulence-related phenotypes between the wild-type (RS-2 and 25 T6SS mutants, which were constructed using homologous recombination methods. The mutation of 15 T6SS genes significantly reduced bacterial virulence and the secretion of Hcp protein. Additionally, the complemented 7 mutations ΔpppA, ΔclpB, Δhcp, ΔdotU, ΔicmF, ΔimpJ, and ΔimpM caused similar virulence characteristics as RS-2. Moreover, the mutant ΔpppA, ΔclpB, ΔicmF, ΔimpJ and ΔimpM genes caused by a 38.3~56.4% reduction in biofilm formation while the mutants ΔpppA, ΔclpB, ΔicmF and Δhcp resulted in a 37.5~44.6% reduction in motility. All together, these results demonstrate that T6SS play vital roles in the virulence of strain RS-2, which may be partially attributed to the reductions in Hcp secretion, biofilm formation and motility. However, differences in virulence between strain RS-1 and RS-2 suggest that other factors may also be involved in the virulence of Aaa.

  16. Role of the Genes of Type VI Secretion System in Virulence of Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae Strain RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Md Mahidul Islam; Yang, Yingzi; Li, Bin; Olaitan, Ogunyemi Solabomi; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Fang, Yushi; Qiu, Wen; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2017-09-21

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a class of macromolecular machine that is required for the virulence of gram-negative bacteria. However, it is still not clear what the role of T6SS in the virulence of rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of T6SS in Aaa strain RS2 virulence using insertional deletion mutation and complementation approaches. This strain produced weak virulence but contains a complete T6SS gene cluster based on a genome-wide analysis. Here we compared the virulence-related phenotypes between the wild-type (RS-2) and 25 T6SS mutants, which were constructed using homologous recombination methods. The mutation of 15 T6SS genes significantly reduced bacterial virulence and the secretion of Hcp protein. Additionally, the complemented 7 mutations Δ pppA , Δ clpB , Δ hcp , Δ dotU , Δ icmF , Δ impJ , and Δ impM caused similar virulence characteristics as RS-2. Moreover, the mutant Δ pppA , Δ clpB , Δ icmF , Δ impJ and Δ impM genes caused by a 38.3~56.4% reduction in biofilm formation while the mutants Δ pppA , Δ clpB , Δ icmF and Δ hcp resulted in a 37.5~44.6% reduction in motility. All together, these results demonstrate that T6SS play vital roles in the virulence of strain RS-2, which may be partially attributed to the reductions in Hcp secretion, biofilm formation and motility. However, differences in virulence between strain RS-1 and RS-2 suggest that other factors may also be involved in the virulence of Aaa.

  17. Roles of NlAKTIP in the Growth and Eclosion of the Rice Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, as Revealed by RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiying Hao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AKT-interacting protein (AKTIP interacts with serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB/AKT. AKTIP modulates AKT’s activity by enhancing the phosphorylation of the regulatory site and plays a crucial role in multiple biological processes. In this study, the full length cDNA of NlAKTIP, a novel AKTIP gene in the brown planthopper (BPH Nilaparvata lugens, was cloned. The reverse transcription quantitive PCR (RT-qPCR results showed that the NlAKTIP gene was strongly expressed in gravid female adults, but was relatively weakly expressed in nymphs and male adult BPH. In female BPH, treatment with dsAKTIP resulted in the efficient silencing of NlAKTIP, leading to a significant reduction of mRNA levels, about 50% of those of the untreated control group at day 7 of the study. BPH fed with dsAKTIP had reduced growth with lower body weights and smaller sizes, and the body weight of BPH treated with dsAKTIP at day 7 decreased to about 30% of that of the untreated control. Treatment of dsAKTIP significantly delayed the eclosion for over 7 days relative to the control group and restricted ovarian development to Grade I (transparent stage, whereas the controls developed to Grade IV (matured stage. These results indicated that NlAKTIP is crucial to the growth and development of female BPH. This study provided a valuable clue of a potential target NlAKTIP for inhibiting the BPH, and also provided a new point of view on the interaction between BPH and resistant rice.

  18. Ethanol Extract of Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Mice with Acute DSS-Induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ki Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory activity of Antrodia camphorata (AC grown on germinated brown rice (CBR extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CBR suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin (PG E2 from lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CBR inhibited the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-(COX-2 proteins, and it activated p38-MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK, and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in CBR-treated RAW264.7 cells. In concert with in vitro data, CBR suppressed the levels of dextran-sulfate-sodium-(DSS-induced iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the colon tissue. CBR treatment inhibited activated p38-MAPK, ERK, and NF-κB proteins in the colon tissue of DSS-induced mice. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in DSS+CBR-treated mice. The disease activity index and histological scores were significantly lower in CBR-treated mice (500 mg/kg/day than in DSS-treated mice ( versus DSS. This is the first report of anti-inflammatory activity of CBR in DSS-induced acute colitis. These results suggest that CBR is a promising, potential agent for preventing acute colitis through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and its upstream signaling molecules, including MAPKs.

  19. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  20. Exploitation of a novel polysaccharide nanogel cross-linking membrane for guided bone regeneration (GBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Takayuki; Nyan, Myat; Shimoda, Asako; Yamamoto, Yuka; Kuroda, Shinji; Shiota, Makoto; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Kasugai, Shohei

    2012-08-01

    Cholesterol-bearing pullulan (CHP) nanogel is a synthetic degradable biomaterial for drug delivery with high biocompatibility. Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a bone augmentation technique in which a membrane is used to create and keep a secluded regenerative space. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the novel CHP nanogel membrane in GBR. Thirty-six adult Wistar rats were used and bilaterally symmetrical full-thickness parietal bone defects of 5 mm diameter were created with a bone trephine burr. Each defect was covered with the collagen membrane or the CHP nanogel membrane or untreated without any membrane. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 8 weeks and analysed radiologically and histologically. Furthermore, after incubating human serum with CHP nanogel or collagen, the amount of PDGF in the serum was measured using ELISA. New bone formation in terms of bone volume was higher in the nanogel group than in the control or collagen groups at 2 and 4 weeks. At 8 weeks, both membrane groups showed higher bone volumes than the control group. Notably, the newly-formed bone in the bone defect in the nanogel group was uniform and histologically indistinguishable from the original bone, whereas in the collagen group the new bone showed an irregular structure that was completely different from the original bone. After incubating with CHP nanogel, the amount of PDGF in the serum decreased significantly. CHP nanogel GBR membrane favourably stimulated bone regeneration, in which a unique characteristic of CHP nanogel, the storage of endogenous growth factors, was likely implicated. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Vibigaba (germinated brown rice) and maintenance of long-term normal blood glucose concentration: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Vibigaba (germinated brown rice) and maintenance of long-term normal blood glucose concentration. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food proposed by the applicant......-term normal blood glucose concentration is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that the applicant did not perform a comprehensive literature search to identify human intervention studies which could be pertinent to the claim. The applicant did not reply to a specific request from EFSA...... on the design and conduct of the study is insufficient for a complete scientific evaluation. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between...

  2. Vibigaba (germinated brown rice) and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Vibigaba (germinated brown rice) and contribution to the maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food proposed...... of normal blood cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that the applicant did not perform a comprehensive literature search to identify human intervention studies which could be pertinent to the claim. The applicant did not reply to a specific request from EFSA...... on the design and conduct of the study is insufficient for a complete scientific evaluation. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between...

  3. Post traumatic immediate GBR: alveolar ridge preservation after a comminuted fracture of the anterior maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongsoo; Leem, Dae Ho

    2015-04-01

    Without a proper intervention, a crushed alveolar process fracture can cause significant dimensional changes on affected hard and soft tissue that lead to difficult circumstances for post traumatic bone augmentation and dental implant placement. We present herein the cases of immediate guided bone regeneration (GBR) for the maxillary anterior alveolar process with comminuted fracture. Shortly after the hospital visit, guided bone regeneration was conducted for three patients using only xenograft material and bone fragments from traumatic site, without an additional donor site. Resorbable collagen membrane was used on the bone graft site, and titanium mesh was also used if significant bone loss were expected. Radiographic evaluation 6 months after GBR confirmed that all three cases had sufficiently preserved alveolar bone which is clinically required for implant placement. Dental implant installation was carried out for two patients and no specific findings were noted in follow-up after the placement. In this method, additional operation sites for bone collection are not necessary and the number of surgical steps before implant placement can be reduced. Furthermore, this immediate intervention can effectively minimize the alveolar ridge shrinkage of anterior maxilla after injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Microarray gene expression during early healing of GBR-treated calvarial critical size defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kattan, R; Retzepi, M; Calciolari, E; Donos, N

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the gene expression and molecular pathways implicated in the regulation of the osseous healing process following guided bone regeneration (GBR). Six 6-month-old Wistar male rats were used. Standardized 5-mm critical size defects were created in the parietal bones of each animal and treated with an extracranial and intracranial ePTFE membrane, according to the GBR principle. Three animals were randomly sacrificed after 7 and 15 days of healing. Total RNA was extracted from each sample and prepared for gene expression analysis. RNA quality and quantity were assessed, followed by hybridization of the cRNA to Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 Arrays. The Affymetrix data were processed, and first-order analysis, quality control and statistical analysis were performed. Biological interpretation was performed via pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Between the 7- and 15-day samples, 538 genes were differently regulated. At day 7, inflammatory and immune responses were clearly upregulated. In addition, GO terms related to angiogenesis and cell cycle regulation were overexpressed. At day 15, a more complex cellular activity and cell metabolism were evident. The bone formation processes were significantly overexpressed, with several genes encoding growth factors, enzyme activity, and extracellular matrix formation found as upregulated. Remarkably, a negative regulation of Wnt signalling pathway was observed at 15 days. The gene expression profile of the cells participating in osseous formation varied depending on the healing stage. A number of candidate genes that seem differentially expressed during early stages of intramembranous bone regeneration was suggested. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne

    2013-01-01

    The effects of essential oils (EO), cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE) and ethanol (ETHE) extracts of Callistemon citrinus L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf on the radial growth of Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, the control of brown spot...... in the non-treated and treated samples with a low incidence (0-4 of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, the combined use of the essential oil of C. citrinus as a seed treatment and spraying the plants with 2 % ethanol followed by 2 % (w/v) aqueous extracts of C. citrinus or C. citratus increased the emergence...

  6. Radiolabeling of dopamine uptake sites in mouse striatum: comparison of binding sites for cocaine, mazindol, and GBR 12935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, M E; Selmeci, G

    1992-03-01

    This study addressed the possibility of a unique binding interaction between cocaine and the dopamine transporter as compared with other blockers of dopamine uptake. Cocaine binding sites in a fresh P2 fraction of mouse striatum were labeled with [3H]CFT, a phenyltropane analog of cocaine also known as WIN 35,428, and compared with sites labeled with [3H]mazindol or [3H]GBR 12935. Under the conditions used, homogeneous binding was observed that was inhibited monophasically by cocaine, CFT, and mazindol; the same potencies were observed with the three radioligands. Saturation analysis in the presence and in the absence of unlabeled inhibitor (CFT, mazindol, cocaine) indicated a change in the Kd but not the Bmax, consonant with a competitive mechanisms. Tris-HCl reduced the affinity of each radioligand and unlabeled inhibitor without changing the Bmax. N-Ethylmaleimide reduced the binding of all radioligands equally and cocaine offered protection. The dissociation rate of [3H]CFT and [3H]mazindol binding was not affected by the presence of mazindol and CFT, respectively. The Bmax of [3H]CFT and [3H]mazindol binding was the same; the relatively higher value for [3H]GBR 12935 binding in analyses involving varying tritiated GBR 12935 only, was due primarily to an underestimation of the specific activity of [3H]GBR 12935. All results are in agreement with a one-site model in which cocaine, CFT, mazindol, and GBR 12935 share a common binding site in mouse striatum.

  7. Control of brown spot pathogen of rice (Bipolaris oryzae using some phenolic antioxidants Controle da macha-parda do arroz (Bipolaris oryzae pelo emprego de antioxidantes fenólicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Shabana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris oryzae is the causal agent of rice brown spot disease and is responsible for significant economic losses. In order to control this disease, three phenolic antioxidants were tested (salicylic acid, benzoic acid and hydroquinone. The antifungal activity of the tested substances were investigated against B. oryzae at different concentrations in vitro, as well as the efficacy of their exogenous application in controlling rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, benzoic acid or salicylic acid at 9 mM completely inhibited the growth of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of benzoic acid at 20 mM led to a significant reduction in disease severity (DS and disease incidence (DI on the plant leaves, in addition to a significant increase in the grain yield and its components. Some biochemical responses were also detected, where the application of the previous treatment led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids in rice leaves and in the total carbohydrate and protein contents of the yielded grains.Bipolaris oryzae é o agente causador da doença mancha-parda do arroz e é responsável por significativas perdas econômicas. Três antioxidantes fenólicos (ácido salicílico, ácido benzóico e hidroquinona foram avaliados para o controle dessa doença do arroz. A atividade antifúngica destes compostos foi avaliada in vitro contra B. oryzae em diferentes concentrações e a eficiência de sua aplicação exógena no controle da mancha-parda foi avaliada em condições de campo. Nos ensaios in vitro, os ácidos benzóico e salicílico a 9 mM inibiram completamente a multiplicação de B. oryzae. Em condições de campo, a aspersão de ácido benzóico a 20 mM causou uma redução significativa na gravidade e incidência da doença na folhas da planta, além de aumentar significativamente o rendimento dos grãos e seus componentes. Algumas respostas bioqu

  8. Natural rubber latex used as drug delivery system in guided bone regeneration (GBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondinelli Donizetti Herculano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose natural rubber latex (NRL membranes as a protein delivery system. For this purpose Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA was incorporated into the latex solution for in vitro protein delivery experiments. Different polymerization temperatures were used, from -10 to 27 °C, in order to control the membrane morphology. These membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, as well as the Lowry Method to measure the BSA release. SEM and AFM microscopy analysis showed that the number, size and distribution of pores in NRL membranes can be varied, as well as its overall morphology. We have found that the morphology of the membrane is the predominant factor for higher protein release, compared with pore size and number of pores. Results demonstrated that the best drug-delivery system was the membrane polymerized at RT (27 °C, which does release 66% of its BSA content for up to 18 days. Our results indicate that NRLb could be used in the future as an active membrane that could accelerate bone healing in GBR.

  9. Antimanic activity of minocycline in a GBR12909-induced model of mania in mice: Possible role of antioxidant and neurotrophic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Ana Isabelle G; Chaves Filho, Adriano José Maia; Araújo, Tatiane da Silva; Lima, Camila Nayane Carvalho; Machado, Michel de Jesus Souza; Carvalho, André F; Vasconcelos, Silvania Maria Mendes; de Lucena, David Freitas; Quevedo, João; Macedo, Danielle

    2018-01-01

    Mania/hypomania is the cardinal feature of bipolar disorder. Recently, single administration of the dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, GBR12909, was related to mania-like alterations. In the present study we aimed at testing behavioral and brain oxidant/neurotrophic alterations induced by the repeated administration of GBR12909 and its prevention/reversal by the mood stabilizing drugs, lithium (Li) and valproate (VAL) as well as by the neuroprotective drug, minocycline (Mino). Adult Swiss mice were submitted to 14 days protocols namely prevention and reversal. In the reversal protocol mice were given GBR12909 or saline and between days 8 and 14 received Li, VAL, Mino (25 or 50mg/kg) or saline. In the prevention treatment, mice were pretreated with Li, VAL, Mino or saline prior to GBR12909. GBR12909 repeated administration induced hyperlocomotion and increased risk taking behavior that were prevented and reversed by the mood stabilizers and both doses of Mino. Li, VAL or Mino were more effective in the reversal of striatal GSH alterations induced by GBR12909. Regarding lipid peroxidation Mino was more effective in the prevention and reversal of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus whereas Li and VAL prevented this alteration in the striatum and PFC. Li, VAL and Mino25 reversed the decrease in BDNF levels induced by GBR12909. GBR12909 repeated administration resembles manic phenotype. Similarly to classical mood-stabilizing agents, Mino prevented and reversed GBR12909 manic-like behavior in mice. Thus, our data provide preclinical support to the design of trials investigating Mino's possible antimanic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tests for the characterization of bentonite used in the manufacture of clay geo synthetic barriers (GBR-C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiro, A.; Mateo, B.; Garcia, H.; Llorente, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bentonites are clays essentially composed of the smectite minerals. they are used in the manufacture of Clay Geosynthetic Barriers )GBR-C) which are low-permeability geosynthetic materials, forming part of the lining technologies and construction waterproofing systems. This article shows a series of testing to evaluate the quality of the bentonite for such use. Correlation between different testing has also been established in order to identify the most suitable ones for their characterization. (Author) 8 refs.

  11. Feasibility study on estimation of rice weevil quantity in rice stock using near-infrared spectroscopy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puttinun Jarruwat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thai rice is favored by large numbers of consumers of all continents because of its excellent taste, fragrant aroma and fine texture. Among all Thai rice varieties, Thai Hommali rice is the most preferred. Classification of rice as premium quality requires that almost all grain kernels of the rice be perfectly whole with only a small quantity of foreign particles. Of all the foreign particles found in rice, rice weevils can wreck severest havoc on the quality and quantity of rice such that premium grade rice is transformed into low grade rice. It is widely known that rice millers adopt the "overdose" fumigation practice to control the birth and propagation of rice weevils, the practice of which inevitably gives rise to pesticide residues on rice which end up in the body of consumers. However, if population concentration of rice weevils could be approximated, right amounts of chemicals for fumigation would be applied and thereby no overdose is required. The objective of this study is thus to estimate the quantity of rice weevils in both milled rice and brown rice of Thai Hommali rice variety using the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique. Fourier transforms near infrared (FT-NIR spectrometer was used in this research and the near-infrared wavelength range was 780–2500 nm. A total of 20 levels of rice weevil infestation with an increment of 10 from 10 to 200 mature rice weevils were applied to 1680 rice samples. The spectral data and quantity of weevils are analyzed by partial least square regression (PLSR to establish the model for prediction. The results show that the model is able to estimate the quantity of weevils in milled Hommali rice and brown Hommali rice with high $R_{\\rm val}^{2}$ of 0.96 and 0.90, high RPD of 6.07 and 3.26 and small bias of 2.93 and 2.94, respectively.

  12. Development of a Doxycycline Hydrochloride-Loaded Electrospun Nanofibrous Membrane for GTR/GBR Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie-ni Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A drug-loaded membrane was prepared by electrospinning Poly ε-caprolactone (PCL with doxycycline hydrochloride (DOX (15–25% w/w. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images revealed that fibrous average diameter decreased from 247.16±57.61 nm to 194.43±43.33 nm with the drug proportion increasing from 15% to 20% w/w, while there was no significant difference between 20% and 25% groups. The polymer matrix showed good encapsulation value (58–75% for DOX, and the drug showed an amorphous manner in the polymer matrix. The agar diffusion test revealed that DOX-loaded membranes had an obvious inhibited effect on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, respectively. In vitro release test showed that DOX could persistently be released for a prolonged time more than 28 days, and the DOX level in the eluent steadied at 3–5 μg/mL which was all above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of DOX against Aa (0.125 μg/mL and Pg (0.0625 μg/mL. Cytocompatibility, assessed in human periodontal ligament cells (hPLCs by MTT-test and the morphology of cells on the surface of DOX-loaded membranes by SEM, indicated that all of the investigated nanofibrous membranes can be used to treat periodontal disease by integrating the GTR/GBR operation and antibiotic therapy. Above all, DOX-loaded nanofibrous membranes could have a persistent inhibited effect on periodontal pathogens to provide a relatively sterile environment for tissue repair and regeneration.

  13. An extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice inhibits inflammation markers in RAW264.7 macrophages by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators and up-regulating antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Han, Eun Su; Park, Dong Ki; Lee, Chan; Lee, Ki Won

    2010-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of an organic extract of Phellinus linteus grown on slightly germinated brown rice (PBR) was previously demonstrated. Here, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory activity of the PBR extract by analyzing its effect on the expression of macrophage-derived cytokines, chemokines, and mediator genes that participate in immune and inflammatory responses and diseases. The extract profoundly inhibited the induction of cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-6, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. It also greatly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. PBR extract inhibited NO production with a twofold lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration value than P. linteus extract. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of action, we examined the effect of the PBR extract on the LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in RAW264.7 cells. PBR extract greatly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and slightly inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It also significantly increased intracellular glutathione peroxidase activity and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression. Thus, the PBR extract has anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by virtue of its ability to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via inhibition of MAPK activation and up-regulation of antioxidant activities.

