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Sample records for brown planthopper nilaparvata

  1. Dynamics of imidacloprid resistance and cross-resistance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominant and extensive use of imidacloprid for suppressing the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, has placed heavy selection pressure on the target insect. A systematic study was carried out to determine imidacloprid resistance dynamics and cross-resistance. A 3-yr monitoring data (2005-2007) sh...

  2. Inheritance Mode and Realized Heritability of Resistance to Imidacloprid in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...

  3. Effects of nitrogen on the tolerance of brown planthopper,Nilaparvata Lugens, to adverse environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-XIANLU; KONG-LUENHEONG; XIAO-PINGYU; CUIHU

    2005-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen content in rice plants on the tolerance of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal to high temperature, starvation and insecticide, was studied in the laboratory at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. Survival of nymphs and adults, fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly increased by the increase of nitrogen content in host plants at 38℃. Moreover, the survival of nymphs,fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly higher in BPH populations on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen than those on rice plants with a low nitrogen regimen.Meanwhile, the tolerance of female adults to starvation and nymphs to growth regulator buprofezin on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen were slightly increased. This indicates that the tolerances of BPH to adverse environmental stresses were positively increased by the application of nitrogenous fertilizer. The outbreak potential of BPH induced by the excessive application of fertilizer in rice fields was also discussed.

  4. Bacterial Community in Different Populations of Rice Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; YANG Ya-jun; WANG Xin; YE Gong-yin; LU Zhong-xian

    2014-01-01

    The structures of bacterial communities in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) from different geographic and resistant virulent populations were analyzed by using denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that the bacterial communities in BPH nymph from the first to the fifth instars varied with nymphal growth and development. The bacterial communities in the first-instar BPH nymph were similar to those in adults. Nine geographic BPH populations were divided into three groups based on the cluster analysis of DGGE fingerprint. The first group was from the Philippines;the second group was from Thailand and Hainan, Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces of China; and the third group was from Vietnam and Guangxi, Hunan and Jiangxi provinces of China. BPH populations adapted to different resistant rice varieties. The BPH populations from Mudgo (with resistant gene Bph1) and ASD7 (with resistant gene bph2) differed with those of the susceptible rice variety TN1.

  5. Genomic resources for the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens: Transcriptome pyrosequencing and microarray design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Bass; Martin Bay Hebsgaard; Joseph Hughes

    2012-01-01

    The brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens is a pest of cultivated rice throughout Asia and is controlled using insecticides and/or resistant rice varieties.This species has developed resistance to many classes of insecticide and biotypes have developed that are virulent against formerly resistant rice cultivars.Insects use a suite of detoxification enzymes,including cytochrome P450s,glutathione S-transferases and carboxyl/cholinesterases to defend themselves against plant secondary metabolites and pesticides.Pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-FLX platform was used to produce a substantial expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset to complement the existing Sanger sequenced ESTs in GenBank.A total of 78 959 reads were combined with the 37 392 publically available Sanger ESTs; these assembled into 8 911 contigs and 10 620 singletons.Analysis of the distribution of tentative unique genes (TUGs) with the gene ontology for biological processes and molecular functions suggests that the 454 and Sanger EST assembly is broadly representative of the N.lugens transcriptome.The brown planthopper transcriptome was found to contain 31 TUGs encoding P450s,nine encoding glutathione S-transferases and 26 encoding carboxyl/cholinesterases and many of these are putatively involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics.The Agilent eArray platform was used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray populated with probes for ~ 19 000 unigene sequences,including all those known to encode detoxification enzymes.The genomic resources developed in this study will be useful to the community studying this crop pest and will help elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying insecticide resistance and planthopper adaptation to resistant rice cultivars.

  6. Bio-effects of near-zero magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus and brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gui-jun; Jiang, Shou-lin; Zhao, Zong-chao; Xu, Jing-jing; Tao, Xiao-rong; Sword, Gregory A; Gao, Yue-bo; Pan, Wei-dong; Chen, Fa-jun

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic fields markedly affect the growth and development of many species of organisms potentially due to cryptochrome and endogenous presence of magnetic materials. Sensitivity to magnetic fields can also be involved in geomagnetic orientation by some long-distance migratory insects. In this study, near-zero magnetic fields (NZMF) in relation to normal geomagnetic fields (GMF) were setup using the Hypomagnetic Field Space System (HMFs) to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of two species of migratory planthopper, the small brown planthopper (abbr. SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, and the brown planthopper (abbr. BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. Exposure of both L. striatellus and N. lugens to NZMF delayed egg and nymphal developmental durations and decreased adult weight and female fecundity. The 1st-5th instars of SBPH and BPH showed different responses to NZMF. The 4th instar was significantly affected by NZMF, especially for BPH males, in which NZMF exposure reduced the difference in development duration between females and males. Compared with GMF, the vitellogenin transcript levels of newly molted female adults and the number of eggs per female were significantly reduced in both planthopper species, indicating a negative effect on fertility under NZMF. Our findings provided experimental evidence that NZMF negatively affected the growth and development of SBPH and BPH, with particularly strong effects on reproduction.

  7. Radar observations of the seasonal migration of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, H; Jiang, C; Zhang, Y; Yang, X; Cheng, D

    2014-12-01

    The summer and autumn migrations of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) were observed in Southern China with a millimetric scanning entomological radar and a searchlight trap supplemented with capture in field cages, field surveys, and dissections of females. Nilaparvata lugens took off at dusk and dawn in summer, but in autumn there was sometimes only a dusk take-off. The variation of the area density of the radar targets indicated that flight durations were about 9-10 h. In summer, planthopper-size targets generally flew below 1800 m above ground level (AGL), although some insects reached 2000 m AGL; in autumn, they flew lower, generally below 1100 m although some insects reached 1700 m AGL. Multiple layer concentrations were seen every night in both summer and autumn. The depths of these layers in autumn were less than in summer. Nilaparvata lugens flew in strong winds; wind shear may be the main factor causing them to accumulate and form dense layers at certain heights. Nilaparvata lugens emigrating in summer from the vicinity of the radar site in the Northeastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and carried by the prevailing southwesterly wind, would have travelled northeastwards and reached Northern Hunan Province. In autumn, with the prevailing northeasterly wind, emigrants would have reached overwintering areas (south of 21°N).

  8. Can tropical insects stand the heat? A case study with the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiranan Piyaphongkul

    Full Text Available The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål is the most serious pest of rice across the world, especially in tropical climates. N. lugens nymphs and adults were exposed to high temperatures to determine their critical thermal maximum (CT(max, heat coma temperature (HCT and upper lethal temperature (ULT. Thermal tolerance values differed between developmental stages: nymphs were consistently less heat tolerant than adults. The mean (± SE CT(max of nymphs and adult females and males were 34.9±0.3, 37.0±0.2 and 37.4±0.2°C respectively, and for the HCT were 37.7±0.3, 43.5±0.4 and 42.0±0.4°C. The ULT₅₀ values (± SE for nymphs and adults were 41.8±0.1 and 42.5±0.1°C respectively. The results indicate that nymphs of N. lugens are currently living at temperatures close to their upper thermal limits. Climate warming in tropical regions and occasional extreme high temperature events are likely to become important limiting factors affecting the survival and distribution of N. lugens.

  9. Evidence for the presence of biogenic magnetic particles in the nocturnal migratory brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weidong; Wan, Guijun; Xu, Jingjing; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yuxin; Qi, Liping; Chen, Fajun

    2016-01-05

    Biogenic magnetic particles have been detected in some migratory insects, which implies the basis of magnetoreception mechanism for orientation and navigation. Here, the biogenic magnetic particles in the migratory brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were qualitatively measured by SQUID magnetometry, and their characteristics were further determined by Prussian Blue staining, electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results indicate that there were remarkable magnetic materials in the abdomens and not in the head or thorax of the 3(rd)-5(th) instar nymphs, and in macropterous and brachypterous female and male adults of BPH. The size of magnetic particles was shown to be between 50-450 nm with a shape factor estimate of between 0.8-1.0 for all the tested BPHs. Moreover, the amount of magnetic particles was associated with the developmental stage (the 3(rd)-5(th) instar), wing form (macropterous vs. brachypterous) and sex. The macropterous female adults had the largest amount of magnetic particles. Although the existence of magnetic particles in the abdomens of BPH provides sound basis for the assumption of magnetic orientation, further behavioral studies and complementary physical characterization experiments should be conducted to determine whether the orientation behavior of BPH is associated with the magnetic particles detected in this study.

  10. Genetic Dissection of Sympatric Populations of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, Using DALP-PCR Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Latif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct amplified length polymorphism (DALP combines the advantages of a high-resolution fingerprint method and also characterizing the genetic polymorphisms. This molecular method was also found to be useful in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens species complex for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. A total of 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. were collected from 6 locations from Malaysia. Two sympatric populations of brown planthopper, N. lugens, one from rice and the other from a weed grass (Leersia hexandra, were collected from each of five locations. N. bakeri was used as an out group. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs, DALP231/DALPR′5, DALP234/DALPR′5, and DALP235/DALPR′5 were applied in this study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distances for the 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. revealed that populations belonging to the same species and the same host type clustered together irrespective of their geographical localities of capture. The populations of N. lugens formed into two distinct clusters, one was insects with high esterase activities usually captured from rice and the other was with low esterase activities usually captured from L. hexandra. N. bakeri, an out group, was the most isolated group. Analyses of principal components, molecular variance, and robustness also supported greatly to the findings of cluster analysis.

  11. Effect of Nitrogen on Water Content, Sap Flow, and Tolerance of Rice Plants to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S. VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K. L. HEONG; HU Cui

    2004-01-01

    Water content (WC) and sap flow from leaf sheath of rice plants with varying nitrogen levels at different growth stages,and fluctuations in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants being damaged by brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were determined in the laboratory, and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH at different nitrogen regimes was evaluated in the greenhouse at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Philippines. The results indicated that both WC and RWC were increased significantly, as the amount of sap flow from rice plants was reduced statistically, with the increase of nitrogen content in rice plants. RWC in rice plants applied with high nitrogen fertilizer decreased drastically by the injury of BPH nymphs, while the reduced survival duration of rice plants with the increase of nitrogen content was recorded. These may be considered to be one of the important factors in increasing the susceptibility to BPH damage on rice plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer.

  12. Effect of Nitrogen on Water Content, Sap Flow, and Tolerance of Rice Plants to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuZhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YuXiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HuCui

    2004-01-01

    Water content (WC) and sap flow from leaf sheath of rice plants with varying nitrogen levels at different growth stages and fluctuations in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants being damaged by brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were determincd in the laboratory, and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH at different nitrogen regimes was evaluated in the greenhouse at International Rice Research institute (1RRI), the Philippines. The results indicated that both WC and RWC were increased significantly, as the amount of sap flow from rice plants was reduced statistically, with the in crease of nitrogen content inrice plants. RWC in rice plants applied with high nitrogen fertilizer decreased drastically by the injury, of BPH nymphs, while the reduced survival duration of rice plants with the increase of nitrogen content was recorded. These may be considered to be one of the important factors in increasing the susceptibility' to BPH damage on rice plants applied with nitrogen fertilizer

  13. Relationship Between the Development of Methamidophos Resistance and the Activities of Three Detoxifying Enzymes in Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIuZe-wen; HANZhao-jun; ZHANGLing-chun

    2004-01-01

    Methamidophos resistance of brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens was selected in laboratory for 19 generations (F1 to F19). The resistance development in BPH was approximatively shaped as the letter "S" : resistance change was small before the fifth generation and after the fifteenth generation, and the changing pattern was sharp between the fifth and the fifteenth generation. Esterase might play an important role in the resistance development, because the esterase activity and the number of individuals with high activities increased along with the resistance development. The esterase activities of insecticide-sensitive population S, field population F0, its selective generations F, F10 and F15 were highly correlated with the resistance ratios of these generations, and the coefficient was 0.9899. Mixed-function oxidases and giutathione S-transferase also might play some roles in the resistance development, but the big change in the activities of the two detoxifying enzymes both took place before the tenth generation.

  14. Relationship Between the Development of Methamidophos Resistance and the Activities of Three Detoxifying Enzymes in Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ze-wen; HAN Zhao-jun; ZHANG Ling-chun

    2004-01-01

    Methamidophos resistance of brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens was selected in laboratory for 19 generations (F1 to F19). The resistance development in BPH was approximatively shaped as the letter "S" : resistance change was small before the fifth generation and after the fifteenth generation, and the changing pattern was sharp between the fifth and the fifteenth generation. Esterase might play an important role in the resistance development, because the esterase activity and the number of individuals with high activities increased along with the resistance development. The esterase activities of insecticide-sensitive population S, field population F0, its selective generations Fs, F10 and F15 were highly correlated with the resistance ratios of these generations, and the coefficient was 0.9899. Mixed-function oxidases and glutathione S-transferase also might play some roles in the resistance development, but the big change in the activities of the two detoxifying enzymes both took place before the tenth generation.

  15. β-Glucosidase treatment and infestation by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens elicit similar signaling pathways in rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    β-Glucosidase has been reported to induce the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles.However,how it works remains unclear.Here,we investigated the levels of salicylic acid(SA),iasmonic acid (JA),ethylene,and H2O2,all of which are known signaling molecules that play important roles in induced plant defense in rice plants treated with β-glucosidase,and compared these to levels in plants infested by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l).Results showed that wounding and treatment by β-glucosidase increased the levels of SA,ethylene,and H2O2.but not JA,in all plants compared to control plants.The signaling pathways activated by β-glucosidase treatment are similar to those activated by an infestation by N.lugens,although the magnitude and timing of the signals elicited by the two treatments are different.This may explain why both treatments have similar volatile profiles and are equally attractive to the parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

  16. Role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yujie; WANG Xia; LOU Yonggen; CHENG Jiaan

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role in induced plant direct defense against herbivores and pathogens; however, up to now, only few researches have focused on its role in induced plant indirect defense, i.e. the release of herbivore-induced volatiles, and the results are variable.Using a model system consisting of rice plants, the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae, we examined the role of ethylene signaling in the production of rice volatiles induced by N. lugens by measuring both the timing of herbivore-induced ethylene levels and the relationships between ethylene, rice volatiles and attraction of the parasitoid. N. lugens infestation significantly enhanced the release of ethylene during 2-24 h after infestation. Plants treated with ethephon, a compound that breaks down to release ethylene at cytoplasmic pH, released volatiles profiles similar to those released by N.lugens-infested plants,and both of them showed an equal attraction of the parasitoid. Moreover, pretreatment with 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene perception, reduced the release of most of rice volatiles whose amount was enhanced by N.lugens infestation and decreased the attractiveness to the parasitoid. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling is required for the production of rice volatiles induced by N.lugens.

  17. Cultivation, identification and quantification of one species of yeast-like symbiotes, Candida, in the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Pang; Sheng-Zhang Dong; Yun Hou; Ya-Lin Bian; Ke Yang; Xiao-Ping Yu

    2012-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l,which is one of the most destructive pests of rice,has been confirmed to harbor yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) in the fat body.Several morphologically different YLS have been previously isolated and cultured in vitro from BPH,but direct evidence is lacking to further clarify whether the cultured YLS were from BPH.In this study,one species of YLS was successfully cultured in vitro and simultaneously verified to exist in the fat body of BPH by sequence analysis and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The cultured YLS isolate in vitro was identified as a member of the genus Candida on the basis of 18S rDNA (ribosomal DNA) and 5.8S-ITS (internal transcribed spacer) rDNA sequence and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences from yeast.Therefore,this yeast isolate was named as Candida-like symbiotes.Candida-like symbiotes was found to exist in fat bodies,ovaries and newly laid eggs of the BPH,but not in the heads,thoraxes and mid-guts.In addition,the number of Candida-like symbiotes in 1 x 106 of purified YLS from BPH fat bodies was speculated to be (5.32 ± 0.22) × 104 on the basis of a quantitative PCR analysis.

  18. Ferritin acts as the most abundant binding protein for snowdrop lectin in the midgut of rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Foissac, X; Carss, A; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    2000-04-01

    The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)] displays toxicity to the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. A 26kDa GNA-binding polypeptide from N. lugens midgut was identified by lectin blotting and affinity chromatography, and characterized by N-terminal sequencing. This polypeptide is the most abundant binding protein for GNA in the N. lugens midgut. A cDNA (fersub2) encoding this protein was isolated from an N. lugens cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to ferritin subunits from Manduca sexta and other arthropods, plants and vertebrates, and contains a putative N-glycosylation site. Native ferritin was purified from whole insects as a protein of more than 400kDa in size and characterized biochemically. Three subunits of 20, 26 and 27kDa were released from the native complex. The 26kDa subunit binds GNA, and its N-terminal sequence was identical to that of fersub2. A second cDNA (fersub1), exhibiting strong homology with dipteran ferritin, was identified as an abundant cDNA in an N. lugens midgut-specific cDNA library, and could encode the larger ferritin subunit. The fersub1 cDNA carries a stem-loop structure (iron-responsive element) upstream from the start codon, similar to structures that have been shown to play a role in the control of ferritin synthesis in other insects.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of neuropeptides and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) for neuropeptides in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Noda, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2014-03-01

    The genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors were identified in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) by transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq). Forty-eight candidate genes were found to encode neuropeptides or peptide hormones. These include all known insect neuropeptides and neurohormones, with the exception of neuropeptide-like precursor 2 (NPLP2) and trissin. The gene coding for prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was first identified from hemimetabolous insect. A total of 57 putative neuropeptide GPCR genes were identified and phylogenetic analysis showed most of them to be closely related to insect GPCRs. A notable finding was the occurrence of vertebrate hormone receptors, thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR)-like GPCR and parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR)-like GPCRs. These results suggest that N. lugens possesses the most comprehensive neuropeptide system yet found in insects. Moreover, our findings demonstrate the power of RNA-seq as a tool for analyzing the neuropeptide-related genes in the absence of whole genome sequence information.

  20. Immunohistochemical and developmental studies to elucidate the mechanism of action of the snowdrop lectin on the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.; Bharathi, M; Spence, J; Powell, K S.

    1998-07-01

    Rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) were fed on artificial diet containing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA), which has been shown to be toxic towards this insect pest. In addition to decreasing survival, the lectin affected development, reducing the growth rate of nymphs by approximately 50% when present at a concentration of 5.3&mgr;M. Immunolocalisation studies showed that lectin binding was concentrated on the luminal surface of the midgut epithelial cells within the planthopper, suggesting that GNA binds to cell surface carbohydrate moieties in the gut. Immunolabelling at a lower level was also observed in the fat bodies, the ovarioles, and throughout the haemolymph. These observations suggest that GNA is able to cross the midgut epithelial barrier, and pass into the insect's circulatory system, resulting in a systemic toxic effect. Electron microscope studies showed morphological changes in the midgut region of planthoppers fed on a toxic dose of GNA, with disruption of the microvilli brush border region. No significant proteolytic degradation of GNA was observed either in the gut or honeydew of planthoppers fed on lectin-containing diet. The presence of glycoproteins which bind GNA in the gut of the brown planthopper was confirmed using digoxigen-labeled lectins to probe blots of extracted gut polypeptides.

  1. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Jiarong Meng; Juma Ibrahim Mabubu; Yu Han; Yueping He; Jing Zhao; Hongxia Hua; Yanni Feng; Gang Wu

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In t...

  2. Heat stress impedes development and lowers fecundity of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiranan Piyaphongkul

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of sub-lethal high temperatures on the development and reproduction of the brown plant hopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål. When first instar nymphs were exposed at their ULT(50 (41.8°C mean development time to adult was increased in both males and females, from 15.2±0.3 and 18.2±0.3 days respectively in the control to 18.7±0.2 and 19±0.2 days in the treated insects. These differences in development arising from heat stress experienced in the first instar nymph did not persist into the adult stage (adult longevity of 23.5±1.1 and 24.4±1.1 days for treated males and females compared with 25.7±1.0 and 20.6±1.1 days in the control groups, although untreated males lived longer than untreated females. Total mean longevity was increased from 38.8±0.1 to 43.4±1.0 days in treated females, but male longevity was not affected (40.9±0.9 and 42.2±1.1 days respectively. When male and female first instar nymphs were exposed at their ULT(50 of 41.8°C and allowed to mate on reaching adult, mean fecundity was reduced from 403.8±13.7 to 128.0±16.6 eggs per female in the treated insects. Following exposure of adult insects at their equivalent ULT(50 (42.5°C, the three mating combinations of treated male x treated female, treated male x untreated female, and untreated male x treated female produced 169.3±14.7, 249.6±21.3 and 233.4±17.2 eggs per female respectively, all significantly lower than the control. Exposure of nymphs and adults at their respective ULT(50 temperatures also significantly extended the time required for their progeny to complete egg development for all mating combinations compared with control. Overall, sub-lethal heat stress inhibited nymphal development, lowered fecundity and extended egg development time.

  3. Jinggangmycin increases fecundity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) via fatty acid synthase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Jiang, Yiping; Liu, Zongyu; You, Linlin; Wu, You; Xu, Bing; Ge, Linquan; Stanley, David; Song, Qisheng; Wu, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    The antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) is mainly used in controlling the rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, in China. JGM also enhances reproduction of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). To date, however, molecular mechanisms of the enhancement are unclear. Our related report documented the influence of foliar JGM sprays on ovarian protein content. Here, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) protocols to analyze ovarian proteins of BPH females following JGM spray (JGM-S) and topical application (JGM-T). We recorded changes in expression of 284 proteins (142↑ and 142↓) in JGM-S compared to the JGM-S control group (S-control); 267 proteins were differentially expressed (130↑ and 137↓) in JGM-T compared to the JGM-T control group (T-control), of which, 22 proteins were up-regulated in both groups. Comparing the JGM-S to the JGM-T group, 114 proteins were differentially expressed (62↑ and 52↓). Based on the biological significance of fatty acids, pathway annotation and enrichment analysis, we designed a dsRNA construct to silence a gene encoding fatty acid synthase (FAS). FAS was more highly expressed in JGM-S vs S-control and JGM-S vs JGM-T groups. The dsFAS treatment reduced fecundity by about 46% and reduced ovarian and fat body fatty acid concentrations in JGM-S-treated females relative to controls. We infer FAS provides critically needed fatty acids to support JGM-enhanced fecundity in BPH.

  4. Re-emigration Capacity of the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens%褐飞虱的再迁飞能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封传红; 翟保平; 张孝羲

    2001-01-01

    Re-emigration potential of the brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens after an emigration and feeding different resistant varieties was simulated. Tethered flight of brown planthopper on a set of computerized flight mill revealed that the natural population of BPH in the rice cropping areas of the lower reaches of Yangtze River consisted of individuals with different flight characteristics, i.e., deposited type (flying less than 20 min), migratory type (flying more than 20 min, MT), strong migratory type (flying more than 160 min, SMT) and re-emigration type (2nd flying more than 20 min, RET). The flight capability and the differentiation of the MT of BPH was influenced significantly by the nutritive conditions. The individuals feeding on the sensitive varieties at heading stage would show a lower ratio of MT, but a stronger ability of migration and re-emigration among their MT individuals. The RET rate would be increased markedly by keeping apart the females, and the SMT individuals would display higher performance of re-emigration. There would only be 0.84 and 4.9 percent of the RET BPH among the natural populations and MT individuals respectively.%通过室内模拟试验研究了褐飞虱经过一次远迁降落、取食不同食料后的再迁飞能力。根据吊飞试验测得的飞行能力可将褐飞虱种群分为居留型(小于20min)、迁飞型(20min以上)、强迁飞型(160min以上)和再迁飞型(二次吊飞飞行20min以上)。不同营养条件对褐飞虱的飞行能力和迁飞型的分化有显著影响,早期营养条件好(取食穗期感性水稻品种)的迁飞型比率较低,但迁飞型个体的飞行能力和再迁飞能力均较强。未交配能显著提高再迁飞型比率。自然种群中褐飞虱再迁飞型比率仅占0.84%,吊飞一次后的迁飞型个体再次吊飞时的再迁飞型比率为4.9%,且强迁飞型个体具有较强的再迁飞能力。

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a juvenile hormone esterase gene from brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhua; Yang, Baojun; Gu, Jianhua; Yao, Xiangmei; Zhang, Yixi; Song, Feng; Liu, Zewen

    2008-12-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays key roles in the regulation of growth, development, diapause and reproduction in insects, and juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an important role in regulating JH titers. We obtained a full-length cDNA encoding JHE in Nilaparvata lugens (NlJHE), the first JHE gene cloned from the hemipteran insects. The deduced protein sequence of Nljhe contains the five conserved motifs identified in JHEs of other insect species, including a consensus GQSAG motif that is required for the enzymatic activity of JHE proteins. Nljhe showed high amino acid similarities with Athalia rosae JHE (40%) and Apis mellifera JHE (39%). Recombinant NlJHE protein expressed in the baculovirus expression system hydrolyzed [3H] JH III at high activity and yielded the specificity constants (kcat/KM=4.28x10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) close to those of the validated JHEs from other insect species, indicating that Nljhe cDNA encodes a functional JH esterase. The Nljhe transcript was expressed mainly in the fat body and the expression level reached a peak at 48 h after ecdysis of the 5th instar nymphs. In the 5th instar, macropterous insects showed significantly higher Nljhe mRNA levels and JHE activities, but much lower JH III levels, than those detected in the brachypterous insects soon after ecdysis and at 48 h after ecdysis. These data suggest that NlJHE might play important roles in regulation of JH levels and wing form differentiation.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangcun He

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Homoptera: Delphacidae is an economically important pest on rice. In this study, 30 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from N. lugens genomic libraries using the method of Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence Containing Repeats (FIASCO. Polymorphism of each locus was detected in 48 individuals from two natural populations. These microsatellite loci revealed 2 to 18 alleles, and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.042 to 0.937 and from 0.042 to 0.958, respectively. These markers will be useful for the future study of this agricultural pest in population genetics and molecular genetics.

  7. Insecticide resistance monitoring and correlation analysis of insecticides in field populations of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (stål) in China 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Liao, Xun; Mao, Kaikai; Zhang, Kaixiong; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The brown planthopper is a serious rice pest in China. Chemical insecticides have been considered a satisfactory means of controlling the brown planthopper. In the present study, we determined the susceptibility of twenty-one populations of Nilaparvata lugens to eleven insecticides by a rice-stem dipping method from 2012 to 2014 in eight provinces of China. These field-collected populations of N. lugens had developed high levels of resistance to imidacloprid (resistant ratio, RR=233.3-2029-fold) and buprofezin (RR=147.0-1222). Furthermore, N. lugens showed moderate to high levels of resistance to thiamethoxam (RR=25.9-159.2) and low to moderate levels of resistance to dinotefuran (RR=6.4-29.1), clothianidin (RR=6.1-33.6), ethiprole (RR=11.5-71.8), isoprocarb (RR=17.1-70.2), and chlorpyrifos (RR=7.4-30.7). In contrast, the susceptibility of N. lugens to etofenprox (RR=1.1-4.9), thiacloprid (RR=2.9-8.2) and acetamiprid (RR=2.7-26.2) remained susceptible to moderate levels of resistance. Significant correlations were detected between the LC50 values of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, buprofezin, and etofenprox, as well as between clothianidin and thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, ethiprole, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid. Similarly, significant correlations were observed between chlorpyrifos and etofenprox, acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Additionally, the activity of the detoxification enzymes of N. lugens showed a significant correlation with the log LC50 values of imidacloprid, dinotefuran and ethiprole. These results will be beneficial for effective insecticide resistance management strategies to prevent or delay the development of insecticide resistance.

  8. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-07-22

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible.

  9. Immunodetection of a brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) salivary catalase-like protein into tissues of rice, Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, A; Smith, C M

    2014-02-01

    Saliva plays an important role in host plant-phloem-feeding insect molecular interactions. To better elucidate the role of insect saliva, a series of experiments were conducted to establish if catalase from the salivary glands of the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) was secreted into rice host plant tissue during feeding. Catalase is the main enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at high concentrations. H2O2 is a part of the free radicals system that mediates important physiological roles including signalling and defence. Previous studies have suggested that H2O2 is involved in the rice endogenous response to BPH feeding. If, the BPH secretes catalase into host plant tissue this will counter the effects of H2O2, from detoxification to interfering with plant signalling and defence mechanisms. When BPHs were fed on a hopper-resistant rice variety for 24 h, catalase activity in the salivary glands increased 3.5-fold compared with hoppers fed on a susceptible rice variety. Further supporting evidence of the effects of BPH catalase was demonstrated by immunodetection analyses where results from two independent sources: BPH-infested rice tissue and BPH-probed artificial diets, suggest that the BPH secretes catalase-like protein during feeding. The possible physiological roles of BPH-secreted catalase are discussed.

  10. Resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens) and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in transgenic rice expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissac, X; Thi Loc, N; Christou, P; Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.

    2000-04-01

    Transgenic rice plants expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) were screened for resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens; GLH), a major homopteran pest of rice. Survival was reduced by 29% and 53% (P<0.05) respectively, on plants where GNA expression was tissue-specific (phloem and epidermal layer) or constitutive. Similar levels of resistance in GNA-expressing transgenic rice were previously reported for rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH). GNA binding to glycoproteins in gut tissues showed that BPH contained more "receptors" than GLH, and that the binding affinity was stronger, particularly in the midgut. Subsequent toxicity of GNA is thus unlikely to be directly related to the amount of lectin bound. GNA was not detected in the honeydew of either insect species when they were fed on GNA-expressing plants, in contrast to results from artificial diet studies. This result suggests that GNA is not being delivered to the insect efficiently. When offered a free choice vs control plants, BPH nymphs tended to avoid plants expressing GNA; avoidance was less pronounced and took longer to develop on plants where GNA expression was tissue-specific, In contrast to BPH, GLH nymphs were attracted to plants expressing GNA, whether constitutively or in a tissue-specific manner.

  11. Effects of herbivore-induced rice volatiles on the host selection behavior of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that herbivore would react to volatiles produced by herbivore infested plant due to potential change, either positive or negative, in the acceptability of the host plant. This hypothesis was tested for the brown planthopper (BPH) in the laboratory. Sixteen components of the headspace volatiles from rice seedlings with different treatments were collected with SPME and Tenax-TA trap and analyzed with GC and GC-MS. Significant differences in volatile emissions were observed for rice plants with different treatments. Undamaged control plants, mechanically damaged plants and the plants infested by BPH for 1 or 2 d emitted much lower amounts of volatiles compared to the plants infested by BPH for 3 or 5 d. The plants infested by BPH for 3 or 5 d emitted several volatiles that were not detected in undamaged control plants, mechanically damaged plants or the plants infested by BPH for 1 or 2 d. Spodoptera litura infested plants released much higher amounts of volatiles than those in all other treatments, and the contents of several green leaf volatiles, methyl salicylate and terpenoids increased dramatically. In dual-choice flight tunnel experiments, adult BPH females showed no significant preference between the untreated healthy plants and mechanically damaged plants or the plants infested by BPH adult females. However, rice plants damaged by S. litura had a clearly repellent effects on BPH adult females compared to healthy undamaged plants, mechanically damaged plants or the plants infested by BPH.

  12. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis ofKrüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) in the Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Min-na; XUE Jian; YAO Yun; LIN Xin-da

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is the most serious insect pest of rice. It has developed high resistance to traditional insecticides because of their intensive use. Juvenile hormone (JH) analogs have been used successfully to control this species and other pest insects. However, the molecular mechanism of JH signaling is not well understood.Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is a transcription factor involved in the JH pathway. In this study, theKr-h1cDNA was cloned and characterized from N. lugens by rapid ampliifcation of cDNA ends (RACE) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Its spatial and temporal expression proifles were examined by real-time quantitative PCR, and its function was also studied by RNA interference (RNAi). The open reading frame ofNlKr-h1 is 1833 bp encoding for 611 amino acids. The protein contains eight conserved zinc-ifnger motifs.NlKr-h1 was expressed at all life stages, with the highest mRNA level in the 4-day embryo.NlKr-h1 mRNA levels rose during each nymphal molt after the 2nd instar. In the adults, the mRNA level in males was signiifcantly higher than that in females of either the macropterous or brachypterous type. The highest expression was observed in the female midgut.NlKr-h1 was activated by juvenile hormone III (JH III) in the 3rd-5th instar nymphs. Disruption ofNlkr-h1expression by RNAi caused stunted wing development and malformations of both male and female external genitalia. Our ifndings suggest thatKr-h1may be a useful target for pest insect management.

  13. Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice: from Germplasm to Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C. He

    2007-01-01

    @@ The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive and widespread insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa) that can be found throughout the rice-growing areas in Asia, causing significant yield loss in susceptible cultivars every year.

  14. Imidacloprid-induced transference effect on some elements in rice plants and the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samer Azzam; Fan Yang; Jin-Cai Wu; Jin Geng; Guo-Qing Yang

    2011-01-01

    The widespread use of imidacloprid against insect pests has not only increased the rate of the development of target pest resistance but has also resulted in various negative effects on rice plants and Nilaparvata lugens resurgence. However, the effect of imidacloprid on elements in rice plants and the transference of these element changes between rice and N. lugens are currently poorly understood. The present study investigated changes of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K, Mg and Na contents in rice plants following imidacloprid foliar sprays in the adult female of N. lugens that develops from nymphs that feed on treated plants and honeydew produced by females. The results indicated that imidacloprid foliar spray significantly increased Fe and K contents in leaf sheaths. Generally, Fe, Mn, K and Na contents in leaf blades were noticeably decreased, but Ca contents in leaf blades for 10 and 30 mg/kg imidacloprid treatments were significantly increased. The contents of most elements except K and Mg in the adult females and honeydew were significantly elevated. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that Fe, Mn and Na in leaf blades and Fe and Mn in leaf sheaths could be proportionally transferred to N. lugens. The relationship between most elements in adult female bodies and in the honeydew showed a positive correlation coefficient. There were significant differences in the contents of some elements in rice plants and N. lugens from different regions.

  15. Resistance of transgenic rice pure lines to brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) is one of the most damaging rice insect pests. Recent studies showed that lectin (GNA), coded by the gna gene from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) was toxic to BPH in artificial diet assay (Powell et al, 1993, 1995). Here we report the development of homozygous transgenic rice lines contained the gna gene and the BPH bioassay test of the homozygous lines.

  16. Genetic Analysis and Preliminary Mapping of Two Recessive Resistance Genes to Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Li-yuan; PENG Suo-tang; WEI Xing-hua; Yu Ping; XU Qun; YUAN Xiao-ping; Yu Han-yong; WANG Yi-ping; WANG Cai-hong; WAN Guo; TANG Sheng-xiang

    2011-01-01

    An F2 population derived from the cross of WB01,an introgression line resistant to brown planthopper (BPH) originated from Oryza rufipogon Griff.and a susceptible indica variety 9311,was developed for genetic analysis and gene mapping.The population with 303 Fz:3 families was genotyped by 141 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and used for gene mapping.Two softwares,Mapmaker/Exp 3.0 and Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0 were applied to detect QTLs.Totally,two QTLs resistant to BPH,named temporarily as bph22(t) and bph23(t),were identified to locate on chromosomes 4 and 8,individually had LOD values of 2.92and 3.15,and explained 11.3% and 14.9% of the phenotypic variation,respectively.

  17. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochan; Xu, Hongxing; Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae.

  18. Genome-wide screening for components of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro-RNA (miRNA) pathways in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H-J; Chen, T; Ma, X-F; Xue, J; Pan, P-L; Zhang, X-C; Cheng, J-A; Zhang, C-X

    2013-12-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is a major rice pest in Asia, and accumulated evidence indicates that this species is susceptible to RNA interference (RNAi); however, the mechanism underlying RNAi and parental RNAi has not yet been determined. We comprehensively investigated the repertoire of core genes involved in small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro-RNA (miRNA) pathways in the BPH by comparing its newly assembled transcriptome and genome with those of Drosophila melanogaster, Tribolium castaneum and Caenorhabditis elegans. Our analysis showed that the BPH possesses one drosha and two Dicer (dcr) genes, three dsRNA-binding motif protein genes, two Argonaute (ago) genes, two Eri-1-like genes (eri-1), and a Sid-1-like gene (sid-1). Additionally, we report for first time that parental RNAi might occur in this species, and siRNA pathway and Sid-1 were required for high efficiency of systemic RNAi triggered by exogenous dsRNA. Furthermore, our results also demonstrated that the miRNA pathway was involved in BPH metamorphosis as depletion of the ago1 or dcr1 gene severely impaired ecdysis. The BPH might be a good model system to study the molecular mechanism of systemic RNAi in hemimetabolous insects, and RNAi has potential to be developed to control this pest in agricultural settings.

  19. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar 'ASD7' (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-12-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH.

