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Sample records for brown planthopper nilaparvata

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jian; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Li, Bao-ling; Cheng, Yan-Bing; Peng, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Hang; Xu, Hai-jun; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Lou, Yong-Gen; Cheng, Jia-An; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2010-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is one of the most serious insect pests of rice in Asia. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the development, wing dimorphism and sex difference in this species. Genomic information for BPH is currently unavailable, and, therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are needed as an important resource to better understand the biological mechanisms of BPH. Methodology/Principal ...

  2. Cloning of heat shock protein genes from the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, and their expression in relation to thermal stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hun Kim; Sang-Chul Lee; Do-Yeon Kwak; Kyeong-Yeoll Lee

    2008-01-01

    Three heat shock protein (HSP) genes (hsp7O, hsc70, hsp90) were partially cloned from the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus (Homoptera: Delphacidae), which are serious pests of the rice plant. Sequence comparisons at the deduced amino acid level showed that the three HSPs of planthoppers were most homologous to corresponding HSPs of dipteran and lepidopteran species. Identities of both heat shock cognate 70 and HSP90 were higher than HSP70 in both species. Identity of the HSP70 between the two planthopper species was only 81%, a value much lower than seen among fly and moth groups. Effects of heat and cold shocks were demonstrated on expression of the three hsp genes in the two planthopper species. Heat shock (40℃) upregulated the hsp90 level but did not change the hsc70 level in either the nymph and adult stages of either species. On the other hand, the hsp70 level was only upregulated in L. striatellus. This heat shock response was prompt and lasted only for 1 h after treatment. In contrast, cold shock at 4℃did not change the expression levels of any hsp in either species.

  3. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Jiayi Huangfu; Jiancai Li; Ran Li; Meng Ye; Peng Kuai; Tongfang Zhang; Yonggen Lou

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salic...

  4. Herbivory-induced glucose transporter gene expression in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Shingo; Nakamura, Yuki; Hattori, Makoto; Sato, Ryoichi; Kikawada, Takahiro; Noda, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    Nilaparvata lugens, the brown planthopper (BPH) feeds on rice phloem sap, containing high amounts of sucrose as a carbon source. Nutrients such as sugars in the digestive tract are incorporated into the body cavity via transporters with substrate selectivity. Eighteen sugar transporter genes of BPH (Nlst) were reported and three transporters have been functionally characterized. However, individual characteristics of NlST members associated with sugar transport remain poorly understood. Comparative gene expression analyses using oligo-microarray and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the sugar transporter gene Nlst16 was markedly up-regulated during BPH feeding. Expression of Nlst16 was induced 2 h after BPH feeding on rice plants. Nlst16, mainly expressed in the midgut, appears to be involved in carbohydrate incorporation from the gut cavity into the hemolymph. Nlst1 (NlHT1), the most highly expressed sugar transporter gene in the midgut was not up-regulated during BPH feeding. The biochemical function of NlST16 was shown as facilitative glucose transport along gradients. Glucose uptake activity by NlST16 was higher than that of NlST1 in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. At least two NlST members are responsible for glucose uptake in the BPH midgut, suggesting that the midgut of BPH is equipped with various types of transporters having diversified manner for sugar uptake. PMID:26226652

  5. Evidence for the presence of biogenic magnetic particles in the nocturnal migratory brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weidong; Wan, Guijun; Xu, Jingjing; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yuxin; Qi, Liping; Chen, Fajun

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic magnetic particles have been detected in some migratory insects, which implies the basis of magnetoreception mechanism for orientation and navigation. Here, the biogenic magnetic particles in the migratory brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were qualitatively measured by SQUID magnetometry, and their characteristics were further determined by Prussian Blue staining, electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results indicate that there were remarkable magnetic materials in the abdomens and not in the head or thorax of the 3(rd)-5(th) instar nymphs, and in macropterous and brachypterous female and male adults of BPH. The size of magnetic particles was shown to be between 50-450 nm with a shape factor estimate of between 0.8-1.0 for all the tested BPHs. Moreover, the amount of magnetic particles was associated with the developmental stage (the 3(rd)-5(th) instar), wing form (macropterous vs. brachypterous) and sex. The macropterous female adults had the largest amount of magnetic particles. Although the existence of magnetic particles in the abdomens of BPH provides sound basis for the assumption of magnetic orientation, further behavioral studies and complementary physical characterization experiments should be conducted to determine whether the orientation behavior of BPH is associated with the magnetic particles detected in this study. PMID:26727944

  6. Genetic Dissection of Sympatric Populations of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, Using DALP-PCR Molecular Markers

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    M. A. Latif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct amplified length polymorphism (DALP combines the advantages of a high-resolution fingerprint method and also characterizing the genetic polymorphisms. This molecular method was also found to be useful in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens species complex for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. A total of 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. were collected from 6 locations from Malaysia. Two sympatric populations of brown planthopper, N. lugens, one from rice and the other from a weed grass (Leersia hexandra, were collected from each of five locations. N. bakeri was used as an out group. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs, DALP231/DALPR′5, DALP234/DALPR′5, and DALP235/DALPR′5 were applied in this study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distances for the 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. revealed that populations belonging to the same species and the same host type clustered together irrespective of their geographical localities of capture. The populations of N. lugens formed into two distinct clusters, one was insects with high esterase activities usually captured from rice and the other was with low esterase activities usually captured from L. hexandra. N. bakeri, an out group, was the most isolated group. Analyses of principal components, molecular variance, and robustness also supported greatly to the findings of cluster analysis.

  7. Lethal concentration of carbofuran to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and green leaf-hopper (Nephotettix virecence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oral toxicity test of carbofuran to brown planthopper and green leaf-hopper using sucrose solution as feed given to the hopper through a membrane feeding system was conducted in the laboratory, pure carbofuran was dilute in the feeding solution. The 50 percent lethal concentration (LC-50) of this insecticide to adult and nymph of brown planthopper were 0.21 and 0.43 ppm, respectively, while those to adult and nymph of green leaf-hopper were 0.43 and 0.58 ppm. The LC 90 were 0.56 an 0.90 ppm to adult and nymph of brown planthopper, and 1.20 and 1.60 ppm to adult and nymph of green leaf-hopper, respectively. The brown planthopper was found to be more susceptible than the nymph. When carbofuran was applied to rice plant, this insecticide was accumulated more in the leaf than in the stem, so that green leaf-hopper got more toxicity than the brown planthopper. (authors). 5 refs, 7 figs

  8. Genetic improvement of brown - Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) resistance through radiation technique in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate over genetic manipulation and its use in plant improvement for insect resistance has led to an increased demand for developing various alternative methods. Mutation induction for plant genetic improvement is one of the oldest but still relevant, economic and recognized methods. Mutations induced by radiation can alter the host parasite interaction by alteration relevant gene sequence, and thus enhance resistance to insect pests while keeping intact the original plant type. Brown-planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is a major insect pest of rice in the region of Chhattisgarh State. Use of insecticide to control this insect is loosing its ground due to development of resurgence, insecticide resistance in insects and insecticide residue in crop plant at crop maturity stage. Varieties viz. Safri, Mahsuri, Dubraj and Mahamaya are most popular in this region, but are susceptible to this insect pest. Therefore, these four varieties were taken into consideration for genetic improvement through radiation techniques. Seeds of these varieties were exposed to four doses of gamma rays viz. 150, 200, 250, and 300 Gy at Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) Mumbai (M.S.) India. M1 generations were raised in the field during 2003-2004 kharif in the experimental plot of Entomology Department, IGAU Raipur. The M2 seeds of randomly harvested from 100 M1 plants were tested using BPH larvae, which are throughout the year at temperature ± 28-30 deg. C in glass house, as per the standard technique. Survived seedlings from wooden screening boxes were repotted in earthen pots individually. M3 seeds were harvested from these survived individual plants for further test. A total of 3000 seedlings from 100 M1 plants of each variety/ treatment were evaluated in M2 generation and 2 to 57 tentative resistant M2 seedlings were identified for the three varieties. In M3, 510,150 and 60 seedlings were grown from the seeds harvested from the resistant M2 plants and screened for their

  9. The effect of 35℃ on the amino acid requirement of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUQiang; ZHANGZhitao; LAIFenxiang; HUCui

    1999-01-01

    The brown planthopper, N. lugens, is not able to develop well at 35℃. Previous investigation showed that 35℃-treated N. lugens harbored fewer symbionts than untreated ones, and it was suggested that symbiont played an important role in nutritional metabolism. Nevertheless.

  10. Relationship Between the Development of Methamidophos Resistance and the Activities of Three Detoxifying Enzymes in Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ze-wen; HAN Zhao-jun; ZHANG Ling-chun

    2004-01-01

    Methamidophos resistance of brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens was selected in laboratory for 19 generations (F1 to F19). The resistance development in BPH was approximatively shaped as the letter "S" : resistance change was small before the fifth generation and after the fifteenth generation, and the changing pattern was sharp between the fifth and the fifteenth generation. Esterase might play an important role in the resistance development, because the esterase activity and the number of individuals with high activities increased along with the resistance development. The esterase activities of insecticide-sensitive population S, field population F0, its selective generations Fs, F10 and F15 were highly correlated with the resistance ratios of these generations, and the coefficient was 0.9899. Mixed-function oxidases and glutathione S-transferase also might play some roles in the resistance development, but the big change in the activities of the two detoxifying enzymes both took place before the tenth generation.

  11. β-Glucosidase treatment and infestation by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens elicit similar signaling pathways in rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    β-Glucosidase has been reported to induce the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles.However,how it works remains unclear.Here,we investigated the levels of salicylic acid(SA),iasmonic acid (JA),ethylene,and H2O2,all of which are known signaling molecules that play important roles in induced plant defense in rice plants treated with β-glucosidase,and compared these to levels in plants infested by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l).Results showed that wounding and treatment by β-glucosidase increased the levels of SA,ethylene,and H2O2.but not JA,in all plants compared to control plants.The signaling pathways activated by β-glucosidase treatment are similar to those activated by an infestation by N.lugens,although the magnitude and timing of the signals elicited by the two treatments are different.This may explain why both treatments have similar volatile profiles and are equally attractive to the parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

  12. Role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yujie; WANG Xia; LOU Yonggen; CHENG Jiaan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role in induced plant direct defense against herbivores and pathogens; however, up to now, only few researches have focused on its role in induced plant indirect defense, i.e. the release of herbivore-induced volatiles, and the results are variable.Using a model system consisting of rice plants, the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae, we examined the role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by N. lugens by measuring both the timing of herbivore-induced ethylene levels and the relationships between ethylene, rice volatiles and attraction of the parasitoid. N. lugens infestation significantly enhanced the release of ethylene during 2-24 h after infestation. Plants treated with ethephon, a compound that breaks down to release ethylene at cytoplasmic pH, released volatiles profiles similar to those released by N.lugens-infested plants,and both of them showed an equal attraction of the parasitoid. Moreover, pretreatment with 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, reduced the release of most of rice volatiles whose amount was enhanced by N.lugens infestation and decreased the attractiveness to the parasitoid. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling is required for the production of rice volatiles induced by N.lugens.

  13. Glutathione S-transferase of brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens is essential for their adaptation to gramine-containing host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qin Sun

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved complex processes to ward off attacks by insects. In parallel, insects have evolved mechanisms to thwart these plant defenses. To gain insight into mechanisms that mediate this arms race between plants and herbivorous insects, we investigated the interactions between gramine, a toxin synthesized by plants of the family Gramineae, and glutathione S transferase (GST, an enzyme found in insects that is known to detoxify xenobiotics. Here, we demonstrate that rice (Oryza sativa, a hydrophytic plant, also produces gramine and that rice resistance to brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens, BPHs is highly associated with in planta gramine content. We also show that gramine is a toxicant that causes BPH mortality in vivo and that knockdown of BPH GST gene nlgst1-1 results in increased sensitivity to diets containing gramine. These results suggest that the knockdown of key detoxification genes in sap-sucking insects may provide an avenue for increasing their sensitivity to natural plant-associated defense mechanisms.

  14. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayi Huangfu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA or salicylic acid (SA. The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky enhanced BPH-induced levels of H2O2 and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice.

  15. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H₂O₂ and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice. PMID:27258255

  16. Jinggangmycin increases fecundity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) via fatty acid synthase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Yiping; Liu, Zongyu; You, Linlin; Wu, You; Xu, Bing; Ge, Linquan; Stanley, David; Song, Qisheng; Wu, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) is mainly used in controlling the rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, in China. JGM also enhances reproduction of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). To date, however, molecular mechanisms of the enhancement are unclear. Our related report documented the influence of foliar JGM sprays on ovarian protein content. Here, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) protocols to analyze ovarian proteins of BPH females following JGM spray (JGM-S) and topical application (JGM-T). We recorded changes in expression of 284 proteins (142↑ and 142↓) in JGM-S compared to the JGM-S control group (S-control); 267 proteins were differentially expressed (130↑ and 137↓) in JGM-T compared to the JGM-T control group (T-control), of which, 22 proteins were up-regulated in both groups. Comparing the JGM-S to the JGM-T group, 114 proteins were differentially expressed (62↑ and 52↓). Based on the biological significance of fatty acids, pathway annotation and enrichment analysis, we designed a dsRNA construct to silence a gene encoding fatty acid synthase (FAS). FAS was more highly expressed in JGM-S vs S-control and JGM-S vs JGM-T groups. The dsFAS treatment reduced fecundity by about 46% and reduced ovarian and fat body fatty acid concentrations in JGM-S-treated females relative to controls. We infer FAS provides critically needed fatty acids to support JGM-enhanced fecundity in BPH. PMID:26388431

  17. Identification of the secreted watery saliva proteins of the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) by transcriptome and Shotgun LC-MS/MS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Hanyu; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; He, Yueping

    2016-06-01

    The rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a major rice insect pest in Asia, is a vascular bundle-feeder that ejects gelling and watery saliva during the feeding process. Although major proteins in the salivary glands of N. lugens have been identified using 2D PAGE, very little is known about the secreted saliva of this insect. In this study, we identified the major proteins in the secreted watery saliva of N. lugens, via collecting from a sucrose diet that adult planthoppers had fed upon through a membrane of stretched parafilm, and using shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis with reference to transcriptome database of salivary glands of N. lugens. A total of 107 proteins were identified in the watery saliva of N. lugens, over 80% of which showed significant similarity to known proteins. When annotated by the Blast2GO suite, 29 proteins had catalytic activity and 24 proteins were binding proteins. The saliva enzymes included oxidoreductases, hydrolases, phosphatases, peptidases (proteases), kinases, transferases, and lyases. Binding proteins in N. lugens watery saliva included ATP-binding, lipophorin, calcium-binding, actin-binding and DNA-, RNA-, and chromatin-binding proteins. Other non-enzymatic proteins, such as ubiquitins, heat shock proteins, ribosomal proteins, and immunoglobulin proteins were also found in N. lugens watery saliva. This is the first study to identify, characterize and list the proteins in watery saliva of N. lugens, which might be involved in planthopper-rice interactions. PMID:27080912

  18. Evidence of sibling species in the brown planthopper complex (Nilaparvata lugens) detected from short and long primer random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M A; Soon Guan, Tan; Mohd Yusoh, Omar; Siraj, Siti Shapor

    2008-08-01

    The inheritance of 31 amplicons from short and long primer RAPD was tested for segregating ratios in two families of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and they were found to be inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. These markers could now be used in population genetics studies of N. lugens. Ten populations of N. lugens were collected from five locations in Malaysia. Each location had two sympatric populations. Cluster and principal coordinate analyses based on genetic distance along with AMOVA revealed that the rice-infesting populations (with high esterase activity) at five localities clustered together as a group, and Leersia-infesting populations (with low esterase activity) at the same localities formed another distinct cluster. Two amplicons from primers OPD03 (0.65 kb) and peh#6 (1.0 kb) could be considered diagnostic bands, which were fixed in the Leersia-infesting populations. These results represent evidence of a sibling species in the N. lugens complex. PMID:18504649

  19. Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) mediates the antibiotic jinggangmycin-stimulated reproduction in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Ping; Li, Lei; Liu, Zong-Yu; You, Lin-Lin; Wu, You; Xu, Bing; Ge, Lin-Quan; Song, Qi-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) is an agrochemical product widely used in China for controlling rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani. Unexpectedly, it stimulates reproduction in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the stimulation are unclear. The present investigation demonstrates that adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) is one of the enzymes involved in the JGM-stimulated reproduction in BPH. Silence of Atgl in JGM-treated (JGM + dsAtgl) females eliminated JGM-stimulated fecundity of BPH females. In addition, Atgl knockdown significantly reduced the protein and glycerin contents in the ovaries and fat bodies of JGM + dsAtgl females required for reproduction. We conclude that Atgl is one of the key enzymes responsible for JGM-stimulated reproduction in BPH. PMID:26739506

  20. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  1. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  2. Uptake of 14C-carbofuran from rice plants by brown planthopper (nilaparvata lugens stal) and green leafhopper (Nephotettix virencence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out to determine the amount of 14-C-carbofuran taken up by brown planthopper (BPH) and green leafhopper (GLH) from ride plants containing 14-C-carbofuran. The roots of 30 days old rice plants were immersed in Kimura B solution containing carbofuran (0.6ug/ml) with activity of 18600 pCi/ml. After 3 days, 20 BPH and 20 GLH released onto the rice stems and leaves. The mortalities of BPH and GLH were similar after 24 and 48 hours of the release. The average radioactivity found in living GLH was 3.5 times of those found in living GLH was 3.5 times of those found in living BPH. And in dead GLH was 3.2 times on those in dead BPH. Radioactivity in rice leaves was 3.5 times of those in stems. This layer chromatograph of extracts of Kimura B solution, stems, and leaves showed that small amounts of carbofuran had degraded to substances like 3-OH-carbofuran and 3-keto-carbofuran. The percentage of radioactivity found as carbofuran decreased with time, while the amount of 3-ket-carbofuran increased. (authors). 6 refs, 2 figs, 6 tab

  3. Toxicity and physiological effects of neem pesticides applied to rice on the Nilaparvata lugens Stål, the brown planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Choi, Man-Young; Paik, Chae-Hoon; Seo, Hong-Yul; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy

    2009-09-01

    The effects of two different neem products (Parker Oil and Neema) on mortality, food consumption and survival of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) were investigated. The LC(50) (3.45 ml/L for nymph and 4.42 ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 4.18 ml/L for nymph and 5.63 ml/L for adult in Neema treatment) and LC(90) (8.72 ml/L for nymph and 11.1 ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 9.84 ml/L for nymph and 13.07 ml/L for adult in Neema treatment) were identified by probit analysis. The LC(90) (equal to recommended dose) was applied in the rice field. The effective concentration of both Parker Oil and Neema took more than 48 h to kill 80% of the N. lugens. Fourth instar nymph and adult female N. lugens were caged on rice plants and exposed to a series (both LC(50) and LC(90)) of neem concentrations. Nymph and adult female N. lugens that were chronically exposed to neem pesticides showed immediate mortality after application in laboratory experiment. The quantity of food ingested and assimilated by N. lugens on neem-treated rice plants was significantly less than on control rice plants. The results clearly indicate the neem-based pesticide (Parker Oil and Neema), containing low lethal concentration, can be used effectively to inhibit the growth and survival of N. lugens. PMID:19500844

  4. Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice: from Germplasm to Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C. He

    2007-01-01

    @@ The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive and widespread insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa) that can be found throughout the rice-growing areas in Asia, causing significant yield loss in susceptible cultivars every year.

  5. Evidence of sibling species in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens complex, detected from long primer random amplified polymorphic DNA (LP-RAPD) fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brown planthopper, N. lugens (Staal), has become a serious threat to rice production throughout tropical and sub-tropical Asia with the spread of high yielding rice varieties and intensive culture practices since about 1970. It causes 'hopperburn' and complete wilting and drying of rice plants. Another N. lugens population was found to infest a weed grass, Leersia hexandra that grows abundantly in canals near irrigated rice fields in southeastern Asia. The Leersia infesting N. lugens population fails to survive on rice plants. Conversely, rice infesting N. lugens does not thrive on Leersia. Two sympatric populations of N. lugens, one from rice and other from L. hexandra were collected from five locations in Malaysia. The locations were University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Tanjung Karang (TK), Melaka (MK), Perak (PK) and Sabah (SB). An out group, N. bakeri was also collected from Cameron Highlands (CH). The insects used for long primer RAPD analysis were tested for esterase activity on a simple filter paper using the method reported by Pasteur and Georghiou. DNA extraction and PCR protocols were followed as described by Gillings and Holley. Four Long RAPD primers were used in this study. The primer, pehA no.6, 5'ATCGCACTTGATGCGCAGGCCGTT was diagnostic and the other three yielded the strongest bands and showed polymorphisms in rice and Leersia populations of N. lugens. Cluster analysis based on genetic distance revealed that the 10 brown planthopper populations and an out group, N. bakeri were divided into three major clusters. N. bakeri formed the most isolated cluster from populations of either rice or Leersia infesting populations of N. lugens. The rice infesting populations of five localities clustered together as a group. On the other hand Leersia infesting populations of the same localities formed another distinct cluster. An analysis of molecular variance was also performed and confirmed the differentiation into two groups. One RAPD band that was obtained

  6. Resistance of transgenic rice pure lines to brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) is one of the most damaging rice insect pests. Recent studies showed that lectin (GNA), coded by the gna gene from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) was toxic to BPH in artificial diet assay (Powell et al, 1993, 1995). Here we report the development of homozygous transgenic rice lines contained the gna gene and the BPH bioassay test of the homozygous lines.

  7. Insecticidal spider venom toxin fused to snowdrop lectin is toxic to the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Rachel E; Fitches, Elaine C; Wiles, Duncan P; Corti, Paola; Bell, Howard A; Gatehouse, John A; Edwards, John P

    2006-01-01

    The SFI1/GNA fusion protein, comprising of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) fused to an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1, SFI1) was tested for toxicity against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) by incorporation into artificial diets. Significant effects on the mortality of N. lugens were observed, with 100% of the insects fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein diet dead by day 7. The survival of the aphid M. persicae was also reduced when fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. After 14 days, only 49% of the aphids that were fed on the fusion protein were still alive compared with approximately 90% of the aphids fed on the control diet or on diet containing GNA only. The SFI1/GNA fusion protein also slowed the development of M. persicae, and the reproductive capacity of the aphids fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein was severely reduced. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein, and deliver the SFI1 neurotoxin to the haemolymph of N. lugens, following oral ingestion, was investigated. The successful delivery of intact SFI1/GNA fusion protein to the haemolymph of these insects was shown by western blotting. Haemolymph taken from the insects that were fed on the fusion protein contained two GNA-immunoreactive proteins of molecular weights corresponding to GNA and to the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. PMID:16206236

  8. Assessment of Impact of Insecticides on Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae), an Egg Parasitoid of the Rice Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitoid Anagrus Nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae) is a major natural enemy of the rice planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). It plays an important role in the IPM of the rice planthopper. Contact and oral toxicity and residual effect of fourteen pesticide...

  9. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Rice Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Bao-kun; HUANG Jian-li; HU Chao-xing; HOU Mao-lin

    2014-01-01

    It is predicted that the current atmospheric CO2 concentration will be doubled and global mean temperature will increase by 1.5-6°C by the end of this century. Although a number of studies have addressed the separate effects of CO2 and temperature on plant-insect interactions, few have concerned with their combined impacts. In the current study, a factorial experiment was carried out to examine the effect of a doubling CO2 concentration and a 3°C temperature increase on a complete generation of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) on rice (Oryza sativa). Both elevated CO2 and temperature increased rice stem height and biomass of stem parts. Leaf chlorophyll content increased under elevated CO2, but only in ambient temperature treatment. Water content of stem parts was reduced under elevated temperature, but only when coupled with elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 alone increased biomass of root and elevated temperature alone enhanced leaf area and reduced ratio of root to stem parts. Brown planthopper (BPH) nymphal development was accelerated, and weight of and honeydew excretion by the F1 adults was reduced under elevated temperature only. Longevity of brachypterous females was affected by a signiifcant interaction between CO2 and temperature. At elevated temperature, CO2 had no effect on female longevity, but at ambient temperature, the females lived shorter under elevated CO2. Female fecundity was higher at elevated than at ambient temperature and higher at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2. These results indicate that the combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 may enhance the brown planthopper population size.

  10. Insecticide resistance selection in rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stal) and white backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) are the main insects on rice in China. The insecticide resistance of the two planthoppers have often been reported. Availability of the resistant population is a prerequisite for studying the resistance mechanism. In this paper, one method to select methamidophos resistance of the two planthoppers was recommended.

  11. 地上部植食者褐飞虱对不同水稻品种土壤线虫群落的影响%Aboveground herbivory by the brown planthopper(Nilaparvata lugens)affects soil nematode communities under different rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘满强; 胡锋; 黄菁华; 陈小云; 王峰; 葛成; 苏昱; 邵波; 汤英; 李辉信

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between aboveground-belowground communities play an important role in regulating terrestrial ecological processes; however, the interactions between rice varieties, herbivory and the soil community are often ignored. A pot experiment with a full 2×2 factorial design was conducted to examine the impacts of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and rice variety (susceptible or resistant) on the soil nematode community. The results showed that, after nine days, aboveground herbivory significantly (P<0.05) increased total abundance, numbers of nematode genera and the number of free-living nematodes (such as bacterivores, fungivores, and predators), under the rice varieties susceptible to the brown planthopper (Guangsi and Shanyou63), whereas an opposite trend was observed under the rice varieties resistant to the brown planthopper (Shanyou559 and IR36). In the presence of planthoppers, herbivorous nematodes significantly increased under the most susceptible rice variety Guangsi but significantly decreased under the most resistant rice variety IR36. Both planthopper and rice variety had negligible influences on ecological indices of the soil nematode community, including nematode channel ratio (NCR), Shannon-Wiener index (H'), maturity index (MI), enrichment index (El) and structure index (SI). This might be due to domination by bacterivores of the soil nematode community and the short length of exposure to aboveground herbivory for our pot experiment (only nine days). In conclusion, the brown planthopper strongly affects the abundance, composition as well as trophic structure of nematode community, but the direction (i.e. stimulation or depression) and magnitude of influences interacts with the rice variety. Our results imply that short-term aboveground herbivory may impose profound impacts on the structure and functions of rice paddy ecosystem.%地上和地下部生物群落的交互作用对于调控陆地生态过程具有重要

  12. Ovipositional deterrent activity of ethanol extracts of the non-preferable plants to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens%非嗜食植物乙醇提取物对褐飞虱产卵的驱避作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 梁广文; 曾玲

    2010-01-01

    应用干扰作用控制指数IIPC(intederence index of population control),评价47种非嗜食植物乙醇提取物对褐飞虱(Nilaparvata lugens)的产卵驱避效果.结果表明,处理后48 h,大多数供试植物提取物(浓度均为10.0 g/L)对褐飞虱均有较强的产卵驱避作用.其中山姜(Alpinia japonica)、长叶马兜铃(Aristolochia championii)、华南毛蕨(Cyclosorus parasiticus)等8种乙醇提取物处理的稻株上未见产卵;飞机草(Chromolaena odorata)、蒜(Allium sativum)、苍耳(Xanthium sibiricum)等9种植物的乙醇提取物的IIPC小于0.100;薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)、马缨丹(Lantana camara)、蓖麻(Ricinus communis)等13种植物的乙醇提取物的效果达80%以上.随着作用时间的延长,产卵驱避持续效果逐渐减弱,持续驱避作用时间为3 d.此外,随着提取物使用剂量的提高,产卵驱避作用增强,具有产卵驱避作用的浓度为10.0 g/L以上.

  13. Effects of semio-chemical of the non-host plant on brown planthopper( Nilaparvata lugens )%非嗜食植物次生化合物对褐稻虱实验种群的控制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 梁广文; 曾玲

    2004-01-01

    采用干扰作用控制指数(Interference index of population control,ⅡPC),研究了非嗜食植物乙醇提取物对褐稻虱(Nilaparvata lugens(Stal))实验种群的控制作用.结果表明,供试的26种植物乙醇提取物(1 gDW·100mL-1)中,大多数对褐稻虱种群有明显的产卵忌避作用和综合干扰控制作用.其中苍耳(Xanthium sibiricum Petr.et Widd)、甘草(Clycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch)、飞机草(Chromolaena odorata)3种植物乙醇提取物的产卵忌避率达90%以上;薇苷菊(Mikannia micrantha H.B)、飞机草、苍耳等14种植物乙醇抽提物1 gDW·100mL-1对褐稻虱的综合ⅡPC小于0.1,表明对褐稻虱种群的控制效果达90%以上;同时部分植物乙醇提取物具有一定的毒杀作用,如薇苷菊、马樱丹(Lantana camaraL.)等乙醇提取物对褐稻虱1~2龄若虫的ⅡPC达到0.32~0.45,薇苷菊、尾叶桉(Eucalyptus urophlyla S.T.Blakely)、飞机草对3~5龄若虫的ⅡPC分别为0.40~0.50,即对褐稻虱1~2、3~5龄若虫分别具有55%~68%和50%~60%的毒杀效果.这些植物乙醇提取物可作为组建水稻植物保护剂的成分.

  14. 20种非寄主植物挥发物对褐飞虱拒避与引诱行为的影响%Effects of volatiles in twenty non-host plants on the repellented and attractive behaviors of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献英; 霍治国; 犹昌艳; 胡飞

    2014-01-01

    【目的】为开发和设计褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens拒避剂与引诱剂提供科学依据.【方法】利用Y型嗅觉仪测定褐飞虱对20种非寄主植物释放的挥发物及对α-蒎烯、α-水芹烯、崁烯、芳樟醇的拒避与引诱行为.【结果和结论】枸树Broussonetia papyrifera、塞楝Khaya senegalensis、胜红蓟Ageratum conyzoides、蟛蜞菊Wedelia chinensis、鬼针草Bidens pilosa、马樱丹Lantana camara、桉树Eucalyptus exsetrta、毛麻楝Chukrasia tabularis的叶片和小茴香Foeniculum vulgare的种子挥发物对褐飞虱雌成虫具有显著的拒避作用,其中蟛蜞菊、塞楝和桉树叶片挥发物的拒避作用比较明显,拒避率分别为87.5%、83.3%和72.0%;洋葱Allium cepa(鳞茎)挥发物对褐飞虱具有极显著的引诱作用,引诱率为73.1%;其他植物叶片挥发物对褐飞虱的拒避与引诱行为没有显著的影响.9种植物共有的3种挥发成分在测试浓度下,α-蒎烯对褐飞虱雌成虫有显著的引诱作用,崁烯对其有显著的拒避作用,α-水芹烯则对其拒避与引诱行为没有显著影响.水稻挥发物芳樟醇因含量不同,褐飞虱雌成虫的选择行为有差异,芳樟醇用量为1μL时对褐飞虱具有显著引诱作用,10μL以上时表现为拒避作用,15μL以上均具有极显著的拒避作用.%[Objective]To provide scientific evidence for the development and design of repellents and at-tractants of brown planthopper ,Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( BPH).[Method] The repellented and attrac-tivebehaviors response of female adults BPH to volatiles of twenty non-host plants and α-phellandrene ,α-pinene ,camphene and linalool were tested by a Y-tube olfactometer .[Result and conclusion] The vola-tiles of Broussonetia papyrifera,Khaya senegalensis,Ageratum conyzoides,Wedelia chinensis,Bidens pilosa, Lantana camara, Eucalyptus exsetrta, Chukrasia tabularis, and the nuts of Foeniculum vulgare revealed

  15. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Mamunur RASHID; Mahbuba JAHAN; Khandakar Shariful ISLAM

    2016-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  16. Take-off time of the first generation of the overwintering small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus in the temperate zone in East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo Sanada-Morimura

    Full Text Available Overseas migration of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén, occurs during the winter wheat harvest season in East Asia. Knowing the take-off time of emigrating L. striatellus is crucial for predicting such migrations with a simulation technique because winds, carriers of migratory insects, change continuously. Several methods were used in China and Japan from late May to early June 2012 and again in 2013 to identify the precise timing of take-off. These methods included: a tow net trap mounted to a pole at 10 m above the ground, a helicopter-towed net trap, and a canopy trap (which also had video monitoring set over wheat plants. Laodelphax striatellus emigrated from wheat fields mainly in the early evening, before dusk. The insects also emigrated during the daytime but rarely emigrated at dawn, showing a pattern that is unlike the bimodal emigration at dusk and dawn of two other rice planthoppers, the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, and the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth. There was no significant difference in the temporal pattern of take-off behavior between females and males of Japanese L. striatellus populations.

  17. Will Climate Change Affect Outbreak Patterns of Planthoppers in Bangladesh?

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, M. P.; Huang, Dingcheng; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Ahmed, Nur; Begum, Mahfuz Ara; Rabbi, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, planthoppers outbreaks have intensified across Asia resulting in heavy rice yield losses. The problem has been widely reported as being induced by insecticides while other factors such as global warming that could be potential drivers have been neglected. Here, we speculate that global warming may increase outbreak risk of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.). We present data that demonstrate the relationship between climate variables (air temperature and precipitation) and ...

  18. Phloem-exudate proteome analysis of response to insect brown plant-hopper in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ba; Wei, Zhe; Wang, Zhanqi; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Peng, Xinxin; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2015-07-01

    Brown plant-hopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH), one of the most devastating agricultural insect pests of rice throughout Asia, ingests nutrients from rice sieve tubes and causes a dramatic yield loss. Planting resistant variety is an efficient and economical way to control this pest. Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance is extremely valuable for molecular design of resistant rice variety. Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach to perform analysis of protein expression profiles in the phloem exudates of BPH-resistant and susceptible rice plants following BPH infestation. A total of 238 proteins were identified, most of which were previously described to be present in the phloem of rice and other plants. The expression of genes for selected proteins was confirmed using a laser capture micro-dissection method and RT-PCR. The mRNAs for three proteins, RGAP, TCTP, and TRXH, were further analyzed by using in situ mRNA hybridization and localized in the phloem cells. Our results showed that BPH feeding induced significant changes in the abundance of proteins in phloem sap of rice involved in multiple pathways, including defense signal transduction, redox regulation, and carbohydrate and protein metabolism, as well as cell structural proteins. The results presented provide new insights into rice resistance mechanisms and should facilitate the breeding of novel elite BPH-resistant rice varieties. PMID:26072143

  19. Reproductive Rate of Rice Brown Planthopper Population of Super Rice Yongyou 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senfu Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the cost-effective control of occurrence and damage of rice brown planthopper, Study of super indica japonica hybrid rice Yongyou 6 of brown planthopper population reproduction rate density effect. The reproductive rate and variation dynamics of rice brown planthopper in super rice was also investigated and analyzed. Field test results showed that the population amount of rice brown planthopper in super rice during tillering stage and booting stage gradually increased with the increasing amount of released pest and its growth amount gradually increased with the advancement of growth stage. However, as the density reached a certain limit during gain filling stage (>250 head/cluster, the population amount during maturity stage showed decline trend with the increasing density.

  20. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yubing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. Results We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT. We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1. We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC of more than 2.0 (P10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. Conclusions We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants protect themselves by reducing their metabolic level to inhibit feeding by BPH and prevent damage from water and nutrient loss. We have selected 21 TF genes related to BPH resistance for further analyses to understand the molecular responses to BPH feeding in rice.