  14. Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice inhibits HT-29 human colon carcinoma proliferation through inducing G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis by targeting the β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Ki; Lim, Yoong Ho; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat food and drug intoxication, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypertension, pruritis (skin itch), and liver cancer in East Asia. In this study, we investigated anticancer activities of AC grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We found that the inhibitory efficacy of CBR 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract on HT-29 and CT-26 cell proliferation was more effective than ordinary AC EtOH 80% extract. Next, 80% EtOH extract of CBR was further separated into four fractions; hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH), and water. Among them, CBR EtOAc fraction showed the strongest inhibitory activity against HT-29 cell proliferation. Therefore, CBR EtOAc fraction was chosen for further studies. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction induced apoptosis. Induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest on human colon carcinoma cell was observed in CBR EtOAc fraction-treated cells. We found that CBR decreased the level of proteins involved in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. CBR EtOAc fraction inhibited the β-catenin signaling pathway, supporting its suppressive activity on the level of cyclin D1. High performance liquid chromatography analysis data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction contained adenosine. This is the first investigation that CBR has a greater potential as a novel chemopreventive agent than AC against colon cancer. These data suggest that CBR might be useful as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  15. Unmaking Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  16. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  17. Optimization of conditions to achieve high content of gamma amino butyric acid in germinated black rice, and changes in bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study estimated the optimum germination conditions to achieve high content of Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA and other phytochemicals in Thai black rice cultivar Kum Payao (BR. The Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology was employed to optimize the germination conditions. The changes in the GABA, phytochemical content, impact of salt, and temperature stress variation on phytochemical content, and stability of GABA were studied. The results showed that 12 h of soaking at pH 7, followed by 36 h of germination was the optimum condition to achieve maximum GABA content (0.2029 mg/g of germinated BR (GBR. The temperature (8 and 30 °C, and salt (50-200 mM NaCl content affected the phytochemicals of GBR, especially GABA, and anthocyanins. Obviously, the antioxidant capability, and enzyme (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting nature of BR was significantly (P < 0.001 increased after germination. The storage of GBR at 4 °C significantly, preserved the GABA content (∼80% for 45 days. Primarily, the current study revealed the changes in phytochemical content, and bioactivity of Thai black rice cr. Kum Payao during germination. More studies should be carried out on pharmacological benefits of GABA-rich GBR.

  18. Metabolite profiling, antioxidant, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of germinated rice: nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based metabolomics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaiwan Pramai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to profile the metabolites of three different varieties of germinated rice, specifically black (GBR, red, and white rice, a 1H-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based metabolomics approach was conducted. Multivariate data analysis was applied to discriminate between the three different varieties using a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model. The PLS model was used to evaluate the relationship between chemicals and biological activities of germinated rice. The PLS-DA score plot exhibited a noticeable separation between the three rice varieties into three clusters by PC1 and PC2. The PLS model indicated that α-linolenic acid, γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol, γ-aminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, fumaric acid, fatty acids, threonine, tryptophan, and vanillic acid were significantly correlated with the higher bioactivities demonstrated by GBR that was extracted in 100% ethanol. Subsequently, the proposed biosynthetic pathway analysis revealed that the increased quantities of secondary metabolites found in GBR may contribute to its nutritional value and health benefits.

  19. Metabolite profiling, antioxidant, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of germinated rice: nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based metabolomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramai, Phaiwan; Abdul Hamid, Nur Ashikin; Mediani, Ahmed; Maulidiani, Maulidiani; Abas, Faridah; Jiamyangyuen, Sudarat

    2018-01-01

    In an attempt to profile the metabolites of three different varieties of germinated rice, specifically black (GBR), red, and white rice, a 1 H-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based metabolomics approach was conducted. Multivariate data analysis was applied to discriminate between the three different varieties using a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model. The PLS model was used to evaluate the relationship between chemicals and biological activities of germinated rice. The PLS-DA score plot exhibited a noticeable separation between the three rice varieties into three clusters by PC1 and PC2. The PLS model indicated that α-linolenic acid, γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol, γ-aminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, fumaric acid, fatty acids, threonine, tryptophan, and vanillic acid were significantly correlated with the higher bioactivities demonstrated by GBR that was extracted in 100% ethanol. Subsequently, the proposed biosynthetic pathway analysis revealed that the increased quantities of secondary metabolites found in GBR may contribute to its nutritional value and health benefits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  1. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... In photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile rice (Oryza sativa L.) pollen abort in long day and high temperature, and revert to fertility in short day length and low temperature growth conditions. This type of control of rice plant fertility can facilitate production of hybrid rice using two lines (photoperiod- sensitive ...

  2. Inorganic arsenic contents in ready-to-eat rice products and various Korean rice determined by a highly sensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mun Yhung; Kang, Ju Hee; Jung, Hyun Jeong; Ma, Sang Yong

    2018-02-01

    Rice and rice products have been reported to contain high contents of toxic inorganic arsenic (iAs). The inorganic arsenic contents in microwavable ready-to-eat rice products (n=30) and different types of Korean rice (n=102) were determined by a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The method showed low limit of detection (0.015pg), high intra- and inter-day repeatability (eat rice products was 59μgkg -1 (dry weight basis). The mean iAs contents in polished white, brown, black, and waxy rice were 65, 109, 91, and 66μgkg -1 , respectively. The percentages of ready-to-eat rice products, white, brown, black, and waxy rice containing iAs over the maximum level (100μgkg -1 ) set by EU for the infant foods were 17, 4, 70, 36 and 0%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycaemic index of some commercially available rice and rice products in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranawana, D V; Henry, C J K; Lightowler, H J; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic response to nine types of rice (white basmati, brown basmati, white and brown basmati, easy-cook basmati, basmati and wild rice, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice, Thai red rice, Thai glutinous rice) and two types of rice vermicelli (Guilin rice vermicelli, Jiangxi rice vermicelli) commercially available in the United Kingdom were compared against a glucose standard in a non-blind, randomized, repeated-measure, crossover design trial. Fourteen healthy subjects (six males, eight females), mean age 38 (standard deviation 16) years and mean body mass index 21.3 (standard deviation 2.3) kg/m(2), were recruited for the study. Subjects were served portions of the test foods and a standard food (glucose), on separate occasions, each containing 50 g available carbohydrates. Capillary blood glucose was measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects (-5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. For each type of food, its glycaemic index (GI) was calculated geometrically by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose curve as a percentage of each subject's average incremental area under the blood glucose curve for the standard food. The 10 foods exhibited a range of GI values from 37 to 92. The study indicated that rice noodles, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice and white basmati rice were low-GI foods, whilst all of the other foods were medium-GI and high-GI foods. The information presented in this paper may be useful in helping people select low-GI foods from the customary foods consumed by the British and Asian populations.

  4. Waterproofing with polymeric geo synthetic barriers (GBR-P) in the manual for the design, construction, management and maintenance of reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Cea, J. C.; Garcia, F.; Sanchez, F. J.; Castillo, F.; Mora, J.; Crespo, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a part of Manual for the Design, Construction, Management and Maintenance of Reservoirs relative to waterproofing with Polymeric Geo synthetic Barriers (GBR-P). the nature materials of geo membranes is studied also theirs characteristics and specifications. (Author) 26 refs.

  5. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination.

  6. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  7. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    OpenAIRE

    S. H Peyman; A Bakhshipour Ziaratgahi; A Jafari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important ...

  8. Development of a Novel Degradation-Controlled Magnesium-Based Regeneration Membrane for Future Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Jun Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and evaluate the ECO-friendly Mg-5Zn-0.5Zr (ECO505 alloy for application in dental-guided bone regeneration (GBR. The microstructure and surface properties of biomedical Mg materials greatly influence anti-corrosion performance and biocompatibility. Accordingly, for the purpose of microstructure and surface modification, heat treatments and surface coatings were chosen to provide varied functional characteristics. We developed and integrated both an optimized solution heat-treatment condition and surface fluoride coating technique to fabricate a Mg-based regeneration membrane. The heat-treated Mg regeneration membrane (ARRm-H380 and duplex-treated regeneration membrane group (ARRm-H380-F24 h were thoroughly investigated to characterize the mechanical properties, as well as the in vitro corrosion and in vivo degradation behaviors. Significant enhancement in ductility and corrosion resistance for the ARRm-H380 was obtained through the optimized solid-solution heat treatment; meanwhile, the corrosion resistance of ARRm-H380-F24 h showed further improvement, resulting in superior substrate integrity. In addition, the ARRm-H380 provided the proper amount of Mg-ion concentration to accelerate bone growth in the early stage (more than 80% new bone formation. From a specific biomedical application point of view, these research results point out a successful manufacturing route and suggest that the heat treatment and duplex treatment could be employed to offer custom functional regeneration membranes for different clinical patients.

  9. Fat-soluble bioactive components in colored rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatel, Igor Otavio; Han, Sang-Ik; Aldini, Giancarlo; Colzani, Mara; Matthan, Nirupa R; Correa, Camila Renata; Fecchio, Denise; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2014-10-01

    Bioactive components in rice vary depending on the variety and growing condition. Fat-soluble components such as γ-oryzanol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, and fatty acids were analyzed in brown, sugary brown, red, and black rice varieties using established high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC methodologies. In addition, these colored rice varieties were further analyzed using a high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) to identify the [M-H](-) ions of γ-oryzanol, ranging from m/z 573.3949 to 617.4211. The highest content of tocopherols (α-, 1.5; γ-, 0.5 mg/100 g) and carotenoids (lutein 244; trans-β carotene 25 μg/100 g) were observed in black rice; tocotrienols (α-, 0.07; γ-, 0.14 mg/100 g) in red rice, and γ-oryzanol (115 mg/100 g) in sugary brown rice. In all colored rice varieties, the major fatty acids were palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1n-9), and linoleic (18:2n-6) acids. When the γ-oryzanol components were further analyzed by LC-MS/MS, 3, 10, 8, and 8 triterpene alcohols or sterol ferulates were identified in brown, sugary brown, red, and black rice varieties, respectively. Such structural identification can lead to the elucidation of biological function of each component at the molecular level. Consumption of colored rice rich in beneficial bioactive compounds may be a useful dietary strategy for achieving optimal health.

  10. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Salim, M.; Rauf, R.; Baloach, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  11. Waterproofing with polymeric geo synthetic barriers (GBR-P) in the manual for the design, construction, management and maintenance of reservoirs; La impermeabilizacion con barreras geosinteticas polimericas (GBR-P) en el manual para el diseno, construccion, explotacion y mantenimiento de balsas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Cea, J. C.; Garcia, F.; Sanchez, F. J.; Castillo, F.; Mora, J.; Crespo, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a part of Manual for the Design, Construction, Management and Maintenance of Reservoirs relative to waterproofing with Polymeric Geo synthetic Barriers (GBR-P). the nature materials of geo membranes is studied also theirs characteristics and specifications. (Author) 26 refs.

  12. Effect of GBR in Combination with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on the Healing of Calvarial Defects in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA. Khoshkhoonejad

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: The guided bone regeneration (GBR technique does not always produce consistent results. Bone filling within the space provided by the membrane can be incomplete.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a collagen membrane (Bio-Gide in combination with or without deproteinezed bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss on the healing of calvarial defects in rabbits.Materials and Methods: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were used in this randomized single-blind experimental study. Four equal defects were created on the calvarium of all animals. Each defect in each rabbit was randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: Group 1(control, no treatment; Group 2, covered withBio-Gide; Group 3, filled with Bio-Oss; Group 4, filled with Bio-Oss and Bio-Gide.The animals were sacrificed for histologic and histomorphometric analysis, 30 and 60 days after treatment.Results: A significant difference was not observed in regenerated bone between the control and Bio-Gide groups (P>0.05, at 1 and 2 months. The amount of regenerated bone was significantly higher (P0.05 between the Bio-Oss and Bio-Oss+Bio-Gide groups. Bone regeneration increased significantly in all treatment groups, between the two study periods (P<0.05.Conclusion: In groups 3 and 4, the presence of a collagen membrane did not affect the amount of new bone regeneration. According to these results, use of a collagen membrane has no additional benefit in the regeneration of intrabony defects.

  13. Studies on mineral nutrition and safety of wild rice (Oryza L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuli; Shi, Chunhai; Wu, Jianguo

    2009-01-01

    Mineral element contents of five wild rice were analyzed, including mineral nutrient elements such as phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se), and the potential toxic elements arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the contents of K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Se in five wild rice materials were much higher than the cultivate variety Zhou 903 in both brown and milled rice. Wild rice also had lower potential toxic element contents of Hg, Pb and Cd compared with Zhou 903 in brown rice and milled rice, respectively. Among five wild rice samples, WR-3 from Uganda had the highest level of P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn and Se, and the lowest contents of Hg, Pb and Cd.

  14. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  15. Rice consumption and cancer incidence in US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Han, Jiali; Willett, Walter C; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-02-01

    While both the 2012 and 2014 Consumer Reports concerned arsenic levels in US rice, no previous study has evaluated long-term consumption of total rice, white rice and brown rice in relation to risk of developing cancers. We investigated this in the female Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010), and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2009), and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008), which included a total of 45,231 men and 160,408 women, free of cancer at baseline. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to measure rice consumption at baseline and repeated almost every 4 years thereafter. We employed Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 31,655 incident cancer cases (10,833 in men and 20,822 in women). Age-adjusted results were similar to multivariable-adjusted results. Compared to participants with less than one serving per week, the multivariable RRs of overall cancer for individuals who ate at least five servings per week were 0.97 for total rice (95% CI: 0.85-1.07), 0.87 for white rice (95% CI: 0.75-1.01), and 1.17 for brown rice (95% CI: 0.90-1.26). Similar non-significant associations were observed for specific sites of cancers including prostate, breast, colon and rectum, melanoma, bladder, kidney, and lung. Additionally, the null associations were observed among European Americans and non-smokers, and were not modified by BMI. Long-term consumption of total rice, white rice or brown rice was not associated with risk of developing cancer in US men and women. © 2015 UICC.

  16. Cadmium accumulation in and tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties with different rates of radial oxygen loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.Y. [School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, A.K. [Department of Biology, Guangdong University of Education, Guangzhou 510303 (China); Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Qiu, R.L., E-mail: eesqrl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Cheng, H. [School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: lssyzhh@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake and tolerance were investigated among 20 rice cultivars based on a field experiment (1.2 mg Cd kg{sup -1} in soil) and a soil pot trial (control, 100 mg Cd kg{sup -1}), and rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL) were measured under a deoxygenated solution. Significant differences were found among the cultivars in: (1) brown rice Cd concentrations (0.11-0.29 mg kg{sup -1}) in a field soil, (2) grain Cd tolerance (34-113%) and concentrations (2.1-6.5 mg kg{sup -1}) in a pot trial, and (3) rates of ROL (15-31 mmol O{sub 2} kg{sup -1} root d.w. h{sup -1}). Target hazard quotients were calculated for the field experiment to assess potential Cd risk. Significant negative relationships were found between rates of ROL and concentrations of Cd in brown rice or straw under field and greenhouse conditions, indicating that rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL had higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. - Highlights: > There are significant differences in brown rice Cd concentrations and rates of ROL among the rice cultivars. > The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with concentrations of Cd in brown rice. > Rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL have higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. - Rice cultivars with high rates of ROL tended to accumulate low Cd in grains.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  18. Water-saving technologies affect the grain characteristics and recovery of fine-grain rice cultivars in semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabran, Khawar; Riaz, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar; Nasim, Wajid; Zaman, Umar; Fahad, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2017-05-01

    Growing rice with less water is direly needed due to declining water sources worldwide, but using methods that require less water inputs can have an impact on grain characteristics and recovery. A 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of conventionally sown flooded rice and low-water-input rice systems on the grain characteristics and recovery of fine rice. Three fine grain rice cultivars-Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, and Shaheen Basmati-were grown under conventional flooded transplanted rice (CFTR), alternate wetting and drying (AWD), and aerobic rice systems. Grain characteristics and rice recovery were significantly influenced by different water regimes (production systems). Poor milling, including the lowest percentage of brown (head) rice (65.3%) and polished (white) rice (64.2-66.9%) and the highest percentage of broken brown rice (10.2%), husk (24.5%-26.3%), polished broken rice (24.7%), and bran (11.0-12.5%), were recorded in the aerobic rice system sown with Shaheen Basmati. With a few exceptions, cultivars sown in CFTR were found to possess a higher percentage of brown (head) and polished (white) rice and they had incurred the least losses in the form of brown broken rice, husk, polished broken rice, and bran. In conclusion, better grain quality and recovery of rice can be attained by growing Super Basmati under the CFTR system. Growing Shaheen Basmati under low-water-input systems, the aerobic rice system in particular, resulted in poor grain characteristics tied with less rice recovery.

  19. Germination Time Dependence of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Germinated Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anuchita Moongngarm; Ekkalak Khomphiphatkul

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Germinated rice has been recognized as a functional food and its health benefits. However, most related studies were on germinated brown rice but our previous study indicated that germination of rough rice was an effective method to obtain high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Germination time is one of the most important factors affecting the level of biochemical compositions and antioxidant activity. Approach: Rough rice seeds were soaked in water for 2 days and ger...

  20. Locomotor sensitization and decrease in [3H]mazindol binding to the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens are delayed after chronic treatments by GBR12783 or cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, D; Duterte-Boucher, D; Leroux-Nicollet, I; Naudon, L; Costentin, J

    1996-07-01

    Rats were treated once daily for 15 consecutive days with either cocaine or the specific dopamine uptake inhibitor 1-[2- (diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-(propenyl)-piperazine (GBR12783) at a dose (10 mg/kg) that given acutely increases locomotor activity. Two or 14 days after the last administration, the motor stimulant responses of rats to a challenge dose (5 mg/kg) of the drug administered previously were compared with the motor stimulant responses of rats daily injected with solvent. A sensitization to the acute stimulant locomotor effect of these drugs was only observed 14 days after cessation of chronic treatments. After this withdrawal period, autoradiographic analysis revealed a significant decrease in the desipramine-insensitive [3H]mazindol binding to the dopamine transporter in the shell of the nucleus accumbens. No change was noticed in other regions with high dopamine content: core of nucleus accumbens, striatum, olfactory tubercle, substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Absence of concomitant decrease in [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine labeling, which indicates lack of effect on vesicular monoamine transporters, suggests that the decrease in accumbal [3H]mazindol binding did not result from a cytotoxic effect on corresponding dopamine neurons. In addition, 14 days after the last administration of GBR12783, the levels of dopamine and metabolites (dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid) and the ability of acute GBR12783 to synergize with haloperidol-induced increase in these metabolites were not modified either in the whole nucleus accumbens or in the striatum.

  1. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Study on residues of 14C-fenitrothion in model rice-fish ecosystem and field rice-fish ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongliang; Wang Huaxin; Guo Dazhi; Chen Zhiyu; wu Suqiong

    1994-01-01

    When equal amounts of the pesticide are applied, the extractable residues in brown rice (equivalent to 34.3 +- 1.9 μg/kg fenitrothion) and rice stems and leaves (20.9 +- 1.5 μg/kg) of the model rice-fish ecosystem are 10-15 times higher than those of the field rice-fish ecosystem (4.48 +- 0.13 μg/kg and 1.27 +- 0.34 μg/kg respectively). Residues in upper part of the soil (6.50 +- 0.1-8.10 +- 0.2 μg/kg) and lower part of the soil (1.30 +- 0.1-1.50 +- 0.1 μg/kg)of the model rice-fish ecosystem are 10-40 times higher than those of the field rice-fish ecosystem (0.17 +- 0.01 μg/kg). The extractable residues in paddy water of the model ecosystem (0.30 +- 0.01 μg/kg) are similar to that the the field ecosystem (0.20 +- 0.02 μg/kg). When the fenitrothion is sprayed on the rice plants, residues in brown rice, fish body, soil and paddy water are lower than those when the pesticide is sprayed on the surface of the soil

  3. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Giant Embryo Rice Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Chao; Xie, Mi-Xue; Wang, Ying-Cun; Li, Jian-Yue

    2017-06-21

    To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds, we analyzed the expression levels of GABA metabolism genes and contents of GABA and GABA metabolic intermediates in developing grains and germinated brown rice of giant embryo rice 'Shangshida No. 5' and normal embryo rice 'Chao2-10' respectively. In developing grains, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were accompanied with upregulation of gene transcripts and intermediate contents in the polyamine pathway and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts, as compared with those in 'Chao2-10'. In germinated brown rice, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were parallel with upregulation of OsGAD and polyamine pathway gene transcripts and Glu and polyamine pathway intermediate contents and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts. These results are the first to indicate that polyamine pathway and GABA catabolic genes play a crucial role in GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds.

  4. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.

  5. Plasmodesmata of brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10?20?nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD ...