  20. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar ‘ASD7’ (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH. PMID:26719745

  1. Insecticidal spider venom toxin fused to snowdrop lectin is toxic to the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Rachel E; Fitches, Elaine C; Wiles, Duncan P; Corti, Paola; Bell, Howard A; Gatehouse, John A; Edwards, John P

    2006-01-01

    The SFI1/GNA fusion protein, comprising of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) fused to an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1, SFI1) was tested for toxicity against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) by incorporation into artificial diets. Significant effects on the mortality of N. lugens were observed, with 100% of the insects fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein diet dead by day 7. The survival of the aphid M. persicae was also reduced when fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. After 14 days, only 49% of the aphids that were fed on the fusion protein were still alive compared with approximately 90% of the aphids fed on the control diet or on diet containing GNA only. The SFI1/GNA fusion protein also slowed the development of M. persicae, and the reproductive capacity of the aphids fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein was severely reduced. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein, and deliver the SFI1 neurotoxin to the haemolymph of N. lugens, following oral ingestion, was investigated. The successful delivery of intact SFI1/GNA fusion protein to the haemolymph of these insects was shown by western blotting. Haemolymph taken from the insects that were fed on the fusion protein contained two GNA-immunoreactive proteins of molecular weights corresponding to GNA and to the SFI1/GNA fusion protein.

  2. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Rice Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Bao-kun; HUANG Jian-li; HU Chao-xing; HOU Mao-lin

    2014-01-01

    It is predicted that the current atmospheric CO2 concentration will be doubled and global mean temperature will increase by 1.5-6°C by the end of this century. Although a number of studies have addressed the separate effects of CO2 and temperature on plant-insect interactions, few have concerned with their combined impacts. In the current study, a factorial experiment was carried out to examine the effect of a doubling CO2 concentration and a 3°C temperature increase on a complete generation of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) on rice (Oryza sativa). Both elevated CO2 and temperature increased rice stem height and biomass of stem parts. Leaf chlorophyll content increased under elevated CO2, but only in ambient temperature treatment. Water content of stem parts was reduced under elevated temperature, but only when coupled with elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 alone increased biomass of root and elevated temperature alone enhanced leaf area and reduced ratio of root to stem parts. Brown planthopper (BPH) nymphal development was accelerated, and weight of and honeydew excretion by the F1 adults was reduced under elevated temperature only. Longevity of brachypterous females was affected by a signiifcant interaction between CO2 and temperature. At elevated temperature, CO2 had no effect on female longevity, but at ambient temperature, the females lived shorter under elevated CO2. Female fecundity was higher at elevated than at ambient temperature and higher at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2. These results indicate that the combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 may enhance the brown planthopper population size.

  3. Insecticide resistance selection in rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stal) and white backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) are the main insects on rice in China. The insecticide resistance of the two planthoppers have often been reported. Availability of the resistant population is a prerequisite for studying the resistance mechanism. In this paper, one method to select methamidophos resistance of the two planthoppers was recommended.

  4. Virulence of Metarhizium flavoviride 82 to different developmental stages of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:Delphacidae)%黄绿绿僵菌Mf82菌株对不同虫态褐飞虱的毒力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂业; 林华峰; 李世广; 金立

    2012-01-01

    对水稻重要害虫褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens目前市场上尚无一种理想的微生物杀虫剂.昆虫病原真菌具有从体壁侵入的能力因而对刺吸性害虫的防治具有优势.为此,本研究选用不同原寄主和来源地的3种昆虫病原真菌(金龟子绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae、黄绿绿僵菌Metarhizium flavoviride和球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana)的12个不同菌株,以1 100孢子/mm2孢子悬浮液进行室内毒力测定.结果表明:在参试的不同菌种12个菌株中,黄绿绿僵菌Mf82菌株对褐飞虱成虫致病力最高,10 d累计校正死亡率为83.5%,致死中时(LT50)为4.6d.其不同浓度孢子液对褐飞虱3个发育阶段有不同程度的致病力,毒力大小顺序为成虫>高龄若虫>低龄若虫.黄绿绿僵菌孢子液对各处理稻株褐飞虱产卵痕部位、卵粒均有侵染作用,10d侵染率分别为66.7%和51.2%,卵龄越低,侵染效果越好,卵龄为0.5d时侵染率最高.本研究表明黄绿绿僵菌Mf82菌株对褐飞虱成虫、若虫和卵均有较强的致病性,是一株极具应用潜力的生防真菌.%At present there still lacks ideal commercial microbial insecticides to control the brown planthopper ( BPH) , Nilaparvata lugens (Stil) , an important pest of rice in Asia. Entomopathogenic fungi can penetrate the cuticle of insect hosts and thus have the advantage of controlling sucking pests. In this study, laboratory bioassays were carried out on 12 isolates of three entomopathogenic fungal species, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium flavoviride and Beauveria bassiana, which were originally obtained from various hosts and geographic origins, for their virulence against BPH adults. The results showed that at the concentration of 1 100 conidia/mm2, the strain Mf82 had the highest virulence to adults with the corrected mortality reaching 83.5% within 10 d after treatment and the LT50 value 4.65 d. The pathogenicity of Mf82 to adults, nymphs at different instars and

  5. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of N lTgo in the Rice Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:Delphacidae)%褐飞虱 NlTgo 基因的克隆及功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙飞; 万品俊; 王渭霞; 傅强; 朱廷恒

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulator Tango (Tgo)plays crucial roles in insect development,including neurogenesis, hematopoiesis,sex determination and gut development.In this study,a full-length cDNA of Tango was cloned in Nilaparvata lugens .qRT-PCR and RNA interference (RNAi)were further used to analyze the expression pattern and function role,respectively.Our results showed that NlTgo contained a 2007-bp open reading frame (ORF),encoding 669 amino acid residues.Sequence alignment showed that NlTgo shared an identity of 68% with Pediculus humanus . Phylogenetic analysis suggested that NlTgo was closely related to the Tango proteins from Acyrthosiphon pisum , P yrrhocoris apterus and Cimex lectularius .Expression profile revealed that NlTgo expression was higher in the first-and second-instar larvae than that in eggs.Furthermore,the expression level of NlTgo was higher in ovary than that in integument.Knocking down of NlTgo ,in the 4th-instar nymph,was performed by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting NlTgo .It was found that the expression level of NlTgo ,4 days after injection,was significantly decreased by 77%,compared with control.Furthermore,nymphs died due to the abnormal molting,and the survival rate was only 23%,significantly lower than control group (98%).The results suggest that NlTgo is involved in the development of N .lugens and can serve as a potential target for controlling the brown planthopper.%转录因子 Tango(Tgo)在昆虫神经元发生、血细胞生成、性别决定、肠道发育等过程中发挥重要作用.克隆了褐飞虱Tango 基因(NlTgo ),应用荧光定量 PCR 和 RNAi 探索了 NlTgo 在褐飞虱中的表达动态和生物学功能.结果表明,NlTgo的开放阅读框为2007 bp,推测编码669个氨基酸残基.多序列比对表明 NlTgo 与已知的 Tgo 高度同源,其中与人体虱(Pediculus humanus corporis )Tgo 的一致性达68%.系统进化分析表明,NlTgo 与豌豆长管蚜(Acyrthosiphon pisum )、始红蝽(P yrrhocoris

  6. Bionomics of brown planthopper biotype 2 from field and greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two biotype 2 populations of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens stal, were used in this experiment. One was purified by determining the weight of honeydew excreted on susceptible rice variety TN1 and resistant rice varieties Mudgo (bearing resistant gene Bph1) and ASD7 (bearing resistant gene bph2) by female adult in paddy field in Guangxi Province, south China, and the other was obtained from greenhouse and continuously reared on rice resistant variety Mudgo in IRRI, Philippines. One newly hatched nymph was introduced into the test tube containing two 60 day old rice plants and cultured at 26± 1℃ , L∶ D =12 h∶ 12 h. Sixty replications were set up for each tested rice variety. The number and instar of nymphes were recorded every day. The body weight and honeydew excreted by female adult emerged within 24 h and 72 h, the number of eggs laid, and newly hatched nymph on different resistant rice varieties were measured. The hatchability, net reproductive rate, female adult nutritional indices such as relative growth rate (RGR)and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) were calculated.

  7. Comparison for activities of antioxidant enzymes in imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible symbiotic strains in rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l)%褐飞虱共生菌抗感吡虫啉菌株体内抗氧化酶活性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 陈建明; 张珏锋; 何月平; 陈列忠

    2011-01-01

    在含不同浓度吡虫啉的综合马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂液体培养基中接种抗感吡虫啉褐飞虱共生菌菌株且培养2~6天后,通过测定抗吡虫啉菌株和敏感菌株的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和过氧化物酶(POD)等活性,阐明抗感菌株在吡虫啉胁迫下体内抗氧化酶活性的变化.结果显示,抗吡虫啉菌株和敏感菌株三种抗氧化酶活性差异明显不同,抗性菌株的SOD、POD活性(极)显著高于敏感菌株,其中抗性菌株SOD活性比敏感菌株提高了45.89%~222.53%;抗性菌株的CAT活性与敏感菌株差异无明显规律性.说明褐飞虱共生菌对吡虫啉的抗药性与其体内SOD和POD的活性增强有关.%After imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible symbiotic strains of rice brown planthopper, Ni-laparvata lugens were cultured in CPDA (comprehensive potato dextrose agar) liquid culture medium containing different concentrations of imidacloprid for two to six days, activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase) in imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible strains were determined , and change of these enzymes activities in different imidacloprid resistant strains were elucidated. The results showed that imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible strains had significant difference in activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in imidacloprid resistant strains were significantly higher than those in imidacloprid susceptible strains, and activities of superoxide dismutase in imidacloprid resistant strains had increased 45. 89% -222.53% , while change of catalase activity had no obvious regularity in imidacloprid resistant- and susceptible strains. It was suggested that resistant of N. lugens symbiotes to imidacloprid was related to enh-ancement of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities.

  8. Domestication for imidacloprid-resistant strain of rice brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l,symbiote,Candida lipolytica%褐飞虱共生解脂假丝酵母抗吡虫啉菌株的驯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 陈建明; 张珏锋; 何月平; 陈列忠

    2011-01-01

    为进一步研究共生菌在褐飞虱对吡虫啉产生抗性中的生理生化机制,在稻田杀虫剂对褐飞虱共生解脂假丝酵母生长影响的基础上,选用不同吡虫啉浓度进行抗药性菌株的驯化.结果表明,褐飞虱共生解脂假丝酵母在不同吡虫啉浓度(2000、1000和500 mg/L)的固体培养基上继代培养,经过20代后2000 mg/L培养基上的共生菌菌落数量,与未加吡虫啉的培养基上的菌落数量差异不明显,并且连续3代稳定后定为抗2000 mg/L吡虫啉的共生菌菌株.在光镜下比较不同抗感吡虫啉菌株假菌丝的形态变化,发现抗吡虫啉菌株的假菌丝出现畸形,而且假丝变短,部分出现了膨大.%To further study physiological-biochemical mechanism of symbiote in imidacloprid-resistant brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), imidacloprid-resistant strain of symbiote, Candida lipolytica,was domesticated with different concentrations of imidacloprid based on effect of insecticides on growth and development of C.lipolytica.The results indicated that after in vitro C.lipolytica, on solid culture medium containing 2 000, 1 000 and 500 mg/L imidacloprid were subcultured for continuous 20 generations, the colony numbers of C.lipolytica on solid culture medium containing 2 000 mg/L imidacloprid were no significant difference with those on control medium containing non-imidacloprid.When numbers of colony kept stable for continuous three generations, the domesticated strain was called 2 000 mg/L imidacloprid-resistant one.Morphological changes of imidacloprid -resistant and -susceptible strains pseudohyphae were further observed using light microscope, it was found that pseudohyphae of imidacloprid-resistant strain occurred malformation and become shorter, some appeared enlargement.

  9. Insecticide Susceptibility and Activity of Metabolic Enzymes of Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)(Hemiptera: Deiphacidae)Feeding on Transgenic Bt Rice%取食转Bt基因水稻褐飞虱对杀虫剂的敏感性及其代谢酶的活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆亮; 姚洪渭; 陈洋; 田俊策; 彭于发; 叶恭银

    2011-01-01

    测定比较了褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens在转cry1Ab基因水稻KMD1和KMD2及其对照秀水11上取食不同世代的室内种群和田间种群对5种杀虫剂的敏感水平及其体内解毒酶(酯酶和谷胱甘肽S-转移酶)、靶标酶(乙酰胆碱酯酶)和保护酶(超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和过氧化物酶)的活性,以及体内Cry1Ab蛋白的含量.结果表明,5种杀虫剂对分别持续取食KMD1和KMD2的褐飞虱室内种群和田间种群LD50值与取食对照的无显著差异.在KMD1和KMD2上取食1代和9代的褐飞虱室内种群以及田间种群体内解毒酶、靶标酶和保护酶等活性与取食对照的差异不显著.取食KMD的褐飞虱不同种群体内的Cry1Ab蛋白含量相对稳定,其中以取食KMD2的较高.上述结果表明,转cry1Ab基因水稻KMD1和KMD2对褐飞虱的杀虫剂敏感性和代谢酶活性无显著影响.%The toxicities of five commonly-used insecticides against different populations of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, fed on transgenic rice with crylAb gene, KMD1 and KMD2 for different generations were measured and compared with those on non-transgenic parental rice variety, Xiushui 11.Activities of detoxification enzymes (EST and GST), target enzyme (AChE), and protective enzymes (SOD, CAT and POD) from different populations of N.lugens fed on KMD1, KMD2, and Xiushui 11 and the content of Cry protein were also detected.For all five insecticides tested,there were no significant differences in LD50 values among different populations of N.lugens fed on KMD1 KMD2, and Xiushui 11 continuously in the laboratory and collected from the rice fields.For all six metabolic enzymes tested, there was no significant difference of enzyme activities among different populations of N.lugens fed on KMD1, KMD2 and Xiushui 11 for 1 and 9 generations in the laboratory or collected from the rice fields.The content of Cry protein was relatively stable in different populations of N.lugens fed on Bt

  10. 不同氮肥水平下转Bt基因水稻对褐飞虱和白背飞虱生态适应性的继代影响%Effects of Bt Rice with cry1C and cry2A on the Ecological Generation Fitness of Rice Brown Planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens ) and Whitebacked Planthoppers (Sogatella furcifera)at Various Nitrogen Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 杨亚军; 田俊策; 鲁艳辉; 徐红星; 郑许松; 吕仲贤

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of Bt rice on the generation fitness of non-target pest at different nitrogen rates,as wall as the potential impact of Bt rice and nitrogen fertilizer levels on non-target pest,the brown plantthopper (BPH)(Nilaparvata lugens)and the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH)(Sogatella furcifera),were successively cultured for four generations on Bt rice,T1C-19 with cry1C and T2A-1 with cry2A ,and their parental rice Minghui 63,at nitrogen rates of 0,100 and 250 kg/hm2 .The results indicated that the ecological fitness of the BPH and WBPH was increased with the increasing nitrogen fertilizer level, including shortened nymph developmental duration, enhanced fecundity, prolonged longevity, increased nymph survival rate, female weight, egg hatchability and population growth rate.There were significant differences in rice planthopper nymphal development duration,body weight of female adult,fecundity and population growth rate for four successive generations under different nitrogen rates.Transgenic Bt rice,T1C-19 and T2A-1,had no significant effect on the fitness of BPH and WBPH at the same generations and nitrogen rates,except the BPH fecundity.BPH fecundity on transgenic Bt rice T1C-19 at the nitrogen levels of 100 kg/hm2 and 250 kg/hm2 (N)was lower compared with the transgenic Bt rice T2A-1 and its parent Minghui 63 from the first generation to the third generation,but no significant difference was found among varieties at the fourth generation at three nitrogen rates.No significant difference was found on the fitness of BPH and WBPH with the generation increase, between non-transgenic Bt rice and transgenic Bt rice.Therefore, the present study demonstrated that nitrogen fertilizer levels exerted a significant influence on the ecological fitness of the rice planthoppers with the generation increase,while transgenic Bt rice didn′t.%在目前氮肥施用量依然偏多的大背景下,氮肥与转Bt基因水稻的相互作用是否会对稻田中

  11. Genome-wide mapping of virulence in brown planthopper identifies loci that break down host plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shengli; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Yinhua; Liu, Bingfang; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Hangjin; Zhou, Xi; Qin, Rui; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2014-01-01

    Insects and plants have coexisted for over 350 million years and their interactions have affected ecosystems and agricultural practices worldwide. Variation in herbivorous insects' virulence to circumvent host resistance has been extensively documented. However, despite decades of investigation, the genetic foundations of virulence are currently unknown. The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is the most destructive rice (Oryza sativa) pest in the world. The identification of the resistance gene Bph1 and its introduction in commercial rice varieties prompted the emergence of a new virulent brown planthopper biotype that was able to break the resistance conferred by Bph1. In this study, we aimed to construct a high density linkage map for the brown planthopper and identify the loci responsible for its virulence in order to determine their genetic architecture. Based on genotyping data for hundreds of molecular markers in three mapping populations, we constructed the most comprehensive linkage map available for this species, covering 96.6% of its genome. Fifteen chromosomes were anchored with 124 gene-specific markers. Using genome-wide scanning and interval mapping, the Qhp7 locus that governs preference for Bph1 plants was mapped to a 0.1 cM region of chromosome 7. In addition, two major QTLs that govern the rate of insect growth on resistant rice plants were identified on chromosomes 5 (Qgr5) and 14 (Qgr14). This is the first study to successfully locate virulence in the genome of this important agricultural insect by marker-based genetic mapping. Our results show that the virulence which overcomes the resistance conferred by Bph1 is controlled by a few major genes and that the components of virulence originate from independent genetic characters. The isolation of these loci will enable the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the rice-brown planthopper interaction and facilitate the development of durable approaches for controlling this most

  12. 20种非寄主植物挥发物对褐飞虱拒避与引诱行为的影响%Effects of volatiles in twenty non-host plants on the repellented and attractive behaviors of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献英; 霍治国; 犹昌艳; 胡飞

    2014-01-01

    【目的】为开发和设计褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens拒避剂与引诱剂提供科学依据.【方法】利用Y型嗅觉仪测定褐飞虱对20种非寄主植物释放的挥发物及对α-蒎烯、α-水芹烯、崁烯、芳樟醇的拒避与引诱行为.【结果和结论】枸树Broussonetia papyrifera、塞楝Khaya senegalensis、胜红蓟Ageratum conyzoides、蟛蜞菊Wedelia chinensis、鬼针草Bidens pilosa、马樱丹Lantana camara、桉树Eucalyptus exsetrta、毛麻楝Chukrasia tabularis的叶片和小茴香Foeniculum vulgare的种子挥发物对褐飞虱雌成虫具有显著的拒避作用,其中蟛蜞菊、塞楝和桉树叶片挥发物的拒避作用比较明显,拒避率分别为87.5%、83.3%和72.0%;洋葱Allium cepa(鳞茎)挥发物对褐飞虱具有极显著的引诱作用,引诱率为73.1%;其他植物叶片挥发物对褐飞虱的拒避与引诱行为没有显著的影响.9种植物共有的3种挥发成分在测试浓度下,α-蒎烯对褐飞虱雌成虫有显著的引诱作用,崁烯对其有显著的拒避作用,α-水芹烯则对其拒避与引诱行为没有显著影响.水稻挥发物芳樟醇因含量不同,褐飞虱雌成虫的选择行为有差异,芳樟醇用量为1μL时对褐飞虱具有显著引诱作用,10μL以上时表现为拒避作用,15μL以上均具有极显著的拒避作用.%[Objective]To provide scientific evidence for the development and design of repellents and at-tractants of brown planthopper ,Nilaparvata lugens Stal ( BPH).[Method] The repellented and attrac-tivebehaviors response of female adults BPH to volatiles of twenty non-host plants and α-phellandrene ,α-pinene ,camphene and linalool were tested by a Y-tube olfactometer .[Result and conclusion] The vola-tiles of Broussonetia papyrifera,Khaya senegalensis,Ageratum conyzoides,Wedelia chinensis,Bidens pilosa, Lantana camara, Eucalyptus exsetrta, Chukrasia tabularis, and the nuts of Foeniculum vulgare revealed

  13. Imidacloprid susecptibility survey and selection risk assessment in field populations of Nilaparvata lugens(Stal)(Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imidacloprid has been used for many years to control the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in China. To provide resistance assessment for the national insecticide resistance management program, we collected a total of 42 samples of the planthoppers from 27 locations covering 8 provinces t...

  14. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Mamunur RASHID; Mahbuba JAHAN; Khandakar Shariful ISLAM

    2016-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  15. 水稻褐飞虱综合治理研究与示范——农业公益性行业专项“水稻褐飞虱综合防控技术研究”进展%Progress in research on the integrated management of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林拥军; 罗举; 娄永根; 祝增荣; 唐启义; 吕仲贤; 徐红星; 郑许松; 黄凤宽; 彭兆谱; 何光存; 华红霞; 陈荣智; 郭慧芳; 陈其志; 万丙良; 吕亮; 林华峰; 刘芳; 肖汉祥; 侯茂林; 姚英娟; 何予卿; 杨长举; 翟保平; 沈晋良; 张开军; 薛晓峰; 傅强

    2011-01-01

    Because of the magnitude of the losses to rice production caused by the brown planthopper ( BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) ) , and the resistance of BPH to chemical insecticides, the frequency of BPH outbreaks, breeding of insect resistant rice varieties, insecticide resistance monitoring, development of new pesticides , new ecological management technologies, prediction technologies and the integration and demonstration of sustainable pest management technologies were investigated in central, southern and eastern China and other representative regions.The results show that BPH collected from Vietnam, Laos and southern China were mainly biotype Ⅱ , with the next most common biotype being biotype Ⅲ. Paddy field microclimate was the key factor for BPH escaping high temperature, as morning temperature increased, a large number of BPH moved to within 20 cm of the rice base to thereby minimizing the adverse effects of high temperature. Different methods of transplanting rice seedlings had a great influence on the densities of BPH; BPH densities in handed-planted rice fields were the highest, followed by those in machine-planted rice fields, with densities in direct seeded rice fields the lowest. The abundance of BPH in super hybrid rice was obviously higher than in conventional hybrid rice and high levels of nitrogen promoted BPH occurrence. Furthermore, there was an interactive effect between different rice varieties and nitrogen levels with regard to BPH abundance. BPH in China have high resistance to imidacloprid (168.1-561.5) , low to moderate resistance to buprofezin (4.2-33.1) and are sensitive to slightly resistant to nitenpyram and chlorpyrifos. Four effective pesticides with low toxicity to humans were selected from those sold on the current market; Thiamethoxam, Pymetrozine, Nitenpyram and Fenobucard. We developed three kinds of new compound pesticides, one of which has been officially registered by the Ministry of Agriculture' s Pesticide Quarantine

  16. Transgenic rice homozygous lines expressing GNA showed enhanced resistance to rice brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mature seed-derived calli from two elite Chinese japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Eyi 105 and Ewan 5 were co-transformed with two plasmids, pWRG1515 and pRSSGNA1, containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt), the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)lectin gene (gna) via particle bombardment. 61 independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 329 bombarded calli. 79% transgenic plants contained all the three genes, revealed by PCR/Southern blot analysis. Western blot analysis revealed that 36 out of 48 gna-containing transgenic plants expressed GNA (75 %) at various levels with the highest expression being approximately 0.5% of total soluble protein. Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From the R2 generations whose R1 parent plants showing 3:1 Mendelian segregation patterns,we identified five independent homozygous lines containing and expressing all the three transgenes. Insect bioassay and feeding tests showed that these homozygous lines had significant inhibition to rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) by decreasing BPH survival and overall fecundity, retarding BPH development and declining BPH feeding.These BPH-resistant lines have been incorporated into rice insect resistance breeding program. This is the first report that homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing GNA, developed by genetic transformation and through genetic analysis-based selection, conferred enhanced resistance to BPH, one of the most damaging insect pests in rice.

  17. Expression of snowdrop lectin (GNA) in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V; Rathore, K S; Hodges, T K; Fu, X; Stoger, E; Sudhakar, D; Williams, S; Christou, P; Bharathi, M; Bown, D P; Powell, K S; Spence, J; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    1998-08-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) has been shown previously to be toxic towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH) when administered in artificial diet. BPH feeds by phloem abstraction, and causes 'hopper burn', as well as being an important virus vector. To evaluate the potential of the gna gene to confer resistance towards BPH, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were produced, containing the gna gene in constructs where its expression was driven by a phloem-specific promoter (from the rice sucrose synthase RSs1 gene) and by a constitutive promoter (from the maize ubiquitin ubi1 gene). PCR and Southern analyses on DNA from these plants confirmed their transgenic status, and that the transgenes were transmitted to progeny after self-fertilization. Western blot analyses revealed expression of GNA at levels of up to 2.0% of total protein in some of the transgenic plants. GNA expression driven by the RSs1 promoter was tissue-specific, as shown by immunohistochemical localization of the protein in the non-lignified vascular tissue of transgenic plants. Insect bioassays and feeding studies showed that GNA expressed in the transgenic rice plants decreased survival and overall fecundity (production of offspring) of the insects, retarded insect development, and had a deterrent effect on BPH feeding. gna is the first transgene to exhibit insecticidal activity towards sap-sucking insects in an important cereal crop plant.

  18. 非寄主植物乙醇提取物对褐飞虱若虫的驱避与触杀活性%Repellent activity and contact toxicity of ethanolic extracts from 11 non-host plant species against the brown planthopper nymphs, Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献英; 王华; 杜尧东; 犹昌艳; 胡飞

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the repellent activity and contact toxicity of ethanolic extracts from non-host plant species against the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. We prepared ethanolic extracts from 11 plant species widely distributed in southern China, and tested their effects on BPH stage 3~4 nymphs using a film bioassay. The results showed that the extracts from Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Foeniculum vulgare had anti-feeding activity against BPH nymphs at a concentration of 10 mg·mL-1. These Z. bungeanum and F. vulgare extracts also had repellent activity, with repellent rates of 53.3% and 43.3%, respectively, at 24 h after extract application. In contrast, the extracts from Khaya senegalensis, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus exserta, and Chukrasia tabularis showed attractant activity at a concentration of 10 mg·mL-1;we recorded landing rates of 75.0%, 73.3%, 73.3%and 71.7%, respectively, at 24 h after extract application. Furthermore, the repellent activity of Z. bungeanum and F. vulgare extracts increased as the concentration increased. For example, these extracts at a concentration of 40 mg·mL-1 showed 66.7% and 60.0% repellent rates, respectively, at 24 h after extract application. The extracts from Z. bungeanum and F. vulgare showed significant repellent activity in the concentration range of 10~40 mg·mL-1. The attractant activity of extracts from K. senegalensis, A. conyzoides, E. exserta, and C. tabularis increased at relatively low concentrations, but decreased as the concentration of the extract became higher. The effects of ethanolic extracts from K. senegalensis and C. tabularis on BPH nymphs were different at different concentrations;at a low concentration (10 mg·mL-1), they showed significant attractant activity to BPH nymphs, while at a high concentration (40 mg·mL-1), they showed repellant activities of 50.0%and 40.0%, respectively, at 24 h after extract application. The extract from A. conyzoides had a significant

  19. Suppressing male spermatogenesis-associated protein 5-like gene expression reduces vitellogenin gene expression and fecundity in Nilaparvata lugens Stål

    Science.gov (United States)

    In our previous study with the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, triazophos (tzp, organophosphate) treatments led to substantial up-regulation of a male spermatogenesis-associated protein 5-like gene (NlSPATA5) compared to untreated controls. Mating with tzp-treated males significantly in...

  20. In situ localization of proteinase inhibitor mRNA in rice plant challenged by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitor (PI) mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in tissue sections of root, stem and leaf of the resistant rice (B5) plant fed by brown planthopper nymphs. In the rice material without BPH feeding, PI gene was expressed in the root, stem and leaf, while the abundance of PI mRNA was low. In the rice material fed by BPH, PI gene was expressed substantially in the parenchyma of rice stem and leaf, but weakly in the root. The results indicated that the PI gene was up-regulated in the rice plant challenged by brown planthopper. For the first time, we reported the expression changes of proteinase inhibitor gene in plant which was infested by a piercing/sucking insect.

  1. Computer Vision for Screening Resistance Level of Rice Varieties to Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Nurfadhilah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper is one of the most important insect pest that threatens the stability of national rice production in Indonesia. One of the efforts to save rice production is by using brown planthopper resistant variety. Currently the determination approach is still conventional based on Standard Seedboxes Screening Test from IRRI with assistance of experienced experts in the scoring process resistance level.In this study, a prototype of application system to predict resistance levels by image color approach was developed. The method consists of collecting images data, preparation process (background and objects segmentation, and determination of area proportion which has been infected (sick and dead and healthy, based on ‘A’ value from CIELab color space laboratory. According to proportion value distribution, the rule of rice resistance to brown planthopper assessment based on image was developed. The rule is mostly similar with IRRI standard rules. All of images were assessed based on the rule and then the model was developed with an error rate of 17.02%.

  2. Genomic insights into the glutathione S-transferase gene family of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal and Sogatella furcifera (Horvath (Hemiptera: Delphacidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase (GST genes control crucial traits for the metabolism of various toxins encountered by insects in host plants and the wider environment, including insecticides. The planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are serious specialist pests of rice throughout eastern Asia. Their capacity to rapidly adapt to resistant rice varieties and to develop resistance to various insecticides has led to severe outbreaks over the last decade. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the genome sequence of N. lugens, we identified for the first time the complete GST gene family of a delphacid insect whilst nine GST gene orthologs were identified from the closely related species S. furcifera. Nilaparvata lugens has 11 GST genes belonging to six cytosolic subclasses and a microsomal class, many fewer than seen in other insects with known genomes. Sigma is the largest GST subclass, and the intron-exon pattern deviates significantly from that of other species. Higher GST gene expression in the N. lugens adult migratory form reflects the higher risk of this life stage in encountering the toxins of non-host plants. After exposure to a sub-lethal dose of four insecticides, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, buprofezin or beta-cypermethrin, more GST genes were upregulated in S. furcifera than in N. lugens. RNA interference targeting two N. lugens GST genes, NlGSTe1 and NlGSTm2, significantly increased the sensitivity of fourth instar nymphs to chlorpyrifos but not to beta-cypermethrin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first elucidation of the nature of the GST gene family in a delphacid species, offering new insights into the evolution of metabolic enzyme genes in insects. Further, the use of RNA interference to identify the GST genes induced by insecticides illustrates likely mechanisms for the tolerance of these insects.

  3. A taxonomic investigation on egg parasitoid, Anagrus of rice planthopper in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Exploitation and utilization of beneficial arthropods viz. insects and spiders to regulate pest populations has a good prospect in China. The role of non_rice habitats in maintaining the population of natural enemies of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (stal) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) has been investigated in Zhejiang Province since 1994. The work focused primarily on the egg parasitoids genus Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Plants laden with eggs of the brown planthopper were exposed 2 d every week in the rice fields and grassy areas dominated by Digitaria spp. Then, the plants were retrieved and brought back to the laboratory for parasitoid rearing. Newly emerged parasitoids were preserved in alcohol solution for further identification.

  4. Effect of Rice Sowing Date on Occurrence of Small Brown Planthopper and Epidemics of Planthopper-Transmitted Rice Stripe Viral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin-liang; ZHU Zeng-rong; ZHOU Yin; LU Qiang; SUN Xiang-liang; TAO Xian-guo; CHEN Yue; WANG Hua-di; CHENG Jia-an

    2009-01-01

    To understand the relationship between rice sowing date and occurrence of the rice small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus Fallen and the epidemics of the planthopper-transmitted dee stripe viral (RSV) disease, four sowing dates of rice were evaluated in 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the peak density of SBPH and RSV incidence in the nursery and in the transplanted field decreased with the delay of sowing date in single crop of japonica rice in north Zhejiang Province of China. The relationship between seedling RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial with sowing date was well described by Weibull equation. The area under the curve of population dynamics (AUCPD or planthopper-day accumulation) or the peak density of the planthopper in the nursery could be summarized by a logistic equation. RSV incidence in the transplanted fields could be characterized quantitatively by a multivariate regression equation, including the variables of sowing date, peak density of the vector, and RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial. That the descriptive model excluded the AUCPD in transplanted field implies that this variable is not necessary in forecasting disease epidemics in the field. The 2-year experiments sufficiently indicated that suitable sowing of rice could be used as one of the effective measures to control the vector population and therefore the planthopper-transmitted RSV on a larger seale. The optimal sowing date for the single-cropped transplanted japonica rice is recommended from late May to early June in north Zhejiang, China.

  5. Radar observation and trajectory analysis on the autumn return migration of the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens(Homoptera:Delphacidae) in 2009 in China%褐飞虱2009年秋季回迁的雷达监测及轨迹分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐会会; 张云慧; 程登发; 韩二宾; 孙京瑞

    2010-01-01

    褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)是水稻生产上重要的迁飞性害虫,研究其迁飞、扩散规律,为早期预警和有效防治提供科学依据.2009年4月27日至10月11日,在中国农业科学院植物保护研究所重大病虫害监测预警兴安雷达站内利用毫米波扫描昆虫雷达对褐飞虱的迁飞过程进行长期观测,高空探照灯诱虫器及佳多自动虫情测报灯诱虫器分别用来诱捕高空及地面的褐飞虱,对高空探照灯诱到的褐飞虱雌成虫随机挑选30头进行卵巢解剖,并结合大区环流和利用Hysplit4模型进行轨迹分析,研究了褐飞虱的秋季回迁过程和虫源.结果表明:褐飞虱秋季回迁高峰期出现在9月28日至10月7日,高峰日为10月1日,高峰日内雷达回波主要在600~1 100 m范围内聚集成层,高空探照灯诱虫器内褐飞虱的数量达到了13 620头;卵巢发育级别以1~2级为主.轨迹分析显示:本次回迁的褐色虱主要来自湖南衡阳和永州等地,随东北气流向广西柳州、南宁和崇左等方向迁飞.轨迹推断与褐飞虱实发虫情基本吻合,通过毫米波扫描昆虫雷达确定了褐飞虱秋季回迁的高度,为毫米波扫描昆虫雷达早期投入到预测预报的文践中奠定了基础,对我国褐飞虱早期预警体系的建立将提供必要的技术支持.

  6. Tagging of Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in F2s of IR50 × Ptb33 of Rice by Using Bulked Segregant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkateswarlu YADAVALLI; Gajendra P. NARWANE; M. S. R. KRISHNA; Nagarajan POTHI; Bharathi MUTHUSAMY

    2012-01-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stǎl) is one of the most damaging pests causing hopper burn in rice,and thereby reducing the productivity and also the quality of the product.The effective management strategy to control this pest is the identification and transfer of desirable genes to local rice cultivars.The most important approach for developing resistant cultivars is the identification of markers,which can help in marker-assisted selection of more durable resistant genotype.The susceptible parent IR50 and the resistant parent Ptb33,and their F2 populations were used in bulked segregant analysis for identification of resistant genes with random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (RAPD) primers.The primers OPC7 and OPAG14 showed both dominant and susceptible specific banding pattern so called co-dominant markers.Moreover,OPC7697 and OPAG14660 showed resistant specific bands and thus being in coupling phase,whereas OPC7846 and OPAG14650 showed susceptible specific genotypic bands in bulked segregant analysis.Therefore,the coupling phase markers,OPC7697 and OPAG14680.are considered to be more useful in marker-assisted selection of rice genotypes in crop improvement.

  7. Effects of endosymbiote on feeding, development, and reproduction of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens stal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The biotype 1,2, and 3 of N. Lugensobtained from IRRI, the Philippines, were reared continuously on susceptible variety TN1, resistant varieties Mudgo (Bph1), and ASD7 (Bph2),respectively. To eliminate the yeast-like symbionts (YLS) in N.lugens,about 60-d old plants of TN1 bearing 3-d old eggs were laid at 26℃ for 2 d and exposed at 35℃ in an incubator for 3 d. After a hot treatment, the plants were transferred into an incubator at 26℃ for egg development. The hatched aposymbiotic nymphs were employed in this experiment.

  8. Insect fungi for the control of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and Malayan rice bug, Scotinophara coarctata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombach, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction : Many potential pest organisms are normally kept at densities below damage thresholds by naturally occurring natural enemies in virtually all agricultural crops. This natural control can be enhanced by introduction of new biological agents ("classical biological contro

  9. Mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens by molecular modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Homology models of the ligand binding domain of the wild-type and Y151S mutant brown planthopper {Nilaparvata lugens)α1 and rat(Rattus norvegicus)β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor(nAChR) subunits were generated based on the crystal structure of acetylcholine binding protein of Lymnaea stagnalis.Neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid was docked into the putative binding site of wild-type and mutantα1β2 dimeric receptors by Surflex-docking,and the calculated docking energies were in agreement with experi...