  1. Effects of Sublethal Dose of Imidacloprid and Pymetrozine on Relative Biological Fitness of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens%亚致死剂量吡虫啉和吡蚜酮对褐飞虱生物适合度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑华; 杨保军; 刘双; 丁志平; 刘泽文; 唐健

    2012-01-01

    全面评价了亚致死剂量吡虫啉和吡蚜酮对褐飞虱繁殖力和生存力的长期影响.毒力测定结果显示,吡虫啉和吡蚜酮对褐飞虱3龄若虫的LC70分别为42.41mg/L.和396.46mg/L,吡虫啉毒力约是吡蚜酮毒力的9.35倍.通过建立褐飞虱在吡虫啉和吡蚜酮亚致死剂量(LC30)作用下的生命表,发现褐飞虱在两种药剂处理下生物适合度都有所下降,分别为对照试虫的83.8%和8.4%.吡虫啉处理试虫仅羽化率明显低于对照,而吡蚜酮处理试虫的羽化率、雌虫比例、雌成虫寿命和卵孵化率各参数部明显下降.亚致死剂量的吡蚜酮使褐飞虱日产卵节律和卵孵化高峰都有所推迟,这可能是吡蚜酮对褐飞虱产生取食抑制作用进而导致其生殖器官发育缓慢造成的.%Long-term influences of sublethal dose of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on reproduction and biological fitness of the brown planthopper(BPH) were evaluated. Bioassay results showed that the LC50 values for imidacloprid and pymetrozine were 42. 41 mg/L and 396. 46 mg/L, respectively, suggesting imidacloprid was approximately 9. 35 times more toxic than pymetrozine. The effects of the sublethal dose (LC30) of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on the fitness of the brown planthopper were evaluated by constructing and comparing the life tables. Results revealed that the biological fitness of BPH exposed to imidacloprid and pymetrozine had reduced to only 83. 8% and 8. 4% of the control, respectively. In imidacloprid treatment, there was only an obvious decline in emergence rate of adult. However, the emergence rate of adult, female adult ratio, female adult duration and eggs hatching rate were conspicuously reduced under pymetrozine treatment. In addition, the egg laying and fecundity fastigium of BPH exposed to sublethal pymetrozine were postponed compared to the control, which is probably correlated with the delayed development of genitalia caused by pymetrozine's feeding

  2. Genomic insights into the glutathione S-transferase gene family of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal and Sogatella furcifera (Horvath (Hemiptera: Delphacidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase (GST genes control crucial traits for the metabolism of various toxins encountered by insects in host plants and the wider environment, including insecticides. The planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are serious specialist pests of rice throughout eastern Asia. Their capacity to rapidly adapt to resistant rice varieties and to develop resistance to various insecticides has led to severe outbreaks over the last decade. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the genome sequence of N. lugens, we identified for the first time the complete GST gene family of a delphacid insect whilst nine GST gene orthologs were identified from the closely related species S. furcifera. Nilaparvata lugens has 11 GST genes belonging to six cytosolic subclasses and a microsomal class, many fewer than seen in other insects with known genomes. Sigma is the largest GST subclass, and the intron-exon pattern deviates significantly from that of other species. Higher GST gene expression in the N. lugens adult migratory form reflects the higher risk of this life stage in encountering the toxins of non-host plants. After exposure to a sub-lethal dose of four insecticides, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, buprofezin or beta-cypermethrin, more GST genes were upregulated in S. furcifera than in N. lugens. RNA interference targeting two N. lugens GST genes, NlGSTe1 and NlGSTm2, significantly increased the sensitivity of fourth instar nymphs to chlorpyrifos but not to beta-cypermethrin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first elucidation of the nature of the GST gene family in a delphacid species, offering new insights into the evolution of metabolic enzyme genes in insects. Further, the use of RNA interference to identify the GST genes induced by insecticides illustrates likely mechanisms for the tolerance of these insects.

  3. A taxonomic investigation on egg parasitoid, Anagrus of rice planthopper in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Exploitation and utilization of beneficial arthropods viz. insects and spiders to regulate pest populations has a good prospect in China. The role of non_rice habitats in maintaining the population of natural enemies of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (stal) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) has been investigated in Zhejiang Province since 1994. The work focused primarily on the egg parasitoids genus Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Plants laden with eggs of the brown planthopper were exposed 2 d every week in the rice fields and grassy areas dominated by Digitaria spp. Then, the plants were retrieved and brought back to the laboratory for parasitoid rearing. Newly emerged parasitoids were preserved in alcohol solution for further identification.

  4. In situ localization of proteinase inhibitor mRNA in rice plant challenged by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitor (PI) mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in tissue sections of root, stem and leaf of the resistant rice (B5) plant fed by brown planthopper nymphs. In the rice material without BPH feeding, PI gene was expressed in the root, stem and leaf, while the abundance of PI mRNA was low. In the rice material fed by BPH, PI gene was expressed substantially in the parenchyma of rice stem and leaf, but weakly in the root. The results indicated that the PI gene was up-regulated in the rice plant challenged by brown planthopper. For the first time, we reported the expression changes of proteinase inhibitor gene in plant which was infested by a piercing/sucking insect.

  5. Computer Vision for Screening Resistance Level of Rice Varieties to Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Nurfadhilah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper is one of the most important insect pest that threatens the stability of national rice production in Indonesia. One of the efforts to save rice production is by using brown planthopper resistant variety. Currently the determination approach is still conventional based on Standard Seedboxes Screening Test from IRRI with assistance of experienced experts in the scoring process resistance level.In this study, a prototype of application system to predict resistance levels by image color approach was developed. The method consists of collecting images data, preparation process (background and objects segmentation, and determination of area proportion which has been infected (sick and dead and healthy, based on ‘A’ value from CIELab color space laboratory. According to proportion value distribution, the rule of rice resistance to brown planthopper assessment based on image was developed. The rule is mostly similar with IRRI standard rules. All of images were assessed based on the rule and then the model was developed with an error rate of 17.02%.

  6. Effect of Rice Sowing Date on Occurrence of Small Brown Planthopper and Epidemics of Planthopper-Transmitted Rice Stripe Viral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin-liang; ZHU Zeng-rong; ZHOU Yin; LU Qiang; SUN Xiang-liang; TAO Xian-guo; CHEN Yue; WANG Hua-di; CHENG Jia-an

    2009-01-01

    To understand the relationship between rice sowing date and occurrence of the rice small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus Fallen and the epidemics of the planthopper-transmitted dee stripe viral (RSV) disease, four sowing dates of rice were evaluated in 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the peak density of SBPH and RSV incidence in the nursery and in the transplanted field decreased with the delay of sowing date in single crop of japonica rice in north Zhejiang Province of China. The relationship between seedling RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial with sowing date was well described by Weibull equation. The area under the curve of population dynamics (AUCPD or planthopper-day accumulation) or the peak density of the planthopper in the nursery could be summarized by a logistic equation. RSV incidence in the transplanted fields could be characterized quantitatively by a multivariate regression equation, including the variables of sowing date, peak density of the vector, and RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial. That the descriptive model excluded the AUCPD in transplanted field implies that this variable is not necessary in forecasting disease epidemics in the field. The 2-year experiments sufficiently indicated that suitable sowing of rice could be used as one of the effective measures to control the vector population and therefore the planthopper-transmitted RSV on a larger seale. The optimal sowing date for the single-cropped transplanted japonica rice is recommended from late May to early June in north Zhejiang, China.

  7. Knockdown of Midgut Genes by dsRNA-Transgenic Plant-Mediated RNA Interference in the Hemipteran Insect Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjun Zha; Xinxin Peng; Rongzhi Chen; Bo Du; Lili Zhu; Guangcun He

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technique for functional genomics research in insects. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directed against insect genes have been reported for lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, showing potential for field-level control of insect pests, but this has not been reported for other insect orders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hemipteran insect brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is a typical phloem sap feeder s...

  8. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Ginkgo biloba against Brown Planthopper

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Ding; Ming-An Ouyang; Xiang Liu; Rei-Zhen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant which has potent insecticidal activity against brown planthopper. The MeOH extract was tested in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory assay with IC50 values of 252.1 μg/mL. Two ginkgolides and thirteen flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. It revealed that the 13 isolated flavonoids were found to inhibit AChE with IC50 values ra...

  9. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata.

    OpenAIRE

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological control") or manipulation of indigenous organisms (Chapter 1). Integrated pest management (IPM) combines biological control with other forms of pest control, such as cultural, mechanical, and chemical methods. However, n...

  10. Effects of endosymbiote on feeding, development, and reproduction of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens stal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The biotype 1,2, and 3 of N. Lugensobtained from IRRI, the Philippines, were reared continuously on susceptible variety TN1, resistant varieties Mudgo (Bph1), and ASD7 (Bph2),respectively. To eliminate the yeast-like symbionts (YLS) in N.lugens,about 60-d old plants of TN1 bearing 3-d old eggs were laid at 26℃ for 2 d and exposed at 35℃ in an incubator for 3 d. After a hot treatment, the plants were transferred into an incubator at 26℃ for egg development. The hatched aposymbiotic nymphs were employed in this experiment.

  11. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological contro

  12. Pichia anomala, a new species of yeast-like endosymbionts and its variation in small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Ma, Zheng; Chen, Yolanda H; Yu, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    Yeast-like symbionts (YLS) are endosymbionts that promote the growth of delphacid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), some of which are pests on cultivated rice. Identification and characterization of YLS growth can be helpful for pest control, because it has been demonstrated that there is a variety of YLS in rice planthopper and they affected the planthopper's growth and virulence to plant hosts. So, elucidation of the species of YLS in planthopper is crucial for exploiting a new way to control planthopper. In this study, a new isolated of YLS was obtained from the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, which was cultured in vitro, simultaneously identified as Pichia anomala based on its phylogenetic analysis. In order to confirm the existence of P. anomala in the L. striatellus body, we used the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to identify the YLS and obtain the specific bands for P. anomala. The quantification and localization of P. anomala in L. striatellus samples were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using genus-specific 18S rDNA targeted probe. The result confirmed that a certain number of P. anomala exist in L. striatellus's abdomen. Subsequently, the variation and copy number of P. anomala in different L. striatellus instars was measured by using absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), the results indicated that the new isolated strain was closely related to the developmental process of L. striatellus. PMID:25499750

  13. Characteristics of the draft genome of "Candidatus Arsenophonus nilaparvatae", a facultative endosymbiont of Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hai-Wei; Lu, Jia-Bao; Ye, Yu-Xuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2016-06-01

    There exists a kind of symbiotic bacterium named "Candidatus Arsenophonus nilaparvatae" in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. After being filtered and assembled from the BPH genome sequencing project, the genome sequence of this bacterial symbiont was obtained. After initial analysis based on the genome, we have found its potential role to synthesize B vitamins for the host. In order to better understand the lifestyle and the genomic changes of this symbiotic bacterium after the symbiotic relationship was established, we further report the characteristics of this draft genome. Compared with several other related bacteria, "Candidatus Arsenophonus nilaparvatae" has proven to be a facultative endosymbiont at the genomic level. Concurrently, the presence of fimbriae and flagella formation related genes indicates this maternally transmitted endosymbiont is most likely to retain the capacity to invade new hosts. Through further analysis of annotated gene sets, we also find evidence of genome reduction in its secretion system and metabolic pathways. These findings reflect its evolutionary trend to be an obligate one and enable a deeper study of microbe-insect interactions. PMID:26792263

  14. Mapping of a new gene for brown planthopper resistance in cultivated rice introgressed from Oryza eichingeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wild rice species is an important source of useful genes for cultivated rice improvement. Some accessions of Oryza eichingeri (2n = 24, CC) from Africa confer strong resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) and bacterial blight (BB). In the present study, restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis were performed on disomic backcross plants between Oryza sativa (2n = 24, AA) and O. eichingeri in order to identify the presenee of O. eichingeri segments and further to localize BPH-resistant gene. In the introgression lines, 1-6O. eichingeri segments were detected on rice chromosomes 1, 2, 6, or/and 10. The dominant BPH resistant gene, tentatively named Bph13(t), was mapped to chromosome 2, being 6.1 and 5.5 cM away from two microsatellite markers RM240 and RM250, respectively. The transfer and localization of this gene from O. eichingeri will contribute to the improvement of BPH resistance in cultivated rice.``

  15. Map-based cloning and characterization of BPH29, a B3 domain-containing recessive gene conferring brown planthopper resistance in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Liming; Zhang, Yuexiong; Cao, Changxiang; Liu, Fang(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China); Huang, Fengkuan; Qiu, Yongfu; Li, Rongbai; Lou, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    Highlight A brown planthopper resistance recessive gene, BPH29, was cloned which contained a B3 DNA-binding domain and conferred resistance by a mechanism that was similar to plant defence against pathogens.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Carrying Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV, the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.

  17. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Ginkgo biloba against Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant which has potent insecticidal activity against brown planthopper. The MeOH extract was tested in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory assay with IC50 values of 252.1 μg/mL. Two ginkgolides and thirteen flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. It revealed that the 13 isolated flavonoids were found to inhibit AChE with IC50 values ranging from 57.8 to 133.1 μg/mL in the inhibitory assay. AChE was inhibited dose dependently by all tested flavonoids, and compound 6 displayed the highest inhibitory effect against AChE with IC50 values of 57.8 μg/mL.

  18. Recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of brown planthopper resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Xiao, Cong; He, Yuqing

    2016-12-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most devastating pest of rice. Host-plant resistance is the most desirable and economic strategy in the management of BPH. To date, 29 major BPH resistance genes have been identified from indica cultivars and wild rice species, and more than ten genes have been fine mapped to chromosome regions of less than 200 kb. Four genes (Bph14, Bph26, Bph17 and bph29) have been cloned. The increasing number of fine-mapped and cloned genes provide a solid foundation for development of functional markers for use in breeding. Several BPH resistant introgression lines (ILs), near-isogenic lines (NILs) and pyramided lines (PLs) carrying single or multiple resistance genes were developed by marker assisted backcross breeding (MABC). Here we review recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of BPH resistance in rice. Prospect for developing cultivars with durable, broad-spectrum BPH resistance are discussed. PMID:27300326

  19. Investigation on subcellular localization of Rice stripe virus in its vector small brown planthopper by electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Jinhua; Li, Shuo; Hong, Jian; Ji, Yinghua; Zhou, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice stripe virus (RSV), which is transmitted by small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, SBPH), has been reported to be epidemic and cause severe rice stripe disease in rice fields in many East Asian countries, including China. Investigation on viral localization in the vector is very important for elucidating transmission mechanisms of RSV by SBPH. In this study, transmission electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling technique were used to investigate the subcel...

  20. Screening and field evaluation of synthetic plant volatiles as attractants for Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang,an egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers%稻飞虱卵期寄生蜂稻虱缨小蜂引诱剂的筛选与田间试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鹏; 娄永根

    2013-01-01

    植食性昆虫的天敌能够利用虫害诱导的挥发物进行有效的寄主或猎物定位.为了开发稻飞虱卵期天敌稻虱缨小蜂Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang的引诱剂,分别在室内和室外检测了多种褐飞虱诱导的水稻挥发物组分对褐飞虱卵期天敌稻虱缨小蜂的引诱作用.Y型嗅觉仪实验结果表明,5种单一化合物,Z-3-己烯乙酸酯,1-戊烯基-3-醇,Z-3-己烯醛,芳樟醇和水杨酸甲酯,以及3种混合物,水杨酸甲酯+Z-3-己烯醛,Z-3-己烯醛+Z-3-己烯乙酸酯+芳樟醇,水杨酸甲酯+Z-3-己烯醛+Z-3-己烯乙酸酯+芳樟醇,对稻虱缨小蜂具有明显引诱作用.田间试验表明,3种单一化合物,Z-3-己烯乙酸酯,Z-3-己烯醛和芳樟醇,以及一种混合物,水杨酸甲酯+Z-3-己烯醛+ Z-3-己烯乙酸酯+芳樟醇,能明显提高稻虱缨小蜂对褐飞虱卵的寄生作用.这些结果对于改善褐飞虱治理具有重要的意义.%Natural enemies of herbivores can effectively locate their hosts or prey by perceiving herbivore-induced plant volatiles.In order to develop attractants for Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang,an egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers,we tested the attractiveness of synthetic rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l) to the parasitoid in both laboratory and field.In the laboratory,using a Y-tube olfactometer,we found that five compounds(Z-3-hexenyl acetate,1-penten-3-ol,Z-3-hexenal,linalool and MeSA) attract the parasitoid.Moreover,A.nilapareatae was strongly attracted by three mixtures,one of MeSA plus Z-3-hexenal,one containing Z-3-hexenal,Z-3-hexenyl acetate and linalool,and one containing MeSA,Z-3-hexenal,Z-3-hexenyl acetate and linalool.Field experiments demonstrated that the parasitism of BPH eggs by the parasitoid was significantly increased on plants that received a septa containing one of the 3 chemicals (Z-3-hexenal,Z-3-hexenyl acetate,linalool) or the mixture containing MeSA,Z-3-hexenal

  1. Physical mapping of Bph3, a brown planthopper resistance locus in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapong Jairin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, a destructive phloem feeding insect pest, is an important objective in rice breeding programs in Thailand. The broad-spectrum resistance gene Bph3 is one of the major BPH resistance genes identified so far in cultivated rice and has been widely used in rice improvement programs. This resistance gene has been identified and mapped on the short arm of chromosome 6. In this study, physical mapping of Bph3 was performed using a BC3F3 population derived from a cross between Rathu Heenati and KDML105. Recombinant BC3F3 individuals with the Bph3 genotype were determined by phenotypic evaluation using modified mass tiller screening at the vegetative stage of rice plants. The recombination events surrounding the Bph3 locus were used to identify the co-segregate markers. According to the genome sequence of Nipponbare, the Bph3 locus was finally localized approximately in a 190 kb interval flanked by markers RM19291 and RM8072, which contain twenty-two putative genes. Additional phenotypic experiment revealed that the resistance in Rathu Heenati was decreased by increasing nitrogen content in rice plants through remobilization of nitrogen. This phenomenon should be helpful for identifying the Bph3 gene.

  2. Rice planthopper resistance of interspecific protoplast fusin line "pf9279" between O. sative and O.officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ An interspecific hybrid line pf9279 was obtained by protoplast fusion between 02428(japonica, with a wide compatibility gene) and CNW240 (O. officinalis, from Malaysia) at CNRRI in 1992. Possible introgression of planthopper resistance from O.officinalis into pf9279 was investigated by field and laboratory experiments during 1998-1999 at CNRRI. Thirty-day-old seedlings of pf9279 and other rice varieties were individually transplanted with a spacing of 18× 24 cm in each plot (ca 7× 20 m) on Jun 15, 1999. Population trends of brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and whitebacked planthopper(WBPH),Sogatella furcifera were examined weekly by visual counting of adult females on 50-100 hills for each variety.

  3. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective.

  4. Glutathione S-Transferase of Brown Planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) Is Essential for Their Adaptation to Gramine-Containing Host Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiao-Qin; Zhang, Mao-Xin; Yu, Jing-Ya; Jin, Yu; Ling, Bing; Du, Jin-Ping; Li, Gui-Hua; Qin, Qing-Ming; Cai, Qing-Nian

    2013-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex processes to ward off attacks by insects. In parallel, insects have evolved mechanisms to thwart these plant defenses. To gain insight into mechanisms that mediate this arms race between plants and herbivorous insects, we investigated the interactions between gramine, a toxin synthesized by plants of the family Gramineae, and glutathione S transferase (GST), an enzyme found in insects that is known to detoxify xenobiotics. Here, we demonstrate that rice (Oryza sati...

  5. No cross-resistance between imidacloprid and pymetrozine in the brown planthopper: status and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanxue; Huang, Lixin; Wang, Yunchao; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Siqi; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-01

    Cross-resistance between insecticides, especially from different groups, can be extremely unpredictable, and it has been a serious concern in pest control. Pymetrozine has been widely used to control Nilaparvata lugens with the suspension of imidacloprid for the resistance, and N. lugens has showed obvious pymetrozine resistance in recent years. To investigate the possible cross-resistance between imidacloprid and pymetrozine is very important to avoid the adverse effects on resistance development and pest control. Bioassays of two field populations in five consecutive years showed that imidacloprid resistance decreased greatly, while pymetrozine resistance increased significantly. The synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) could synergize both imidacloprid and pymetrozine in all field populations, which indicated the importance of P450s in the resistance to two insecticides. Imidacloprid resistance was reported to be associated with two P450s, CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1, which could metabolize imidacloprid efficiently. However, the recombinant proteins of these two P450s did not show any enzymatic activity to metabolize pymetrozine. The pymetrozine susceptibility did not change when CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 mRNA levels were reduced by RNA interference (RNAi), although which could obviously decrease imidacloprid resistance. In vivo and in vitro studies provided evidences to demonstrate that there was no cross-resistance between imidacloprid and pymetrozine in N. lugens, which was different from the findings in Bemisia tabaci. PMID:27155488

  6. Distribution of Bacterial Symbionts in Brown Planthopper%褐飞虱体内细菌型共生菌的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐明; 徐小蓉; 洪鲲; 乙引

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of bacterial symbionts in brown planthopper was detected by the universal oligo-nucleotide probes eub338 and non338 of Cy5-labeled bacterial 16S rRNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).The results showed that Cy5 fluorescence and weak autofluorescence signals were detected in the abdomen,near ovipositor and around midgut of brown planthopper by eub338 but the autofluorescence signal was only detected by antisense probe non338 in the abdomen,around ovipositor and midgut of brown planthopper.%为弄清褐飞虱体内细菌型共生菌的分布状况,采用荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术,用 Cy5标记真细菌16S ribosomal DNA(rDNA)的通用探针 eub338和 non338对细菌型共生菌在褐飞虱体内的分布进行了检测。结果表明:在褐飞虱虫体腹部、产卵管附近以及中场组织附近均检测到 Cy5荧光信号和微弱的自发荧光信号,而反义探针 non338在这些部位均未检测到 Cy5的荧光信号,只检测到自发荧光信号。

  7. Whole-genome expression analysis of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in different plant hosts and small brown planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiufang; Ni, Haiping; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lan, Ying; Ren, Chunmei; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-11-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) can infect a number of gramineous plants and cause severe crop yield losses in southeast Asian countries. The virus is transmitted by small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent circulative manner. The interactions between RBSDV and its different hosts remain unknown. Besides, how the virus adjusts itself to infect different hosts is unclear. In the present study, the relative RNA levels of the thirteen RBSDV genes in rice, maize, wheat, and SBPH were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. P7-1 and P10 genes were predominantly expressed whereas P8 and P7-2 genes were expressed at low levels in plant hosts. Similar to the expression in rice, P7-1 was the most abundantly expressed gene and P8 was expressed at the lowest level in SBPH, indicating that RBSDV adopts the same strategy to infect distinct hosts. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene in both plants and insect suggest that it can be used as the target gene for disease diagnostics. However, the expression levels of some genes varied from host to host. P5-1, P6 and P9-1, the components of the RBSDV viroplasm, are differentially expressed in different hosts. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the quantity of the P9-1 protein was more abundant in SBPH than in plant hosts. These data indicate that the virus may adjust its own gene expression to replicate in different hosts. Analysis of time course of gene expression revealed that P7-1 stands out as the only gene highly expressed at the earliest time point and its expression precedes all others throughout infection from 8 to 24days post-inoculation. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene suggest that it plays a significant role in RBSDV-host interactions. PMID:26149652

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

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    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  9. Biodiversity and Dynamics of Planthoppers and Their Natural Enemies in Rice Fields with Different Nitrogen Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HU Cui

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates I.e. 200, 100 and 0 kg N/ha in paddy fields at International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. Biodiversity of arthropods sampled by Blower-Vac, and dynamics of planthoppers, egg parasitoids of Homoptera trapped by rice plants with eggs of brown planthoppers (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (St(ā)l), and web spiders on rice canopy collected by sweeping net, were analyzed at different rice growth stages. The most abundant arthropods were sampled at the milking stage of rice, totalling 116 species identified into 14 insect orders and 15 species of spider in all samples. Meanwhile the number of arthropod species significantly increased with rice growth and the diversity indices increased with the increase of nitrogen rate at the booting stage. On the other hand, in the dominant predators, Pardosa pseudoannulata, Callitrichi formosana, Micraspis sp., Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Veliidae sp. And Mesoveliidae sp., only C. Lividipennis and Micraspis sp. Were increased significantly in abundance following the application of nitrogen at the milking stage of rice. The egg parasitoids of plant-hoppers were predominated by Anagrus flaveolus and Oligosita sp. And their densities in the field without nitrogen fertilizer were markedly higher than those in fields with 100 and 200 kg N/ha at both booting and milking stages of rice. The number and web area of dominant residential spiders Tetragnatha sp. And Araneus sp. In rice canopy significantly reduced with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer. The population density of planthoppers, included BPH and the white-backed planthoppers (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, peaked during the booting stage, however, the number of BPH in rice field with 200 kg N/ha was considerably higher than those in other two rice fields with 100 kg N/ha and 0 kg N/ha at the booting as well as the milking stage. These results indicated that the rapid growth in

  10. Toxicity of seven insecticides to brown planthopper by bioassay%7种杀虫剂对褐飞虱的毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌炎; 钟勇; 尹文兵; 黄凤宽; 黄所生; 吴壁球; 龙丽萍

    2012-01-01

    用4种生物测定方法测定了7种杀虫剂对越南九龙江褐飞虱种群的毒力.稻茎浸渍法测定结果表明:7种杀虫剂对褐飞虱3龄若虫的毒力(LC50值)大小顺序为氟虫腈>吡蚜酮>噻虫嗪>噻嗪酮>毒死蜱>吡虫啉>叶蝉散;点滴法测定结果表明:5种杀虫剂对褐飞虱雌成虫的毒力(LD50值)大小顺序为噻虫嗪>氟虫腈>吡虫啉>毒死蜱>叶蝉散;浸苗法测定结果表明:7种杀虫剂对褐飞虱3龄若虫的毒力(LC50值)大小顺序为氟虫腈>吡蚜酮>噻虫嗪>噻嗪酮>毒死蜱>叶蝉散>吡虫啉;药膜法测定结果表明:7种杀虫剂对九龙江褐飞虱3龄若虫的毒力(LC50值)大小顺序为氟虫腈>叶蝉散>毒死蜱>噻虫嗪>吡蚜酮>吡虫啉>噻嗪酮.由此可见,目前氟虫腈、噻虫嗪和吡蚜酮药剂对越南九龙江褐飞虱毒力较高,毒死蜱、噻嗪酮毒力次之,吡虫啉和叶蝉散毒力较低,但药膜法测定结果表明,叶蝉散表现出较高毒力,噻嗪酮毒力最小.%The toxicity of seven insecticides to the brown planthoppers of Jiulongjiang, Vietnam was evaluated with four bioassay methods. The orders of toxicity (value of LC50) to the brown planthoppers were fipronil>pymetrozine> thiamethoxam> buprofezin>chlorpyrifos>imidacloprid>isoprocorb with rice stem dipping and pymetrozine>fipronil>irnidacloprid!>chlorpyrifos>isoprocorb with topical application and fipronil>pymetrozine>thiamethoxam>buprofezin>chlorpyrifos>isoprocorb>imidacloprid with rice seedling dipping and fipronil>isoprocorb>chlorpyrifos>thiamethoxam>pymetrozine>imida-cloprid> buprofezin with residual film. In conclusion, the toxicity of fipronil,pymetrozine and thiame-thoxam to the brown planthoppers of Jiulongjiang, Vietnam was higher than that of buprofezin and chlorpyrifos, and the toxicity of imidacloprid,isoprocorb was the lowest. Furthermore, the toxicity of isoprocorb was the second highest and the toxicity of buprofezin was the

  11. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia

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    GuohuiZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  12. Map-based cloning and characterization of BPH29, a B3 domain-containing recessive gene conferring brown planthopper resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Liming; Zhang, Yuexiong; Cao, Changxiang; Liu, Fang; Huang, Fengkuan; Qiu, Yongfu; Li, Rongbai; Lou, Xiaojin

    2015-09-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production, essential for global food security, is threatened by the brown planthopper (BPH). The breeding of host-resistant crops is an economical and environmentally friendly strategy for pest control, but few resistance gene resources have thus far been cloned. An indica rice introgression line RBPH54, derived from wild rice Oryza rufipogon, has been identified with sustainable resistance to BPH, which is governed by recessive alleles at two loci. In this study, a map-based cloning approach was used to fine-map one resistance gene locus to a 24kb region on the short arm of chromosome 6. Through genetic analysis and transgenic experiments, BPH29, a resistance gene containing a B3 DNA-binding domain, was cloned. The tissue specificity of BPH29 is restricted to vascular tissue, the location of BPH attack. In response to BPH infestation, RBPH54 activates the salicylic acid signalling pathway and suppresses the jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent pathway, similar to plant defence responses to biotrophic pathogens. The cloning and characterization of BPH29 provides insights into molecular mechanisms of plant-insect interactions and should facilitate the breeding of rice host-resistant varieties. PMID:26136269

  13. Massively parallel pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analyses of small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, a vector insect transmitting rice stripe virus (RSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengyue

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus is an important agricultural pest that not only damages rice plants by sap-sucking, but also acts as a vector that transmits rice stripe virus (RSV, which can cause even more serious yield loss. Despite being a model organism for studying entomology, population biology, plant protection, molecular interactions among plants, viruses and insects, only a few genomic sequences are available for this species. To investigate its transcriptome and determine the differences between viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, we employed 454-FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing to generate EST databases of this insect. Results We obtained 201,281 and 218,681 high-quality reads from viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, respectively, with an average read length as 230 bp. These reads were assembled into contigs and two EST databases were generated. When all reads were combined, 16,885 contigs and 24,607 singletons (a total of 41,492 unigenes were obtained, which represents a transcriptome of the insect. BlastX search against the NCBI-NR database revealed that only 6,873 (16.6% of these unigenes have significant matches. Comparison of the distribution of GO classification among viruliferous, naïve, and combined EST databases indicated that these libraries are broadly representative of the L. striatellus transcriptomes. Functionally diverse transcripts from RSV, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia and yeast-like symbiotes were identified, which reflects the possible lifestyles of these microbial symbionts that live in the cells of the host insect. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that L. striatellus encodes similar innate immunity regulatory systems as other insects, such as RNA interference, JAK/STAT and partial Imd cascades, which might be involved in defense against viral infection. In addition, we determined the differences in gene expression between vector and naïve samples, which

  14. 褐飞虱对吡虫啉的抗性选育及毒力测定%Resistance Selection and Toxicity Test of Brown Planthopper to Imidacloprid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董德臻; 袁静; 邢家华; 郁季平; 陈杰

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the rules of the resistance of brown planthopper to imidacloprid,the resistance selection and toxicity test were studied in laboratory generation by generation.With sensitive strains,23 generations were selected continuously,in which the former 18 generations were selected with imidacloprid,whereas the latter 5 generations were without pesticides.The result showed that the values of LC5o and the resistance levels increased gradually generation by generation,of which the F18 generation was the highest,LC50 was 101.49 mg/L,and the resistance was 180.3 times as the sensitive strains.The resistance slowly fell to 151.5 times in the 18-22 th generations without pesticides.Our results showed that it was necessary to control the concentration and frequency of imidacloprid,which would be useful for lengthening their service life.%为研究褐飞虱对吡虫啉的抗性规律,进行了褐飞虱对吡虫啉的逐代抗性选育及室内毒力测定研究.从敏感品系开始选育,共饲养了23代,其中前18代为连续施药汰选,后5代为不施药的继代培养.室内生物活性测定结果表明,随抗性选育代数的增加,LC50增大,抗性水平不断提高,其中以18代最大,LC50为10l.49 mg/L,抗性为敏感品系的181.2倍;无药剂筛选的18-22代褐飞虱对吡虫啉的抗药性缓慢下降,其抗性由181.2倍下降到151.5倍.研究结果表明,合理控制吡虫啉的施用浓度及施用频率可以适当延长药剂的使用寿命.

  15. Knockdown of midgut genes by dsRNA-transgenic plant-mediated RNA interference in the hemipteran insect Nilaparvata lugens.

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    Wenjun Zha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful technique for functional genomics research in insects. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA directed against insect genes have been reported for lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, showing potential for field-level control of insect pests, but this has not been reported for other insect orders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hemipteran insect brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål is a typical phloem sap feeder specific to rice (Oryza sativa L.. To analyze the potential of exploiting RNAi-mediated effects in this insect, we identified genes (Nlsid-1 and Nlaub encoding proteins that might be involved in the RNAi pathway in N. lugens. Both genes are expressed ubiquitously in nymphs and adult insects. Three genes (the hexose transporter gene NlHT1, the carboxypeptidase gene Nlcar and the trypsin-like serine protease gene Nltry that are highly expressed in the N. lugens midgut were isolated and used to develop dsRNA constructs for transforming rice. RNA blot analysis showed that the dsRNAs were transcribed and some of them were processed to siRNAs in the transgenic lines. When nymphs were fed on rice plants expressing dsRNA, levels of transcripts of the targeted genes in the midgut were reduced; however, lethal phenotypic effects after dsRNA feeding were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that genes for the RNAi pathway (Nlsid-1 and Nlaub are present in N. lugens. When insects were fed on rice plant materials expressing dsRNAs, RNA interference was triggered and the target genes transcript levels were suppressed. The gene knockdown technique described here may prove to be a valuable tool for further investigations in N. lugens. The results demonstrate the potential of dsRNA-mediated RNAi for field-level control of planthoppers, but appropriate target genes must be selected when designing the dsRNA-transgenic plants.

  16. 嫩绿粘虫板对水稻稻飞虱成虫的诱集监测效果%Attractive effects of tender green sticky trap on adults of rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾伟; 蒋春先; 张超锋; 王居友

    2015-01-01

    本文采用嫩绿粘虫板和灯光诱集2种方法对水稻稻飞虱成虫进行同地对比诱集监测。结果表明,嫩绿粘虫板对3种飞虱总体、白背飞虱和褐飞虱诱集量与测报灯之间无显著差异,其诱虫趋势与测报灯诱虫趋势基本同步或趋于一致。嫩绿粘虫板对水稻生长前中期白背飞虱迁入峰的监测优于测报灯,表现为迁入高峰期诱虫量多和峰形明显。嫩绿粘虫板对灰飞虱诱虫量与测报灯诱虫量有明显差异,诱虫峰次少于测报灯,监测效果次于测报灯。气象因子、非靶标昆虫等对嫩绿粘虫板诱测无不利影响。运用嫩绿粘虫板可在非灯诱区监测点监测迁飞性白背飞虱。%The attractive effects of tender green sticky trap and light trap on rice planthoppers were studied.The results showed that the tender green sticky trap catches of planthopper,white-backed planthopper,Sogatella fur-cifera (Horváth)and small brown rice planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål had no significant differences from light trap catches.The dynamics of planthopper in sticky trap was the same as in light trap.The attractive effect of tender green sticky trap on immigration peaks of S .furcifera was better than light trap,manifested as more cat-ches of migration peaks and obvious peaks.The tender green sticky trap catches of Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) had significant difference from light trap,and the peak times were fewer than those with light traps.There was no unfavorable influence of meteorological factors and non-target insects on the catching ability of tender green sticky trap.Catching planthopper by tender green sticky trap was easily carried out,and suitable for monitoring the population dynamics of S .furcifera in non-light trap monitoring sites.

  17. The insecticide resistance in two planthoppers from three areas to three insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Migrating insects brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparata lugens Stal and white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatellafurcifera Horvath are both most harmful insects on rice in China. Chemical control is thought to be the best way to manage them, but it may cause insecticide resistance.

  18. Functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis to eggs ofNilaparvata lugens are not affected by genetically modiifed herbicide-tolerant rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xian-bin; LONG Li-ping; HUANG Qian; LING Yan; CHEN Yu-chong; XIAO Guo-ying; HUANG Suo-sheng; WU Bi-qiu; HUANG Feng-kuan; CAI Jian-he

    2015-01-01

    To safely and sustainably utilize genetic breeding techniques for crop production, greater understanding of the potential effects of geneticaly modiifed herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the ecological functions of predators is required. In the laboratory, we examined the functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter to eggs of brown plan-thopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), which were reared on GMHT rice Bar68-1; the untransformed parental cultivar, D68; or a BPH-susceptive rice variety, Taichung Native 1. Al stages of nymphs and female adultof C. lividipennis, either on GMHT rice or control plants, exhibited typical type II functional responses when fed on BPH eggs; the attacking rate and handling time ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice Bar68-1 was not signiifcantly different from that on D68. The numerical responses ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice or controls ift Beddington’s model; there were no signiifcant differences in the parameters of numerical responses between GMHT rice Bar68-1 and D68. The results indicated that the functional and numerical responses ofC. lividipennis to BPH eggs are not affected by GMHT rice Bar68-1.