  6. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    that glycolytic flux is important for β-adrenergically induced oxygen consumption, and highlights that glucose oxidation serves multiple purposes in brown adipocytes. Together the studies describe novel aspects of glucose consumption adding to the understanding of substrate oxidation in activated brown adipocytes....... Taken together the research presented in this thesis describes novel aspects of BAT physiology, adding to the growing understanding of brown adipocyte activation and fuel preferences....

  7. Effect of soaking and phytase treatment on phytic acid, calcium, iron and zinc in rice fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, J.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hamer, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the aim to maximise phytic acid removal and minimise losses of dry matter and minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn) in rice, three products (whole kernels and flour milled from white and brown rice; and bran, all from the same batch of variety Kenjian 90-31) were soaked in demineralized water at 10 °C (SDW),

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RICE PROTEIN CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kolpakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally rice and products of its processing are used to cook porridge, pilaf, lettuce, confectionery, fish, dairy and meat products. At the same time new ways of its processing with releasing of protein products for more effective using, including the use of a glutenfree diet, are developing. The task of this study was a comparative research of nutrition and biological value and functional properties of protein and protein-calcium concentrates produced from rice flour milled from white and brown rice. The traditional and special methods were used. Concentrates were isolated with enzyme preparations of xylanase and amylolytic activity with the next dissolution of protein in diluted hydrochloric acid. Concentrates differed in the content of mineral substances (calcium, zinc, iron and other elements, amino acids and functional properties. The values of the functional properties and indicators of the nutritional value of concentrates from white rice show the advisability of their using in food products, including gluten-free products prepared on the basis of the emulsion and foam systems, and concentrates from brown rice in food products prepared on the basis of using of the emulsion systems. Protein concentrates of brown rice have a low foaming capacity and there is no foam stability at all.

  9. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

    OpenAIRE

    Abacar, Jose Daniel; Zhao-miao, Lin; Xin-cheng, Zhang; Cheng-qiang, Ding; She, Tang; Zheng-hui, Liu; Shao-hua, Wang; Yan-feng, Ding

    2016-01-01

    To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG), brown rice yield (BRY), milled rice yield (MRY), degree of milling (DM), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from ...

  10. Development of techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions, 1: Storage of rough rice at country elevator with natural heat radiation in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekura, K.; Kawamura, S.; Itoh, K.

    2003-01-01

    An on-farm experiment in which 361 metric tons of rough rice was stored in a silo from November until July was conducted at a country elevator in Hokkaido to develop new techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions. The temperature of the rough rice near the inner silo wall decreased to below ice point (-5°C) due to natural heat radiation in winter, which the temperature of the rough rice in the center of the silo was maintained at almost the same temperature as that at the beginning of storage (5°C). Ventilation in the upper vacant space of the silo prevented moisture condensation on the inside surface of the silo during storage. When the cold rough rice was unloaded from the silo in summer, an unheated forced-air drier was used to increase the temperature of rough rice to above the dew point temperature of surrounding air. During the unloading and rewarming process, the moisture content of the rough rice increased due to moisture condensation on the grain from the air. However, the husks first absorbed the condensation and then the moisture slowly permeated into the brown rice kernel. Thus the rewarming process didn't cause any fissures in the brown rice. The results of the experiment indicate that condensation on rough rice doesn't give rise to any problems

  11. Laurie M Brown

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Laurie M Brown. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 874-878 Personal Reflections. To Have Been a Student of Richard Feynman · Laurie M Brown · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  12. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  13. EFFECT OF GROWTH PROMOTOR AND BIOPROTECTOR ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATED RICE AND BROWN SPOT INCIDENCE USO DE PROMOTOR DE CRESCIMENTO E DE BIOPROTETOR NA CULTURA DO ARROZ IRRIGADO E SEU EFEITO SOBRE A INCIDÊNCIA DA MANCHA-DE-GRÃOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fascin Berni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of two commercial products, one containing plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and micorrhizae, and the other containing micronutrients and aminoacids, on the development of irrigated rice. One kilogram of the biological product Biosol (trade mark was added to the seeds at sowing time (1kg / ha and the biofertilizer Greensol (trade mark was sprayed by airplane (200 ml / ha in association with fungicides, when 5% of panicles had been emitted. The treatments used were T1: Control; T2: Greensol; T3: Biosol + Greensol and T4: Biosol. Five parameters were evaluated: number of shoots per meter, dry weight 90 days after sowing, grain yield, empty grains percentage and incidence of brown spot disease (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda de Haan. Number of shoots per meter was uniform in all treatments. Grouped analysis indicated superiority of all treatments with Biosol over the control for the parameters of dry weight of plants and roots. Treatments T3 and T4 presented superior yields. In these treatments empty grain percentage was lower than the control. Brown spot severity index indicated that all treatments were better than control and T3 and T4 treatments had the lowest disease index.

    KEY-WORDS: Helminthosporium oryzae; Oryza sativa; disease control; rice.

    Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de dois produtos comerciais sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre a incidência da mancha-de-grãos causada por Helminthosporium oryzae. Um dos produtos consistia de rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas (RPCPs e micorrizas (Biosol e o outro era constituído por micronutrientes e amino

  14. Speciation of arsenic in rice and estimation of daily intake of different arsenic species by Brazilians through rice consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Bruno L; Souza, Juliana M O; De Souza, Samuel S; Barbosa, Fernando

    2011-07-15

    Rice is an important source of essential elements. However, rice may also contain toxic elements such as arsenic. Therefore, in the present study, the concentration of total arsenic and five main chemical species of arsenic (As(3+), As(5+), DMA, MMA and AsB) were evaluated in 44 different rice samples (white, parboiled white, brown, parboiled brown, parboiled organic and organic white) from different Brazilian regions using high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The mean level of total arsenic was 222.8 ng g(-1) and the daily intake of inorganic arsenic (the most toxic form) from rice consumption was estimated as 10% of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) with a daily ingestion of 88 g of rice. Inorganic arsenic (As(3+), As(5+)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) are the predominant forms in all samples. The percentages of species were 38.7; 39.7; 3.7 and 17.8% for DMA, As(3+), MMA and As(5+), respectively. Moreover, rice samples harvested in the state of Rio Grande do Sul presented more fractions of inorganic arsenic than rice in Minas Gerais or Goiás, which could lead to different risks of arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Shared flowering phenology, insect pests, and pathogens among wild, weedy, and cultivated rice in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: implications for transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael B; Arpaia, Salvatore; Lan, La Pham; Chau, Luong Minh; Snow, Allison A

    2008-01-01

    Many varieties of transgenic rice are under development in countries where wild and weedy relatives co-occur with the crop. To evaluate possible risks associated with pollen-mediated transgene dispersal, we conducted a two-year survey in Vietnam to examine overlapping flowering periods of rice (Oryza sativa L.), weedy rice (O. sativa), and wild rice (O. rufipogon Griff.), all of which are inter-fertile. We surveyed populations in two regions of the Mekong Delta, northern and southern, and at three sites in each of three habitats per region: fresh water, saline water, and acid sulfate soil. Weedy rice frequently flowered simultaneously with neighboring cultivated rice plants. Flowering was more seasonal in wild rice and often peaked in November and December. Peak flowering times of wild rice overlapped with adjacent rice fields at all of the saline sites and half of the acid sulfate sites. The longer flowering season of wild rice ensured that crop-to-wild gene flow was possible in fresh water habitats as well. Our second objective was to determine whether wild and weedy rice populations are exposed to pests that could be targeted by future transgenes, which may then provide fitness benefits. These populations shared many pathogen and insect herbivore species with cultivated rice (leaffolder, locust, cricket, planthoppers, rice bug, stem borer, sheath blight, blast, bacterial leaf blight, and brown spot). Damage by leaffolders and locusts was the most frequently observed insect feeding damage on all three rice types. Indicator species analysis revealed that most of the insect herbivores were associated with particular habitats, demonstrating the importance of broad geographic sampling for transgenic rice risk assessment. These survey data and the strong likelihood of gene flow from cultivated rice suggest that further studies are needed to examine the effects of transgenic traits such as resistance to pests on the abundance of wild and weedy rice.

  16. Rice consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from a pooled analysis of 3 U.S. cohorts 1 2 3 4

    OpenAIRE

    Muraki, Isao; Wu, Hongyu; Imamura, Fumiaki; Laden, Francine; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Sun, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Health concerns have been raised about rice consumption, which may significantly contribute to arsenic exposure. However, little is known regarding whether habitual rice consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Objective: We examined prospectively the association of white rice and brown rice consumption with CVD risk. Design: We followed a total of 207,556 women and men [73,228 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984–2010), 92,158 women from the Nurses’ ...

  17. STUDY OF MILLING PROCESS AND ITS EFFECT ON VITAMIN B1 AND FOLIC ACID CONTENTS ON LOWLAND RICE PROMISING LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Dewi Indrasari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an important source of vitamin B1 and folic acid, but cultivated rice cultivars contain low of these nutrient. Breeding program had been conducted and several advanced lines with a high vitamin B and folic acid contents were found. This research aimed to study the contents of vitamin B1 and folic acid in the brown rice and milled rice of fifteen promising lowland rice lines. Dried paddy (14% moisture content were husked in the mini husker (Satake THU 35A to obtain brown rice and milled rice by using abrasive-type mini polisher (Satake TM-05, 1,450 RPM for 2 minutes. Vitamin B1 and folic acid in the brown rice and milled rice were determined by using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector for vitamin B1 and UV detector for folic acid. Four out of fifteen rice lines studied showed a unique characteristic of vitamin B1 content in the brown rice and milled rice. Rice lines which have highest vitamin B1 in the brown rice were B10267-4-PN-6-2-3-2-2-2-3-3-2 (3.03 mg 100 g-1, B10876H-MR-2 (2.13 mg 100 g-1, B10531E-KN-1-2-PN-1-4-2 (1.33 mg 100 g-1 and B12411E-RS*-1-2-1 (1.21 mg 100 g-1. However after milling, 43-92% of their vitamin B1 were lost; the least loss was observed in B12411E-RS*-1-2-1 (1.21 mg 100 g-1 which was only  4%. Three out of fifteen rice lines studied has highest folic acid in brown rice, i.e. BP400G-PN-12-3-6 (158.5 µg 100 g-1, B10876H-MR-2 (152.0 µg 100 g-1, and B11742-RS*-2-3-MR-5-5-1-Si-1-3 (100.0 µg 100 g-1. After milling the line B10876H-MR-2 had the highest folic acid content (52.0 µg 100 g-1, much higher than that of Ciherang variety as a control. This study indicates the importance of having a suitable milling instrument to minimize loss of vitamin B1 and folic acid. The study also suggests the importance of creating new rice cultivars that have high nutrient and resistant to milling process.

  18. Susceptibility of ''Yuanfengzao'' and other mutant rice varieties to herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunhai; Shen Zongtan

    1989-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control barngrass and other water grasses in rice fields. However, rice may suffer in some cases too. We developed a technique to evaluate rice for herbicide tolerance at seedling stage. The seedlings were grown in 15, 20, 50 cm plastic trays with 7 cm soil. Up to 2-leaf stage, seedlings were treated with 50, 100 and 500 ppm butachlor, and 250, 500 and 1000 ppm thiobencarb respectively, in the incubator (30/25 deg. C day/night, 12 h light and 3000 lux/d) up to 11 d. The herbicide solution was filled up to the pulvinus of the second leaf, with water treatment as a check. Light brown spots on the leaf were the most visible injury symptom and might be used as criterion of herbicide susceptibility in Indica rice at seedling stage. During treatment, the first leaf became yellow and was killed first, then the water soaked spots appeared on the second leaf and turned to light brown spots gradually. Afterwards, the light brown spots linked up with each other and the leaf became partially necrotic. On the third leaf light brown spots appeared also. Finally, the seedling was killed

  19. Physicochemical properties of germinated dehulled rice flour and energy requirement in germination as affected by ultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junzhou; Hou, Gary G; Dong, Mengyi; Xiong, Shanbai; Zhao, Siming; Feng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Limited data are published regarding changes in the physicochemical properties of rice flours from germinated de-hulled rice treated by ultrasound. This work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ultrasound treatment (25 kHz, 16 W/L, 5 min) on starch hydrolysis and functional properties of rice flours produced from ultrasound-treated red rice and brown rice germinated for up to 36 h. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) microimages showed that the ultrasound treatment altered the surface microstructure of rice, which helped to improve moisture transfer during steam-cooking. The flours from sonicated germinated de-hulled rice exhibited significantly (p germinating red rice and brown rice displayed different sensitivity to ultrasonic treatment. The ultrasonic pre-treatment resulted in a significant reduction in energy use during germination with a potential to further reduce energy use in germinated rice cooking process. The present study indicated that ultrasound could be a low-power consumption method to modify the rheological behavior of germinated rice flour, as well as an efficient approach to improve the texture, flavor, and nutrient properties of steam-cooked germinated rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  1. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  2. Field Brown Dwarfs & GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, M.; Jordi, C.

    Because of their very red colours and intrinsic faintness, field brown dwarfs will represent a small but valuable subset of the GAIA catalogue. The return of the astrometric satellite is expected to be important because of the inherent difficulty of obtaining good parallaxes in general and for this class of objects in particular. Our first estimates show that, due to the photometric sensitivity of the astrometric CCD (ASM1) towards relatively blue objects, GAIA is unlikely to detect field brown dwarfs that have not been already seen is previous near-IR surveys, to the notable exception of the galactic plane region. The real advantage of GAIA over ground-based surveys will be the very accurate (to within a few percents) astrometric data for a few thousands brown dwarfs. These data should permit a detailed mapping of the transition region between stellar and substellar regimes, together with the kinematical and density patterns of the youngest brown dwarfs in our neighbourhood.

  3. Accumulation of mercury and cadmium in rice from paddy soil near a mercury mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Ouyang, Y; Ye, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Paddy soil and rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Wanshan mining area in Guizhou Province, China, have been contaminated by toxic trace metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The present study examined correlations between the types and physicochemical parameters of the soil and the contents of trace metals and the different forms of Hg in rice. The health risks of consuming contaminated rice from the Wanshan mining area were also assessed. Sequential extraction procedures were used to investigate the chemical behavior of Hg in the soil. The results showed that Hg and Cd were the most abundant trace metals in the Wanshan mining area. The toxic methylmercury (MeHg) content was substantial in brown rice, and the total amounts of total Hg (THg), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-Hg, and water-soluble Hg varied in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. An antagonistic interaction between Mn in brown rice, straw, and husk and MeHg in brown rice was also shown. An analysis of calculated dietary intake, target hazard quotients, and hazard indexes showed a potential risk of transferring Hg, MeHg, and Cd to humans when rice from the Wanshan mining area is consumed. Therefore, it must be concluded that consuming contaminated rice near the Wanshan mining area is a potential threat to human health. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Transcriptomics in brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Brown algae are distributed worldwide on rocky shores. They are importenet components of ecosystems, they provide habitat, shelter and serve as nurseries for various marine organisms. The geographic as well as depth distribution of macroalgae is constrained by abiotic factors, especially light and temperature. It is therefore likely that due to the global change, distribution patterns of these organisms will change. In this work the molecular acclimation of two prominent brown macroalgae, Sac...

  5. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open.

  6. (TGMS) of rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    accounts for 35%–75% of the total calories consumed by more than 3 billion Asians (Khush 2005). To feed an esti- mated 5 billion rice consumers by 2025, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed (Khush 2005). Rice is a staple food crop of. India and hybrid rice technology ...

  7. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants.

  8. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-09

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  9. Use of rice seedlings to estimate uptake of radiocesium from soil to plants in Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Suzuki, Yasukazu; Ohno, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The uptake of radiocesium to plants from the soil is affected by many environmental factors, and it is difficult to determine the contribution of uptake among these factors. In addition, these environmental factors should be investigated independently for each field. The aim of this study was to develop a practical and simple method for the estimate of uptake of radiocesium from soil to plants. Rice seedlings were used to estimate the root uptake of radiocesium from seven different soils. To confirm that the seedlings were the effective indicator, the concentration of 137 Cs in the seedlings was compared with that in brown rice and sunflower. The seedlings were cultivated for a week from germination in a phytotron and the concentrations of 137 Cs in the seedlings above ground were determined. To obtain brown rice and sunflower, rice and sunflower were cultivated either in a pot (1/5000 a Wagner pot, 4000 cm 3 ) placed in a glasshouse or in a paddy field in Fukushima prefecture for two to four months. The concentration of 137 Cs in the rice seedlings ranged from 150 to 1900 Bq kg -1 , and that in brown rice and sunflower ranged from 2 to 880 Bq kg -1 and from 580 to 3900 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the measured concentration of 137 Cs in rice seedlings and the measured concentration of 137 Cs in brown rice and sunflower was 1.0 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.09, respectively). This suggests that the use of rice seedlings in this experiment over a period of two weeks provides an effective indicator for the uptake of 137 Cs from soil to plants over a longer period of time. (author)

  10. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  11. Low Light During Grain Filling Stage Deteriorates Rice Cooking Quality, but not Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cheng-gang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low light (LL, 50% natural light during grain filling (GF stage on rice transamination, amino acid (AA accumulation, nutritional value, and cooking quality in three different rice genotypes, transaminase activities and AA levels in grains during GF stage and the traits that significantly affected rice quality (physical appearance, cooking quality, and nutritional value were analyzed. LL did not disturb transamination in rice grains during GF stage, as minimal impact was found on alanine and aspartate transaminase activities. Nevertheless, most AAs in caryopses, including lysine and threonine, increased in response to LL, except for sulfur-containing AAs. These results suggest that AA metabolism and accumulation in rice grains were rarely suppressed by LL during GF stage. Rice nutritional ingredients at harvest, such as major protein components including glutelin and most important essential amino acids (EAAs including lysine and threonine, increased significantly in response to LL, whereas most protein and EAA ratios were rarely affected. However, LL markedly affected physical appearance of rice grains by reducing brown rice rate, milled rice rate, and 1000-grain weight and increasing the chalkiness rate. In addition, cooking qualities decreased in response to LL, while breakdown values and amylose levels decreased and setback values increased. We concluded that LL during GF stage decreased the cooking quality of rice, but could potentially improve the nutritional value of rice.

  12. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp increase in rice production, especially in the irrigated sector. This increase can be attributed largely to the work of three organizations: the government-sponsored rice re search program of the In...

  13. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti-prolifer...

  14. The Novel Kasugamycin 2′-N-Acetyltransferase Gene aac(2′)-IIa, Carried by the IncP Island, Confers Kasugamycin Resistance to Rice-Pathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Atsushi; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Kasugamycin (KSM), a unique aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been used in agriculture for many years to control not only rice blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea but also rice bacterial grain and seedling rot or rice bacterial brown stripe caused by Burkholderia glumae or Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, respectively. Since both bacterial pathogens are seed-borne and cause serious injury to rice seedlings, the emergence of KSM-resistant B. glumae and A. avenae isolates highlights the ...

  15. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  16. Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J

    2013-08-15

    Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment and genetic analysis of heavy metal content in rice grain using an Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon backcross inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Run; Fan, Ye-Yang; Hu, Biao-Lin; Xiao, Ye-Qing; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhuang, Jie-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in rice is a growing concern for public health. Backcross inbred lines derived from an interspecific cross of Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon were grown in two distinct ecological locations (Hangzhou and Lingshui, China). The objective of this study was to characterise the contents of heavy metal in rice grains, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for heavy metal contents. The contents of Ni, As, Pb, Cr and Hg in milled rice showed a significant decline as compared with those in brown rice, whereas the content of Cd showed little change. The concentration of heavy metal in rice grain varied greatly between the two environments. A total of 24 QTLs responsible for heavy metal contents were detected, including two for both the brown and milled rice, 13 for brown rice only, and nine for milled rice only. All the QTLs except two had the enhancing alleles derived from O. rufipogon. Sixteen QTLs were clustered in six chromosomal regions. Environmental variation plays an important role in the heavy metal contents in rice grain. QTLs detected in this study might be useful for breeding rice varieties with low heavy metal content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  19. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  20. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  1. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Im Chung; Su Noh Ryu; Mi Young Kang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body...