  10. Mapping of a new gene for brown planthopper resistance in cultivated rice introgressed from Oryza eichingeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wild rice species is an important source of useful genes for cultivated rice improvement. Some accessions of Oryza eichingeri (2n = 24, CC) from Africa confer strong resistance to brown planthopper (BPH), whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) and bacterial blight (BB). In the present study, restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis were performed on disomic backcross plants between Oryza sativa (2n = 24, AA) and O. eichingeri in order to identify the presenee of O. eichingeri segments and further to localize BPH-resistant gene. In the introgression lines, 1-6O. eichingeri segments were detected on rice chromosomes 1, 2, 6, or/and 10. The dominant BPH resistant gene, tentatively named Bph13(t), was mapped to chromosome 2, being 6.1 and 5.5 cM away from two microsatellite markers RM240 and RM250, respectively. The transfer and localization of this gene from O. eichingeri will contribute to the improvement of BPH resistance in cultivated rice.``

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Carrying Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyun Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV, the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Ginkgo biloba against Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant which has potent insecticidal activity against brown planthopper. The MeOH extract was tested in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory assay with IC50 values of 252.1 μg/mL. Two ginkgolides and thirteen flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. It revealed that the 13 isolated flavonoids were found to inhibit AChE with IC50 values ranging from 57.8 to 133.1 μg/mL in the inhibitory assay. AChE was inhibited dose dependently by all tested flavonoids, and compound 6 displayed the highest inhibitory effect against AChE with IC50 values of 57.8 μg/mL.

  13. The roles of CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 in imidacloprid resistance in the brown planthopper: Expression levels and detoxification efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haibo; Gao, Hongli; Zhang, Yixi; Fan, Dongzhe; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Zewen

    2016-05-01

    Two P450 monooxygenase genes, CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1, were reported to contribute importantly to imidacloprid resistance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Although recombinant CYP6AY1 could metabolize imidacloprid efficiently, the expression levels of CYP6ER1 gene were higher in most resistant populations. In the present study, three field populations were collected from different countries, and the bioassay, RNAi and imidacloprid metabolism were performed to evaluate the importance of two P450s in imidacloprid resistance. All three populations, DOT (Dongtai) from China, CNA (Chainat) from Thailand and HCM (Ho Chi Minh) from Vietnam, showed high resistance to imidacloprid (57.0-, 102.9- and 89.0-fold). CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 were both over expressed in three populations, with highest ratio of 13.2-fold for CYP6ER1 in HCM population. Synergism test and RNAi analysis confirmed the roles of both P450 genes in imidacloprid resistance. However, CYP6AY1 was indicated more important in CNA population, and CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 were equal in HCM population, although the expression level of CYP6ER1 (13.2-fold) was much higher than that of CYP6AY1 (4.11-fold) in HCM population. Although the recombinant proteins of both P450 genes could metabolize imidacloprid efficiently, the catalytic activity of CYP6AY1 (Kcat=3.627 pmol/min/pmol P450) was significantly higher than that of CYP6ER1 (Kcat=2.785 pmol/min/pmol P450). It was supposed that both P450 proteins were important for imidacloprid resistance, in which CYP6AY1 metabolized imidacloprid more efficiently and CYP6ER1 gene could be regulated by imidacloprid to a higher level.

  14. Cloning and characterization of rice RH3 gene induced by brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolan; WENG Qingmei; YOU Aiqing; ZHU Lili; HE Guangcun

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have showed that the histone H3 gene is correlated with development, cell speciality and stress response. The RH3 full-length cDNA was isolated from the cDNA library of rice infested by brown planthopper (BPH) with EST (Accession no. BU572343) screened from rice SSH library as probe. This gene encodes histone H3 protein including 136 amino acids, with one amino acid different from a kind of disease resistance-related protein in rice (AF467728). At the position 126, the aspartic acid is replaced by lysine. The time course results showed that the expression of the RH3 began to increase at 8 h after BPH-feeding, and got to its peak at 96 h. Regulations of the gene expression in treatments with stress/defense signal molecules were analyzed by Northern blot. Water deficit and Pyricularia grisea increased the expression of RH3 while ABA down-regulated the gene. The enhanced accumulation of RH3 transcripts in the vascular bundle and short cell of stem after BPH feeding was revealed by RNA in situ hybridization. It is the first time to report that RH3 is correlated with the response of rice to BPH.

  15. Pyramiding blast, bacterial blight and brown planthopper resistance genes in rice restorer lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Zhi-juan; Yang Shu-dong; ZENG Yu-xiang; LIANG Yan; YANG Chang-deng; QIAN Qian

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast, bacterial blight (BB) and brown planthopper (BPH) are the three main pests of rice. This study investigated pyr-amiding genes resistant to blast, BB and BPH to develop restorer lines. Ten new lines with blast, BB and/or BPH resistance genes were developed using marker-assisted selection (MAS) technique and agronomic trait selection (ATS) method. Only HR13 with resistance genes to blast, BB and BPH was obtained. In addition to blast and BB resistance, four lines (HR39, HR41, HR42, HR43) demonstrated moderate resistance to BPH, but MAS for BPH resistance genes were not conducted in developing these four lines. These data suggested that there were unknown elite BPH resistance genes in the Zhongzu 14 donor parent. A more effective defense was demonstrated in the lines withPi1 andPi2 genes although the weather in 2012 was favorable to disease incidence. Blast resistance of the lines with a single resistance gene,Pita, was easily inlfuenced by the weather. Overal, the information obtained through pyramiding multiple resistance genes on developing the restorer lines is helpful for rice resistance breeding.

  16. Physical mapping of Bph3, a brown planthopper resistance locus in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapong Jairin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, a destructive phloem feeding insect pest, is an important objective in rice breeding programs in Thailand. The broad-spectrum resistance gene Bph3 is one of the major BPH resistance genes identified so far in cultivated rice and has been widely used in rice improvement programs. This resistance gene has been identified and mapped on the short arm of chromosome 6. In this study, physical mapping of Bph3 was performed using a BC3F3 population derived from a cross between Rathu Heenati and KDML105. Recombinant BC3F3 individuals with the Bph3 genotype were determined by phenotypic evaluation using modified mass tiller screening at the vegetative stage of rice plants. The recombination events surrounding the Bph3 locus were used to identify the co-segregate markers. According to the genome sequence of Nipponbare, the Bph3 locus was finally localized approximately in a 190 kb interval flanked by markers RM19291 and RM8072, which contain twenty-two putative genes. Additional phenotypic experiment revealed that the resistance in Rathu Heenati was decreased by increasing nitrogen content in rice plants through remobilization of nitrogen. This phenomenon should be helpful for identifying the Bph3 gene.

  17. Mapping of two new brown planthopper resistance genes from wild rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A brown planthopper (BPH) resistance line, B5, derived its resistance genes from the wild rice Oryza officinalis Wall exwatt, was hybridized with Taichung Native 1, a cultivar highly susceptible to BPH. A mapping population composed of randomly selected 167 F2 individuals was used for determining the BPH resistance genes by the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). Bulked segregant analysis was conducted to identify RFLP makers linked to the BPH resistance genes in B5. The results indicat-ed that the markers linked to BPH resistance are located at two genomic regions on the long arm of chromosome 3 and the short arm of chromosome 4, respectively. The existence of the two loci was further assessed by the quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. We located the two loci at a 3.2 cM interval between G1318 and R1925 on chromosome 3 and a 1.2 cM interval between C820 and S11182 on chromosome 4. Comparison with the BPH genes that have been reported indicated that the BPH resistance genes in B5 are novel. These two genes may be useful BPH resistance resource for rice breeding. Furthermore, the mapping of the two genes is useful for cloning the BPH resistance genes.

  18. Screening and field evaluation of synthetic plant volatiles as attractants for Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang,an egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers%稻飞虱卵期寄生蜂稻虱缨小蜂引诱剂的筛选与田间试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鹏; 娄永根

    2013-01-01

    植食性昆虫的天敌能够利用虫害诱导的挥发物进行有效的寄主或猎物定位.为了开发稻飞虱卵期天敌稻虱缨小蜂Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang的引诱剂,分别在室内和室外检测了多种褐飞虱诱导的水稻挥发物组分对褐飞虱卵期天敌稻虱缨小蜂的引诱作用.Y型嗅觉仪实验结果表明,5种单一化合物,Z-3-己烯乙酸酯,1-戊烯基-3-醇,Z-3-己烯醛,芳樟醇和水杨酸甲酯,以及3种混合物,水杨酸甲酯+Z-3-己烯醛,Z-3-己烯醛+Z-3-己烯乙酸酯+芳樟醇,水杨酸甲酯+Z-3-己烯醛+Z-3-己烯乙酸酯+芳樟醇,对稻虱缨小蜂具有明显引诱作用.田间试验表明,3种单一化合物,Z-3-己烯乙酸酯,Z-3-己烯醛和芳樟醇,以及一种混合物,水杨酸甲酯+Z-3-己烯醛+ Z-3-己烯乙酸酯+芳樟醇,能明显提高稻虱缨小蜂对褐飞虱卵的寄生作用.这些结果对于改善褐飞虱治理具有重要的意义.%Natural enemies of herbivores can effectively locate their hosts or prey by perceiving herbivore-induced plant volatiles.In order to develop attractants for Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang,an egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers,we tested the attractiveness of synthetic rice volatiles induced by the rice brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l) to the parasitoid in both laboratory and field.In the laboratory,using a Y-tube olfactometer,we found that five compounds(Z-3-hexenyl acetate,1-penten-3-ol,Z-3-hexenal,linalool and MeSA) attract the parasitoid.Moreover,A.nilapareatae was strongly attracted by three mixtures,one of MeSA plus Z-3-hexenal,one containing Z-3-hexenal,Z-3-hexenyl acetate and linalool,and one containing MeSA,Z-3-hexenal,Z-3-hexenyl acetate and linalool.Field experiments demonstrated that the parasitism of BPH eggs by the parasitoid was significantly increased on plants that received a septa containing one of the 3 chemicals (Z-3-hexenal,Z-3-hexenyl acetate,linalool) or the mixture containing MeSA,Z-3-hexenal

  19. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective.

  20. Rice planthopper resistance of interspecific protoplast fusin line "pf9279" between O. sative and O.officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ An interspecific hybrid line pf9279 was obtained by protoplast fusion between 02428(japonica, with a wide compatibility gene) and CNW240 (O. officinalis, from Malaysia) at CNRRI in 1992. Possible introgression of planthopper resistance from O.officinalis into pf9279 was investigated by field and laboratory experiments during 1998-1999 at CNRRI. Thirty-day-old seedlings of pf9279 and other rice varieties were individually transplanted with a spacing of 18× 24 cm in each plot (ca 7× 20 m) on Jun 15, 1999. Population trends of brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and whitebacked planthopper(WBPH),Sogatella furcifera were examined weekly by visual counting of adult females on 50-100 hills for each variety.

  1. High Temperature Effects on Yeast-like Endosymbiotes and Pesticide Resistance of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-jie; YU Xiao-ping; CHEN Jian-ming

    2008-01-01

    The newly-hatched nymphs of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, including field and sensitive populations, were subjected to the high-temperature (35℃) treatment. The number of yeast-like endosymbiotes in SBPH reduced by 23.47%-34.23%, 57.86%-61.51% and 88.96%-90.71% after the high-temperature treatment for 1 d, 2 d, and 3 d, respectively. However, the size of yeast-like endosymbiotes was not obviously affected. Resistance of SBPH to three insecticides (imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos and fipronil) decreased with the increase of treatment time.

  2. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus Fallén (Homoptera: Delphacidae, is a serious pest of rice (Oryza sativa L. in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid (SA synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation (hpi increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid (JA synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase (POD, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  3. Induced defense responses in rice plants against small brown planthopper infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canxing; Duan; Jiaojiao; Yu; Jianyu; Bai; Zhendong; Zhu; Xiaoming; Wang

    2014-01-01

    The small brown planthopper(SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallén(Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice(Oryza sativa L.) in China. To understand the mechanisms of rice resistance to SBPH, defense response genes and related defense enzymes were examined in resistant and susceptible rice varieties in response to SBPH infestation. The salicylic acid(SA) synthesis-related genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), NPR1, EDS1 and PAD4 were induced rapidly and to a much higher level in the resistant variety Kasalath than in the susceptible cultivar Wuyujing 3 in response to SBPH infestation. The expression level of PAL in the Kasalath rice at 12 h post-infestation(hpi) increased 7.52-fold compared with the un-infested control, and the expression level in Kasalath was 49.63, 87.18, 57.36 and 75.06 times greater than that in Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi, respectively. However, the transcriptional levels of the jasmonic acid(JA) synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 in resistant Kasalath were significantly lower than in susceptible Wuyujing 3 at 24, 36, 48 and 72 hpi. The activities of the defense enzymes PAL, peroxidase(POD), and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) increased remarkably in Kasalath in response to SBPH infestation, and were closely correlated with the PAL gene transcript level. Our results indicated that the SA signaling pathway was activated in the resistant Kasalath rice variety in response to SBPH infestation and that the gene PAL played a considerable role in the resistance to SBPH.

  4. Organ-specific transcriptome response of the small brown planthopper toward rice stripe virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wan; Lu, Lixia; Yang, Pengcheng; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes rice stripe disease and is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The alimentary canal and salivary gland of SBPH play important roles in viral replication and transmission. However, little is known about the underlying molecular functions of these two organs in the interaction between RSV and SBPH. In this study, organ-specific transcriptomes of the alimentary canal and salivary gland were analyzed in viruliferous and naïve SBPH. The number of differentially expressed unigenes in the alimentary canal was considerably greater than that in the salivary gland after RSV infection, and only 23 unigenes were co-regulated in the two organs. In the alimentary canal, genes involved in lysosome, digestion and detoxification were activated upon RSV infection, whereas the genes related to DNA replication and repair were suppressed. RSV activated RNA transport and repressed the MAPK, mTOR, Wnt, and TGF-beta signaling pathways in the salivary gland. The overall immune reaction toward RSV was much stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal. RSV activated the pattern recognition molecules and Toll pathway in the salivary gland but inhibited these two reactions in the alimentary canal. The responses from reactive oxygen and the immune-responsive effectors were stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal after RSV infection. These findings provide clues on the roles of the two organs in confronting RSV infection and aid in the understanding of the interaction between RSV and SBPHs.

  5. High temperature determines the ups and downs of small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Dong Liu; Ai-Min Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Small brown planthopper,Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) numbers usually drop sharply in the summer and revive quickly in the autumn.However,it is unclear whether and how the high temperature plays a role in this process.The effects of durations of heat exposure (33℃) on life-history traits were examined here.Exposure of adults for 1 day during the oviposition stage led to a very low survival of nymphs.The average longevity ofL.striatellus exposed for 1-31 days from oviposition was significantly longer than that of the control (27℃).Short-term (1-5 days) heat exposure of the third instar nymphs did not significantly influence eclosion,but exposure of the fourth instar nymphs significantly increased eclosion.Lifespan from egg to adult was significantly lengthened when the third instar nymphs were exposed to heat for 2-15 days,or the fourth instar were exposed for 10 days.The preoviposition period was prolonged by heat exposure of the third or fourth instar nymphs.Short-term heat exposure of less than 3 days of the third or fourth instar nymphs did not restrict fecundity,but when the exposure duration exceeded 5 days the total eggs per female and hatchability decreased.Exposure to high temperature increased the brachypter rate of adults.In summary,low survival and slowing development under heat exposure resulted in population decline in the summer,and the relatively high fecundity and brachypter rate led to quick revival in autumn.Temperature in the summer determines the rise and fall in numbers of L.striatellus.

  6. Will climate change affect outbreak patterns of planthoppers in Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M P; Huang, Dingcheng; Nachman, G; Ahmed, Nur; Begum, Mahfuz Ara; Rabbi, M F

    2014-01-01

    Recently, planthoppers outbreaks have intensified across Asia resulting in heavy rice yield losses. The problem has been widely reported as being induced by insecticides while other factors such as global warming that could be potential drivers have been neglected. Here, we speculate that global warming may increase outbreak risk of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.). We present data that demonstrate the relationship between climate variables (air temperature and precipitation) and the abundance of brown planthopper (BPH) during 1998-2007. Data show that BPH has become significantly more abundant in April over the 10-year period, but our data do not indicate that this is due to a change in climate, as no significant time trends in temperature and precipitation could be demonstrated. The abundance of BPH varied considerably between months within a year which is attributed to seasonal factors, including the availability of suitable host plants. On the other hand, the variation within months is attributed to fluctuations in monthly temperature and precipitation among years. The effects of these weather variables on BPH abundance were analyzed statistically by a general linear model. The statistical model shows that the expected effect of increasing temperatures is ambiguous and interacts with the amount of rainfall. According to the model, months or areas characterized by a climate that is either cold and dry or hot and wet are likely to experience higher levels of BPH due to climate change, whereas other combinations of temperature and rainfall may reduce the abundance of BPH. The analysis indicates that global warming may have contributed to the recent outbreaks of BPH in some rice growing areas of Asia, and that the severity of such outbreaks is likely to increase if climate change exaggerates. Our study highlights the need to consider climate change when designing strategies to manage planthoppers outbreaks.

  7. No cross-resistance between imidacloprid and pymetrozine in the brown planthopper: status and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanxue; Huang, Lixin; Wang, Yunchao; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Siqi; Liu, Zewen

    2016-06-01

    Cross-resistance between insecticides, especially from different groups, can be extremely unpredictable, and it has been a serious concern in pest control. Pymetrozine has been widely used to control Nilaparvata lugens with the suspension of imidacloprid for the resistance, and N. lugens has showed obvious pymetrozine resistance in recent years. To investigate the possible cross-resistance between imidacloprid and pymetrozine is very important to avoid the adverse effects on resistance development and pest control. Bioassays of two field populations in five consecutive years showed that imidacloprid resistance decreased greatly, while pymetrozine resistance increased significantly. The synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) could synergize both imidacloprid and pymetrozine in all field populations, which indicated the importance of P450s in the resistance to two insecticides. Imidacloprid resistance was reported to be associated with two P450s, CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1, which could metabolize imidacloprid efficiently. However, the recombinant proteins of these two P450s did not show any enzymatic activity to metabolize pymetrozine. The pymetrozine susceptibility did not change when CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 mRNA levels were reduced by RNA interference (RNAi), although which could obviously decrease imidacloprid resistance. In vivo and in vitro studies provided evidences to demonstrate that there was no cross-resistance between imidacloprid and pymetrozine in N. lugens, which was different from the findings in Bemisia tabaci.

  8. A Comparative Study on the Population Fitness of Three Strains of Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Differ in Eye Color-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhua; Yang, Baojun; Luo, Ju; Tang, Jian; Wu, Jincai

    2015-08-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a destructive insect pest on rice throughout Asia. As a visible genetic marker, red eye mutant colony of brown planthopper is a valuable material. Here, we established the near-isogenic lines, NIL-BB and NIL-rr, through mating red eye females to brown eye brothers for eight successive generations. Biological experiments showed that NIL-BB had big fitness cost; however, NIL-rr had comparable survival and fertility parameters with BB, a normal laboratory brown planthopper strain. Significantly lower number eggs per female and egg hatchability were the key factors resulting in big fitness cost of NIL-BB. The population trend indexes of BB, NIL-rr, and NIL-BB were 52.18, 43.80, and 4.19, respectively. Real-time PCR study suggested that the poorer fertility of NIL-BB was not mediated by the differential expression of genes relating to oogenesis. The stronger fitness of NIL-rr compared with NIL-BB may be caused by the eye mutant gene or its closely linked genes having stronger compensation ability for reproduction. The comparable fitness of NIL-rr with BB indicated that NIL-rr may be used in field research. The NIL-BB strain with significantly declined fecundity and survival ability can be used as study model for the signal pathways relating to fecundity.

  9. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in small brown planthopper (Laodephax striatellus by next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Zhou

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are thought to play critical roles in many metabolic activities in eukaryotes. The small brown planthopper (Laodephax striatellus Fallén, one of the most destructive agricultural pests, causes great damage to crops including rice, wheat, and maize. However, information about the genome of L. striatellus is limited. In this study, a small RNA library was constructed from a mixed L. striatellus population and sequenced by Solexa sequencing technology. A total of 501 mature miRNAs were identified, including 227 conserved and 274 novel miRNAs belonging to 125 and 250 families, respectively. Sixty-nine conserved miRNAs that are included in 38 families are predicted to have an RNA secondary structure typically found in miRNAs. Many miRNAs were validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. Comparison with the miRNAs in 84 animal species from miRBase showed that the conserved miRNA families we identified are highly conserved in the Arthropoda phylum. Furthermore, miRanda predicted 2701 target genes for 378 miRNAs, which could be categorized into 52 functional groups annotated by gene ontology. The function of miRNA target genes was found to be very similar between conserved and novel miRNAs. This study of miRNAs in L. striatellus will provide new information and enhance the understanding of the role of miRNAs in the regulation of L. striatellus metabolism and development.

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

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    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  11. Evaluation of Rice Germplasm for Resistance to the Small Brown Planthopper(Laodelphax striatellus)and Analysis of Resistance Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Can-xing; ZHANG Shi-xian; LEI Cai-lin; CHENG Zhi-jun; CHEN Qing; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-eight rice accessions were screened for resistance to the small brown planthopper(SBPH)resistance to SBPH were detected,accounting for 18.1%of the total accessions,which included 2 highly resistant,9 resistant and 14 moderately resistant varieties.Compared with indica rice,japonica rice was more susceptible to SBPH.Antixenosis test,antibiosis test and correlation analysis were performed to elucidate the resistance mechanism.The resistant check Rathu Heenati(RHT),highly resistant varieties Mudgo and Kasalath,and resistant variety IR36 expressed strong antixenosis and antibiosis against SBPH,indicating the close relationship between resistance level and these two resistance mechanisms in the four rice varieties.Antibiosis was the dominant resistance pattern in the resistant varieties Daorenqiao and Yangmaogu due to their high antibiosis but low antixenosis.Dular,ASD7 and Milyang 23 had relatively strong antixenosis and antibiosis,indicating the two resistance mechanisms were significant in these three varieties.The resistant DV85 expressed relatively high level of antixenosis but low antibiosis,whereas Zhaiyeqing 8 and Guiyigu conferred only moderate antibiosis and antixenosis to SBPH,suggesting tolerance in these three varieties.Antibiosis and antixenosis governed the resistance to SBPH in the moderately resistant accession 9311.Antixenosis was the main resistance type in V20A.Tolerance was considered to be an important resistance mechanism in Minghui 63 and Yangjing 9538 due to their poor antibiosis and antixenosis resistance.The above accessions with strong antibiosis or antixenosis were the ideal materials for the resistance breeding.

  12. Comparing gene expression profiles between Bt and non-Bt rice in response to brown planthopper infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bt proteins are the most widely used insecticidal proteins in transgenic crops for improving insect resistance. We previously observed longer nymphal developmental duration and lower fecundity in brown planthopper (BPH fed on Bt rice line KMD2, although Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab could rarely concentrate in this non-target rice pest. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis in an effort to detect Bt-independent variation, which might render Bt rice more defensive and/or less nutritious to BPH. We detected 3,834 and 3,273 differentially expressed probe-sets in response to BPH infestation in non-Bt parent Xiushui 11 and Bt rice KMD2, respectively, only 439 of which showed significant differences in expression between rice lines. Our analysis revealed a shift from growth to defense responses in response to BPH infestation, which was also detected in many other studies of plants suffering biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll biosynthesis and basic metabolism pathways were inhibited in response to infestation. IAA and GA levels decreased as a result of the repression of biosynthesis-related genes or the induction of inactivation-related genes. In accordance with these observations, a number of IAA-, GA-, BR-signaling genes were downregulated in response to BPH. Thus, the growth of rice plants under BPH attack was reduced and defense related hormone signaling like JA, SA and ET were activated. In addition, growth-related hormone signaling pathways, such as GA, BR and auxin signaling pathways, as well as ABA, were also found to be involved in BPH-induced defense. On the other side, 51 probe-sets (represented 50 genes that most likely contribute to the impact of Bt rice on BPH were identified, including three early nodulin genes, four lipid metabolic genes, 14 stress response genes, three TF genes and genes with other functions. Two transcription factor genes, bHLH and MYB, together with lipid transfer protein genes LTPL65 and

  13. Biodiversity and Dynamics of Planthoppers and Their Natural Enemies in Rice Fields with Different Nitrogen Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-xian; S.VILLAREAL; YU Xiao-ping; K.L.HEONG; HU Cui

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates I.e. 200, 100 and 0 kg N/ha in paddy fields at International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. Biodiversity of arthropods sampled by Blower-Vac, and dynamics of planthoppers, egg parasitoids of Homoptera trapped by rice plants with eggs of brown planthoppers (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (St(ā)l), and web spiders on rice canopy collected by sweeping net, were analyzed at different rice growth stages. The most abundant arthropods were sampled at the milking stage of rice, totalling 116 species identified into 14 insect orders and 15 species of spider in all samples. Meanwhile the number of arthropod species significantly increased with rice growth and the diversity indices increased with the increase of nitrogen rate at the booting stage. On the other hand, in the dominant predators, Pardosa pseudoannulata, Callitrichi formosana, Micraspis sp., Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Veliidae sp. And Mesoveliidae sp., only C. Lividipennis and Micraspis sp. Were increased significantly in abundance following the application of nitrogen at the milking stage of rice. The egg parasitoids of plant-hoppers were predominated by Anagrus flaveolus and Oligosita sp. And their densities in the field without nitrogen fertilizer were markedly higher than those in fields with 100 and 200 kg N/ha at both booting and milking stages of rice. The number and web area of dominant residential spiders Tetragnatha sp. And Araneus sp. In rice canopy significantly reduced with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer. The population density of planthoppers, included BPH and the white-backed planthoppers (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, peaked during the booting stage, however, the number of BPH in rice field with 200 kg N/ha was considerably higher than those in other two rice fields with 100 kg N/ha and 0 kg N/ha at the booting as well as the milking stage. These results indicated that the rapid growth in

  14. 不同杀虫剂防治水稻褐飞虱田间药效评价%Control Effect of Different Insecticides on Rice Brown Planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓霞; 周奋启; 陈银凤; 耿跃; 袁林泽; 徐蕾

    2014-01-01

    2013年对褐飞虱进行6种杀虫剂田间防治效果评价。结果表明:施药后5 d和10 d,22%氟啶虫胺腈SC、20%呋虫胺SG、25%噻虫嗪WG、50%吡蚜酮WG对褐飞虱的防效分别为77.9%~90.9%和77.0%~90.5%,20%异丙威EC、25%噻嗪酮WP的防效分别为40.1%~65.9%和20.6%~49.9%。22%氟啶虫胺腈SC、20%呋虫胺SG、25%噻虫嗪WG、50%吡蚜酮WG防效较好。建议在实践中,轮换使用噻虫嗪、吡蚜酮、呋虫胺、氟啶虫胺腈防治褐飞虱。%Fieldefficacies of 6 insecticides including sulfoxaflor, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, pymetrozine, isoprocarb, buprofezin on rice brown planthopper were investigated in 2013. The results indicated that on the 5th day and 10th day after treatment, sulfoxaflor 22% SC, dinotefuran 20% SG, thiamethoxam 25% WG, pymetrozine 50% WG could control rice brown planthopper effectively, with the efficiencies of 77.9%-90.9%, 77.0%-90.5%. The control effects of isoprocarb 20% EC, buprofezin 25% WP were 40.1%-65.9%, 20.6%-49.9%, and were significantly lower than sulfoxaflor 22% SC, dinotefuran 20% SG, thiamethoxam 25% WG, pymetrozine 50% WG.

  15. THE ROLES OF DETOXIFYING ENZYMES AND AChE INSENSITIVITY IN METHAMIDOPHOS RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT AND DECLINE IN NILAPARVATA LUGENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-wenLiu; Zhao-junHan; Ling-chunZhang

    2003-01-01

    Methamidophos resistance of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal, BPH) was selected in laboratory. After successive selection for 9 generations, the selection was ceased by rearing BPH without contact with any insecticide for 9 generations. In the full course, the successive changes of esterase activity, MFO activity, GSTs activity and AChE insensitivity were analyzed. The results showed that the change of esterase activity was high correlated with that of methamidophos in the full course, which indicated that esterase played very important role both in the resistance development and in the resistance decline. However, the change of AChE insensitivity only significantly correlated with that of resistance in the development stage, and the change of MFO activity or GSTs activity only significantly correlated with that of the resistance in the decline stage, which indicated the changes of AChE insensitivity, MFO activity or GSTs activity only played some roles in different stages of the resistance change.

  16. GNA Confers Resistance to Rice Brown Planthopper in Transgenic Rice Pure Lines by Both Bioassay and Feeding Tests%生物鉴定和喂养试验证明GNA赋予转基因水稻纯系对褐飞虱的抗性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克轩; 孙小芬; 万丙良; 戚华雄; 卢兴桂

    2001-01-01

    Two transgenic rice pure lines, generated by particle bombardment, were challeng ed by the first-instar nymphs of rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) biotype I using the standard BPH bioassay and feeding test protocol essen tially the same as described by Rao et al. (1998). Both lines contained and expressed the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene(hpt), the reporter β-glucuronidase gene(gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus niv alis) lectin gene (gna). Insect bioassay and feeding test results showed t hat both lines had significant deterrent effect on BPH by decreasing BPH surviva l and overall fecundity, retarding BPH development and declining BPH feeding.%参照Rao等(1998)的褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养方法,用水稻褐飞虱生物Ⅰ型的一龄若虫食喂, 用基因枪法获得2个转基因水稻纯系. 这2个纯系均含有并表达潮霉素抗性基因(hpt)、 gusA报告基因和雪花莲凝集素基因(gna). 褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养试验表明,水稻 纯系对褐飞虱具有显著的抑制作用. 具体表现为降低褐飞虱成活率和繁殖力、延缓褐飞虱发 育以及减少褐飞虱进食量. 通过褐飞虱生物鉴定和喂养试验证明,表达GNA的转基因水稻纯系对严重危害水稻生产的褐飞虱具有抗性作用.

  17. Cry1Ab rice does not impact biological characters and functional response ofCyrtorhinus lividipennispreying onNilaparvata lugens eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yang; LAI Feng-xiang; SUN Yan-qun; HONG Li-ying; TIAN Jun-ce; ZHANG Zhi-tao; FU Qiang

    2015-01-01

    One concern about the use of transgenic plants is their potential risk to natural enemies. In this study, using the eggs of the rice brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens, as a food source, we investigated the effects of Cry1Ab rice on the biological characteristics and functional response of an important predatorCyrtorhinus lividipennis. The results showed that the survival ability (adult emergence rate and egg hatching rate), development (egg duration, nymphal developmental duration), adult fresh weight, adult longevity and fecundity ofC. lividipennis on Bt rice plants were not signiifcantly different compared to those on non-Bt rice plants. Furthermore, two important parameters of functional response (instantaneous search rate and handling time) were not signiifcantly affected by Bt rice. In conclusion, the tested Cry1Ab rice does not adversely impact the biological character and functional response ofC. lividipennis.

  18. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of the BPH18 Gene from Wild Rice Conferring Resistance to Brown Planthopper (BPH) Insect Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyeonso; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Yul-Ho; Suh, Jung-Pil; Park, Hyang-Mi; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Misra, Gopal; Kim, Suk-Man; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Kim, Hakbum; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Hyemin; Suh, Suk-Chul; Yang, Jungil; An, Gynheung; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem sap-sucking insect pest of rice which causes severe yield loss. We cloned the BPH18 gene from the BPH-resistant introgression line derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. Map-based cloning and complementation test revealed that the BPH18 encodes CC-NBS-NBS-LRR protein. BPH18 has two NBS domains, unlike the typical NBS-LRR proteins. The BPH18 promoter::GUS transgenic plants exhibited strong GUS expression in the vascular bundles of the leaf sheath, especially in phloem cells where the BPH attacks. The BPH18 proteins were widely localized to the endo-membranes in a cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments, suggesting that BPH18 may recognize the BPH invasion at endo-membranes in phloem cells. Whole genome sequencing of the near-isogenic lines (NILs), NIL-BPH18 and NIL-BPH26, revealed that BPH18 located at the same locus of BPH26. However, these two genes have remarkable sequence differences and the independent NILs showed differential BPH resistance with different expression patterns of plant defense-related genes, indicating that BPH18 and BPH26 are functionally different alleles. These findings would facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BPH resistance and the identified novel alleles to fast track breeding BPH resistant rice cultivars. PMID:27682162

  19. 70%噻虫嗪WS对水稻壮苗及稻飞虱的防治效果%Effects of 70% thiamethoxam WS on strengthening rice seedling and controlling planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stal)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付佑胜; 赵桂东; 刘伟中

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Effect of different doses of thiamethoxam WS(70%) on strengthening rice seedling and controlling planthopper was studied in order to screen its best dose and treatment method on rice seed. [Method]Germination rate, root length, leaf width, rool number of rice seedlings and preventive effects of three different doses of thiamethoxam WS (20, 40 and 80 g for every 100 kg seeds) using two different methods (coating first and presoaking, presoaking first and coaling) were investigated. [ Result ]The most satisfying combination was found as treatment of 40 g 70% thiamethoxam WS every 100 kg seeds (coaled first and then presoaked). The germination percentage (indoor) was stabilized at 96% after 4 days. The length of rice root was 4.93 cm after 30 days. Ten days later, leaf width of the top five leaves was found apparently larger than the control. The average number of root was 54 on the 45th day. For the prevention of the planthopper, the control effect reached 96% on the 15th, 30th and 45th day. [Conclusion]The application of 40 g 70% thiamethoxam WS every 100 kg seeds (coated first and then presoaked) was recommended to get the best controlling effects at rice production.%[目的]研究70%噻虫嗪WS不同处理方式对水稻的壮苗效果及对稻飞虱的防治效果,以期获得该药剂对水稻种子的最佳处理剂量和处理方法,为水稻安全生产提供科学依据.[方法]70%噻虫嗪WS:水稻种子按照20 g:100kg、40 g:100 kg和80 g:100 kg分别采用先包衣后浸种和先浸种后包衣的处理方式,以空白为对照,测定不同处理方式水稻种子发芽率、稻根长、叶片宽度、根数及对稻飞虱的防治效果.[结果]70%噻虫嗪WS按照药剂/种子为40 g/100kg,采用先包衣后浸种处理方式的综合效果最佳,处理后4d室内发芽率稳定为96.00%,30 d平均根长为4.93 cm,40 d水稻1~5叶位叶片宽度明显较对照宽,45 d的平均根数为54.0条,处理后15、30、45 d对稻

  20. Study on Control Technology in Brown Planthopper Outbreak Year in Huangshan Single Season Rice%黄山稻区单季中稻防控褐飞虱大发生技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方春华

    2015-01-01

    为了明确单季中稻褐飞虱大发生条件下的防控技术。通过不同药剂组合进行防治褐飞虱的田间药效试验,并进行大田示范验证。结果表明,在四(2)代低龄若虫高峰期选择对褐飞虱高效的药剂呋虫胺进行防治,并在五(3)代低龄高峰期使用呋虫胺或吡蚜酮等再进行1次防治,可以有效控制褐飞虱危害。%In order to definite the control technology on brown planthopper in outbreak year, field efficacy trials and demonstration were carried out by combinating different pesticides. The results showed that brown planthopper could be controlled effectively when dinotefuran was used at peak stage of low instar nymphs of 4 (2) generation, then dinotefuran or pymetrozine was used at peak period of 5 (3) generation.

  1. Distinct expression profiles and different functions of odorant binding proteins in Nilaparvata lugens Stal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs play important roles in insect olfaction. The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Delphacidae, Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera is one of the most important rice pests. Its monophagy (only feeding on rice, wing form (long and short wing variation, and annual long distance migration (seeking for rice plants of high nutrition imply that the olfaction would play a central role in BPH behavior. However, the olfaction related proteins have not been characterized in this insect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full length cDNA of three OBPs were obtained and distinct expression profiles were revealed regarding to tissue, developmental stage, wing form and gender for the first time for the species. The results provide important clues in functional differentiation of these genes. Binding assays with 41 compounds demonstrated that NlugOBP3 had markedly higher binding ability and wider binding spectrum than the other two OBPs. Terpenes and Ketones displayed higher binding while Alkanes showed no binding to the three OBPs. Focused on NlugOBP3, RNA interference experiments showed that NlugOBP3 not only involved in nymph olfaction on rice seedlings, but also had non-olfactory functions, as it was closely related to nymph survival. CONCLUSIONS: NlugOBP3 plays important roles in both olfaction and survival of BPH. It may serve as a potential target for developing behavioral disruptant and/or lethal agent in N. lugens.