  19. Suppressing male spermatogenesis-associated protein 5-like gene expression reduces vitellogenin gene expression and fecundity in Nilaparvata lugens Stål

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lin-Quan; Xia, Ting; Huang, Bo; Song, Qi-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Stanley, David; Yang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study with the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, triazophos (tzp) treatments led to substantial up-regulation of a male spermatogenesis-associated protein 5-like gene (NlSPATA5) compared to untreated controls. Mating with tzp-treated males significantly increased fecundity (as numbers of eggs laid), relative to females mated with untreated males. Because SPATA5 acts in mammalian sperm development and is expressed in testes, we posed the hypothesis that NlSPATA5 occurs in BPH seminal fluid and it operates in fecundity via mating. We tested the hypothesis by investigating the influence of suppressing NlSPATA5 expression in BPH males on fecundity. Reduced expression of NlSPATA5 led to decreased male accessory gland protein content and reproductive system development compared to controls. These changes in males led to prolonged pre-oviposition periods and decreased fecundity in females. For both genders, we recorded no difference in the body weight, oviposition periods, and longevity compared to controls. NlSPATA5 suppression in males also led to decreased fat body and ovarian protein content, yeast-like symbionts abundance and ovarian development as well as vitellogenin gene expression in their mating partners. We infer that increased NlSPATA5 expression may be one molecular mechanism of tzp-driven reproduction and population increases in BPH.

  20. Highly Sensitive and Speciifc Monoclonal Antibody-Based Serological Methods for Rice Ragged Stunt Virus Detection in Rice Plants and Rice Brown Planthopper Vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) is a serious rice disease in Asia, causing serious yield losses on rice. The capsid protein(CP) gene of the major outer capsid protein of RRSV was expressed inEscherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the pMAL-C2X expression vector. The recombinant protein was used as the immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. A hybridoma cell line 8A12 secreting monoclonal antibody (MAb) against RRSV was obtained by fusing mouse myeloma cells (Sp 2/0) with spleen cells from the immunized BALB/c mice. Western blot analysis showed that the MAb 8A12 can speciifcally react with RRSV CP. Using the MAb, an antigen-coated-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA), a dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA), and immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) assay were developed to detect RRSV. The established ACP-ELISA, dot-blot ELISA and IC-RT-PCR methods could detect RRSV in infected rice tissue crude extracts with dilutions of 1:40960, 1:1280 and 1:655360 (w/v, g mL-1), respectively. The ACP-ELISA and dot-blot ELISA methods could detect RRSV in infected insect vector crude extracts with dilutions of 1:12800 and 1:1600 (an individual planthopper µL-1), respectively. The ifeld survey revealed that Rice ragged stunt disease occurs on rice in Hainan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangxi and Zhejiang in China.

  1. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Nilaparvata lugens with Different Levels of Virulence on Rice by Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-xia; LAI Feng-xiang; LI Kai-long; FU Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopperNilaparvata lugens Stål (Homoptera: Delphacidae) can cause hopperburn by feeding on rice and also can transmit the grassy stunt disease. Resistant rice varieties have been developed, but severalN. lugens strains can recover their virulence to these resistant rice varieties. In the present study, reference genes with stable expression levels inN. lugens populations showed different levels of virulence to susceptible and resistant rice varieties. The expression of six candidate reference genes inN. lugens feeding on susceptible and resistant rice varieties was analyzed. These genes were evaluated for their potential use in the analysis of differential gene expression. Polymerase chain reaction data was generated fromN. lugens, including two different treatments (resistant or susceptible rice) and three virulentN. lugens populations. Three software programs (BestKeeper, Normfinder and geNorm) were used to assess the candidate reference genes. Both geNorm and Normfinder identified the genes18S,β-ACT,β-TUB andα-TUB as the most stable reference genes. BestKeeper identifiedETIF1 as the optimal reference gene with the least overall variation, whereas18S andα-TUB were the second and third most stably expressed genes, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that the genes18S andα-TUB were the most suitable reference genes inN. lugens. These results will facilitate future transcript profiling studies onN. lugens populations that show variation in virulence levels on different rice varieties.

  2. Anylysis of the unusual immigration of rice planthoppers in northern Guangxi in 2008%2008年桂北地区稻飞虱特大迁入事件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐国君; 谢茂昌; 梁载林; 张孝羲; 程遐年; 翟保平

    2011-01-01

    A huge immigration peak ( more than one million captures in a single light trap in one night) of rice planthoppers (RPH), including the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) and the white backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) occurred in northern Guangxi Municipality from late May to mid June 2008. Where did these insects come from? The RPH immigration process and the atmospheric conditions that influenced the insects' settlement process were analyzed with HYSPLIT, a trajectory analysis software that simulates migration trajectories, GIS (Geographic Information System) and GrADS( Grid Analysis and Display System). The results were as follows; (1) Airborne RPH populations were carried by a strong, low-level, southwest jet-stream and the mass migration into Guangxi was caused by extensive heavy rainfall in northern Guangxi during late May to mid June. (2) Most of the immigrants were tracked to northern Vietnam(20° - 22°N)in late May, and to northeastern Vietnam(21o - 23oN)in early June, The mass immigration of RPH into north-western Guangxi during mid June was found to have originated in northeastern Vietnam and southwestern Guangxi, but the insects that migrated to northeastern Guangxi at the same time came from southeastern Guangxi. (3)The significant difference in number of migrants between northwestern and northeastern Guangxi was caused by variation in spatial distribution and population density in their respective source areas.%2008年5月下旬-6月中旬,桂北地区出现了褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)和白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera (Horváth)特大迁入峰,单晚单灯虫量超百万.如此大量的迁入虫源究竞来自何方?利用HYSPLIT轨迹分析平台、地理信息系统ArcGIS和气象图形软件GrADS,对稻飞虱的特大迁入峰及其大气背景场的个例分析表明:(1)西南方向的低空急流为广西稻飞虱大规模迁入提供了运载气流,降雨是迫使稻飞虱集中降落的主要原因;(2

  3. Wing patterning genes of Nilaparvata lugens identiifcation by transcriptome analysis, and their differential expression proifle in wing pads between brachypterous and macropterous morphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kai-yin; HU Ding-bang; LIU Fang-zhou; LONG Man; LIU Si-yi; ZHAO Jing; HE Yue-ping; HUA Hong-xia

    2015-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens is an economically important pest on rice plants. This species produces macropterous and brachypterous morphs in response to environmental cues, which makes it very dififcult to control. The molecular basis of wing patterning in N. lugens is stil unknown. It is necessary to identify wing patterning genes of N. lugens, and also to clarify the expression differences of wing patterning genes between macropterous and brachypter-ous morphs. High-throughput deep sequencing of transcriptome of N. lugens wing pad yielded 116 744 580 raw reads and 113 042 700 clean reads. Al the reads were assembled into 55 963 unigenes with an average length of 804 bp. With the E-value cut-off of 1.0E–5,18 359 and 2 883 unigens had hits in NCBI-NR (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences) and NCBI-NT (NCBI nucleotide sequences) databases, respectively. A total of 16 502 unigenes were assigned to GO (gene ontology) classiifcation, 9 709 ungenes were grouped into 26 COG (cluster of orthologous groups of proteins) classiifcations, and 6 724 unigenes were assigned to different KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) path-ways. In total, 56 unigenes which are homologous to wing patterning genes of Drosophila melanogaster or Tribolium castaneum were identiifed. Out of the 56 unigenes, 24 unigenes were selected, and their expression levels across the ifve nymphal stages between macropterous strain and brachypterous strain were examined by qRT-PCR. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that development stage had signiifcant effects on the expression level of al the 24 genes (P<0.05). The expression levels of 8 genes (Nlen, Nlhh, Nlsal, NlAbd-A, Nlwg, Nlvg, Nlexd and NlUbx) were signiifcantly affected by wing morph. This is the ifrst transcriptome analysis of wing pads of hemimetabolous insect, N. lugens. The identiifed wing patterning genes would be useful resource for future exploration of molecular basis of wing development. The 8 differential y expressed

  4. Wing patterning genes of Nilaparvata lugens identification by transcriptome analysis, and their differential expression profile in wing pads between brachypterous and macropterous morphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kai-yin; HU Ding-bang; LIU Fang-zhou; LONG Man; LIU Si-yi; ZHAO Jing; HE Yue-ping; HUA Hong-xia

    2015-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens is an economically important pest on rice plants. This species produces macropterous and brachypterous morphs in response to environmental cues, which makes it very difficult to control. The molecular basis of wing patterning in N. lugens is still unknown. It is necessary to identify wing patterning genes of N. lugens, and also to clarify the expression differences of wing patterning genes between macropterous and brachypter- ous morphs. High-throughput deep sequencing of transcriptome of N. lugens wing pad yielded 116 744 580 raw reads and 113042700 clean reads. All the reads were assembled into 55963 unigenes with an average length of 804 bp. With the E-value cut-off of 1.0E-5,18 359 and 2 883 unigens had hits in NCBI-NR (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences) and NCBI-NT (NCBI nucleotide sequences) databases, respectively. A total of 16 502 unigenes were assigned to GO (gene ontology) classification, 9 709 ungenes were grouped into 26 COG (cluster of orthologous groups of proteins) classifications, and 6 724 unigenes were assigned to different KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) path- ways. In total, 56 unigenes which are homologous to wing patterning genes of Drosophila melanogaster or Tribolium castaneum were identified. Out of the 56 unigenes, 24 unigenes were selected, and their expression levels across the five nymphal stages between macropterous strain and brachypterous strain were examined by qRT-PCR. Two-wayANOVAanalysis showed that development stage had significant effects on the expression level of all the 24 genes (P〈0.05). The expression levels of 8 genes (Nlen, Nlhh, Nlsal, NIAbd-A, Nlwg, Nlvg, Nlexd and NIUbx) were significantly affected by wing morph. This is the first transcriptome analysis of wing pads of hemimetabolous insect, N. lugens. The identified wing patterning genes would be useful resource for future exploration of molecular basis of wing development. The

  5. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application

  6. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadifar, F.; Wayayok, A.; Shattri, M.; Shafri, H.

    2014-06-01

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application.

  7. Phloem-specific expression of the lectin gene from Allium sativum confers resistance to the sap-sucker Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Vani, Kalasamudramu; Kaul, Tanushri; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2014-05-01

    Rice production is severely hampered by insect pests. Garlic lectin gene (ASAL) holds great promise in conferring protection against chewing (lepidopteran) and sap-sucking (homopteran) insect pests. We have developed transgenic rice lines resistant to sap-sucking brown hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) by ectopic expression of ASAL in their phloem tissues. Molecular analyses of T0 lines confirmed stable integration of transgene. T1 lines (NP 1-2, 4-3, 11-6 & 17-7) showed active transcription and translation of ASAL transgene. ELISA revealed ASAL expression was as high as 0.95% of total soluble protein. Insect bioassays on T2 homozygous lines (NP 18 & 32) revealed significant reduction (~74-83%) in survival rate, development and fecundity of brown hoppers in comparison to wild type. Transgenics exhibited enhanced resistance (1-2 score) against brown hoppers, minimal plant damage and no growth penalty or phenotypic abnormalities. PMID:24563293

  8. Herbivory by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l) affects rice seedling growth and belowground soil labile organic carbon and nitrogen fractions%褐飞虱对水稻苗期生长及地下部土壤活性碳氮的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤英; 胡锋; 刘满强; 王峰; 陈法军; 邵波; 苏昱; 葛成; 黄菁华; 李辉信

    2010-01-01

    地上部植食者对地下部土壤生态系统的影响引起了陆地生态学者的浓厚兴趣.报道了盆栽条件下褐飞虱取食不同品种水稻后对水稻苗期生长和土壤活性碳氮的影响.土壤活性碳氮水平的评价采用了土壤微生物生物量碳和氮、可溶性碳和氮及无机氮等指标,它们是反映土壤生态过程的重要变量.结果表明,褐飞虱侵害降低了苗期水稻茎叶、根系的生物量及根冠比,并与水稻品种的抗褐飞虱能力存在交互作用.褐飞虱也显著影响土壤活性碳氮水平(P<0.05),并强烈依赖于水稻品种特性.一般的,褐飞虱导致感虫品种广四的土壤微生物生物量碳、可溶性碳下降,而对抗虫品种IR36的影响则相反.在褐飞虱的危害下,抗虫品种水稻对土壤微生物生物量氮、可溶性氮及硝态氮的促进程度较大.中感品种汕优63与汕优559在褐飞虱作用下对水稻茎叶、根系生物量及土壤活性碳氮的影响也不相同.汕优63的影响趋势与感虫品种广四一致,而汕优559的影响与抗虫品种IR36更接近.总之,土壤活性碳氮组分对褐飞虱危害的响应程度和趋势因水稻品种不同而不同,特别是抗虫品种在褐飞虱侵害时有利于土壤活性碳氮水平的维持,提高土壤生物活性,从而可能进一步促进土壤生态功能的发挥.

  9. The comparison of yeast-like symbionts in the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l with different virulence based on partial 18S rDNA sequence%褐飞虱不同致害性种群体内共生菌 18S rDNA部分序列比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珏锋; 吕仲贤; 陈法军; 陈建明; 郑许松; 徐红星; 陈列忠; 俞晓平

    2006-01-01

    分离纯化了褐飞虱3种不同致害性种群体内类酵母共生菌(yeast-like symbionts,YLS),并对其18S rDNA基因序列进行了比较.结果表明,褐飞虱3种不同致害性种群体内类酵母共生菌18S rDNA均扩增出600 bp左右的片断.依据获得的18S rDNA特异性序列,结合已知真菌的18S rDNA部分序列,构建了不同宿主的YLS分子系统树.结果显示,褐飞虱3种不同致害性种群体内的YLS同属子囊菌亚门(Ascomycotina)的核菌纲(Pyrenomycetes),并与此纲中的Hypomyces chrysospermus亲缘关系相对最近.

  10. Evolutionary aspects of acoustic communication in Ribautodelphax planthoppers (Homoptera, Delphacidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, de, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Delphacidae (Homoptera), commonly referred to as planthoppers, are herbivores, which usually feed on grasses and sedges. During sexual behaviour males and females communicate by exchanging low-frequency vibrational signals, which are transmitted through the substrate, normally the host plant. This thesis deals with the acoustic behaviour of one planthopper genus, Ribautodelphax, where both male and females have been found to produce species-specific calls, which differ between species in temp...

  11. Studies on Insecticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Ye-cheng; XU Han-hong

    2005-01-01

    Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo. were studied for the first time. The results showed that all parts of S. kwangsiensis Lo. had contact activity against brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal,and the contact activity of methanol extract from root tubers was the highest, with a LD50 value being 1.5794 μg/female.l-roemerine was isolated from root tubers of S. kwangsiensis Lo. and identified, and it was the main active ingredient.l-roemerine had high contact toxicity to brown planthoppers, with a LD50 value being 0.0443 μg/female. Contact toxicity of l-roemerine to brown planthoppers was 7.48 times that of malathion, the convientional chemical insecticide used for controlling brown planthoppers.l-roemerine also had stomach poison activity against brown planthoppers.

  12. 广西兴安地区褐飞虱发生动态及迁飞轨迹分析%Occurrence dynamics and trajectory analysis of Nilaparvata lugens in Xing'an, Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋春先; 武俊杰; 齐会会; 张云慧; 程登发

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify the occurrence regularity of brown planthopper ( BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stgtl) in the single and double mixed rice systems, light traps and systematic field surveys were used to study the population dynamics of N. lugens in Xing' an, Guangxi. The spatiotemporal distribution of source areas of N. lugens migration peaks were analyzed using HYSPLIT 4.8 ( hybrid single-particle la- grangian integrated trajectory), a software package that simulates migration trajectories, during the migra- tion periods. The results showed that the population dynamics of N. lugens varied seasonally in Xing' an. N. lugens had six generations a year, migration occurred mainly from the early of July to the early of Sep- tember. The peak period of N. lugens occurance was coincidence with the middle rice growth period. The population density of N. lugens in the middle rice field was significantly higher than those in other two rice fields. The immigrants to Xing' an during May to June in 2011 mainly came from Hainan, Tailand, and middle of Vietnam and Laos, while the immigrants during July to August came form south and southeast of Guangxi, west of Guangdong. The autumn immigrants came from the southwest of Hunan and west of Jiangxi. In October local emigrants mainly flew to the middle of Guangxi and the south of Guizhou. Par- tial south low-level jets carried massive numbers of N. lugens into Xing' an, while heavy rainfall causedmass descent.%为明确广西兴安地区单双季稻混作模式下褐飞虱发生规律,采用灯光诱捕和田间系统调查的方法研究了该地区早、中、晚稻田褐飞虱发生动态,并运用大气质点轨迹分析平台HYSPLIT4.8对2011年褐飞虱迁飞高峰进行了迁飞轨迹分析。广西兴安地区褐飞虱种群数量随季节变化明显,年发生6代,迁飞活动主要集中在7月上旬至9月上旬。褐飞虱发生高峰期与单季中稻生长期吻合,在单季中稻田的发生量最大。2011

  13. Migration of rice planthoppers and their vectored re-emerging and novel rice viruses in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOtuka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines recent studies of the migration of three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Sogatella furcifera, and Nilaparvata lugens, in East Asia. Laodelphax striatellus has recently broken out in Jiangsu province, eastern China. The population density in the province started to increase in the early 2000s and peaked in 2004. In 2005, Rice stripe virus (RSV viruliferous rate of L. striatellus peaked at 31.3%. Since then, rice stripe disease spread severely across the whole province. Due to the migration of the RSV vectors, the rice stripe disease spread to neighboring countries Japan and Korea. An overseas migration of L. striatellus that occurred in 2008 was analyzed, when a slow-moving cold vortex, a type of low pressure system, reached western Japan from Jiangsu, carrying the insects into Japan. Subsequently the rice stripe diseases struck these areas in Japan severely. In Korea, similar situations occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Their migration sources were also estimated to be in Jiangsu by backward trajectory analysis. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, whose vector is L. striatellus, has recently re-emerged in eastern China, and the evidence for overseas migrations of the virus, just like the RSV’s migrations, has been given. A method of predicting the overseas migration of L. striatellus has been developed by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean institutes. An evaluation of the prediction showed that this method properly predicted migration events that occurred in East Asia from 2008 to 2011. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV was first found in Guangdong province. Its vector is S. furcifera. An outbreak of SRBSDV occurred in southern China in 2009 and spread to Vietnam the same year. This disease and virus were also found in Japan in 2010. The epidemic triggered many migration studies to investigate concrete spring-summer migration routes in China, and the addition of migration sources for early arrivals in

  14. Evolutionary aspects of acoustic communication in Ribautodelphax planthoppers (Homoptera, Delphacidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Delphacidae (Homoptera), commonly referred to as planthoppers, are herbivores, which usually feed on grasses and sedges. During sexual behaviour males and females communicate by exchanging low-frequency vibrational signals, which are transmitted through the substrate, normally the host plant. This t

  15. Jumping performance of planthoppers (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2009-09-01

    The structure of the hind limbs and the kinematics of their movements that propel jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) were analysed. The propulsion for a jump was delivered by rapid movements of the hind legs that both move in the same plane beneath the body and parallel to its longitudinal axis, as revealed in high-speed sequences of images captured at rates up to 7500 images s(-1). The first and key movement was the depression of both trochantera about their coxae, powered by large depressor muscles in the thorax, accompanied by rapid extension of the tibiae about their femora. The initial movements of the two trochantera of the hind legs were synchronised to within 0.03 ms. The hind legs are only 20% longer than the front and middle legs, represent 65% of the body length, and have a ratio of 1.8 relative to the cube root of the body mass. The two hind coxae have a different structure to those in frog- and leafhoppers. They are fused at the mid-line, covered ventrally by transparent cuticle, and each is fixed laterally to a part of the internal skeleton called the pleural arch that extends to the articulation of a hind wing. A small and pointed, ventral coxal protrusion covered in microtrichia engages with a raised, smooth, white patch on a dorsal femur when a hind leg is levated (cocked) in preparation for a jump. In the best jumps by a male Issus, the body was accelerated in 0.8 ms to a take-off velocity of 5.5 m s(-1), was subjected to a force of 719 g and was displaced a horizontal distance of 1.1 m. This performance required an energy output of 303 microJ, a power output of 388 mW and exerted a force of 141 mN, or more than 700 times its body mass. This performance implies that a catapult mechanism must be used, and that Issus ranks alongside the froghopper Philaenus as one of the best insect jumpers. PMID:19684220

  16. Emerging Biodiversity: Diversification of the Hawaiian Nesosydne planthoppers

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Kari Roesch

    2010-01-01

    Large species radiations provide exceptional opportunities for understanding the processes involved in the formation of new species. This research is focused on a species-rich lineage of ecologically diversified planthoppers in the Hawaiian islands, Nesosydne (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). In order to examine the factors promoting diversification in this lineage at multiple slices through evolutionary time, I used an integrative approach combining three classes of methods. First, I used molecular ...

  17. Automated Counting of Rice Planthoppers in Paddy Fields Based on Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qing; XIAN Ding-xiang; LIU Qing-jie; YANG Bao-jun; DIAO Guang-qiang; TANG Jian

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative survey of rice planthoppers in paddy ifelds is important to assess the population density and make forecasting decisions. Manual rice planthopper survey methods in paddy ifelds are time-consuming, fatiguing and tedious. This paper describes a handheld device for easily capturing planthopper images on rice stems and an automatic method for counting rice planthoppers based on image processing. The handheld device consists of a digital camera with WiFi, a smartphone and an extrendable pole. The surveyor can use the smartphone to control the camera, which is ifxed on the front of the pole by WiFi, and to photograph planthoppers on rice stems. For the counting of planthoppers on rice stems, we adopt three layers of detection that involve the following:(a) the ifrst layer of detection is an AdaBoost classiifer based on Haar features;(b) the second layer of detection is a support vector machine (SVM) classiifer based on histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features;(c) the third layer of detection is the threshold judgment of the three features. We use this method to detect and count whiteback planthoppers (Sogatella furcifera) on rice plant images and achieve an 85.2%detection rate and a 9.6%false detection rate. The method is easy, rapid and accurate for the assessment of the population density of rice planthoppers in paddy ifelds.

  18. Estimation of the Age and Amount of Brown Rice Plant Hoppers Based on Bionic Electronic Nose Use

    OpenAIRE

    Sai Xu; Zhiyan Zhou; Huazhong Lu; Xiwen Luo; Yubin Lan; Yang Zhang; Yanfang Li

    2014-01-01

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analy...

  19. Screening and Functional Analyses of Nilaparvata lugens Salivary Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Jian; Liu, Cheng-Wen; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xiang; Zhuo, Ji-Chong; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Bao, Yan-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Most phloem-feeding insects secrete gelling and watery saliva during the feeding process. However, the functions of salivary proteins are poorly understood. In this study, our purpose was to reveal the components and functions of saliva in a rice sap-sucking insect pest, Nilaparvata lugens. The accomplishment of the whole genome and transcriptome sequencing in N. lugens would be helpful for elucidating the gene information and expression specificity of the salivary proteins. In this study, we have, for the first time, identified the abundant protein components from gelling and watery saliva in a monophagous sap-sucking insect species through shotgun proteomic detection combined with the genomic and transcriptomic analysis. Eight unknown secreted proteins were limited to N. lugens, indicating species-specific saliva components. A group of annexin-like proteins first identified in the secreted saliva displayed different domain structure and expression specificity with typical insect annexins. Nineteen genes encoding five annexin-like proteins, six salivaps (salivary glands-specific proteins with unknown function), seven putative enzymes, and a mucin-like protein showed salivary gland-specific expression pattern, suggesting their importance in the physiological mechanisms of salivary gland and saliva in this insect species. RNA interference revealed that salivap-3 is a key protein factor in forming the salivary sheath, while annexin-like5 and carbonic anhydrase are indispensable for N. lugens survival. These novel findings will greatly help to clarify the detailed functions of salivary proteins in the physiological process of N. lugens and elucidate the interaction mechanisms between N. lugens and the rice plant, which could provide important targets for the future management of rice pests. PMID:27142481

  20. Changes in Methamidophos Resistance and Fitness of Hybrids in Different Strains of Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xian-sheng; LIU Ze-wen; LI Shu-mei; HAN Zhao-jun; YANG Jie-pin; ZHANG Ling-chun; SUN Hao

    2004-01-01

    A resistant strain selected successively in the laboratory for 17 generations had 198.63-fold resistance to methamidophos.The resistant levels and fitness of progenies from the resistant strain and susceptible strain or field population were closer to those of the resistant strain than those of the susceptible strain or field population. The changes in the resistant levels of the hybrid were propitious to the resistance development, however, the changes of the fitness went to the contrary. The effects of the migration on the development of methamidophos resistance in Nilaparvata lugens were discussed in the aspects of the migration of Nilaparvata lugens,the resistant levels of progenies and the changes of the fitness.

  1. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Julie M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas], found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families. Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained was supported by statistical tests of

  2. Rice Responses and Resistance to Planthopper-Borne Viruses at Transcriptomic and Proteomic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Zhao, Wan; Luo, Lan; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world, especially in Asian areas. Rice virus diseases are considered as the most serious threat to rice yields. Most rice viruses are transmitted by hemipteran insects such as planthoppers and leafhoppers. In Asia five rice viruses are transmitted mainly by three planthopper species in a persistent manner: Rice stripe virus, Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, Rice ragged stunt virus, Rice grassy stunt virus, and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus. In rice antivirus studies, several individual genes have been shown to function in rice resistance to viruses. Since plant responses to viral infection are complex, system-level omic studies are required to fully understand the responses. Recently more and more omic studies have appeared in the literatures on relationships between planthoppers and viruses, employing microarray, RNA-Seq, small RNA deep sequencing, degradome sequencing, and proteomic analysis. In this paper, we review the current knowledge and progress of omic studies in rice plant responses and resistance to four planthopper-borned viruses. We also discuss progress in the omic study of the interactions of planthoppers and rice viruses. Future research directions and translational applications of fundamental knowledge of virus-vector-rice interactions are proposed. PMID:26363817

  3. Insecticide resistance and activities of relative enzymes in different populations of the white backed planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ White backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horvath), is one of the most devastating insect pests on rice in Asia. Its control mainly depended on the chemical pesticides. Surveys of insecticide susceptibility revealed that organophosphorus and carbamate resistance has emerged since early 1980s in China and Japan. WBPH has the long distance migration property, and Heinrichs(1994) considered that the migration might influence the resistance level of planthoppers. So we conducted the comparative studies on insecticide susceptibility and activities of resistance relative enzymes in four WBPH populations collected from Zhejiang, Yunnan, and Hainan provinces of China in 1997.

  4. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, María E.; Pedro A. Balatti

    2013-01-01

    A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of ...

  5. Symbiont-mediated adaptation by planthoppers and leafhoppers to resistant rice varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrater, J.B.; Jong, de P.W.; Dicke, M.; Chen, Y.H.; Horgan, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    For over 50 years, host plant resistance has been the principal focus of public research to reduce planthopper and leafhopper damage to rice in Asia. Several resistance genes have been identified from native varieties and wild rice species, and some of these have been incorporated into high-yielding

  6. Wolbachia Occurrence in Planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Vectors of Cereal Viruses in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattio, M F; Argüello Caro, E B; Rodriguero, M S; Dumón, A D; Alemandri, V M; Truol, G

    2015-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are the most important cereal crops for the Argentinean economy and are affected by several diseases. Different planthopper species transmit causal agents of some of those diseases, including Mal de Río Cuarto virus, barley yellow striate mosaic virus, and the recently proposed maize yellow striate virus. Many planthopper species are sap feeders and therefore are expected to host bacteria providing essential nutrients lacking in the diet. Previous studies have evidenced that some of these bacterial symbionts are involved in the virus transmission. Wolbachia is a group of obligate intracellular bacteria infecting numerous arthropod species and causing reproductive alterations in their hosts. These bacteria have been detected in planthopper species, considered rice pests in various regions of the world. To date, Wolbachia infection status of planthopper species of Argentina is unknown. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA, wsp- and ftsZ-specific genes demonstrated Wolbachia infection in Caenodelphax teapae (Fowler), Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah, Pyrophagus tigrinus Remes Lenicov & Varela, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir), and Toya propinqua (Fieber). This is the first report of Wolbachia in delphacid vectors of viruses affecting maize and wheat. An understanding of the bacterial diversity harbored by these insect vectors could lead to new options for future management of diseases of economically important crops in a developing country. PMID:26470291

  7. Feeding behaviour and spatial distribution of two planthoppers Megamelus scutellaris (Delphacidae) and Taosa longula (Dictyopharidae) on water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Delphacidae) and Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Dictyopharidae) are specialist planthoppers that feed and reproduce on the invasive aquatic weed, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). They overlap geographically in several regions of So...

  8. 三种稻飞虱翅型分化的遗传分析%Genetic analysis of wing-form determination in three species of rice planthoppers ( Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭娟; 张超; 安志芳; 于居龙; 刘向东

    2012-01-01

    为了明确褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens、白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera和灰飞虱Laodelphax striatellus3种稻飞虱翅型分化的遗传规律与差异,采用翅型筛选与杂交遗传的实验方法,研究了 3种飞虱在秧苗期水稻上的翅型选择响应与杂交遗传规律.结果表明:3种稻飞虱的翅型具有较强的选择响应,并且.长翅型纯系在白背飞虱中最易筛选得到,灰飞虱的次之,而褐飞虱的最难.3种稻飞虱的长翅(M)雄虫与短翅(B)雌虫配对(M♂×B♀)筛选3~5代后,95%~ 100%的雄虫和雌虫分别稳定为长翅型和短翅型.筛选和杂交实验结果表明,褐飞虱的翅型决定基本符合常染色体上的一对等位基因调控的从性性状遗传规律,雄虫中长翅为显性,而雌虫中短翅为显性.翅型的表型还受除基因型外的其他条件的影响,利用长翅雄虫与长翅雌虫后代中出现的极少数的短翅雄虫与短翅雌虫进行配对,其后代中各翅型出现的比率与长翅雌虫和长翅雄虫配对的无显著差异;同样,在短翅雄虫与短翅雌虫配对的后代中也有相同的结果.白背飞虱和灰飞虱在该筛选条件下很少有短翅雄虫出现,两者翅型的遗传调控较为相似,可用由两对等位基因控制的性状来解释筛选和杂交实验的结果,其中一对等位基因位于性染色体上,调控雄性的翅型,且长翅为显性;另一对位于常染色体上,调控雌性的翅型,且短翅为显性.据此认为,3种飞虱翅型决定基因的显隐性在不同性别间的差异,以及翅表型与基因型的不一致性,是稻飞虱种群在不同条件下均可灵活调控翅型的重要遗传机制.%In order to clarify the inheritance of wing forms in three species of rice planthoppers including Nilaparvata lugens, Sogatella furcifera and Laodelphax striatellus, selection and cross breeding experiments were carried out using rice seedlings under the same condition (25℃ , 14L: 10D). The results

  9. Iuiuia caeca gen. n., sp. n., a new troglobitic planthopper in the family Kinnaridae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Hannelore; Ferreira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    A new obligate cavernicolous (troglobitic) species in the planthopper family Kinnaridae is described from Brazil, and a new genus is established, as it could not be placed in any of the existing genera. Information on distribution and ecology is given. This is the second record of a troglobitic representative of this family from Brazil, and only the 6th cavernicolous kinnarid species worldwide.

  10. Biology and host preference of the planthopper Taosa longula (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) a candidate for biological control of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is a planthopper from the South American tropics that feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The biology of T. longula was studied in the laboratory and field to evaluate it as a potential biologic...

  11. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  12. The Insect Ecdysone Receptor is a Good Potential Target for RNAi-based Pest Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment ...

  13. Mapping of a New Gene Wbph6(t) Resistant to the Whitebacked Planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-ming; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min; MA Liang-yong; ZHUANG Jie-yun; LIU Guang-jie; YANG Chang-deng

    2004-01-01

    A rice population consisting of 90 TN1/Guiyigu F3 lines was employed to analyze the linkage between DNA markers and a new gene Wbph6(t) conferring resistance to whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera. By using the mapping approach of bulked extremes and recessive class, Wbph6(t) was mapped onto the short arm of chromosome 11 with a genetic distance of 21.2 cM to SSLP marker RM167.