  2. Effects of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on Technological Properties and Phenolic Compounds of Freshly Harvested and Stored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gabriela Hörnke; Paraginski, Ricardo Tadeu; Lamas, Nelisa de Souza; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Vanier, Nathan Levien; de Oliveira, Maurício

    2017-10-01

    This study compared the physicochemical and technological properties of the IRGA 410 rice cultivar, obtained from organic and conventional cropping systems, and showed its susceptibility to changes during storage at 0, 6, and 12 mo. The rice conventional cropping system exhibited greater protein, lipids, and ash levels, and a head rice yield. However, organic rice presented greater total carbohydrates, soluble protein, amylose content, 33% greater free phenolics, and phenolic acids, but exhibited a greater percentage of stained grains during the storage period. The free phenolic content of cooked rice was lower than the free phenolic content of the raw rice. By Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometer (LC-MS) were identified p-coumaric and ferulic acids in both fractions (free and bound). The content of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid in bound fraction was higher in organic brown rice than in conventional brown rice. At 6 and 12 mo of storage, the main fungi found were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Prior to storage, the Bipolaris sp. fungi was identified only in organic rice. For conventional rice, the infestation level by Aspergillus sp. increased from 3% to 70% at the 6th mo of storage. In addition to the advantage of organic rice being free of agrochemicals, this study revealed that natural plant defense compounds could be produced when the rice was subjected to more biotic and abiotic stresses. However, some disadvantages were observed, such as lower protein content and a greater percentage of soluble protein, which favored the breaking of rice in processing, and a greater percentage of grain stained before and during storage. The organic and conventional cropping systems affect the physicochemical and technological properties of rice grains, which is one of the main cereals grown and consumed in the world. This study shows the advantages and disadvantages of the cropping system in grain properties that are in the interest of both consumers and

  3. Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: Relationships to composition and antioxidative activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of three brown, purple, and red rice brans isolated from different rice varieties using HPLC-PDA with the aid of 27 standards of known structure and by matching unknown peaks to a spectral library of known compounds. DPPH and ORA...

  4. Assessment of bone healing on tibial fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis associated or not with infrared laser light and biphasic ceramic bone graft (HATCP) and guided bone regeneration (GBR): Raman spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Aciole, Gilberth Tadeu S.; Aciole, Jouber Mateus S.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Nunes dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, through Raman spectroscopy, the repair of complete tibial fracture in rabbits fixed with wire osteosynthesis - WO, treated or not with infrared laser light (λ 780nm, 50mW, CW) associated or not to the use of HATCP and GBR. Surgical fractures were created under general anesthesia (Ketamine 0.4ml/Kg IP and Xilazine 0.2ml/Kg IP), on the tibia of 15 rabbits that were divided into 5 groups and maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet and had water ad libidum. On groups II, III, IV and V the fracture was fixed with WO. Animals of groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite + GBR technique. Animals of groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during two weeks (16J/cm2, 4 x 4J/cm2). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death the specimens were kept in liquid nitrogen for further analysis by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed significant differences between groups (p<0.001). It is concluded that IR laser light was able to accelerate fracture healing and the association with HATCP and GBR resulted on increased deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite.

  5. The improvement of rice varieties for major pest and diseases resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahi, I.; Silitonga, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1971, the rice breeding program in Indonesia has developed on intensive program to improve varieties for yield potential, resistancy to major pests and diseases, early maturity good grain and eating quality. In recent years, the attacks of insects and diseases are very severe in rice cultivation in Asia. Much of the losses were due to acontinuous planting or certain varieties. Between 1966 and 1973 tungro occured in epidemic proportions on separate occasions in Indonesia, Thailand, Nort East India, Bangladesh, and Philippine. Since 1973, investation of brown planthopper and green leafhopper several damaged rice crop in most parts of Indonesia. Presently, rice improvement are directed to develop high yielding rice varieties that are resistant to brown planthopper, ragged stunt virus, blast, green leafhopper, and gallmidge. Screening for pests and diseases are conducted in the laboratory as well as in the field. The adoption of those improved varieties by farmers has contributed greatly in our efforts to attain self sufficiency in rice production in Indonesia. GH 147 -M-40 krad-Pn-89 (irradiated Barito) showed resistant to brown planthopper biotype 1 and 2 and moderately resistant to biotype 3. Napa 40 krad-St-12 has resistant reaction to blast. (authors). 4 refs, 8 tabs

  6. Transgenic Cry1Ab rice does not impact ecological fitness and predation of a generalist spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ce Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The commercial release of rice genetically engineered to express a Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt for control of Lepidoptera in China is a subject of debate. One major point of the debate has focused on the ecological safety of Bt rice on nontarget organisms, especially predators and parasitoids that help control populations of insect pests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A tritrophic bioassay was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on fitness parameters of a predaceous ground spider (Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg et Strand that had fed on Bt rice-fed brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål nymphs. Survival, development time and fecundity of this spider were not different when they were fed with Bt rice-fed or non-Bt rice-fed prey. Furthermore, ELISA and PCR gut assays, as well as a functional response trial, indicated that predation by P. pseudoannulata was not significantly different in Bt rice or non-Bt rice fields. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transgenic Cry1Ab rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the survival, developmental time and fecundity of P. pseudoannulata in the laboratory or on predation under field conditions. This suggests that this important predator would not be harmed if transgenic Cry1Ab rice were commercialized.

  7. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Uddin, Md. Kamal

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L). Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice) ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg) linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg) and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg). The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis), with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg), campesterol (116–242 mg/kg), Δ5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg) were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data), identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods. PMID:22605998

  8. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L. Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg. The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis, with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg, campesterol (116–242 mg/kg, ∆5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data, identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods.

  9. Effects of Red-mud and Organic Fertilizer on Cadmium and Lead Absorption and Distribution in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Ya-yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of red mud and organic fertilizer on distribution of cadmium(Cd and lead (Pb in soil-rice system were studied in field by orthogonal test. Results showed that after red mud and organic fertilizer added including single and combined, the soil pH value increased 0.36~1.90 units, contents of Cd and Pb in rice rhizosphere soil decreased 2.73%~26.25% and 7.15%~34.26% respectively and contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased 23.24%~55.90% and 11.76%~29.41% respectively. In all treatments, single red mud was best, followed by red mud and organic fertilizer combined, single organic fertilizer was worst. The content of Cd and Pb in different rice organs with addition of red mud and organic fertilizer decreased significantly, the contribution rate of Cd and Pb at different stages changed obviously, and influences of adding quantity and fertilizing method were also significant. Different treatments had different effects on contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice. Compared with CK, red mud (4 000 kg·hm-2 was the best for Cd, combination of red mud (4 000 kg·hm-2 and organic fertilizer (1 000 kg·hm-2was the best for Pb, the contents of which were 55.90% and 29.41% less than the control respectively. Although contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased significantly after red mud and organic fertilizer added, contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice were still higher than national food safety standards (GB 2762-2012 because of high polluted degree of Cd (65 times than standard and Pb(7 times than standard in soil. All results showed it was ineffective to control heavy metal pollution in brown rice only by red mud and organic fertilizer addition in high polluted degree soils.

  10. Tailoring Grain Storage Reserves for a Healthier Rice Diet and its Comparative Status with Other Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butardo, Vito M; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2016-01-01

    A global rise of diet-related noncommunicable diseases calls for a focus on diet-based nutritional intervention across the entire socioeconomic consumer spectrum. We review recent reports in the area of healthier rice aimed at developing rice grains with improved dietary fiber compositions (increased amounts of nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starch), and less digestible starch (higher amylose and phospholipid complex in the endosperm) resulting in reduced glycemic impact upon grain consumption. We furthermore elaborate on the interconnections of elevated amounts of protein and a balanced composition of essential amino acids. The importance of a nutritious aleurone layer and its role in lipid storage and micronutrient composition is discussed briefly in the context of brown rice benefits. We identify gene targets for precision breeding that will facilitate the production of rice grains and rice-based products to mitigate the impact of nutrition-related preventable diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  12. Genome-Wide Association of Rice Blast Disease Resistance and Yield-Related Components of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Jia, Melissa H; Ghai, Pooja; Lee, Fleet N; Jia, Yulin

    2015-12-01

    Robust disease resistance may require an expenditure of energy that may limit crop yield potential. In the present study, a subset of a United States Department of Agriculture rice core collection consisting of 151 accessions was selected using a major blast resistance (R) gene, Pi-ta, marker and was genotyped with 156 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Disease reactions to Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease, were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions, and heading date, plant height, paddy and brown seed weight in two field environments were analyzed, using an association mapping approach. A total of 21 SSR markers distributed among rice chromosomes 2 to 12 were associated with blast resistance, and 16 SSR markers were associated with seed weight, heading date, and plant height. Most noticeably, shorter plants were significantly correlated with resistance to blast, rice genomes with Pi-ta were associated with lighter seed weights, and the susceptible alleles of RM171 and RM6544 were associated with heavier seed weight. These findings unraveled a complex relationship between disease resistance and yield-related components.

  13. Rice trade liberalization and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Ashok; Narayanan, Sudha

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the lifeline of almost 70% of the world's poor residing in Asia, where more than 90% of world rice production and consumption takes place. Rice trade liberalization therefore has tremendous implications for poverty. The world rice market is highly distorted, partly because of the high degree of intervention in rice markets across the world. While poor countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, and India tend to “disprotect” rice sectors, the rich countries of East Asia (Japan and Korea), Eu...

  14. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen.

  15. Chemical, Sensorial and Rheological Properties of a New Organic Rice Bran Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luis FACCIN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is a solid residue from rice polishing that is used in animal nutrition and rice oil production. Cultivation conditions with agro-toxics, lipids instability, and tendency for mycotoxin contamination restrict its application in human nutrition. Therefore, organic agriculture is an alternative to use the properties of rice bran. Rice bran beverage is a new cereal product from organic rice. This work presents the preliminary results of the chemical and rheological studies of a bath pasteurized rice bran beverage. Compared with integral defatted milk, soy extracts, and brown rice low-fat milk, the rice bran beverage studied in this work presents itself as an important source of minerals and unsaturated lipids. All essential amino acids were found in this product. Glutamic and aspartic acids were predominant. Bath pasteurization at boiling water temperature for 15 and 30 min was adequate for microbiological safety. Refrigeration storage for 20 days, evaluated by pH and acidity variations, was ideal for assessment of the beverage conservation time. The beverage viscosity was of the Newtonian standard behavior, and its viscosity during storage was not a good parameter to evaluate shelf life. Sensory preference tests showed positive perspectives for this new beverage.

  16. Comparison of the performance of natural latex membranes prepared with different procedures and PTFE membrane in guided bone regeneration (GBR) in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Jonas M L; Ferreira, Juliana F; Marques, Leonardo; Holgado, Leandro; Graeff, Carlos F O; Kinoshita, Angela

    2014-09-01

    This work assessed the performance of membranes made of natural latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis prepared with three different methods: polymerized immediately after collection without the use of ammonia (L1); polymerized after preservation in ammonia solution (L2); and polymerized after storage in ammonia, followed by Soxhlet technique for the extraction of substances (L3). Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was used as control. Two 10-mm diameter bone defects were surgically made in the calvaria of thirty adult male New Zealand rabbits. Defects (total n = 60) were treated with guided bone regeneration (GBR) using L1, L2, L3 or PTFE membranes (n = 15 for each membrane). Ten animals were euthanized after 7, 20 and 60 days postoperatively so that five samples (n = 5) of each treatment were collected at each time, and bone regeneration was assessed microscopically. The microscopic analysis revealed defects filled with blood clot and new bone formation at the margins of the defect in all 7-day samples, while 20-day defects were mainly filled with fibrous connective tissue. After 60 days defects covered with L1 membranes showed a significantly larger bone formation area in comparison to the other groups (P PTFE membranes was also investigated in six additional rabbits. The animals were subjected to the same surgical procedure for the confection of one 10-mm diameter bone defect that was treated with L1 (n = 3) or PTFE (n = 3). Fifty-three days later, a second surgery was performed to make a second defect, which was treated with the same type of membrane used in the first surgery. Seven days later, the animals were euthanized and samples analyzed. No differences among L1 and PTFE samples collected from sensitized and non-sensitized animals were found (P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis). Therefore, the results demonstrated that latex membranes presented performance comparable to PTFE membranes, and that L1 membranes induced higher bone formation. L1 and

  17. Assessment of reclaimed wastewater irrigation impacts on water quality, soil, and rice cultivation in paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Moon Seong; Kim, Sang Min; Park, Seung Woo; Lee, Jeong Jae; Yoo, Kyung H

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this research was to monitor and assess the impact of reclaimed wastewater irrigation on water quality, soil, and rice cultivation by comparing the effects of various wastewater treatment levels on the growth and yield of rice. A randomized complete block design was used for the application methods of the wastewater effluents to paddy rice, with five treatments and six replications. The treatments were: control with groundwater irrigation (GW); irrigation with polluted water form a nearby stream (SW); and three treatments of reclaimed wastewater irrigation at different treatment levels. The three levels of wastewater treatments included wastewater effluents: (i) directly from the wastewater plant (WW); (ii) after passing through a sand filter (WSF); and (iii) after passing a sand filter followed by an ultraviolet treatment (WSFUV). Each plot was 4 x 4 m and was planted with rice (Oryza sativa L.) in 2002 and 2003. The results indicated that irrigation of rice with reclaimed municipal wastewater caused no adverse effects on the growth and yield of rice. The chemical compositions of the rice from all plots were within the normal ranges of brown rice quality in Korea. No adverse effects were observed on chemical concentrations including the heavy metals Cu, As, Cd, Zn, Hg, and Pb, in either the brown rice or the field. The results showed that treated municipal wastewater can be safely used as an alternative water source for the irrigation of rice, although continued monitoring will be needed to determine the long-term effects with regard to soil contamination and other potential health concerns.

  18. Characteristics of some traditional Vietnamese starch-based rice wine fermentation starters (men)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta region of South-Vietnam, wine from purple glutinous rice is particularly interesting because of its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. It is manufactured at home or by small cottage industries, using traditional solid-state starters (Men). With the

  19. Heavy Metal Levels in Paddy Soils and Rice ( Oryza sativa (L)) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the levels of Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Lead, Zinc and total Mercury in brown rice are generally within the acceptable levels for human food. However, higher concentration of Hg was found in the husks, suggesting the significance of atmospheric dispersal of Hg in the basin. It is also worthwhile ...

  20. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  1. Assessment of the quality of bran and bran oil produced from some Egyptian rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Eglal G; El Hissewy, Ahmed; Agamy, Neveen F; Abd El Barry, Doaa

    2014-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the leading food crops of the world, the staple food of over half the world's population. The bran, which is an important byproduct obtained during rice milling, constitutes about 1/10 of the weight of the rice grain. Rice bran is the outer brown layer including the rice germ that is removed during the milling process of brown grain. This milling byproduct is reported to be high in natural vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin E. The present study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of bran and bran oil of 13 different rice varieties commonly produced in Egypt, to study the utilization of rice bran in bread production, and to assess the quality and acceptance of the rice bran edible oil produced. Rice bran was produced from 13 Egyptian varieties of recently harvested rice as well as from paddy rice stored for 1 year. The extracted bran was immediately stabilized then subjected to chemical analysis (such as moisture content, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, and ash) as well as trace and heavy metals determination (P, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg). Bread was produced by adding Giza172 rice bran at three different concentrations to wheat flour then subjected to chemical analysis, caloric content, and organoleptic examination. Bran oil was extracted from the different varieties of rice bran (recently harvested and stored) then subjected to chemical and organoleptic examinations as well as vitamin E and oryzanol determination. The percentage of rice bran of newly harvested Egyptian rice was 11.68% and was 10.97% in stored rice. The analysis showed mean values of 5.91 and 5.53% for moisture, 14.60 and 14.40% for crude protein, 14.83 and 15.20% for fat, 44.77 and 45.40% for carbohydrates, 6.55 and 7.06% for crude fiber, and 8.87 and 8.50% for ash for newly harvested and stored rice bran, respectively. Bread containing 15% rice bran showed the highest score percentages for organoleptic quality compared with the

  2. Effects of Interaction between Cadmium (Cd) and Selenium (Se) on Grain Yield and Cd and Se Accumulation in a Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) on their accumulation in three rice cultivars, which remains unclear. The results showed that Se reduced Cd-induced growth inhibition, and increased and decreased Se and Cd concentrations in brown rice, respectively. Cadmium concentrations in all tissues of the hybrid were similar to those in its male parent yet significantly lower than those in its female parent. Selenium reduced Cd accumulation in rice when Cd concentration exceeded 2.0 mg kg -1 ; however Se accumulation depended on the levels of Cd exposure. Finally, Cd had minimal effect on Se translocation within the three cultivars. We concluded that Cd concentration in brown rice is a heritable trait, making crossbreeding a feasible method for cultivating high-yield, low-Cd rice cultivars. Selenium effectively decreased the toxicity and accumulation of Cd, and Cd affected Se uptake but not translocation.

  3. Transforming Inundated Rice Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindraban, P.S.; Hengsdijk, H.; Cao, W.; Shi, Q.; Thiyagarajan, T.M.; Krogt, van der W.; Wardana, P.I.

    2006-01-01

    Almost 90% of global rice is produced under inundated conditions, i.e. in fields with a standing water layer of 5 to 15 cm during the major part of the growing season. Recently, inundated rice cultivation has come under pressure due to declining availability of water and labour, increasing demand

  4. (TGMS) of rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B., Singh A. K. and Kole C. 2011 Determination of genetic relationships among elite thermosensitive genic male sterile lines (TGMS) of rice. (Oryza sativa ... Keywords. rice; SSR markers; thermosensitive genic male sterility; morphological traits; genetic diversity. ..... level and have become an important tool in plant genetics.

  5. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  6. Field experiment for determining lead accumulation in rice grains of different genotypes and correlation with iron oxides deposited on rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Cheng; Syu, Chien-Hui; Wang, Pin-Jie; Lee, Dar-Yuan; Fan, Chihhao; Juang, Kai-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major staple crop in Asia. However, heavy metal accumulation in paddy soil poses a health risk for rice consumption. Although plant uptake of Pb is usually low, Pb concentrations in rice plants have been increasing with Pb contamination in paddy fields. It is known that iron oxide deposits in the rhizosphere influence the absorption of soil Pb by rice plants. In this study, 14 rice cultivars bred in Taiwan, including ten japonica cultivars (HL21, KH145, TC192, TK9, TK14, TK16, TN11, TNG71, TNG84, and TY3) and four indica cultivars (TCS10, TCS17, TCSW2, and TNGS22), were used in a field experiment. We investigated the genotypic variation in rice plant Pb in relation to iron oxides deposited in the rhizosphere, as seen in a suspiciously contaminated site in central Taiwan. The results showed that the cultivars TCSW2, TN11, TNG71, and TNG84 accumulated brown rice Pb exceeding the tolerable level of 0.2mgkg -1 . In contrast, the cultivars TNGS22, TK9, TK14, and TY3 accumulated much lower brown rice Pb (brown rice. The iron oxides deposited on the rhizosphere soil but not on the root surface to form iron plaque dominate Pb sequestration in the rhizosphere. Therefore, the enhancement of iron oxide deposits on the rhizosphere soil could serve as a barrier preventing soil Pb on the root surface and result in reduced Pb accumulation in brown rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Systematic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) metabolic responses to herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Christeller, John T; Fukumoto, Kaori; Isshiki, Ryutaro; Shinya, Tomonori; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Plants defend against attack from herbivores by direct and indirect defence mechanisms mediated by the accumulation of phytoalexins and release of volatile signals, respectively. While the defensive arsenals of some plants, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis are well known, most of rice's (Oryza sativa) defence metabolites and their effectiveness against herbivores remain uncharacterized. Here, we used a non-biassed metabolomics approach to identify many novel herbivory-regulated metabolic signatures in rice. Most were up-regulated by herbivore attack while only a few were suppressed. Two of the most prominent up-regulated signatures were characterized as phenolamides (PAs), p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine. PAs accumulated in response to attack by both chewing insects, i.e. feeding of the lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia) and the rice skipper (Parnara guttata) larvae, and the attack of the sucking insect, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH). In bioassays, BPH insects feeding on 15% sugar solution containing p-coumaroylputrescine or feruloylputrescine, at concentrations similar to those elicited by heavy BPH attack in rice, had a higher mortality compared to those feeding on sugar diet alone. Our results highlight PAs as a rapidly expanding new group of plant defence metabolites that are elicited by herbivore attack, and deter herbivores in rice and other plants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparative Study of the Phytoprostane and Phytofuran Content of indica and japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciroli, M; Domínguez-Perles, R; Abellán, A; Guy, A; Durand, T; Oger, C; Galano, J M; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2017-10-11

    Phytoprostanes and phytofurans (PhytoPs and PhytoFs, respectively) are nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation products derived from α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), considered biomarkers of oxidative degradation in plant foods. The present work profiled these compounds in white and brown grain flours and rice bran from 14 rice cultivars of the subspecies indica and japonica by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. For PhytoPs, the average concentrations were higher in rice bran (0.01-9.35 ng g -1 ) than in white and brown grain flours (0.01-1.17 ng g -1 ). In addition, the evaluation of rice flours for the occurrence PhytoFs evidenced average values 1.77, 4.22, and 10.30 ng g -1 dw in rice bran, brown grain flour, and white grain flour, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between total and individual compounds. The concentrations retrieved suggest rice bran as a valuable source of PhytoPs and PhytoFs that should be considered in further studies on bioavailability and bioactivity of such compounds.