  2. Research Progress of Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice%水稻抗褐飞虱基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝莉莉; 胡亮; 杜波

    2011-01-01

    综述了水稻抗褐飞虱基因的研究进展.褐飞虱是对水稻为害最严重的害虫之一.它栖息于稻丛基部,吸食韧皮部汁液.褐飞虱具有不同的生物型.在抗性品种的选择压力下,将产生一种新的生物型褐飞虱群体克服该抗性品种.因此,寻找新的抗性基因是培育新的抗褐飞虱水稻品种的关键.合适的水稻抗褐飞虱的鉴定方法是克隆水稻抗褐飞虱基因的基础.常用的方法有苗期集团鉴定、蜜露量测定、电子取食监测系统等.迄今为止,科学家已经在栽培稻和野生稻中定位了21个水稻抗褐飞虱基因,并且Bph14基因已经被武汉大学生命科学学院杂交水稻国家重点实验室成功克隆.该结果为克隆其他水稻抗褐飞虱基因以及研究水稻抗褐飞虱的分子机制奠定了基础.%The research progresses on brown planthopper (Nilap arv ata lugens Stal, BPH) resistance genes in rice were summarized. BPH is one of the most destructive pests in crop production worldwide. They gather at the base part of rice plant and suck assimilates from the phloem. BPH has various biotypos. Under the selection pressure of resistant variety, a new biotype of BPH might come out to overcome the resistance of the variety. Exploring new resistance gene is critical for developing resistant rice variety. Appropriate evaluation of germplasm for BPH resistance is the key to identify resistance genes correctly.There are several types of screening methods such as the standard seodbex screening technique, honey dew test, electronic monitoring system and so on. To date, 21 BPH-resistance genes have been identified from cultivated and wild rice species.Bph14 is the fast report of BPH-resistance gene in rice. These results provide basis for the clone of more BPH resistance genes and the study on molecular mechanism of rice resistance to BPH.

  3. Studies on Resistance to Brown Planthopper in Transgenic Rice Pure Lines%转基因水稻纯系对褐飞虱的抗性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克轩; 孙小芬; 姚剑虹; 戚华雄; 卢兴桂

    2000-01-01

    Mature seed-derived callus from japonica rice cv. Eyi 105 was co-transformed with two plasmids,pWRG1515 and pRSSGNA1,containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt),the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) lectin gene (gna) via particle bombardment.Twenty-six independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 152 bombarded callus. Seventy-three percent of transgenic plants contained all the three genes, revealed by PCR/Southen blot analysis.Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From R2 generations with their R1 parent plants showing 3∶1 Mendelian segregation patterns, three independent homozyous lines expressing all the three transgenes were identified. Insect bioassay results showed that these homozygous lines had significant inhibition to brown planthopper.%利用基因枪法将含潮霉素抗性基因、GUS报告基因和雪花莲凝集素基因的2个质粒pWRG1515和pRSSGNA1共同转化粳稻品种鄂宜105的成熟胚诱导的愈伤组织. 从轰击的152块愈伤组织中共再生出26株独立转基因植株.PCR/Southern印迹法分析发现,73%的转基因植株含有所有3个外源基因.遗传分析证实外源基因在转基因植株后代中以孟德尔方式遗传.从其R1代亲本为孟德尔3∶1方式遗传的R2代中,鉴定出3个表达所有3个外源基因的独立转基因植株纯系.抗虫鉴定结果发现这些纯系对褐飞虱具有明显的抑制作用.

  4. 灰飞虱胁迫下水稻防卫相关基因的表达%Expression of Rice Defence Genes under Small Brown Planthopper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万昌; 余娇娇; 段灿星; 朱振东; 王晓鸣

    2012-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus Fallen (Homoptera: Delphacide), is an economically important pest in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in China. Real-time PCR was used to determine transcriptional level of rice defence genes after SBPH infestation using specific primers. The expression levels of SA synthesis-related genes PAL, NPR1, EDS1, and PAD4 were higher in the resistant variety "Mudgo" than in the susceptible variety "Kittake" after SBPH feeding. The expression level of gene PAL in 12 h-infestation rice was 6.914 times of that in untreated rice. The expression amount of PAL in Mudgo increased more rapidly and in higher levels, which were 42.848, 70.743, and 69.193 times over the expression amounts of Kittake at 24, 48, and 72 h after SBPH infestation, respectively. The expression levels of NPR1 in Mudgo were 4.690, 6.231, and 4.112 times over those in Kittake after SBPH infestation for 12, 36, and 72 h, respectively. There were significant differences in transcriptional levels of the jasmonate (JA) synthesis-related genes LOX and AOS2 after 36 h-infestation between Mudgo and Kittake. The expression level was substantially lower in Mudgo than in Kittake at subsequent time points. In addition, the expression level of receptor gene EIN2 in ethylene signaling pathway was higher in Kittake than in Mudgo after SBPH feeding. The above results indicated that SBPH feeding activated the salicylic acid signaling pathway in resistant Mudgo and induced the defenses in susceptible Kittake associated with a JA/ethylene-dependent pathway. Genes PAL and NPR1 play a considerable role in the regulation of Mudgo expressing resistance to SBPH.%运用荧光定量PCR方法及特异性引物,对不同时间(12、24、36、48和72 h)灰飞虱胁迫下抗虫和感虫水稻品种中主要防卫途径的相关基因进行转录水平上定量分析.灰飞虱取食后,与水杨酸合成途径相关的基因PAL、NPR1、EDS1和PAD4在抗灰飞虱品种Mudgo

  5. Knockdown of midgut genes by dsRNA-transgenic plant-mediated RNA interference in the hemipteran insect Nilaparvata lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful technique for functional genomics research in insects. Transgenic plants producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA directed against insect genes have been reported for lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, showing potential for field-level control of insect pests, but this has not been reported for other insect orders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hemipteran insect brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål is a typical phloem sap feeder specific to rice (Oryza sativa L.. To analyze the potential of exploiting RNAi-mediated effects in this insect, we identified genes (Nlsid-1 and Nlaub encoding proteins that might be involved in the RNAi pathway in N. lugens. Both genes are expressed ubiquitously in nymphs and adult insects. Three genes (the hexose transporter gene NlHT1, the carboxypeptidase gene Nlcar and the trypsin-like serine protease gene Nltry that are highly expressed in the N. lugens midgut were isolated and used to develop dsRNA constructs for transforming rice. RNA blot analysis showed that the dsRNAs were transcribed and some of them were processed to siRNAs in the transgenic lines. When nymphs were fed on rice plants expressing dsRNA, levels of transcripts of the targeted genes in the midgut were reduced; however, lethal phenotypic effects after dsRNA feeding were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that genes for the RNAi pathway (Nlsid-1 and Nlaub are present in N. lugens. When insects were fed on rice plant materials expressing dsRNAs, RNA interference was triggered and the target genes transcript levels were suppressed. The gene knockdown technique described here may prove to be a valuable tool for further investigations in N. lugens. The results demonstrate the potential of dsRNA-mediated RNAi for field-level control of planthoppers, but appropriate target genes must be selected when designing the dsRNA-transgenic plants.

  6. The insecticide resistance in two planthoppers from three areas to three insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Migrating insects brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparata lugens Stal and white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatellafurcifera Horvath are both most harmful insects on rice in China. Chemical control is thought to be the best way to manage them, but it may cause insecticide resistance.

  7. The influence of Typhoon Khanun on the return migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stal in eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hu

    Full Text Available Migratory insects adapt to and exploit the atmospheric environment to complete their migration and maintain their population. However, little is known about the mechanism of insect migration under the influence of extreme weather conditions such as typhoons. A case study was conducted to investigate the effect of typhoon Khanun, which made landfall in the eastern China in Sept. 2005, on the migration of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål. The migration pathways of N. lugens were reconstructed for the period under the influence of the typhoon by calculating trajectories using the MM5, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, and migration events were examined in 7 counties of the Yangtze River Delta region with ancillary information. The light trap catches and field observations indicated that the migration peak of N. lugens coincided with the period when the typhoon made landfall in this region. The trajectory analyses revealed that most emigrations from this region during this period were hampered or ended in short distances. The sources of the light-trap catches were mainly located the nearby regions of each station (i.e. mostly less than 100 km away, with a few exceeding 200 km but all less than 300 km. This disrupted emigration was very different from the usual N. lugens migration which would bring them to Hunan, Jiangxi, and southern Anhui from this region at this time of year. This study revealed that the return migration of N. lugens was suppressed by the typhoon Khanun, leading to populations remaining high in the Yangtze River Delta and exacerbating later outbreaks.

  8. The genetic basis of population fecundity prediction across multiple field populations of Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong Xiang; Zhai, Yi Fan; Zhang, Jian Qing; Kang, Kui; Cai, Jing Heng; Fu, Yonggui; Qiu, Jie Qi; Shen, Jia Wei; Zhang, Wen Qing

    2015-02-01

    Identifying the molecular markers for complex quantitative traits in natural populations promises to provide novel insight into genetic mechanisms of adaptation and to aid in forecasting population dynamics. In this study, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using candidate gene approach from high- and low-fecundity populations of the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) divergently selected for fecundity. We also tested whether the population fecundity can be predicted by a few SNPs. Seven genes (ACE, fizzy, HMGCR, LpR, Sxl, Vg and VgR) were inspected for SNPs in N. lugens, which is a serious insect pest of rice. By direct sequencing of the complementary DNA and promoter sequences of these candidate genes, 1033 SNPs were discovered within high- and low-fecundity BPH populations. A panel of 121 candidate SNPs were selected and genotyped in 215 individuals from 2 laboratory populations (HFP and LFP) and 3 field populations (GZP, SGP and ZSP). Prior to association tests, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among the 3 field populations were analysed. The association results showed that 7 SNPs were significantly associated with population fecundity in BPH. These significant SNPs were used for constructing general liner models with stepwise regression. The best predictive model was composed of 2 SNPs (ACE-862 and VgR-816 ) with very good fitting degree. We found that 29% of the phenotypic variation in fecundity could be accounted for by only two markers. Using two laboratory populations and a complete independent field population, the predictive accuracy was 84.35-92.39%. The predictive model provides an efficient molecular method to predict BPH fecundity of field populations and provides novel insights for insect population management.

  9. Classification of rice planthopper based on invariant moments and BP neural network%基于4种不变矩和BP神经网络的稻飞虱分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹修国; 丁为民; 刘德营; 赵三琴

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at the problem of the quality of images that were acquired by rice planthoppers remote real-time recognition system, the shape feature values which were extracted by invariant moments to recognize a rice planthopper. 160W self-ballasted high-voltage mercury lamp was used in the experiment to lure rice planthoppers to the curtain, then a H-shape mobile photographing device which had been designed independently by us was used to photograph the planthopper image. The device has the advantages of simple structure and low cost. The USB interface camera of this device was less than 600 RMB. It will lay the foundation for the development of a rice planthopper scene recognition system with low cost. The color images which had been photographed were grayed with a weighted formula, and then were subject to binaryzation with an Otsu method. Finally, the algorithms such as morphological operations were used for filtration to get a binary image with better quality. The feature values of the rice planthopper binary images were respectively extracted by four invariant moments:Hu moment, improved Hu moment, Zernike moment, and Krawtchouk moment, and then a BP nerve network was used to train and test the four feature values respectively, so as to detect the recognition effect of extraction feature values of the four moments. Matlab 2008a was used in the experiment. 240 samples of sogatella furcifera, nilaparvata lugens, and small brown planthoppers had been trained, and then an additional 60 samples were selected for testing. The test result was that the overall recognition rate of the Hu moment was only 76.7%, and the recognition rate of the improved Hu moment was 85%, while the recognition rate of the Zernike moment was 86.7%and the recognition rate of the Krawtchouk moment was 91.7%. The recognition rate of the Krawtchouk moment was the best of the four moments. The reason was that the Krawtchouk moment not only reflected the global feature, but exhibits better locality

  10. Identification of a heat shock protein 90 gene involved in resistance to temperature stress in two wing-morphs of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wenting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is one of the most destructive pests damaging rice in Asia and exhibits wing dimorphism, with brachypters possessing severely reduced wings and macropters bearing fully developed wings. Previous studies have shown that macropters are more heat resistant than brachypters. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the differential thermotolerance abilities of these two morphs, a full-length Hsp gene, NlHsp90 was cloned from N. lugen. Our results showed that the relative expression levels of NlHsp90 in N. lugens females increased with the rise of temperature. Interestingly, NlHsp90 in macropters females could be induced at lower temperature (32°C) than that in brachypters (34°C), and the NlHsp90 mRNA levels in macropters were significantly higher than those in brachypters from 34 to 40°C. In addition, the maximum expression levels of NlHsp90 were achieved much earlier in macropters, and NlHsp90 mRNA levels in macropters were significantly higher than those in brachypters from 1 to 6h of recovery after temperature stress. Furthermore, knockdown of NlHsp90 by dsRNA injection reduced survival in both morphs with a greater reduction in the macropters relative to that of the brachyters. These results indicated that NlHsp90 plays an important role for thermotolerance in N. lugens, and there is difference on induction between two morphs.

  11. Functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis to eggs ofNilaparvata lugens are not affected by genetically modiifed herbicide-tolerant rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xian-bin; LONG Li-ping; HUANG Qian; LING Yan; CHEN Yu-chong; XIAO Guo-ying; HUANG Suo-sheng; WU Bi-qiu; HUANG Feng-kuan; CAI Jian-he

    2015-01-01

    To safely and sustainably utilize genetic breeding techniques for crop production, greater understanding of the potential effects of geneticaly modiifed herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the ecological functions of predators is required. In the laboratory, we examined the functional and numerical responses ofCyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter to eggs of brown plan-thopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), which were reared on GMHT rice Bar68-1; the untransformed parental cultivar, D68; or a BPH-susceptive rice variety, Taichung Native 1. Al stages of nymphs and female adultof C. lividipennis, either on GMHT rice or control plants, exhibited typical type II functional responses when fed on BPH eggs; the attacking rate and handling time ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice Bar68-1 was not signiifcantly different from that on D68. The numerical responses ofC. lividipennis on GMHT rice or controls ift Beddington’s model; there were no signiifcant differences in the parameters of numerical responses between GMHT rice Bar68-1 and D68. The results indicated that the functional and numerical responses ofC. lividipennis to BPH eggs are not affected by GMHT rice Bar68-1.

  12. The influence of Typhoon Khanun on the return migration of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gao; Lu, Fang; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Xu, Wei-Gen; Jiang, Xue-Hui; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Migratory insects adapt to and exploit the atmospheric environment to complete their migration and maintain their population. However, little is known about the mechanism of insect migration under the influence of extreme weather conditions such as typhoons. A case study was conducted to investigate the effect of typhoon Khanun, which made landfall in the eastern China in Sept. 2005, on the migration of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). The migration pathways of N. lugens were reconstructed for the period under the influence of the typhoon by calculating trajectories using the MM5, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, and migration events were examined in 7 counties of the Yangtze River Delta region with ancillary information. The light trap catches and field observations indicated that the migration peak of N. lugens coincided with the period when the typhoon made landfall in this region. The trajectory analyses revealed that most emigrations from this region during this period were hampered or ended in short distances. The sources of the light-trap catches were mainly located the nearby regions of each station (i.e. mostly less than 100 km away, with a few exceeding 200 km but all less than 300 km). This disrupted emigration was very different from the usual N. lugens migration which would bring them to Hunan, Jiangxi, and southern Anhui from this region at this time of year. This study revealed that the return migration of N. lugens was suppressed by the typhoon Khanun, leading to populations remaining high in the Yangtze River Delta and exacerbating later outbreaks.

  13. Subcellular localization of the stripe disease-specific protein encoded by rice stripe virus (RSV) in its vector, the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The stripe disease-specific protein (SP) encoded by the rice stripe virus (RSV) was successfully used as a localization signal of the virus in its vector, the small brown lanthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Fallen. Immunogold parficles in large numbers were detected in various parts of the viruliferous females: the ovum, surface of chorion, the midgut lumen, and the columnar cells. Whereas there was none of these particles in the non-viruliferous females and males,and testis of viruliferous males. Endosymbionts (mycetocytes)were abundant, harboring ovaries of both viruliferous and non-viruliferous females, but none in the testis of males. The results provided us with the direct proof that RSV is a ciruculative and propagative plant virus and it was transovarially transmitted alongside with endosymbionts of its vector. Therefore, we deem it a nice lead for future studies on the mechanism of RSV transmission and functioning of its viral proteins.

  14. Detection of Wolbachia in Laodelphax striatellus and analysis of Wolbachia wsp gene between three species of the rice planthopper%灰飞虱体内Wolbachia的检测及三种稻飞虱Wolbachia的wsp基因差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许存宾; 刘艳; 王锡锋

    2012-01-01

    To identify the geographical genetic differentiation of Wolbachia in the small brown planthopper (Lao-delphax striatellus, SBPH) and it's variation among three species of the rice planthopper, we detected the Wol-bahcia outer surface protein (wsp) gene in SBPH by the PCR method, and the sequences were analyzed by phylo-genetic analysis. The results showed that the average infection rate of Wolbachia in SBPH collected from 21 regions in 12 provinces was 96.41%. There was no geographical genetic differentiation in Walachia wsp gene. Wolbachia in the SBPH and the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera , WBPH) shared the same homology in wsp gene sequences, but differences were found in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), with a similarity of 83.39%. The results gained in this study indicated that SBPH and WBPH might be infected by the same strain of Wolbachia, while BPH by a different strain.%采用PCR方法对灰飞虱感染Wolbachia情况进行检测,并对Wolbachia的wsp基因进行序列测定和系统发育分析,以明确各地区Wolbachia的差异及三种稻飞虱体内Wolbachia的差异.结果表明,12省份21地区灰飞虱群体Wolbachia平均感染率达到96.41%.各地灰飞虱体内Wolbachia不存在明显的地理种群分化.与褐飞虱及白背飞虱体内Wolbachia的wsp序列对比,灰飞虱与白背飞虱的序列一致,而与褐飞虱存在较大差异(相似性83.39%),处于不同的系统进化簇.表明感染白背飞虱与灰飞虱的Wolbachia处于相同株系,而感染褐飞虱的Wolbachia处于另一株系.

  15. Expression induction of P450 genes by imidacloprid in Nilaparvata lugens: A genome-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Yixi; Wang, Yunchao; Yang, Yuanxue; Cang, Xinzhu; Liu, Zewen

    2016-09-01

    The overexpression of P450 monooxygenase genes is a main mechanism for the resistance to imidacloprid, a representative neonicotinoid insecticide, in Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper, BPH). However, only two P450 genes (CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1), among fifty-four P450 genes identified from BPH genome database, have been reported to play important roles in imidacloprid resistance until now. In this study, after the confirmation of important roles of P450s in imidacloprid resistance by the synergism analysis, the expression induction by imidacloprid was determined for all P450 genes. In the susceptible (Sus) strain, eight P450 genes in Clade4, eight in Clade3 and two in Clade2 were up-regulated by imidacloprid, among which three genes (CYP6CS1, CYP6CW1 and CYP6ER1, all in Clade3) were increased to above 4.0-fold and eight genes to above 2.0-fold. In contrast, no P450 genes were induced in Mito clade. Eight genes induced to above 2.0-fold were selected to determine their expression and induced levels in Huzhou population, in which piperonyl butoxide showed the biggest effects on imidacloprid toxicity among eight field populations. The expression levels of seven P450 genes were higher in Huzhou population than that in Sus strain, with the biggest differences for CYP6CS1 (9.8-fold), CYP6ER1 (7.7-fold) and CYP6AY1 (5.1-fold). The induction levels for all tested genes were bigger in Sus strain than that in Huzhou population except CYP425B1. Screening the induction of P450 genes by imidacloprid in the genome-scale will provide an overall view on the possible metabolic factors in the resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides. The further work, such as the functional study of recombinant proteins, will be performed to validate the roles of these P450s in imidacloprid resistance.

  16. Susceptibility to Insecticides and Ecological Fitness in Resistant Rice Varieties of Field Nilaparvata lugens Stål Population Free from Insecticides in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ya-jun; DONG Bi-qin; XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; K.L.HEONG; LU Zhong-xian

    2014-01-01

    A population of rice brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens collected from a paddy field in Hangzhou was successively reared on susceptible rice Taichung Native 1 (TN1) in a laboratory free from insecticides for more than 14 generations. The changes in susceptibility to insecticides and ecological fitness on different resistant rice varieties were monitored in each generation. The resistance ratio to imidacloprid sharply declined with the succession of rearing generations without insecticides from 359.94-fold at F1 to 6.50-fold at F14 compared with the susceptible strain, and the resistance ratio to chlorpyrifos was from 9.90-fold at F1 to 5.94-fold at F14. Nymphal duration and weights of newly hatched female adults were significantly affected by rice variety, generation and their interactions, but nymphal survival was significantly affected by the generation only. The ratio of brachypterous adults in males was affected by the generation and generation × variety interaction, whereas no difference was found in females. Nymphal duration extended with increasing generations, and the female nymphal duration was shorter in the susceptible variety TN1 than those in the resistant varieties IR26 and IR36. In addition, the female adult weight in TN1 was higher than those in IR26 and IR36. These results indicated that the resistance of field BPH population to insecticides was reversed after several generations of no-exposure to insecticides, and the ecological fitness in TN1 was higher than those in IR26 and IR36. These findings suggested the rational and reduced use of insecticides in combination with the manipulation of resistant rice varieties would be effective for BPH management.

  17. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Nilaparvata lugens with Different Levels of Virulence on Rice by Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-xia; LAI Feng-xiang; LI Kai-long; FU Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopperNilaparvata lugens Stål (Homoptera: Delphacidae) can cause hopperburn by feeding on rice and also can transmit the grassy stunt disease. Resistant rice varieties have been developed, but severalN. lugens strains can recover their virulence to these resistant rice varieties. In the present study, reference genes with stable expression levels inN. lugens populations showed different levels of virulence to susceptible and resistant rice varieties. The expression of six candidate reference genes inN. lugens feeding on susceptible and resistant rice varieties was analyzed. These genes were evaluated for their potential use in the analysis of differential gene expression. Polymerase chain reaction data was generated fromN. lugens, including two different treatments (resistant or susceptible rice) and three virulentN. lugens populations. Three software programs (BestKeeper, Normfinder and geNorm) were used to assess the candidate reference genes. Both geNorm and Normfinder identified the genes18S,β-ACT,β-TUB andα-TUB as the most stable reference genes. BestKeeper identifiedETIF1 as the optimal reference gene with the least overall variation, whereas18S andα-TUB were the second and third most stably expressed genes, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that the genes18S andα-TUB were the most suitable reference genes inN. lugens. These results will facilitate future transcript profiling studies onN. lugens populations that show variation in virulence levels on different rice varieties.

  18. Various infection status and molecular evidence for horizontal transmission and recombination of Wolbachia and Cardinium among rice planthoppers and related species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Jun Zhang; Xiao Han; Xiao-Yue Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia and Cardinium are widely distributed and are considered important for their ability to disturb reproduction and affect other fitness-related traits of their hosts.By using multilocus sequence typing (MLST),RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing methods,we extensively surveyed Wolbachia and Cardinium infection status of four predominant rice planthoppers and one kind of leafhopper in different rice fields.The results demonstrated that Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) and Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) were infected with the same Wolbachia strain (wStri),while Nilaparvata lugens (St(a)l) and its closely related species Nilaparvata muiri China were infected with two phylogeneticlly distant strains,wLug and wMui,respectively.Three new Wolbachia strains (provisionally named wMfasl,wMfas2 and wMfas3) were detected in the leafhopper Macrostelesfascifrons (St(a)l).Only S.furcifera was co-infected with Cardinium,which indicated that the distribution of Cardinium in these rice planthoppers was narrower than that of Wolbachia.Unambiguous intragenic recombination events among these Wolbachia strains and incongruent phylogenetic relationships show that the connections between different Wolbachia strains and hosts were more complex than we expected.These results suggest that horizontal transmission and host associated specialization are two factors affecting Wolbachia and Cardinium infections among planthoppers and their related species.

  19. Pyramiding the Blast Resistant Gene Pi9 and the Brown Planthopper Gene Bph18(t) to Develop Restorer Lines in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)%聚合抗稻瘟病基因Pi9和抗褐飞虱基因Bp h18(t)选育水稻恢复系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文清; 裴庆利; 梁云涛; 刘丕庆; 赵开军; 王春连; 林纬; 杨培忠; 于洁

    2014-01-01

    水稻(Oryza sativa L.)作为粮食作物,在全世界粮食生产中具有极其重要的地位。稻瘟病、褐飞虱等病虫害的发生严重危害着水稻的安全生产,培育并利用水稻抗性品种能经济有效地预防水稻病虫害的发生,因此,培育抗性品种在水稻安全生产中尤为重要。本研究以具有抗稻瘟病基因Pi9的抗病品系75-1-127为抗病亲本,以携带有抗褐飞虱基因Bph18(t)的水稻材料C4064为抗虫亲本,以性状优良的恢复系测679作为轮回亲本,进行杂交、回交和自交,并辅以田间多代选择。在分离群体中,使用与Pi9紧密连锁的SCAR标记pB8跟踪目标基因Pi9,利用与Bph18(t)紧密连锁的标记KC16跟踪目标基因Bph18(t)。通过分子标记辅助选择、农艺性状评价和抗病抗虫鉴定,选育出聚合了Pi9和Bph18(t)基因、对稻瘟病和褐飞虱的抗性水平接近抗病亲本或抗虫亲本的恢复系。%Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a cereal crop, plays an ultimately important role in the global food production. The occurrence of the rice disease and pest such as the rice blast (RB) and the brown planthopper (BPH) can seve-rely damage the safe production of rice, and the development and application of the resistant varieties can prevent the occurrence of the rice disease and pest economically and effectively, so the development of the resistant variety is crucial in the safe production of rice. In this study, we used the disease resistant line 75-1-127 carrying rice blast resistant gene Pi9 as the disease-resistant parent, the BPH-resistant line C4064 harboring brown planthopper resistant gene Bph18(t) as the BPH-resistant parent, and the elite restoring line Ce679 as recurrent parents, to hy-bridize, backcross, selfcross and field select for multiple generations. The Pi9-linked SCAR marker pB8 was used to select Pi9, and the Bph18(t)-linked marker KC16 was used to select Bph18(t) in the segregating populations. By

  20. Molecular detection of the endosymbiont Wolbachia in different Asian populations of the brown planthopper%亚洲不同地理种群褐飞虱内共生菌Wolbachia的分子检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈吕宇; 楼怡寒; 黄海剑; 丁张军; 叶雨轩; 张传溪

    2013-01-01

    褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l是水稻的重要害虫,而Wolbachia是其重要的次生共生细菌之一.为了解褐飞虱种群感染Wolbachia的情况,本研究对采自世界褐飞虱主要分布区的22个地理种群感染Wolbachia的情况进行了检测和分析.qPCR结果表明,除杭州2009年种群没有检测出Wolbachia外,其它21个种群中都有不同程度的Wolbachia感染.对Wolbachia的wsp基因序列的比较和进化分析表明,褐飞虱各地理种群Wolbachia都属于B群,并可进一步分为Ori和Con两个亚群.其中18个褐飞虱种群中的Wolbachia属于Ori亚群,广东清远和浙江桐乡褐飞虱种群中的Wolbachia则属于Con亚群,而菲律宾Iloilo褐飞虱种群分别检测到同时有2个亚群Wolbachia感染.本结果可为进一步研究褐飞虱与共生菌的共生关系、褐飞虱致害性变异和迁飞路线分析及利用Wolbachia防治褐飞虱提供依据.

  1. 不同药剂对褐飞虱作用特性的比较%Comparison of the effectiveness of different insecticides against Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧芳; 方继朝; 刘宝生; 王利华

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of different insecticides, including thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, melhylamino-avermectin, imidaelothiz and ethiprole, against the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens ( Stal ), was investigated. Lethal concentration and time were determined after seedling-dipping and spraying treatments. Based on dose-mortality responses, nitenpyram showed the highest insecticidical activity against 3rd instar nymphs of all the insecticides tested with LC50 values for seedling-dipping and spray treatments of 0.41 mg/L and 0.26 mg/L, respectively. Imidaclothiz was the least effective insecticide tested. Differences in the performance of the same insecticides between seedling-dipping and spraying treatments were found in methylamino-avermectin, inridaclothiz and thiamethoxam. The killing speed of sprayed methylamino-avermectin, ethiprole and imidaclothiz was significantly higher than that of thiamethoxam and nitenpyram. All instars of the brown planthopper were sensitive to thiamethoxam and nitenpyram, the insecticidical activity ratio of the LC50s of 1st and 5th instar nymphs were 7.4 and 9.7, respectively.%为高效和合理利用化学药剂防治褐飞虱Nilaparvta lugens( St(a)l),采用浸苗法和喷雾法测定了噻虫嗪、烯啶虫胺、甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐、氯噻啉和乙虫腈5种药剂对褐飞虱的作用活性和速度,同时还比较了噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺对褐飞虱不同龄期若虫的作用活性.结果表明,在5种供试药剂中,从作用活性来看,无论是用浸苗法还是喷雾法处理,烯啶虫胺活性均最高,对褐飞虱3龄若虫的LC50分别为0.41和0.26 mg/L,氯噻啉的活性则最低.甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐、氯噻啉和噻虫嗪用喷雾法处理时的活性均显著高于用浸苗法处理时的活性;烯啶虫胺和乙虫腈在2种处理方式下的活性没有明显差异.从作用速度来看,喷雾法处理时,甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐、乙虫腈和氯噻啉杀虫速度均快于

  2. Migratory biology of the white backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváith) :Case studies in Huizhou, Anhui Province%白背飞虱的迁飞生物学:安徽徽州个例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁永刚; 张国; 杨海博; 瞿钰锋; 张孝羲; 翟保平

    2011-01-01

    The take-off behavior, wing dimorphism and population characteristics of the white backed planthopper Sogatella furcifem (Horvath) (WBPH) in different years, locations and generations were studied by field surveys, ovarian dissection and observation of captive insects. The main results were: (1 ) The majority of the second and third generations of WBPH are emigrants colonizing early-mid rice but, in 2009, the number of emigrants declined significantly after rice reaches the waxen maturity stage; (2) The number of emigrants was correlated with adult density; (3) heavy precipitation affects the number of insects that take to the air; (4) The ratio of the macropterous adults in most of the local generations was more than 80% and their wing forms were 'macropterous-macropterous-macropterous' in successive generations, a different pattern to that observed in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens ( Stal ) , (5) There was no relationship between the number of insects taking to the air, or otherwise emigrating, and rice growth stages; (6) The population characteristics of the WBPH could be classified into three types; mostly immigrants, partly local breeding and partly emigrated, and mostly emigrated.%通过水稻田罩笼试验研究了白背飞虱起飞迁出与世代、田间成虫密度的关系以及降水对起飞的影响,采用系统田调查和长翅雌虫卵巢系统解剖分析了各代翅型分化、迁出与水稻生育期的关系以及各世代虫源性质.结果表明:(1)早中稻田白背飞虱起飞迁出以第2、3代为主,后期迁出较少;(2)白背飞虱起飞迁出数量与田间成虫密度有关;(3)降水影响白背飞虱的起飞;(4)白背飞虱各世代以长翅型为主,世代间翅型分化模式不同于褐飞虱,表现为“长-长-长”;(5)白背飞虱起飞与水稻生育期关系不大;(6)白背飞虱虫源性质分为基本迁入型、部分迁入滞留与部分迁出型、基本迁出型.

  3. Wing patterning genes of Nilaparvata lugens identiifcation by transcriptome analysis, and their differential expression proifle in wing pads between brachypterous and macropterous morphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kai-yin; HU Ding-bang; LIU Fang-zhou; LONG Man; LIU Si-yi; ZHAO Jing; HE Yue-ping; HUA Hong-xia

    2015-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens is an economically important pest on rice plants. This species produces macropterous and brachypterous morphs in response to environmental cues, which makes it very dififcult to control. The molecular basis of wing patterning in N. lugens is stil unknown. It is necessary to identify wing patterning genes of N. lugens, and also to clarify the expression differences of wing patterning genes between macropterous and brachypter-ous morphs. High-throughput deep sequencing of transcriptome of N. lugens wing pad yielded 116 744 580 raw reads and 113 042 700 clean reads. Al the reads were assembled into 55 963 unigenes with an average length of 804 bp. With the E-value cut-off of 1.0E–5,18 359 and 2 883 unigens had hits in NCBI-NR (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences) and NCBI-NT (NCBI nucleotide sequences) databases, respectively. A total of 16 502 unigenes were assigned to GO (gene ontology) classiifcation, 9 709 ungenes were grouped into 26 COG (cluster of orthologous groups of proteins) classiifcations, and 6 724 unigenes were assigned to different KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) path-ways. In total, 56 unigenes which are homologous to wing patterning genes of Drosophila melanogaster or Tribolium castaneum were identiifed. Out of the 56 unigenes, 24 unigenes were selected, and their expression levels across the ifve nymphal stages between macropterous strain and brachypterous strain were examined by qRT-PCR. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that development stage had signiifcant effects on the expression level of al the 24 genes (P<0.05). The expression levels of 8 genes (Nlen, Nlhh, Nlsal, NlAbd-A, Nlwg, Nlvg, Nlexd and NlUbx) were signiifcantly affected by wing morph. This is the ifrst transcriptome analysis of wing pads of hemimetabolous insect, N. lugens. The identiifed wing patterning genes would be useful resource for future exploration of molecular basis of wing development. The 8 differential y expressed

  4. Wing patterning genes of Nilaparvata lugens identification by transcriptome analysis, and their differential expression profile in wing pads between brachypterous and macropterous morphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kai-yin; HU Ding-bang; LIU Fang-zhou; LONG Man; LIU Si-yi; ZHAO Jing; HE Yue-ping; HUA Hong-xia

    2015-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens is an economically important pest on rice plants. This species produces macropterous and brachypterous morphs in response to environmental cues, which makes it very difficult to control. The molecular basis of wing patterning in N. lugens is still unknown. It is necessary to identify wing patterning genes of N. lugens, and also to clarify the expression differences of wing patterning genes between macropterous and brachypter- ous morphs. High-throughput deep sequencing of transcriptome of N. lugens wing pad yielded 116 744 580 raw reads and 113042700 clean reads. All the reads were assembled into 55963 unigenes with an average length of 804 bp. With the E-value cut-off of 1.0E-5,18 359 and 2 883 unigens had hits in NCBI-NR (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences) and NCBI-NT (NCBI nucleotide sequences) databases, respectively. A total of 16 502 unigenes were assigned to GO (gene ontology) classification, 9 709 ungenes were grouped into 26 COG (cluster of orthologous groups of proteins) classifications, and 6 724 unigenes were assigned to different KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) path- ways. In total, 56 unigenes which are homologous to wing patterning genes of Drosophila melanogaster or Tribolium castaneum were identified. Out of the 56 unigenes, 24 unigenes were selected, and their expression levels across the five nymphal stages between macropterous strain and brachypterous strain were examined by qRT-PCR. Two-wayANOVAanalysis showed that development stage had significant effects on the expression level of all the 24 genes (P〈0.05). The expression levels of 8 genes (Nlen, Nlhh, Nlsal, NIAbd-A, Nlwg, Nlvg, Nlexd and NIUbx) were significantly affected by wing morph. This is the first transcriptome analysis of wing pads of hemimetabolous insect, N. lugens. The identified wing patterning genes would be useful resource for future exploration of molecular basis of wing development. The

  5. Breeding of transgenic rice lines with GNA and Bar genes resistance to both brown planthopper and herbicide%导入GNA和Bar基因获得抗褐飞虱和抗除草剂的转基因水稻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于恒秀; 赵志鹏; 王玲; 刘巧泉; 龚志云; 顾铭洪

    2007-01-01

    褐飞虱(brown planthopper,BPH)是世界上,尤其是我国及许多亚洲国家水稻生产的最主要害虫之一。培育抗稻飞虱的水稻品种是一种最经济有效的防治方法,同时可以避免化学农药的使用对环境造成的破坏。一些植物凝集素(phytohem agglutinin,PHA)对褐飞虱具有毒性,其中又以雪花莲凝集素(galanthus nivals agglutinin,GNA)对褐飞虱的毒性最强,对哺乳动物毒副作用极低。

  6. 转Bt基因及其亲本水稻上褐飞虱对三唑磷和溴氰菊酯的反应%Ecological responses of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, to triazophos and deltamethrin on transgenic Bt rice lines and their non-Bt parental rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向冬; 杨亚军; 田俊策; 徐红星; 郑许松; 吕仲贤

    2014-01-01

    以转Bt基因抗虫水稻T1C-19(含cry1C基因)和T2A-1(含cry2A基因)及其亲本水稻MH63为材料,用20和40 mg·L-1的三唑磷以及1、3和6mg.L-1的溴氰菊酯喷雾分别处理稻株上的3龄褐飞虱若虫,研究了两种农药对转Bt基因抗虫水稻上褐飞虱再猖獗的影响.结果表明:三唑磷处理对褐飞虱的若虫历期无显著性影响,溴氰菊酯则能显著降低若虫历期,但随着两种药剂处理浓度的升高,若虫的存活率降低、成虫的产卵量增加.在同一浓度农药药剂处理下,3个水稻品种上的褐飞虱若虫发育历期、若虫存活率、初羽雌成虫体质量、产卵量和卵孵化率等生态学参数均没有显著差异.表明褐飞虱在两种转Bt水稻上对三唑磷和溴氰菊酯诱导再猖獗的反应能力与其亲本水稻MH63没有差异.