  14. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  15. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  16. Susceptibility to several types of insecticides in the rice planthoppers Nilaparvam lugens(St(a)l)and Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)(Homoptera:Delphacidae)%褐飞虱和白背飞虱对几类杀虫剂的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦华; 苍涛; 赵学平; 吴长兴; 陈丽萍; 俞瑞鲜; 吴声敢; 王强

    2009-01-01

    为了科学用药和抗性治理提供理论基础,采用稻茎浸渍法测定了2008年7月采自浙江省杭州市和宁波市褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens(Stal)种群对7种杀虫剂的抗药性及褐飞虱和白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera(Horvmh)种群对16种杀虫剂的敏感性.褐飞虱抗药性测定结果表明,与相对敏感品系相比,杭州种群和宁波种群对吡虫啉的抗性倍数分别为479.0倍和366.1倍;对氯噻啉的抗性倍数分别为81.1倍和50.9倍;对噻虫嗪的抗性倍数分别为10.3倍和9.4倍;对噻嗪酮和氟虫腈分别产生了5.0~8.6倍和15.8~17.0倍的抗药性;对烯啶虫胺和啶虫脒的抗性倍数在3倍以下.两种稻15飞虱对杀虫剂的敏感性测定结果表明:嚷虫嗪、噻嗪酮、烯啶虫胺和毒死蜱对褐飞虱和白背飞虱种群都具有较高的室内毒力.当田间褐飞虱和白背飞虱混合发生时,可选用噻虫嗪、噻嗪酮、烯啶虫胺和毒死蜱进行防治,不宜使用吡虫啉、氯噻啉和氟虫腈防治.%To provide theoretic basis for the scientific application of insecticides and resistance management,the resistance of Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)to seven insecticides and the sensitivity of N.lugens and Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in two field populations collected from Hangzhou city and Ningbo city, Zhejiang Province in July 2008 to sixteen insecticides were evaluated with rice stem-dipping method. Compared with the relative susceptible strain of N. lugens, the Hangzhou and Ningbo populations developed resistance to imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, thiamethoxam, buprofezin and fipronil, with the resistance ratios (RR) to imidacloprid were 479.0-fold and 366.1-fold, to imidaclothiz were 81.1-fold and 50.9-fold, to thiamethoxam were 10.3-fold and 9.4-fold, to buprofezin and fipronil were 5.0 - 8.6-fold and 15.8-17.0-fold, respectively, while the two populations remained susceptible to nitenpyram and acetamiprid (RR <3-fold).The toxicity of sixteen insecticides to

  17. Dichoptic perception of brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLawyer, Tanner; Morimoto, Takuma; Buck, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments assessed mechanisms underlying brown induction by presenting a foveal target disk and concentric annular surround stimuli that varied in contrast relative to larger backgrounds. Stimuli were presented under monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing conditions. Observers adjusted the luminance of the target disk to a criterion brown level. We found evidence for at least two separate mechanisms for brown induction: one mechanism that is dependent on physically contiguous contrast and operates in monocular pathways and another mechanism that responds to high luminance contrast anywhere in the visual field and can operate after convergence of signals from the two eyes. PMID:26974916

  18. 新药剂环氧虫啶对稻飞虱的杀虫活性和田间效果%Comparison of Biological Activity and Field Efficiency of Cycloxaprid and Other New Neonicotinoid Insecticides to Rice Planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝生; 张志春; 谢霖; 张谷丰; 王利华

    2013-01-01

    为丰富稻飞虱控制药剂种类,延缓害虫对当前生产上常用药剂抗药性的产生,本文对由华东理工大学自主研发的新烟碱类杀虫剂-环氧虫啶进行了室内活性和田间控害效果研究.利用浸苗法比较了环氧虫啶与吡虫啉、噻虫嗪、烯啶虫胺等其它烟碱类杀虫剂对褐飞虱和白背飞虱3龄若虫的作用活性,并评价了上述药剂对稻飞虱的田间防效.结果表明,4种烟碱类药剂中,对褐飞虱3龄若虫的室内活性以环氧虫啶最高,其次分别为烯啶虫胺、噻虫嗪和吡虫啉,其中25%环氧虫啶可湿粉对褐飞虱的作用活性显著高于烯啶虫胺,吡虫啉对褐飞虱的活性显著低于其它药剂;对白背飞虱3龄若虫活性表现与对褐飞虱不同,几种药剂中吡虫啉活性最高,其次为噻虫嗪、环氧虫啶和烯啶虫胺,其中吡虫啉的活性显著高于其它3种药剂,噻虫嗪的活性显著高于环氧虫啶和烯啶虫胺,后两者活性相当.在田间以白背飞虱发生为主时进行了控害效果评价,发现环氧虫啶对以白背飞虱为主的稻飞虱田间控害效果不突出,和吡虫啉、噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺相当,其可作为一种防治褐飞虱的轮换药剂.%In order to exploit new insecticides to effectively control rice planthopper, the toxicity of Cycloxaprid, Imidacloprid, Thiamethox-am, Nitenpyram and Chloipyrifos to the 3rd instar nymphs of Nilaparvata lugens Stal and Sogatella furcifera Horvdth in lab were tested with rice seeding-dipped, and the field control efficiency were also tested. The results showed that the toxicity to the 3rd instar nymphs of N. lugens Stal in descending turn were Cycloxaprid, Nitenpyram, Thiamethoxam and Imidacloprid, and the toxicity of Imidacloprid and Thiame-thoxam to the 3rd instar nymphs of Sogatella furcifera Horvdth were higher that of Cycloxaprid and Nitenpyram. The results of the field control efficiency test showed that the long-term toxicity of

  19. Review of the planthopper genus Ommatissus Fieber (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Tropiduchidae) with descriptions of three new species from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The tropiduchid planthopper genus Ommatissus Fieber, 1875 is reviewed to include six species in China: O. binotatus Fieber, 1875 (Taiwan), O. chinsanensis Muir, 1913 (Hong Kong, Macao, Guangdong), O. fuscus sp. nov. (Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan), O. lateralis sp. nov. (Yunnan, Guizhou), O. lofouensis Muir, 1913 (Guizhou, Shandong, Shanxi, Hunan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Taiwan) and O. trimaculatus sp. nov. (Yunnan). Except O. chinsanensis and O. binotatus, four species are described or redescribed and illustrated. The generic characters are redefined. A checklist and key to all species in the genus are provided.  PMID:25284656

  20. Slowly contracting muscles power the rapid jumping of planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M; Meinertzhagen, I A; Bräunig, P

    2014-01-01

    The planthopper insect Issus produces one of the fastest and most powerful jumps of any insect. The jump is powered by large muscles that are found in its thorax and that, in other insects, contribute to both flying and walking movements. These muscles were therefore analysed by transmission electron microscopy to determine whether they have the properties of fast-acting muscle used in flying or those of more slowly acting muscle used in walking. The muscle fibres are arranged in a parallel bundle that inserts onto an umbrella-shaped tendon. The individual fibres have a diameter of about 70 μm and are subdivided into myofibrils a few micrometres in diameter. No variation in ultrastructure was observed in various fibres taken from different parts of the muscle. The sarcomeres are about 15 μm long and the A bands about 10 μm long. The Z lines are poorly aligned within a myofibril. Mitochondrial profiles are sparse and are close to the Z lines. Each thick filament is surrounded by 10-12 thin filaments and the registration of these arrays of filaments is irregular. Synaptic boutons from the two excitatory motor neurons to the muscle fibres are characterised by accumulations of ~60 translucent 40-nm-diameter vesicle profiles per section, corresponding to an estimated 220 vesicles, within a 0.5-μm hemisphere at a presynaptic density. All ultrastructural features conform to those of slow muscle and thus suggest that the muscle is capable of slow sustained contractions in keeping with its known actions during jumping. A fast and powerful movement is thus generated by a slow muscle. PMID:24135974

  1. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; An, Xing-Kui; Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome) of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2) were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1) have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a foundational

  2. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhao-Xia; Tang, Nan; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Li-Qing; Akinyemi, Ibukun A; Wu, Qing-Fa

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of small, non-coding endogenous RNAs that play critical regulatory roles in many metabolic activities in eukaryotes. Reports of the identification of miRNAs in Sogatella furcifera (white-backed planthopper), the insect that acts as the only confirmed vector of the southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), are limited. In this study, a total of 382 miRNAs were identified in S. furcifera, including 106 conserved and 276 novel miRNAs, using high-throughput sequencing based on two small RNA libraries from viruliferous and non-viruliferous S. furcifera, and these miRNAs belonged to 52 conserved miRNA families and 58 S. furcifera-specific families, respectively. Comparison with miRNAs from 26 insect species and five other species in miRBase showed that more than half of the conserved miRNA families are highly conserved in Hexapoda, while other miRNAs are only conserved in non-dipterans. Furthermore, 4 117 target genes predicted for the 382 identified miRNAs could be categorized into 45 functional groups annotated by Gene Ontology. Compared with non-viruliferous cells, eight up-regulated miRNAs and four down-regulated miRNAs were identified in cells inoculated with SRBSDV, among which miR-14 and miR-n98a may be involved in the immune response to SRBSDV infection. Analyses of the identified miRNAs will provide insights into the roles of these miRNAs in the regulation and expression of genes involved in the metabolism, development and viral infection of S. furcifera. PMID:27060479

  3. Actions of motor neurons and leg muscles in jumping by planthopper insects (hemiptera, issidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Malcolm; Bräunig, Peter

    2010-04-15

    To understand the catapult mechanism that propels jumping in a planthopper insect, the innervation and action of key muscles were analyzed. The large trochanteral depressor muscle, M133b,c, is innervated by two motor neurons and by two dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, all with axons in N3C. A smaller depressor muscle, M133a, is innervated by two neurons, one with a large-diameter cell body, a large, blind-ending dendrite, and a giant ovoid, axon measuring 50 microm by 30 microm in nerve N5A. The trochanteral levator muscles (M132) and (M131) are innervated by N4 and N3B, respectively. The actions of these muscles in a restrained jump were divisible into a three-phase pattern. First, both hind legs were moved into a cocked position by high-frequency bursts of spikes in the levator muscles lasting about 0.5 seconds. Second, and once both legs were cocked, M133b,c received a long continuous sequence of motor spikes, but the two levators spiked only sporadically. The spikes in the two motor neurons to M133b,c on one side were closely coupled to each other and to the spikes on the other side. If one hind leg was cocked then the spikes only occurred in motor neurons to that side. The final phase was the jump movement itself, which occurred when the depressor spikes ceased and which lasted 1 ms. Muscles 133b,c activated synchronously on both sides, are responsible for generating the power, and M133a and its giant neuron may play a role in triggering the release of a jump. PMID:20151364

  4. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  5. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for...

  6. CO2浓度和抗药性对褐飞虱刺吸取食行为的影响%Effects of CO2 Concentration and Pesticide Resistance on Penetration Behaviors in Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera:Delphacidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬; 吴珊珊; 孟玲; 李保平

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]This study was designed to clarify if the CO2 enrichment influences the feeding behaviors of Nilaparvata lugens and if there are differences in feeding behaviors between the planthopper varied in pesticide-resistance, which would provide data for an assessment of the virulence to rice plant of pesticide resistant N. lugens under the climate change.[Method]Using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique stylet penetration behaviors were recorded to evaluate the performances of buprofezin-susceptible and-resistant strains (a 480-fold difference in resistance) on rice leaves under either ambient (390 μL·L-1) or elevated CO2 concentration (780 μL·L-1). Two-way ANOVAs were used to test the effects of CO2 and pesticide resistance on the six waveforms associated with the plant penetration activities in the total time and frequency. [Result]N. lugens exhibited a tendency to shorten the phloem sap ingestion duration under the CO2 elevation, and the buprofezin-resistant N. lugens decreased the frequency of the penetration initiation under the elevated CO2 concentration (780μL·L-1) as opposed to the ambient CO 2 (390μL·L-1). In comparison with the buprofezin-susceptible insect, the buprofezin-resistant spent more time for the salvation plus penetration movement and the stylet activity in xylem region, increased the frequency of the intracellular activity in phloem region, but decreased the frequency of the phloem sap ingestion and the stylet activity in xylem region. [Conclusion] The buprofezin-resistant N. lugens can be stronger in virulence to rice than the buprofezin-susceptible. The CO 2 enrichment may slightly minimize the virulence of the buprofezin-susceptible N. lugens but have no obvious effects on the virulence of the buprofezin-resistant N. lugens.%[目的]明确CO 2浓度升高是否影响褐飞虱的取食行为以及抗药褐飞虱品系的刺吸行为是否与敏感品系存在差异,从而为预测CO 2浓度升高条件下不同抗

  7. The Control Strategy of Nilaparvata lugens%水稻褐飞虱防控策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖世纯; 王凤英; 黎柳锋

    2011-01-01

    褐飞虱近年对水稻的为害愈来愈严重,为探讨新的防控策略,笔者从飞虱的主要越冬虫源地、成灾原因及综合防控等分析认为:(1)对中国水稻为害极重的褐飞虱,真正成灾的越冬虫源应主要来自16°N以南的地区,尤其是越南南部与泰国南部的湄公河三角洲区域.(2)水稻褐飞虱的成灾原因既与越战后东盟国家大力发展水稻等粮食作物种植,且在耕作制度上也相应地由高秆改矮秆、单季改双季甚至三季,密集程度和施肥程度有所提高有关,又与国内水稻品种多、生育期不一,在防控上不能统一行动,用药混杂和过量有关,还与全球气候变暖更利于飞虱的繁衍与迁移,以及杂交水稻可能更利于飞虱类的繁衍有关.因此,要彻底防控水稻褐飞虱的为害,要"防控前移",到飞虱的发源地-湄公河三角洲区域去实施以生态治理为核心的综合防治技术,一方面帮助其提高水稻产量,改良水稻种植模式,压缩冬春稻种植面积;另一方面帮助其发展经济,构建世界热带水果与特种经济植物基地,同时组建大型粮食生产加工集团,以及开展褐飞虱防控国际间合作;对迁入代要及早治理,并且以县为单位组建植物保护公司,再利用飞虱对某些水稻品种特别嗜好性,构建飞虱诱集区,形成聚而歼之的主战场.%Yield loss is caused by brown plant hopper are becoming more and more serious in recent years.By analyzing the changes of rice cropping system and the occurring dynamics of the insect, new ideas and control strategies are forwarded: (1) The plant brown hopper that imperil the rice production in China might survive overwinter to north latitude of 19° N, but the disastrous insect source mainly comes from the south of 16° N,especially from the Mekong Delta of south Vietnam and Thailand.(2) Rampant of BPH might relate to the following factors: the expansion of rice growing area in Asean countries

  8. Genetic diversity of Costa Rican populations of the rice planthopper Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Myriam; Quesada, Tania; Muñoz, Claudia; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) is one of the main constraints of the rice production in the Neotropics. This planthopper produces severe damages as a phloem feeder, causes mechanical injury during oviposition and vectors the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV). The main objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of T. orizicolus populations from three rice growing regions of Costa Rica, using RAPDs. Individuals from Guanacaste, Parrita, San Carlos and Cali-Colombia, as outgroup, were analyzed using the random primers. Phenetic relationships revealed that the Costa Rican populations were clearly separated from Cali-Colombia, sharing less than 25% similarity. Costa Rican populations were divided into two main branches separated at 30% similarity. The first branch included Guanacaste and San Carlos and the second displayed Parrita. In relation to similarity indexes within groups, the Guanacaste cluster showed the highest (over 50%) and Cali-Colombia was the most diverse (28%). The correspondence analysis confirmed the clusters of the phenogram and showed close interactions between the Parrita and San Carlos populations. The genetic separation observed could be the result of the geographic isolation among populations, but it could also be explained by the infection with the rickettsia Wolbachia pipientis. This bacterium causes cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host, which results in non-viable progeny when infected males mate with non-infected females, or when insects hosting different strains of Wolbachia mate. Then, a search for Wolbachia in previously described populations of T orizicolus was initiated. The presence of the bacteria was analyzed by PCR with 16S rDNA-specific primers for Wolbachia. The PCR analyses revealed infections of 86% in the population of San Carlos, 96% in Guanacaste, 37% in Parrita and 100% in Cali-Colombia. Crosses between individuals of T. orizicolus from Parrita and Guanacaste were performed for testing

  9. Field population abundance of leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) as affected by rice growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizal, M. M.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    The leafhopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) are considered as important rice pest in Asia including Malaysia. As phloem-feeders, they can cause loss to rice growth development and their population abundance is thought to be influenced by rice growth stages. This study was conducted to examine the population of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae between different rice growth stages, i.e. before and after rice planting periods. Monthly sampling was conducted in three sites in Kuala Selangor at before planting, vegetative, reproductive, maturing stages and post-harvest period using sweeping net and light traps. Population abundance of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae were found to be significantly different and positively correlated with different rice growth stages (pfood competition.

  10. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Aung; He, Hui Ling; Chua, Si Hui; Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Chen, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue expends energy in the form of heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Recent studies showed that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans and may be exploited for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetes actions. Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism. Here, we report that apelin-APJ signaling promotes brown adipocyte differentiation by increasing the expressions of brown adipogenic and thermogenic transcriptional factors via the PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. It is also found that apelin relieves the TNFα inhibition on brown adipogenesis. In addition, apelin increases the basal activity of brown adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased PGC1α and UCP1 expressions, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxygen consumption. Finally, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that apelin is able to increase the brown-like characteristics in white adipocytes. This study, for the first time, reveals the brown adipogenic and browning effects of apelin and suggests a potential therapeutic route to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25931124

  11. Overview of Long-distance Migration of Rice Planthopper%水稻稻飞虱迁飞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晶晶; 金志凤; 徐红星; 李仁忠

    2013-01-01

    The Rice Planthopper was one of the main insect pests in rice production in China at present. The long-distance migration, which including take-off, flight and landing was the results of biological evolution and environmental stress, especially the food shortage, which affected by physiological station, ecological situation, insect source and other factors. Weather system, meteorological factors, geographic features, and other factors were related to migration progress, in which the low-level jet stream could be used as monitoring migration of rice Planthopper in warning parameters, combined with the sources of rice planthoppers to predicted the landing-area. Migration parameter and model could accurately elucidate the rice planthopper from take-off, flight, landing immigration of migratory behavior dynamics, simulation from the insect source, flying height, flight time, flight trajectory, to provide scientific basis for prevention of rice planthopper.%  稻飞虱是目前影响中国水稻生产的主要害虫之一。其迁飞行为是生物进化、环境胁迫(特别是食料不足)共同作用的结果,包括起飞、飞行和降落3个阶段,受生理、生态、虫源等多方面因素影响。迁飞过程与天气系统、气象条件、地理特点等因素相关,其中低空急流可以作为监测稻飞虱迁飞的预警参数,与虫情结合可以预测稻飞虱迁入区。迁飞参数化和模型可以较精确地阐明稻飞虱迁出起飞、空中飞行、降落迁入等迁飞行为的动力学机制,模拟其虫源地、飞行高度、迁飞历时、飞行轨迹等,为预防预测稻飞虱提供了科学依据。

  12. Overview of Long-distance Migration of Rice Planthopper%水稻稻飞虱迁飞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晶晶; 金志凤; 徐红星; 李仁忠

    2013-01-01

      稻飞虱是目前影响中国水稻生产的主要害虫之一。其迁飞行为是生物进化、环境胁迫(特别是食料不足)共同作用的结果,包括起飞、飞行和降落3个阶段,受生理、生态、虫源等多方面因素影响。迁飞过程与天气系统、气象条件、地理特点等因素相关,其中低空急流可以作为监测稻飞虱迁飞的预警参数,与虫情结合可以预测稻飞虱迁入区。迁飞参数化和模型可以较精确地阐明稻飞虱迁出起飞、空中飞行、降落迁入等迁飞行为的动力学机制,模拟其虫源地、飞行高度、迁飞历时、飞行轨迹等,为预防预测稻飞虱提供了科学依据。%The Rice Planthopper was one of the main insect pests in rice production in China at present. The long-distance migration, which including take-off, flight and landing was the results of biological evolution and environmental stress, especially the food shortage, which affected by physiological station, ecological situation, insect source and other factors. Weather system, meteorological factors, geographic features, and other factors were related to migration progress, in which the low-level jet stream could be used as monitoring migration of rice Planthopper in warning parameters, combined with the sources of rice planthoppers to predicted the landing-area. Migration parameter and model could accurately elucidate the rice planthopper from take-off, flight, landing immigration of migratory behavior dynamics, simulation from the insect source, flying height, flight time, flight trajectory, to provide scientific basis for prevention of rice planthopper.

  13. Infection of Wolbachia pipientis in the Small Brown Planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus)%Wolbachia在灰飞虱群体中的传染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温建国; 胡轶清; 严健; 潘重光; 沈大棱

    2003-01-01

    灰飞虱( Laodelphax striatellus)能传播水稻条纹叶枯病,是我国重要的水稻害虫. Wolbachia是存在于多种昆虫生殖器官的一类共生菌,它可通过在宿主群体中引起细胞质不亲和性( CI)而给宿主带来生殖优势.通过对灰飞虱体内 Wolbachia感染率的测定,监测 Wolbachia在灰飞虱群体中的扩散趋势从而为媒介昆虫-共生菌技术( Vector- Insect- Symbiont Technology, VIST)这一防治手段提供研究基础.

  14. Knockdown of the ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) RDL gene decreases fipronil susceptibility of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Wu, Shun-Fan; Niu, Chun-Dong; Yu, Hua-Yang; Dong, Yao-Xue; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2015-04-01

    Insect γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABARs) are important molecular targets of cyclodiene and phenylpyrazole insecticides. Previously GABARs encoding rdl (resistant to dieldrin) genes responsible for dieldrin and fipronil resistance were identified in various economically important insect pests. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame cDNA sequence of rdl gene from fipronil-susceptible and fipronil-resistant strains of Laodelphax striatellus (Lsrdl). Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a previously identified resistance-conferring mutation. Different alternative splicing variants of Lsrdl were noted. Injection of dsLsrdl reduced the mRNA abundance of Lsrdl by 27-82%, and greatly decreased fipronil-induced mortality of individuals from both susceptible and resistant strains. These data indicate that Lsrdl encodes a functional RDL subunit that mediates susceptibility to fipronil. Additionally, temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that Lsrdl was expressed at higher levels in eggs, fifth-instar nymphs, and female adults than in third-instar and fourth-instar nymphs. Lsrdl was predominantly expressed in the heads of 2-day-old female adults. All these results provide useful background knowledge for better understanding of fipronil resistance related ionotropic GABA receptor rdl gene expressed variants and potential functional differences in insects. PMID:25808850

  15. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...... unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  16. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  17. A Conversation with Larry Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence D. Brown was born on December 16, 1940 in Los Angeles, California. He obtained his Ph.D. in mathematics from Cornell University in 1964. He has been on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, Cornell University, Rutgers University and, most recently, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the Miers Busch Professorship of Statistics. Professor Brown was President of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1992–1993, Coeditor of The Anna...

  18. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  1. Occurrence Regularity of Major Damage Generations of Nilaparvata lugens(Stl) in Single Cropping Medium Rice Region in Sandu County of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Tianlei; Jin; Daochao; Yang; Hong; Ai; Zhengxian; Zhou; Zhaoxia

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify occurrence regularity of major damage generations of Nilaparvata lugens( Stl) in Sandu Shui Autonomous County( Sandu County for short),Guizhou Province,a karst single cropping medium rice region,the population dynamics of N. lugens were systematically studied using the methods of light trap and systematic field survey from 2009 to 2011. The results showed that the number of immigration generations caught by light trap and the actual population of N. lugens in fields were different among three years. The daily maximum trapping numbers of N. lugens amounted to 6 688 in 2009,which were 15. 3 and 2. 5 times of that in 2010 and 2011,respectively. The peak numbers in prediction nursery were 10 777,4 630 and 1 615 heads per hundred hills in 2009,2010 and 2011,respectively. The forth and fifth generations of N. lugens were the major damage generations in single cropping medium rice fields,and the initial immigration day was significantly related with primary-peak day. The occurrence degree of adults and nymphs of N. lugens varied with years and transplanting periods,and the peak days of N. lugens nymphs were from late July to early August in 2010 and 2011. The occurrence peaks of adults and nymphs in late transplanting paddy field were later than that in the early one. Meanwhile,the coexisted various growth periods of rice,due to time differences of transplanting,were conducive to inhabitation and reproduction of N. lugens. The population dynamics of spiders and Cyrtohinus lividipennis well synchronied with that of N. lugens,but predatory capacity of spiders and C. lividipennis was not enough to control N. lugens.

  2. Characterization of heat shock cognate protein 70 gene and its differential expression in response to thermal stress between two wing morphs of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wenting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences in thermotolerance between two wing morphs of Nilaparvata lugens, the most serious pest of rice across the Asia. To reveal the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying the differential thermal resistance abilities between two wing morphs, a full-length of transcript encoding heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) was cloned, and its expression patterns across temperature gradients were analyzed. The results showed that the expression levels of NlHsc70 in macropters increased dramatically after heat shock from 32 to 38°C, while NlHsc70 transcripts in brachypters remained constant under different temperature stress conditions. In addition, NlHsc70 expression in the macropters was significantly higher than that in brachypters at 1 and 2h recovery from 40°C heat shock. There was no significant difference in NlHsc70 mRNA expression between brachypters and macropters under cold shock conditions. Therefore, NlHsc70 was indeed a constitutively expressed member of the Hsp70 family in brachypters of N. lugens, while it was heat-inducible in macropters. Furthermore, the survival rates of both morphs injected with NlHsc70 dsRNA were significantly decreased following heat shock at 40°C or cold shock at 0°C for 1h. These results suggested that the up-regulation of NlHsc70 is possibly related to the thermal resistance, and the more effective inducement expression of NlHsc70 in macropters promotes a greater thermal tolerance under temperature stress conditions. PMID:27181274

  3. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Li

    Full Text Available Ran (RanGTPase in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1 and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1 Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2 The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  5. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the...... types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore...

  6. Photometric brown-dwarf classification

    CERN Document Server

    Skrzypek, N

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method "photo-type" to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs, onto the standard system, from photometry alone. We combine SDSS, UKIDSS and WISE data and classify point sources by comparing the izYJHKW1W2 colours against template colours for quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. In a sample of $6.5\\times10^6$ bright point sources, J$<$17.5, from 3150 deg$^2$, we identify and type 898 L and T dwarfs, making this the largest homogeneously selected sample of brown dwarfs to date. The sample includes 713 (125) new (previously known) L dwarfs and 21 (39) T dwarfs. For the previously-known sources, the scatter in the plot of photo-type vs spectral type indicates that our photo-types are accurate to 1.5 (1.0) sub-types rms for L (T) dwarfs. Peculiar objects and candidate unresolved binaries are identified.

  7. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  8. 蜘蛛种群高密度是稻飞虱轻发生的重要原因%High Density of Spiders is the Important Factor Resulting in the Light Occurrence of Rice Planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞明全; 林贤文; 祝增荣; 陈建平; 何贤超; 娄齐胜; 蒋学辉

    2011-01-01

    Three-year field survey of populations of rice planthoppers, leaffolder and their main predatory natural enemies were carried out in mountainous flee fields in Hejia village,continuously pesticide-free for 10 years,Sanmen county,Zhejiang province.In such natural conditions, the populations of wol(f) spider and mierospider assemblages pursued the temporal population dynamics of planthoppers and leaffolders in a significant way.Furthermore,the existence of progressive-type curves of spatial numerical responses of spiders to planthoppers during the early-mid season resulted in a lower density of planthopper populations in the mid-late season.%通过在2007~2009年对浙江省三门县何家村生态栽培水稻田连续3年的生态调查发现,在已连续10年不用农药的自然条件下,狼蛛、微蛛等主要天敌与稻飞虱、稻纵卷叶螟等水稻主要害虫在发生动态上存在明显的跟随效应;6~8月蜘蛛对稻飞虱的数量反应呈渐进型的对数回归关系,使得稻飞虱种群处于较低的密度平衡点,控制了稻飞虱种群数量.

  9. Control function of spider community to planthopper in the rice field%稻田蜘蛛群落对稻飞虱的控制功能作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向东; 张孝羲; 郭慧芳; 罗跃进

    2001-01-01

    试验选用蜘蛛和飞虱田间的最大饱和容量(K)及最大增长倍数两个指标,探讨了稻田蜘蛛群落对飞虱的自然控制功能,首次提出天敌功能指数(EF)这一群落参数及其计算式EF=(S+P)S/P。试验证实EF值的升降与水稻受飞虱危害的程度呈现显著的负相关,在田间及网罩内飞虱种群未来最大饱和容量K及增长倍数均随初始EF的升高而显著下降。天敌功能指数能较好地反映出天敌对飞虱各时段的控制作用。%Based on the experimental data from Anqing City,Anhui Province in 1996 and Jiangpu County,Jiangsu Province in 1997,the natural control functions of spider community to rice planthopper were studied by using two indexes,the capacity of environment(K)and reproduction rate.The enemy function index(EF) its formula were put forward firstly.The results showed that there was significant negative correlation between the EF value and rice injured rate by planthopper.The K value and reproduction rate of rice planthopper population increased greatly as the beginning EF value decreased.EF index could show the control function of enemies to planthopper clearly in the different period.

  10. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  11. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  12. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  13. The broad-leaf herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid turns rice into a living trap for a major insect pest and a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhaojun; Yu, Zhaonan; Erb, Matthias; Turlings, Ted C J; Wang, Baohui; Qi, Jinfeng; Liu, Shengning; Lou, Yonggen

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic chemical elicitors of plant defense have been touted as a powerful means for sustainable crop protection. Yet, they have never been successfully applied to control insect pests in the field. We developed a high-throughput chemical genetics screening system based on a herbivore-induced linalool synthase promoter fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter construct to test synthetic compounds for their potential to induce rice defenses. We identified 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an auxin homolog and widely used herbicide in monocotyledonous crops, as a potent elicitor of rice defenses. Low doses of 2,4-D induced a strong defensive reaction upstream of the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways, resulting in a marked increase in trypsin proteinase inhibitor activity and volatile production. Induced plants were more resistant to the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis, but became highly attractive to the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its main egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae. In a field experiment, 2,4-D application turned rice plants into living traps for N. lugens by attracting parasitoids. Our findings demonstrate the potential of auxin homologs as defensive signals and show the potential of the herbicide to turn rice into a selective catch crop for an economically important pest. PMID:22313362

  14. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  15. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  16. 广东省稻飞虱迁入轨迹及虫源地分析%Analysis of Immigration Trajectory and Source Areas of Rice Planthopper in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 杜尧东; 王华; 黄珍珠

    2013-01-01

    为了揭示广东省稻飞虱迁入路径和虫源地分布,为其精细化预测预报及源头治理提供科学依据,根据广东省清新县、广州番禺区2010、2011年稻飞虱虫情资料,利用HYSPLIT-4轨迹分析平台和图形处理软件GrADS进行稻飞虱迁入轨迹及虫源地分析。结果表明:稻飞虱发生初见日(迁入)及各高峰日当天、前1天、前2天观测到有降水,下沉气流和降水是迫使稻飞虱集中降落的主要原因;广东省早稻期间稻飞虱主要发生在5月上旬至7月上旬,低空急流、西南气流及偏南气流为稻飞虱迁入广东提供了运载气流,其稻飞虱迁入的虫源地主要分布在越南、老挝南部、海南省及两广南部;广东省晚稻期间稻飞虱主要发生在9月上旬至10月上旬,稻飞虱随偏北气流开始由北往南回迁,稻飞虱迁入的虫源地主要分布在湖南及江西等稻区。%In order to determine the immigration trajectory and source areas of rice planthopper in Guangdong Province, and to establish a basis for refined forecasting and source suppression, the geographic distribution of the source area of early immigrant rice planthopper was analyzed by GrADS (Graphics Processing Software), HYSPLIT-4, a trajectory analysis software for the simulation of migration pathways, and light trap catch data from 2 plant protection stations (including Qingxin, Panyu). The results indicated that precipitation was observed the immigrant and peaks days, as well as one day and two days ago. Downward airflow and precipitation were main two reasons of forcing rice planthopper to land focusly. The peaks of early immigrants of rice planthopper were from early May to early July for early-rice growth reason. Lower jet, southwest and south flows provided carrying force for immigrant rice planthopper, and most of the early immigrants came from Vietnam, southern Laos, Hainan Province, southern Guangdong Province and Guangxi Province

  17. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  18. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  19. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  20. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  1. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  2. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  3. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  4. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  5. Molecular Characterization and Differential Expression of an Olfactory Receptor Gene Family in the White-Backed Planthopper Sogatella furcifera Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming He

    Full Text Available The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, a notorious rice pest in Asia, employs host plant volatiles as cues for host location. In insects, odor detection is mediated by two types of olfactory receptors: odorant receptors (ORs and ionotropic receptors (IRs. In this study, we identified 63 SfurORs and 14 SfurIRs in S. furcifera based on sequences obtained from the head transcriptome and bioinformatics analysis. The motif-pattern of 130 hemiptera ORs indicated an apparent differentiation in this order. Phylogenetic trees of the ORs and IRs were constructed using neighbor-joining estimates. Most of the ORs had orthologous genes, but a specific OR clade was identified in S. furcifera, which suggests that these ORs may have specific olfactory functions in this species. Our results provide a basis for further investigations of how S. furcifera coordinates its olfactory receptor genes with its plant hosts, thereby providing a foundation for novel pest management approaches based on these genes.

  6. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were posit...... in these hares. This is the first report of antibodies to EBHSV, EBHSV-antigen, and electron microscopy findings in free-ranging European brown hares from South America....

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  19. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  20. Ezra Brown named Alumni Distinguished Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Board of Visitors conferred the title Alumni Distinguished Professor (ADP) to Ezra "Bud" Brown, professor of mathematics in the College of Science, in recognition of his extraordinary academic citizenship and distinguished service within the Virginia Tech community.

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  10. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  11. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  12. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  13. Candle power at Browns Ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the serious accident that occurred to the Browns Ferry nuclear power station in Alabama on March 22 1975, when a fire caused by an electrician searching for air leaks using a candle caused great damage to the reactor. The fire put several key safety systems out of action and caused problems in shutting down one of the plant's two reactors. The use of a candle for the purpose was regarded as a highly unofficial but time-honoured method. In this case the candle ignited polyurethane foam surrounding some electrical cables, and the fire spread back through the reactor walls. Some alarming features of the fire fighting effort are noted. The use of water finally quickly extinguished the fire. The unconventional means that had to be adopted to shut down the reactors are described. Implications of the accident for other plants are being considered and modifications are suggested. There were no adverse effects on public health and safety. (author)

  14. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.; Rønsholt, L.; Speck, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  15. Cryptochromes and Hormone Signal Transduction under Near-Zero Magnetic Fields: New Clues to Magnetic Field Effects in a Rice Planthopper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Jun Wan

    Full Text Available Although there are considerable reports of magnetic field effects (MFE on organisms, very little is known so far about the MFE-related signal transduction pathways. Here we establish a manipulative near-zero magnetic field (NZMF to investigate the potential signal transduction pathways involved in MFE. We show that exposure of migratory white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, to the NZMF results in delayed egg and nymphal development, increased frequency of brachypterous females, and reduced longevity of macropterous female adults. To understand the changes in gene expression underlying these phenotypes, we examined the temporal patterns of gene expression of (i CRY1 and CRY2 as putative magnetosensors, (ii JHAMT, FAMeT and JHEH in the juvenile hormone pathway, (iii CYP307A1 in the ecdysone pathway, and (iv reproduction-related Vitellogenin (Vg. The significantly altered gene expression of CRY1 and CRY2 under the NZMF suggest their developmental stage-specific patterns and potential upstream location in magnetic response. Gene expression patterns of JHAMT, JHEH and CYP307A1 were consistent with the NZMF-triggered delay in nymphal development, higher proportion of brachypterous female adults, and the shortened longevity of macropterous female adults, which show feasible links between hormone signal transduction and phenotypic MFE. By conducting manipulative NZMF experiments, our study suggests an important role of the geomagnetic field (GMF in modulating development and physiology of insects, provides new insights into the complexity of MFE-magnetosensitivity interactions, and represents an initial but crucial step forward in understanding the molecular basis of cryptochromes and hormone signal transduction involved in MFE.

  16. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  17. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  18. 20%呋虫胺SG防治稻褐飞虱田间药效研究%Research on Field Efficacy of 20% Dinotefuran SG for Controlling Brown Rice Planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘康成; 刘文彬; 徐嫣; 梁正坤

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探索20%呋虫胺SG防治稻褐飞虱田间药效.[方法]用20%呋虫胺SG和80%中农倍利SG,探讨20%呋虫胺SG防治稻褐飞虱田间药效.[结果]田间防效比较试验显示,用20%呋虫胺SG 150、225、300、375 g/hm2防治稻褐飞虱,其田间防效药后3d分别为53.02%、70.06%、71.73%、74.74%;药后7d分别为68.96%、78.44%、80.19%、84.19%;药后14 d分别为75.84%、83.23%、88.32%、91.26%;药后21 d分别为72.10%、87.55%、90.46%、91.24%.[结论]20%呋虫胺SG是目前防治稻褐飞虱的理想药剂,可用20%呋虫胺SG 300 g/hm2对水675kg/hm2均匀透彻喷雾.

  19. 灰飞虱体内一种酵母类共生菌的分子鉴定%Identification of one yeast-like symbiont from the small brown planthopper,Laodelphax striatellus(Fallén)(Homoptera:Deiphacidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白旭; 董胜张; 庞琨; 边亚琳; 俞晓平

    2010-01-01

    为明确稻飞虱体内酵母类共生菌(yeast-like symbiont,YLS)的种类,采用超速离心的方法分离纯化灰飞虱Laodelphax striatellus(Fallén)体内YLS,用真菌的通用引物对其18S rDNA、5.8S-ITS rDNA全长序列进行扩增.结果得到一条分子量约为2 340 bp的序列.序列同源性分析表明,该菌与Noda等所报道的类酵母菌的18S rDNA序列差异较大(同源性只有89.6%),而与季也蒙毕赤酵母Pichia guilliermondii有99.8%的同源性.原位杂交(ISH)和巢氏PCR均证明该菌存在于灰飞虱脂肪体和卵内,但数量较少.因此,灰飞虱体内YLS除了Noda等报道的类酵母菌外,尚存在另外一种季也蒙毕赤酵母菌.

  20. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of...

  2. PRDM16 Controls a Brown Fat/Skeletal Muscle Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Bjork, Bryan; Yang, Wenli; Kajimura, Shingo; Kuang, Shihuan; Scime, Anthony; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chin, Sherry; Conroe, Heather M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Beier, David R; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. We show here by in vivo fate mapping that brown but not white fat cells arise from precursors that express myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. Notably, the transcriptional regulator, PRDM16 controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a...

  3. The brown fat secretome: metabolic functions beyond thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guo-Xiao; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2015-01-01

    Brown fat is highly active in fuel oxidation and dissipates chemical energy through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated heat production. Activation of brown fat leads to increased energy expenditure, reduced adiposity, and lower plasma glucose and lipid levels, thus contributing to better homeostasis. Uncoupled respiration and thermogenesis have been considered to be responsible for the metabolic benefits of brown adipose tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes also se...

  4. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  5. THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA2 REGULATES DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN ADIPOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown fat tissue is functionally different than the white fat, since brown fat burns lipid to generate heat for body temperature maintenance. However, brown fat cells share with white fat cells a similar molecular mechanism for fat cell formation. We have demonstrated previously that the GATA family...

  6. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear Ursus arctos from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  7. Black-Brown Relations: Are Alliances Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klor de Alva, J. Jorge; West, Cornel

    1997-01-01

    Dialogue between Cornel West and Jorge Klor de Alva explores the question of black-brown alliances, those between African Americans and Hispanic Americans. If minority groups can put aside the difference of skin color and join to combat economic and social racism, they can have far-reaching and meaningful impacts on society. (SLD)

  8. From a Brown to a Green Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    instruments such as taxes and subsidies. In this way, renewable energy sources and green industries become more competitive, thus enhancing the transition from brown to green economy. Not only can these economic incentives accelerate the so-called switch point in time from fossil fuel–based energy sources to...

  9. The White, the Brite and the Brown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lone Møller

    development, also termed adipocyte differentiation, and the role played by adipocytes in wholebody energy metabolism is therefore of utmost importance. Mammals harbour two general types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) that carry out essentially opposite functions...

  10. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  11. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  12. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation 1 . Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans 2-5 , BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome 1 . Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and...

  13. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation1. Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans2-5, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome1. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anato...

  14. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  15. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  16. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  17. Recommendations related to Browns Ferry Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its review of the events transpiring before, during and after the Browns Ferry fire, the Review Group concludes that the probability of disruptive fires of the magnitude of the Browns Ferry event is small, and that there is no need to restrict operation of nuclear power plants for public safety. However, it is clear that much can and should be done to reduce even further the likelihood of disabling fires and to improve assurance of rapid extinguishment of fires that occur. Consideration should be given also to features that would increase further the ability of nuclear facilities to withstand large fires without loss of important functions should such fires occur. The Review Group believes that improvements, especially in the areas of fire prevention and fire control, can and should be made in most existing facilities

  18. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  19. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  20. Human brown fat and obesity: methodological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    WouterDavidVan Marken Lichtenbelt

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special atten...