  9. Genotypic differences in arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuli; Shi, Chunhai; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-06-01

    The contents of arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice were determined. Among 216 genotypes, the As, Hg, Pb and Cd contents were ranged from 5.06 to 296.45, 2.46 to 65.85, 4.16 to 744.95 and 5.91 to 553.40 ng/g, respectively. Six genotypes with lower contents of toxic metal elements were selected. The averages of As and Pb contents for indica rice were higher than those of japonica rice, while the averages of Hg and Cd contents were in contrast. Compared with white brown rice, the milled rice from black and red brown rice contained lower contents of four elements. Significant negative correlation was found between As content and alkaline spread value. Significant correlations were observed between As and aspartic acid (Asp) content, Hg and Asp or leucine contents, Pb and cysteine or methionine contents. Cd content was significantly negatively correlated with protein and 14 amino acid contents.

  10. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in these...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  12. HUBBLE SPIES BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY STELLAR NURSERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    objects. The brown dwarfs are the faintest objects in the image. Surveying the cluster's central region, the Hubble telescope spied brown dwarfs with masses equaling 10 to 80 Jupiters. Researchers think there may be less massive brown dwarfs that are beyond the limits of Hubble's vision. The near-infrared image was taken Jan. 17, 1998. Two near-infrared filters were used to obtain information on the colors of the stars at two wavelengths (1.1 and 1.6 microns). The Trapezium picture is 1 light-year across. This composite image was made from a 'mosaic' of nine separate, but adjoining images. In this false-color image, blue corresponds to warmer, more massive stars, and red to cooler, less massive stars and brown dwarfs, and stars that are heavily obscured by dust. The visible-light data were taken in 1994 and 1995. Credits for near-infrared image: NASA; K.L. Luhman (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass.); and G. Schneider, E. Young, G. Rieke, A. Cotera, H. Chen, M. Rieke, R. Thompson (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.) Credits for visible-light picture: NASA, C.R. O'Dell and S.K. Wong (Rice University)

  13. Effects of Red-mud and Organic Fertilizer on Cadmium and Lead Absorption and Distribution in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    FANG Ya-yu; ZOU Hui-ling; YIN Xiao-hui; CHEN Nan; YANG Deng; WEI Xiang-dong

    2016-01-01

    Effects of red mud and organic fertilizer on distribution of cadmium(Cd) and lead (Pb) in soil-rice system were studied in field by orthogonal test. Results showed that after red mud and organic fertilizer added including single and combined, the soil pH value increased 0.36~1.90 units, contents of Cd and Pb in rice rhizosphere soil decreased 2.73%~26.25% and 7.15%~34.26% respectively and contents of Cd and Pb in brown rice decreased 23.24%~55.90% and 11.76%~29.41% respectively. In all treatm...

  14. Rice Genomics: Gene discovery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is a need for discovering candidate genes( a lot of them all over the genome indeed ) and the unlimited allelic variation that can productively take over rice metabolism when cellular water content falls below threshold levels.

  15. Elements in rice from the Swedish market: 1. Cadmium, lead and arsenic (total and inorganic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Astrand, C; Sundström, B; Baxter, M; Stokes, P; Lewis, J; Grawé, K Petersson

    2008-03-01

    A survey of the levels of cadmium, lead and arsenic in different types of rice available on the Swedish retail market was carried out in 2001--03. The types of rice included long and short grain, brown, white, and parboiled white rice. The mean levels found were as follows: total As: 0.20 mg kg(-1), inorganic As: 0.11 mg kg(-1); Cd: 0.024 mg kg(-1); and Pb: 0.004 mg kg(-1). ICP-MS was used for the determination of As (total and inorganic) after acid digestion. Lead and cadmium were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after dry ashing. In countries where rice is a staple food, it may represent a significant contribution in relation to the provisional tolerable weekly intake for Cd and inorganic As.

  16. OsPTR7 (OsNPF8.1), a Putative Peptide Transporter in Rice, is Involved in Dimethylarsenate Accumulation in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhong; Chen, Yi; Chen, Fei; Ji, Yuchen; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2017-05-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major dietary source of arsenic (As) for the population consuming rice as their staple food. Rice grain contains both inorganic As and methylated As species, especially dimethyarsinate (DMA). DMA is highly mobile in long-distance translocation in plants, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, we showed that OsPTR7 (OsNPF8.1), a putative peptide transporter in rice, was permeable to DMA in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Transient expression of the OsPTR7-green fluorescent protein (GFP) in tobacco protoplasts showed that OsPTR7 was localized in the cell plasma membrane. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that OsPTR7 was more highly expressed in the shoots than in the roots at the seedling stage. At the flowering and grain-filling stage, the OsPTR7 transcript was abundant in the leaves, node I and roots. Knockout or knockdown mutants of OsPTR7 had significantly decreased root to shoot translocation of DMA compared with wild-type plants and accumulated less As in the brown rice. In field-grown plants, DMA accounted for 35% of the total As in the brown rice of wild-type plants but was undetectable in the knockout mutant. Our study demonstrates that OsPTR7 is involved in the long-distance translocation of DMA and contributes to the accumulation of DMA in rice grain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  18. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Marie Pangan Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. Objective: This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Method: The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5 and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Results: Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Conclusion: Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities.

  19. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lara Marie Pangan; Kang, Mi Young; Yi, Seong Joon; Chung, Soo Im

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5) and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities.

  20. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lara Marie Pangan; Kang, Mi Young; Yi, Seong Joon; Chung, Soo Im

    2016-01-01

    Background In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. Objective This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Method The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5) and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Results Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Conclusion Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities. PMID:27032671

  1. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yeast Rice For More Information Key References Acknowledgments © asian-ingredients Red yeast rice is a traditional Chinese ... products varies depending on the yeast strains and culture conditions used to manufacture them. The strains and ...

  2. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At

    2001-01-01

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  3. Improvement of traditional local rice varieties through induced mutations using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Van Ro; Do Huu At [Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    'Improvement of local rice varieties for high yield, resistance to disease and insect pests (brown plant hopper and rice blast) and export quality through induced mutations for the Mekong Delta' started in 1993. After six years, it showed effecting on the field in the MD as well as at the south of Vietnam. TNDB-100 manifest very wide adaptation and yield stable variety. THDB is suitable for deepwater rice region, coastal area, where rice cultivation effected by acid sulphate and salinity conditions. Both varieties are good example for the method. Thank to good Co-operation from extension center from provinces, hundred classes of extension were organized to recommend to the farmers. And thank to the strongly supporting from IAEA so that nearly 400,000 ha of TNDB-100 occupied at the south of Vietnam as well as nearly 15,000 ha of THDB grown in the coastal as well as rainfed lowland rice areas at the South of Vietnam. To continue the rice improvement by this technique, seeds of six traditional local varieties were exposed under different dose of gamma rays to create new mutants. At present day hundred improved breeding lines were selected, a dozen of uniform lines were isolated and entranced the yield trail as well as regional testing program. From these improved varieties would be selected to contribute to the rice cultivation at the south of Vietnam in the next years. (author)

  4. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataveli, Lidiane Raquel Verola; Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  5. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Raquel Verola Mataveli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled, consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health.

  6. Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarno, Ermin; Suliwarno, Ambyah; Ismachin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants. Genetics studies on alcohol dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, peroxidase, acid phosphase, and aminopeptidase isoenzymes were carried out on several groups of rice varieties and their mutant lines. The first groups consisted of Atomita I, Pelita I/1, A227/5, Mudgo, TN-1, and IR-26. The second group was Cisadane variety and its five mutants, namely OBS 18, OBS 208, OBS 297, OBS 306, and OBS 330. The third group was mutants line 627-10-3 and its mutants, namely 1063, 1066, 1067, 1076, and 1090. Isoenzymes extracts of the rice leaves were fractionated using polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. The pattern of acid phosphate isoenzyme shows the specific character of rice mutants susceptible to brown plant hopper biotype 1. The gene(s) controlling malic enzyme in Cisadane's mutants is (are) estimated more resistant toward gamma irradiation than gene(s) responsible for controlling the other enzymes. Generally, the isoenzymes zymograms show that gene(s) controlling the mutants enzyme have undergone mutation. This case is shown by the changes of Rm value, as well as the amount and intensity of mutants bands. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs

  7. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  8. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  9. Soil micronutrients and its uptake by rice plant. Part of a coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    A series of field and greenhouse experiments with flooded rice was carried out on contrasting soil types of Korea to study the zinc status of soils, evaluate the chemical methods for extracting zinc from soils in terms of ability to identify zinc deficiency, perform 65 Zn-aided experiments including the residual effects of zinc fertilizers to evaluate the efficiency of zinc sources and methods of zinc application to rice, and associated studies on factors affecting zinc nutrition in rice such as effect of organic matter and chelates. The results show that i) 0.05 N HCl solution for extracting available zinc in soil was effective to separating the soils which require zinc fertilizer application. The proposed zinc value to identify is 2.4 ppm. Among rice soils surveyed, the red-yellow podsolic soil derived from basalt, the reddish-brown lateritic soil of calcareous material and newly reclaimed saline soils were shown to be below this limit; ii) 5 kg Zn/ha as zinc sulphate introduced the highest response in terms of % Zndff, total zinc yield in rice plant, and the fertilizer zinc use efficiency. Applying higher zinc amounts, in case of 20 kg Zn/ha, retarded nitrogen uptake by the plant and as a result the rice grain yield was decreased; iii) Significant yields increases due to the residual effects of zinc fertilizers were obtained on the second and third crops; iv) On the zinc-deficient calcareous soil the use of chelated zinc sources is recommended

  10. [Determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic rice by crosslinked carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan microcolumn preconcentration combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-qing; Li, Sheng-qing; Qu, Yang; Chen, Hao

    2012-02-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic brown rice based on separation and preconcentration with a micro column packed with crosslinked carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan (CCMKGM) prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Variables affecting the separation and preconcentration of lead and cadmium, such as the acidity of the aqueous solution, sample flow rate and volume, and eluent concentration and volume, were optimized. Under optimized condition, detection limits of the method for the determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic brown rice were 0.11 and 0.002 microg x L(-1), respectively. The obtained results of lead and cadmium in the certified reference material (GBW10010, GBS1-1) were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries were in the range of 90%-103% and 93%-105% for detection of Pb and Cd in transgenic brown rice and the wild-type brown rice samples respectively. This study could provide technical support for determination of trace Pb and Cd in transgenic rice.

  11. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity.…

  12. Brown at 50: Keeping Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    The story of Brown is compelling. Blacks and Whites alike understood that the Jim Crow system of "separate but equal" was a convenient fiction. There was no actual effort to ensure that Whites and Blacks were provided the same services. Invariably, the White schools had higher funding, better buildings, newer supplies and so on. Indeed,…

  13. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus...

  15. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  16. Survey of arsenic and its speciation in rice products such as breakfast cereals, rice crackers and Japanese rice condiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Carey, Anne-Marie; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2009-04-01

    Rice has been demonstrated to be one of the major contributors to arsenic (As) in human diets in addition to drinking water, but little is known about rice products as an additional source of As exposure. Rice products were analyzed for total As and a subset of samples were measured for arsenic speciation using high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A wide range of rice products had total and inorganic arsenic levels that typified those found in rice grain including, crisped rice, puffed rice, rice crackers, rice noodles and a range of Japanese rice condiments as well as rice products targeted at the macrobiotic, vegan, lactose intolerant and gluten intolerance food market. Most As in rice products are inorganic As (75.2-90.1%). This study provides a wider appreciation of how inorganic arsenic derived from rice products enters the human diet.

  17. Determination of total strontium in uruguayan rice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Rivero Huguet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Strontium (Sr is found naturally as a non-radioactive element and has 16 known isotopes. Naturally occurring Sr is found as four stable isotopes: Sr-84, -86, -87, and -88. Twelve other isotopes are radioactive. Sr-90 is the most important radioactive isotope in the environment, discovered mostly after the nuclear experiments conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. In the present work, 86 rice samples (Oryza saliva L. and 7 rice husk samples were digested by dry ashing for the purpose of determining the total Sr levels by ICP-OES. The mean concentrations found were: 0.281 µg g-1 for milled, 0.287 µg g-1 for parboiled milled, 0.564 µg g-1 for brown, 0.73 µg g-1 for parboiled brown, and 1.16 µg g-1 for paddy rice, and 3.44 µg g-1 for the rice husks. Validation of the method was conducted with a certified reference material, NIST CAM 8418 Wheat Gluten, and the recovery obtained ranged from 89-98%. As the outer layers (aleurone, pericarp of the grain are removed, the Sr concentration decreases. It can then be assumed that most of the Sr is stored in these layers. Although no extensive data exist for Sr levels in rice, the values obtained are in good agreement with the results reported for Sr in brown rice from Japan (0.25-0.72 µg g-1 and with non-contaminated foodstuffs from other parts of the world. Thus, the Uruguayan rice has Sr levels that match non-contaminated samples and its consumption presents no health threat.Publicado en: Atomic Spectroscopy.-- 2006, 27(3:80-85

  18. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  19. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Walker, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF. 30 refs

  20. Selenium addition alters mercury uptake, bioavailability in the rhizosphere and root anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Fu, Shi; Ametkhan, Aray; Ouyang, Yun; Ye, Zhihong

    2014-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, especially in the form of methylmercury (MeHg), whereas selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in the human diet. This study aimed to ascertain whether addition of Se can produce rice with enriched Se and lowered Hg content when growing in Hg-contaminated paddy fields and, if so, to determine the possible mechanisms behind these effects. Two cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa, japonica and indica) were grown in either hydroponic solutions or soil rhizobags with different Se and Hg treatments. Concentrations of total Hg, MeHg and Se were determined in the roots, shoots and brown rice, together with Hg uptake kinetics and Hg bioavailability in the soil. Root anatonmy was also studied. The high Se treatment (5 μg g(-1)) significantly increased brown rice yield by 48 % and total Se content by 2·8-fold, and decreased total Hg and MeHg by 47 and 55 %, respectively, compared with the control treatments. The high Se treatment also markedly reduced 'water-soluble' Hg and MeHg concentrations in the rhizosphere soil, decreased the uptake capacity of Hg by roots and enhanced the development of apoplastic barriers in the root endodermis. Addition of Se to Hg-contaminated soil can help produce brown rice that is simultaneously enriched in Se and contains less total Hg and MeHg. The lowered accumulation of total Hg and MeHg appears to be the result of reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg in the rhizosphere, suppression of uptake of Hg into the root cells and an enhancement of the development of apoplastic barriers in the endodermis of the roots. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anil; Wu, Kao; Li, Dongqin; Bentota, Amitha; Corke, Harold; Cai, Yi-Zhong

    2013-06-01

    Proanthocyanidin-containing rice varieties have been rarely reported. Antioxidant capacity, major antioxidant components, and nutritional parameters of eight traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins grown in Sri Lanka were investigated. The tested traditional red varieties, on the average, had over sevenfold higher both total antioxidant capacity and phenolic content than three light brown-grained new-improved rice varieties. Major antioxidant phenolic compounds identified in this study included proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids and γ-oryzanols (ferulic acid derivatives). Proanthocyanidins were detected only in the traditional red varieties, but not found in new-improved ones. Most traditional red varieties also contained significantly higher levels of protein with well balanced amino acids and higher contents of fat, fibre and vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) than the new-improved ones. Great variations in antioxidant capacity, major phenolics, and nutritional parameters were observed among different rice varieties. These Sri Lankan traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins may be used as important genetic sources for rice breeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of purple-rice drinks following ultrahigh pressure and pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how pressure (500, 600 MPa/20 min) altered the viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of germinated and non-germinated purple-rice drinks in comparison with pasteurization. Accordingly, color parameters, storage and loss moduli, anthocyanin content, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic compounds and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylthydrazyl (DPPH) capacity of the processed drinks were determined. The finding showed that germinated and pressurized rice drink had lower Browning Index than the non-germinated and pasteurized rice drink. The plots of storage and loss moduli for processed rice drinks indicated that time of pressurization had greater impact on gel structural modification than the level of pressure used. The phytochemicals, including total phenolics, and DPPH capacity in pressurized rice drinks retained higher quantity than those in pasteurized drink, despite less treatment effects on anthocyanin. On the contrary, both γ-oryzanol and GABA were found in high amounts in germinated rice drink with little variation among processing effects.

  3. Breeding of high nutrition function rice line ″Jupeihongjing No.1″ and its nutrition and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Dongzhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ″Jupeihongjing No.1″ is an early late-maturity japonica rice variiety with high fuctional nutritions,which was developed by Development Center of Plant Germplasm Resources,Shanghai Normal University,China.″Jupeihongjing No.1″ is of high-yielding,giant embryo and red brown-rice grains and high anthocyanins.Further analyses showed that ″Jupeihongjing No.1″ have higher nutritions than common rice varieties espicallly for γ-amino butyric Acid (GABA and vitamin E have twice content of common rice varieties.The results showed that the ″Jupeihongjing No.1″ is of significant nutritions and application value.

  4. Antigenotoxic activity of Thai Sangyod red rice extracts against a chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin, in human lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanavalachai, Treetip; Thitiorul, Sumon; Tanuchit, Sermkiat; Jansom, Chalerm; Uttama, Sakultala; Itharat, Arunporn

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, anticarcinogenic potential of pigmented brown rice and rice bran varieties have been increasingly stated. However, their mechanisms of action are still inconclusive. One of which might be their antigenotoxic activity that no study in human cells was reported before. To evaluate the antigenotoxic activities of Thai Sangyod red rice extracts against a chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin, by sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in human lymphocytes in vitro. Two fractions of water-soluble of Sangyod rice extracts were used: (i) the washed water extract of brown rice (WWBR) and (ii) the water extract of rice bran (WERB). Human lymphocytes were pretreated with each extracts at concentrations of 6.2, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml for 2 h followed by a genotoxic agent, doxorubicin (DXR) (0.1 microg/ml) for 2 h. SCE level, mitotic index (MI) and proliferation index (PI) were evaluated. Statistical analysis by Dunnett's t-test was performed. The results indicated that the pretreatment of WERB fraction only at concentration of 6.2 microg/ml could significantly decrease SCE level as compared to that of the DXR treated alone (p rice extracts.

  5. Behaviour of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum on rice as affected by degree of milling, temperature, and relative humidity during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seonyeong; Jun, Hyejung; Bang, Jihyun; Chung, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the survival and growth patterns of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum, as well as mycotoxin production, on Korean rice as affected by the degree of milling (rough, brown, and white rice) and storage conditions (21 °C/85% relative humidity [RH], 21 °C/97% RH, and 30 °C/85% RH). When rice was stored at 21 °C/85% RH, the population of A. flavus remained constant and aflatoxin was not produced, regardless of the degree of milling. At 21 °C/97% RH and 30 °C/85% RH, the populations of A. flavus increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and aflatoxins were produced. The highest population of A. flavus and highest amount of aflatoxin B1 were observed on brown rice stored at 21 °C/97% RH. For F. graminearum, when stored at 85% RH, the populations were reduced to less than a detectable level (5 CFU/g of rice) within 120 days and no deoxynivalenol (DON) was produced, regardless of the degree of milling and storage temperature. However, at 21 °C/97% RH, the population of F. graminearum increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and DON was produced on all types of rice. Findings from this study provide insights concerning storage conditions necessary to prevent growth and mycotoxin production by A. flavus and F. graminearum on Korean rice with different degrees of milling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10: normal control diet (NC and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH or germinated Superhongmi (GSH rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  7. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo Im; Ryu, Su Noh; Kang, Mi Young

    2016-10-21

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups ( n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  8. [Response of rice grain quality traits to free-air CO2 enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guichun; Wang, Yulong; Huang, Jianye; Yang, Hongjian; Gu, Hui; Peng, Bin; Ju, Jing; Yang, Lianxin; Zhu, Jianguo; Shan, Yuhua

    2004-07-01

    The study showed that under field condition, when the CO2 concentration was elevated 200 micromol x mol(-1) above control, the average brown rice rate of japonica variety Wuxiangjing 14 was 1.4% higher, while lead milled rice rate was 12.3% lower than control. The brown rice rate increased at lower nitrogen supply level (LN), while lead milled rice rate increased at higher nitrogen supply level (HN). The percentage of chalky grain was 11.9% higher, and chalkiness degree was 2.8% higher than control, but no obvious difference was found in chalkiness area between the FACE and the control. The chalkiness area, percentage of chalky grain and chalkiness degree decreased at HN plus higher phosphorus supply level (HP). The gelatinization temperature was elevated 0.52 degrees C, gel consistency increased, while amylose content was not statistically significant. The amylose content decreased at HN plus HP, while gel consistency and gelatinization temperature decreased at LN plus HP and at LN, respectively. The protein content was decreased 0.6% under FACE treatment and at LN plus lower phosphorus supply level.