  7. Prokaryotic expression of the Nilaparvata lugens flightin gene and its differential expression in different life stages%褐飞虱flightin的原核表达及其差异表达检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小琴; 胡玉琼; 张传溪

    2013-01-01

    Flightin,located in thick filament,was originally found in the indirect flight muscle of Drosophila melanogaster.It is important in these muscles both for structural integrity and sarcomere function.Prior to this study,differences in the muscle components of macropterous and brachypterous adults of the brown planthopper (BPH,Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l) had not been studied.We amplified the flightin gene from the cDNA of macropterous female adults and inserted it into the expression vector pGEX-6P-1 for fusion expression with gultathione S transferase (GST).The recombinant vector was then inserted into Escherichia coli Rosseta.After optimization of the expression conditions at different temperatures and concentrations of IPTG,high level of expression of flightin was achieved.The soluble expressed GST-flightin was purified and used to immunise rabbits for preparing a polyclonal antibody against flightin.Using the prepared antibody,we searched for flightin expression in different developmental stages and in two-winged forms.We found that flightin was uniquely expressed in the adult stage and only expressed in macropterous female adults.No positivebands were detected in eggs,nymphs and brachypterous female adults.This study provides a basis for the study of wing muscle development and wing dimorphism,as well as for research into the interaction of flightin with other proteins in the BPH.%f1ightin最早发现于果蝇Drosophila melanogaster的间接飞行肌中,并且定位于粗肌丝.这种蛋白对维持肌节的结构和功能起到了重要的作用,但其在具有长短翅型分化的褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens St(a)l的不同翅型间差异并不清楚.本研究以长翅型雌虫褐飞虱cDNA为模板,通过PCR扩增得到褐飞虱flightin基因ORF全长,将其连接到表达载体pGEX-6P-1中以与谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)融合表达.将表达载体转入大肠杆菌表达株Rosseta,在不同温度、不同浓度IPTG的条件下诱导表达flightin,得到了

  8. BIOEFFICACY OF PIPER RIBESIOIDES (PIPERACEAE) EXTRACTS AGAINST NILAPARVATA LUGENS STAL. (HOMOPTERA: DELPHACIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phankaen, Y; Pluempanupat, W; Mourad, A K; Bullangpoti, V

    2014-01-01

    The extracts of stem and seeds of Piper ribesioides (Piperaceae) were prepared in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol and evaluated for their efficacy against 3-day-old adult brown plant hoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal under laboratory conditions. The treatment was given topically and results suggest the dose dependent response related to exposure time. The ethyl acetate extract was the best with an LC50 = 738 ppm-, 24 h post-treatment. There was substantial increase in activity (LC50 = 27.298 ppm) with the increase in duration of exposure. This trend was observed in all treatments that suggests the potential of Piper ribesioides as an insecticide for N. lugens as an alternative control.

  9. Cross-resistance of bisultap resistant strain of Nilaparvata lugens and its biochemical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Shanfeng; Zhang, Runjie

    2011-02-01

    The resistant (R) strain of the planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) selected for bisultap resistance displayed 7.7-fold resistance to bisultap and also had cross-resistance to nereistoxin (monosultap, thiocyclam, and cartap), chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and malathion but no cross-resistance to buprofezin, imidacloprid, and fipronil. To find out the biochemical mechanism of resistance to bisultap, biochemical assay was done. The results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) activity in R strain was 2.71-fold that in susceptible strain (S strain), in which the changed activity for general esterase (EST) was 1.91 and for glutathione S-transferases only 1.32. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) could significantly inhibit P450 activity (percentage of inhibition [PI]: 37.31%) in the R strain, with ESTs PI = 16.04% by triphenyl phosphate (TPP). The results also demonstrated that diethyl maleate had no synergism with bisultap. However, PBO displayed significant synergism in three different strains, and the synergism increased with resistance (S strain 1.42, Lab strain, 2.24 and R strain, 3.23). TPP also showed synergism for three strains, especially in R strain (synergistic ratio = 2.47). An in vitro biochemical study and in vivo synergistic study indicated that P450 might be play important role in the biochemical mechanism of bisultap resistance and that esterase might be the important factor of bisultap resistance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity play important role in bisultap resistance. We suggest that buprofezin, imidacloprid, and fipronil could be used in resistance management programs for N. lugens via alternation and rotation with bisultap.

  10. 超级稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群繁殖速率的密度制约效应%Density Restriction Effects of Reproductive Rate of Rice Brown Planthopper Population in Super Rice Yongyou NO. 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐森富; 王会福; 汪恩国; 陈伟强

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究超级籼粳杂交稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群繁殖速率的密度制约效应.[方法]在超级籼粳杂交稻甬优6号不同生育期即分蘖期、孕穗期、灌浆期分别接入不同虫量褐飞虱,调查并分析超级稻褐飞虱神群繁殖速率及其变化动态.[结果]分蘖期:褐飞虱孕穗期、灌浆期种群教量随分蘖期种群基数的增加而逐渐增加;当灌浆期褐飞虱种群密度升高达到一定限度(>250头/丛)时,其乳熟期种群教量随该密度的加大而呈下降趋势;超级稻甬优6号褐飞虱种群发展呈现中间快、两头慢的特点.孕穗期:褐飞虱种群发展在孕穗至灌浆期是随着其基数密度升高而升高,但到乳熟期相关性表现却不显著;超级稻中后期褐飞虱种群仍具有高繁殖能力,对水稻产量潜存极大威胁.灌浆期:褐飞虱种群密度<70头/丛时,其种群发展仍随着其基数密度升高而升高,对产量仍潜存较大威胁.[结论]研究结果为建立和健全褐飞虱监测预警体系、经济有效生态控制超级稻褐飞虱发生危害、提高褐飞虱持续控制能力提供理论依据.%[ Objective ] The paper was to study the density restriction effects of reproductive rate of rice brown planthopper (BPH) population in super indics and japonica hybrid rice Yongyou NO. 6. [ Method ] Different amounts of BPH were inoculated into super indica and japonica hybrid rice Yongyou NO. 6 during tillering, booting and filling stage, respectively. The reproductive rate and variation dynamics of BPH in super rice was also investigated and analyzed. [ Result ] Tillering stage: the population quantity of BPH during booting and filling stage gradually increased with the increase of cardinal number of its population at tillering stage; when the population density of BPH during grain filling stage reached a certain limit ( > 250 head/cluster), the population density at milking stage showed decrease trend with the increase of such

  11. Studies on Insecticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Ye-cheng; XU Han-hong

    2005-01-01

    Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo. were studied for the first time. The results showed that all parts of S. kwangsiensis Lo. had contact activity against brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal,and the contact activity of methanol extract from root tubers was the highest, with a LD50 value being 1.5794 μg/female.l-roemerine was isolated from root tubers of S. kwangsiensis Lo. and identified, and it was the main active ingredient.l-roemerine had high contact toxicity to brown planthoppers, with a LD50 value being 0.0443 μg/female. Contact toxicity of l-roemerine to brown planthoppers was 7.48 times that of malathion, the convientional chemical insecticide used for controlling brown planthoppers.l-roemerine also had stomach poison activity against brown planthoppers.

  12. RELATIVE FITNESS AND FEEDING CAPACITY OF IMIDACLOPRID RESISTANT Nilaparvata lugens (KEBUGARAN RELATIIF DAN KEMAMPUAN MAKAN Nilaparvata lugens RESISTEN TERHADAP IMIDAKLOPRID)

    OpenAIRE

    Londingkene, Jesayas A.; Trisyono, Y. Andi; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Martono, Edhi

    2017-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is recommended for controlling Nilaparvata lugens. In Asian countries, such as, China, Vietnam, India, and Thailand, imidacloprid has caused resistance to N. lugens. Imidacloprid has also caused resistance to N. lugens based on some previous studies in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine the fitness and feeding capacity of imidacloprid-resistant N. lugens. The population of N. lugens used in this study had a resistance level of 50...

  13. 应用巢式PCR-DGGE技术分析稻虱缨小蜂体内Wolbachia的多样性%Diversity of Wolbachia in Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera:Mymaridae) analyzed using nested PCR-DGGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑平; 王新; 徐红星; 汤江武; 郑许松; 杨亚军; 吕仲贤

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the diversity of Wolbachia in insects by using nested PCR-DGGE. Samples of Anagrus nilaparvatae, one of dominant egg parasitoids of rice planthoppers in Asian rice growth area, were collected from Hangzhou, China and the Philippines. After the total DNA was extracted, the 16S rDNA and wsp gene fragments of Wolbachia were amplified with nested PCR, and then analyzed using DGGE. The results showed that Wolbachia in A. Nilaparvatae were sensitively and exactly detected based on 16S rDNA gene, and the dominant bacteria in A. Nilaparvatae were Acinetobacter sp., Methylophilus sp., Acidovorax sp., Burkholderia sp. And Wolbachia sp. The analysis of wsp gene showed that Wolbachia in A. Nilaparvatae from Hangzhou belongs to group A, sub-group Mors, and that from the Philippines belongs to group A, sub-group Dro. The results suggest that nested PCR-DGGE is an effective molecular tool for detecting the diversity of Wolbachia in Anagrus sp., and the 16S rDNA gene fragment is the optimal biomarker for Wolbachia detection, while the wsp gene is the optimal biomarker for Wolbachia species identification and classification.%以采集自中国杭州和菲律宾的稻虱缨小蜂Anagrus nilaparvatae为研究对象,采用巢式PCR扩增Wolbachia的16S rDNA和wsp基因片段,并用DGGE分析稻虱缨小蜂体内Wolbachia的多样性.基于16S rDNA基因的分析结果准确地检测到稻虱缨小蜂体内细菌主要是Acinetobacter sp.,Methylophilus sp.,Acidovorax sp.,Burkholderia sp.和Wolbachia sp..基于wsp基因的分析结果显示,杭州种群感染的Wolbachia属于A组的Mors亚组,菲律宾种群感染的Wolbachia属于A组的Dro亚组.结果说明,巢式PCR-DGGE是寄生蜂体内Wolbachia检测和多样性分析的有效方法,其中16S rDNA基因是检测Wolbachia存在的较佳分子标记,wsp基因是Wolbachia多样性分析以及种属鉴定和分型的较佳分子标记.

  14. Classification of rice planthopper based on improved gray level co-occurrence matrix and particle swarm algorithm%基于改进灰度共生矩阵和粒子群算法的稻飞虱分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹修国; 丁为民; 陈彩蓉; 刘德营

    2014-01-01

    The rice planthopper images acquired by remote real-time recognition system usually have poor quality, and hence it is impossible to classify rice planthoppers using the color features of rice planthopper images. This study proposed to extract texture features of images based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and used the texture features to classify rice planthoppers. A H-shape mobile photographing device designed by us was used to obtain color images of rice planthoppers. The color images were grayed by formula, and then the background of images was removed using Otsu image segmentation method to generate binary images followed by calculation through the binary image coordinates. The GLCM was improved to extract texture features of images without background. Specifically, the center of gravity was determined by coordinates of the images and considered as the center to construct GLCM. The images of the rice planthopper were copied into the sub images with 160 pixels×160 pixels based on the center. Using multiple annular routes, the features of rice planthopper gray images were extracted including energy, entropy, moment of inertia and correlation. In the training and testing experiment of the extracted features, back propagation (BP) nerve network and optimized BP nerve network based on parametric selection -improved particle swarm optimization algorithm were individually used to train and classify the rice planthopper, and the training time and identification rate of each method were compared. A total of 300Sogatella,Laodelphax andNilaparvata lugens with 100 samples for each type of rice planthopper was trained. The training time using the optimized BP nerve network based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm was only 0.5683 seconds, which was far less than that (29.5772 seconds) using BP neural network. Based on the BP neural network, the identification rate reached 80% forSogatella, 90% forLaodelphax, and 95% forNilaparvata lugens. Based on

  15. An injury equivalency system for establishing a common economic threshold for three species of rice planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shou-Horng; Chen, Ching-Huan; Chen, Chiou-Nan; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2013-04-01

    The economic threshold (ET) for multiple pest species that share the same injury type on host plants (feeding guild) has been proposed for decision-making in integrated management framework of many defoliating insect pests. However, only a few consider agricultural pests with sucking mouthparts. This study presents the first injury equivalency system for the feeding guild made up of three rice (Oryza sativa L.) planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) species--Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), Sogatella furcifera (Harváth), and Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén)--by using relative amount of honeydew excretion of each species. The intraspecific injury equivalent coefficient was determined; this coefficient provides an exchange rate for different developmental stages in a species. N. lugens was chosen as the standard species to obtain interspecific injury equivalents for other individuals in the guild, allowing estimates of total guild injury feasible. For extension purposes, the injury equivalency was simplified by pooling all nymphs and adults in the guild to mitigate the potential confusion resulting from uncertainty of instars or wing form. A matrix of ETs established on previous studies and incorporating changes of management cost and rice price was used and served as a control decision guide for the guild samples. The validity of the proposed injury equivalency system was tested using several field data sets, and the results are generally promising and meaningfully elevate the accuracy of estimating combined injury and damage to rice, suggesting that the proposed system is a better integrated pest management decision-making system compared with conventional practices.

  16. Evolutionary aspects of acoustic communication in Ribautodelphax planthoppers (Homoptera, Delphacidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Delphacidae (Homoptera), commonly referred to as planthoppers, are herbivores, which usually feed on grasses and sedges. During sexual behaviour males and females communicate by exchanging low-frequency vibrational signals, which are transmitted through the substrate, normally the host plant. This t

  17. Transgenic rice plants expressing the snowdrop lectin gene (gna) exhibit high-level resistance to the whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagadhara, D; Ramesh, S; Pasalu, I C; Rao, Y Kondala; Sarma, N P; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

    2004-11-01

    Transgenic rice plants, expressing snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)], obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, were evaluated for resistance against the insect, the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). The transgene gna was driven by the phloem-specific, rice-sucrose synthase promoter RSs1, and the bar was driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. In our previous study, the transgenic status of these lines was confirmed by Southern, Northern and Western blot analyses. Both the transgenes, gna and bar, were stably inherited and co-segregated into progenies in T1 to T5 generations. Insect bioassays on transgenic plants revealed the potent entomotoxic effects of GNA on the WBPH. Also, significant decreases were observed in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects fed on transgenic plants. Furthermore, intact GNA was detected in the total proteins of WBPHs fed on these plants. Western blot analysis revealed stable and consistent expression of GNA throughout the growth and development of transgenic plants. Transgenic lines expressing GNA exhibited high-level resistance against the WBPH. As reported earlier, these transgenics also showed substantial resistance against the brown planthopper and green leafhopper.

  18. Diet-dependent fecundity of the spiders Atypena formosana and Pardosa pseudoannulata, predators in irrigated rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Toft, Søren; Villareal, Sylvia

    2001-01-01

    The fecundity of the spiders Atypena formosana and Pardosa pseudoannulata was assessed on diets of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (BPH), green leafhopper Nephotettix virescens (GLH), Collembola (Entomobryidae), Drosophila melanogaster and three prey mixtures; BPH-GLH, BPH-GLH-Collembola and...

  19. Q96 昆虫学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    褐飞虱对噻嗪酮抗性的遗传分析=Genetic analysis of resistance to buprofezin in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae);B型烟粉虱抗噻虫嗪品系的遗传分化=Genetic differentiation in the thiamethoxam-resistant strain ofBemisia tabaci B-biotype。

  20. Automated Counting of Rice Planthoppers in Paddy Fields Based on Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Qing; XIAN Ding-xiang; LIU Qing-jie; YANG Bao-jun; DIAO Guang-qiang; TANG Jian

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative survey of rice planthoppers in paddy ifelds is important to assess the population density and make forecasting decisions. Manual rice planthopper survey methods in paddy ifelds are time-consuming, fatiguing and tedious. This paper describes a handheld device for easily capturing planthopper images on rice stems and an automatic method for counting rice planthoppers based on image processing. The handheld device consists of a digital camera with WiFi, a smartphone and an extrendable pole. The surveyor can use the smartphone to control the camera, which is ifxed on the front of the pole by WiFi, and to photograph planthoppers on rice stems. For the counting of planthoppers on rice stems, we adopt three layers of detection that involve the following:(a) the ifrst layer of detection is an AdaBoost classiifer based on Haar features;(b) the second layer of detection is a support vector machine (SVM) classiifer based on histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features;(c) the third layer of detection is the threshold judgment of the three features. We use this method to detect and count whiteback planthoppers (Sogatella furcifera) on rice plant images and achieve an 85.2%detection rate and a 9.6%false detection rate. The method is easy, rapid and accurate for the assessment of the population density of rice planthoppers in paddy ifelds.

  1. QTLs for ovicidal response to whitebacked planthopper in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Japanese japonica rice commonly provides with an ovicidal resistance against the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Similarly, ovicidal activity was also found to play a significant role in a stable field resistance to WBPH in some Chinese japonica rice. Rice varieties with ovicidal resistance characterized by watery lesions and subsequent necrotic symptom in the leaf sheaths ovipositied by WBPH. Based on the ovicidal symptom, the ovicidal QTLs on the rice chromosomes were analyzed by using a doubled haploid (DH) population of 122 lines derived from a cross between a non ovicidal indica variety Zaiyeqing 8 (ZYQ 8) and an ovicidal japonica variety Jingxi 17 (JX 17). There was a significant difference in WBPH egg mortality between the two varieties. Average egg mortality was 36.5% in ZYQ 8, and 72.8% in JX 17.

  2. Changes in Methamidophos Resistance and Fitness of Hybrids in Different Strains of Nilaparvata lugens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xian-sheng; LIU Ze-wen; LI Shu-mei; HAN Zhao-jun; YANG Jie-pin; ZHANG Ling-chun; SUN Hao

    2004-01-01

    A resistant strain selected successively in the laboratory for 17 generations had 198.63-fold resistance to methamidophos.The resistant levels and fitness of progenies from the resistant strain and susceptible strain or field population were closer to those of the resistant strain than those of the susceptible strain or field population. The changes in the resistant levels of the hybrid were propitious to the resistance development, however, the changes of the fitness went to the contrary. The effects of the migration on the development of methamidophos resistance in Nilaparvata lugens were discussed in the aspects of the migration of Nilaparvata lugens,the resistant levels of progenies and the changes of the fitness.

  3. Insecticide resistance and activities of relative enzymes in different populations of the white backed planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ White backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horvath), is one of the most devastating insect pests on rice in Asia. Its control mainly depended on the chemical pesticides. Surveys of insecticide susceptibility revealed that organophosphorus and carbamate resistance has emerged since early 1980s in China and Japan. WBPH has the long distance migration property, and Heinrichs(1994) considered that the migration might influence the resistance level of planthoppers. So we conducted the comparative studies on insecticide susceptibility and activities of resistance relative enzymes in four WBPH populations collected from Zhejiang, Yunnan, and Hainan provinces of China in 1997.

  4. Feeding impact of the planthopper taosa longula on waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae), a planthopper native to South America, is a candidate for the biological control of waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae), a serious weed around the world. The damage that T. longula causes to the clonal r...

  5. Wolbachia Occurrence in Planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Vectors of Cereal Viruses in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattio, M F; Argüello Caro, E B; Rodriguero, M S; Dumón, A D; Alemandri, V M; Truol, G

    2015-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are the most important cereal crops for the Argentinean economy and are affected by several diseases. Different planthopper species transmit causal agents of some of those diseases, including Mal de Río Cuarto virus, barley yellow striate mosaic virus, and the recently proposed maize yellow striate virus. Many planthopper species are sap feeders and therefore are expected to host bacteria providing essential nutrients lacking in the diet. Previous studies have evidenced that some of these bacterial symbionts are involved in the virus transmission. Wolbachia is a group of obligate intracellular bacteria infecting numerous arthropod species and causing reproductive alterations in their hosts. These bacteria have been detected in planthopper species, considered rice pests in various regions of the world. To date, Wolbachia infection status of planthopper species of Argentina is unknown. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA, wsp- and ftsZ-specific genes demonstrated Wolbachia infection in Caenodelphax teapae (Fowler), Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah, Pyrophagus tigrinus Remes Lenicov & Varela, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir), and Toya propinqua (Fieber). This is the first report of Wolbachia in delphacid vectors of viruses affecting maize and wheat. An understanding of the bacterial diversity harbored by these insect vectors could lead to new options for future management of diseases of economically important crops in a developing country.

  6. Development of RNAi methods for Peregrinus maidis, the corn planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianxiu; Rotenberg, Dorith; Afsharifar, Alireza; Barandoc-Alviar, Karen; Whitfield, Anna E

    2013-01-01

    The corn planthopper, Peregrinus maidis, is a major pest of agronomically-important crops. Peregrinus maidis has a large geographical distribution and transmits Maize mosaic rhabdovirus (MMV) and Maize stripe tenuivirus (MSpV). The objective of this study was to develop effective RNAi methods for P. maidis. Vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an essential enzyme for hydrolysis of ATP and for transport of protons out of cells thereby maintaining membrane ion balance, and it has been demonstrated to be an efficacious target for RNAi in other insects. In this study, two genes encoding subunits of P. maidis V-ATPase (V-ATPase B and V-ATPase D) were chosen as RNAi target genes. The open reading frames of V-ATPase B and D were generated and used for constructing dsRNA fragments. Experiments were conducted using oral delivery and microinjection of V-ATPase B and V-ATPase D dsRNA to investigate the effectiveness of RNAi in P. maidis. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that microinjection of V-ATPase dsRNA led to a minimum reduction of 27-fold in the normalized abundance of V-ATPase transcripts two days post injection, while ingestion of dsRNA resulted in a two-fold reduction after six days of feeding. While both methods of dsRNA delivery resulted in knockdown of target transcripts, the injection method was more rapid and effective. The reduction in V-ATPase transcript abundance resulted in observable phenotypes. Specifically, the development of nymphs injected with 200 ng of either V-ATPase B or D dsRNA was impaired, resulting in higher mortality and lower fecundity than control insects injected with GFP dsRNA. Microscopic examination of these insects revealed that female reproductive organs did not develop normally. The successful development of RNAi in P. maidis to target specific genes will enable the development of new insect control strategies and functional analysis of vital genes and genes associated with interactions between P

  7. Mapping of Wbph6(t)—a new gene resistant to whitebacked planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) is one of the most destructive insects for rice. The utilization of WBPH resistance genes is always an efficient solution to this problem. Besides five WBPH resistance genes registered, Wbph1, Wbph2, Wbph3, wbph4, and Wbph5, classical segregation analysis and allelism test showed that several rice landraces from Yunan Province, China, carried a new dominant resistance gene Wbph6(t). We herein reported the mapping of Wbph6(t) by using DNA markers.

  8. Structural characterization of the catalytic site of a Nilaparvata lugens delta-class glutathione transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Higashiura, Akifumi; Hossain, Md Tofazzal; Yamada, Naotaka; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-15

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a major class of detoxification enzymes that play a central role in the defense against environmental toxicants and oxidative stress. Here, we studied the crystal structure of a delta-class glutathione transferase from Nilaparvata lugens, nlGSTD, to gain insights into its catalytic mechanism. The structure of nlGSTD in complex with glutathione, determined at a resolution of 1.7Å, revealed that it exists as a dimer and its secondary and tertiary structures are similar to those of other delta-class GSTs. Analysis of a complex between nlGSTD and glutathione showed that the bound glutathione was localized to the glutathione-binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of nlGSTD mutants indicated that amino acid residues Ser11, His52, Glu66, and Phe119 contribute to catalytic activity.

  9. The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae - A model for rapid subterranean speciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Hoch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1, Maui (3, and Hawaii Island (3. Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. ‘polyphenius” individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

  10. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  11. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  12. Molecular characterization and gene functional analysis of Dicer-2 gene from Nilaparvata lugens(Hemiptera:Geometroidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Zhang; Kai Lu; Jia-Liang Zhou; Qiang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Nilaparvata lugens(St((A)l)(Hemiptera: Geometroidea),a serious rice pest in many countries of Asia,causes a great loss in rice production every year.RNA interference (RNAi)is a powerful technology for gene function study in insects and a potential tool for pest control.As a core component of RNAi pathway,Dicer-2(Dcr-2)protein determines the production of small interfering RNA(siRNA)and is crucial for the efficiency of RNAi.In this study,the full-length complementary DNA(cDNA)ofN.lugens Dcr-2(NlDcr-2)was first cloned and analyzed,and then the RNAi experiment was conducted to explore the function of NIDcr-2 gene.The complete Dcr-2 cDNA ofN.lugens was 4971 bp in length with an open reading frame(ORF)of 1,656 amino acids.Phylogenetic and protein domain analysis showed that the predicted NlDcr-2 protein was similar to Tribolium castaneum.In the RNAi experiment,the messenger RNA level of NIDcr-2 was significantly reduced by NlDcr-2double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)(dsDcr-2).Fifty-five per cent decrease of NlDcr-2 was found after 4 days of unremitting feeding.No significant effect was observed on the development ofN.lugens after dsRNA ingestion.

  13. Medium and Long-term Forecasting Models ofNilaparvata lugens (stål)’s Immigration Amount in Jiangsu Province%江苏省褐飞虱迁入量的中长期预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包云轩; 薛周华; 刘垚; 蒋蓉; 谢晓金; 杨荣明; 朱凤

    2016-01-01

    heads of brown planthoppers (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens (stål), at a station in a rice-growing region by using the atmospheric background fields in the earlier stages and provide a basis for the early warning of BPH’s catastrophic immigrations and their effective prevention and controlling, the BPH’s lighting catches of all plant protection stations in Jiangsu Province during the period from 1983 to 2010 and the reanalyzed meteorological data from the National Center of Environmental Predicting (NCEP) in USA during the period from 1982 to 2010 were collected to analyze the teleconnections between the BPH’s annual total immigration heads of Gaoyou, Tongzhou and Yixing as the representative plant protection stations in the different rice-growing regions of Jiangsu Province and the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) on the Pacific Ocean from January of the preceding year to June of the present year, the temperature field of Indo-China Peninsula (T-INP) from December of the preceding year to June of the present year and the atmospheric circulation characteristic variables (ACCV) from July of the preceding year to June of the present year. A stepwise regression method was used to establish a series of the forecasting models for the annual total immigration heads of BPH at the three stations. The results showed as follows: (1) there were the correlations of different extents between the BPH’s immigration heads of Gaoyou, Tongzhou and Yixing and the SSTA on the Pacific Ocean, the T-INP and the ACCV on the Northern Hemisphere in the different temporal and spatial thresholds. The significant negative correlations exist between the logarithms of BPH’s annual total immigration heads at the three stations and the SSTA in the preceding year. Among them, the remarkable correlative regions between the logarithms of BPH’s annual total immigration heads at Tongzhou and Yixing and the SSTA on the Pacific Ocean mainly distributed on the northern and middle Pacific Ocean

  14. 杂环或大位阻基团固定硝基位向的新型新烟碱类化合物的分子设计,合成及生物活性%Molecular Design,Synthesis and Bioactivity of Novel Neonicotinoids Using Fused Heterocycle or Bulky Groups to Fix the Direction of -NO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠; 邵旭升; 田忠贞; 黄青春; 钱旭红

    2009-01-01

    Neonicotinoids,targeting insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs),has attracted considerable attentions for decades.To explore the influence of configuration of-NO2 on bioactivities and search for compounds with higher activities,some classes of neonicotinoids containing tetrahydropyridine or bukyl substituent were synthesized,in which the -NO2 and pyridine was kept in same side of nitromethylene.Neonicotinoids with tetrahydropyridine fixed cis configuration exhibited high activities against cowpea aphids and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens),furthermore,some compounds showed higher insecticidal activities against imidacloprid-resistant brown planthopper than imidacloprid.However,the open-chain analogues with tetrahydropyridine fixed cis configuration only exhibited some knockdown activities against cowpea aphids.Neonicotinoids with bulky substituents fixed cis configuration compounds exhibited higher insecticidal activities against cowpea aphids,armyworm and Nephotettix bipunctatus (Fabricius).

  15. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  16. Effects of alpha-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp extract and imidacloprid on Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) and non-target organisms: toxicity and detoxification mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Visetson, Suraphon; Milne, John; Milne, Manthana; Sudthongkong, Chaiwud; Pronbanlualap, Somchai

    2007-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvato lugens Stat. (BPH) is the most devastating insect pest in rice fields. Outbreaks of BPH, which are resistant to many synthetic insecticides, can cause total rice crop loss. This research was done to evaluate the efficiency of extracts of mangosteen pericarp (Garcina mangostana L.) as an alternative control of BPH Thailand strain. Topical spraying was applied to various stages of nymphal and adult BPH to determine toxicity. An ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp extract gave the best control of BPH, with LC50 of 4.5% w/v (r2 = 0.95) with 3rd instar BPH nymphs when compared with the other solvents, hexane, acetone and dichloromethane. The active compound, alpha-mangostin showed an LC50 of 5.44%w/v (r2 = 0.88). The toxicity of this extract was less than that of Imidacloprid which showed an LC50 of 0.0042% w/v (r2 = 0.99). The toxicity to non-target organisms was determined. This extract showed toxicity to guppies ((LC50 = 2.53 and 4.27 ppm for females and males, respectively; r2 = 0.97 and 0.97, respectively), bees (LC50 = 4.38% w/v, r2 = 0.95) and mice (no oral acute toxicity and no dermal inflammation but showed eye irritation in 1 day which became normal within 3 days). In vitro detoxification enzyme activities of carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-s-transferase from BPH after 24 hours exposure were also observed. Carboxylesterase showed stronger activity than other enzymes. Toxicity in terms of LC50 values of both the extract and imidacloprid treatments increased in each generation. The LC50 values for each generation were 4.22-6.67 after sequential spraying. After the ethanol extract was kept at 4 degrees C, room temperature and 55 degrees C for 3 months, the quantity of alpha-mangostin and the BPH control efficiency was lower at 55 degrees C than those for other temperatures. The results from this research indicate that mangosteen pericarp extract can be an alternative insecticide for the control of BPH

  17. Ecological Fitness of Non-vector Planthopper Sogatella furcifera on Rice Plants Infected with Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-chan; XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; YANG Ya-jun; GAO Guang-chun; PAN Jian-hong; LU Zhong-xian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infested rice plants on the ecological parameters and its relevant defensive and detoxification enzymes of white-backed planthopper (WBPH) in laboratory for exploring the relationship between RBSDV and the non-vector planthopper.The results showed that nymph survival rate,female adult weight and fecundity,and egg hatchability of WBPH fed on RBSDV-infested rice plants did not markedly differ from those on healthy plants,whereas the female adult longevity and egg duration significantly shortened on diseased plants.Furthermore,significantly higher activities of defensive enzymes (dismutase,catalase and peroxidase) and detoxification enzymes (acetylcholinesterase,carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase) were found in WBPH adults fed on infected plants.Results implied that infestation by RBSDV increased the ecological fitness of non-vector planlhopper population.

  18. Tagging the gene Wbph2 in ARC 10239 resistant to the whitebacked planthopper Sogatella furcifera by using RFLP markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Gene tagging is the base of marker-assisted breeding for insect resistance in rice. Five genes (Wbph1, Wbph2, Wbph3, Wbph4, and Wbph5) were identified to be responsible for the resistance to the whitebacked planthopper. The gene Wbph2 in ARC 10239 was clarified as a dominant resistant gene to S.furcifera. In present study, ARC 10239 and susceptible Minghui 63 were selected as parents to make a cross for gene tagging.

  19. Mapping of a New Gene Wbph6(t) Resistant to the Whitebacked Planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIXi-ming; ZHAIHu-qu; WANJian-min; MALiang-yong; ZHUANGJie-yun; LIUOuang-jie; YANGChang-deng

    2004-01-01

    A rice population consisting of 90 TN1/Gulyigu F3 lines was employed to analyze the linkage between DNA markers and a new gene Wbph6(t) conferring resistance to whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera. By using the mapping approach of bulked extremes and recessive class, Wbph6(t) was mapped onto the short arm of chromosome 11 with a genetic distance of 21.2 cM to SSLP marker RM167.

  20. Mapping of a New Gene Wbph6(t) Resistant to the Whitebacked Planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-ming; ZHAI Hu-qu; WAN Jian-min; MA Liang-yong; ZHUANG Jie-yun; LIU Guang-jie; YANG Chang-deng

    2004-01-01

    A rice population consisting of 90 TN1/Guiyigu F3 lines was employed to analyze the linkage between DNA markers and a new gene Wbph6(t) conferring resistance to whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera. By using the mapping approach of bulked extremes and recessive class, Wbph6(t) was mapped onto the short arm of chromosome 11 with a genetic distance of 21.2 cM to SSLP marker RM167.

  1. Prediction of the occurring amount of whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) on early rice by sea temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YEZhengxiang; HUANGRonghua; QINHouguo

    1994-01-01

    Whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) is a kind of long-distance migrator- pest. Its occurring amount is closely related to the climate change of large sphere. In recent years many researches have reported that the climate of large sphere was affected by the Pacific sea temperature (ST). We studied the long-range forecast of the occurring amount of WBPH by using data provided by State Meteorological Administration. China

  2. Applications of DNA-Markers to Analyze Rice Planthopper Resistance Genes%应用DNA标记分析稻飞虱的抗性基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寒川一成; 曾娟; 钱忠海

    2003-01-01

    Recent achievements in molecular tagging and mapping of genetic loci for rice planthopper resistance in rice were briefly reviewed. Four rice genes for the brown planthopper (BPH) resistance, Bph 1, bph 2, bph 4 and Bph 9, and four putative BPH-resistance genes, Bph 10(t), bph 11(t), bph 12(t) and Bph 13(t), introgressed from wild rice species with different genomes have so far been mapped onto 5 of 12 rice chromosomes. Of them, Bph 1, bph 2, Bph 9 and Bph 10(t), have been found forming a linkage block on the long arm of rice chromosome 12, in the vicinity of about 25 cM from the bph 2 locus. Several QTLs affecting field resistance and ovicidal activities have also been detected. The whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) resistance genes, Wbph 1, Wbph 2 and Wbph 6(t) have been tagged or tentatively mapped. QTLs for ovicidal resistance to WBPH in japonica rice have been analyzed in detail. The effective QTL has been detected on the short arm of chromosome 6, and a dominant ovicidal gene Ovc has been identified at the locus. One QTL on chromosome 1 and two QTLs on chromosome 5 increased WBPH egg mortality in the presence of ovicidal gene Ovc. QTL mapping with DNA-markers will increase our understandings of complicated physiological and genetic mechanisms in varietal resistance in crop plants. Marker-assisted selection will facilitate to develop insect resistant crops with polygenic basis, and to introduce valuable insect resistance traits from wild relatives into improved crop varieties in order to increase durability and genetic diversity of insect resistance in the crops.%简要地回顾了水稻抗飞虱的遗传位点定位和作图的新进展.来自具有不同基因组的野生稻渗入系的4个抗褐飞虱基因Bph 1、 bph 2、 bph 4和Bph 9,以及4个暂定名抗褐飞虱基因Bph 10(t)、bph 11(t)、bph 12(t)和Bph 13(t),目前已被定位于水稻12条染色体中的5条.其中,Bph 1、 bph 2、 Bph 9和Bph 10(t)在水稻第12染色体的长臂上形成1

  3. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  4. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......-proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for elucidating...

  5. Sensory pits - Enigmatic sense organs of the nymphs of the planthopper Issus coleoptratus (Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräunig, Peter; Krumpholz, Katharina; Baumgartner, Werner

    2012-09-01

    The sensory pits of the nymphs of the planthopper Issus coleoptratus were investigated using light and electron microscopic techniques. Sensory pits consist of a bowl-shaped depression in the cuticle (25-70 μm in diameter) covered by a transparent cupola of presumably waxy material. Each pit is equipped with a long sensory hair that emerges from the inner wall of the pit and extends horizontally for about two thirds of the pit diameter. The cupola emerges from the rim of the pit opposite to the socket of this hair. Additional small sensory hairs extend into the base of the cupola. While the ultrastructure of these small hairs resembles that of other mechanoreceptive sensory hairs of insects, that of the long hairs shows several peculiarities. Sensory pits are dispersed over the frontal part of the head, the tergites of thoracic and abdominal segments. On the different parts of the exoskeleton, the orientation of long hairs within the pits varies in a systematic fashion with respect to the body axes. Size, location, and orientation of the pits show almost perfect bilateral symmetry. Their number increases with each moult. Comparative data show that the level of structural complexity of these sense organs varies considerably within this group of insects.