  1. Human Brown Fat and Obesity: Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special...

  2. Orexin modulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2012-01-01

    Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation. In addition, activations of BAT have important implications for energy homeostasis due to the metabolic consumption of energy reserves entailed in the production of heat in this tissue. In this conceptual overview we describe the role of orexins/hypocretins within the central nervous system in the modulation of thermogenesis in BAT under several physiological conditions. Within this framewor...

  3. Brown fat and vascular heat dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Amy; Mittag, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Current efforts to treat obesity and associated disorders focus on the stimulation of energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis, for instance through activating brown adipose tissue or more recently “beige” or “brite” fat, a relatively novel type of adipose tissue with putative thermogenic potential. In this commentary, we aim to provide an alternative perspective on the current trend of analyzing and manipulating thermogenesis, brought about by our recent publication, in which we invest...

  4. Central Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    ShaunF.Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the c...

  5. Hypothalamic Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Caron; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system, which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The charac...

  6. Hypothalamic control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Labbé, Sebastien M.; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Monge-Rofarello, Boris; Bartness, Timothy J.; Richard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system (CNS), which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The ...

  7. Control of Paddy Spiders on Population of Rice Planthopper and Rice Leafhopper%稻田蜘蛛优势种对飞虱与叶蝉控制力的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智; 颜亨梅; 吕志跃; 王洪全

    2001-01-01

    Grey relational grade analysis was used to study influence of spiders in rice field on population of rice planthopper and rice leafhopper. The results showed that the influence on rice planthopper was in the order of Ummeliata. insecticeps,Pirata subpiraticys,Coleosoma ocomaculata,Tetragnatha maxillosa and other spiders; on rice leafhopper the influence order was Pirata subpiraticys,Ummeliata insecticeps,Tetragnatha maxillosa ,Coleosoma octomaculata and other spiders.%系统调查结果表明:长沙地区早稻田中,蜘蛛优势种相对稳定,在水稻各生育期内均为拟水狼蛛和食虫沟瘤蛛,并无更替现象。采用灰色关联分析法,研究了长沙地区稻田蜘蛛优势种群对飞虱、叶蝉种群数量的控制程度,结果表明拟水狼蛛和食虫沟瘤蛛对飞虱、叶蝉种群数量影响最大,其次为锥腹肖蛸和八斑鞘蛛。当拟水狼蛛与飞虱之比为1∶20.2, 食虫沟瘤蛛与飞虱之比为1∶14.5以上时,蜘蛛对飞虱显示出明显的控制力。

  8. Cytoplasmic inheritance of organelles in brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Kimura, Kei

    2010-03-01

    Brown algae, together with diatoms and chrysophytes, are a member of the heterokonts. They have either a characteristic life cycle of diplohaplontic alternation of gametophytic and sporophytic generations that are isomorphic or heteromorphic, or a diplontic life cycle. Isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy have been recognized as the mode of sexual reproduction. Brown algae are the characteristic group having elaborated multicellular organization within the heterokonts. In this study, cytoplasmic inheritance of chloroplasts, mitochondria and centrioles was examined, with special focus on sexual reproduction and subsequent zygote development. In oogamy, chloroplasts and mitochondria are inherited maternally. In isogamy, chloroplasts in sporophyte cells are inherited biparentally (maternal or paternal); however, mitochondria (or mitochondrial DNA) derived from the female gamete only remained during zygote development after fertilization. Centrioles in zygotes are definitely derived from the male gamete, irrespective of the sexual reproduction pattern. Female centrioles in zygotes are selectively broken down within 1-2 h after fertilization. The remaining male centrioles play a crucial role as a part of the centrosome for microtubule organization, mitosis, determination of the cytokinetic plane and cytokinesis, as well as for maintaining multicellularity and regular morphogenesis in brown algae. PMID:20145971

  9. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Andrea D; Nahon, Kimberly J; Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Susan M; Kanhai, Anish A; Kikuchi, Takuya; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Lombès, Marc; van den Hoek, Anita M; de Winther, Menno P J; Lutgens, Esther; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2015-05-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. We found that salsalate attenuated and reversed high-fat diet-induced weight gain, in particular fat mass accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Mechanistically, salsalate selectively promoted the uptake of fatty acids from glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like emulsion particles by brown adipose tissue (BAT), decreased the intracellular lipid content in BAT, and increased rectal temperature, all pointing to more active BAT. The treatment of differentiated T37i brown adipocytes with salsalate increased uncoupled respiration. Moreover, salsalate upregulated Ucp1 expression and enhanced glycerol release, a dual effect that was abolished by the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In conclusion, salsalate activates BAT, presumably by directly activating brown adipocytes via the PKA pathway, suggesting a novel mechanism that may explain its beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25475439

  10. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  11. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity. PMID:27067870

  12. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Brown clustering is an established technique, used in hundreds of computational linguistics papers each year, to group word types that have similar distributional information. It is unsupervised and can be used to create powerful word representations for machine learning. Despite its improbable...... success relative to more complex methods, few have investigated whether Brown clustering has really been applied optimally. In this paper, we present a subtle but profound generalisation of Brown clustering to improve the overall quality by decoupling the number of output classes from the computational...... active set size. Moreover, the generalisation permits a novel approach to feature selection from Brown clusters: We show that the standard approach of shearing the Brown clustering output tree at arbitrary bitlengths is lossy and that features should be chosen instead by rolling up Generalised Brown...

  13. Transcriptional Control of Brown Fat Determination by PRDM16

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Kajimura, Shingo; Yang, Wenli; Chin, Sherry; Rohas, Lindsay; Uldry, Marc; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1α, UCP1 and type 2 deiodinase expression, and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgeni...

  14. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified “beige” or “brite” cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in br...

  15. The Backward Trajectory Simulation of the Planthopper During Migratory Peak in Hubei Province%湖北省稻飞虱迁入高峰日后向轨迹模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万素琴; 任永建; 刘志雄; 周国珍; 高正旭; 邓环; 邓爱娟

    2012-01-01

    稻飞虱是造成湖北省水稻大幅度减产原因之一。它是一种典型的气候型迁飞虫害,起飞、迁飞和沉降均与气象条件密切相关。本文采用高空气象场资料、植保站稻飞虱灯下监测资料,在个例分析基础上,利用质点轨迹、扩散及沉降模式HYSPLIT-4,模拟稻飞虱迁飞高峰日后向轨迹,分析湖北省稻飞虱迁飞路径和主要虫源。主要结论:(1)湖北省稻飞虱迁人主要路径有5条:西南路径、南路路径、东南路径、东路路径和东北路径;(2)春夏季稻飞虱迁入路径以西南路径比例最大,平均为47%;其次为南路和东南路径;(3)秋季稻飞虱迁入路径以东北路径比例最大,平均为30%,其次为西南路径,比例为23%;(4)秋季与春夏季相比,西南路径比例下降了24%,东北路径增加了22%,东路路径增加了8%,南路、东南路变化不大。(5)偏南方向(西南路、南路和东南路)三种路径之和春夏季为80%,秋季为55%,秋季比春夏季减少了25%;(6)综合春夏季、秋季,西南路径对湖北省全省都有较大影响,对南部的影响大于北部,偏北路径秋季影响大,南部和东南路径对江汉平原影响最大。(7)理论上稻飞虱虫源区在19°-25°N、90°-120°E之间,以东西向为长轴、南北向为短轴、面积约为3300km×660km的矩形区域内,越南、泰国、缅甸、柬埔寨和菲律宾等地是湖北稻飞虱初始虫源地,云南、贵州、两广、福建、湖南、江西和江淮等地区为湖北省稻飞虱的二次虫源地或三次虫源地。根据未来数值预报场进行质点前向轨迹模拟,综合分析虫源地是否有大量稻飞虱、是否符合起飞条件,目标地是否有下沉气流配合,可以开展稻飞虱迁入气象预报,此工作尚需进一步开展业务试验。%Rice planthopper is one of the causes for a kind of

  16. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical

  17. The luminosities of the coldest brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, NSW 2052 (Australia); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20005 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Mike [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: c.tinney@unsw.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    In recent years, brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500 K and masses in the range of 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own solar system (at around 130 K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures in the range of 1500-1000 K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T-dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric color. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these Y-dwarf absolute magnitudes. This is also the case for WISE0855-0714, the coldest and closest brown dwarf to the Sun, which shows evidence for water ice clouds. However, there are also some outstanding exceptions, which suggest either binarity or the presence of condensate clouds. The former is readily testable with current adaptive optics facilities. The latter would mean that the range of cloudiness in Y dwarfs is substantial with most hosting almost no clouds—while others have dense clouds, making them prime targets for future variability observations to study cloud dynamics.

  18. Categorical perception for red and brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the widely accepted evidence in support of categorical perception of color may be a confound of effects due to low-level sensory mechanisms that are unrelated to color categories. To reveal genuine category effects, we investigated the category boundary least prone to spurious effects of low-level mechanisms: the boundary between red and brown. We tested for low-level sensory and high-level cognitive effects of categories on color discrimination, while carefully controlling potential factors of color vision that are not related to color categories. First, we established the red-brown boundary through a naming task and measured just-noticeable differences (JNDs) for colors across the boundary. If low-level sensitivity to color differences was categorical, JNDs should decrease toward the boundary. However, this was not the case. Second, we measured performance in terms of response times and error rates in a speeded discrimination task with color pairs that were equalized in discriminability based on the empirical JNDs. There was a boost of performance (lower response times and error rates) for identifying color differences in equally discriminable color pairs, when the colors crossed the boundary. Given the particularity of the red-brown boundary, these results prove that the observed effects were due to color categories rather than low-level visual mechanisms. These findings support the idea that category effects are due to a shift of attention to the linguistic distinction between categories, rather than being a pure product of perception. These category effects do not depend on the hemispheric lateralization of language. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26569337

  19. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg...

  20. The fire at Browns Ferry station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cable fire broke out at Browns Ferry-1 and -2 power station when sealing material which had been used as a make-shift seal for a cable duct caught fire in the course of a leakage test with an open light. Both blocks of the power station were scrammed manually so that nobody was injured and no activity was released. On the basis of the information supplied by NRC and TVA (the operator), the IRS has attemped a tentative evaluation of the incident. The results are presented in a summarized version. Note: a detailed description of the incident as published by the operator is available at ZAED. (orig./AK)

  1. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  2. Human brown fat and obesity: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WouterDavidVan Marken Lichtenbelt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Much is known about brown adipose tissue in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special attention in order to unravel the heat producing capacity of human BAT, the recruitment of the tissue and its functionality.

  3. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  6. The Luminosities of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500K and masses in the range 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own Solar System (at around 130K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures of in the range 1500-1000K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very-late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric colour. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these ...

  7. Chandra Captures Flare From Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The first flare ever seen from a brown dwarf, or failed star, was detected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The bright X-ray flare has implications for understanding the explosive activity and origin of magnetic fields of extremely low mass stars. Chandra detected no X-rays at all from LP 944-20 for the first nine hours of a twelve hour observation, then the source flared dramatically before it faded away over the next two hours. "We were shocked," said Dr. Robert Rutledge of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, the lead author on the discovery paper to appear in the July 20 issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We didn't expect to see flaring from such a lightweight object. This is really the 'mouse that roared.'" Chandra LP 944-20 X-ray Image Press Image and Caption The energy emitted in the brown dwarf flare was comparable to a small solar flare, and was a billion times greater than observed X-ray flares from Jupiter. The flaring energy is believed to come from a twisted magnetic field. "This is the strongest evidence yet that brown dwarfs and possibly young giant planets have magnetic fields, and that a large amount of energy can be released in a flare," said Dr. Eduardo Martin, also of Caltech and a member of the team. Professor Gibor Basri of the University of California, Berkeley, the principal investigator for this observation, speculated that the flare "could have its origin in the turbulent magnetized hot material beneath the surface of the brown dwarf. A sub-surface flare could heat the atmosphere, allowing currents to flow and give rise to the X-ray flare -- like a stroke of lightning." LP 944-20 is about 500 million years old and has a mass that is about 60 times that of Jupiter, or 6 percent that of the Sun. Its diameter is about one-tenth that of the Sun and it has a rotation period of less than five hours. Located in the constellation Fornax in the southern skies, LP 944-20 is one of the best studied brown dwarfs because it is

  8. The role of lipids in nonenzymatic browning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora, Rosario

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of lipids in nonenzymatic browning is studied by reviewing oxidized lipid/protein reactions in comparison with other reactions where the production of browning is known: the Maillard reaction, the ascorbic acid browning, and the quinone/amine reactions. The mechanisms proposed in these reactions for production of color and fluorescence, as well as the formation of melanoidins, lipofuscins, and low molecular weight colored products are discussed comparatively, concluding that the role of lipids in these reactions does not seem to be very different to the role of carbohydrates in the Maillard reaction or the phenols in the enzymatic browning. These carbonyl-amine reactions seem to be a group of gradual, partially reversible, universal, and inevitable side reactions in both food and biological systems. However, most of these results were obtained in model systems and additional studies should be carried out in systems closer to real foods or living beings, which should provide a more complete understanding of nonenzymatic browning, and, therefore, to afford a much more comprehensive knowledge of food and human biochemistry.En este trabajo se hace una revisión del papel de los lípidos en el pardeamiento no enzimático de alimentos mediante el estudio de las reacciones proteína/lípido oxidado en comparación con otras reacciones donde ocurre también este oscurecimiento: la reacción de Maillard, el pardeamiento producido por el ácido ascórbico, y las reacciones de las quinonas con los grupos amino. Los mecanismos propuestos para estas reacciones de producción de color y fluorescencia, así como la formación de melanoidinas, lipofuscinas y productos coloreados de bajo peso molecular son discutidos de forma comparada, concluyendo que el papel de los lípidos en estas reacciones no parece ser muy diferente del papel de los carbohidratos en el Maillard o de los fenoles en el pardeamiento enzimático. Estas reacciones carbonil

  9. Danmark og Browns britiske værdier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Om Gordon Browns kampagne for britiske værdier sat i relation til dansk værdidebat. Udgivelsesdato: 15/10......Om Gordon Browns kampagne for britiske værdier sat i relation til dansk værdidebat. Udgivelsesdato: 15/10...

  10. The Troublesome Legacy of "Brown v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gerardo R.; Burciaga, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article reflects on the 60th anniversary of the "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision while discussing the significant lessons learned from this and subsequent court decisions. Argument: In this article, we posit that a fundamentally different conversation surrounding the legacy of Brown is needed if we are…

  11. Race to the Top: Transiting Brown Dwarfs and Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas G.

    2015-12-01

    There are currently twelve known transiting brown dwarfs, nine of which orbit single main-sequence stars. These systems give us one of the only ways in which we may directly measure the masses and radii brown dwarfs, which in turn provides strong constraints on theoretical models of brown dwarf interiors and atmospheres. In addition, the transiting brown dwarfs allow us to forge a link between our understanding of transiting hot Jupiters, and our understanding of the field brown dwarf population. Comparing the two gives us a unique avenue to explore the role and interaction of surface gravity and stellar irradiation in the atmospheres of sub-stellar objects. It also allows us to leverage the detailed spectroscopic information we have for field brown dwarfs to interpret the broadband colors of hot Jupiters. This provides us with insight into the L/T transition in brown dwarfs, and the atmospheric chemistry changes that occur in hot Jupiter atmospheres as they cool. I will discuss recent observational results, with a particular focus on the transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b, and suggest how more of these important systems may be discovered in the future.

  12. Integrated Circuitry: Catharine Brown across Gender, Race, and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joshua B.

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about a Cherokee woman named Catharine Brown who was converted to Christianity by missionaries, as well as historical and theoretical contexts regarding the Cherokee. The author presents views from critics, such as Theda Perdue, Carolyn Ross Johnston, and Arnold Krupat, on Catharine Brown's experiences across spheres such as…

  13. Estrogenic effects of phytoestrogens in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Marie; Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul;

    2010-01-01

    , the potential effect of the waterborne phytoestrogens on endemic fish species is largely unknown. In the present investigation, the estrogenic effect of biochanin A was tested in brown trout through water exposure experiments. Juvenile brown trout of both sexes were exposed to different concentrations...

  14. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Keqin; Cheng, Yongqiang; Xing, Ying; Lin, Li; Nout, Robert; Liang, Jianfen

    2010-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity (p 

  15. Ouabain-sensitive component of brown fat thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The study discussed was undertaken to quantify the amount of energy utilized by the ouabain-sensitive Na(+)-K(+) membrane pump during the norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue. The data obtained indicate that the observed inhibition of the catecholamine-induced increase in brown fat thermogenesis by ouabain does not reflect an inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis.

  16. Identification of polymorphisms in Cyrtorhinus lividipennis RDL subunit contributing to fipronil sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Yixi; Sun, Huahua; Meng, Xiangkun; Bao, Haibo; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Zewen

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most important predatory enemies, the miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, plays an important role in rice planthoppers control, such as Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper). In order to compare insecticide selectivity between C. lividipennis and N. lugens, the contact acute toxicities of six insecticides (diazoxon, paraoxon, carbaryl, fenobucarb, fipronil and ethofenprox) were monitored. The results showed that all tested insecticides were more toxic to C. lividipennis than to N. lugens and fipronil had the biggest difference. The RDL subunit (Cl-RDL) was cloned from C. lividipennis and a RDL isoform (Cl-RDL-In) was also found with 31 amino acids insertion in RDL intracellular region. In order to understand the role of the insertion on insecticide sensitivities, three subunits (Nl-RDL, Cl-RDL and Cl-RDL-In) were constructed to obtain the functional receptors in Xenopus oocytes and the fipronil sensitivities were detected by the voltage-clamp technique. Nl-RDL (IC50=32.36 ± 4.07 µM) was more insensitive to fipronil than Cl-RDL (IC50=6.47 ± 1.12 µM). The insertion in Cl-RDL significantly reduced fipronil sensitivity with IC50 value in Cl-RDL-In of 16.83 ± 2.30 µM. Interestingly, after the elution of fipronil, the current response of Cl-RDL-In appeared obvious recovery, which were not observed in Cl-RDL and Nl-RDL. It might imply that the insertion played a special role in fipronil sensitivity. PMID:25619913

  17. Brown spider dermonecrotic toxin directly induces nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom can induce dermonecrotic lesions at the bite site and systemic manifestations including fever, vomiting, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. The venom is composed of a mixture of proteins with several molecules biochemically and biologically well characterized. The mechanism by which the venom induces renal damage is unknown. By using mice exposed to Loxosceles intermedia recombinant dermonecrotic toxin (LiRecDT), we showed direct induction of renal injuries. Microscopic analysis of renal biopsies from dermonecrotic toxin-treated mice showed histological alterations including glomerular edema and tubular necrosis. Hyalinization of tubules with deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubule lumen, tubule epithelial cell vacuoles, tubular edema and epithelial cell lysis was also observed. Leukocytic infiltration was neither observed in the glomerulus nor the tubules. Renal vessels showed no sign of inflammatory response. Additionally, biochemical analyses showed such toxin-induced changes in renal function as urine alkalinization, hematuria and azotemia with elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunofluorescence with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies and confocal microscopy analysis showed deposition and direct binding of this toxin to renal intrinsic structures. By immunoblotting with a hyperimmune dermonecrotic toxin antiserum on renal lysates from toxin-treated mice, we detected a positive signal at the region of 33-35 kDa, which strengthens the idea that renal failure is directly induced by dermonecrotic toxin. Immunofluorescence reaction with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies revealed deposition and binding of this toxin directly in MDCK epithelial cells in culture. Similarly, dermonecrotic toxin treatment caused morphological alterations of MDCK cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles, blebs, evoked impaired spreading and detached cells from each other and from

  18. Browning and graying: novel transcriptional regulators of brown and beige fat tissues and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMueller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery that brown and beige fat cells exist in adult humans and contribute to energy expenditure, increasing interest has been devoted to the understanding of the molecular switches turning on calorie utilization. It has been reported that the ability of thermogenic tissues to burn energy declines during aging, possibly contributing to the development of metabolic dysfunction late in life. This review will focus on the recently identified transcriptional modulators of brown and beige cells and will discuss the potential impact of some of these thermogenic factors on age-associated metabolic disorders.

  19. Brown-York energy and radial geodesics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Matthias; Rollier, Blaise [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel Rue Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2008-05-21

    We compare the Brown-York (BY) and the standard Misner-Sharp (MS) quasilocal energies for round spheres in spherically symmetric spacetimes from the point of view of radial geodesics. In particular, we show that the relation between the BY and MS energies is precisely analogous to that between the (relativistic) energy E of a geodesic and the effective (Newtonian) energy E{sub eff} appearing in the geodesic equation, thus shedding some light on the relation between the two. Moreover, for Schwarzschild-like metrics we establish a general relationship between the BY energy and the geodesic effective potential which explains and generalizes the recently observed connection between negative BY energy and the repulsive behaviour of geodesics in the Reissner-Nordstroem metric. We also comment on the extension of this connection between geodesics and the quasilocal BY energy to regions inside a horizon.

  20. Poisoning with brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonen, E; Tarssanen, L; Härkönen, M

    1979-01-01

    Three patients ate different amounts of a common northern mushroom, brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis. All of them believed they had eaten delicious parasol mushrooms, Macrolepiota procera. The symptoms of poisoning began 1--2 hours after ingestion of the mushrooms. All the patients had marked gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea and heavy vomiting. Two had central nervous system manifestations and cholinergic symptoms: hallucinations, confusion, or loss of consciousness as well as copious salivation, or sweating. All patients recovered within 4--24 hours without any damage to liver, kidneys or central nervous system. It seems that cooking the mushrooms does not completely neutralize the toxic agents of Amanita regalis. The analysis of fried mushrooms shows that it may be possible to identify mushrooms reliably from the remains of a meal. PMID:760400

  1. What John Browne actually said at Stanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1997, the Chief Executive of BP, John Browne, delivered a speech on global climate change at Stanford University, California. A shortened version of the speech is presented. BP have accepted the possibility of a link between greenhouse gas emissions and climate change and are basing their policies on that acceptance. The company is committed to a step-by-step process, involving both action to develop solutions and continuing research to improve knowledge, that will balance the requirements of economic development and environmental protection. Five specific steps are outlined. These are: the monitoring and controlling of carbon dioxide emissions in all aspects of the company's operations increasing the level of support given to continuing scientific work on climate change; technology transfer and joint implementation with other parties to limit and reduce net emission levels; the development of alternative energy sources, in particular, solar power; contributing to the public policy debate in search of wider global answers to the problem. (Author)

  2. Atmospheric Brown Clouds- from science towards policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherestha, S.; Iyngararasan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs) and its interaction with climate change is an emerging environmental issue. Studies demonstrate that ABCs and its interaction with build-up of greenhouse gases significantly affect the regional climate, glacial melting, hydrological cycle, agriculture and public health. For the next decades, the regional aerosol effects will continue to play a major role in environmental management as long as current strong sources of air pollution remain. An integrated multi-pollutant multi-sectoral approach for addressing atmospheric issues will result in optimum environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Regional intergovernmental networks have been established to address air pollution issues in different parts of the globe. These intergovernmental networks could be empowered to promote integrated approach for addressing the atmospheric environmental issues.

  3. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount

  4. Correlated spectral variability in brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bailer-Jones, C A L

    2007-01-01

    Models of brown dwarf atmospheres suggest they exhibit complex physical behaviour. Observations have shown that they are indeed dynamic, displaying small photometric variations over timescales of hours. Here I report results of infrared (0.95-1.64 micron) spectrophotometric monitoring of four field L and T dwarfs spanning timescales of 0.1-5.5 hrs, the goal being to learn more about the physical nature of this variability. Spectra are analysed differentially with respect to a simultaneously observed reference source in order to remove Earth-atmospheric variations. The variability amplitude detected is typically 2-10%, depending on the source and wavelength. I analyse the data for correlated variations between spectral indices. This approach is more robust than single band or chisq analyses, because it does not assume an amplitude for the (often uncertain) noise level (although the significance test still assumes a shape for the noise power spectrum). Three of the four targets show significant evidence for cor...

  5. Chemical Decontamination at Browns Ferry Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May, 2002, the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Board of Directors approved the recovery and restart of Unit 1 at Browns Ferry Nuclear Station. As an initial step in the site characterization and restart feasibility review, a majority of the primary reactor circuit was chemically decontaminated. Close cooperation between TVA and vendor personnel resulted in project completion ahead of schedule with outstanding results. The final average decontamination factors were excellent, and the final dose rates were very low, with contact readings on most points between one and three mRem/hr. In addition to allowing TVA to do a complete and thorough job of determining the feasibility of the Unit 1 restart, the decontamination effort will greatly reduce personnel exposure during plant recovery, both whole body exposure to gamma radiation and airborne exposure during pipe replacement efforts. The implementation of lessons learned from previous decontamination work performed at Browns Ferry, as well as decontamination efforts at other plants aided greatly in the success. Specific items of note are: (1) The initial leak check of the temporary decontamination system should include ancillary systems such as the spent resin system, as well as the main circulation loop. This could save time and dose exposure if leaks are discovered before the use of such systems is required. (2) Due to the quick turnaround time from the award of contract, a vendor representative was onsite early in the project to help with engineering efforts and procedures. This aided greatly in completing preparations for the decontamination. (3) The work was performed under a single maintenance activity. This resulted in great craft and plant support. (4) The constant coverage by the site's decontamination flush directors provided timely plant support and interface. (5) The FPC system isolation and back flushing to prevent residual chemicals from being left in the FPC system should have been addressed in more

  6. Cultivar affects browning susceptibility of freshly cut star fruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of freshly-cut horticultural products has increased in the last few years. The principal restraint to using freshly-cut carambola is its susceptibility to tissue-browning, due to polyphenol oxidase-mediated oxidation of phenolic compounds present in the tissue. The current study investigated the susceptibility to browning of star fruit slices (Averrhoa carambola L. of seven genotypes (Hart, Golden Star, Taen-ma, Nota-10, Malásia, Arkin, and Fwang Tung. Cultivar susceptibility to browning as measured by luminosity (L* varied significantly among genotypes. Without catechol 0.05 M, little changes occurred on cut surface of any cultivars during 6 hour at 25degreesC, 67% RH. Addition of catechol led to rapid browning, which was more intense in cvs. Taen-ma, Fwang Tung, and Golden Star, with reduction in L* value of 28.60%, 27.68%, and 23.29%, respectively. Browning was more intense in the center of the slices, particularly when treated with catechol, indicating highest polyphenol oxidase (PPO concentration. Epidermal browning, even in absence of catechol, is a limitation to visual acceptability and indicates a necessity for its control during carambola processing. Care must be given to appropriate selection of cultivars for fresh-cut processing, since cultivar varied in browning susceptibility in the presence of catechol.

  7. Seasonal movement of brown trout in a southern appalachian river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, K.H.; Isely, J.J.; Bunnell, D.B., Jr.; Van Lear, D. H.; Dolloff, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to evaluate the seasonal movement, activity level, and home range size of adult brown trout Salmo trutta in the Chattooga River watershed, one of the southernmost coldwater stream systems in the United States. In all, 27 adult brown trout (262-452 mm total length) were successfully monitored from 16 November 1995 to 15 December 1996. During the day, adult brown trout were consistently found in small, well-established home ranges of less than 270 m in stream length. However, 8 of a possible 18 study fish made spawning migrations during a 2-week period in November 1996. The daytime locations of individual fish were restricted to a single pool or riffle-pool combination, and fish were routinely found in the same location over multiple sampling periods. Maximum upstream movement during spawning was 7.65 km, indicating that brown trout in the Chattooga River have the ability to move long distances. Spawning brown trout returned to their prespawning locations within a few days after spawning. Brown trout maintained larger home ranges in winter than in other seasons. When spawning-related movement was deleted from the analysis, brown trout moved more on a weekly basis in fall than in summer. Brown trout were more active in fall and winter than in spring and summer. Apart from spawning migrations, displacement from established home ranges was not observed for any fish in the study. Although summer water temperatures reached and exceeded reported upper thermal-preference levels, brown trout did not move to thermal refuge areas in nearby tributaries during the stressful summer periods.

  8. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. PMID:25641865

  9. Involvement of Jasmonate- signaling pathway in the herbivore-induced rice plant defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; ZHOU Qiang; CHEN Wei; ZHANG Guren; HE Guofeng; GU Dexiang; ZHANG Wenqing

    2003-01-01

    The expression patterns of eight defense- related genes in the herbivore-infested and jasmonate- treated (jasmonic acid, JA and its derivative MeJA) rice leaves were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results showed that Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) herbivory induced the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS) genes that are involved in the jasmonate-signaling pathway. Moreover, S. Litura damage resulted in the expression of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS), Bowman-birk proteinase inhibitor (BBPI), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and other rice defense- related genes that were also induced by aqueous JA treatment or gaseous MeJA treatment. These indicated that in rice leaves, the JA-related signaling pathway was involved in the S. Litura-induced chemical defense. Mechanical damage and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) damage induced the expression of LOX gene, but both treatments did not induce the expression of AOS gene. However, BPH damage induced the expression of acidic pathogen-related protein 1 (PR-1a), Chitinase (PR-3), and PAL genes, which is involved in the salicylate- signaling pathway. It was suggested that salicylate-related signaling pathway or other pathways, rather than jasmonate-signaling pathway was involved in the BPH-induced rice plant defense.

  10. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinfeng; Li, Jiancai; Han, Xiu; Li, Ran; Wu, Jianqiang; Yu, Haixin; Hu, Lingfei; Xiao, Yutao; Lu, Jing; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2 O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice. PMID:26466818

  11. OsWRKY53, a versatile switch in regulating herbivore-induced defense responses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Li, Ran; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-04-01

    WRKY proteins, which belong to a large family of plant-specific transcription factors, play important roles in plant defenses against pathogens and herbivores by regulating defense-related signaling pathways. Recently, a rice WRKY transcription factor OsWRKY53 has been reported to function as a negative feedback modulator of OsMPK3/OsMPK6 and thereby to control the size of the investment a rice plant makes to defend against a chewing herbivore, the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis. We investigated the performance of a piecing-sucking herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, on transgenic plants that silence or overexpress OsWRKY53, and found that OsWRKY53 activates rice defenses against BPH by activating an H2O2 burst and suppressing ethylene biosynthesis. These findings suggest that OsWRKY53 functions not only as a regulator of plants' investment in specific defenses, but also as a switch to initiate new defenses against other stresses, highlighting the versatility and importance of OsWRKY53 in herbivore-induced plant defenses. PMID:27031005

  12. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfeng Qi; Yonggen Lou; Jiancai Li; Xiu Han; Ran Li; Jianqiang Wu; Haixin Yu; Lingfei Hu; Yutao Xiao; Jing Lu

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice.

  13. Transgenic Cry1Ab rice does not impact ecological fitness and predation of a generalist spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ce Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The commercial release of rice genetically engineered to express a Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt for control of Lepidoptera in China is a subject of debate. One major point of the debate has focused on the ecological safety of Bt rice on nontarget organisms, especially predators and parasitoids that help control populations of insect pests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A tritrophic bioassay was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on fitness parameters of a predaceous ground spider (Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg et Strand that had fed on Bt rice-fed brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål nymphs. Survival, development time and fecundity of this spider were not different when they were fed with Bt rice-fed or non-Bt rice-fed prey. Furthermore, ELISA and PCR gut assays, as well as a functional response trial, indicated that predation by P. pseudoannulata was not significantly different in Bt rice or non-Bt rice fields. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transgenic Cry1Ab rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the survival, developmental time and fecundity of P. pseudoannulata in the laboratory or on predation under field conditions. This suggests that this important predator would not be harmed if transgenic Cry1Ab rice were commercialized.

  14. Brown Tumors: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özgür; Boynueğri, Başak; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Özdemir, Ebru; Ferhatoğlu, Ferhat; Canbakan, Mustafa; Şahin, Gülizar Manga; Titiz, Mesut İzzet; Apaydın, Süheyla

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumors are focal bone lesions, encountered in patients with uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism. They can be located in any part of the skeleton. Clinically significant lesions in the craniofacial bones are rare. Craniofacial involvement may cause facial disfiguration and compromise social ease of the patient and normal functions, such as chewing, talking, and breathing. In this case report, we present a patient with a brown tumor of the craniofacial bones provoked by secondary hyperparathyroidism and review the last 10 years of craniofacial brown tumors associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in the English literature. PMID:27066494

  15. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  16. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Bright Southern Star Epsilon Indi Has Cool, Substellar Companion [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] has discovered a Brown Dwarf object (a 'failed' star) less than 12 light-years from the Sun. It is the nearest yet known. Now designated Epsilon Indi B, it is a companion to a well-known bright star in the southern sky, Epsilon Indi (now "Epsilon Indi A"), previously thought to be single. The binary system is one of the twenty nearest stellar systems to the Sun. The brown dwarf was discovered from the comparatively rapid motion across the sky which it shares with its brighter companion : the pair move a full lunar diameter in less than 400 years. It was first identified using digitised archival photographic plates from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS) and confirmed using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Follow-up observations with the near-infrared sensitive SOFI instrument on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory confirmed its nature and has allowed measurements of its physical properties. Epsilon Indi B has a mass just 45 times that of Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, and a surface temperature of only 1000 °C. It belongs to the so-called 'T dwarf' category of objects which straddle the domain between stars and giant planets. Epsilon Indi B is the nearest and brightest T dwarf known. Future studies of the new object promise to provide astronomers with important new clues as to the formation and evolution of these exotic celestial bodies, at the same time yielding interesting insights into the border zone between planets and stars. TINY MOVING NEEDLES IN GIANT HAYSTACKS ESO PR Photo 03a/03 ESO PR Photo 03a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 605 pix - 92k [Normal - JPEG: 1200 x 1815 pix - 1.0M] Caption: PR Photo 03a/03 shows Epsilon Indi A (the bright star at far right) and its newly discovered brown dwarf companion Epsilon Indi B (circled). The upper image comes from one of the SuperCOSMOS Sky

  17. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.)

  18. Depletions at Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimated depletion associated with the operation of Spitzie Marsh in Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge. Attached are the methods used to estimate depletion....

  19. Regulatory circuits controlling white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ that exerts a profound influence on whole-body homoeostasis. Two types of adipose tissue exist in mammals: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT stores energy and is the largest energy reserve in mammals, whereas BAT, expressing UCP......1 (uncoupling protein 1), can dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. In rodents, ample evidence supports BAT as an organ counteracting obesity, whereas less is known about the presence and significance of BAT in humans. Despite the different functions of white and brown adipocytes......, knowledge of factors differentially influencing the formation of white and brown fat cells is sparse. Here we summarize recent progress in the molecular understanding of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation, including novel insights into transcriptional and signal transduction pathways. Since...

  20. Rüütel, Halonen ja Brown? / Eve Heinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinla, Eve, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    James Browni kontserdil 27. juulil Tallinna laulukaare all loodetakse kaasa tõmmata ka poliitikud. Ameerika soulmuusik James Brown esitas president Arnold Rüütlile kutse laulda koos temaga duetti. Lisa: Rüütlil siiani Annaniga laulmata

  1. Integrated Pest Management Plan Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Browns Park National...

  2. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  3. A Management Strategy for Kenai Peninsula Brown Bears

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Increasing human activity and land development on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska has brought about concern for the brown bear Ursus arctos population. The human...

  4. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  6. Reanimating Storywork: Indigenous Elders’ Reflections on Leadership by Lee Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Cherokee Elder Dr. Lee Brown explores leadership by discussing the suppression of Aboriginal emotions through colonialism, the importance of cultural values and ceremony, and the need for education reform.

  7. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  8. Narrative report: Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by...

  9. Kimberly S. Brown named director of academic advising

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Kimberly S. Brown, who had been serving as interim associate vice provost for academic support services at Virginia Tech, has been named the university's director of academic advising in the Division of Undergraduate Education.

  10. Exponential decay of eigenfunctions of Brown-Ravenhall operators

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    We prove the exponential decay of eigenfunctions of reductions of Brown-Ravenhall operators to arbitrary irreducible representations of rotation-reflection and permutation symmetry groups under the assumption that the corresponding eigenvalues are below the essential spectrum.