  9. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  10. Effects of Pig Slurry as Basal and Panicle Fertilizer on Trace Element Content and Grain Quality in Direct-Seeding Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct-seeding rice has grown in popularity in recent years and is widespread in China. This study focused on the effects of pig slurry (PS on grain quality and safety in direct-seeding rice. Application of more than 210 m3·hm−2 increased rice yield and dry matter accumulation, compared with conventional chemical fertilizer treatment (CK2. At the heading and maturing stage, a high dosage of PS (T6, T8 and T9 treatments promoted uptake of Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn by rice plants and grain, but retarded uptake of Cr, Co and Ni, indicating an ability to alleviate toxicity of some heavy metals. Compared with CK2, PS alleviated the transfer of Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and Cu from straw to grain, but enhanced the transport of Zn, Fe and Mn. Although PS application slightly diminished the processing quality, including brown rice, milled rice and head milled rice, it significantly decreased the amylose content, optimized the starch profile, and improved the overall quality. The results confirmed the feasibility and safety of PS application to direct-seeding rice, and determined that PS basal and panicle fertilizer could increase yield and improve the rice quality when applied between 210 and 240 m3·hm−2.

  11. Enhancement of gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and other health-related metabolites in germinated red rice (Oryza sativa L.) by ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junzhou; Ulanov, Alexander V; Dong, Mengyi; Yang, Tewu; Nemzer, Boris V; Xiong, Shanbai; Zhao, Siming; Feng, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) that has a red (reddish brown) bran layer in de-hulled rice is known to contain rich biofunctional components. Germination is an effective technique to improve the nutritional quality, digestibility, and flavor of de-hulled rice. Ultrasonication, a form of physical stimulation, has been documented as a novel approach to improve the nutritional quality of plant-based food. This study was undertaken to test the use of ultrasound to enhance the nutritional value of red rice. Ultrasonication (5min, 16W/L) was applied to rice during soaking or after 66h germination. Changes of metabolites (amino acids, sugars, and organic acids) in red rice treated by ultrasonication were determined using a GC/MS plant primary metabolomics analysis platform. Differential expressed metabolites were identified through multivariate statistical analysis. Results showed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and riboflavin (vitamin B 2 ) in red rice significantly increased after germination for 72h, and then experienced a further increase after treatment by ultrasound at different stages during germination. The metabolomics analysis showed that some plant metabolites, i.e. GABA, O-phosphoethanolamine, and glucose-6-phosphate were significantly increased after the ultrasonic treatment (VIP>1.5) in comparison with the untreated germinated rice. The findings of this study showed that controlled germination with ultrasonic stress is an effective method to enhance GABA and other health-promoted components in de-hulled rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  13. Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses the safety of cosmetic ingredients derived from rice, Oryza sativa. Oils, Fatty Acids, and Waxes: Rice Bran Oil functions in cosmetics as a conditioning agent--occlusive in 39 formulations across a wide range of product types. Rice Germ Oil is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in six formulations in only four product categories. Rice Bran Acid is described as a surfactant-cleansing agent, but was not in current use. Rice Bran Wax is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in eight formulations in five product categories. Industry did not directly report any use of Rice Bran Wax. Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax is a binder, skin-conditioning agent--occlusive, and viscosity-increasing agent--nonaqueous in 11 formulations in six product categories. Rice Bran Oil had an oral LD50 of > 5 g/kg in white rats and Rice Wax had an oral LD50 of > 24 g/kg in male mice. A three-generation oral dosing study reported no toxic or teratologic effects in albino rats fed 10% Rice Bran Oil compared to a control group fed Peanut Oil. Undiluted Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were not irritants in animal skin tests. Rice Bran Oil was not a sensitizer. Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, Rice Wax, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were negative in ocular toxicity assays. A mixture of Rice Bran Oil and Rice Germ Oil had a ultraviolet (UV) absorption maximum at 315 nm, but was not phototoxic in a dermal exposure assay. Rice Bran Oil was negative in an Ames assay, and a component, gamma-oryzanol, was negative in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Rice oils, fatty acids, and waxes were, at most, mildly irritating in clinical studies. Extracts: Rice Bran Extract is used in six formulations in four product categories. Rice Extract is a hair-conditioning agent, but was not in current use. Hydrolyzed Rice Extract is used in four formulations and current concentration of use data were provided for other uses. Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, described

  14. The improvement of cisantana rice variety through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono; Lilik Harsanti; Azri Kusuma Dewi

    2009-01-01

    The continuous improvement for rice through breeding is necessary to obtain new varieties with good quality and quantity. Cisantana variety hairy tips could be improved by mutation breeding. Seeds of Cisantana variety was irradiated by gamma rays ( 60 Co) at doses of 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 kGy respectively at the Center for Application of Isotope and Radiation (CAIR) - Batan, Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. There after the irradiated seeds were planted as M1 plants at the CAIR’S experiment field in the dry season of 2000. Selection was carried out at the M2 generation and stressed on early maturity and bald spike. This was done at the experiment field at Pusakanegara - Subang in the Wet season of 2001/2002. From this population 19 mutants having early maturity and bald spike lets were selected. Purification in the next generation obtained 10 mutants which were homogeneous and without segregation. From these 10 mutants two mutant lines Obs-1688/PsJ and Obs-1692/PsJ were further tested. These two mutant lines showed good productivity and adaptability when tested at several locations. The resistance test for brown plant hopper and bacterial leaf blight disease showed that these two mutant lines are resistant to biotype 1 and 2, and medium resistant to biotype 3 of brown plant hopper, and also resistant to strain 3 and medium resistant to strain IV of bacterial leaf blight disease. These two mutant lines have good rice quality and were gelatinous. The Obs-1688/PsJ and Obs-1692/PsJ mutant lines were released as new rice varieties by the Minister of Agriculture and officially address as Mira-1 at 2006 and Bestari at 2008, respectively. (author)

  15. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Abacar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG, brown rice yield (BRY, milled rice yield (MRY, degree of milling (DM, amylose content (AC, protein content (PC, and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from 2.15 to 12.49 t/hm2 with a mean of 6.4 t/hm2 and number of grains per square meter contributed for 94.64% in grain yield variation. For quality traits, all rice mutants had short size (grain length ≤ 5.5 mm and bold shape (grain length to width ratio = 1.10–2.00. Most of rice mutants (87.5% had PCG values below 20%. All mutants had MRY values above 50%, AC values below 20%, and PC values below 10%. Percentage of chalky grains was significantly negatively correlated with MRY and positively correlated with DM. BRY and MRY were significantly negatively correlated with DM. PC was significantly and positively correlated with MRY and negatively correlated with DM, while AC had no significant correlation with these quality traits. It was concluded that there were 25 rice mutants which fulfilled the major requirements of Jiangsu standard japonica rice such as low percentage of chalky grains, low amylose content, optimal protein content, and which could be used as elite germplasms. Thus the mutants identified may lead to significant progress in improvement of rice quality.

  16. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  17. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  18. Comparative analysis of profitability of NERICA rice and local rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the costs and returns and the problems confronting rice production. One hundred and eighty (180) farmers were randomly selected from one thousand two hundred rice producers from two districts, namely Kujama and Kakau of Chukun LGA of Kaduna State. Data collection was done using structured ...

  19. Evaluation and Deployment of Rice Genotypes Resistant to Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation and Deployment of Rice Genotypes Resistant to Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Disease in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. ... Susceptible cultivars recorded up to 75% reduction in height and death of plants whereas those resistant had mild symptoms and negligible plant height reduction. Highly resistant ...

  20. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  1. Cadmium accumulation in and tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties with different rates of radial oxygen loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M Y; Chen, A K; Wong, M H; Qiu, R L; Cheng, H; Ye, Z H

    2011-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake and tolerance were investigated among 20 rice cultivars based on a field experiment (1.2 mg Cd kg⁻¹ in soil) and a soil pot trial (control, 100 mg Cd kg⁻¹), and rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL) were measured under a deoxygenated solution. Significant differences were found among the cultivars in: (1) brown rice Cd concentrations (0.11-0.29 mg kg⁻¹) in a field soil, (2) grain Cd tolerance (34-113%) and concentrations (2.1-6.5 mg kg⁻¹) in a pot trial, and (3) rates of ROL (15-31 mmol O₂ kg⁻¹ root d.w. h⁻¹). Target hazard quotients were calculated for the field experiment to assess potential Cd risk. Significant negative relationships were found between rates of ROL and concentrations of Cd in brown rice or straw under field and greenhouse conditions, indicating that rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL had higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  3. Linking large-scale bean-rice rotation with increased rice yield in remote sensing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the two different treatments are continuous rice and rice in rotation with bean, and the response is the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of rice or the rice yield. This study is to determine whether the rice in rotation with bean results in a significant effect—increasing the rice yield. In this completely randomized experiment, we randomly assigned 40 samples to the continuous rice and 40 samples to the rice in rotation with bean. Then the rice NDVIs of all 80 samples were computed. Because the statistical significance of the rice NDVI of the rotation treatment was observed in the experiment, we can be confident in the conclusion that it was the difference in treatments that resulted in the difference in the rice yield. That is, we can be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship between the rice in rotation with bean and the rice yield increase has been found.

  4. scale rice farmers in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    costs for domestic rice. This implies an outward shift of the domestic rice supply curve. This outward shift creates an economic surplus for the economy, typically shared between producers and consumers depending on the slopes of the supply and demand curves. This economic surplus could conceivably amount to some.

  5. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  6. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  7. Maximum outcrossing rate and genetic compatibility between red rice (Oryza sativa) biotypes and Clearfield™ rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although red rice can be selectively controlled with imazethapyr in ClearfieldTM (CL) rice, the transfer of the imazethapyr-resistant gene from CL rice to red rice is an ecological risk. Previous experiments indicated that flowering synchronization and genetic compatibility between cultivated rice a...

  8. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    unraveling the identity of rice genes expressing in temporal and spatial manner and should help target candidate genes useful for improving traits of agronomic importance. Simultaneously ...... Harris S. B. 2002 Virtual rice: Japan sets up the rice simulator project to create an in silico rice plant. EMBO Rep. 3, 511–. 513.

  9. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  10. Arsenic uptake in organic rice production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic in rice is known to be a problem in some rice-producing countries that have high levels of inorganic arsenic naturally occurring in water resources. However, it was never considered an issue for USA produced rice until international market surveys were published, indicating some USA rice sam...

  11. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural…

  12. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  13. Cytoskeleton and Morphogenesis in Brown Algae

    OpenAIRE

    KATSAROS, CHRISTOS; KARYOPHYLLIS, DEMOSTHENES; GALATIS, BASIL

    2006-01-01

    • Background Morphogenesis on a cellular level includes processes in which cytoskeleton and cell wall expansion are strongly involved. In brown algal zygotes, microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) participate in polarity axis fixation, cell division and tip growth. Brown algal vegetative cells lack a cortical MT cytoskeleton, and are characterized by centriole-bearing centrosomes, which function as microtubule organizing centres.

  14. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches....

  15. Brown vs. Board of Education Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    IDEA, UCLA

    2004-01-01

    This booklet was designed for K-12 classrooms and community groups examining the legacy of Brown v Board for California. The booklet chronicles the national battle for equal schooling up to and since the Brown decision. It also highlights the history of school segregation in California and the ongoing struggle for equal schooling.

  16. "Brown" and Black-White Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" only presumed to eliminate the "de jure" apartheid that existed in 1954. It was never intended to resolve the "de facto" gap in minority achievement that still faces education policymakers today. Sociologist David J. Armor goes beyond "Brown" to identify a set of definite risk…

  17. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1...

  18. Thermochemical modelling of brown dwarf discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, A. J.; Kamp, I.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W.-F.; Rab, Ch.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.

    The physical properties of brown dwarf discs, in terms of their shapes and sizes, are still largely unexplored by observations. ALMA has by far the best capabilities to observe these discs in sub-mm CO lines and dust continuum, while also spatially resolving some discs. To what extent brown dwarf

  19. Effects of glucocorticoids on human brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Johanna L; Agada, Hadiya; Jang, Christina; Ward, Micheal; Wetzig, Neil; Ho, Ken K Y

    2015-02-01

    Clinical cases of glucocorticoid (GC) excess are characterized by increased fat mass and obesity through the accumulation of white adipocytes. The effects of GCs on growth and function of brown adipose tissue are unknown and may contribute to the negative energy balance observed clinically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GCs on proliferation, differentiation, and metabolic function of brown adipocytes. Human brown adipocytes sourced from supraclavicular fat biopsies were grown in culture and differentiated to mature adipocytes. Human white adipocytes sourced from subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsies were cultured as controls. Effects of dexamethasone on growth, differentiation (UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A expression), and function (oxygen consumption rate (OCR)) of brown adipocytes were quantified. Dexamethasone (1 μM) significantly stimulated the proliferation of brown preadipocytes and reduced that of white preadipocytes. During differentiation, dexamethasone (at 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) stimulated the expression of UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced by fourfold to sixfold the OCR of brown adipocytes. Isoprenaline (100 nM) significantly increased (Peffects were significantly reduced (Peffects on development and function of brown adipocytes. These findings provide strong evidence for an effect of GCs on the biology of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) and for the involvement of the BAT system in the metabolic manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  1. Role of varieties in sustainable rice production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman Omar; Saad Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of Malaysians. Rice production in Malaysia is concentrated in granary areas, which are provided with irrigation facilities. There is no plan to increase the size or the number of these granary areas, thus productivity per unit area must be increased to sustain the current level of self-sufficiency. Variety determines the potential productivity; environment and crop management determine how much of this potential is realized. Crop management is very important, as any drop in the level of management will effect productivity. However there are characteristics / factors that can be incorporated into varieties which can buffer the effect of environment and crop management. Pests and diseases can result in severe yield loss and lead to non-sustainable production. Varietal resistance to some of these diseases can be incorporated into rice varieties. Active breeding to incorporate rice resistance to blast, PMV (tungro), bacterial blight and brown planthopper is being currently carried out Factors that determine or justify the active breeding status are: importance of Oe pests diseases, resistance sources and the availability of efficient screening procedure. Sheath blight is also an important disease in direct seeded crops as it can cause severe yield loss, but good resistant sources are not available for incorporation and the screening procedure is also not very efficient. Biotechnologists are working hard to introduce resistance from other crops and also develop other resistance mechanisms for sheath blight. Water, shortage or excess, is a major cause of non-sustainable production. The breeding of short-term varieties can overcome water problems or shortages. Negative interaction between varietal characteristics and environment do occur. Finally farmers have to decide which factors of the environment cannot be easily controlled, and choose the correct varieties in order to achieve sustainable production. (Author)

  2. Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jingchu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively. Description More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria. Conclusions Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading.

  3. Growth and Cd uptake by rice (Oryza sativa) in acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils amended with steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaidong; Tam, Nora F Y; Yao, Aijun; Qiu, Rongliang; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2017-12-01

    Contamination of rice (Oryza sativa) by Cd is of great concern. Steel slag could be used to amend Cd-contaminated soils and make them safe for cereal production. This work was conducted to study the effects of steel slag on Cd uptake and growth of rice plants in acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils and to determine the possible mechanisms behind these effects. Pot (rhizobag) experiments were conducted using rice plants grown on two acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils with or without steel slag amendment. Steel slag amendment significantly increased grain yield by 36-45% and root catalase activity, and decreased Cd concentrations in brown rice by 66-77% compared with the control, in both soils. Steel slag amendment also markedly decreased extractable soil Cd, Cd concentrations in pore-water and Cd translocation from roots to above-ground parts. It also significantly increased soil pH, extractable Si and Ca in soils and Ca concentrations in roots. Significant positive correlations were found between extractable soil Cd and Cd concentrations in rice tissues, but it was negatively correlated with soil pH and extractable Si. Calcium in root tissues significantly and negatively correlated with Cd translocation factors from roots to straw. Overall, steel slag amendment not only significantly promoted rice growth but decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice. These benefits appear to be related to improvements in soil conditions (e.g. increasing pH, extractable Si and Ca), a reduction in extractable soil Cd, and suppression of Cd translocation from roots to above-ground parts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term changes in rice development in Southern Brazil, during the last ten decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to test long-term trends in the duration of rice development phases in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The duration from emergence to V3 (EM-V3, emergence to panicle differentiation (EM-R1, emergence to anthesis (EM-R4, and emergence to all grains with brown hull (EM-R9 was calculated using leaf appearance and developmental models for four rice cultivars (IRGA 421, IRGA 417, EPAGRI 109, and EEA 406, for the period from 1912 to 2011, considering three emergence dates (early, mid, and late. The trend of the time series was tested with the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, and the magnitude of the trend was estimated with simple linear regression. Rice development has changed over the last ten decades in this location, leading to an anticipation of harvest time of 17 to 31 days, depending on the cultivar maturity group and emergence date, which is related to trends of temperature increase during the growing season. Warmer temperatures over the evaluated time period are responsible for changing rice phenology in this location, since minimum and maximum daily temperature drive the rice developmental models used.

  5. Biallelic and Genome Wide Association Mapping of Germanium Tolerant Loci in Rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Talukdar

    Full Text Available Rice plants accumulate high concentrations of silicon. Silicon has been shown to be involved in plant growth, high yield, and mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it has been demonstrated that inorganic arsenic is taken up by rice through silicon transporters under anaerobic conditions, thus the ability to efficiently take up silicon may be considered either a positive or a negative trait in rice. Germanium is an analogue of silicon that produces brown lesions in shoots and leaves, and germanium toxicity has been used to identify mutants in silicon and arsenic transport. In this study, two different genetic mapping methods were performed to determine the loci involved in germanium sensitivity in rice. Genetic mapping in the biparental cross of Bala × Azucena (an F6 population and a genome wide association (GWA study with 350 accessions from the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were conducted using 15 μM of germanic acid. This identified a number of germanium sensitive loci: some co-localised with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for tissue silicon or arsenic concentration, none co-localised with Lsi1 or Lsi6, while one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was detected within 200 kb of Lsi2 (these are genes known to transport silicon, whose identity was discovered using germanium toxicity. However, examining candidate genes that are within the genomic region of the loci detected above reveals genes homologous to both Lsi1 and Lsi2, as well as a number of other candidate genes, which are discussed.

  6. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2012-07-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice.

  7. Evaluation on Industrial yield and cooking quality in different red rice lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García de la Osa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper was carried out in the Physics- Chemistry and Industrial Testing Trials Laboratory, which belongs to The Post-Harvest Technology Department in The Grain Research Institute from Havana, Cuba. The industrial yield and cooking quality were evaluated in ten red rice lines, and two witnesses: commercial types of white rice IACuba- 31 and Jucarito-104. Samples were obtained from yielding local studies in the Grains Territorial Research Station at Sur de Jíbaro, province of Sancti Spíritus. It was found that in the industrial quality of different types of red rice, compared to the brown rice, the percent of the whole and broken grains regarding the red ones, was very high, and to the commercial white ones: Oryza sativa L . The 50% of the already studied lines of red rice were showing a good cooking quality. A great part of them used to show crystalinity values over 80% and good uniformity in the grain outer fisic appearance. Best integral results were obtained on lines: 18, 26 and 28.

  8. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association mapping of grain color, phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity in dehulled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yafang; Jin, Liang; Zhang, Gan; Lu, Yan; Shen, Yun; Bao, Jinsong

    2011-03-01

    Phytochemicals such as phenolics and flavonoids in rice grain are antioxidants that are associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes and some cancers. Understanding the genetic basis of these traits is necessary for the improvement of nutritional quality by breeding. Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium has emerged as a powerful strategy for identifying genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying complex traits in plants. In this study, genome-wide association mapping using models controlling both population structure (Q) and relative kinship (K) were performed to identify the marker loci/QTLs underlying the naturally occurring variations of grain color and nutritional quality traits in 416 rice germplasm accessions including red and black rice. A total of 41 marker loci were identified for all the traits, and it was confirmed that Ra (i.e., Prp-b for purple pericarp) and Rc (brown pericarp and seed coat) genes were main-effect loci for rice grain color and nutritional quality traits. RM228, RM339, fgr (fragrance gene) and RM316 were important markers associated with most of the traits. Association mapping for the traits of the 361 white or non-pigmented rice accessions (i.e., excluding the red and black rice) revealed a total of 11 markers for four color parameters, and one marker (RM346) for phenolic content. Among them, Wx gene locus was identified for the color parameters of lightness (L*), redness (a*) and hue angle (H (o)). Our study suggested that the markers identified in this study can feasibly be used to improve nutritional quality or health benefit properties of rice by marker-assisted selection if the co-segregations of the marker-trait associations are validated in segregating populations.