  6. A preliminary molecular phylogeny of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available The planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea (Insecta: Hemiptera is one of the most dominant groups of phytophagous insects. It comprises about 20 families, containing a total of 9000 species worldwide. Despite several recent studies, the phylogeny of Fulgoroidea is not yet satisfactorily resolved and the phylogenetic positions of several key families, especially Cixiidae, Delphacidae, Tettigometridae, Nogodinidae, Acanaloniidae and Issidae, are contentious. Here, we expand upon recent phylogenetic work using additional nuclear (18S and 28S and novel mitochondrial (16S and cytb markers. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded robust phylogenetic trees. In these topologies, a group containing Cixiidae and Delphacidae is recovered as the sister group to the remaining taxa. Tettigometridae is placed in a more nested position and is grouped with Caliscelidae. Sister relationships are found between Flatidae and Ricaniidae, and between Dictyopharidae and Fulgoridae. Nogodinidae and Issidae are confirmed to be non-monophyletic families. For major nodes of interest, divergence date estimates are generally older than those from the fossil record.

  7. Susceptibility to several types of insecticides in the rice planthoppers Nilaparvam lugens(St(a)l)and Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)(Homoptera:Delphacidae)%褐飞虱和白背飞虱对几类杀虫剂的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦华; 苍涛; 赵学平; 吴长兴; 陈丽萍; 俞瑞鲜; 吴声敢; 王强

    2009-01-01

    为了科学用药和抗性治理提供理论基础,采用稻茎浸渍法测定了2008年7月采自浙江省杭州市和宁波市褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens(Stal)种群对7种杀虫剂的抗药性及褐飞虱和白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera(Horvmh)种群对16种杀虫剂的敏感性.褐飞虱抗药性测定结果表明,与相对敏感品系相比,杭州种群和宁波种群对吡虫啉的抗性倍数分别为479.0倍和366.1倍;对氯噻啉的抗性倍数分别为81.1倍和50.9倍;对噻虫嗪的抗性倍数分别为10.3倍和9.4倍;对噻嗪酮和氟虫腈分别产生了5.0~8.6倍和15.8~17.0倍的抗药性;对烯啶虫胺和啶虫脒的抗性倍数在3倍以下.两种稻15飞虱对杀虫剂的敏感性测定结果表明:嚷虫嗪、噻嗪酮、烯啶虫胺和毒死蜱对褐飞虱和白背飞虱种群都具有较高的室内毒力.当田间褐飞虱和白背飞虱混合发生时,可选用噻虫嗪、噻嗪酮、烯啶虫胺和毒死蜱进行防治,不宜使用吡虫啉、氯噻啉和氟虫腈防治.%To provide theoretic basis for the scientific application of insecticides and resistance management,the resistance of Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)to seven insecticides and the sensitivity of N.lugens and Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in two field populations collected from Hangzhou city and Ningbo city, Zhejiang Province in July 2008 to sixteen insecticides were evaluated with rice stem-dipping method. Compared with the relative susceptible strain of N. lugens, the Hangzhou and Ningbo populations developed resistance to imidacloprid, imidaclothiz, thiamethoxam, buprofezin and fipronil, with the resistance ratios (RR) to imidacloprid were 479.0-fold and 366.1-fold, to imidaclothiz were 81.1-fold and 50.9-fold, to thiamethoxam were 10.3-fold and 9.4-fold, to buprofezin and fipronil were 5.0 - 8.6-fold and 15.8-17.0-fold, respectively, while the two populations remained susceptible to nitenpyram and acetamiprid (RR <3-fold).The toxicity of sixteen insecticides to

  8. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available The white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth, is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2 were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1 have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a

  9. Possible Source Populations of the White-backed Planthopper in the Greater Mekong Subregion Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yong; Chu, Dong; Yin, Yan-Qiong; Zhao, Xue-Qing; Chen, Ai-Dong; Khay, Sathya; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Kyaw, Mu Mu; Kongchuensin, Manita; Ngo, Vien Vinh; Nguyen, Chung Huy

    2016-12-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice in Asia. However, little is known regarding the migration of this pest insect from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) including Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and Vietnam, into China’s Yunnan Province. To determine the migration patterns of S. furcifera in the GMS and putative secondary immigration inside China’s Yunnan Province, we investigated the population genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow of 42 S. furcifera populations across the six countries in the GMS by intensive sampling using mitochondrial genes. Our study revealed the potential emigration of S. furcifera from the GMS consists primarily of three major sources: 1) the S. furcifera from Laos and Vietnam migrate into south and southeast Yunnan, where they proceed to further migrate into northeast and central Yunnan; 2) the S. furcifera from Myanmar migrate into west Yunnan, and/or central Yunnan, and/or northeast Yunnan; 3) the S. furcifera from Cambodia migrate into southwest Yunnan, where the populations can migrate further into central Yunnan. The new data will not only be helpful in predicting population dynamics of the planthopper, but will also aid in regional control programs for this economically important pest insect.

  10. TOR Pathway-Mediated Juvenile Hormone Synthesis Regulates Nutrient-Dependent Female Reproduction in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-03-28

    The "target of rapamycin" (TOR) nutritional signaling pathway and juvenile hormone (JH) regulation of vitellogenesis has been known for a long time. However, the interplay between these two pathways regulating vitellogenin (Vg) expression remains obscure. Here, we first demonstrated the key role of amino acids (AAs) in activation of Vg synthesis and egg development in Nilaparvata lugens using chemically defined artificial diets. AAs induced the expression of TOR and S6K (S6 kinase), whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of these two TOR pathway genes and rapamycin application strongly inhibited the AAs-induced Vg synthesis. Furthermore, knockdown of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), TOR, S6K and application of rapamycin resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mRNA levels of jmtN (juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, JHAMT). Application of JH III on the RNAi (Rheb and TOR) and rapamycin-treated females partially rescued the Vg expression. Conversely, knockdown of either jmtN or met (methoprene-tolerant, JH receptor) and application of JH III had no effects on mRNA levels of Rheb, TOR and S6K and phosphorylation of S6K. In summary, our results demonstrate that the TOR pathway induces JH biosynthesis that in turn regulates AAs-mediated Vg synthesis in N. lugens.

  11. Insect resistance to Nilaparvata lugens and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in transgenic indica rice and the inheritance of gna+sbti transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Xu, Xinping; Xing, Hengtai; Zhu, Huachen; Fan, Qin

    2005-04-01

    Molecular genetic analysis and insect bioassay of transgenic indica rice 'Zhuxian B' plants carrying snowdrop lectin gene (gna) and soybean trypsin inhibitor gene (sbti) were investigated in detail. PCR, 'dot' blot and PCR-Southern blot analysis showed that both transgenes had been incorporated into the rice genome and transmitted up to R3 progeny in most lines tested. Some transgenic lines exhibited Mendelian segregation, but the other showed either 1:1 (positive: negative for the transgenes) or other aberrant segregation patterns. The segregation patterns of gna gene crossed between R2 and R3 progeny. In half of transgenic R3 lines, gna and sbti transgenes co-segregated. Two independent homozygous lines expressing double transgenes were identified in R3 progeny. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the copy numbers of integrated gna and sbti transgenes varied from one to ten in different lines. Insect bioassay data showed that most transgenic plants had better resistance to both Nilaparvata lugens (Stahl) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) than wild-type plants. The insect resistance of transgenic lines increased with the increase in transgene positive ratio in most of the transgenic lines. In all, we obtained nine lines of R3 transgenic plants, including one pure line, which had better resistance to both N lugens and C medinalis than wild-type plants.

  12. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  13. Ras-like family small GTPases genes in Nilaparvata lugens: Identification, phylogenetic analysis, gene expression and function in nymphal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixia; Li, Kailong; Wan, Pinjun; Lai, Fengxiang; Fu, Qiang; Zhu, Tingheng

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-nine cDNAs encoding Ras-like family small GTPases (RSGs) were cloned and sequenced from Nilaparvata lugens. Twenty-eight proteins are described here: 3 from Rho, 2 from Ras, 9 from Arf and 14 from Rabs. These RSGs from N.lugens have five conserved G-loop motifs and displayed a higher degree of sequence conservation with orthologues from insects. RT-qPCR analysis revealed NlRSGs expressed at all life stages and the highest expression was observed in hemolymph, gut or wing for most of NlRSGs. RNAi demonstrated that eighteen NlRSGs play a crucial role in nymphal development. Nymphs with silenced NlRSGs failed to molt, eclosion or development arrest. The qRT-PCR analysis verified the correlation between mortality and the down-regulation of the target genes. The expression level of nuclear receptors, Kr-h1, Hr3, FTZ-F1 and E93 involved in 20E and JH signal pathway was impacted in nymphs with silenced twelve NlRSGs individually. The expression of two halloween genes, Cyp314a1 and Cyp315a1 involved in ecdysone synthesis, decreased in nymphs with silenced NlSar1 or NlArf1. Cyp307a1 increased in nymphs with silenced NlArf6. In N.lugens with silenced NlSRβ, NlSar1 and NlRab2 at 9th day individually, 0.0% eclosion rate and almost 100.0% mortality was demonstrated. Further analysis showed NlSRβ could be served as a candidate target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N.lugens control. PMID:28241066

  14. Biochemical mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens: over-expression of cytochrome P450 CYP6AY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhiping; Wen, Yucong; Yang, Baojun; Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Shuhua; Liu, Zewen; Han, Zhaojun

    2013-11-01

    Imidacloprid is a key insecticide extensively used for control of Nilaparvata lugens, and its resistance had been reported both in the laboratory selected strains and field populations. A target site mutation Y151S in two nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits and enhanced oxidative detoxification have been identified in the laboratory resistant strain, contributing importantly to imidacloprid resistance in N. lugens. To date, however, imidacloprid resistance in field population is primarily attributable to enhanced oxidative detoxification by over-expressed P450 monooxygenases. A resistant strain (Res), originally collected from a field population and continuously selected in laboratory with imidacloprid for more than 40 generations, had 180.8-fold resistance to imidacloprid, compared to a susceptible strain (Sus). Expression of different putative P450 genes at mRNA levels was detected and compared between Res and Sus strains, and six genes were found expressed significantly higher in Res strain than in Sus strain. CYP6AY1 was found to be the most different expressed P450 gene and its mRNA level in Res strain was 17.9 times of that in Sus strain. By expressing in E. coli cells, CYP6AY1 was found to metabolize imidacloprid efficiently with initial velocity calculated of 0.851 ± 0.073 pmol/min/pmol P450. When CYP6AY1 mRNA levels in Res strain was reduced by RNA interference, imidacloprid susceptibility was recovered. In four field populations with different resistance levels, high levels of CYP6AY1 transcript were also found. In vitro and in vivo studies provided evidences that the over-expression of CYP6AY1 was one of the key factors contributing to imidacloprid resistance in the laboratory selected strain Res, which might also be the important mechanism for imidacloprid resistance in field populations, when the target site mutation was not prevalent at present.

  15. [Sublethal effect of chlorantraniliprole on the experimental population of non-target insect Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Wang, Zhao; Jing, Dao-Chao

    2013-02-01

    Chlorantraniliprole is a newly developed insecticide targeting at lepidopteron pests in rice fields, whereas Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is one of the important non-target pests of the insecticide. In this paper, the rice stem dipping method was adopted to test the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to the 3rd instar nymphs and adults of N. lugens. The LC50 of chlorantraniliprole to the 3rd instar nymphs and adults was 26.85 and 35.53 mg.L-1, respectively. When the 3rd instar nymph was exposed to the LC10 and LC25 of chlorantraniliprole, the life span of the survived female adults was not significantly affected. However, when treated with LC25 dosage, the fecundity of the survived female adults was significantly reduced by 45.6 eggs. After the 3rd instar nymph was treated with the sublethal doses LC10 and LC25 of chlorantraniliprole, the fecundity of the F1, females were decreased significantly by 43.5 and 72.9 eggs, and the life span of the F1 females was shortened by 1.35 and 2.87 d, respectively. The developmental periods of all the instars of F, generation were delayed after treated with the sublethal doses LC10 and LC25 of chlorantraniliprole. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was decreased by 12.8% and 23.5%, and the net reproductive rate (R0) was decreased by 37.4% and 68.7%, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean generation time (T) and population doubling time (t) were delayed. Overall, the sublethal doses of chlorantraniliprole could suppress the population growth of N. lugens.

  16. Field population abundance of leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) as affected by rice growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizal, M. M.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    The leafhopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) are considered as important rice pest in Asia including Malaysia. As phloem-feeders, they can cause loss to rice growth development and their population abundance is thought to be influenced by rice growth stages. This study was conducted to examine the population of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae between different rice growth stages, i.e. before and after rice planting periods. Monthly sampling was conducted in three sites in Kuala Selangor at before planting, vegetative, reproductive, maturing stages and post-harvest period using sweeping net and light traps. Population abundance of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae were found to be significantly different and positively correlated with different rice growth stages (ppopulation of these two homopterans indicated adaptive feeding strategy to reduce food competition.

  17. Crop resistance traits modify the effects of an aboveground herbivore, brown planthopper, on soil microbial biomass and nematode community via changes to plant performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Liu, M.; Chen, F.; Griffiths, B.S.; Chen, X.; Johnson, S.N.; Hu, F.

    2012-01-01

    Plant-mediated effects of aboveground herbivory on the belowground ecosystem are well documented, but less attention has been paid to agro-ecosystems and in particular how crop cultivars with different traits (i.e. resistance to pests) shape such interactions. A fully factorial experiment was conduc

  18. The Control Strategy of Nilaparvata lugens%水稻褐飞虱防控策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖世纯; 王凤英; 黎柳锋

    2011-01-01

    褐飞虱近年对水稻的为害愈来愈严重,为探讨新的防控策略,笔者从飞虱的主要越冬虫源地、成灾原因及综合防控等分析认为:(1)对中国水稻为害极重的褐飞虱,真正成灾的越冬虫源应主要来自16°N以南的地区,尤其是越南南部与泰国南部的湄公河三角洲区域.(2)水稻褐飞虱的成灾原因既与越战后东盟国家大力发展水稻等粮食作物种植,且在耕作制度上也相应地由高秆改矮秆、单季改双季甚至三季,密集程度和施肥程度有所提高有关,又与国内水稻品种多、生育期不一,在防控上不能统一行动,用药混杂和过量有关,还与全球气候变暖更利于飞虱的繁衍与迁移,以及杂交水稻可能更利于飞虱类的繁衍有关.因此,要彻底防控水稻褐飞虱的为害,要"防控前移",到飞虱的发源地-湄公河三角洲区域去实施以生态治理为核心的综合防治技术,一方面帮助其提高水稻产量,改良水稻种植模式,压缩冬春稻种植面积;另一方面帮助其发展经济,构建世界热带水果与特种经济植物基地,同时组建大型粮食生产加工集团,以及开展褐飞虱防控国际间合作;对迁入代要及早治理,并且以县为单位组建植物保护公司,再利用飞虱对某些水稻品种特别嗜好性,构建飞虱诱集区,形成聚而歼之的主战场.%Yield loss is caused by brown plant hopper are becoming more and more serious in recent years.By analyzing the changes of rice cropping system and the occurring dynamics of the insect, new ideas and control strategies are forwarded: (1) The plant brown hopper that imperil the rice production in China might survive overwinter to north latitude of 19° N, but the disastrous insect source mainly comes from the south of 16° N,especially from the Mekong Delta of south Vietnam and Thailand.(2) Rampant of BPH might relate to the following factors: the expansion of rice growing area in Asean countries

  19. A New Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Forveille, T; Delfosse, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of three brown dwarf candidates identified in the first 1% of the DENIS sky survey. Low resolution spectra from 6430--9000A show these objects to have similar spectra to the uncertain brown dwarf candidate GD 165B. High resolution spectroscopy shows that one of the objects -- DBD 1228-1547 -- has a strong EW=2.3+-0.05A absorption line of Li I 6708A, and is therefore a brown dwarf with mass below 0.065 Msol. DBD 1228-1547 can now be the considered proto-type for objects JUST below the hydrogen burning limit.

  20. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  3. 稻飞虱灾变机理及可持续治理的基础研究%Basic research on the outbreak mechanism and sustainable management of rice planthoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄永根; 程家安

    2011-01-01

    稻飞虱(褐飞虱、白背飞虱和褐飞虱)是威胁我国粮食安全最大的生物灾害.本文基于稻飞虱致害能力的高度变异性、对农药的高适应性、传播病毒病和具有远距离迁飞能力等特点,以及研究中存在的稻飞虱迁飞动态、致害性变异和种间互作关系等灾变机理机制不清楚,提出了稻飞虱迁飞时空动态、致害性变异、稻飞虱传播的病毒病、农药对稻飞虱及其天敌的生态毒理效应、稻飞虱基因组数据分析和稻田生态系统对稻飞虱种群数量调控功能6个研究发展方向以阐明稻飞虱灾变的内在机理,为稻飞虱可持续治理体系建设提供理论依据.%Rice planthoopers have been the most destructive pests for food security and the chemical pesticides used to control them are affecting ecological and food safety in China. Therefore, integrated approach for intensive rice production and sustainable control of rice planthoppers has been becoming of the most important task. The molecular mechanism for the pests adapting intensive rice ecosystem and ecological bases for integrating technology for intensive agriculture and sustainable pest management would be studied to improve understanding. 6 sub-projects, including migration and temporal-special dynamics of rice planthopper populations; genetic bases of rice resistance to planthoppers and planthopper virulence; ecological and molecular mechanism of epidemic of rice virus diseases transmitted by planthoppers; ecological toxicology of pesticides on planthoppers and their natural enemy; data analysis for planthopper genome and techniques for identifying functional genes and regulating function and relevant mechanism of rice ecosystem on planthopper population development, will be further explored to provide theoretical and technical bases for establishing outbreak monitoring and warning systems for rice planthoppers and virus diseases, development of resistant varieties and program for

  4. Estimation of the age and amount of brown rice plant hoppers based on bionic electronic nose use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-09-29

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  5. Molecular phylogenetics of cixiid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha): new insights from combined analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceotto, Paula; Kergoat, Gaël J; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Bourgoin, Thierry

    2008-08-01

    The planthopper family Cixiidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) comprises approximately 160 genera and 2000 species divided in three subfamilies: Borystheninae, Bothriocerinae and Cixiinae, the later with 16 tribes. The current paper represents the first attempt to estimate phylogenetic relationships within Cixiidae based on molecular data. We use a total of 3652bp sequence alignment of four genes: the mitochondrial coding genes Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) and Cytochrome b (Cytb), a portion of the nuclear 18S rDNA and two non-contiguous portions of the nuclear 28S rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships of 72 terminal specimens were reconstructed using both maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Through the analysis of this empirical dataset, we also provide comparisons among different a priori partitioning strategies and the use of mixture models in a Bayesian framework. Our comparisons suggest that mixture models overcome the benefits obtained by partitioning the data according to codon position and gene identity, as they provide better accuracy in phylogenetic reconstructions. The recovered maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference phylogenies suggest that the family Cixiidae is paraphyletic in respect with Delphacidae. The paraphyly of the subfamily Cixiinae is also recovered by both approaches. In contrast to a morphological phylogeny recently proposed for cixiids, subfamilies Borystheninae and Bothriocerinae form a monophyletic group.

  6. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1986. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  9. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1985. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1987. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1984. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1980. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  15. Electronic Monitoring of Feeding and Oviposition Behavior of Rice Planthoppers and Its Application in Plant Resistance Study%电子记录稻飞虱取食和产卵行为及其在植物抗虫性研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    服部诚

    2003-01-01

    采用AC型电子记录系统(EMS)对褐飞虱在非寄主植物稗草和具有抗性基因bph4的水稻品种Babawee上的取食行为进行了比较研究.结果表明,褐飞虱口针到达稗草韧皮部以前停止取食,这揭示了在稗草非韧皮部组织中存在拒食剂.而在抗虫品种上,口针到达韧皮部以后取食行为终止.因此,可以清楚地识别两类具有不同抑制取食抗性因子的抗性植物.分析白背飞虱产卵行为的电子记录表明,在大多数情况下,就旺盛生长的水稻植株的下半部分而言,白背飞虱产卵器插入植物组织中但不产卵.这表明旺盛生长的植株能诱导白背飞虱的产卵行为,但由于某些拒避性因素使整个产卵过程不能完成.因此,这一系统可以有效地识别具有产卵抗性的植物上行为序列中受到破坏的步骤.%Feeding behaviors of Nilaparvata lugens on a non-host plant, the barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli var. Oryzicola, and resistant rice Babawee (bph4) were compared by using AC-eletronic monitoring system (EMS). Waveform data obtained by EMS showed that N. Lugens usually stopped feeding activities before stylets reach the phloem in barnyard grass which revealed to contain an antifeedant in the non-phloem, whereas feeding was interrupted after stylets reached the phloem in resistant rice. Thus, EMS analysis clearly distinguished two types of resistant plants with different resistant factors against planthopper feeding. EMS analysis of Sogatella furcifera oviposition behavior on the lower part of the leaf sheath of fully-grown rice demonstrated that in most cases the ovipositor was inserted into the plant but pulled out without depositing any eggs. It suggested that oviposition behavior itself was normally induced on the fully-grown rice, but the entire process was not completed due to some deterring factors. Thus, this system is also effective in identifying a disrupted step in the behavioral sequence on a plant resistant

  16. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  18. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  19. Modulation of brown adipocyte activity by milk by-products: Stimulation of brown adipogenesis by buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Muto, Kengo; Nara, Takayuki Y; Kato, Ken; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes. The treatment with buttermilk modulated brown adipogenesis, depending on the product tested; during brown adipogenesis, buttermilk 1 inhibited the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. In contrast, buttermilk 3 and 5 increased the expression of Ucp1 in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting the stimulation of brown adipogenesis. In addition, the Iso-induced expression of Ucp1 was enhanced by buttermilk 2 and 3. The treatment with buttermilk did not affect the basal or induced expression of Ucp1 by Iso in HB2 brown adipocytes, except for buttermilk 5, which increased the basal expression of Ucp1. Conversely, butter oil did not significantly affect the expression of Ucp1, irrespective of the cell phase of HB2 cells, ie, treatment during brown adipogenesis or of brown adipocytes. The results of the present study indicate that buttermilk is a regulator of brown adipogenesis and suggest its usefulness as a potential food material for antiobesity.

  20. Production and purification of active snowdrop lectin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, M; Powell, K S; Gatehouse, J A; Raemaekers, R; Newell, C A; Hamilton, W D

    1998-02-15

    Recombinant snowdrop lectin was produced in Escherichia coli from a cDNA clone encoding mature Galanthus nivalis agglutinin. After induction with isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside, inclusion bodies from E. coli were solubilised and the G. nivalis agglutinin purified by metal-affinity chromatography using a carboxy-terminal hexahistidine tag. The protein was refolded on the metal-affinity column prior to elution. After purification, the recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes to a dilution similar to that determined for 'native' lectin purified from snowdrop, and showed similar specific binding to mannose. The toxicity of the recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) was shown to be similar to that of 'native' G. nivalis agglutinin when incorporated into an artificial diet. The recombinant G. nivalis agglutinin is thus functionally similar to 'native' snowdrop lectin.

  1. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  2. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  3. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  4. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  5. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  6. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  7. PLASMA PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Plotczyk, W.; Resztak, A.; A.; Szymanski

    1990-01-01

    The specific energy of the substrate is defined as the ratio of the plasma jet energy to the mass of the coal. The influence of the specific energy of the brown coal (10 - 35 MJ/kg) on the yield and selectivity of the gaseous products formation was determined. The pyrolysis was performed in d.c. arc hydrogen plasma jet with the 25 kW power delivered to it. The higher specific energies of coal correlated to the higher conversion degrees of the substrates to C2H2 and CO as well as to the higher...

  8. Development Research on Five Pesticides Against Rice Planthopper%5种防治稻飞虱药剂的发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾林玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide references for pesticide production and application, the developments, patents, mechanisms, applications, resistances, control effects, formulations, technologies and markets of five pesticides on rice planthopper were studied in this paper.%从开发及专利、作用机理及应用、抗性、药效、剂型及复配、工艺和市场等方面,对吡虫啉、噻虫嗪、烯啶虫胺、吡蚜酮和噻嗪酮等5种防治稻飞虱药剂进行了研究,旨在为防治稻飞虱药剂的生产和应用提供参考。

  9. "Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae" Is the Prevalent Agent of Marginal Chlorosis of Strawberry in French Production Fields and Is Transmitted by the Planthopper Cixius wagneri (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danet, Jean-Luc; Foissac, Xavier; Zreik, Leyla; Salar, Pascal; Verdin, Eric; Nourrisseau, Jean-Georges; Garnier, Monique

    2003-06-01

    ABSTRACT Marginal chlorosis has affected strawberry production in France for about 15 years. A phloem-restricted uncultured bacterium, "Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae," is associated with the disease. A large-scale survey for marginal chlorosis in French strawberry production fields and nurseries by polymerase chain reaction amplification of "Ca. P. fragariae" 16S rDNA revealed that symptoms of marginal chlorosis were not always induced by "Ca. P. fragariae" and that the stolbur phytoplasma could induce identical symptoms. "Ca. P. fragariae" was found to be predominant in strawberry production fields, whereas the stolbur phytoplasma was predominantly detected in nurseries. Two transmission periods of the disease, one in spring and the other from late summer to early fall, were evident. Cixius wagneri planthoppers captured on infected strawberry plants were demonstrated to be efficient vectors of "Ca. P. fragariae." The involvement in natural disease spread of the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, previously shown to acquire and multiply "Ca. P. fragariae" under greenhouse conditions, remains uncertain.

  10. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  11. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  12. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  13. In Defense of Roger Brown Against Himself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbach, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In response to Roger Brown's memorial tribute to Eric Lenneberg, (Cognition, June, 1976), the author disagrees with Brown's conclusion that a Whorfian interpretation of both Lenneberg's and his own results regarding the problem of codability and the recognition of colors, is no longer valid. (Author/MV)

  14. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  15. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  16. The Brown Dwarf-Exoplanet Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are commonly regarded as easily-observed templates for exoplanet studies, with comparable masses, physical sizes and atmospheric properties. There is indeed considerable overlap in the photospheric temperatures of the coldest brown dwarfs (spectral classes L and T) and the hottest exoplanets. However, the properties and processes associated with brown dwarf and exoplanet atmospheres can differ significantly in detail; photospheric gas pressures, elemental abundance variations, processes associated with external driving sources, and evolutionary effects are all pertinent examples. In this contribution, I review some of the basic theoretical and empirical properties of the currently known population of brown dwarfs, and detail the similarities and differences between their visible atmospheres and those of extrasolar planets. I conclude with some specific results from brown dwarf studies that may prove relevant in future exoplanet observations.

  17. Occurrence Regularity of Major Damage Generations of Nilaparvata lugens(Stl) in Single Cropping Medium Rice Region in Sandu County of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Tianlei; Jin; Daochao; Yang; Hong; Ai; Zhengxian; Zhou; Zhaoxia

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify occurrence regularity of major damage generations of Nilaparvata lugens( Stl) in Sandu Shui Autonomous County( Sandu County for short),Guizhou Province,a karst single cropping medium rice region,the population dynamics of N. lugens were systematically studied using the methods of light trap and systematic field survey from 2009 to 2011. The results showed that the number of immigration generations caught by light trap and the actual population of N. lugens in fields were different among three years. The daily maximum trapping numbers of N. lugens amounted to 6 688 in 2009,which were 15. 3 and 2. 5 times of that in 2010 and 2011,respectively. The peak numbers in prediction nursery were 10 777,4 630 and 1 615 heads per hundred hills in 2009,2010 and 2011,respectively. The forth and fifth generations of N. lugens were the major damage generations in single cropping medium rice fields,and the initial immigration day was significantly related with primary-peak day. The occurrence degree of adults and nymphs of N. lugens varied with years and transplanting periods,and the peak days of N. lugens nymphs were from late July to early August in 2010 and 2011. The occurrence peaks of adults and nymphs in late transplanting paddy field were later than that in the early one. Meanwhile,the coexisted various growth periods of rice,due to time differences of transplanting,were conducive to inhabitation and reproduction of N. lugens. The population dynamics of spiders and Cyrtohinus lividipennis well synchronied with that of N. lugens,but predatory capacity of spiders and C. lividipennis was not enough to control N. lugens.

  18. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Long; Wan, Pin-Jun; Wang, Wei-Xia; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Ran (RanGTPase) in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan) was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1) Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2) The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  19. Effects of exogenous plant growth regulator abscisic acid-induced resistance in rice on the expression of vitellogenin mRNA in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xia; Wong, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Recent study showed that exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) acts as a regulator of plant resistance. This study investigated average injury scale and callose contents of rice, and vitellogenin (Nlvg) mRNA expression in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) adult females after third instar nymphs fed on exogenous ABA-treated susceptible [Taichung Native one (TN1)] and moderately resistant (IR42) rice cultivars. The results showed that exogenous ABA significantly decreased average injury scale of rice and Nlvg mRNA expression in N. lugens adults compared with the control (without ABA spraying). Nlvg mRNA expression in N. lugens adults decreased significantly after third instar nymphs fed on ABA-treated (5, 20, and 40 mg/liter) TN1 for 1 and 2 d, and for IR42, after fed on ABA-treated (20 and 40 mg/liter) rice plants for 1 d and after fed on ABA-treated (5, 20, and 40 mg/liter) rice for 2 d decreased significantly. The callose contents showed no significant change for TN1, while for IR42, significantly increased in roots and sheathes after N. lugens infestation under ABA treatments (20 and 40 mg/liter) compared with the control. The decrease of Nlvg mRNA expression may be partially attributed to the increase of callose content of plants. The results provide a profile for concerning the effects of ABA-induced rice plants' defenses on phloem-feeding insects.

  20. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Li

    Full Text Available Ran (RanGTPase in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1 and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1 Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2 The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  1. 25%噻虫·吡蚜酮WP防治稻飞虱田间试验研究%Study on Effect of Thiamethoxam+Pymetrozine 25%WP Against Rice Planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘栋

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the control effect of thiamethoxam + pymetrozine 25% WP on N. lugens and L. striatellus, the field tests were carried out. The results showed that thiamethoxam+pymetrozine 25%WP could control rice planthopper effectively. The optimal use time was at peak stage of young nymphs of rice planthopper, and the suitable dosages were 180-360 g/hm2.%为明确25%噻虫·吡蚜酮 WP对水稻褐飞虱及灰飞虱的防治效果,进行了小区药剂试验。结果表明:25%噻虫·吡蚜酮WP对灰飞虱和褐飞虱控制作用较好,建议在低龄若虫高峰期用药,制剂用量以180~360 g/hm2为宜。

  2. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  3. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  4. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  5. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  11. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  12. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  9. What Brown saw and you can too

    CERN Document Server

    Pearle, Philip; Bilderback, David; Collett, Brian; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A discussion is given of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant \\textit{Clarkia pulchella} undergoing what is now called Brownian motion. We consider the nature of those particles, and how he misinterpreted the Airy disc of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a ``homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's, are presented.

  10. Simulationsverfahren fuer Brown-Resnick-Prozesse (Simulation Techniques for Brown-Resnick Processes)

    CERN Document Server

    Oesting, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Brown-Resnick processes form a flexible class of stationary max-stable processes based on Gaussian random fields. With regard to applications fast and accurate simulation of these processes is an important issue. In fact, Brown-Resnick processes that are generated by a dissipative flow do not allow for good finite approximations using the definition of the processes. On large intervals we get either huge approximation errors or very long operating times. Looking for solutions of this problem, we give different representations of the generalized Brown-Resnick processes - including random shifting and a mixed moving maxima representation - and derive various kinds of finite approximations that can be used for simulation purposes. Furthermore, error bounds are calculated in the case of the original process by Brown and Resnick (1977). For a one-paramatric class of Brown-Resnick processes based on the fractional Brownian motion we perform a simulation study and compare the results of the different met...

  11. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  12. The colored Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Ballarini, D.; González-Tudela, A.; de Giorgi, M.; Gigli, G.; West, K.; Pfeiffer, L.; Del Valle, E.; Sanvitto, D.; Laussy, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible. The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is nowadays universally accepted and, being so fundamental, embodies many subtleties of our understanding of the wave/particle dual nature of light. Thanks to a novel experimental technique, we report here a generalized version of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to include the frequency of the detected light, or, from the particle point of view, the energy of the detected photons. Our source of light is a polariton condensate, that allows high-resolution filtering of a spectrally broad source with a high degree of coherence. In addition to the known tendencies of indistinguishable photons to arrive together on the detector, we find that photons of different colors present the opposite characteristic of avoiding each others. We postulate that fermions can be similarly brought to exhibit positive (boson-like) correlations by frequency filtering.

  13. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  14. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  15. Microlensing Planet Around Brown-Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Han, C; Udalski, A; Sumi, T; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Tsapras, Y; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Harris, P; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Batista, V; Christie, G; Choi, J -Y; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Hwang, K -H; Kavka, A; Lee, C -U; Monard, L A G; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Porritt, I; Shin, I -G; Tan, T G; Yee, J C; Alsubai, K A; Bramich, D M; Browne, P; Dominik, M; Horne, K; Hundertmark, M; Ipatov, S; Kains, N; Liebig, C; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Street, R A

    2013-01-01

    Observations of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs have led to the speculation that they may form planetary systems similar to normal stars. While there have been several detections of planetary-mass objects around brown dwarfs (2MASS 1207-3932 and 2MASS 0441-2301), these companions have relatively large mass ratios and projected separations, suggesting that they formed in a manner analogous to stellar binaries. We present the discovery of a planetary-mass object orbiting a field brown dwarf via gravitational microlensing, OGLE-2012-BLG-0358Lb. The system is a low secondary/primary mass ratio (0.080 +- 0.001), relatively tightly-separated (~0.87 AU) binary composed of a planetary-mass object with 1.9 +- 0.2 Jupiter masses orbiting a brown dwarf with a mass 0.022 M_Sun. The relatively small mass ratio and separation suggest that the companion may have formed in a protoplanetary disk around the brown dwarf host, in a manner analogous to planets.

  16. Molecular Characterization and Differential Expression of an Olfactory Receptor Gene Family in the White-Backed Planthopper Sogatella furcifera Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming He

    Full Text Available The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, a notorious rice pest in Asia, employs host plant volatiles as cues for host location. In insects, odor detection is mediated by two types of olfactory receptors: odorant receptors (ORs and ionotropic receptors (IRs. In this study, we identified 63 SfurORs and 14 SfurIRs in S. furcifera based on sequences obtained from the head transcriptome and bioinformatics analysis. The motif-pattern of 130 hemiptera ORs indicated an apparent differentiation in this order. Phylogenetic trees of the ORs and IRs were constructed using neighbor-joining estimates. Most of the ORs had orthologous genes, but a specific OR clade was identified in S. furcifera, which suggests that these ORs may have specific olfactory functions in this species. Our results provide a basis for further investigations of how S. furcifera coordinates its olfactory receptor genes with its plant hosts, thereby providing a foundation for novel pest management approaches based on these genes.

  17. Differential Expression of Whitebacked Planthopper Resistance in the japonica/indica Doubled Haploid Rice Population under Field Evaluation and Seedbox Screening Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Whitebacked planthopper (WBPH) -resistance in a japonica / indica doubled haploid (DH) rice population established from a cross between WBPH-resistant japonica Chunjiang 06 and susceptible indica TN1, was comparatively evaluated through a field experiment based on the WBPH immigrant density and standardized seedbox screening test (SSST). All the susceptible DH lines in the field experiment behaved accordingly in SSST. However, 35 of resistant 66 lines (53%) in the field, were categorized to susceptible groups in SSST. Likewise, there were no significant differences in WBPH immigrant densities among 70 DH lines that were highly resistant to susceptible in SSST. The results revealed that SSST could not evaluate properly WBPH resistance in the DH lines. Four QTLs for WBPH-resistance phenotyped by the immigrant density were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, and 11. Of them, the QTL on chromosome 4 was the most effective (LOD 21.8, variance 78%). Five QTLs associated with seedling mortality were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. In addition to the QTL (LOD 10.5, variance 68%) on chromosome 4, there was another major QTL (LOD 12.7, variance 71%) located on chromosome 5, which was SSST-specific but might be irrespective of the WBPH resistance traits.