  11. Narrative report : Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. ASK1 signalling regulates brown and beige adipocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kazuki; Naguro, Isao; Okabe, Kohki; Funatsu, Takashi; Furutani, Shotaro; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that adult humans have active brown or beige adipocytes, the activation of which might be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diverse metabolic diseases. Here we show that the protein kinase ASK1 regulates brown and beige adipocytes function. In brown or white adipocytes, the PKA-ASK1-p38 axis is activated in response to cAMP signalling and contributes to the cell-autonomous induction of genes, including Ucp1. Global and fat-specific ASK1 deficiency leads to impaired metabolic responses, including thermogenesis and oxygen consumption, at the cell and whole-body levels, respectively. Our data thus indicate that the ASK1 signalling axis is a regulator of brown and beige adipocyte gene expression and function. PMID:27045525

  13. A USNO Search for Astrometric Companions to Brown Dwarfs IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Vrba, F. J.; Munn, J. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Tilleman, T.; Henden, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of ten brown dwarfs observed by the U.S. Naval Observatory infrared parallax program show no clear indication of astrometric perturbations due to low mass companions. The data were collected using ASTROCAM on the 1.55-m (61-in) Kaj Strand Astrometric Reflector from 2000 September through 2006 June over periods from 2.0 to 5.3 years. After our standard solution for parallax and proper motion, the residuals were subjected to a time-series analysis using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. The multiplicity fraction for brown dwarfs constrains theories of brown dwarf formation and evolution. Binary systems, especially those that straddle the transition between L and T spectral types, are also significant tests of atmospheric models. In addition, the identification of companions would have enabled the eventual measurement of the associated masses. This search for astrometric companions is an extension of the initial infrared parallax program. When finalized, the trigonometric parallaxes for these brown dwarfs will provide accurate distances for use in determining their luminosities and temperatures. The brown dwarfs in this subsample have spectral types that range from late M through mid-T. None of them are known binaries. Distance estimates place six of these objects within the 25-pc limit of the Solar Neighborhood, and preliminary parallaxes place another three between 25 and 35 pc. These substellar objects are located north of -15° Dec. The brown dwarfs evaluated are 2MASS J00325937+1410371, 2MASS J01514155+1244300 (BF Ari) 2MASS J02074284+0000564, 2MASS J03095345-0753156, SDSS J083717.21-000018.0, 2MASS J11101001+0116130, 2MASS J13262981-0038314 (2MUCD 11143), 2MASS J17502385+4222373, 2MASS J23391025+1352284, and 2MASS J23565477-1553111. Analyses of another 30 brown dwarfs were presented earlier and the analyses of 19 more brown dwarfs are planned.

  14. A USNO Search for Astrometric Companions to Brown Dwarfs III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Vrba, F. J.; Munn, J. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Tillman, T.; Henden, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of ten brown dwarfs observed by the U.S. Naval Observatory infrared parallax program show no clear indication of astrometric perturbations due to low mass companions. The data were collected using ASTROCAM on the 1.55-m Strand Astrometric Reflector from 2000 October through 2006 June over periods from 1.3 to 5.4 years. After our standard solution for parallax and proper motion, the residuals were subjected to a time-series analysis using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. The multiplicity fraction for brown dwarfs constrains theories of brown dwarf formation and evolution. Binary systems, especially those that straddle the transition between L and T spectral types, are also significant tests of atmospheric models. In addition, the identification of companions would have enabled the eventual measurement of the associated masses. This search for astrometric companions is an extension of the initial infrared parallax program. When finalized, the trigonometric parallaxes for these brown dwarfs will provide accurate distances for use in determining their luminosities and temperatures. The brown dwarfs in this subsample have spectral types that range from early L through mid-T. None are known binaries. Distance estimates place all but two within the 25-pc limit of the Solar Neighborhood; one outlier has a distance of approximately 62 pc based on its preliminary parallax. These substellar objects are located north of -25° Dec. and lie between 13h and 23h in R.A. The brown dwarfs evaluated are 2MASS J13464634-0031501, SDSS J144600.60+002452.0, 2MASS J16241436+0029158, 2MASS J17580545+4633099, 2MASS J19010601+4718136, 2MASS J21241387+0059599, 2MASS J22425317+2542573, 2MASS J22443167+2043433, 2MASS J22541892+3123498, and 2MASS J22552907-0034336. Analyses of another 20 brown dwarfs were presented earlier and the analyses of 19 more brown dwarfs are planned.

  15. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds*

    OpenAIRE

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-Xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contai...

  16. Metabolic interplay between white, beige, brown adipocytes and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian evolution, three types of adipocytes have developed, white, brown and beige adipocytes. White adipocytes are the major constituents of white adipose tissue (WAT), the predominant store for energy-dense triglycerides in the body that are released as fatty acids during catabolic conditions. The less abundant brown adipocytes, the defining parenchymal cells of brown adipose tissue (BAT), internalize triglycerides that are stored intracellularly in multilocular lipid droplets. Beige adipocytes (also known as brite or inducible brown adipocytes) are functionally very similar to brown adipocytes and emerge in specific WAT depots in response to various stimuli including sustained cold exposure. The activation of brown and beige adipocytes (together referred to as thermogenic adipocytes) causes both the hydrolysis of stored triglycerides as well as the uptake of lipids and glucose from the circulation. Together, these fuels are combusted for heat production to maintain body temperature in mammals including adult humans. Given that heating by brown and beige adipocytes is a very-well controlled and energy-demanding process which entails pronounced shifts in energy fluxes, it is not surprising that an intensive interplay exists between the various adipocyte types and parenchymal liver cells, and that this influences systemic metabolic fluxes and endocrine networks. In this review we will emphasize the role of hepatic factors that regulate the metabolic activity of white and thermogenic adipocytes. In addition, we will discuss the relevance of lipids and hormones that are secreted by white, brown and beige adipocytes regulating liver metabolism in order to maintain systemic energy metabolism in health and disease. PMID:26829204

  17. Spatial behaviour and survival of translocated wild brown hares

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, C.; TAGAND, R.

    2012-01-01

    The fragility of many populations of brown hares in Western Europe is a concern for managers, hunters and naturalists. We took advantage of a locally high density population to use wild individuals to restock areas where the species had disappeared or was close to disappearing. The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the spatial behaviour after release using radio–tracking. Over 150 wild brown hares were translocated, one third of which were fitted with radio collars. In additio...

  18. Brown trout redd superimposition in relation to spawning habitat availability

    OpenAIRE

    Gortázar Rubial, Javier; Alonso González, Carlos; García de Jalón Lastra, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between redd superimposition and spawning habitat availability was investigated in the brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) population inhabiting the river Castril (Granada, Spain). Redd surveys were conducted in 24 river sections to estimate the rate of redd superimposition. Used and available microhabitat was evaluated to compute the suitable spawning habitat (SSH) for brown trout. After analysing the microhabitat characteristics positively selected by females, SSH was defined as ...

  19. Norman O. Brown, Herbert Marcuse and the romantic tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Greenham, David

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents the work of Norman O. Brown and Herbert Marcuse as responses to romantic problematic obtained first and foremost from the legacy of Immanuel Kant’s critical philosophy, and, secondly, from the first significant American realisation of this inheritance in the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson. The importance of this romantic reading is that it escapes the usual interpretations of Marcuse and Brown in terms of Marxism and Psychoanalysis, instead tracing the significance of ...

  20. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identifie...

  1. Thermal fluctuations of magnetic nanoparticles: Fifty years after Brown

    OpenAIRE

    COFFEY, WILLIAM

    2012-01-01

    The reversal time (superparamagnetic relaxation time) of the magnetization of fine single domain ferromagnetic nanoparticles owing to thermal fluctuations plays a fundamental role in information storage, paleomagnetism, biotechnology, etc. Here a comprehensive tutorial-style review of the achievements of fifty years of development and generalizations of the seminal work of Brown [W.F. Brown, Jr., Phys. Rev., 130, 1677 (1963)] on thermal fluctuations of magnetic nanoparticles is presented. Ana...

  2. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Achyut Aryal; David Raubenheimer; Sambandam Sathyakumar; Buddi Sagar Poudel; Weihong Ji; Kamal Jung Kunwar; Jose Kok; Shiro Kohshima; Dianne Brunton

    2012-01-01

    The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus). However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear ...

  3. SIRE EFFECTS ON CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BROWN COW

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2005-01-01

    The present research aims to obtain more fundamental knowledge of genetic effect (sire effect) on carcass traits of Japanese Brown cow. This experiment was done at Kumamoto Prefecture Japan. The field data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits of 9468 head of Japanese Brown cow, which had born from January 3rd 1988 to December 25th 1993 and representing by 88 head of sires were collected. All data were included of pedigree status. Cows data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits wer...

  4. Apple phenolics and their contribution to enzymatic browning reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and C1 were isolated from apple skin. These compounds as well as quercetine and phloretine glycosides isolated from apples were studied individually and as mixtures for their participation in the enzymatic browning reactions. The importance of quercetine glycosides and the synergistic effect of phloridzin and phloretine xyloglucoside with chlorogenic acid and flavans in the browning reaction are reported.

  5. Entangled Hanbury Brown Twiss effects with edge states

    OpenAIRE

    Buttiker, Markus; Samuelsson, Martin Peter; Sukhorukov, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Electronic Hanbury Brown Twiss correlations are discussed for geometries in which transport is along adiabatically guided edge channels. We briefly discuss partition noise experiments and discuss the effect of inelastic scattering and dephasing on current correlations. We then consider a two-source Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment which demonstrates strikingly that even in geometries without an Aharonov-Bohm effect in the conductance matrix (second-order interference), correlation functions can...

  6. Seasonal movement of brown trout in the Clinch River, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, J.M.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to monitor the seasonal movements of trophy-size brown trout Salmo trutta in the Clinch River below Norris Dam, Tennessee, to determine whether establishing a special-regulation reach to reduce fishing mortality was a viable management option. Fifteen brown trout (size range, 430-573 mm total length) collected from the river were implanted with radio transmitters between November 1997 and May 1998. Forty-seven percent of these fish died or expelled their transmitters within 50 d postsurgery. The range of movement for surviving brown trout was significantly larger in fall (geometric mean range = 5,111 m) than in any other season. Four brown trout that were monitored for more than 1 year exhibited a limited range of movement (5 km) during the fall season, presumably to spawn. Brown trout also moved more during the fall than in any other season. Harvest restrictions applied to a specific reach of the Clinch River would reduce the exploitation of brown trout in that reach for most of the year but not during the fall, when many fish undertake extensive spawning migrations.

  7. Diel movement of brown trout in a southern Appalachian River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B., Jr.; Isely, J.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Van Lear, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to monitor the diel movement of 22 brown trout Salmo trutta (268-446 mm in total length, TL) in the Chattooga River watershed. Forty-seven diel tracks, locating individuals once per hour for 24 consecutive hours, were collected for four consecutive seasons. High variability in movement both within and among individual brown trout resulted in similar seasonal means in total distance moved, diel range, and displacement. The majority of fish moved a total distance of less than 80 m within a diel range of less than 80 m and had a displacement of less than 10 m. Brown trout were more likely to occur in pool habitat independent of season or period of the day. Hourly movement patterns differed among seasons. During the winter and fall, trout moved only around sunrise; during the spring, they moved around sunrise, sunset, and intermittently throughout the night. Large brown trout (>375 mm, TL) were found to move greater total distances and establish wider diel ranges than small brown trout. Overall, most brown trout exhibited restricted diel movement within a single riffle-pool or run-pool sequence.

  8. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. PMID:26240390

  9. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos compared to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särndahl Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.

  10. Contamination and browning in tissue culture of Platanus occidentalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Feng-jie; Zhang Zhi-yi; Zhou Jun; Yao Na; Wang Dong-mei

    2007-01-01

    Twigs of 2-3-year-old Platanus occidentalis L. were used as experimental material to find the causes for the contamination and browning in the initial stages of tissue cultures. To compare the degree of browning of explants picked off from different growing seasons,the experimental material was excised from trees on each of the first ten days in January, March,May and July,2006. The results indicated that the contamination and browning rates of the material cut off in January (14. 2% and 30. 6%. respectively)and March were somewhat lower than those in July. The pretreatment of soaking the explants in different anti-oxidants and absorbents at the same time could diminish some side effects. The pretreatment of using 10 g·L-1 vitamin C reduced the contamination and browning rate effectively. An orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal factor and level arrangement is 0. 5 mg·L-1 BA,2. 0 g·L-1 active carbon and 1. 5 g·L-1 PVP which resulted in a browning rate of only 16. 5%. In general,sampling period,physical properties and pretreatment of explants are the main factors responsible for the contamination and browning of material in the initial stages of P. occidentalis tissue cultures.

  11. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, O; Hubber, D A

    2016-01-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very-low-mass prestellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown-dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which Andre, Ward-Thompson and Greaves (2012) have identified as a prestellar core with mass between $\\sim 0.020\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ and $\\sim 0.030\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$. We reanalyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen burning limit at $\\sim 0.075\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$, is between 0.66 and 0.86. We conclude ...

  12. Multiple brown tumours from parathyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagang, Daryl Jade Tardo; Gutierrez, Jerico Baliton; Sandoval, Mark Anthony Santiago; Lantion-Ang, Frances Lina

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 29-year-old woman who suffered from severe bilateral inguinal pain and left mandibular mass. CT scan showed innumerable expansile osteolytic bone masses on the iliac wings, femur, ribs and vertebral bodies, diffuse skeletal osteopaenia, calyceal lithiasis on the right kidney and a left thyroid mass. Ionised calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were elevated. Parathyroid sestamibi scan showed a hyperfunctioning left inferior parathyroid gland. Biopsy of the left mandibular mass was consistent with brown tumour. The patient underwent parathyroidectomy of the enlarged parathyroid gland. Final histopathology, however, revealed parathyroid carcinoma, 4.7 cm in widest dimension, with capsular and vascular space invasion. The patient underwent repeat surgery, specifically, left thyroid lobectomy, isthmectomy and central node dissection. Intact PTH decreased from 681.3 to 74 pg/mL (normal range: 10-65) 24 hours postoperatively. Follow-up at 6 months showed normal serum calcium levels, size reduction of bone lesions and improvement of quality of life. PMID:27358103

  13. Relation between Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lauren Melissa Flor; Schröeder, Klauss-Peter; Caretta, César A; Jack, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the most debated subjects in Astronomy since the discovery of exoplanets is how can we distinguish the most massive of such objects from very-low mass stars like Brown Dwarfs (BDs)? We have been looking for evidences of a difference in physical characteristics that could be related to different formation processes. Using a new diagnostic diagram that compares the baryonic gravitational potential (BGP) with the distances from their host stars, we have classified a sample of 355 well-studied exoplanets according to their possible structures. We have then compared the exoplanets to a sample of 87 confirmed BDs, identifying a range in BGP that could be common to both objects. By analyzing the mass-radius relations (MRR) of the exoplanets and BDs in those different BGP ranges, we were able to distinguish different characteristic behaviors. By comparing with models in the literature, our results suggest that BDs and massive exoplanets might have similar structures dominated by liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH).

  14. Analysis on enzymatic browning in pine needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, K.H.; Park, H.J.; Choi, S.S.; Cho, S.H. [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Y.T. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Tyrosinases are related to the enzymatic browning of plants and attract the major scientific interest for the prevention of it. Three tyrosinase isozymes (P{sub 1}, P{sub 2} and P{sub 3}) from pine needles were purified to homogeneity and characterized the factors that affect their activities. The L-ascorbic acid and {beta}-mercaptoethanol notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of the three isozymes. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was a competitive inhibitor of isozymes with the K{sub i} values of P{sub 1}(0.30 mM), P{sub 2}(0.015 mM) and P{sub 3}(0.019 mM), respectively. Their enzyme activities were however, increased by the addition of most metal ions. The optimum pH for the three isozymes was 9.0{approx}9.5 and the optimum temperatures ranged from 55 to 60{sup o} C using L-DOPA as substrate. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  16. Factors influencing the distribution of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a mountain stream: Implications for brown trout invasion success

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Christy

    2012-01-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta), one of the world’s most successful introduced species, negatively impacts native aquatic communities through predation, competition, and ecosystemlevel effects. Thus, there is a need to understand factors controlling the distribution of exotic brown trout in river systems, in order to prioritize and develop conservation and management strategies. Within the context of invasion success, I investigated how the physical template of the Logan River influences the distr...

  17. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Yang, F.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS) or methylglyoxal (MGAS) are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  18. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. PMID:25775930

  19. Brown coal, power plants, briquetes. The north of the Rhenish brown coal district; Braunkohle, Kraftwerke, Briketts. Der Norden des Rheinischen Braunkohlenreviers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenker, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The depiction of the history of the brown coal mining industry in the north of the Rhenish brown coal district suggests a description of this section of German industrial history in two independent chapters in the book under consideration. In the first part, the brown coal mining industry in Neurath (Federal Republic of Germany) with its briquette factories is described. The second part describes the lignite mining in Frimmersdorf (Federal Republic of Germany) with its brown coal power stations. Of course, the author of this book also elaborates on the production of peat, because the peat was the only energy supplier prior to brown coal available in these regions.

  20. Transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps Rice with Insect and Herbicide Resistance Acted No Adverse Impacts on the Population Growth of a Non-Target Herbivore, the White-Backed Planthopper, Under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zeng-bin; HAN Nai-shun; TIAN Jun-ce; PENG Yu-fa; HU Cui; GUO Yu-yuan; SHEN Zhi-cheng; YE Gong-yin

    2014-01-01

    Numerous Bt rice lines expressing Cry protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have been developed since 1989. However, the potential risks posed by Bt rice on non-target organisms still remain debate. The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the most economically important insect pests of rice in Asian countries and also one of the main non-target herbivores of transgenic rice. In the current study, impacts of transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps rice (G6H1) with both insect and herbicide resistance on WBPH were evaluated to ascertain whether this transgenic rice line had potential risks for this sap-sucking pest under laboratory and ifeld conditions. The laboratory results showed that no signiifcant difference in egg developmental duration, nymphal survival rate and female fecundity was found for WBPH between G6H1 and its non-transgenic isoline (XS110). However, the development duration of nymphs was signiifcantly shorter and female longevity signiifcantly longer when WBPH fed on G6H1 by comparison with those on its control. To verify the results found in laboratory, a 3-yr ifeld trial was conducted to monitor WBPH population using both the vacuum-suction machine and beat plate methods. Although the seasonal density of WBPH nymphs and total density of nymphs and adults were not signiifcantly affected by transgenic rice regardless of the sampling methods, the seasonal density of WBPH adults in transgenic rice plots was slightly lower than that in the control when using the vacuum-suction machine. Based on these results both from laboratory and ifeld, it is clear that our tested transgenic rice line will not lead higher population of WBPH. However, long-term ifeld experiments to monitor the population dynamics of WPBH at large scale need to be conducted to conifrm the present conclusions in future.

  1. Arctic Browning: vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treharne, Rachael; Bjerke, Jarle; Emberson, Lisa; Tømmervik, Hans; Phoenix, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    'Arctic browning' is the loss of biomass and canopy in Arctic ecosystems. This process is often driven by climatic and biological extreme events - notably extreme winter warm periods, winter frost-drought and severe outbreaks of defoliating insects. Evidence suggests that browning is becoming increasingly frequent and severe at the pan-arctic scale, a view supported by observations from more intensely observed regions, with major and unprecedented vegetation damage reported at landscape (>1000km2) and regional (Nordic Arctic Region) scales in recent years. Critically, the damage caused by these extreme events is in direct opposition to 'Arctic greening', the well-established increase in productivity and shrub abundance observed at high latitudes in response to long-term warming. This opposition creates uncertainty as to future anticipated vegetation change in the Arctic, with implications for Arctic carbon balance. As high latitude ecosystems store around twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and vegetation impacts are key to determining rates of loss or gain of ecosystem carbon stocks, Arctic browning has the potential to influence the role of these ecosystems in global climate. There is therefore a clear need for a quantitative understanding of the impacts of browning events on key ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, field sites were chosen in central and northern Norway and in Svalbard, in areas known to have been affected by either climatic extremes or insect outbreak and subsequent browning in the past four years. Sites were chosen along a latitudinal gradient to capture both conditions already causing vegetation browning throughout the Norwegian Arctic, and conditions currently common at lower latitudes which are likely to become more damaging further North as climate change progresses. At each site the response of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange to light was measured using a LiCor LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis system and a custom vegetation chamber with

  2. 6种杀虫剂对水稻褐飞虱田间种群的毒力及控制作用%Toxicity and Efficacy of Six Insecticides on Field Population of Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱良妙; 林仁魁; 吴玮; 占志雄

    2011-01-01

    2009~2010年,采用稻秆浸渍接虫法,测定了福建省3个地区的褐飞虱田间种群对6种杀虫剂的敏感性并进行抗性分析,在仙游县晚稻田褐飞虱初孵若虫始盛期,采用喷雾法对6种药剂的田间控制作用进行了研究,结果表明:同一个种群的褐飞虱若虫对同一种药剂的敏感性随着虫龄的增加而降低;烯啶虫胺对不同地理种群的褐飞虱若虫均表现出最高的毒力,对3地种群的褐飞虱2龄、3龄、4~5龄若虫的LC50分别为0.9417~1.0167 mg·L-1、1.1872~1.3410mg·L-1、1.6102~1.9370 mg·L-1,异丙威的毒力最低,对3地种群的褐飞虱2龄、3龄、4~5龄若虫的LC50分别为37.118 3~46.733 5 mg·L-1、45.924 1~56.950 4 mg·L-1、50.9938~70.1912 mg·L-1;抗性分析表明,福州市褐飞虱种群对吡虫啉达高抗水平,龙海市和仙游县种群达极高抗水平,3个不同地点的褐飞虱种群对噻虫嗪、噻嗪酮、异丙威均为中等抗性水平,对烯啶虫胺均处于敏感阶段;田间控制作用试验结果表明,6种供试药剂中,以烯啶虫胺和异丙威的速效性最好,持效性则以烯啶虫胺和吡蚜酮的最好;在田间褐飞虱初孵若虫发生始盛期,用吡虫啉(a.i.) 30~45g ·hm-2剂量喷雾,施药后3~7d内可以有效控制褐飞虱的为害,但在吡虫啉对褐飞虱的防治效果明显下降及较高抗性等问题的情况下,不宜再继续长期大量地使用吡虫啉防治褐1飞虱,应制定进行合理轮换用药的抗性治理策略,防止褐飞虱抗性快速发展及种群大暴发,烯啶虫胺和吡蚜酮是作为替代吡虫啉或轮换使用的理想药剂.%The stem-dipping of rice stalks was used to determine the susceptibility of Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) to 6 insecticides. Different field populations collected from 3 regions in Fujian from 2009 to 2010 were used for the study. The experiment was conducted by spraying the insecticides during the beginning of the peak N. Lugens

  3. Between brown and white: novel aspects of adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Saverio

    2011-03-01

    In all mammals including humans, most white and brown adipocytes are found together in visceral and subcutaneous depots (adipose organ) despite the well known difference in their function, respectively of storing energy and producing heat. A growing body of evidence suggests that the reason for such anatomical arrangement is their plasticity, which under appropriate stimulation allows direct conversion of one cell type into the other. In conditions of chronic cold exposure white-to-brown conversion meets the need for thermogenesis, whereas an obesogenic diet induces brown-to-white conversion to meet the need for storing energy. White-to-brown transdifferentiation is of medical interest, because the brown phenotype of the adipose organ is associated to obesity resistance, and drugs inducing this phenotype curb murine obesity and related disorders. Type 2 diabetes is the most common disorder associated to visceral obesity. Macrophages infiltrating the adipose organ are responsible for the low-grade chronic inflammation related to the removal of dead adipocytes, which leads to insulin resistance and T2 diabetes. Adipocyte death is closely related to their growth up to the critical death size. The critical death size of visceral adipocytes is smaller than that of subcutaneous adipocytes, likely accounting for the greater morbidity related to visceral fat. PMID:21254898

  4. Can brown dwarfs survive on close orbits around convective stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, Cilia

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs straddle the mass range transition from planetary to stellar objects. There is a relative paucity of brown dwarfs companions around FGKM stars compared to exoplanets for orbital periods less than a few years, but most of the short-period brown dwarf companions fully characterised by transits and radial velocities are found around F-type stars. We examine the hypothesis that brown dwarf companions could not survive on close orbit around stars with important convective envelopes because the tides and angular momentum loss through magnetic breaking should lead to a rapid orbital decay and quick engulfment of the companion. We use a classical Skumanich-type braking law, and constant time-lag tidal theory to assess the characteristic timescale for orbital decay for the brown dwarf mass range as a function of the host properties. We find that F-type stars may host massive companions for a significantly longer time than G-type stars for a given orbital period, which may explain the paucity of G-type hos...

  5. Breaking BAT: can browning create a better white?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Mittag, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities are a growing problem worldwide. In consequence, several new strategies have been proposed to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that certain populations of white adipocytes can be 'browned', i.e., recruited to a more brown-like adipocyte, capable of thermogenesis through increased expression of uncoupling protein 1. The list of browning agents that induce these so-called beige adipocytes is growing constantly. However, the underlying mechanisms are often poorly understood, with the possibility that some of these agents cause browning as a secondary effect. Moreover, it remains unclear whether beige adipocytes can contribute sufficiently to affect whole-body energy expenditure in a functionally significant manner. This review presents an overview of the different molecular pathways leading to the induction of beige fat, including direct stimulation and indirect actions on the CNS or the immune system. We discuss the available evidence on the capacity of beige adipocytes to influence whole-body energy expenditure in rodents, and lastly outline the potential problems of translating browning capacity into the potential treatment of human metabolic diseases. PMID:26450134

  6. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  7. Herschel survey of brown dwarf disks in Rho Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, C Alves; Marton, G; Pinte, C; Kiss, Cs; Kun, M; Kóspál, Á; André, Ph; Könyves, V

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of the Rho Ophiuchi cluster with the Herschel Space Observatory allow us to probe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the brown dwarf population in the far-IR, where the disk emission peaks. We performed aperture photometry at 70, 100, and 160 micron, and constructed SEDs for all previously known brown dwarfs detected. These were complemented with ancillary photometry at shorter wavelengths. We compared the observed SEDs to a grid of synthetic disks produced with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and used the relative figure of merit estimated from the Bayesian inference of each disk parameter to analyse the structural properties. We detected 12 Class II brown dwarfs with Herschel, which corresponds to one-third of all currently known brown dwarf members of Rho Ophiuchi. We do not detect any of the known Class III brown dwarfs. Comparison to models reveals that the disks are best described by an inner radius between 0.01 and 0.07 AU, and a flared disk geometry with a flaring index ...

  8. 中国农业昆虫基因组学研究概况与展望%Current Research Status and Prospects of Genomes of Insects Important to Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传溪

    2015-01-01

    Insects are the largest class of all living things with overwhelming diversity in the earth. Many of them are of agricultural importance: serious crop pests or beneficial insects. Modern entomological researches are more and more relying on information obtained from different insect genomes and transcriptomes since Drosophila melanogaster genome being sequenced in 2000. To better understand insect biology and transform our ability to manage insects that threaten our health, food supply, and economic security and to use beneficial insects that are essential to the maintenance and productivity of natural and agricultural ecosystems or provide us with silk, honey, medicine and other insect products, we need to know their genomic and transcriptomic information. Up to date, genomes of more than 50 insect species have been sequenced and analyzed around the world, and genomes of five insects of agricultural importance, including the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori), the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis), the fig wasp (Ceratosolen solmsi) and the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), have been analyzed during the past decade in China, and genome sequencing for several agricultural insects including the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), the oriental leafworm moth (Spodoptera litura), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the white backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera), the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellu) and several parasite wasps, are in progress. Transcriptomes of the whiteflyand brown planthopper were reported in China in 2010, first two insect transciptomes reported in the world. Hundreds of insect transcriptomes have been reported in China since that year. Many important progresses in the functional genomics of the silkworm, the locust and the brown planthopper have been achieved, including the resequencing of 40 varieties of silkworm genomes which revealed domestication events and

  9. 中国农业昆虫基因组学研究概况与展望%Current Research Status and Prospects of Genomes of Insects Important to Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传溪

    2015-01-01

    Insects are the largest class of all living things with overwhelming diversity in the earth. Many of them are of agricultural importance: serious crop pests or beneficial insects. Modern entomological researches are more and more relying on information obtained from different insect genomes and transcriptomes since Drosophila melanogaster genome being sequenced in 2000. To better understand insect biology and transform our ability to manage insects that threaten our health, food supply, and economic security and to use beneficial insects that are essential to the maintenance and productivity of natural and agricultural ecosystems or provide us with silk, honey, medicine and other insect products, we need to know their genomic and transcriptomic information. Up to date, genomes of more than 50 insect species have been sequenced and analyzed around the world, and genomes of five insects of agricultural importance, including the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori), the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis), the fig wasp (Ceratosolen solmsi) and the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), have been analyzed during the past decade in China, and genome sequencing for several agricultural insects including the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), the oriental leafworm moth (Spodoptera litura), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the white backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera), the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellu) and several parasite wasps, are in progress. Transcriptomes of the whiteflyand brown planthopper were reported in China in 2010, first two insect transciptomes reported in the world. Hundreds of insect transcriptomes have been reported in China since that year. Many important progresses in the functional genomics of the silkworm, the locust and the brown planthopper have been achieved, including the resequencing of 40 varieties of silkworm genomes which revealed domestication events and

  10. On the properties of discs around accreting brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    We present a grid of models of accreting brown dwarf systems with circumstellar discs. The calculations involve a self-consistent solution of both vertical hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium along with a sophisticated treatment of dust sublimation. We have simulated observations of the spectral energy distributions and several broadband photometric systems. Analysis of the disc structures and simulated observations reveal a natural dichotomy in accretion rates, with \\logmdot $>-$9 and $\\leq -$9 classed as extreme and typical accretors respectively. Derivation of ages and masses from our simulated photometry using isochrones is demonstrated to be unreliable even for typical accretors. Although current brown dwarf disc candidate selection criteria have been shown to be largely reliable when applied to our model grid we suggest improved selection criteria in several colour indices. We show that as accretion rates increase brown dwarf disc systems are less likely to be correctly identified. This suggests that,...

  11. A global cloud map of the nearest known brown dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Crossfield, I J M; Schlieder, J E; Deacon, N R; Bonnefoy, M; Homeier, D; Allard, F; Buenzli, E; Henning, Th; Brandner, W; Goldman, B; Kopytova, T

    2014-01-01

    Brown dwarfs -- substellar bodies more massive than planets but not massive enough to initiate the sustained hydrogen fusion that powers self-luminous stars -- are born hot and slowly cool as they age. As they cool below about 2,300 K, liquid or crystalline particles composed of calcium aluminates, silicates and iron condense into atmospheric 'dust', which disappears at still cooler temperatures (around 1,300 K). Models to explain this dust dispersal include both an abrupt sinking of the entire cloud deck into the deep, unob- servable atmosphere and breakup of the cloud into scattered patches (as seen on Jupiter and Saturn). Thus far, observations of brown dwarfs have been limited to globally integrated measurements, which can reveal surface inhomogeneities but cannot unambiguously resolve surface features. Here we report a two-dimensional map of a brown dwarf's surface that allows identification of large-scale bright and dark features, indicative of patchy clouds.

  12. Halo dark clusters of brown dwarfs and molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Jetzer, Ph; Roncadelli, M; 10.1086/305692

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) in microlensing experiments makes it compelling to understand their physical nature, as well as their formation mechanism. Within the present uncertainties, brown dwarfs are a viable candidate for MACHOs, and the present paper deals with this option. According to a recently proposed scenario, brown dwarfs are clumped along with cold molecular clouds into dark clusters -- in several respects similar to globular clusters -- which form in the outer part of the galactic halo. Here, we analyze the dynamics of these dark clusters and we address the possibility that a sizable fraction of MACHOs can be binary brown dwarfs. Moreover, we point out that Ly-$\\alpha$ absorption systems naturally fit within the present picture.

  13. Organic contaminants in thermal plume resident brown trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study was conducted to identify possible contaminants accumulated by thermal plume-resident fish in Lake Michigan. Brown trout were maintained in tanks receiving intake and discharge (less than or equal to 210C) water from a power plant and were fed a diet of frozen alewife. Fish were sampled over a period of 127 days in order to estimate uptake rates and equilibrium levels for toxic organic and inorganic materials occurring in Lake Michigan fish and water. Experimental fish and natural samples were analyzed to determine the distribution of contaminants in various tissues and the corresponding pollutant levels in similar size brown trout from Lake Michigan. The quantitative analyses for the major organic contaminants are summarized. Without exception, the pyloric caecum of brown trout contained the highest concentration of lipids, PCB's, and chlorinated pesticides. Gill and kidney samples contained lower concentrations of contaminants than the caecum, while liver and muscle values were lowest

  14. Adaptive Optics Observations of Exoplanets, Brown Dwarfs, & Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkley, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    The current direct observations of brown dwarfs and exoplanets have been obtained using instruments not specifically designed for overcoming the large contrast ratio between the host star and any wide-separation faint companions. However, we are about to witness the birth of several new dedicated observing platforms specifically geared towards high contrast imaging of these objects. The Gemini Planet Imager, VLT-SPHERE, Subaru HiCIAO, and Project 1640 at the Palomar 5m telescope will return images of numerous exoplanets and brown dwarfs over hundreds of observing nights in the next five years. Along with diffraction-limited coronagraphs and high-order adaptive optics, these instruments also will return spectral and polarimetric information on any discovered targets, giving clues to their atmospheric compositions and characteristics. Such spectral characterization will be key to forming a detailed theory of comparative exoplanetary science which will be widely applicable to both exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Fu...

  15. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  16. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented. PMID:26333689

  17. Refined exposure assessment of Brown HT (E 155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA carried out an exposure assessment of Brown HT (E 155 taking into account additional information on its use in foods as consumed. In 2010, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS adopted a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of Brown HT and concluded that dietary exposure in both adults and 1-10 year old children at the high level may exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI for Brown HT of 1.5 mg/kg body weight (bw/day at the upper end of the range. Following this conclusion, the European Commission requested EFSA to perform a refined exposure assessment for this food colour. Data on the presence of Brown HT in foods were requested from relevant stakeholders through a call for usage and concentration data. Usage levels were provided to EFSA for six out of 37 food categories in which Brown HT is authorised. A limited number of analytical results were also reported to EFSA, all below the limit of detection (LOD or limit of quantification (LOQ. Exposure assessment was performed using the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. Three different scenarios were considered, including i exposure estimates based on Maximum Permitted Levels (MPLs, ii a combination of MPLs and reported maximum use levels and iii reported maximum use levels only. Considering the first two scenarios, high exposure levels (95th percentile exceeded the ADI for all age groups, with exception for the elderly. In comparison to the previous assessment, for both children and adults, the current mean exposure estimates are of the same order of magnitude, while the 95th percentile exposure is lower, particularly in adults. The mean and high level exposure estimates of Brown HT are below the ADI for all population groups when considering the reported use levels only.

  18. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  19. Regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by myostatin/follistatin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan eSingh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops from perturbations of cellular bioenergetics, when energy uptake exceeds energy expenditure, and represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT has long been known to dissipate energy as heat and contribute to energy expenditure, but its presence and physiological role in adult human physiology has been questioned for years. Recent demonstrations of metabolically active brown fat depots in adult humans have revolutionized current therapeutic approaches for obesity-related diseases. The balance between white adipose tissue (WAT and BAT affects the systemic energy balance and is widely believed to be the key determinant in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily play an important role in regulating overall energy homeostasis by modulation of brown adipocyte characteristics. Inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3/myostatin (Mst signaling promotes browning of white adipocytes, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and protects mice from diet-induced obesity, suggesting the need for development of a novel class of TGF-β/Mst antagonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. We recently described an important role of follistatin (Fst, a soluble glycoprotein that is known to bind and antagonize Mst actions, during brown fat differentiation and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here we highlight various investigations performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to support the contention that targeting TGF-β/Mst signaling enhances brown adipocyte functions and regulates energy balance, reducing insulin resistance and curbing the development of obesity and diabetes.

  20. On the Symbolism in Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The symbolism in Hawthorne’s short stories is very typical. This paper mainly discusses the use of symbolism in his Young Goodman Brown with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the whole story. Its title, the protagonist ’s name, color of brown, pink, and black, some images such as characters, surroundings and the plot of the whole story have abundant sym-bolic implication. By analyzing the story and the writing methods of symbolism, we can see the theme of Hawthorne ’s stories clearly. Hawthorne reveals that“Evil is the nature of mankind”by the use of these images.