  10. Inorganic arsenic in rice bran and its products are an order of magnitude higher than in bulk grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Islam, Rafiqul M; Meharg, Andrew A

    2008-10-01

    Rice is more elevated in arsenic than all other grain crops tested to date, with whole grain (brown) rice having higher arsenic levels than polished (white). It is reported here that rice bran, both commercially purchased and specifically milled for this study, have levels of inorganic arsenic, a nonthreshold, class 1 carcinogen, reaching concentrations of approximately 1 mg/kg dry weight, around 10-20 fold higher than concentrations found in bulk grain. Although pure rice bran is used as a health food supplement, perhaps of more concern is rice bran solubles, which are marketed as a superfood and as a supplement to malnourished children in international aid programs. Five rice bran solubles products were tested, sourced from the United States and Japan, and were found to have 0.61-1.9 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. Manufactures recommend approximately 20 g servings of the rice bran solubles per day, which equates to a 0.012-0.038 mg intake of inorganic arsenic. There are no maximum concentration levels (MCLs) set for arsenic or its species in food stuffs. EU and U.S. water regulations, set at 0.01 mg/L total or inorganic arsenic, respectively, are based on the assumption that 1 L of water per day is consumed, i.e., 0.01 mg of arsenic/ day. At the manufacturers recommended rice bran solubles consumption rate, inorganic arsenic intake exceeds 0.01 mg/ day, remembering that rice bran solubles are targeted at malnourished children and that actual risk is based on mg kg(-1) day(-1) intake.

  11. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  12. Dynamics, Residue and Risk Assessment of Nitenpyram in Rice and Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUAN Xue-xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Residues dynamics, final residual levels and dietary intake risk of nitenpyram in rice and paddy field were investigated in three dif-ferent regions of China(Shandong, Henan and Anhui. A method was illustrated to detect nitenpyram residues in paddy, plant, brown rice, paddy water and soil. The residues in paddy and rice were extracted with methanol+phosphate buffer(0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0(60+40, adjust pH to 2.5, then cleaned up with solid phase extraction column and 0.22 μm filter membrane, and then analyzed by HPLC with an ul-traviolet detector at 260 nm. When spiked 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy plant and brown rice were 78.4%~94.7% and 84.0%~94.2%, respectively. The residues in paddy water and soil were extracted with phosphate buffer (0.2 mol·L-1, pH=7.0, when spiked 0.01, 0.5, 1.0 mg·kg-1, the recoveries of nitenpyram in paddy water and soil were 84.6%~98.0% and 93.7%~97.1%, respective-ly, which indicated this method match the requirement of the detection. Two years results showed that nitenpyram belongs to easily degraded pesticides, because all half-lives were below 1.4 d in rice plant, as well as below 4.2 d in paddy water. Final residual levels of nitenpyram in rice were all below 0.05 mg·kg-1,which was far below the Japanese maximum residue limit(0.5 mg·kg-1. The risk quotients (RQs were low for different populations in China, which indicated its low risk in rice. Therefore, the rice with nitenpyram applied, according to the recom-mend method, 45 g·hm-2 application once, with 21 days collection interval, was safe.

  13. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important fungal disease in rice which infects the plant during the rice growing season from the nursery period up to farm growth stage and productivity phase. The later the disease is diagnosed the higher the amount of chemicals is needed for treatment. Due to high costs and harmful environmental impacts of chemical toxins, the accurate early detection and treatment of plant disease is seemed to be necessary. In general, observation with the naked eye is used for disease detection. However, the results are indeed depend on the intelligence of the person performing the operation. So usually the accurate determination of the severity and progression of the disease can’t be achieved. On the other side, the use of experts for continuous monitoring of large farms might be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Thus, investigating the new approaches for rapid, automated, inexpensive and accurate plant disease diagnosis is very important. Machine vision and image processing is a new technique which can capture images from a scene of interest, analyze the images and accurately extract the desired information. Studies show that image processing techniques have been successfully used for plant disease detection. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of image processing techniques for diagnosing the rice blast and rice brown spot. Materials and Methods: The samples of rice leaf infected by brown spot and rice blast diseases were collected from rice fields and

  14. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  15. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  16. Different Phosphorus Supplies Altered the Accumulations and Quantitative Distributions of Phytic Acid, Zinc, and Iron in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Da; Zhou, Lujian; Zhao, Qian; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-02-21

    Development of rice cultivars with low phytic acid (lpa) is considered as a primary strategy for biofortification of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Here, two rice genotypes (XS110 and its lpa mutant) were used to investigate the effect of P supplies on accumulations and distributions of PA, Zn, and Fe in rice grains by using hydroponics and detached panicle culture system. Results showed that higher P level increased grain PA concentration on dry matter basis (g/kg), but it markedly decreased PA accumulation on per grain basis (mg/grain). Meanwhile, more P supply reduced the amounts and bioavailabilities of Zn and Fe both in milled grains and in brown grains. Comparatively, lpa mutant was more susceptive to exogenous P supply than its wild type. Hence, the appropriate P fertilizer application should be highlighted in order to increase grain microelement (Zn and Fe) contents and improve nutritional quality in rice grains.

  17. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their potential for reducing accumulation of cadmium in rice grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Mou, Renxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue, E-mail: cmingxue@126.com

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious widespread environmental problem that not only destroys the microbial ecology of soil and decreases crop production, but also poses a serious risk to human health. Many methods have been used for the remediation of Cd pollution but none of these is totally satisfactory. Microbial remediation strategies have attracted increasing interest since they are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In the present study, three Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for potential application in Cd bioremediation. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (2#), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9#) and Delftia tsuruhatensis (12#). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed very high tolerance to metals, especially Cd (2200 mg/L), Zn (1800 mg/L) and Pb (1200 mg/L), and is thought to be a multi-metal-resistant bacterium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also sensitive to 13 different antibiotics. The effects of the bacterial strains on the growth of rice plants and their ability to reduce Cd accumulation from Cd-contaminated soils in pot experiments were also evaluated. For Oryza sativa L. A grown in contaminated soil (3 mg/kg Cd), the accumulation of Cd was decreased by 31.2 and 25.5% in brown rice and polished rice, respectively, by strain 9#; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more effective in reducing Cd accumulation in rice grains than a mixture of strains. For Oryza sativa L. B, a mixture of strains acting synergistically was more effective than a single strain in reducing Cd accumulation; treatment with mixed strains (strains + 3 mg/kg Cd) resulted in 41.3, 35.9, and 32.6% reductions in Cd accumulation in unhulled rice, brown rice and polished rice, respectively. Although different results were obtained for two rice varieties, it can still be concluded that Cd-resistant bacteria are suitable for reducing Cd

  18. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their potential for reducing accumulation of cadmium in rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Mou, Renxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious widespread environmental problem that not only destroys the microbial ecology of soil and decreases crop production, but also poses a serious risk to human health. Many methods have been used for the remediation of Cd pollution but none of these is totally satisfactory. Microbial remediation strategies have attracted increasing interest since they are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In the present study, three Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for potential application in Cd bioremediation. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (2#), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9#) and Delftia tsuruhatensis (12#). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed very high tolerance to metals, especially Cd (2200 mg/L), Zn (1800 mg/L) and Pb (1200 mg/L), and is thought to be a multi-metal-resistant bacterium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also sensitive to 13 different antibiotics. The effects of the bacterial strains on the growth of rice plants and their ability to reduce Cd accumulation from Cd-contaminated soils in pot experiments were also evaluated. For Oryza sativa L. A grown in contaminated soil (3 mg/kg Cd), the accumulation of Cd was decreased by 31.2 and 25.5% in brown rice and polished rice, respectively, by strain 9#; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more effective in reducing Cd accumulation in rice grains than a mixture of strains. For Oryza sativa L. B, a mixture of strains acting synergistically was more effective than a single strain in reducing Cd accumulation; treatment with mixed strains (strains + 3 mg/kg Cd) resulted in 41.3, 35.9, and 32.6% reductions in Cd accumulation in unhulled rice, brown rice and polished rice, respectively. Although different results were obtained for two rice varieties, it can still be concluded that Cd-resistant bacteria are suitable for reducing Cd

  19. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  20. Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with rice in the southern U.S., reduces yields and contaminates rice grains. The introduction of ClearfieldTM rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant rice cultivar a decade ago has led to increased use of imazet...

  1. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  2. Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) emergence characteristics and influence on rice (O. sativa) yield at different planting dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated rice yield losses due to red rice infestation vary by cultivar, red rice density, and duration of interference. The competition effects of red rice could be influenced further by emergence characteristics, red rice biotype, and planting time of cultivated rice. We aimed to characterize th...

  3. Genetic analysis of atypical U.S. red rice phenotypes: indications of prior gene flow in rice fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rice is a troublesome weed problem in rice fields of the southern U.S. Outcrossing between rice and red rice occurs at low rates, resulting in a broad array of plant types. SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic backgrounds of atypical red rice types obtained from rice farms in comparis...

  4. Outcrossing potential between U.S. red rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese indica rice (Oryza sativa) lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rice in southern U.S. rice fields remains a widespread, economically challenging problem despite nearly a decade of rice production systems that include true-breeding rice cultivars and indica-derived hybrid rice with resistance to imazethapyr. Both of these herbicide-resistant rice systems hav...

  5. Gene flow from weedy red rice (Oryza sativa L.) to cultivated rice and fitness of hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivrain, Vinod K; Burgos, Nilda R; Gealy, David R; Sales, Marites A; Smith, Kenneth L

    2009-10-01

    Gene transfer from weeds to crops could produce weedy individuals that might impact upon the evolutionary dynamics of weedy populations, the persistence of escaped genes in agroecosystems and approaches to weed management and containment of transgenic crops. The present aim was to quantify the gene flowrate from weedy red rice to cultivated rice, and evaluate the morphology, phenology and fecundity of resulting hybrids. Field experiments were conducted at Stuttgart and Rohwer, Arkansas, USA. Twelve red rice accessions and an imazethapyr-resistant rice (Imi-R; Clearfield) were used. Hybrids between Imi-R rice x red rice were 138-150 cm tall and flowered 1-5 days later than the rice parent, regardless of the red rice parent. Hybrids produced 20-50% more seed than the rice parent, but had equivalent seed production to the majority of red rice parents. Seeds of all hybrids were red, pubescent and dehisced at maturity. For the majority of hybrids, seed germination was higher than that of the red rice parent. The gene flowrate from red rice to rice was 0.01-0.2% and differed by red rice biotype. The hybrids had higher fecundity and potential competitive ability than the rice parent, and in some cases also the red rice parent. Red rice plants are vectors of gene flow back to cultivated rice and other weedy populations. The progeny of red rice hybrids from cultivated rice mother plants have higher chances of persistence than those from red rice mother plants. Gene flow mitigation strategies should consider this scenario. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Bt rice expressing Cry2Aa does not harm Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, a main predator of the nontarget herbivore Nilapavarta lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    Full Text Available T2A-1 is a newly developed transgenic rice that expresses a synthesized cry2Aa gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. T2A-1 exhibits high resistance against lepidopteran pests of rice. The brown planthopper, Nilapavarta lugens (Stål, is a main nontarget sap-sucking insect pest of rice, and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of planthoppers. As C. lividipennis may expose to the Cry2Aa protein via N. lugens, it is therefore essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on this predator. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic cry2Aa rice to C. lividipennis: (1 a direct feeding experiment in which C. lividipennis was fed an artificial diet containing Cry2Aa at the dose of 10-time higher than that it may encounter in the realistic field condition; (2 a tritrophic experiment in which the Cry2Aa protein was delivered to C. lividipennis indirectly through prey eggs or nymphs; (3 a realistic field experiment in which the population dynamics of C. lividipennis were investigated using vacuum-suction. Both direct exposure to elevated doses of the Cry2Aa protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein did not result in significant detrimental effects on the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of C. lividipennis. No significant differences in population density and population dynamics were observed between C. lividipennis in transgenic cry2Aa and nontransgenic rice fields. It may be concluded that transgenic cry2Aa rice had no detrimental effects on C. lividipennis. This study represents the first report of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on C. lividipennis.

  7. Efficacies of wettable pellet and fresh culture of Trichoderma asperellum biocontrol products in growth promoting and reducing dirty panicles of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phraomas Charoenrak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wettable pellets and fresh culture (fungus-colonized rice seeds bioproducts of Trichoderma asperellum isolates 01-52 and CB-Pin-01, respectively, were evaluated for their efficacy in reducing dirty panicle or seed discoloration, and to increase the growth and yield of rice var. Chai Nat 1. Rice seeds were soaked (Sk in a spore suspension of wettable pellets (20 g/20 L or a fresh culture of bioproducts (100 g/20 L of the fungus for 24 h. Soaked seeds were incubated for another 24 h before sowing. The 21-day-old seedlings were transplanted into small plots (1 m2 × 3 m2. Rice plants were sprayed (Sp three times during the growing period with a spore suspension from the two bioproducts. The results indicated that both wettable pellet 01-52 (Sk + Sp and fresh culture CB-Pin-01 (Sk + Sp formulations significantly increased the plant height, number of tillers per hill, 1000-seed weight and total yield of rice compared to the untreated control. The incidence of dirty whole rice panicles, dirty panicle infected seed and empty seed were significantly reduced, while healthy seed were increased compared to the untreated control. Rice root colonization by T. asperellum isolates 01-52 and CB-Pin-01 were detected from the seedling through to the harvesting stage. The seedling vigor index and seedling health index of seedlings grown from 5 month-stored healthy and dirty panicle infected seeds treated by both wettable pellet 01-52 (Sk + Sp and fresh culture CB-Pin-01 (Sk + Sp bioproducts were significantly higher than the untreated control. All Trichoderma treatments increased whole kernels plus head rice and reduced broken rice in milled brown rice.

  8. UTILIZATION OF RICE HUSK AS RAW MATERIAL IN SYNTHESIS OF MESOPOROUS SILICATES MCM-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanta Suyanta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research about synthesis and characterization of MCM-41 from rice husk has been done. Silica (SiO2 was extracted from rice husk by refluxing with 3M hydrochloric solution at 80 °C for 3 h. The acid-leached rice husk was filtered, washed, dried and calcined at 650 °C for 6 h lead the rough powder of rice husk silica with light brown in color. Characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD and FTIR spectroscopy method. Rice husk silica was dissolved into the sodium hydroxide solution leading to the solution of sodium silicate, and used as silica source for the synthesis of MCM-41. MCM-41 was synthesized by hydrothermal process to the mixture prepared from 29 g of distilled water, 8.67 g of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB, 9.31 g of sodium silicate solution, and amount mL of 1 M H2SO4. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 °C in a teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave heated in the oven for 36 h. The solid phase was filtered, then washed with deionised water, and dried in the oven at 100 °C for 2 h. The surfactant CTMAB was removed by calcination at 550 °C for 10 h with heating rate 2 °C/min. The as-synthesized and calcined crystals were characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and N2 physisorption methods. In order to investigate the effect of silica source, the same procedure was carried out by using pure sodium silicate as silica source. It was concluded that silica extracted from rice husk can be used as raw materials in the synthesis of MCM-41, there is no significant difference in crystallinity and pore properties when was compared to material produced from commercial sodium silicate.

  9. Texture and hydration of expanded rice

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Clive

    1998-01-01

    The differences between conventionally processed and extruded puffed rice were examined, with a view to determining the reasons for their different storage behaviour in confectionery. Differences between the two forms of puffed rice have been identified, both in their performance and their properties. Under certain viewing conditions, the starch granules in conventionally processed and extruded rice appear to be different. The starch granules in conventionally puffed Rice remain intac...

  10. Scenario Analysis of Rice Cultivation in Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athira Hari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food crop of Kerala. At present only 12% of the gross cropped area in the state is under paddy. The paddy fields in Kerala are constantly getting converted for other purposes. A steady decline in the area under rice cultivation occurred from 1980s onwards. This paper studies the changing trend in rice cultivation and provides the factors leading to shifting of rice cultivation.

  11. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jeong Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature. Samples collected from naturally infected fields were detected with two bacteria, B. glumae and A. avenae subsp. avenae but X. oryzae pv. oryzae was not detected. This assay can be used to identify pathogens directly from infected seeds, and will be an effective tool for the identification of the three pathogens in rice plants.

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In Jeong; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Shim, Hyeong Kwon; Shin, Dong Bum; Heu, Suggi

    2016-12-01

    Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae , and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae , three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae , 490 bp for X. oryzae , and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature. Samples collected from naturally infected fields were detected with two bacteria, B. glumae and A. avenae subsp. avenae but X. oryzae pv. oryzae was not detected. This assay can be used to identify pathogens directly from infected seeds, and will be an effective tool for the identification of the three pathogens in rice plants.

  13. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boue, Stephen M; Daigle, Kim W; Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Cao, Heping; Heiman, Mark L

    2016-07-06

    Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that are concentrated in the bran layer. In this study, we determined the phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of five rice bran (1 brown, 2 red, and 2 purple) extracts. Each bran extract was evaluated for inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. All purple and red bran extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity, however only the red rice bran extracts inhibited α-amylase activity. Additionally, each bran extract was examined for their ability to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a key function in glucose homeostasis. Basal glucose uptake was increased between 2.3- and 2.7-fold by exposure to the red bran extracts, and between 1.9- and 3.1-fold by exposure to the purple bran extracts. In red rice bran, the highest enzyme inhibition and glucose uptake was observed with a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction. Both IITA red bran and IAC purple bran increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA, and genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins.

  14. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  15. The knockdown of OsVIT2 and MIT affects iron localization in rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Khurram; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Akhtar, Shamim; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-11-20

    The mechanism of iron (Fe) uptake in plants has been extensively characterized, but little is known about how Fe transport to different subcellular compartments affects Fe localization in rice seed. Here, we discuss the characterization of a rice vacuolar Fe transporter 2 (OsVIT2) T-DNA insertion line (osvit2) and report that the knockdown of OsVIT2 and mitochondrial Fe transporter (MIT) expression affects seed Fe localization. osvit2 plants accumulated less Fe in their shoots when grown under normal or excess Fe conditions, while the accumulation of Fe was comparable to that in wild-type (WT) plants under Fe-deficient conditions. The accumulation of zinc, copper, and manganese also changed significantly in the shoots of osvit2 plants. The growth of osvit2 plants was also slow compared to that of WT plants. The concentration of Fe increased in osvit2 polished seeds. Previously, we reported that the expression of OsVIT2 was higher in MIT knockdown (mit-2) plants, and in this study, the accumulation of Fe in mit-2 seeds decreased significantly. These results suggest that vacuolar Fe trafficking is important for plant Fe homeostasis and distribution, especially in plants grown in the presence of excess Fe. Moreover, changes in the expression of OsVIT2 and MIT affect the concentration and localization of metals in brown rice as well as in polished rice seeds.