  18. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Cedikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT, the brown (BAT, and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes.

  19. Insights into brown spider and loxoscelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Appel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Loxosceles is a genus of cosmopolitan spiders comprising several species, and popularly knownas brown spiders or brown recluses. Brown spider bites can cause dermonecrotic lesions andsystemic reactions known as loxoscelism. Systemic effects are less common but may be severe oreven fatal in some patients. Systemic manifestations include intravascular hemolysis, disseminatedintravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. A rapid diagnosis and an understanding of thevenom’s molecular activity are crucial for satisfactory treatment. Mechanisms by which venoms exerttheir deleterious effects are under investigation, and searches are underway for diagnosticenvenomation assays. Molecular biology is being used to produce quantities of several of the mostimportant venom molecules and has contributed to the study and understanding of their mechanismsof action.

  20. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  1. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  2. Shaping the Brown Dwarf Desert: Predicting the Primordial Brown Dwarf Binary Distributions from Turbulent Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Jumper, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    The formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) poses a key challenge to star formation theory. The observed dearth of nearby ($\\leq 5$ AU) brown dwarf companions to solar-mass stars, known as the brown dwarf desert, as well as the tendency for low-mass binary systems to be more tightly-bound than stellar binaries, have been cited as evidence for distinct formation mechanisms for brown dwarfs and stars. In this paper, we explore the implications of the minimal hypothesis that brown dwarfs in binary systems originate via the same fundamental fragmentation mechanism as stars, within isolated, turbulent giant molecular cloud cores. We demonstrate analytically that the scaling of specific angular momentum with turbulent core mass naturally gives rise to the brown dwarf desert, as well as wide brown-dwarf binary systems. Further, we demonstrate analytically that the turbulent core fragmentation model also naturally predicts that very low-mass (VLM) binary and BD/BD systems are more tightly-bound than stellar systems. In addit...

  3. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and...

  5. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1981-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1982. Data for each diversion/impoundment at Browns Park NWR is supplied. This data includes the...

  7. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  8. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  9. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  10. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  11. Fucoidans - sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Anatolii I; Bilan, M I [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  12. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  13. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  14. Computing at Brown--An Ongoing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Discusses conclusions based on results of two Brown University research projects aimed at understanding social and educational significance of computing in higher education: 1984 university-wide survey of students, faculty, and staff, and a 1985 survey of incoming freshmen. The conclusions discussed relate to computer use, experience, attitudes,…

  15. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Prato, L; Rice, E L; McLean, I S; Kirkpatrick, J D; Burgasser, A J; Kim, S S

    2015-01-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R~20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity precision of ~2 km/s, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1 sigma upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included 7 known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant radial velocity variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant ...

  16. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  17. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  18. Cryptochromes and Hormone Signal Transduction under Near-Zero Magnetic Fields: New Clues to Magnetic Field Effects in a Rice Planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gui-Jun; Wang, Wen-Jing; Xu, Jing-Jing; Yang, Quan-Feng; Dai, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Sword, Gregory A; Pan, Wei-Dong; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although there are considerable reports of magnetic field effects (MFE) on organisms, very little is known so far about the MFE-related signal transduction pathways. Here we establish a manipulative near-zero magnetic field (NZMF) to investigate the potential signal transduction pathways involved in MFE. We show that exposure of migratory white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, to the NZMF results in delayed egg and nymphal development, increased frequency of brachypterous females, and reduced longevity of macropterous female adults. To understand the changes in gene expression underlying these phenotypes, we examined the temporal patterns of gene expression of (i) CRY1 and CRY2 as putative magnetosensors, (ii) JHAMT, FAMeT and JHEH in the juvenile hormone pathway, (iii) CYP307A1 in the ecdysone pathway, and (iv) reproduction-related Vitellogenin (Vg). The significantly altered gene expression of CRY1 and CRY2 under the NZMF suggest their developmental stage-specific patterns and potential upstream location in magnetic response. Gene expression patterns of JHAMT, JHEH and CYP307A1 were consistent with the NZMF-triggered delay in nymphal development, higher proportion of brachypterous female adults, and the shortened longevity of macropterous female adults, which show feasible links between hormone signal transduction and phenotypic MFE. By conducting manipulative NZMF experiments, our study suggests an important role of the geomagnetic field (GMF) in modulating development and physiology of insects, provides new insights into the complexity of MFE-magnetosensitivity interactions, and represents an initial but crucial step forward in understanding the molecular basis of cryptochromes and hormone signal transduction involved in MFE.

  19. Cryptochromes and Hormone Signal Transduction under Near-Zero Magnetic Fields: New Clues to Magnetic Field Effects in a Rice Planthopper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Jun Wan

    Full Text Available Although there are considerable reports of magnetic field effects (MFE on organisms, very little is known so far about the MFE-related signal transduction pathways. Here we establish a manipulative near-zero magnetic field (NZMF to investigate the potential signal transduction pathways involved in MFE. We show that exposure of migratory white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, to the NZMF results in delayed egg and nymphal development, increased frequency of brachypterous females, and reduced longevity of macropterous female adults. To understand the changes in gene expression underlying these phenotypes, we examined the temporal patterns of gene expression of (i CRY1 and CRY2 as putative magnetosensors, (ii JHAMT, FAMeT and JHEH in the juvenile hormone pathway, (iii CYP307A1 in the ecdysone pathway, and (iv reproduction-related Vitellogenin (Vg. The significantly altered gene expression of CRY1 and CRY2 under the NZMF suggest their developmental stage-specific patterns and potential upstream location in magnetic response. Gene expression patterns of JHAMT, JHEH and CYP307A1 were consistent with the NZMF-triggered delay in nymphal development, higher proportion of brachypterous female adults, and the shortened longevity of macropterous female adults, which show feasible links between hormone signal transduction and phenotypic MFE. By conducting manipulative NZMF experiments, our study suggests an important role of the geomagnetic field (GMF in modulating development and physiology of insects, provides new insights into the complexity of MFE-magnetosensitivity interactions, and represents an initial but crucial step forward in understanding the molecular basis of cryptochromes and hormone signal transduction involved in MFE.

  20. Cryptochromes and Hormone Signal Transduction under Near-Zero Magnetic Fields: New Clues to Magnetic Field Effects in a Rice Planthopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gui-Jun; Wang, Wen-Jing; Xu, Jing-Jing; Yang, Quan-Feng; Dai, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Sword, Gregory A.; Pan, Wei-Dong; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although there are considerable reports of magnetic field effects (MFE) on organisms, very little is known so far about the MFE-related signal transduction pathways. Here we establish a manipulative near-zero magnetic field (NZMF) to investigate the potential signal transduction pathways involved in MFE. We show that exposure of migratory white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, to the NZMF results in delayed egg and nymphal development, increased frequency of brachypterous females, and reduced longevity of macropterous female adults. To understand the changes in gene expression underlying these phenotypes, we examined the temporal patterns of gene expression of (i) CRY1 and CRY2 as putative magnetosensors, (ii) JHAMT, FAMeT and JHEH in the juvenile hormone pathway, (iii) CYP307A1 in the ecdysone pathway, and (iv) reproduction-related Vitellogenin (Vg). The significantly altered gene expression of CRY1 and CRY2 under the NZMF suggest their developmental stage-specific patterns and potential upstream location in magnetic response. Gene expression patterns of JHAMT, JHEH and CYP307A1 were consistent with the NZMF-triggered delay in nymphal development, higher proportion of brachypterous female adults, and the shortened longevity of macropterous female adults, which show feasible links between hormone signal transduction and phenotypic MFE. By conducting manipulative NZMF experiments, our study suggests an important role of the geomagnetic field (GMF) in modulating development and physiology of insects, provides new insights into the complexity of MFE-magnetosensitivity interactions, and represents an initial but crucial step forward in understanding the molecular basis of cryptochromes and hormone signal transduction involved in MFE. PMID:26173003

  1. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified "beige" or "brite" cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in brown and beige adipocytes. This review will focus on the newly discovered transcription factors and microRNAs that specify and orchestrate the classical brown and beige fat cell development.

  2. Comparative Study on Control Efficacy of Six Pesticide Mixtures against Rice Planthoppers%几种复配剂对稻飞虱的防治效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀阿; 祈建杭; 陈金宏; 吕敏; 葛恒来

    2013-01-01

    比较了6种复配剂对稻飞虱的防效,结果表明:噻嗪异丙威、吡蚜噻嗪酮、丙威毒死蜱的防效优异,吡虫乙酰甲、吡虫仲丁威的防效较好,以上5种复配剂均显著优于吡虫杀虫单,因此噻嗪异丙威、吡蚜噻嗪酮、丙威毒死蜱可作为防治稻飞虱的常规品种,吡虫乙酰甲、吡虫仲丁威作为替换品种,在防治过程中注意经常轮换药剂品种.%The comparison of the control efficacy of six pesticide mixtures against rice planthoppers was conducted in this paper. The results showed that the control efficacies of thiazide isoprocarb, pymetrozine buprofezin and isoprocarb chlorpyrifos were the best, and those of imidacloprid methacholine and imidacloprid fenobucarb were better. The control efficacies of the above five pesticide mixtures were significantly superior to that of imidacloprid monosultap. Thiazide isoprocarb, pymetrozine buprofezin and isoprocarb chlorpyrifos were recommended as the conventional varieties controlling rice planthoppers, while imidacloprid methacholine and imidacloprid fenobucarb could be used as replacement varieties. The pesticides should be frequently rotated in the pest control.

  3. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  4. Spectroscopy of Putative Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2+/-0.5) and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  5. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  6. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  7. Deterministic remote preparation via the Brown state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Song-Ya; Gao, Cong; Zhang, Pei; Qu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    We propose two deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) schemes by using the Brown state as the entangled channel. Firstly, the remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state is considered. It is worth mentioning that the construction of measurement bases plays a key role in our scheme. Then, the remote preparation of an arbitrary three-qubit state is investigated. The proposed schemes can be extended to controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) with unit success probabilities. At variance with the existing CRSP schemes via the Brown state, the derived schemes have no restriction on the coefficients, while the success probabilities can reach 100%. It means the success probabilities are greatly improved. Moreover, we pay attention to the DRSP in noisy environments under two important decoherence models, the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise.

  8. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  9. Comparison of cloud models for Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Ch; Allard, F; Dehn, M; Hauschildt, P; Homeier, D; Lodders, K; Marley, M; Rietmeijer, F; Tsuji, T; Woitke, P

    2007-01-01

    A test case comparison is presented for different dust cloud model approaches applied in brown dwarfs and giant gas planets. We aim to achieve more transparency in evaluating the uncertainty inherent to theoretical modelling. We show in how far model results for characteristic dust quantities vary due to different assumptions. We also demonstrate differences in the spectral energy distributions resulting from our individual cloud modelling in 1D substellar atmosphere simulations

  10. Molecular selectivity of brown carbon chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Roach, Patrick; Eckert, Peter; Gilles, Mary K; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji Julie; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and microspectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene SOA (LSOA) and α-pinene SOA (PSOA). The LSOA compounds readily formed adducts with Na(+) under electrospray ionization conditions, with only a small fraction of compounds detected in the protonated form. In contrast, a significant fraction of PSOA compounds appeared in the protonated form because of their increased molecular rigidity. Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas was detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl-imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the α-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  11. Astrometry of brown dwarfs with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijne, J H J

    2014-01-01

    Europe's Gaia spacecraft will soon embark on its five-year mission to measure the absolute parallaxes of the complete sample of 1,000 million objects down to 20 mag. It is expected that thousands of nearby brown dwarfs will have their astrometry determined with sub-milli-arcsecond standard errors. Although this level of accuracy is comparable to the standard errors of the relative parallaxes that are now routinely obtained from the ground for selected, individual objects, the absolute nature of Gaia's astrometry, combined with the sample increase from one hundred to several thousand sub-stellar objects with known distances, ensures the uniqueness of Gaia's legacy in brown-dwarf science for the coming decade(s). We shortly explore the gain in brown-dwarf science that could be achieved by lowering Gaia's faint-end limit from 20 to 21 mag and conclude that two spectral-type sub-classes could be gained in combination with a fourfold increase in the solar-neighbourhood-volume sampled by Gaia and hence in the numbe...

  12. Brown Dwarfs From Mythical to Ubiquitous

    CERN Document Server

    Liebert, J

    1998-01-01

    Astrophysical objects below the stellar mass limit but well above the mass of Jupiter eluded discovery for nearly three decades after Kumar first proposed their existence, and for two decades after Tarter proposed the name "brown dwarfs." The first unambiguous discoveries of planetary (51 Peg B) and brown dwarf (Gliese 229B) companions occurred about three years ago. Yet while extrasolar planets are now being discovered at a breathtaking rate, brown dwarf companions to ordinary stars are apparently rare; likewise imaging surveys show that GL229B is still unique as a distant companion to a low mass star. On the other hand, the deep imaging studies of the Pleiades and several imbedded young clusters show that the mass function (ie. of single objects) extends in substantial numbers down to at least 40 Jupiter masses. The high mass / stellar density Orion Nebula Cluster may have relatively fewer low mass objects. In the field of the solar neighborhood, the infrared sky surveys DENIS and especially 2MASS show that...

  13. Parallax measurements of cool brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Manjavacas, E; Reffert, S; Henning, T

    2013-01-01

    Accurate parallax measurements allow us to determine physical properties of brown dwarfs, and help us to constrain evolutionary and atmospheric models, break the age-mass degeneracy and reveal unresolved binaries. We measured absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of 6 cool brown dwarfs using background galaxies to establish an absolute reference frame. We derive the absolute J-mag. The six T brown dwarfs in our sample have spectral types between T2.5 and T7.5 and magnitudes in J between 13.9 and 18.0, with photometric distances below 25 pc. The observations were taken in the J-band with the Omega-2000 camera on the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto, during a time period of 27 months, between March 2011 and June 2013. The number of epochs varied between 11 and 12 depending on the object. The reduction of the astrometric measurements was carried out with respect to the field stars. The relative parallax and proper motions were transformed into absolute measurements using the background galaxies in ou...

  14. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  15. Evidence for two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Heglind, Mikael; Elander, Louise; Slawik, Marc; Mussack, Thomas; Nilsson, Daniel; Romu, Thobias; Nuutila, Pirjo; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Beuschlein, Felix; Persson, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Enerbäck, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The previously observed supraclavicular depot of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was commonly believed to be the equivalent of the interscapular thermogenic organ of small mammals. This view was recently disputed on the basis of the demonstration that this depot consists of beige (also called brite) brown adipocytes, a newly identified type of brown adipocyte that is distinct from the classical brown adipocytes that make up the interscapular thermogenic organs of other mammals. A combination of high-resolution imaging techniques and histological and biochemical analyses showed evidence for an anatomically distinguishable interscapular BAT (iBAT) depot in human infants that consists of classical brown adipocytes, a cell type that has so far not been shown to exist in humans. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that infants, similarly to rodents, have the bona fide iBAT thermogenic organ consisting of classical brown adipocytes that is essential for the survival of small mammals in a cold environment.

  16. Pharmacological and nutritional agents promoting browning of white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, M Luisa; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2013-05-01

    The role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of energy balance and maintenance of body weight is well known in rodents. Recently, interest in this tissue has re-emerged due to the realization of active brown-like adipose tissue in adult humans and inducible brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue depots in response to appropriate stimuli ("browning process"). Brown-like adipocytes that appear in white fat depots have been called "brite" (from brown-in-white) or "beige" adipocytes and have characteristics similar to brown adipocytes, in particular the capacity for uncoupled respiration. There is controversy as to the origin of these brite/beige adipocytes, but regardless of this, induction of the browning of white fat represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity and related complications. Here, the different physiological, pharmacological and dietary determinants that have been linked to white-to-brown fat remodeling and the molecular mechanisms involved are reviewed in detail. In the light of available data, interesting therapeutic perspectives can be expected from the use of specific drugs or food compounds able to induce a program of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 expression and enhancing oxidative metabolism in white adipose cells. However, additional research is needed, mainly focused on the physiological relevance of browning and its dietary control, where the use of ferrets and other non-rodent animal models with a more similar adipose tissue organization and metabolism to humans could be of much help. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  17. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical

  18. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very low mass pre-stellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which André et al. have identified as a pre-stellar core with mass between ˜0.020 M⊙ and ˜0.030 M⊙. We re-analyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit at ˜0.075 M⊙, is between 0.66 and 0.86 . We conclude that, if Oph-B11 is destined to collapse, it probably will form a brown dwarf. However, the flows required to trigger this appear to be so contrived that it is difficult to envisage this being the only way, or even a major way, of forming isolated brown dwarfs. Moreover, Oph-B11 could easily be a transient, bouncing, prolate core, seen end-on; there could, indeed should, be many such objects masquerading as very low mass pre-stellar cores.

  19. Extrasolar Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Models

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, A; Lunine, J I; Guillot, M P; Saumon, D S; Freedman, R S

    1997-01-01

    With the discovery of the companions of 51 Peg, 55 Cnc, $\\tau$ Boo, gas giants and/or brown dwarfs with masses from 0.3 through 60 times that of Jupiter assume a new and central role in the emerging field of extrasolar planetary studies. In this contribution, we describe the structural, spectral, and evolutionary characteristics of such exotic objects, as determined by our recent theoretical calculations. These calculations can be used to establish direct search strategies via SIRTF, ISO, and HST (NICMOS), and via various ground--based adaptive optics and interferometric platforms planned for the near future.

  20. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  1. Chronic activation of pattern recognition receptors suppresses brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem cells and brown pre-adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jiyoung; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) holds promise to combat obesity through energy-spending, non-shivering thermogenesis. Understanding of regulation of BAT development can lead to novel strategies to increase BAT mass and function for obesity treatment and prevention. Here, we report the effects of chronic activation of PRR on brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem C3H10T1/2 cells and immortalized brown pre-adipocytes from the classical interscapular BAT of mice. Activation of NOD1, TLR4, or TLR2 by their respective synthetic ligand suppressed brown marker gene expression and lipid accumulation during differentiation of brown-like adipocytes of C3H10T1/2. Activation of the PRR only during the commitment was sufficient to suppress the differentiation. PRR activation suppressed PGC-1α mRNA, but induced PRDM16 mRNA at the commitment. Consistently, PRR activation suppressed the differentiation of immortalized brown pre-adipocytes. Activation of PRR induced NF-κB activation in both cells, which correlated with their abilities to suppress PPARγ transactivation, a critical event for brown adipogenesis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that chronic PRR activation suppressed brown adipogenesis of multipotent mesodermal stem cells and brown pre-adipocytes, possibly through suppression of PPARγ transactivation. The results suggest that anti- inflammatory therapies targeting PRRs may be beneficial for the BAT development.

  2. Determination of Rice ragged stunt virus and vector transmission characteristics%水稻锯齿叶矮缩病毒的检测及介体传毒特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章松柏; 宋国威; 杨靓; 吴祖建; 谢联辉

    2013-01-01

    RT-PCR and viral dsRNA identification assays were established to detect Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) in Nilaparvata lugens and rice plants,and vector transmission characteristics were analyzed using artificial inoculation.The results showed that viral dsRNA identification assay could detect virus from rice samples as less as 0.5 g,and RT-PCR assay was suitable for detecting RRSV in individual brown planthopper.The viruliferous ratios of nymphs and adults of N.lugens inoculated by RRSV were 68.2% and 75.0%,respectively.50.0% of nymphs and 32.5% of adults could transmit RRSV after virus acquisition.These results revealed that the brown planthopper population had high compatibility to RRSV with strong capacity to transmit the virus.%分别建立了水稻锯齿叶矮缩病毒(RRSV)病株的dsRNA基因组检测法和单头介体褐飞虱带毒的RT-PCR法,并结合生物学接种试验,对介体传毒特性进行了初步分析.结果显示:dsRNA基因组鉴定法可以从0.5 g病株样品中快速检测到RRSV,RT-PCR法可以灵敏地应用于褐飞虱带毒、传毒情况的检测;饲毒后褐飞虱成虫、若虫的带毒率分别为75.0%、68.2%,传毒率分别为50.0%、32.5%,说明褐飞虱种群传播RRSV的能力很强,是高度亲和的群体.

  3. Brown-fat paucity due to impaired BMP signalling induces compensatory browning of white fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Tim J; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E; Townsend, Kristy L; Cypess, Aaron M; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-03-21

    Maintenance of body temperature is essential for the survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation. Owing to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anatomically located in the interscapular region of mice; and recruitable BAT (rBAT), which resides within white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle, and has alternatively been called beige, brite or inducible BAT. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate the formation and thermogenic activity of BAT. Here we use mouse models to provide evidence for a systemically active regulatory mechanism that controls whole-body BAT activity for thermoregulation and energy homeostasis. Genetic ablation of the type 1A BMP receptor (Bmpr1a) in brown adipogenic progenitor cells leads to a severe paucity of cBAT. This in turn increases sympathetic input to WAT, thereby promoting the formation of rBAT within white fat depots. This previously unknown compensatory mechanism, aimed at restoring total brown-fat-mediated thermogenic capacity in the body, is sufficient to maintain normal temperature homeostasis and resistance to diet-induced obesity. These data suggest an important physiological cross-talk between constitutive and recruitable brown fat cells. This sophisticated regulatory mechanism of body temperature may participate in the control of energy balance and metabolic disease.

  4. 5%噻虫嗪水乳剂防治稻飞虱田间药效试验%Field Trial on Control of Rice Planthopper by 5% Thiamethoxam Concentrate Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁娟; 李树香; 黄小华

    2011-01-01

    采用5%噻虫嗪水乳剂防治稻飞虱田间药效试验。结果表明,5%噻虫嗪水乳剂有效成份用量为15.00、11.25、7.50 g/hm2对稻飞虱的防治效果均显著优于对照药剂25%噻虫嗪水分散粒剂有效成份用量7.5 g/hm2,药后第1天防效高达90.34%,药后第3天防效高达95.03%,药后第7天防效高达92.43%,且在试验作物上未见药害发生。%The rice planthopper was treated with 5% Thiamethoxam Concentrate Emulsion in the field, and the results showed this agricultural chemical when applied to control rice planthopper at the effective composition content of 15g/hm, 11.25g/hm, 7.Sg/hm all had a highly control efficiency than the control pesticides 25% Thiamethoxam water dispersible granule of 7.5g/hm, the control effects were as high as 90.34%, 95.03 %, 92.43% at The first, third and seventh days after spraying, no damages to the treated litchi trees were found caused.

  5. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  9. The Luminosities of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500K and masses in the range 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own Solar System (at around 130K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures of in the range 1500-1000K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very-late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric colour. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these ...

  10. Investigating the magnetism of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmychov, O; Harrington, D; Kuhn, J

    2013-01-01

    We model the spectra of two brown dwarfs observed with the low resolution spectropolarimeter LRIS (Keck observatory) during several rotational phases in order to infer their magnetic properties. The spectra modeled include the intensity signal (Stokes I/Ic) as well as the polarimetric signals (Stokes Q/Ic, U/Ic, and V/Ic), all coming from the 0-0 vibrational band of the CrH molecule at approx. 8610 A. In order to model the Stokes profiles, we solve a set of the radiative transfer equations for the CrH transitions in the presence of an external magnetic field. We present the upper limits for the magnetic field strengths for the objects observed, based on the modeling of the intensity signal I/Ic and the signal-to-noise information only. The proper modeling of the polarimetric signals, that requires more careful data reduction, is underway. Nevertheless, our preliminary results show a hint for kG magnetic fields for both brown dwarfs, that is in a good agreement with the result obtained from the simultaneous ra...

  11. Thermodestruction of brown coals of different genetic types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butuzova, Ludmila; Isaeva, Lubov [L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic and Coal Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 70 R. Luxemburg str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Turchanina, Oksana [Donetsk National Technical University, 48 Artema str., 83000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Krzton, Andrzej [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Sowinskiego, 44-102, Gliwice (Poland)

    2002-06-20

    The influence of brown coal genetic type and method of chemical pre-treatment on its behavior in pyrolysis processes has been shown. An important role of brown coal reductivity in coal thermal decomposition has been ascertained. It has been found that chemical pre-treatment permits variation of the rate of pyrolysis, the yields of pyrolysis products and structure of semi-cokes.

  12. Mir193b-365 is essential for brown fat differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Xie, Huangming; Mori, Marcelo A; Alexander, Ryan; Yuan, Bingbing; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Liu, Qingqing; Kahn, C Ronald; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-07-10

    Mammals have two principal types of fat. White adipose tissue primarily serves to store extra energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defence against cold and obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic progenitor by the action of Prdm16 (PR domain containing 16). Here, we identified a brown-fat-enriched miRNA cluster, MiR-193b-365, as a key regulator of brown fat development. Blocking miR-193b and/or miR-365 in primary brown preadipocytes markedly impaired brown adipocyte adipogenesis by enhancing Runx1t1 (runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1) expression, whereas myogenic markers were significantly induced. Forced expression of Mir193b and/or Mir365 in C2C12 myoblasts blocked the entire programme of myogenesis, and, in adipogenic conditions, miR-193b induced myoblasts to differentiate into brown adipocytes. Mir193b-365 was upregulated by Prdm16 partially through Pparα. Our results demonstrate that Mir193b-365 serves as an essential regulator for brown fat differentiation, in part by repressing myogenesis.

  13. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, K.; Cheng, Y.; Xing, Y.; Lin, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity

  14. Explaining millimeter-sized particles in brown dwarf disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Pinilla; T. Birnstiel; M. Benisty; L. Ricci; A. Natta; C.P. Dullemond; C. Dominik; L. Testi

    2013-01-01

    Context. Planets have been detected around a variety of stars, including low-mass objects, such as brown dwarfs. However, such extreme cases are challenging for planet formation models. Recent sub-millimeter observations of disks around brown dwarf measured low spectral indices of the continuum emis

  15. Differential gene expression in white and brown preadipocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeuf, S.; Klaus, S.; Klingenspor, M.; Schneider, T.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Keijer, J.

    2001-01-01

    White (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue are tissues of energy storage and energy dissipation, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that brown and white preadipocytes are differentially determined, but so far not much is known about the genetic control of this determination process. The ai

  16. Browning and graying: novel transcriptional regulators of brown and beige fat tissues and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMueller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery that brown and beige fat cells exist in adult humans and contribute to energy expenditure, increasing interest has been devoted to the understanding of the molecular switches turning on calorie utilization. It has been reported that the ability of thermogenic tissues to burn energy declines during aging, possibly contributing to the development of metabolic dysfunction late in life. This review will focus on the recently identified transcriptional modulators of brown and beige cells and will discuss the potential impact of some of these thermogenic factors on age-associated metabolic disorders.

  17. Brown v. Plata: prison overcrowding in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William J; Scott, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    California's prisons are currently designed to house approximately 85,000 inmates. At the time of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2011 decision in Brown v. Plata, the California prison system housed nearly twice that many (approximately 156,000 inmates). The Supreme Court held that California's prison system violated inmates' Eighth Amendment rights. The Court upheld a three-judge panel's order to decrease the population of California's prisons by an estimated 46,000 inmates. They determined that overcrowding was the primary cause of the inmates' inadequate medical and mental health care. As a result, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) has been working to redistribute inmates and parolees safely and decrease the overall population to the mandated levels. These large-scale adjustments to California's penal system create potential opportunities to study the long-term effects on affected inmates.

  18. Atmospheric Brown Clouds- from science towards policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyngararasan M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs and its interaction with climate change is an emerging environmental issue. Studies demonstrate that ABCs and its interaction with build-up of greenhouse gases significantly affect the regional climate, glacial melting, hydrological cycle, agriculture and public health. For the next decades, the regional aerosol effects will continue to play a major role in environmental management as long as current strong sources of air pollution remain. An integrated multi-pollutant multi-sectoral approach for addressing atmospheric issues will result in optimum environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Regional intergovernmental networks have been established to address air pollution issues in different parts of the globe. These intergovernmental networks could be empowered to promote integrated approach for addressing the atmospheric environmental issues.

  19. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount

  20. Accretion and Outflow Activity in Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Riaz, B

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the magnetospheric accretion and outflow signatures in sub-stellar objects is a natural extension of similar studies conducted on classical T Tauri stars (CTTS), and helps understand if brown dwarfs (BDs) follow the same formation mechanism as stars. Over the past decade, evidence for accretion in very low-mass stars (VLMs) and BDs has been accumulated using various techniques, which indicates that the overall accretion characteristics are continuous across the sub-stellar boundary. Outflow activity in VLMs and BDs has been confirmed based on spectro-astrometry of forbidden emission lines observed in the optical, and in millimetre continuum images of CO J=2-1 emission. This review summarizes the past and current state of observational work on accretion and outflow activity in VLMs and BDs, particularly with the advent of new instruments such as VLT/X-Shooter which has allowed the study of several accretion and outflow indicators over a wider wavelength range.

  1. NMR studies of polysaccharides from brown seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Tisher, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Duarte, M.E.R. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Alginic acid is the major intercellular polysaccharide serving as matrix in the brown algae and is comprised of an unbranched chain of (1->4)-linked {beta}-D-mannuronic acid (M) and {alpha}-L-guluronic acid (G), arranged in a blockwise fashion. The composition of the monomer residues and the block structure varies depending on the source of the polymer. The selective binding of cations to alginate accounts for its ability to form gels, which is dependent on the number and lenght of the G-blocks. They are widely used industrially for their ability to retain water, and for their gelling, viscosifying and stabilizing properties (Smidsrod and draget, 1996). In this study, alginate composition and block structure in Sargassum stenophyllum has been determined by chemical methods and NMR spectroscopic analysis. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool

  3. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Ohtsuki, Hirofumi; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Amou, Kento; Sato, Ryo; Doi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Sara; Matsuda, Ayaka; Sugiyama, Makoto; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsuishi, Takashi; Terasawa, Fumio; Shindo, Junji; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool waters during

  4. Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh D. Wankhade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonshivering thermogenesis is the process of biological heat production in mammals and is primarily mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT. Through ubiquitous expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 on the mitochondrial inner membrane, BAT displays uncoupling of fuel combustion and ATP production in order to dissipate energy as heat. Because of its crucial role in regulating energy homeostasis, ongoing exploration of BAT has emphasized its therapeutic potential in addressing the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes. The recent appreciation that adult humans possess functional BAT strengthens this prospect. Furthermore, it has been identified that there are both classical brown adipocytes residing in dedicated BAT depots and “beige” adipocytes residing in white adipose tissue depots that can acquire BAT-like characteristics in response to environmental cues. This review aims to provide a brief overview of BAT research and summarize recent findings concerning the physiological, cellular, and developmental characteristics of brown adipocytes. In addition, some key genetic, molecular, and pharmacologic targets of BAT/Beige cells that have been reported to have therapeutic potential to combat obesity will be discussed.

  5. The Backward Trajectory Simulation of the Planthopper During Migratory Peak in Hubei Province%湖北省稻飞虱迁入高峰日后向轨迹模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万素琴; 任永建; 刘志雄; 周国珍; 高正旭; 邓环; 邓爱娟

    2012-01-01

    稻飞虱是造成湖北省水稻大幅度减产原因之一。它是一种典型的气候型迁飞虫害,起飞、迁飞和沉降均与气象条件密切相关。本文采用高空气象场资料、植保站稻飞虱灯下监测资料,在个例分析基础上,利用质点轨迹、扩散及沉降模式HYSPLIT-4,模拟稻飞虱迁飞高峰日后向轨迹,分析湖北省稻飞虱迁飞路径和主要虫源。主要结论:(1)湖北省稻飞虱迁人主要路径有5条:西南路径、南路路径、东南路径、东路路径和东北路径;(2)春夏季稻飞虱迁入路径以西南路径比例最大,平均为47%;其次为南路和东南路径;(3)秋季稻飞虱迁入路径以东北路径比例最大,平均为30%,其次为西南路径,比例为23%;(4)秋季与春夏季相比,西南路径比例下降了24%,东北路径增加了22%,东路路径增加了8%,南路、东南路变化不大。(5)偏南方向(西南路、南路和东南路)三种路径之和春夏季为80%,秋季为55%,秋季比春夏季减少了25%;(6)综合春夏季、秋季,西南路径对湖北省全省都有较大影响,对南部的影响大于北部,偏北路径秋季影响大,南部和东南路径对江汉平原影响最大。(7)理论上稻飞虱虫源区在19°-25°N、90°-120°E之间,以东西向为长轴、南北向为短轴、面积约为3300km×660km的矩形区域内,越南、泰国、缅甸、柬埔寨和菲律宾等地是湖北稻飞虱初始虫源地,云南、贵州、两广、福建、湖南、江西和江淮等地区为湖北省稻飞虱的二次虫源地或三次虫源地。根据未来数值预报场进行质点前向轨迹模拟,综合分析虫源地是否有大量稻飞虱、是否符合起飞条件,目标地是否有下沉气流配合,可以开展稻飞虱迁入气象预报,此工作尚需进一步开展业务试验。%Rice planthopper is one of the causes for a kind of

  6. Regulation of brown and beige fat by microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Pan, Ruping; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules consisting of approximately 20 to 22 nucleotides. They play a very important role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs can be found in different species and a variety of organs and tissues including adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the largest energy storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy to maintain body temperature. BAT was first identified in hibernating animals and newborns as a defense against cold. Later on, it was also discovered in human adults, suggesting its potential role in energy balance and metabolism. Moreover, "brown-like" adipocytes present in WAT depots, so called beige or brite (brown-in-white) cells, were discovered by several groups. In recent years, miRNAs were found to have important regulatory function during brown fat differentiation, brown fat activation and white fat "browning". In this review, we focus on the regulation of brown and beige fat by miRNAs including the role in their differentiation and function, providing evidence for their therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases.

  7. Shades of Brown: A Model for Thermogenic Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Michael Dempersmier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT is specialized to burn fuels to perform thermogenesis in defense of body temperature against cold. Recent discovery of metabolically active and relevant amounts of BAT in adult humans have made it a potentially attractive target for development of anti-obesity therapeutics. There are two types of brown adipocytes: classical brown adipocytes as well as brown adipocyte-like cells, so called beige/brite cells, that arise in white adipose tissue in response to cold and hormonal stimuli. These cells may derive from distinct origins, and while functionally similar, have different gene signatures. Here, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of brown and beige/brite adipocytes as well as transcriptional regulation for development and function of murine brown and beige/brite adipocytes focusing on EBF2, IRF4 and ZFP516, in addition to PRDM16 as a coregulator. We also discuss hormonal regulation of brown and beige/brite adipocytes including several factors secreted from various tissues, including BMP7, FGF21 and irisin, as well as those from BAT itself, such as Nrg4 and adenosine.

  8. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  9. Methyltransferase and demethylase profiling studies during brown adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Anna; Lee, Da Som; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Although brown adipose tissue is important with regard to energy balance, the molecular mechanism of brown adipocyte differentiation has not been extensively studied. Specifically, regulation factors at the level of protein modification are largely unknown. In this study, we examine the changes in the expression level of enzymes which are involved in protein lysine methylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. Several enzymes, in this case SUV420H2, PRDM9, MLL3 and JHDM1D, were found to be up-regulated. On the other hand, Set7/9 was significantly down-regulated. In the case of SUV420H2, the expression level increased sharply during brown adipocyte differentiation, whereas the expression of SUV420H2 was marginally enhanced during the white adipocyte differentiation. The knock-down of SUV420H2 caused the suppression of brown adipocyte differentiation, as compared to a scrambled control. These results suggest that SUV420H2, a methyltransferase, is involved in brown adipocyte differentiation, and that the methylation of protein lysine is important in brown adipocyte differentiation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 388-393].

  10. Brown Tumors: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özgür; Boynueğri, Başak; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Özdemir, Ebru; Ferhatoğlu, Ferhat; Canbakan, Mustafa; Şahin, Gülizar Manga; Titiz, Mesut İzzet; Apaydın, Süheyla

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumors are focal bone lesions, encountered in patients with uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism. They can be located in any part of the skeleton. Clinically significant lesions in the craniofacial bones are rare. Craniofacial involvement may cause facial disfiguration and compromise social ease of the patient and normal functions, such as chewing, talking, and breathing. In this case report, we present a patient with a brown tumor of the craniofacial bones provoked by secondary hyperparathyroidism and review the last 10 years of craniofacial brown tumors associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in the English literature. PMID:27066494

  11. TAF7L modulates brown adipose tissue formation

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, HAIYING; Wan, Bo; Grubisic, Ivan; Kaplan, Tommy; Tjian, Robert

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Mammals produce two distinct types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (white fat) is the more common type and is used to store energy; brown adipose tissue (brown fat) is mostly found in young animals and infants, and it plays an important role in dissipating energy as heat rather than storing it in fat for future use. In adults, higher levels of brown fat are associated with lower levels of fat overall, so there is considerable interest in learning more about this form of f...