  1. Can brown dwarfs survive on close orbits around convective stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, C.; Díaz, R. F.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The mass range of brown dwarfs extends across the planetary domain to stellar objects. There is a relative paucity of brown dwarfs companions around FGKM-type stars compared to exoplanets for orbital periods of less than a few years, but most of the short-period brown dwarf companions that are fully characterised by transits and radial velocities are found around F-type stars. Aims: We examine the hypothesis that brown dwarf companions could not survive on close orbit around stars with important convective envelopes because the tides and angular momentum loss, the result of magnetic braking, would lead to a rapid orbital decay with the companion being quickly engulfed. Methods: We use a classical Skumanich-type braking law and constant time-lag tidal theory to assess the characteristic timescale for orbital decay for the brown dwarf mass range as a function of the host properties. Results: We find that F-type stars may host massive companions for a significantly longer time than G-type stars for a given orbital period, which may explain the paucity of G-type hosts for brown dwarfs with an orbital period less than five days. On the other hand, we show that the small radius of early M-type stars contributes to orbital decay timescales that are only half those of F-type stars, despite their more efficient tidal dissipation and magnetic braking. For fully convective later type M-dwarfs, orbital decay timescales could be orders of magnitude greater than for F-type stars. Moreover, we find that, for a wide range of values of tidal dissipation efficiency and magnetic braking, it is safe to assume that orbital decay for massive companions can be neglected for orbital periods greater than ten days. Conclusions: For orbital periods greater than ten days, brown dwarf occurrence should largely be unaffected by tidal decay, whatever the mass of the host. On closer orbital periods, the rapid engulfment of massive companions could explain the lack of G and K-type hosts

  2. Study On Extrusion Technological Parameters Of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongyi; Zhou Xianqing; Ling Lizhong

    2001-01-01

    Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-s of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusion parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water soluble index and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factor and response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimal parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisture nrice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  3. Non-equilibrium chemistry in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Saumon, D S; Freedman, R S; Lodders, K

    2002-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and ammonia have been detected in the spectrum of Gl 229B at abundances that differ substantially from those obtained from chemical equilibrium. Vertical mixing in the atmosphere is a mechanism that can drive slowly reacting species out of chemical equilibrium. We explore the effects of vertical mixing as a function of mixing efficiency and effective temperature on the chemical abundances in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and on their spectra. The models compare favorably with the observational evidence and indicate that vertical mixing plays an important role in brown dwarf atmospheres.

  4. Antiviral polysaccharides isolated from Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hui; OOI; Engchoon; Vincent; ANG; Put; O; Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Two relatively pure polysaccharides H3-a1 and H3-b1 had been isolated from the brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus. They were characterized by HPLC, ultraviolet scanning, gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and shown to be two different sulfated polysaccharides with different monosaccharide content, but both with high relative molecular mass. They contained some proteins and uronic acid respectively. The sulfate content and bioactivity of these polysaccharides varied during purification. The fractions derived from the hot water extract also exhibited low anticoagulant effect. This is the first time that the antiherpetic and anticoagulant activities were evaluated for the polysaccharides from the Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus.

  5. Have we entered the brown adipose tissue renaissance?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravussin, E.; Kozak, L P

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, it was observed that rodents could offset excess calories ingested when they were fed a human-like `cafeteria diet'. Although it was erroneously concluded that this so-called diet-induced thermogenesis was because of brown adipose tissue (BAT), it led to efforts to test whether variations in brown fat in humans may explain the susceptibility to obesity. However, from evidence on the inability of ephedrine or beta-3 adrenergic agonists to induce BAT thermogenesis, it wa...

  6. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    OpenAIRE

    Emiel Beijer; Janna Schoenmakers; Guy Vijgen; Fons Kessels; Anne-Marie Dingemans; Patrick Schrauwen; Miel Wouters; Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt; Jaap Teule; Boudewijn Brans

    2012-01-01

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activ...

  7. 高温处理后褐飞虱体内共生酵母菌和氨基酸需求的变化%The effects of high temperature on both yeast-like symbionts and amino acid requirements of Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅强; 张志涛; 胡萃; 赖凤香

    2001-01-01

    对卵期高温(35℃,72 h)处理后褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens体内共生酵母菌及该虫氨基酸需求的变化进行了研究,结果表明:1)卵期高温处理后,若虫期体内的共生酵母菌数量明显低于正常对照试虫;2)将若虫饲养于缺少单种氨基酸的22种全纯饲料上,以若虫羽化率为指标,发现高温处理试虫对组氨酸、赖氨酸、亮氨酸、异亮氨酸、苏氨酸、缬氨酸、苯丙氨酸和色氨酸等8种必需氨基酸的需求明显增加.由此推论,褐飞虱对上述8种必需氨基酸的需求与共生酵母菌有关.

  8. A new era in brown adipose tissue biology: molecular control of brown fat development and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Shingo; Saito, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat as a defense against cold and excessive feeding. Interest in the field of BAT biology has exploded in the past few years because of the therapeutic potential of BAT to counteract obesity and obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance. Much progress has been made, particularly in the areas of BAT physiology in adult humans, developmental lineages of brown adipose cell fate, and hormonal control of BAT thermogenesis. As we enter into a new era of brown fat biology, the next challenge will be to develop strategies for activating BAT thermogenesis in adult humans to increase whole-body energy expenditure. This article reviews the recent major advances in this field and discusses emerging questions. PMID:24188710

  9. DNA DAMAGE AND EXTERNAL LESIONS IN BROWN BULLHEAD FROM CONTAMINATED HABITATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The single cell gel electrophoresis ("Comet") assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River, Ashtabula River, and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod), with brown bullheads collected...

  10. Cellular origins of cold-induced brown adipocytes in adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Petkova, Anelia P.; Konkar, Anish A.; Granneman, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated how cold stress induces the appearance of brown adipocytes (BAs) in brown and white adipose tissues (WATs) of adult mice. In interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), cold exposure increased proliferation of endothelial cells and interstitial cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor, α polypeptide (PDGFRα) by 3- to 4-fold. Surprisingly, brown adipogenesis and angiogenesis were largely restricted to the dorsal edge of iBAT. Although cold stress did not i...

  11. Kinetics of Nonenzymatic Browning Reaction in Citrus Juice Concentrates during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    KOCA, Nuray; BURDURLU, Hande Selen; KARADENİZ, Feryal

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of nonenzymatic browning in citrus juice concentrates (orange, lemon, grapefruit and tangerine) during 8 weeks of storage at 28, 37 and 45 ºC were investigated. Browning development was followed by measuring absorbance at 420 nm (A420) and using CIE-Lab color system. Analysis of kinetic data from A420 values suggested a zero-order reaction for nonenzymatic browning, while changes in L* and b* parameters followed a first-order reaction. Activation energy for nonenzymatic browning...

  12. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, J.; Stirling, I.; Kistler, L.; Salamzade, R.; Ersmark, E.; Fulton, T.; Stiller, M.; Green, R.; Shapiro, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear...

  13. File list: Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX800014,SRX978690,SRX978689,SRX978688,SRX800019 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown preadipocyte...058,SRX341056,SRX478161 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...es SRX341031,SRX341032,SRX341029,SRX341030 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X185879,SRX978689,SRX978688,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown preadipocyte...782,SRX341056,SRX478161 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX978689,SRX800015,SRX800014,SRX800018,SRX800019 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...341766,SRX341418,SRX341023,SRX341419,SRX341767 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...es SRX341031,SRX341032,SRX341029,SRX341030 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...es SRX341031,SRX341032,SRX341029,SRX341030 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X978688,SRX800019,SRX478163,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes...RX341419,SRX341767,SRX341421,SRX478161,SRX341039,SRX341040 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes...RX341420,SRX478161,SRX478160,SRX341040,SRX341041,SRX341039 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX800019,SRX978691,SRX978690,SRX978689,SRX978688 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX4...78163,SRX143805,SRX185879 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes...RX341044,SRX341420,SRX341421,SRX341046,SRX478161,SRX341027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...341028,SRX341760,SRX341767,SRX341763,SRX341027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 No description Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...es http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  16. File list: NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 No description Adipocyte Brown adipocytes htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X800018,SRX800019,SRX185797,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes...RX341420,SRX341421,SRX341046,SRX478161,SRX341027,SRX478160 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Histone Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes SRX3...RX341420,SRX341421,SRX341046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  1. File list: NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 No description Adipocyte Brown adipocytes htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Histone Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes SRX3...RX341421,SRX341039,SRX341040 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 No description Adipocyte Brown adipocytes htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  5. Distribution of Brown Blotch Bacteria in Wild and Cultivated Species of Basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bessette, Alan E.

    1984-01-01

    Wild and cultivated Basidiomycetes species were cultured to determine the distribution of bacteria causing brown blotch disease of Agaricus bisporus. Colonies from each basidiocarp were screened for brown blotch organisms by the white line and host pathogenicity tests. Isolates causing brown blotch were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasi and an Arthrobacter species.

  6. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The spatia

  7. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

  8. Copy Number Variation in Brown Swiss Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolezal, Marlies A; Bagnato, Alessandro; Schiavini, F;

    . The objective of this study was to perform a high resolution genome scan for CNV, in a sample of 20 Brown Swiss dairy cattle bulls based on ~20x Illumina whole genome sesequencing data. Employing CNVnator for variant discovery, we present descriptive statistics for the CNVs detected and define...

  9. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter...

  10. Brown adipocyte differentiation is regulated by hedgehog signaling during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    During development, brown fat tissue arises from mesenchymal precursor cells under the control of signaling networks that are not yet well understood. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the major signaling pathways that regulate mesenchymal cell fate. However, whether the Hh pathway contr...

  11. EVIDENCE FOR CLEAVAGE OF LIGNIN BY A BROWN ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradation by brown-rot fungi is quantitatively one of the most important fates of lignocellulose in nature. It has long been thought that these fungi do not degrade lignin significantly, and that their activities on this abundant aromatic biopolymer are limited to minor oxidative modifications....

  12. William Faulkner: No Friend of Brown v. Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, Carol

    2001-01-01

    In the years following the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision to integrate America's public schools, William Faulkner, Norman Mailer, Hannah Arendt, Robert Penn Warren, and, to a lesser extent, C. Vann Woodward, provided intellectual sustenance to southern efforts to resist racial integration. Focuses on Faulkner's political…

  13. Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...

  14. Public School Administration and "Brown v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews educational initiatives of state and federal government that were designed to remedy the effects of racial segregation on Black public school students in the United States after the famous "Brown v. Board of Education" decisions. Several policy and legal initiatives are reviewed, including school desegregation, compensatory…

  15. Beyond brown: polyphenol oxidases as enzymes of plant specialized metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most cloned and/or characterized plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have catecholase activity (i.e., they oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones) and are localized or predicted to be localized to plastids. As a class, they have broad substrate specificity and are associated with browning of produce and oth...

  16. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  17. A Stock Pricing Model Based on Arithmetic Brown Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yong-xin; HAN Wen-xiu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new stock pricing model based on arithmetic Brown motion. The model overcomes the shortcomings of Gordon model completely. With the model investors can estimate the stock value of surplus companies, deficit companies, zero increase companies and bankrupt companies in long term investment or in short term investment.

  18. A Vignette of an American Sporting Sculptor: Joseph D. Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, David A.

    In this lecture, about sixty of the more important small and large sports sculptures and medals of Professor Joseph D. Brown are discussed and illustrated through the use of 35mm color slides. A brief description of the sculptor's life, interests, and philosophy of sport is also given. (MB)

  19. User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

  20. Good Guys Finish Last: "Tom Brown's School Days" and "Flashman."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Frank P.

    Instructors and students of literature should look to George McDonald Fraser's "Flashman: From the Flashman Papers, 1839-1842" for a clever critique of 19th-century notions of character, virtue, and moral teleology. Written to criticize Thomas Hughes's famous 19th-century novel, "Tom Brown's School Days," Fraser's 20th-century novel turns on end…

  1. Browne's Capgas Delusion: The Destruction of the Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holligan, Chris; Chiang, Kuang-Hsu

    2011-01-01

    The recent publication of the UK government's Browne Review 2010 on university and student funding signifies a massive step towards embedding capitalist free-market consumerist values and practices into UK higher education. This paper critically examines that paradigm shift away from public sector provision from the perspective of French Theory,…

  2. "Brown" at 62: School Segregation by Race, Poverty and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary; Ee, Jongyeon; Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    As the anniversary of "Brown v. Board of Education" decision arrives again without any major initiatives to mitigate spreading and deepening segregation in the nation's schools, the Civil Rights Project adds to a growing national discussion with a research brief drawn from a much broader study of school segregation to be published in…

  3. Using Clustering Algorithms to Identify Brown Dwarf Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choban, Caleb

    2016-06-01

    Brown dwarfs are stars that are not massive enough to sustain core hydrogen fusion, and thus fade and cool over time. The molecular composition of brown dwarf atmospheres can be determined by observing absorption features in their infrared spectrum, which can be quantified using spectral indices. Comparing these indices to one another, we can determine what kind of brown dwarf it is, and if it is young or metal-poor. We explored a new method for identifying these subgroups through the expectation-maximization machine learning clustering algorithm, which provides a quantitative and statistical way of identifying index pairs which separate rare populations. We specifically quantified two statistics, completeness and concentration, to identify the best index pairs. Starting with a training set, we defined selection regions for young, metal-poor and binary brown dwarfs, and tested these on a large sample of L dwarfs. We present the results of this analysis, and demonstrate that new objects in these classes can be found through these methods.

  4. Proteomics analysis of heterogeneous flagella in brown algae (stramenopiles).

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Gang; Nagasato, Chikako; Oka, Seiko; Cock, J. Mark; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    International audience Flagella are conserved organelles among eukaryotes and they are composed of many proteins, which are necessary for flagellar assembly, maintenance and function. Stramenopiles, which include brown algae, diatoms and oomycetes, possess two laterally inserted flagella. The anterior flagellum (AF) extends forward and bears tripartite mastigonemes, whilst the smooth posterior flagellum (PF) often has a paraflagellar body structure. These heterogeneous flagella have served...

  5. Primary hyperparathyroidism with rare presentation as multiple brown tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Doshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism with an uncommon presentation as multiple brown tumours, which may easily be mistaken for a primary bone neoplasm. A brief literature review and its clinical and surgical management are also discussed here.

  6. Some Direct Gillnet Selectivity Tests for Brown Trout Populations

    OpenAIRE

    O Grady, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Direct gillnet selectivity tests for introduced brown trout populations in three Irish lakes are outlined. The net gangs and netting procedure utilised are described. Data indicates that the gear used was capable of capturing a random cross section of a trout stock in the length frequency range 19.8 to 47.7 centimetres.

  7. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Hofstede, ter R.; Winter, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher

  8. Environmental impacts of brown coal surface mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 9 contributions, out of which 2 have been inputted in INIS. These are concerned with the impacts of mining in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Mining District on the air quality and public health, and with the effect of mined-out land reclamation on the environment. (M.D.). 8 tabs., 5 figs., 6 refs

  9. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbeé, J.F.P.; Boon, M.R.; Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Bartelt, A.; Schlein, C.; Worthmann, A.; Kooijman, S.; Hoeke, G.; Mol, I.M.; John, C.; Jung, C.; Vazirpanah, N.; Brouwers, L.P.J.; Gordts, P.L.S.M.; Esko, J.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Scheja, L.; Heeren, J.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by b3-adrenergic rece

  10. Brown Fat and the Myth of Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Leslie P.

    2010-01-01

    The notion that brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice or humans maintains energy balance by burning off excess calories seems incompatible with evolutionary biology. Studies in obese rats and mice lacking UCP1 indicate that diet-induced thermogenesis by BAT is unlikely.

  11. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  12. Development trends in the Lusatian brown coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusatia has lived on and with brown coal for over 200 years. Brown coal changed what was once a region in which forestry and agriculture predominated into an industrial region. Thanks to its good combustion properties and high energy yield brown coal very soon became known and popular. It was always the driving force for a rapid development which resulted in an economically sound and technically up-to-date industry in Lusatia. This powerful status of brown coal was however soon exploited for aims which were bound to lead to the downfall of two social structures (during the years from 1933 to 1990) by reason of a regime of unconditional autarchy. The economic and technical development thus initiated certainly brought many advantages, but it also had serious diadvantages. Constant increases in production, as a result of which planned rated outputs were intentionally disregarded, were the rule because production targets had to be met or exceeded. Economic inefficiency led to a scarcity of labour and a shortage of finances. Environmental aims had no priority since production was the absolute, primary objective. Consequently, this regime of economic autarchy ended in an one-way street as far as industry was concerned, a situation which was accompanied by an unexampled destruction of the natural basic living conditions and direct, threatening health hazards to man and nature. The year 1990 saw the beginning of the transition from planned controlled economy to free market economy. The reorganization of the former large combines as corporations was not however merely a formal change, but internally also represented a transformation. The brown coal mining industry manifested its new intention and determination to be economically competitive and unsubsidized in future, to operate in such a way as to be compatible with the environment and to exploit reserves carefully, as well as to render its activities socially compatible. (orig.)

  13. Severe Brown Fat Lipoatrophy Aggravates Atherosclerotic Process in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Óscar; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Benito, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of the adipose organ to vascular inflammation. Brown fat lipoatrophy induces visceral adiposity, mainly in gonadal depot (gonadal white adipose tissue [gWAT]), severe glucose intolerance, high postprandial glucose levels, and a severe defect in acute insulin secretion. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice showed greater hypertriglyceridemia than the obtained in ApoE(-/-) and hypercholesterolemia similar to ApoE(-/-) mice. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice, in addition to primary insulin resistance in BAT, also showed a significant decrease in insulin signaling in liver, gWAT, heart, aorta artery, and thoracic PVAT. More importantly, our results suggest that severe brown fat lipoatrophy aggravates the atherosclerotic process, characterized by a significant increase of lipid depots, atherosclerotic coverage, lesion size and complexity, increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory markers expression. Finally, an increase of TNF-α and leptin as well as a decrease of adiponectin by BAT, gWAT, and thoracic PVAT might also be responsible of vascular damage. Our results suggest that severe brown lipoatrophy aggravates atherosclerotic process. Thus, BAT activation might protect against obesity and its associated metabolic alterations. PMID:27414981

  14. Brown trout and food web interactions in a Minnesota stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2007-01-01

    1. We examined indirect, community-level interactions in a stream that contained non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus), native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) and native slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus Richardson). Our objectives were to examine benthic invertebrate composition and prey selection of fishes (measured by total invertebrate dry mass, dry mass of individual invertebrate taxa and relative proportion of invertebrate taxa in the benthos and diet) among treatments (no fish, juvenile brook trout alone, juvenile brown trout alone, sculpin with brook trout and sculpin with brown trout). 2. We assigned treatments to 1 m2 enclosures/exclosures placed in riffles in Valley Creek, Minnesota, and conducted six experimental trials. We used three designs of fish densities (addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with unequal numbers of trout and sculpin; addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with equal numbers of trout and sculpin; and replacement of half the sculpin with an equal number of trout) to investigate the relative strength of interspecific versus intraspecific interactions. 3. Presence of fish (all three species, alone or in combined-species treatments) was not associated with changes in total dry mass of benthic invertebrates or shifts in relative abundance of benthic invertebrate taxa, regardless of fish density design. 4. Brook trout and sculpin diets did not change when each species was alone compared with treatments of both species together. Likewise, we did not find evidence for shifts in brown trout or sculpin diets when each species was alone or together. 5. We suggest that native brook trout and non-native brown trout fill similar niches in Valley Creek. We did not find evidence that either species had an effect on stream communities, potentially due to high invertebrate productivity in Valley Creek. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Prevention of enzymatic browning of yacon flour by the combined use of anti-browning agents and the study of its chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Romero Lopes Rodrigues; Eduardo Ramirez Asquieri; Daniela Castilho Orsi

    2014-01-01

    Yacon roots present functional properties because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are considered as prebiotic fibers. In addition, yacon roots are rich in phenolic compounds. During the processing of yacon, the freshly cut surface undergoes rapid enzymatic browning. Control of enzymatic browning during processing is very important to preserve the appearance of yacon flour. In this study, it was evaluated the combined effect of anti-browning agents (ascorbic acid, cit...

  16. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  17. The role of various amino acids in enzymatic browning process in potato tubers, and identifying the browning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of five structurally variant amino acids, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine and cysteine were examined as inhibitors and/or stimulators of fresh-cut potato browning. The first four amino acids showed conflict effects; high concentrations (⩾ 100mM for glycine and ⩾ 1.0M for the other three amino acids) induced potato browning while lower concentrations reduced the browning process. Alternatively, increasing cysteine concentration consistently reduced the browning process due to reaction with quinone to give colorless adduct. In PPO assay, high concentrations (⩾ 1.11 mM) of the four amino acids developed more color than that of control samples. Visible spectra indicated a continuous condensation of quinone and glycine to give colored adducts absorbed at 610-630 nm which were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS as catechol-diglycine adduct that undergoes polymerization with other glycine molecules to form peptide side chains. In lower concentrations, the less concentration the less developed color was observed. PMID:26304424

  18. Brown's transport up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effect by artificial intelligence, outputting automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  19. Flash ionisation signature in coherent cyclotron emission from Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Vorgul, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in form of lightning resulting in a substantial sudden increase of local ionisation. Brown dwarfs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionisation events (flash ionisation) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionisation events will open investigations into the ionisation state and atmospheric dynamics. Such ionisation events can also result from explosion shock waves, bursts or eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionisation events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the loca...

  20. Fixation of radiocaesium in an acid brown forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of clay minerals and organic matter on the sorption and desorption of radiocaesium in an acid brown forest soil is investigated. A highly selective adsorption of radiocaesium is often reported in the surface horizons of acid forest soils. For this reason, soil humus is often considered as a key parameter in modelling the behaviour of Cs in these soils. The Ca2+-clay fractions, extracted from the surface hemi-organic horizon and the deeper mineral horizons of an acid brown soil, exhibit similarly high Cs+ sorption properties. Desorption yields are much lower in the surface layers, resulting in higher net retention of radiocaesium. Organic matter dynamics in the soil containing Hydroxy Interlayered Vermiculite minerals has an indirect effect on radiocaesium retention properties through Al complexation by organic acids. Acidocomplexolysis of Hydroxy Interlayered Vermiculitic clays results in the formation of degraded vermiculite in the topsoil layers, inducing a larger amount of high charged interlayer sites for Cs+ specific adsorption

  1. Multiple brown tumors of the jaws in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentisity, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Brown tumor is usually diagnosed at the terminal stage of hyperparathyroidism. Diagnosis of this tumor is confirmed by endocrinologic investigations along with clinical and radiographic examination. Radiographical differential diagnosis of this tumor includes central giant cell granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, metastatic tumor, multiple myeloma, and Paget disease. This report presents a rare case of multiple brown tumors occurring at the maxilla and mandible, which was initially misdiagnosed as central giant cell granuloma. Plain radiographs demonstrated multiple well-defined multilocular radiolucency. CT images showed soft tissue mass with low attenuated lesions, perforation of the lingual cortical plate, and a heterogeneous mass at the right thyroid lobe. These findings were consistent with parathyroid adenoma. The patient had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated alkaline phosphatase level. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed. No recurrence was observed during a 28-month follow-up.

  2. Atmospheric Circulation of Brown Dwarfs: Jets, Vortices, and Time Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprising east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by isotropic turbulence and vortices instead. Based on the location of the transition, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit at...

  3. An analysis of the Brown-Biefeld effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ianconescu, Reuven; Mudrik, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    When a voltage higher than 20 kv is applied on an asymmetric capacitor, the capacitor experiences a net force acting toward its thinner electrode. This effect is called Brown-Biefeld (BB) effect, in honor of its discoverers Thomas Townsend Brown and Paul Alfred Biefeld. A lot of theories have been proposed to explain the BB effect, and many speculations can be found on the net suggesting the BB effect to be an antigravitation effect that works in vacuum too. Other sources say the BB effect warps the space. However, in the recent years, more an more researchers attribute the BB effect to a unicharge ion wind . This work calculates the levitation force due to the ion wind and also presents experimental results which confirm the theoretical results. Our calculations make use of Deutsch assumption, and have a very low computing cost. Also, a deep insight into the Deutsch assumption is presented.

  4. The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Skemer, Andrew; Allers, Katelyn; Geballe, Thomas; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline; Bjoraker, Gordon; Lupu, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents our first opportunity to directly study an object outside the Solar System that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs---near infrared spectroscopy---is not currently feasible as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 $\\mu$m spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter's deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter. The spectrum is high enough quality to allow the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter's atmosphere, but now on an extrasolar world.

  5. The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Lupu, Roxana

    2016-08-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents the first opportunity to directly study an object outside the solar system that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However, the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs—near-infrared spectroscopy—is not currently feasible, as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5–5.2 μm spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter’s deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter’s. The spectrum quality is high enough to allow for the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter’s atmosphere, but now on an extrasolar world.

  6. Cervical disc herniation manifesting as a Brown-Sequard syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yokoyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Sequard syndrome is commonly seen in the setting of spinal trauma or an extramedullary spinal neoplasm. The clinical picture reflects hemisection of the spinal cord. We report a rare case of Brown-Sequard syndrome caused by a large cervical herniated disc. A 63-year-old man presented with progressive right hemiparesis and disruption of pain and temperature sensation on the left side of the body. Magnetic resonance imaging showed large C3-C4 disc herniation compressing the spinal cord at that level, with severe canal stenosis from C4 through C7. Decompressive cervical laminoplasty was performed. After surgery, complete sensory function was restored and a marked improvement in motor power was obtained.

  7. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  8. Excitation Energy-Transfer Dynamics of Brown Algal Photosynthetic Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, D; Kita, M; Fujii, R; Sugisaki, M; Oka, N; Takaesu, Y; Taira, T; Iha, M; Hashimoto, H

    2012-09-20

    Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll-a/c protein (FCP) complexes from brown algae Cladosiphon okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku in Japanese) contain the only species of carbonyl carotenoid, fucoxanthin, which exhibits spectral characteristics attributed to an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) property that arises in polar environments due to the presence of the carbonyl group in its polyene backbone. Here, we investigated the role of the ICT property of fucoxanthin in ultrafast energy transfer to chlorophyll-a/c in brown algal photosynthesis using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopic measurements. The observed excited-state dynamics show that the ICT character of fucoxanthin in FCP extends its absorption band to longer wavelengths and enhances its electronic interaction with chlorophyll-a molecules, leading to efficient energy transfer from fucoxanthin to chlorophyll-a. PMID:26295888

  9. Brown's TRANSPORT up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, etc., including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effects by artificial intelligence, outputing automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  10. A search for rocky planets transiting brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Selsis, Franck; Winn, Joshua N; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Artigau, Etienne; Laughlin, Gregory P; Seager, Sara; Helling, Christiane; Mayor, Michel; Albert, Loic; Anderson, Richard I; Bolmont, Emeline; Doyon, Rene; Forveille, Thierry; Hagelberg, Janis; Leconte, Jeremy; Lendl, Monika; Littlefair, Stuart; Raymond, Sean; Sahlmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanetary science has reached a historic moment. The James Webb Space Telescope will be capable of probing the atmospheres of rocky planets, and perhaps even search for biologically produced gases. However this is contingent on identifying suitable targets before the end of the mission. A race therefore, is on, to find transiting planets with the most favorable properties, in time for the launch. Here, we describe a realistic opportunity to discover extremely favorable targets - rocky planets transiting nearby brown dwarfs - using the Spitzer Space Telescope as a survey instrument. Harnessing the continuous time coverage and the exquisite precision of Spitzer in a 5,400 hour campaign monitoring nearby brown dwarfs, we will detect a handful of planetary systems with planets as small as Mars. The survey we envision is a logical extension of the immense progress that has been realized in the field of exoplanets and a natural outcome of the exploration of the solar neighborhood to map where the nearest habitab...

  11. Temperature Fluctuations as a Source of Brown Dwarf Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Tyler D

    2014-01-01

    A number of brown dwarfs are now known to be variable with observed amplitudes as large as 10-30% at some wavelengths. While spatial inhomogeneities in cloud coverage and thickness are likely responsible for much of the observed variability, it is possible that some of the variations arise from atmospheric temperature fluctuations instead of, or in addition to, clouds. To better understand the role that thermal variability might play we present a case study of brown dwarf variability using a newly-developed one-dimensional, time-stepping model of atmospheric thermal structure. We focus on the effects of thermal perturbations, intentionally simplifying the problem through omission of clouds and atmospheric circulation. Model results demonstrate that thermal perturbations occurring deep in the atmosphere (at pressures greater than 10 bar) of a model T-dwarf can be communicated to the upper atmosphere through radiative heating via the windows in near-infrared water opacity. The response time depends on where in ...

  12. Peaches tree genetic divergence for brown rot reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Américo Wagner Júnior; Keli Cristina Fabiane; Jéssica Scarlet Marth Alves de Oliveira; Juliano Zanela; Idemir Citadin

    2011-01-01

    It was evaluated the genetic divergence in peach genotypes for brown rot reaction. It was evaluated 26 and 29 peach genotypes in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 production cycle, respectively. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitossanidade, da UTFPR - Campus Dois Vizinhos. The experimental design was entirely randomized, considering each peach genotype a treatment, and it was use three replication of nine fruits. The treatment control use three replication of three peach. The ...

  13. Fluorescence Imaging of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue in Living Mice†

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Douglas R.; White, Alexander G.; Leevy, W. Matthew; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in energy expenditure and heat generation and is a promising target for diagnosing and treating obesity, diabetes and related metabolism disorders. While several nuclear and magnetic resonance imaging methods are established for detecting human BAT, there are no convenient protocols for high throughput imaging of BAT in small animal models. Here we disclose a simple but effective method for non-invasive optical imaging of interscapular BAT in mice u...

  14. Finding Murphy Brown: How Accessible are Historic Television Broadcasts?

    OpenAIRE

    Ubois, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a project completed in May, 2005 at the University of California, Berkeley to measure the accessibility of historic television broadcasts. The first section describes a model of the accessibility of news and entertainment broadcasts, and the second section applies this model in an attempted reconstruction of the interaction on television between then-Vice President Dan Quayle and the fictional character Murphy Brown. The final section compares the results ...

  15. Brown trout population dynamics versus long term habitat history

    OpenAIRE

    Capra, H.; Souchon, Y.; Lamouroux, N.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of stream discharge and habitat suitability history was investigated over 12 years on three natural brown trout (Salmo trutta) population dynamics. Discharge and habitat (described by Weighted Usable Area, WUA) variability during three "bottleneck" periods of population dynamics (spawning, fry, and summer) were used to explain variability of trout age-class densities (young of the year, juveniles, and adults). Discharge and WUA variability for each period was described with mean...

  16. DISCOVERY OF A WIDE BINARY BROWN DWARF BORN IN ISOLATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a survey for stars with disks in the Taurus star-forming region using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have discovered a pair of young brown dwarfs, FU Tau A and B, in the Barnard 215 dark cloud. They have a projected angular separation of 5.''7, corresponding to 800 AU at the distance of Taurus. To assess the nature of these two objects, we have obtained spectra of them and constructed spectral energy distributions. Both sources are young (∼1 Myr) according to their Hα emission, gravity-sensitive spectral features, and mid-infrared excess emission. The proper motion of FU Tau A provides additional evidence of its membership in Taurus. We measure spectral types of M7.25 and M9.25 for FU Tau A and B, respectively, which correspond to masses of ∼0.05 and ∼0.015 Msun according to the evolutionary models of Chabrier and Baraffe. FU Tau A is significantly overluminous relative to an isochrone passing through FU Tau B and relative to other members of Taurus near its spectral type, which may indicate that it is an unresolved binary. FU Tau A and B are likely to be components of a binary system based on the low probability (∼3 x 10-4) that Taurus would produce two unrelated brown dwarfs with a projected separation of a ≤ 6''. Barnard 215 contains only one other young star and is in a remote area of Taurus, making FU Tau A and B the first spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs discovered forming in isolation rather than in a stellar cluster or aggregate. Because they were born in isolation and comprise a weakly bound binary, dynamical interactions with stars could not have played a role in their formation, and thus are not essential for the birth of brown dwarfs.

  17. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting as Brown Lichenoid Patches

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyuk; Lee, Jang Hyun; Kim, Sung Keun; Park, Young Lip; Lee, Jong Suk; Cho, Moon Kyun

    2009-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is related diseases characterized by proliferation of Langerhans cell with involvement of bone, skin, lung and other organs. LCH usually occurs in childhood and are presented as multiple small papules or eczematoid lesion mostly. We report a 50-year-old man with 3 brown lichenoid patches on left dorsal foot. He was diagnosed pulmonary LCH 5 years ago. Typical LC cells on skin lesion and CD1 complex positive staining confirm the diagnosis of LCH. We consider...

  18. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi; Gopalswamy Sathiya Balan; Kasiviswanathan Periyanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii. Methods: The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and ha...

  19. Brown Adipose Tissue: A New Target for Antiobesity Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human fat consist of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT). Though most fat is energy-storing WAT, the thermogenic capacity of even small amounts of BAT makes it an attractive therapeutic target for inducing weight loss through energy expenditure. CONTENT: Over the past year, several independent research teams used a combination of positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging, immunohistochemistry and gene and protein expression assays to prove conc...

  20. Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xueli; Kuo, Chaincy; Moore, Anna; Ran, Chongzhao

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), widely known as a “good fat” plays pivotal roles for thermogenesis in mammals. This special tissue is closely related to metabolism and energy expenditure, and its dysfunction is one important contributor for obesity and diabetes. Contrary to previous belief, recent PET/CT imaging studies indicated the BAT depots are still present in human adults. PET imaging clearly shows that BAT has considerably high uptake of 18F-FDG under certain conditions. In this video repo...

  1. Planetesimals to brown dwarfs: What is a planet?

    OpenAIRE

    Basri, Gibor; Brown, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The past 15 years have brought about a revolution in our understanding of our Solar System and other planetary systems. During this time, discoveries include the first Kuiper Belt Objects, the first brown dwarfs, and the first extra-solar planets. Although discoveries continue apace, they have called into question our previous perspectives on planets, both here and elsewhere. The result has been a debate about the meaning of the word ''planet'' itself. It became clear that scientists do not h...

  2. Removal of humic substances from water by brown coal sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.V. Veprikova; A.V. Rudkovskii; M.L. Shchipko [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch

    2007-12-15

    Brown coal sorption materials with high activity toward humic substances were prepared using a larger scale laboratory unit with a spouted-bed system. The effect of thermal treatment conditions on the sorption properties of these materials was studied. It was found that the sorption activity of the resulting samples toward humates was closely related to the limiting sorption volume of the materials with respect to benzene.

  3. Eclipse Observations of a Temperate Transiting Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas; Curtis, Jason; Montet, Benjamin; Vanderberg, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    We wish to use 15.7 hours of Spitzer time to observe two eclipses, one each at 3.6 um and 4.5 um of a newly discovered transiting brown dwarf, which we refer to as R147-BD. R147-BD is a 36 MJ object on a 5.3 day orbit about a K=10.666, 5800K solar analog. Uniquely, R147-BD and its host star are both members of the 3.0 Gyr old open cluster Ruprecht 147. R147-BD is thus one of the only transiting brown dwarfs for which we have a robust isochronal age that is not dependent upon brown dwarf evolutionary models. These models predict that a field object with the mass and age of R147-BD should have an effective temperature of about 800K due to internal heat. The zero-albedo blackbody equilibrium temperature for R147-BD, based only on its host star's insolation, is 1125K. This makes R147-BD the first observationally accessible sub-stellar object for which the internal and external energy fluxes are approximately equal, and it can serve as a unique laboratory to test the effect of stellar irradiation on the vertical pressure-temperature structure and clouds of giant planets. Specifically, we wish to investigate three different questions with these observations. First, how does the measured mass, radius, age and emission of R147-BD compare to brown dwarf evolution models, and how have these been altered by stellar irradiation? Second, does R147-BD's dayside atmosphere resemble its isolated field equivalent, or is it closer to hot Jupiters at similar temperatures? Third, can we constrain the cloud properties of R147-BD's dayside? Besides these particular science questions, observations of R147-BD allow us to scout-out future JWST observations of temperate giant planets, which also will have roughly equal amounts of stellar irradiation and internal heat.