  16. Large-scale production of functional human serum albumin from transgenic rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Ning, Tingting; Xie, Tingting; Qiu, Qingchuan; Zhang, Liping; Sun, Yunfang; Jiang, Daiming; Fu, Kai; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Wenjing; Shen, Lang; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianjun; Lin, Qishan; Sun, Yunxia; Li, Hongzhen; Zhu, Yingguo; Yang, Daichang

    2011-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely used in clinical and cell culture applications. Conventional production of HSA from human blood is limited by the availability of blood donation and the high risk of viral transmission from donors. Here, we report the production of Oryza sativa recombinant HSA (OsrHSA) from transgenic rice seeds. The level of OsrHSA reached 10.58% of the total soluble protein of the rice grain. Large-scale production of OsrHSA generated protein with a purity >99% and a productivity rate of 2.75 g/kg brown rice. Physical and biochemical characterization of OsrHSA revealed it to be equivalent to plasma-derived HSA (pHSA). The efficiency of OsrHSA in promoting cell growth and treating liver cirrhosis in rats was similar to that of pHSA. Furthermore, OsrHSA displays similar in vitro and in vivo immunogenicity as pHSA. Our results suggest that a rice seed bioreactor produces cost-effective recombinant HSA that is safe and can help to satisfy an increasing worldwide demand for human serum albumin. PMID:22042856

  17. Relation of rice intake and biomarkers of cadmium for general population in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hwaun; Lim, Young-Wook; Park, Kyung-Su; Yang, Ji-Yeon

    2017-09-01

    Environmental exposure to cadmium can cause renal damage. Foods containing cadmium are generally regarded as the main environmental sources of human exposure to cadmium. In this study, foods that are ingested in large amounts, including rice and other types of food with a high concentration of cadmium, were investigated to determine the correlation between the foods' cadmium content and biomarkers. The datasets required for this study, including blood cadmium concentration, biomarker concentration, and data on the amount of consumption by food item, were obtained from KNHNES. Furthermore, data on food groups with high daily exposure to hazardous amounts of cadmium were obtained by monitoring raw food sources from 2010 to 2012. The investigation was then followed by correlation analysis, which was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of rice consumption and cadmium concentration. The Pearson coefficient analysis on the relationship between the amount of food consumption and the biomarker showed that the correlation between foods' cadmium content and blood cadmium and that of between foods' cadmium content and other biomarkers were confirmed as statistically significant in the case of the cadmium content of white rice, while, in the case of brown rice, it was confirmed by a few biomarkers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Self-enhancement of GABA in rice bran using various stress treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Jung; Lim, Seung-Taik; Han, Jung-Ah

    2015-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may be synthesized in plant tissues when the organism is under stressful conditions. Rice bran byproduct obtained from the milling of brown rice was treated under anaerobic storage with nitrogen at different temperatures (20-60 °C) and moisture contents (10-50%) up to 12h. For the GABA synthesis, the storage at 30% moisture content and 40 °C appeared optimal. Utilisation of an electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW, pH 3.3) for moisture adjustment and addition of glutamic acid increased the GABA content in rice bran. The maximum GABA content in rice bran (523 mg/100g) could be achieved by the anaerobic storage at 30% EOW for 5h at 40 °C after an addition of glutamic acid (5mM). This amount was approximately 17 times higher than that in the control (30 mg/100g). The use of EOW also prevented bacterial growth by decreasing the colony counts almost by half. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  20. (SRI) to Increase Rice Water Productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice crop plays a critical role in ensuring food security for developing nations in Asia and. Africa. For majority of the world's small-scale farmers who live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, rice is a major source of calories and the single largest source of income. Rice is rapidly becoming a major staple food in much of ...

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, In Jeong; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Shim, Hyeong Kwon; Shin, Dong Bum; Heu, Suggi

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an opti...

  2. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  3. In planta assay of hygromycin susceptibility and mutant screening in rice at heading stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Haowei; Li Youfa; Ma Xinghua; Shen Shengquan; Shu Xiaoli; Shu Qingyao; Chen Yang

    2012-01-01

    Cells and tissue of plants carrying the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (HPT) are tolerant to antibiotic hygromycin and hence become the common selection gene for genetic transformation of crop plants, particularly monocots. The present study aimed at establishing a rapid method for in planta screening of hygromycin tolerant plants in transgenic breeding. At heading stage transgenic and conventional rice plants were sprayed with hygromycin solutions of different concentrations (25 ∼ 100 mg/L) and toxic symptoms were observed in the following days. It was observed that yellow-brown necrotic spots appeared in the leaves and grains of conventional rice varieties after foliar spraying of 50 mg/L hygromycin, and the more spots were occurred with the higher hygromycin solution. There were 21.1 and 19.2 spots per cm 2 on flag leaves of indica varieties Jiayou 99 and C10, respectively; while 27.6% and 23.5% grains were yellow-brown in the varieties, respectively. The corresponding data for two japonica varieties Jiayou 5 and R5 were 11.8 and 10.7 for leave spots and 11.2% and 11.6% for yellow-brown grains, respectively. These results indicated that the two indica varieties are more sensitive to hygromycin than the two japonica varieties. In the treatment of hygromycin with above levels, the transgenic rice line KMD1 with the HPT gene showed no toxic symptoms on leaf or panicles. The γ-rays treated M 2 population of KMD1 was sprayed with 100 mg/L hygromycin solution at heading stage and 42 plants were screened out with toxic symptoms in leaves and panicles form 120000 plants. Among the 42 hygromycin susceptible plants, 14 plants with leaves available for in vitro feeding assay were subjected to the feeding of rice striped steam borers [Chilo supperssalis (Walker)] and all showed high resistance. The above results showed that spraying of 100 mg/L hygromycin solution at heading stage would lead to visually apparent toxic symptoms in susceptibility rice plants and hence

  4. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  5. Hydraulic conductivity of rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, N; Steudle, E; Hirasawa, T; Lafitte, R

    2001-09-01

    A pressure chamber and a root pressure probe technique have been used to measure hydraulic conductivities of rice roots (root Lp(r) per m(2) of root surface area). Young plants of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties (an upland variety, cv. Azucena and a lowland variety, cv. IR64) were grown for 31-40 d in 12 h days with 500 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PAR and day/night temperatures of 27 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Root Lp(r) was measured under conditions of steady-state and transient water flow. Different growth conditions (hydroponic and aeroponic culture) did not cause visible differences in root anatomy in either variety. Values of root Lp(r) obtained from hydraulic (hydrostatic) and osmotic water flow were of the order of 10(-8) m s(-1) MPa(-1) and were similar when using the different techniques. In comparison with other herbaceous species, rice roots tended to have a higher hydraulic resistance of the roots per unit root surface area. The data suggest that the low overall hydraulic conductivity of rice roots is caused by the existence of apoplastic barriers in the outer root parts (exodermis and sclerenchymatous (fibre) tissue) and by a strongly developed endodermis rather than by the existence of aerenchyma. According to the composite transport model of the root, the ability to adapt to higher transpirational demands from the shoot should be limited for rice because there were minimal changes in root Lp(r) depending on whether hydrostatic or osmotic forces were acting. It is concluded that this may be one of the reasons why rice suffers from water shortage in the shoot even in flooded fields.

  6. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  7. Red pericarp introgression lines derived from interspecific crosses of rice: physicochemical characteristics, antioxidative properties and phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neerja; Kaur, Rimaljeet; Mangat, Gurjit S; Singh, Kuldeep

    2014-11-01

    Antioxidative properties and physicochemical characteristics of introgression lines (ILs) and their recurrent parents were analyzed. In addition, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and free radical-scavenging capacity were evaluated, since these are important antioxidative properties for developing nutraceutical and functional foods. Comparative analysis of the brown and milled rice fractions of ILs with their respective recurrent parents revealed 2.26- and 1.22-fold increase in total phenolics, 1.95- and 2.09-fold increase in flavonoids, 8.38- and 6.80-fold increase in proanthocyanidins and 1.55- and 1.20-fold increase in tannins in brown and milled rice fractions respectively. Higher CAT (1.36- and 1.89-fold) and SOD (1.71- and 2.02-fold) activities and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, 7.13- and 1.98-fold) were observed in brown and milled rice fractions respectively of ILs compared with their respective recurrent parents. A high and positive correlation was obtained between TEAC and total phenols (0.73, P ≤ 0.01), flavonoids (0.66, P ≤ 0.05) and proanthocyanidins (0.69, P ≤ 0.05). The yield parameters and physicochemical characteristics of the grains, in general, were comparable in the ILs and their respective recurrent parents. The ILs of rice reported in the present study exhibited significant positive differences in the content of phenolic constituents and antioxidant properties with good grain quality characteristics over their recurrent parents, indicating their potential as a natural source of phytochemicals for nutraceutical and functional food development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Whither do the microlensing Brown Dwarfs rove?

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro; Mollerach, S; Roulet, Esteban; de Rujula, A; Giudice, G; Mollerach, S; Roulet, E

    1995-01-01

    The EROS and MACHO collaborations have reported observations of light curves of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud that are compatible with gravitational microlensing by intervening massive objects, presumably Brown-Dwarf stars. The OGLE and MACHO teams have also seen similar events in the direction of the galactic Bulge. Current data are insufficient to decide whether the Brown-Dwarfs are dark-matter constituents of the non-luminous galactic Halo, or belong to a more conventional population, such as that of faint stars in the galactic Spheroid, in its Thin or Thick Disks, or in their possible LMC counterparts. We discuss in detail how further observations of microlensing rates and of the moments of the distribution of event durations, can help resolve the issue of the Brown-Dwarf location, and eventually provide information on the mass function of the dark objects.

  9. Weedy (red) rice: an emerging constraint to global rice production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziska, L.H.; Gealy, D.R.; Burgos, N.; Caicedo, A.L.; Gressel, J.; Lawton-Rauh, A.L.; Avila, L.A.; Theisen, Giovani; Norsworthy, J.; Ferrero, A.; Vidotto, F.; Johnson, D.E.; Ferreira, F.G.; Marchesan, E.; Menezes, V.; Cohn, M.A.; Linscombe, S.; Carmona, L.; Tang, R.; Merotto, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be a critical aspect of food security for the twenty-first century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising

  10. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serodiagnosis of Grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus) and Locust (Locusta migratoides) trapped at the rice fields during the survey revealed that they were not implicated in virus transmission as their absorbance values at spectrophotometric wavelength of 405 nm were not up to one and half times the values of the healthy ...

  11. Dolce Vita in the Rice Paddy - Characterization of weedy rice groups in Northern Italy and investigation of their evolutionary origins

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the topic of the invasive rice form called weedy rice or red rice. Studies focused on the geographical area of Italy. Different populations of weedy rice in Italy were genetically characterized. The evolutionary origins of different weedy rice groups were investigated using molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Invasion of wild rice as well as de-domestication of cultivars could be identified as evolutionary sources of weedy rice in Northern Italy.

  12. Recycling coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes to improve the yield and mineral content of grains of paddy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Claudio K; Saigusa, M

    2011-08-30

    Coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes exhibit strong affinity for metals such as Fe and Zn. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of top-dressing application of Fe- and Zn-enriched coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes at the panicle initiation stage on the mineral content of rice grains and the yield of paddy rice. The Fe and Zn contents of brown rice grains increased significantly on application of both coffee and tea waste materials. The concentration of Mn was increased by top-dressing application of coffee waste material only. For Cu, no significant (P coffee and tea waste materials led to a significant (P coffee grounds and tea wastes from coffee shops. Use of these novel materials would not only reduce the waste going to landfill but would also benefit the mineral nutrition of rice consumers at low cost by increasing Fe and Zn levels of rice grains as well as grain yield. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF METHYLMERCURY AND OTHER METAL(LOID)S IN MADAGASCAR UNPOLISHED RICE (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Mgutshini, Noma L.; Bizimis, Michael; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Ramanantsoanirina, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The rice ingestion rate in Madagascar is among the highest globally; however studies concerning metal(loid) concentrations in Madagascar rice are lacking. For Madagascar unpolished rice (n=51 landraces), levels of toxic elements (e.g., total mercury, methylmercury, arsenic and cadmium) as well as essential micronutrients (e.g., zinc and selenium) were uniformly low, indicating potentially both positive and negative health effects. Aside from manganese (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.01), no significant differences in concentrations for all trace elements were observed between rice with red bran (n=20) and brown bran (n=31) (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.06–0.91). Compared to all elements in rice, rubidium (i.e., tracer for phloem transport) was most positively correlated with methylmercury (Pearson's r=0.33, p<0.05) and total mercury (r=0.44, p<0.05), while strontium (i.e., tracer for xylem transport) was least correlated with total mercury and methylmercury (r<0.01 for both), suggesting inorganic mercury and methylmercury were possibly more mobile in phloem compared to xylem. PMID:25463705

  14. Elemental bioimaging of tissue level trace metal distributions in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) from a mining area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Priyanka; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Wu, Fengchang; Fu, Zhiyou; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Rice is a staple food and major source of nutrients, but it also bioaccumulates toxic elements. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine tissue-level trace metal spatial distribution in rice (Oryza sativa) seeds from the active Xikuangshan Sb mine area in China. Whole grain quantified elemental bioimages showed the highest concentration of Zn (1755 mg/kg) in the embryo andmicro zones of elevated Sb, As, Pb, Cd as high as 280, 57, 31 and 830 mg/kg, respectively on the husk/bran/endosperm tissues. Bioimages suggest that both Sb and Cd may be competing with Zn for binding sites. Both Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were detected in seeds from upstream and downstream fields indicating the presence of toxic Sb(III). Brown rice is a good source of Zn, but white rice is a safer option if rice is grown in a polluted area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  16. Can herbicide safeners allow selective control of weedy rice infesting rice crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Roberto; Nguyen, Nghia K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Vidotto, Francesco; Tabacchi, Maurizio; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a major field crop of paramount importance for global food security. However, the increased adoption of more profitable and resource-efficient direct-seeded rice (DSR) systems has contributed to greater weed infestations, including weedy rice, which has become a severe problem in several Asian regions. In this study we have developed a conceptually novel method to protect rice plants at high doses of clomazone and triallate. The insecticide phorate applied to rice seeds provided a substantial level of protection against the herbicides clomazone or triallate. A quantity of 15 kg phorate ha -1 significantly increased the LD 50 values, which were more than twofold greater than for rice plants treated only with clomazone. A quantity of 20 kg phorate ha -1 in combination with 2000 g triallate ha -1 safened rice plants (80% survival) with LD 50 >3.4-fold greater than in phorate-untreated rice. Weed control efficacy was not lowered by the presence of phorate-treated rice seeds. Weedy rice is one of the most damaging global weeds and a major threat to DSR systems. In this study we have developed a proof-of-concept method to allow selective weedy rice control in rice crops. We call for herbicide discovery programmes and research to identify candidate safener and herbicide combinations to achieve selective herbicide control of weedy rice and alleviate weed infestations in global rice crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  18. Brown dwarfs in retrogradely precessing cataclysmic variables?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin E.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We compare Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations of retrogradely precessing accretion disks that have a white dwarf primary and a main sequence secondary with observational data and with theory on retrograde precession via tidal torques like those by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth [1, 2]. Assuming the primary does not accrete much of the mass lost from the secondary, we identify the theoretical low mass star/brown dwarf boundary. We find no observational candidates in our study that could qualify as brown dwarfs.

  19. Brown tumor of mandible with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.K.; Khan, F.A.; Siddiq, A.; Hanif, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted and released by the parathyroid glands, the activity of which is controlled by the ionized serum calcium level. Increased PTH secretion results in hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary types. Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased parathyroid hormone secretion occurring as a result of abnormality in one or more of the parathyroid glands. Brown tumors are non-neoplastic lesions as a result of abnormal bone metabolism in cases of hyperparathyroidism, creating a local destructive phenomenon. A rare case of a young female patient with brown tumors in her mandible associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, is reported. (author)

  20. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  1. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ho Nai Kin; Ismail Sahid; Ahyaudin Ali; Lum Keng Yeang; Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  2. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata

    OpenAIRE

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological control") or manipulation of indigenous organisms (Chapter 1). Integrated pest management (IPM) combines biological control with other forms of pest control, such as cultural, mechan...

  3. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents

  4. Heavy metals in paddy fields in Taiwan: chemical behavior in soil and uptake by brown rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, C.L.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Guo, H.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were measured in 19 individual paddy fields in Taiwan. Total, reactive, and available metal levels were measured using Aqua Regia, 0.43 N HNO3, 0.1 M HCl, 0.05 M EDTA and 0.01 M CaCl2. Total metal levels ranged

  5. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  6. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  7. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  8. ELMER RICE: UM OLHAR EXPRESSIONISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ms. Regina Garkauskas Umaras

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to show a study of characteristics and resources of the Expressionist Theater and to determine which them are inside the plays “The adding machine” and “The Subway” written by Elmer Rice, also checking his objectives in writing this texts.

  9. Copper and ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transport protein COPT1 alter iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Andrés, Fernando; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Perea-García, Ana; Domingo, Concha; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2017-09-01

    Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants. Gene expression profiles in rice seedlings grown under copper excess show an altered expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis compared to standard control conditions. Thus, ferritin OsFER2 and ferredoxin OsFd1 mRNAs are down-regulated whereas the transcriptional iron regulator OsIRO2 and the nicotianamine synthase OsNAS2 mRNAs rise under copper excess. As expected, the expression of OsCOPT1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transport protein, as well as other copper-deficiency markers are down-regulated by copper. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis COPT1 overexpression (C1 OE ) in rice causes root shortening in high copper conditions and under iron deficiency. C1 OE rice plants modify the expression of the putative iron-sensing factors OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and enhance the expression of OsIRO2 under copper excess, which suggests a role of copper transport in iron signaling. Importantly, the C1 OE rice plants grown on soil contain higher endogenous iron concentration than wild-type plants in both brown and white grains. Collectively, these results highlight the effects of rice copper status on iron homeostasis, which should be considered to obtain crops with optimized nutrient concentrations in edible parts.

  10. Agromorphological characterization of some rice species in the main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Western Mayo Kebbi. The agromorphological characterization of the samples of the prospection-collection from October 2005 to Mars 2006 revealed the existence of three types of rice in the zone: wild rice, adventitious rice and cultivated rice. The group of cultivated rice breaks up into three pennies groups on the basis of ...

  11. Genetic Dissection of Sympatric Populations of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, Using DALP-PCR Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Latif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct amplified length polymorphism (DALP combines the advantages of a high-resolution fingerprint method and also characterizing the genetic polymorphisms. This molecular method was also found to be useful in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens species complex for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. A total of 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. were collected from 6 locations from Malaysia. Two sympatric populations of brown planthopper, N. lugens, one from rice and the other from a weed grass (Leersia hexandra, were collected from each of five locations. N. bakeri was used as an out group. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs, DALP231/DALPR′5, DALP234/DALPR′5, and DALP235/DALPR′5 were applied in this study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distances for the 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. revealed that populations belonging to the same species and the same host type clustered together irrespective of their geographical localities of capture. The populations of N. lugens formed into two distinct clusters, one was insects with high esterase activities usually captured from rice and the other was with low esterase activities usually captured from L. hexandra. N. bakeri, an out group, was the most isolated group. Analyses of principal components, molecular variance, and robustness also supported greatly to the findings of cluster analysis.

  12. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  13. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  14. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the…

  15. Brown midrib sorghum deserves a look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage sorghum varieties have been developed to allow them to thrive under low moisture and poor soil conditions while producing adequate amounts of forage. In addition, newer varieties, such as the brown midrib (BMR) hybrids, can be alternatives to conventional varieties as they contain less lignin...

  16. Browning and thermogenic programing of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Florian W

    2016-08-01

    The view of adipose tissue as solely a fat storing organ has changed significantly over the past two decades with the discoveries of numerous adipocyte-secreted factors, so called adipokines, and their endocrine functions throughout the body. The newest chapter added to this story is the finding that adipose tissue is also a thermogenic organ contributing to energy expenditure through actions of specialized, heat-producing brown or beige adipocytes. In contrast to bone fide brown adipocytes, beige cells develop within white fat depots in response to various stimuli such as prolonged cold exposure, underscoring the great thermogenic plasticity of adipose tissue. The energy dissipating properties of beige and/or brown adipocytes hold great promise as a novel therapeutic concept against obesity and related complications. Hence, identifying the specific thermogenic adipocyte populations in humans and their pathways of activation are key milestones of current metabolism research. Here we will discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms of adipose tissue browning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  18. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  19. Civil Rights Law and the Brown Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jack

    The Brown decision of 1954 was the product of a planned program of litigation begun in the late 1920s and the early 1930s by a group of Black lawyers. Their work would not have succeeded if the ethos of the United States had not been changing simultaneously. The growth of a climate more conducive to civil rights is reflected in the presidential…

  20. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a maxillary brown tumour caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to parathyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a large swelling in the right maxilla, which caused right-sided nasal obstruction, intermittent bleeding and diplopia. A computed tomography scan demonstrated ...

  1. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  3. Gas exchange and brown heart in conference pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otma, E.C.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    Brown heart is a tissue disorder found in Conference pears during CA storage. Differences in susceptibility for brown heart have been found between countries, orchards, harvest dates and storage conditions. One hypothesis is that brown heart is caused by increased internal CO2. This research

  4. Search for brown dwarfs in the IRAS data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    A report is given on the initial searches for brown dwarf stars in the IRAS data bases. The paper was presented to the workshop on 'Astrophysics of brown dwarfs', Virginia, USA, 1985. To date no brown dwarfs have been discovered in the solar neighbourhood. Opportunities for future searches with greater sensitivity and different wavelengths are outlined. (U.K.)

  5. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  6. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  7. Outcrossing interactions of early-flowering strawhull and late-flowering blackhull red rice (Oryza sativa) with commercial rice varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rice continues to be a challenging weed pest in southern U.S. rice, in part due to the diversity of biotypes and its significant outcrossing potential with herbicide-resistant rice. The outcrossing interactions between red rice and true-breeding rice cultivars are generally well established, bu...

  8. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  9. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  10. A Panchromatic View of Brown Dwarf Aurorae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian [University of Colorado Boulder, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder CO, 80303 (United States); Hallinan, Gregg; Kao, Melodie M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, 1200 E. California Avenue, Pasadena CA, 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Stell