  4. Brown coal coke in biological waste water cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological sewage plants working by the activated sludge process are often confronted by the following problems: the formation of expanded bubbles, lack of decomposition performance, unstable operation and insufficient excess sludge dewatering. In the former East Germany, there is also the problem of too little nitrificaion/denitrification, caused by obsolete plant. The use of brown coal coke guarantees efficient cleaning of waste water. (orig.)

  5. Role of energy metabolism in the brown fat gene program

    OpenAIRE

    Minwoo eNam; Marcus eCooper

    2015-01-01

    In murine and human brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondria are powerful generators of heat that safely metabolize fat, a feature that has great promise in the fight against obesity and diabetes. Recent studies suggest that the action of mitochondria extend beyond their conventional role as generators of heat. There is mounting evidence that impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity is accompanied by attenuated expression of Ucp1 and other BAT-selective genes, implying that mitochondria ex...

  6. Recent advance in brown adipose physiology and its therapeutic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Jung, Young-Suk; Choi, Dalwoong

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized thermoregulatory organ that has a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Specifically, energy expenditure can be enhanced by the activation of BAT function and the induction of a BAT-like catabolic phenotype in white adipose tissue (WAT). Since the recent recognition of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, BAT has been extensively studied as one of the most promising targets identified for treating obesity and its related disorde...

  7. Assessment of oxidative metabolism in Brown Fat using PET imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Otto eMuzik; Mangner, Thomas J.; Granneman, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O) PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults during cold stress and to establish the relationship between BAT oxidative metabolism and FDG tracer uptake....

  8. Sympathetic and sensory innervation of brown adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Bartness, TJ; Vaughan, CH; Song, CK

    2010-01-01

    The innervation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is incontrovertible and, with its activation, functions as the principal, if not exclusive, stimulator of BAT thermogenesis. The parasympathetic innervation of BAT only appears in two minor BAT depots, but not in the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. BAT thermogenesis is triggered by the release of norepinephrine from its sympathetic nerve terminals, stimulating β3-adrenoceptors that turns on a cascade o...

  9. Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Middelbeek, Roeland J.W.; Townsend, Kristy L.; An, Ding; Nygaard, Eva B.; Hitchcox, Kristen M.; Markan, Kathleen R.; Nakano, Kazuhiro; Hirshman, Michael F.; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, and also has the capacity to modulate energy balance. To test the hypothesis that BAT is fundamental to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, we transplanted BAT from male donor mice into the visceral cavity of age- and sex-matched recipient mice. By 8–12 weeks following transplantation, recipient mice had improved glucose tolerance, increased insulin sensitivity, lowe...

  10. Does Brown Fat Protect Against Diseases of Aging?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark P Mattson

    2009-01-01

    The most commonly studied laboratory rodents possess a specialized form of fat called brown adipose tissue (BAT) that generates heat to help maintain body temperature in cold environments. In humans, BAT is abundant during embryonic and early postnatal development, but is absent or present in relatively small amounts in adults where it is located in paracervical and supraclavicular regions. BAT cells can `burn' fatty acid energy substrates to generate heat because they possess large numbers o...

  11. Vascular rarefaction mediates whitening of brown fat in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ippei; Aprahamian, Tamar; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Ayako; Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N.; MacLauchlan, Susan; Maruyama, Sonomi; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a highly vascularized organ with abundant mitochondria that produce heat through uncoupled respiration. Obesity is associated with a reduction of BAT function; however, it is unknown how obesity promotes dysfunctional BAT. Here, using a murine model of diet-induced obesity, we determined that obesity causes capillary rarefaction and functional hypoxia in BAT, leading to a BAT “whitening” phenotype that is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid droplet ...

  12. Assessment of Oxidative Metabolism in Brown Fat Using PET Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Muzik, Otto; Mangner, Thomas J.; Granneman, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog 18F-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans, suggesting that most humans have some functional BAT. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O) PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults d...

  13. Cytotoxic sterols from the formosan brown alga Turbinaria ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, J H; Wang, G H; Sung, P J; Chiu, Y H; Duh, C Y

    1997-12-01

    Two hydroperoxysterols 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (1) and 29-hydroperoxystigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol (2), and fucosterol (3) were isolated from the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Sargassaceae). Hydroperoxide 2 is a new natural compound and was converted into 29-hydroxystigmasta-5,24 (28)-dien-3beta-ol (4) by reaction with LAH. Sterols 1, 2, and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:17252381

  14. Browning of white adipose tissue: role of hypothalamic signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through non-shivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Specifically, recent obse...

  15. Hypothalamic Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Bi, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, but the strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for cold protection by producing heat using lipids and glucose as metabolic fuels. This thermogenic action causes increased energy expenditure and significant lipid/glucose disposal. In addition, BAT in white adipose tissue (WAT) or beige cells have been found and they also exhibit the thermogenic a...

  16. Estradiol Regulates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis via Hypothalamic AMPK

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B.; González-García, Ismael; Martins, Luís; Lage, Ricardo; Fernández-Mallo, Diana; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Ruíz-Pino, Francisco; Liu, Ji; Morgan, Donald A.; Pinilla, Leonor; Gallego, Rosalía; Saha, Asish K.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estrogens play a major role in the modulation of energy balance through central and peripheral actions. Here, we demonstrate that central action of estradiol (E2) inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) selectively in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), leading to activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in a feeding-independent manner. Genetic activation of AMPK in...

  17. Negative Regulators of Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT)-Mediated Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Patil, Mallikarjun; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, a process called adaptive thermogenesis. PET-CT scans recently demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, which revitalized our interest in BAT. Increasing the amount and/or activity of BAT holds tremendous promise for the treatment of obesity and its associated diseases. PGC1α is the master regulator of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in BAT. A number of proteins have been identified to influence therm...

  18. Benchmark Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C: Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations Yield Brightness Temperature and Mid-T Spectral Class

    OpenAIRE

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    There are no field brown dwarf analogs with measured masses, radii, and luminosities, precluding our ability to connect the population of transiting brown dwarfs with measurable masses and radii and field brown dwarfs with measurable luminosities and atmospheric properties. LHS 6343 C, a weakly irradiated brown dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field, provides the first opportunity to probe the atmosphere of a non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass and radius. ...

  19. Eradicant and curative treatments of hexanal against peach brown rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silveira Baggio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp. , is one of the most important peach (Prunuspersica (L. Batsch diseases and the main cause of postharvest losses. Currently, alternative methods for postharvest disease control, such as the use of volatiles, are under investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hexanal on the in vitro development of Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa and on monocyclic components of brown rot on peaches. To evaluate the effect on pathogen development in vitro, a single dose of 215 µL of liquid hexanal was placed on glass jars in closed plastic containers (4.3 L at the moment of fungi transfer, 24 or 48 h after transferring to Petri dishes. After hexanal application, the Petri dishes were kept inside the containers that were closed for 24 h at 20 ºC. Mycelial growth was measured seven days after hexanal removal. For in vivo assays, inoculated fruits were kept in closed plastic containers, and hexanal was applied at the moment of fruit inoculation or 24 hours thereafter. The monocyclic components infection frequency, expressed as brown rot incidence, lesion diameter and lesion sporulation, were assessed daily for seven days. Overall, hexanal was more effective in inhibiting mycelial growth when applied at the moment of pathogen transfer. Hexanal did not prevent pathogen infection, but reduced lesion diameter and completely inhibited spore production on the fruit for both treatments. Hexanal provides a promising alternative for chemical control and can be used in postharvest handling systems.

  20. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi

  1. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GenevieveSpanjerWright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  2. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  3. CLOUDS search for variability in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, B; Marley, M S; Artigau, É; Baliyan, K S; Béjar, V J S; Caballero, J A; Chanover, N; Connelley, M; Doyon, R; Forveille, T; Ganesh, S; Gelino, C R; Hammel, H B; Holtzman, J; Joshi, S; Joshi, U C; Leggett, S K; Liu, M C; Martín, E L; Mohan, V; Nadeau, D; Sagar, R; Stephens, D

    2008-01-01

    Context: L-type ultra-cool dwarfs and brown dwarfs have cloudy atmospheres that could host weather-like phenomena. The detection of photometric or spectral variability would provide insight into unresolved atmospheric heterogeneities, such as holes in a global cloud deck. Aims: It has been proposed that growth of heterogeneities in the global cloud deck may account for the L- to T-type transition as brown dwarf photospheres evolve from cloudy to clear conditions. Such a mechanism is compatible with variability. We searched for variability in the spectra of five L6 to T6 brown dwarfs in order to test this hypothesis. Methods: We obtained spectroscopic time series using VLT/ISAAC, over 0.99-1.13um, and IRTF/SpeX for two of our targets, in J, H and K bands. We search for statistically variable lines and correlation between those. Results: High spectral-frequency variations are seen in some objects, but these detections are marginal and need to be confirmed. We find no evidence for large amplitude variations in s...

  4. Hanbury Brown and Twiss interferometry with twisted light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Cross, Robert M; Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    The rich physics exhibited by random optical wave fields permitted Hanbury Brown and Twiss to unveil fundamental aspects of light. Furthermore, it has been recognized that optical vortices are ubiquitous in random light and that the phase distribution around these optical singularities imprints a spectrum of orbital angular momentum onto a light field. We demonstrate that random fluctuations of intensity give rise to the formation of correlations in the orbital angular momentum components and angular positions of pseudothermal light. The presence of these correlations is manifested through distinct interference structures in the orbital angular momentum-mode distribution of random light. These novel forms of interference correspond to the azimuthal analog of the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect. This family of effects can be of fundamental importance in applications where entanglement is not required and where correlations in angular position and orbital angular momentum suffice. We also suggest that the azimuthal Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect can be useful in the exploration of novel phenomena in other branches of physics and astrophysics. PMID:27152334

  5. Role of Brown Fat in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, for which hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society, and new therapeutic strategies are highly warranted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is metabolically active in human adults. Although positron emission tomography-computed tomography using a glucose tracer is the golden standard to visualize and quantify the volume and activity of BAT, it has become clear that activated BAT combusts fatty acids rather than glucose. Here, we review the role of brown and beige adipocytes in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, with evidence derived from both animal and human studies. On the basis of mainly data from animal models, we propose a model in which activated brown adipocytes use their intracellular triglyceride stores to generate fatty acids for combustion. BAT rapidly replenishes these stores by internalizing primarily lipoprotein triglyceride-derived fatty acids, generated by lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides, rather than by holoparticle uptake. As a consequence, BAT activation leads to the generation of lipoprotein remnants that are subsequently cleared via the liver provided that an intact apoE-low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway is present. Through these mechanisms, BAT activation reduces plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and attenuates diet-induced atherosclerosis development. Initial studies suggest that BAT activation in humans may also reduce triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but potential antiatherogenic effects should be assessed in future studies. PMID:26837747

  6. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region), for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90) are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  7. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26344967

  8. Using Narrow Band Photometry to Classify Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A K; Sievers, J L; Young, E T; Lean, Ian S. Mc

    2004-01-01

    We present a new system of narrow band filters in the near infrared that can be used to classify stars and brown dwarfs. This set of four filters, spanning the H band, can be used to identify molecular features unique to brown dwarfs, such as H2O and CH4. The four filters are centered at 1.495 um (H2O), 1.595 um (continuum), 1.66 um (CH4), and 1.75 um (H2O). Using two H2O filters allows us to solve for individual objects' reddenings. This can be accomplished by constructing a color-color-color cube and rotating it until the reddening vector disappears. We created a model of predicted color-color-color values for different spectral types by integrating filter bandpass data with spectra of known stars and brown dwarfs. We validated this model by making photometric measurements of seven known L and T dwarfs, ranging from L1 - T7.5. The photometric measurements agree with the model to within +/-0.1 mag, allowing us to create spectral indices for different spectral types. We can classify A through early M stars to...

  9. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY RED L-TYPE BROWN DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of an unusually red brown dwarf found in a search for high proper motion objects using WISE and 2MASS data. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 is moving at 0.''44 yr–1 and lies relatively close to the Galactic plane (b = 5.02). Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy reveals that this is one of the reddest (2MASS J – Ks 2.55 ± 0.08 mag) field L dwarfs yet detected, making this object an important member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We discuss evidence for thick condensate clouds and speculate on the age of the object. Although models by different research groups agree that thick clouds can explain the red spectrum, they predict dramatically different effective temperatures, ranging from 1100 K to 1600 K. This brown dwarf is well suited for additional studies of extremely dusty substellar atmospheres because it is relatively bright (Ks = 13.05 ± 0.03 mag), which should also contribute to an improved understanding of young gas-giant planets and the transition between L and T brown dwarfs.

  10. The disk around the brown dwarf KPNO Tau 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda; Di Francesco, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Duchêne, Gaspard [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex, B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Scholz, Aleks [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Chrysostomou, Antonio [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North Aóhoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Jayawardhana, Ray [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2014-07-10

    We present submillimeter observations of the young brown dwarfs KPNO Tau 1, KPNO Tau 3, and KPNO Tau 6 at 450 μm and 850 μm taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. KPNO Tau 3 and KPNO Tau 6 have been previously identified as Class II objects hosting accretion disks, whereas KPNO Tau 1 has been identified as a Class III object and shows no evidence of circumsubstellar material. Our 3σ detection of cold dust around KPNO Tau 3 implies a total disk mass of (4.0 ± 1.1) × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} (assuming a gas to dust ratio of 100:1). We place tight constraints on any disks around KPNO Tau 1 or KPNO Tau 6 of <2.1 × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} and <2.7 × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉}, respectively. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of KPNO Tau 3 and its disk suggests the disk properties (geometry, dust mass, and grain size distribution) are consistent with observations of other brown dwarf disks and low-mass T-Tauri stars. In particular, the disk-to-host mass ratio for KPNO Tau 3 is congruent with the scenario that at least some brown dwarfs form via the same mechanism as low-mass stars.

  11. Extraction, Purification, and NMR Analysis of Terpenes from Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysinski, Marc; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Algal terpenes constitute a wide and well-documented group of marine natural products with structures differing from their terrestrial plant biosynthetic analogues. Amongst macroalgae, brown seaweeds are considered as one of the richest source of biologically and ecologically relevant terpenoids. These metabolites, mostly encountered in algae of the class Phaeophyceae, are mainly diterpenes and meroditerpenes (metabolites of mixed biogenesis characterized by a toluquinol or a toluquinone nucleus linked to a diterpene moiety).In this chapter, we describe analytical processes commonly employed for the isolation and structural characterization of the main terpenoid constituents obtained from organic extracts of brown algae. The successive steps include (1) extraction of lipidic content from algal samples; (2) purification of terpenes by column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; and (3) structure elucidation of the isolated terpenes by means of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More precisely, we propose a representative methodology which allows the isolation and structural determination of the monocyclic meroditerpene methoxybifurcarenone (MBFC) from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. This methodology has a large field of applications and can then be extended to terpenes isolated from other species of the family Sargassaceae. PMID:26108508

  12. A non-uniform distribution of the nearest brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bihain, G

    2016-01-01

    The census of solar neighbours is still complemented by new discoveries, mainly of very low-mass, faint dwarfs, close to or within the substellar domain. These discoveries contribute to a better understanding of the field population; its origin in terms of Galactic dynamics and (sub)stellar formation and evolution. Also, the nearest stars and brown dwarfs at any given age allow the most precise direct characterization, including the search for planetary companions. We aim to further assess the substellar census on the Galactic plane. We projected the 136 stars and 26 brown dwarfs known at <6.5 pc on the Galactic plane and evaluated their distributions. Stars present a uniform- and brown dwarfs a non-uniform distribution, with 21 objects behind the Sun and only five ahead relative to the direction of rotation of the Galaxy. This substellar configuration has a probability of 0.098$^{+10.878}_{-0.098}$% relative to uniformity. The helio- and geocentric nature of the distribution suggests it might result in pa...

  13. Bilateral Brown's syndrome in a mother and her son: case report Síndrome de Brown bilateral em mãe e filho: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Maria Simões Antunes-Foschini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes clinical data from mother and son with bilateral Brown's syndrome and highlights possible genetically determined predispositions.Este relato de caso descreve achados clínicos de mãe e filho com síndrome de Brown bilateral e discute a possibilidade de predisposição genética.

  14. PPAR{alpha} does not suppress muscle-associated gene expression in brown adipocytes but does influence expression of factors that fingerprint the brown adipocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, Tomas B.; Petrovic, Natasa [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nedergaard, Jan, E-mail: jan@metabol.su.se [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-06-25

    Brown adipocytes and myocytes develop from a common adipomyocyte precursor. PPAR{alpha} is a nuclear receptor important for lipid and glucose metabolism. It has been suggested that in brown adipose tissue, PPAR{alpha} represses the expression of muscle-associated genes, in this way potentially acting to determine cell fate in brown adipocytes. To further understand the possible role of PPAR{alpha} in these processes, we measured expression of muscle-associated genes in brown adipose tissue and brown adipocytes from PPAR{alpha}-ablated mice, including structural genes (Mylpf, Tpm2, Myl3 and MyHC), regulatory genes (myogenin, Myf5 and MyoD) and a myomir (miR-206). However, in our hands, the expression of these genes was not influenced by the presence or absence of PPAR{alpha}, nor by the PPAR{alpha} activator Wy-14,643. Similarly, the expression of genes common for mature brown adipocyte and myocytes (Tbx15, Meox2) were not affected. However, the brown adipocyte-specific regulatory genes Zic1, Lhx8 and Prdm16 were affected by PPAR{alpha}. Thus, it would not seem that PPAR{alpha} represses muscle-associated genes, but PPAR{alpha} may still play a role in the regulation of the bifurcation of the adipomyocyte precursor into a brown adipocyte or myocyte phenotype.

  15. An siRNA-based method for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidor, Marie S; Winther, Sally; Basse, Astrid L; Petersen, M Christine H; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Hansen, Jacob B

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target for opposing obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The ability to modulate gene expression in mature brown adipocytes is important to understand brown adipocyte function and delineate novel regulatory mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis. The aim of this study was to optimize a lipofection-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection protocol for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We determined that a critical parameter was to deliver the siRNA to mature adipocytes by reverse transfection, i.e. transfection of non-adherent cells. Using this protocol, we effectively knocked down both high- and low-abundance transcripts in a model of mature brown adipocytes (WT-1) as well as in primary mature mouse brown adipocytes. A functional consequence of the knockdown was confirmed by an attenuated increase in uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in response to β-adrenergic stimulation of mature WT-1 brown adipocytes transfected with uncoupling protein 1 siRNA. Efficient gene silencing was also obtained in various mouse and human white adipocyte models (3T3-L1, primary mouse white adipocytes, hMADS) with the ability to undergo "browning." In summary, we report an easy and versatile reverse siRNA transfection protocol to achieve specific silencing of gene expression in various models of mature brown and browning-competent white adipocytes, including primary cells. PMID:27386153

  16. Radiocaesium turnover in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Norwegian lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) was monitored in a Norwegian lake from 1986 to 1989. A distinct difference was observed between brown trout and Arctic charr in the accumulation of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout, and the study focused on the understanding of this difference. Brown trout had a large food consumption and a corresponding high intake of radiocaesium. Excretion was 20% faster in brown trout than Arctic charr as brown trout lived at high temperatures in epilimnic water. Arctic charr had a lower food consumption (less than one-third of trout) and lived in colder meta-and hypolimnic water. Arctic charr therefore had a lower intake and slower excretion of radiocaesium. Brown trout an Arctic charr had different diets. For brown trout zoobenthos was the dominant food item, whereas Artic charr mainly fed on zooplankton. The radioactivity in the stomach contents of the two species was different in 1986, but similar for the rest of the period. Higher levels of radiocaesium in brown trout than Arctic charr in 1986 were due to a higher food consumption and more radioactive food items in its diet. The parallel development in accumulated radiocaesium through summer 1987 was probably formed by brown trout balancing a higher intake with a faster excretion. The ecological half-lives of radiocaesium in brown trout (357 days) and Arctic charr (550 days) from Lake Hoeysjoeen indicated a slow removal of the isotopes from the food webs. (author)

  17. How Dry is the Brown Dwarf Desert?: Quantifying the Relative Number of Planets, Brown Dwarfs and Stellar Companions around Nearby Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Grether, D; Grether, Daniel; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Sun-like stars have stellar, brown dwarf and planetary companions. To help constrain their formation and migration scenarios, we analyse the close companions (orbital period 2 M_Solar respectively. However, we find no evidence that companion mass scales with host mass in general. Approximately 16% of Sun-like stars have close (P < 5 years) companions more massive than Jupiter: 11% are stellar, 1% are brown dwarf and 4% are giant planets. The companion mass function in the brown dwarf and stellar mass range, has a different shape than the initial mass function of individual stars and free-floating brown dwarfs. This suggests either a different spectrum of gravitational fragmentation in the formation environment or post-formation migratory processes disinclined to leave brown dwarfs in close orbits.

  18. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Discovery of KELU-1 Promises New Insights into Strange Objects Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are too small to become real stars, yet too large to be real planets. Their mass is too small to ignite those nuclear processes which are responsible for the large energies and high temperatures of stars, but it is much larger than that of the planets we know in our solar system. Until now, very few Brown Dwarfs have been securely identified as such. Two are members of double-star systems, and a few more are located deep within the Pleiades star cluster. Now, however, Maria Teresa Ruiz of the Astronomy Department at Universidad de Chile (Santiago de Chile), using telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory, has just discovered one that is all alone and apparently quite near to us. Contrary to the others which are influenced by other objects in their immediate surroundings, this new Brown Dwarf is unaffected and will thus be a perfect object for further investigations that may finally allow us to better understand these very interesting celestial bodies. It has been suggested that Brown Dwarfs may constitute a substantial part of the unseen dark matter in our Galaxy. This discovery may therefore also have important implications for this highly relevant research area. Searching for nearby faint stars The story of this discovery goes back to 1987 when Maria Teresa Ruiz decided to embark upon a long-term search (known as the Calan-ESO proper-motion survey ) for another type of unusual object, the so-called White Dwarfs , i.e. highly evolved, small and rather faint stars. Although they have masses similar to that of the Sun, such stars are no larger than the Earth and are therefore extremely compact. They are particularly interesting, because they most probably represent the future end point of evolution of our Sun, some billions of years from now. For this project, the Chilean astronomer obtained large-field photographic exposures with the 1-m ESO Schmidt telescope at

  19. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  20. A KECK LGS AO SEARCH FOR BROWN DWARF AND PLANETARY MASS COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We searched for binary companions to 20 young brown dwarfs in the Upper Scorpius association (145 pc, 5 Myr, nearest OB association) with the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics system and the facility infrared camera NIRC2 on the 10 m Keck II telescope. We discovered a 0.''14 companion (20.9 ± 0.4 AU) to the sun object SCH J16091837-20073523. From spectral deconvolution of integrated-light near-IR spectroscopy of SCH1609 using the SpeX spectrograph (Rayner et al. 2003), we estimate primary and secondary spectral types of M6 ± 0.5 and M7 ± 1.0, corresponding to masses of 79 ± 17 MJup and 55 ± 25 MJup at an age of 5 Myr and masses of 84 ± 15 MJup and 60 ± 25 MJup at an age of 10 Myr. For our survey objects with spectral types later than M8, we find an upper limit on the binary fraction of Jup) brown dwarfs in Upper Sco is similar to that for T dwarfs in the field; for higher mass brown dwarfs and very low mass stars, there is an excess of medium-separation (10-50 AU projected separation) young binaries with respect to the field. These medium-separation binaries will likely survive to late ages.

  1. A Brown Dwarf Joins the Jet-Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Jets of matter have been discovered around a very low mass 'failed star', mimicking a process seen in young stars. This suggests that these 'brown dwarfs' form in a similar manner to normal stars but also that outflows are driven out by objects as massive as hundreds of millions of solar masses down to Jupiter-sized objects. The brown dwarf with the name 2MASS1207-3932 is full of surprises [1]. Its companion, a 5 Jupiter-mass giant, was the first confirmed exoplanet for which astronomers could obtain an image (see ESO 23/04 and 12/05), thereby opening a new field of research - the direct detection of alien worlds. It was then later found (see ESO 19/06) that the brown dwarf has a disc surrounding it, not unlike very young stars. ESO PR Photo 24/07 ESO PR Photo 24/07 Jets from a Brown Dwarf (Artist's Impression) Now, astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have found that the young brown dwarf is also spewing jets, a behaviour again quite similar to young stars. The mass of the brown dwarf is only 24 Jupiter-masses. Hence, it is by far the smallest object known to drive an outflow. "This leads us to the tantalizing prospect that young giant planets could also be associated with outflows," says Emma Whelan, the lead-author of the paper reporting the results. The outflows were discovered using an amazing technique known as spectro-astrometry, based on high resolution spectra taken with UVES on the VLT. Such a technique was required due to the difficulty of the task. While in normal young stars - known as T-Tauri stars for the prototype of their class - the jets are large and bright enough to be seen directly, this is not the case around brown dwarfs: the length scale of the jets, recovered with spectro-astrometry is only about 0.1 arcsecond long, that is, the size of a two Euro coin seen from 40 km away. The jets stretch about 1 billion kilometres and the material is rushing away from the brown dwarf with a speed of a few kilometres per second. The

  2. Silica nanoparticles inhibit brown adipocyte differentiation via regulation of p38 phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Kwak, Minjeong; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Chang, Won Seok; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Sang Chul; Song, Nam Woong; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are of great interest due to their wide variety of biomedical and bioengineering applications. However, they affect cellular differentiation and/or intracellular signaling when applied and exposed to target organisms or cells. The brown adipocyte is a cell type important in energy homeostasis and thus closely related to obesity. In this study, we assessed the effects of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) on brown adipocyte differentiation. The results clearly showed that brown adipocyte differentiation was significantly repressed by exposure to SNPs. The brown adipocyte-specific genes as well as mitochondrial content were also markedly reduced. Additionally, SNPs led to suppressed p38 phosphorylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. These effects depend on the size of SNPs. Taken together, these results lead us to suggest that SNP has anti-brown adipogenic effect in a size-dependent manner via regulation of p38 phosphorylation.

  3. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO, while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with glutathione showed no browning during hot air drying. These results indicate that application of glutathione is a promising method of Anti-browning of mushroom by glutathione during hot air drying.

  4. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice. PMID:26868582

  5. Analysis of the source areas of early immigrant white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in Guangdong Province%广东白背飞虱早期迁入种群的虫源地分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王政; 齐国君; 吕利华; 胡芊; 袁维熙

    2011-01-01

    为了揭示广东省白背飞虱早期迁入的虫源地分布,为其精细化预测预报及源头治理提供科学依据,根据广东省雷州、肇庆、曲江、梅县4个地区的白背飞虱虫情资料,利用HYSPLIT轨迹分析平台和GIS进行早期迁入峰的轨迹分析,结果表明:(1)广东白背飞虱的迁入在早稻和晚稻上各出现一段灯诱高峰,雷州出现的灯诱高峰最早,集中在4月上旬-5月下旬,其他地区集中在5-6月;(2)曲江、肇庆的白背飞虱灯诱高峰日数明显高于雷州、梅县;(3)广东白背飞虱早期迁入的虫源地主要分布在越南中北部、老挝中南部、海南以及两广南部稻区.但其虫源地的时空分布存在季节性的差异,随着时间的推移,虫源地的分布逐渐由南向北偏移.%In order to determine the source area of early immigrant white-backed planthoppers Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) in Guangdong Province, and to establish a basis for regional forecasting and source suppression, the geographic distribution of the source area of early immigrant WBPH was analyzed by CIS (Geographic Information System), HYSPLIT, a trajectory analysis software for the simulation of migration pathways, and light trap catch data from 4 plant protection stations (including Leizhou, Zhaoqing, Qujiang and Meixian). We obtained the following results : (1) Peak light-trap catches of WBPH occurred during the double-cropping season for early and late-rice, and peaks of early immigrants were mainly concentrated in Leizhou from early April to late May, and in Zhaoqing, Qujiang and Meixian from May to June. (2) Based on light-trap catch data, the immigration peaks of WBPH in Qujiang and Zhaoqing were obviously higher than in Leizhou and Meixian. (3) Simulations of migration trajectories indicated that most of the early immigrants came from central and northern Vietnam, central and southern Laos, Hainan Province and southern Guangdong and Guangxi. The spatio-temporal distribution

  6. 白背飞虱长翅型空间格局的地统计学分析%Geostatistical Analysis on Spatial Distribution of Macropterous Whitebacked Planthopper,Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫香慧; 黄燕

    2012-01-01

    白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)是我国重要的迁飞性水稻害虫,对我国的水稻生产造成严重危害.为了解其迁入后的聚集与扩散的动态过程和空间分布规律,为综合防治提供理论依据,本文根据2008年在秀山县的田间系统调查资料,运用地统计学中的半方差函数,研究白背飞虱长翅型成虫迁入后在稻田间的聚集与扩散的动态过程和空间分布规律,建立了自迁入至迁出在田间东西和南北两个方向上的空间变异曲线模型,并利用Surfer8.0软件对空间分布数据进行插值和模拟.结果表明,白背飞虱长翅型密度越高,空间变量的变化幅度越大;由随机因数引起的空间变异平均为37.6%,由自相关因数引起的空间变异为62.4%,各调查时间东西方向的空间相关范围都小于南北方向,前者平均为12.86m,后者为28.85m;空间插值表明白背飞虱长翅型种群在稻田的聚集斑块南北方向比东西方向长,即南北方向是白背飞虱长翅型聚集和扩散的主方向.%Whitebacked planthopper,Sogatella furcifera(Horváth) is a major immigration pest of rice crops in China.In order to provide a theoretical basis for its integrated control,dynamic process and spatial pattern of macropterous Sogatella furcifera were studied in the period from their immigration to emigration by using geostatistical methods in Xiushan county,and semivariogram curve models were established in directions from north to south and west to east.Isoclines maps of the pest at each stage were set by the geostatistical software Surfer 8.0 with Kriging interpolation.The variograms showed the higher the density was,the larger the space variation scope became.Average space variation was 37.6% caused by the random factor and 62.4% caused by the autocorrelation.The random degree of space variation became greater as the rice grew up.Space-related distance was 12.86 m in the direction of east-west and 28.85 m in south

  7. BIO-DIAGNOSTICS OF STABILITY OF BROWN CALCAREOUS SOIL OF UTRISH NATURAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov S. I.; Vernigorova N. A.; Kuzina A. A.; Laptinova A. S.; Kazeev K. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we have presented a number of modeling experiments to investigate the chemical pollution of brown calcareous soil. It assesses the stability of brown calcareous soil of a nature reserve called Utrish to contamination with heavy metals in biological parameters. Pollution of brown calcareous soil with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil causes a significant reduction in biological parameters. The degree of reduction depends on the nature of the contaminant and its concentration in the soil....

  8. Turning WAT into BAT: a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Sun; Kinyui Alice Lo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue has a central role in the regulation of energy balance and homoeostasis. There are two main types of adipose tissue: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT from certain depots, in response to appropriate stimuli, can undergo a process known as browning where it takes on characteristics of BAT, notably the induction of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) expression and the presence of multilocular lipid droplets and multiple mitochondria. How browning is r...

  9. Characterization of a primary brown adipocyte culture system derived from human fetal interscapular fat

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Sarah E.; Xu, Dan; Ho, Jia-Pei; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Buehrer, Benjamin M; Ludlow, Y John W; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Sun, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Brown fat has gained widespread attention as a potential therapeutic target to treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Indeed, the anti-obesity potential of multiple targets to stimulate both brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment have been verified in rodent models. However, their therapeutic potential in humans is unknown due to the lack of a human primary brown adipocyte cell culture system. Likewise, the lack of a well-characterized human model has limited the discovery...

  10. Osteomyelitis of the Mandibular Symphysis Caused by Brown Recluse Spider Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Deepak K.; Ghurani, Rami; Salas, R. Emerick; Mannari, Rudolph J.; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Brown recluse spider bites cause significant trauma via their tissue toxic venom. Diagnosis of these injuries and envenomation is difficult and many times presumptive. Treatment is varied and dependent upon presentation and course of injury. Materials and Methods: We present a case of a previously unreported incidence of osteomyelitis of the mandible as a result of a brown recluse spider bite. A review of the literature and discussion of diagnosis and treatment of brown recluse sp...

  11. Control and Physiological Determinants of Sympathetically Mediated Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    DenisRichard; ÉricTurcotte

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) represents a remarkable heat-producing tissue. The thermogenic potential of BAT is conferred by uncoupling protein 1, a protein found uniquely in the brown adipocytes. The physiological control of BAT activity and capacity is ensured by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which densely innervates brown fat depots. SNS-mediated BAT thermogenesis is essentially governed by hypothalamic and brainstem neurons. BAT is not only controlled by the brain thermoregulatory c...

  12. Studies on the effect of brown rice and maize flour on the quality of bread

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z. Islam; M Shams

    2011-01-01

    Breads were prepared with various combinations of maize, brown rice and wheat flours in the basic formulation of bread. The baking properties and chemical composition of bread were evaluated and analysed, respectively. The bread volume decreased, where as bread weight and moisture content increased with the increasing level of maize and brown rice flour. The crumb and crust colour of breads were improved with addition of 8% maize and 8% brown rice flour in bread formulation. The protein conte...

  13. The taxonomic status of the Yucatan brown brocket, Mazama pandora (Mammalia: Cervidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin, R.A.; Gardner, A.L.; Aranda, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Yucatan brown brocket deer, described as Mazama pandora, is now treated as a subspecies of either the common brown brocket, Mazama gouazoubira, or of the red brocket, M. americana. Analysis of brocket deer from Mexico and Central and South America, reveals that the Yucatan brown brocket is sympatric with the red brocket in Mexico and, while similar to M. gouazoubira, warrents recognition as a separate species.

  14. Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling in Brown Adipocyte Survival, Proliferation and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Mandrita

    2012-01-01

    Both white and brown adipose tissues exhibit extensive vascularity. Increased angiogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is crucial for brown fat activation and thermogenesis in animals during cold acclimation. BAT can be similarly activated by food intake to generate heat through cellular respiration, in a process known as diet induced thermogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor that regulates both pathological and physiological angiogenesis and can...

  15. MicroRNA-378 controls classical brown fat expansion to counteract obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Dongning; Mao, Chunxiao; Quattrochi, Brian; Friedline, Randall H.; Zhu, Lihua J.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K.; Lewis, Brian; Wang, Yong-Xu

    2014-01-01

    Both classical brown adipocytes and brown-like beige adipocytes are considered as promising therapeutic targets for obesity; however, their development, relative importance, and functional coordination are not well understood. Here we show that a modest expression of miR-378/378* in adipose tissue specifically increases classical brown fat (BAT) mass, but not white fat (WAT) mass. Remarkably, BAT expansion, rather than miR-378 per se, suppresses formation of beige adipocytes in subcutaneous W...

  16. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos)

    OpenAIRE

    Esteruelas, Núria Fandos; Malmsten, Jonas; Bröjer, Caroline; Grandi, Giulio; Lindström, Anders; Brown, Paul; Swenson, Jon E; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M

    2016-01-01

    In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest) and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos) captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation. Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and prese...

  17. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Snoj Aleš; Simonović Predrag; Sušnik Simona; Marić Saša

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one ...

  18. Functional composition of humates of brown coal and their stimulating activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to functional composition of humates of brown coal and their stimulating activity. The results of researches of functional composition of brown and weathered coals and their activity as a growth-promoting factor for agricultural crops were considered. The composition of coals was studied. It was found that application of humates of brown coal is a very important factor for complex rehabilitation of soils and for application in agriculture.

  19. Direct evidence of brown adipocytes in different fat depots in children

    OpenAIRE

    Rockstroh, Denise; Landgraf, Kathrin; Wagner, Isabel Viola; Gesing, Julia; Tauscher, Roy; Lakowa, Nicole; Kiess, Wieland; Bühligen, Ulf; Wojan, Magdalena; Till, Holger; Blüher, Matthias; Körner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested the persistence of brown adipocytes in adult humans, as opposed to being exclusively present in infancy. In this study, we investigated the presence of brown-like adipocytes in adipose tissue (AT) samples of children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years and evaluated the association with age, location, and obesity. For this, we analysed AT samples from 131 children and 23 adults by histological, immunohistochemical and expression analyses. We detected brown-like and UCP...

  20. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Ions to Brown Algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to ...