  12. Acquired Brown Syndrome Treated With Traction of Superior Oblique Tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang Hoon; Paik, Hae Jung; Chi, Mijung

    2016-03-01

    Brown syndrome is a rare strabismic disease characterized by a limited elevation in adduction of the eye. The lengthening/weakening of superior oblique muscle is the main way of surgical intervention for this disease. A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed as having acquired Brown syndrome in his right eye after injury in his face. We experienced successful release of this Brown syndrome through mere pulling outward of superior oblique tendon during surgical exploration. We briefly discuss why this manipulation of superior oblique tendon that we performed was successful.

  13. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  14. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Bright Southern Star Epsilon Indi Has Cool, Substellar Companion [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] has discovered a Brown Dwarf object (a 'failed' star) less than 12 light-years from the Sun. It is the nearest yet known. Now designated Epsilon Indi B, it is a companion to a well-known bright star in the southern sky, Epsilon Indi (now "Epsilon Indi A"), previously thought to be single. The binary system is one of the twenty nearest stellar systems to the Sun. The brown dwarf was discovered from the comparatively rapid motion across the sky which it shares with its brighter companion : the pair move a full lunar diameter in less than 400 years. It was first identified using digitised archival photographic plates from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS) and confirmed using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Follow-up observations with the near-infrared sensitive SOFI instrument on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory confirmed its nature and has allowed measurements of its physical properties. Epsilon Indi B has a mass just 45 times that of Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, and a surface temperature of only 1000 °C. It belongs to the so-called 'T dwarf' category of objects which straddle the domain between stars and giant planets. Epsilon Indi B is the nearest and brightest T dwarf known. Future studies of the new object promise to provide astronomers with important new clues as to the formation and evolution of these exotic celestial bodies, at the same time yielding interesting insights into the border zone between planets and stars. TINY MOVING NEEDLES IN GIANT HAYSTACKS ESO PR Photo 03a/03 ESO PR Photo 03a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 605 pix - 92k [Normal - JPEG: 1200 x 1815 pix - 1.0M] Caption: PR Photo 03a/03 shows Epsilon Indi A (the bright star at far right) and its newly discovered brown dwarf companion Epsilon Indi B (circled). The upper image comes from one of the SuperCOSMOS Sky

  15. 灌溉方式对优质晚稻褐飞虱及其主要天敌种群动态的影响%Effect of irrigation method on population dynamics of Nilaparvata lugens and natural enemies of high-quality late rice field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 刘洋; 陈恺林; 方宝华; 汤文光; 周学其; 张玉烛; 陈松

    2016-01-01

    High-quality late rice is preferred by most consumers for its good taste. Irrigation is an important management practice in rice cultivation. This study analyzed the effects of irrigation method on the population dynamics of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the main natural enemies [Cyrtorrhinus livdipennis (Reute), Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bose. et Str., l906)] of high-quality late rice. The study also determined the effective irrigation method which reduced the occurrence of N. lugens, that in turn reduced the use of chemical pesticides, and improved rice quality and cultivation efficiency. To do so, deficit irrigation, wet irrigation, intermittent irrigation and long-term irrigation were set up to study the effects of the various irrigation methods on the population dynamics of N. lugens and the main natural enemies of high-quality late rice under two pest control methods (biological and chemical control) and two isolation methods (semi-partitioning and full-partitioning method). The results showed that C. livdipennis occurred after N. lugens, which limited the effective control of N. lugens by C. livdipennis. The population of N. lugens under long-term irrigation was less than that under deficit irrigation and P. pseudoannulata under deficit irrigation was less than that under other irrigation methods. These differences were significant for main growth stages (booting stage to milk stage) when there was rapid growth of late rice brown plant hopper under biological control. There were significant correlations of population changes between P. pseudoannulata and C. livdipennis and N. lugens. P. pseudoannulata had an absolute control over N. lugens when N. lugens population was less than 1 891.1 per 100-clump and the ratio of N. lugens to P. pseudoannulata exceeded 9.67. Chemical pesticides had a severe lethal effect on C. livdipennis under all the irrigation methods. Long-term irrigation greatly reduced the toxicity of chemical pesticides to P. pseudoannulata. In

  16. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (pbrowning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  17. A Management Strategy for Kenai Peninsula Brown Bears

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Increasing human activity and land development on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska has brought about concern for the brown bear (Ursus arctos) population. The human...

  18. HISTORICAL MONITORING OF BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE OF BROWN BULLHEAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers of exposure to chemical contamination, benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and naphthalene (NAPH) type metabolites were measured in brown bullhead from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated section of the Black River, Ohio during and immediately after remedial ...

  19. Narrative report Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  20. Regulatory circuits controlling white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ that exerts a profound influence on whole-body homoeostasis. Two types of adipose tissue exist in mammals: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT stores energy and is the largest energy reserve in mammals, whereas BAT, expressing UCP......1 (uncoupling protein 1), can dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. In rodents, ample evidence supports BAT as an organ counteracting obesity, whereas less is known about the presence and significance of BAT in humans. Despite the different functions of white and brown adipocytes......, knowledge of factors differentially influencing the formation of white and brown fat cells is sparse. Here we summarize recent progress in the molecular understanding of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation, including novel insights into transcriptional and signal transduction pathways. Since...

  1. Rüütel, Halonen ja Brown? / Eve Heinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinla, Eve, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    James Browni kontserdil 27. juulil Tallinna laulukaare all loodetakse kaasa tõmmata ka poliitikud. Ameerika soulmuusik James Brown esitas president Arnold Rüütlile kutse laulda koos temaga duetti. Lisa: Rüütlil siiani Annaniga laulmata

  2. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  3. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  4. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  5. The formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that ~60% of all stars (including brown dwarfs) have masses below 0.2Msun. Currently, there is no consensus on how these objects form. I will briefly review the four main theories for the formation of low-mass objects: turbulent fragmentation, ejection of protostellar embryos, disc fragmentation, and photo-erosion of prestellar cores. I will focus on the disc fragmentation theory and discuss how it addresses critical observational constraints, i.e. the low-mass initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary statistics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. I will examine whether observations may be used to distinguish between different formation mechanisms, and give a few examples of systems that strongly favour a specific formation scenario. Finally, I will argue that it is likely that all mechanisms may play a role in low-mass star and brown dwarf formation.

  6. Integrated Pest Management Plan Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Browns Park National...

  7. Brown dwarfs forming in discs: Where to look for them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A large fraction of the observed brown dwarfs may form by gravitational fragmentation of unstable discs. This model reproduces the brown dwarf desert, and provides an explanation for the existence of planetary-mass objects and for the binary properties of low-mass objects. We have performed an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations and determined the statistical properties of the low-mass objects produced by gravitational fragmentation of discs. We suggest that there is a population of brown dwarfs loosely bound on wide orbits (100–5000 AU around Sun-like stars that surveys of brown dwarf companions should target. Our simulations also indicate that planetary-mass companions to Sun-like stars are unlikely to form by disc fragmentation.

  8. Brown dwarfs forming in discs: where to look for them?

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    A large fraction of the observed brown dwarfs may form by gravitational fragmentation of unstable discs. This model reproduces the brown dwarf desert, and provides an explanation the existence of planetary-mass objects and for the binary properties of low-mass objects. We have performed an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations and determined the statistical properties of the low-mass objects produced by gravitational fragmentation of discs. We suggest that there is a population of brown dwarfs loosely bound on wide orbits (100-5000 AU) around Sun-like stars that surveys of brown dwarf companions should target. Our simulations also indicate that planetary-mass companions to Sun-like stars are unlikely to form by disc fragmentation.

  9. Narrative report : Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Narrative report Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  12. Depletions at Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimated depletion associated with the operation of Spitzie Marsh in Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge. Attached are the methods used to estimate depletion....

  13. Narrative report Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins with a brief...

  14. Control of nonenzymatic browning in intermediate-moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K. A.; Labruza, T. P.; Warmbier, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    Series of compounds called humectants were found to decrease rate of browning when added to intermediate-moisture foods. Twenty percent level of humectant can increase shelf life of foods by factor of 5 or 6.

  15. John Browne (1642-1702): anatomist and plagiarist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Akiyama, Matthew; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Yalçin, Bulent; Tubbs, R Shane; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to many other physicians of his age, John Browne (1642-1702), an English anatomist and surgeon, managed to strike a balance in his career that spanned relative obscurity, prestige, and notoriety. Among his more prestigious credits, Browne was Surgeon in Ordinary to King Charles II and William III. He also had numerous publications to his name, some of which are credited as great innovations. His career, however, was tempered by his most important book, which has been critiqued by his contemporaries as well as modern historians as plagiarism. Although Browne undeniably copied the works of others and published them under his name, he was not alone in this practice. Various forms of intellectual thievery were common in Browne's day, and there were many perpetrators. The life of this overlooked figure in the history of anatomy and the stigma attached to him will be examined.

  16. Migratory biology of the white backed planthopper:Take-off and emigration%白背飞虱的迁飞生物学:起飞与迁出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗举; 汪远昆; 张孝羲; 翟保平

    2011-01-01

    The aerial migration of the white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horv6th) (WBPH) was studied in the field and captivity in Suzhou in 2001 and 2002. The results indicate that WBPH immigrate into Suzhou in early July, and produce two generation in this area. A few adults were beginning to emigrate from the end of August but the peak of emigration occurred in mid September when the mass flight could be seen at dusk. When the population density was high, the mass flight of insects continued until 10 minutes after twilight. The daily emigration ratio was about 80% during the emigration peak in captive populations, but about 50% to 65% in paddy fields. We found that the emigration behaviour of WBPH has changed since the mid 1990' s. The offspring of immigrants would mostly emigrate when the macropterous adults emerged in 1980' s, but now very few hoppers depart in August which greatly prolongs the duration of damage to rice crops. Emigration trajectory analysis at altitudes of 500, 1 000 and 1 500 m indicates that in mid or late August about 40% of the migrating planthoppers from Suzhau arrive at the Yangtse and Huai River basin and the other 49% emigrate to the Yellow and East Seas, even crossing the sea to South Korea or Japan in a strong southerly low level jet-stream. In September, these planthoppers return to rice planting areas south of the Yangtse and north of Nanling.%2001-2002年在苏州吴中区2个生长季节的田间观察和罩笼试验表明,白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera (Horváth)7月上旬以前迁入苏州,并在当地繁殖2代.从8月中下旬开始陆续有少量向外迁飞,9月份大田出现外迁高峰.田间白背飞虱起飞比率约为50% ~65%,迁出峰期的每日迁出率约为80%.8月下旬白背飞虱一般已不构成危害.但20世纪90年代中期之后,白背飞虱8月份很少迁出而在迁入地大量滞留形成增殖代和主害代,危害时间大大延长,这与20世纪80年代的发生规律有了很

  17. Metabolic interplay between white, beige, brown adipocytes and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian evolution, three types of adipocytes have developed, white, brown and beige adipocytes. White adipocytes are the major constituents of white adipose tissue (WAT), the predominant store for energy-dense triglycerides in the body that are released as fatty acids during catabolic conditions. The less abundant brown adipocytes, the defining parenchymal cells of brown adipose tissue (BAT), internalize triglycerides that are stored intracellularly in multilocular lipid droplets. Beige adipocytes (also known as brite or inducible brown adipocytes) are functionally very similar to brown adipocytes and emerge in specific WAT depots in response to various stimuli including sustained cold exposure. The activation of brown and beige adipocytes (together referred to as thermogenic adipocytes) causes both the hydrolysis of stored triglycerides as well as the uptake of lipids and glucose from the circulation. Together, these fuels are combusted for heat production to maintain body temperature in mammals including adult humans. Given that heating by brown and beige adipocytes is a very-well controlled and energy-demanding process which entails pronounced shifts in energy fluxes, it is not surprising that an intensive interplay exists between the various adipocyte types and parenchymal liver cells, and that this influences systemic metabolic fluxes and endocrine networks. In this review we will emphasize the role of hepatic factors that regulate the metabolic activity of white and thermogenic adipocytes. In addition, we will discuss the relevance of lipids and hormones that are secreted by white, brown and beige adipocytes regulating liver metabolism in order to maintain systemic energy metabolism in health and disease.

  18. Analysis on enzymatic browning in pine needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, K.H.; Park, H.J.; Choi, S.S.; Cho, S.H. [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Y.T. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Tyrosinases are related to the enzymatic browning of plants and attract the major scientific interest for the prevention of it. Three tyrosinase isozymes (P{sub 1}, P{sub 2} and P{sub 3}) from pine needles were purified to homogeneity and characterized the factors that affect their activities. The L-ascorbic acid and {beta}-mercaptoethanol notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of the three isozymes. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was a competitive inhibitor of isozymes with the K{sub i} values of P{sub 1}(0.30 mM), P{sub 2}(0.015 mM) and P{sub 3}(0.019 mM), respectively. Their enzyme activities were however, increased by the addition of most metal ions. The optimum pH for the three isozymes was 9.0{approx}9.5 and the optimum temperatures ranged from 55 to 60{sup o} C using L-DOPA as substrate. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Relation between Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lauren Melissa Flor; Schröeder, Klauss-Peter; Caretta, César A; Jack, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the most debated subjects in Astronomy since the discovery of exoplanets is how can we distinguish the most massive of such objects from very-low mass stars like Brown Dwarfs (BDs)? We have been looking for evidences of a difference in physical characteristics that could be related to different formation processes. Using a new diagnostic diagram that compares the baryonic gravitational potential (BGP) with the distances from their host stars, we have classified a sample of 355 well-studied exoplanets according to their possible structures. We have then compared the exoplanets to a sample of 87 confirmed BDs, identifying a range in BGP that could be common to both objects. By analyzing the mass-radius relations (MRR) of the exoplanets and BDs in those different BGP ranges, we were able to distinguish different characteristic behaviors. By comparing with models in the literature, our results suggest that BDs and massive exoplanets might have similar structures dominated by liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH).

  20. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  1. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Tidal evolution of planets around brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bolmont, Emeline; Leconte, Jérémy

    2011-01-01

    The tidal evolution of planets orbiting brown dwarfs (BDs) presents an interesting case study because BDs' terrestrial planet forming region is located extremely close-in. In fact, the habitable zones of BDs range from roughly 0.001 to 0.03 AU and for the lowest-mass BDs are located interior to the Roche limit. In contrast with stars, BDs spin up as they age. Thus, the corotation distance moves inward. This has important implications for the tidal evolution of planets around BDs. We used a standard equilibrium tidal model to compute the orbital evolution of a large ensemble of planet-BD systems. We tested the effect of numerous parameters such as the initial semi-major axis and eccentricity, the rotation period of the BD, the masses of both the BD and planet, and the tidal dissipation factors. We find that all planets that form at or beyond the corotation distance and with initial eccentricities smaller than \\sim 0.1 are repelled from the BD. Some planets initially interior to corotation can survive if their ...

  3. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, O; Hubber, D A

    2016-01-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very-low-mass prestellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown-dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which Andre, Ward-Thompson and Greaves (2012) have identified as a prestellar core with mass between $\\sim 0.020\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ and $\\sim 0.030\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$. We reanalyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen burning limit at $\\sim 0.075\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$, is between 0.66 and 0.86. We conclude ...

  4. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Iacobellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., for both. Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (, , vanilly mandelic acid (VMA (, , and serum adiponectin levels (, . Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased ( μg/mL versus  μg/mL, after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1 BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2 expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3 catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA.

  5. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount

  6. Personality variation in little brown bats.

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    Allyson K Menzies

    Full Text Available Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age.

  7. Contamination and browning in tissue culture of Platanus occidentalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Feng-jie; Zhang Zhi-yi; Zhou Jun; Yao Na; Wang Dong-mei

    2007-01-01

    Twigs of 2-3-year-old Platanus occidentalis L. were used as experimental material to find the causes for the contamination and browning in the initial stages of tissue cultures. To compare the degree of browning of explants picked off from different growing seasons,the experimental material was excised from trees on each of the first ten days in January, March,May and July,2006. The results indicated that the contamination and browning rates of the material cut off in January (14. 2% and 30. 6%. respectively)and March were somewhat lower than those in July. The pretreatment of soaking the explants in different anti-oxidants and absorbents at the same time could diminish some side effects. The pretreatment of using 10 g·L-1 vitamin C reduced the contamination and browning rate effectively. An orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal factor and level arrangement is 0. 5 mg·L-1 BA,2. 0 g·L-1 active carbon and 1. 5 g·L-1 PVP which resulted in a browning rate of only 16. 5%. In general,sampling period,physical properties and pretreatment of explants are the main factors responsible for the contamination and browning of material in the initial stages of P. occidentalis tissue cultures.

  8. Pref-1 preferentially inhibits heat production in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Koppen, Arjen; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2012-05-01

    In mammals there are two types of adipocytes with opposing functions. Brown adipocytes are characterized by a high number of mitochondria and are specialized for heat production (thermogenesis), expressing thermogenic genes such as UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). White adipocytes, on the other hand, store energy. Although many key regulators in the differentiation of white adipocytes have been established, our current knowledge on the same proteins in brown adipogenesis is lagging behind. One example is Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1), which maintains white pre-adipocytes in an undifferentiated state, but is only poorly characterized in the brown pre-adipocyte lineage. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Armengol et al. now shed new light on the role and regulation of Pref-1 in brown pre-adipocytes. First, Pref-1 specifically inhibits the thermogenic gene programme in brown pre-adipocytes. Secondly, they identified the transcription factor C/EBPδ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ) as a direct positive regulator of Pref-1 expression, whereas this protein does not fulfil this role in white adipogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate that specific manipulation of brown adipocyte differentiation and/or function without interfering with their white adipocyte counterparts may be possible, which may open up new therapeutic ways to combat obesity-associated health problems.

  9. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos compared to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särndahl Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.

  10. Brown Adipose Tissue and Browning Agents: Irisin and FGF21 in the Development of Obesity in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrżak, B; Demkow, U; Kucharska, A M

    2015-01-01

    In the pediatric population, especially in early infancy, the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the highest. Further in life BAT is more active in individuals with a lower body mass index and one can expect that BAT is protective against childhood obesity. The development of BAT throughout the whole life can be regulated by genetic, endocrine, and environmental factors. Three distinct adipose depots have been identified: white, brown, and beige adipocytes. The process by which BAT can become beige is still unclear and is an area of intensive research. The "browning agents" increase energy expenditure through the production of heat. Numerous factors known as "browning agents" have currently been described. In humans, recent studies justify a notion of a role of novel myokines: irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the metabolism and development of obesity. This review describes a possible role of irisin and FGF21 in the pathogenesis of obesity in children.

  11. Direct detection of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Ben R.

    This thesis presents the first direct detection of a substellar companion of a star other than the Sun. This object, a brown dwarf called Gliese 229B, presented a unique opportunity to characterize low-temperature brown dwarfs for the first time. The discovery and initial spectrum of Gliese 229B show that the object must be substellar based on its intrinsic luminosity of 6.4×10-6Lsolar and its cool surface temperature, 900 K. Detailed study of Gliese 229B includes extensive photometric measurements from 0.5 to 12 μm, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy from 0.84 to 5.0 μm and the detection of 0'' t; yr-1 of orbital motion. These results are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. A detailed review of brown dwarf science leads to a complete and scientifically meaningful definition of the classes ``planet'' and ``brown dwarf''' in Chapter 1. After the discovery of Gliese 229B, which was found in a survey for companions of young stars, we began an extensive search for brown dwarf companions in orbit about all known stars within 8 pc of the Sun and with δ > -35°. The search includes optical coronagraphic and infrared direct imaging of these stars, conducted on the Palomar 60' and 200' telescopes respectively. The search was designed to find companions of each star without color bias. While the search revealed no other brown dwarf companions of these stars, it did uncover 6 new stellar companions. The sensitivity limits of the survey permit the detection of brown dwarfs up to four magnitudes fainter than Gliese 229B around 90% of the stars. The sensitivity is, however, not uniform spatially or from star to star. This limits our ability to make strong statements about the prevalence of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars. The survey does have sensitivity to all stellar companions between 3 and 30' from the survey stars, however. Chapter 5 describes related work on very low-mass stars in the Pleiades star cluster. This optical spectroscopy involved trying to find a

  12. 褐飞虱对噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺的抗性风险评估%Resistance risk assessment to thiamethoxam and nitenpyram for nilaparvata lugens St(a)l

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕芳; 张扬; 崔百元; 张振飞; 廖永林; 肖汉祥

    2013-01-01

    The Toxicities of thiamethoxam and nitenpyram of field PoPulations of Nilaparvata lugens St?l,which were collected from Guangzhou District,Guangdong,were carried by the rice stem dipping method.The results showed that the LC50 were 0.2857 mg/L and 0.5022 mg/L,and field populations were susceptible level,the resistance ratio were 2.67 and 1.06.To assess the resistance risk of thiamethoxam and nitenpyram,continuously selected was carried in laboratory.The results showed that the resistance ratio of thiamethoxam increased by 829.80 fold and was extremely high resistance level after 30 generations,and nitenpyram increased by 31.70 fold and was mid-resistance leve.The result showed that continuous selection with thiamethoxam and nitenpyram could further increase the resistance risk.%采用稻茎浸渍法,测定了广州市本地褐飞虱种群对噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺的室内毒力,评估褐飞虱对其的抗性风险.结果表明:广州本地褐飞虱种群对噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺的LC50分别为0.2857mg/L和0.5022 mg/L,分别是敏感品系LC50的2.67倍和1.06倍,仍属敏感水平.室内抗性筛选结果表明:经过30代的连续筛选后,噻虫嗪的抗性上升829.80倍,达到极高抗性水平,烯啶虫胺的抗性上升31.70倍,达到中等抗性水平,表明褐飞虱对噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺存在抗性风险的可能.根据试验结果,对褐飞虱噻虫嗪和烯啶虫胺抗性的预防治理提出了应用策略.

  13. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  14. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  15. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Yang, F.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS) or methylglyoxal (MGAS) are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  16. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathasivam Sivakumar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVL is a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy associated with sensorineural deafness. Fifty-eight cases have been reported in just over 100 years. The female to male ratio is approximately 3:1. The age of onset of the initial symptom varies from infancy to the third decade. The syndrome most frequently presents with sensorineural deafness, which is usually progressive and severe. Lower cranial nerve involvement and lower and upper motor neuron limb signs are common neurological features. Other features include respiratory compromise (the most frequent non-neurological finding, limb weakness, slurring of speech, facial weakness, and neck and shoulder weakness. Optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, macular hyperpigmentation, autonomic dysfunction, epilepsy may occur. The etiopathogenesis of the condition remains elusive. Approximately 50% of cases are familial, of which autosomal recessive is suggested. The remaining cases are sporadic. The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical presentation. Investigations (neurophysiological studies, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, muscle biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid examination are done to exclude other causes or to confirm the clinical findings. The differential diagnoses include the Fazio-Londe syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Nathalie syndrome, Boltshauser syndrome and Madras motor neuron disease. Treatment with steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin may result in temporary stabilization of the syndrome. However, the mainstays of management are supportive and symptomatic treatment, in particular assisted ventilation and maintenance of nutrition via gastrostomy. The clinical course of BVVL is variable and includes gradual deterioration (almost half of cases, gradual deterioration with stable periods in between (a third of cases and deterioration with abrupt periods of worsening (just under a fifth of cases

  17. Arctic Browning: vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treharne, Rachael; Bjerke, Jarle; Emberson, Lisa; Tømmervik, Hans; Phoenix, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    'Arctic browning' is the loss of biomass and canopy in Arctic ecosystems. This process is often driven by climatic and biological extreme events - notably extreme winter warm periods, winter frost-drought and severe outbreaks of defoliating insects. Evidence suggests that browning is becoming increasingly frequent and severe at the pan-arctic scale, a view supported by observations from more intensely observed regions, with major and unprecedented vegetation damage reported at landscape (>1000km2) and regional (Nordic Arctic Region) scales in recent years. Critically, the damage caused by these extreme events is in direct opposition to 'Arctic greening', the well-established increase in productivity and shrub abundance observed at high latitudes in response to long-term warming. This opposition creates uncertainty as to future anticipated vegetation change in the Arctic, with implications for Arctic carbon balance. As high latitude ecosystems store around twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and vegetation impacts are key to determining rates of loss or gain of ecosystem carbon stocks, Arctic browning has the potential to influence the role of these ecosystems in global climate. There is therefore a clear need for a quantitative understanding of the impacts of browning events on key ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, field sites were chosen in central and northern Norway and in Svalbard, in areas known to have been affected by either climatic extremes or insect outbreak and subsequent browning in the past four years. Sites were chosen along a latitudinal gradient to capture both conditions already causing vegetation browning throughout the Norwegian Arctic, and conditions currently common at lower latitudes which are likely to become more damaging further North as climate change progresses. At each site the response of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange to light was measured using a LiCor LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis system and a custom vegetation chamber with

  18. Pref-1 in brown adipose tissue: specific involvement in brown adipocyte differentiation and regulatory role of C/EBPδ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Jordi; Villena, Josep A; Hondares, Elayne; Carmona, María C; Sul, Hei Sook; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2012-05-01

    Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1) is known to play a central role in regulating white adipocyte differentiation, but the role of Pref-1 in BAT (brown adipose tissue) has not been analysed. In the present study we found that Pref-1 expression is high in fetal BAT and declines progressively after birth. However, Pref-1-null mice showed unaltered fetal development of BAT, but exhibited signs of over-activation of BAT thermogenesis in the post-natal period. In C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) α-null mice, a rodent model of impaired fetal BAT differentiation, Pref-1 was dramatically overexpressed, in association with reduced expression of the Ucp1 (uncoupling protein 1) gene, a BAT-specific marker of thermogenic differentiation. In brown adipocyte cell culture models, Pref-1 was mostly expressed in pre-adipocytes and declined with brown adipocyte differentiation. The transcription factor C/EBPδ activated the Pref-1 gene transcription in brown adipocytes, through binding to the proximal promoter region. Accordingly, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-induced C/EBPδ knockdown led to reduced Pref-1 gene expression. This effect is consistent with the observed overexpression of C/EBPδ in C/EBPα-null BAT and high expression of C/EBPδ in brown pre-adipocytes. Dexamethasone treatment of brown pre-adipocytes suppressed Pref-1 down-regulation occurring throughout the brown adipocyte differentiation process, increased the expression of C/EBPδ and strongly impaired expression of the thermogenic markers UCP1 and PGC-1α [PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) co-activator-α]. However, it did not alter normal fat accumulation or expression of non-BAT-specific genes. Collectively, these results specifically implicate Pref-1 in controlling the thermogenic gene expression program in BAT, and identify C/EBPδ as a novel transcriptional regulator of Pref-1 gene expression that may be related to the specific role of glucocorticoids in BAT differentiation.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torode, Thomas A; Marcus, Susan E; Jam, Murielle; Tonon, Thierry; Blackburn, Richard S; Hervé, Cécile; Knox, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  20. Relationship in between Chemical Oxidation and Browning of Flavanols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.; Zhang, Y. L.; Wang, F.; Pang, M. X.; Qi, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    Catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. At present, influencing factors of phenol chemical oxidation is little research. In order to study non-enzymatic browning factors, this research utilized catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid to establish simulation systems. The browning degree and products of flavanols were investigated by transmittance and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The main results and conclusions were follows. The brown generation is increased after phenols of chemical oxidation at 50°C and at pH 3.7 phosphate buffered saline, the sequence of influencing factor of browning is pH > kind of phenol > temperature. Oxidation of compounds of catechin and epicatechin results in formation of their Methylene quinone or o -Quinones. In addition, oxidation products of catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid were mixture of different molecular sizes. The research has showed that brown generation correlated well with chemical oxidation of phenols and chemical oxidation reaction generated larger molecular weight polymers.

  1. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre W. Orelus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  2. Role of phosphate and carboxylate ions in maillard browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, George P

    2004-02-25

    The Maillard reaction of carbohydrates and amino acids is the underlying chemical basis for flavor and color formation in many processed foods. Phosphate and other polyatomic anions will accelerate the rate of Maillard browning, and this effect has been explained by invoking enhanced proton abstraction from intermediate Amadori compounds. In this work, the effect of phosphate and carboxylate ions on browning was measured for a series of reducing sugars with and without the presence of beta-alanine. Significant browning was observed for sugars alone suggesting that polyatomic anions contribute to Maillard browning by providing reactive intermediates directly from sugars. A mechanism is proposed for decomposition of sugars by polyatomic anions and efforts to trap reactive species using o-phenylenediamine (OPD) are described. The results of this study suggest how complications may arise from the popular usage of phosphate buffers in the study of Maillard reaction kinetics. In addition, the results imply how phosphates may be useful for enhancing browning during food processing.

  3. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Torode

    Full Text Available Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  5. Dissecting the brown adipogenic regulatory network using integrative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Rachana N.; Bues, Johannes J.; Gardeux, Vincent; Schwalie, Petra C.; Alpern, Daniel; Chen, Wanze; Russeil, Julie; Raghav, Sunil K.; Deplancke, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Brown adipocytes regulate energy expenditure via mitochondrial uncoupling, which makes them attractive therapeutic targets to tackle obesity. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying brown adipogenesis are still poorly understood. To address this, we profiled the transcriptome and chromatin state during mouse brown fat cell differentiation, revealing extensive gene expression changes and chromatin remodeling, especially during the first day post-differentiation. To identify putatively causal regulators, we performed transcription factor binding site overrepresentation analyses in active chromatin regions and prioritized factors based on their expression correlation with the bona-fide brown adipogenic marker Ucp1 across multiple mouse and human datasets. Using loss-of-function assays, we evaluated both the phenotypic effect as well as the transcriptomic impact of several putative regulators on the differentiation process, uncovering ZFP467, HOXA4 and Nuclear Factor I A (NFIA) as novel transcriptional regulators. Of these, NFIA emerged as the regulator yielding the strongest molecular and cellular phenotypes. To examine its regulatory function, we profiled the genomic localization of NFIA, identifying it as a key early regulator of terminal brown fat cell differentiation. PMID:28181539

  6. Two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Enerbäck, Sven

    2014-01-01

    During the last years the existence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in adult humans has been widely accepted by the research community. Its unique ability to dissipate chemical energy stored in triglycerides as heat makes it an attractive target for new drugs against obesity and its related diseases. Hence the tissue is now subject to intense research, the hypothesis being that an expansion and/or activation of the tissue is associated with a healthy metabolic phenotype. Animal studies provide evidence for the existence of at least two types of brown adipocytes. Apart from the classical brown adipocyte that is found primarily in the interscapular region where it constitutes a thermogenic organ, a second type of brown adipocyte, the so-called beige adipocyte, can appear within white adipose tissue depots. The fact that the two cell types develop from different precursors suggests that they might be recruited and stimulated by different cues and therefore represent two distinct targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this commentary is to discuss recent work addressing the question whether also humans possess two types of brown adipocytes and to highlight some issues when looking for molecular markers for such cells.

  7. In Vitro Prevention of Browning in Plantain Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent C. Onuoha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The in vitro propagation of plantain (Musa paradisiaca is still faced with lots of challenges such as blackening or browning of tissues prior to culture due to the oxidation of phenolic compound by polyphenolic oxidase enzyme present in the tissue when excised. Approach: Understanding browning processes in plantain and possible ways of minimizing it during excision of explants with particular emphasis on the use of antioxidants was purposed. Tissues were surfaced sterilized with 0.1% (w/v HgCL2 for 1-6 min to get a pure culture and then treated for 2 h with different concentrations of 0.1-0.5 mg mL- of potassium citrate and citrate (K-C: C as an antioxidant to check browning while sterile distilled water was used as control. Results and Conclusion: The result showed that contamination free culture (100% was achieved in the explants treated with HgCL2 for 6 min. Also the various concentration of K-C: C prevented browning within 2 h before culturing the tissues inferring that browning in young plantain excised tissue can be greatly reduced by presoaking or pretreatment with antioxidant solution of potassium citrate-citrate before culturing them.

  8. Adrenergic regulation of cellular plasticity in brown, beige/brite and white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Vanesa D; Granneman, James G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of brown adipose tissue in adult humans along with the recognition of adipocyte heterogeneity and plasticity of white fat depots has renewed the interest in targeting adipose tissue for therapeutic benefit. Adrenergic activation is a well-established means of recruiting catabolic adipocyte phenotypes in brown and white adipose tissues. In this article, we review mechanisms of brown adipocyte recruitment by the sympathetic nervous system and by direct β-adrenergic receptor activation. We highlight the distinct modes of brown adipocyte recruitment in brown, beige/brite, and white adipose tissues, UCP1-independent thermogenesis, and potential non-thermogenic, metabolically beneficial effects of brown adipocytes.

  9. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops.

  10. Activation of the TOR Signalling Pathway by Glutamine Regulates Insect Fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yifan; Sun, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Jianqing; Kang, Kui; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Wenqing

    2015-05-29

    The target of rapamycin (TOR) positively controls cell growth in response to nutrients such as amino acids. However, research on the specific nutrients sensed by TOR is limited. Glutamine (Gln), a particularly important amino acid involved in metabolism in organisms, is synthesised and catalysed exclusively by glutamine synthetase (GS), and our previous studies have shown that Gln may regulate fecundity in vivo levels of the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens. Until now, it has remained unclear whether Gln activates or inhibits the TOR signalling pathway. Here, we performed the combined analyses of iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) and DGE (tag-based digital gene expression) data in N. lugens at the protein and transcript levels after GS RNAi, and we found that 52 pathways overlap, including the TOR pathway. We further experimentally demonstrate that Gln activates the TOR pathway by promoting the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT and inhibiting the 5'AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK phosphorylation activity in the pest. Furthermore, TOR regulates the fecundity of N. lugens probably by mediating vitellogenin (Vg) expression. This work is the first report that Gln activates the TOR pathway in vivo.

  11. Mode of action of triflumezopyrim: A novel mesoionic insecticide which inhibits the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Daniel; Benner, Eric A; Schroeder, Mark E; Holyoke, Caleb W; Zhang, Wenming; Pahutski, Thomas F; Leighty, Robert M; Vincent, Daniel R; Hamm, Jason C

    2016-07-01

    Triflumezopyrim, a newly commercialized molecule from DuPont Crop Protection, belongs to the novel class of mesoionic insecticides. This study characterizes the biochemical and physiological action of this novel insecticide. Using membranes from the aphid, Myzus persicae, triflumezopyrim was found to displace (3)H-imidacloprid with a Ki value of 43 nM with competitive binding results indicating that triflumezopyrim binds to the orthosteric site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In voltage clamp studies using dissociated Periplaneta americana neurons, triflumezopyrim inhibits nAChR currents with an IC50 of 0.6 nM. Activation of nAChR currents was minimal and required concentrations ≥100 μM. Xenopus oocytes expressing chimeric nAChRs (Drosophila α2/chick β2) showed similar inhibitory effects from triflumezopyrim. In P. americana neurons, co-application experiments with acetylcholine reveal the inhibitory action of triflumezopyrim to be rapid and prolonged in nature. Such physiological action is distinct from other insecticides in IRAC Group 4 in which the toxicological mode of action is attributed to nAChR agonism. Mesoionic insecticides act via inhibition of the orthosteric binding site of the nAChR despite previous beliefs that such action would translate to poor insect control. Triflumezopyrim is the first commercialized insecticide from this class and provides outstanding control of hoppers, including the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, which is already displaying strong resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid.

  12. Systematic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) metabolic responses to herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Christeller, John T; Fukumoto, Kaori; Isshiki, Ryutaro; Shinya, Tomonori; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Plants defend against attack from herbivores by direct and indirect defence mechanisms mediated by the accumulation of phytoalexins and release of volatile signals, respectively. While the defensive arsenals of some plants, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis are well known, most of rice's (Oryza sativa) defence metabolites and their effectiveness against herbivores remain uncharacterized. Here, we used a non-biassed metabolomics approach to identify many novel herbivory-regulated metabolic signatures in rice. Most were up-regulated by herbivore attack while only a few were suppressed. Two of the most prominent up-regulated signatures were characterized as phenolamides (PAs), p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine. PAs accumulated in response to attack by both chewing insects, i.e. feeding of the lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia) and the rice skipper (Parnara guttata) larvae, and the attack of the sucking insect, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH). In bioassays, BPH insects feeding on 15% sugar solution containing p-coumaroylputrescine or feruloylputrescine, at concentrations similar to those elicited by heavy BPH attack in rice, had a higher mortality compared to those feeding on sugar diet alone. Our results highlight PAs as a rapidly expanding new group of plant defence metabolites that are elicited by herbivore attack, and deter herbivores in rice and other plants.

  13. Involvement of Jasmonate- signaling pathway in the herbivore-induced rice plant defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; ZHOU Qiang; CHEN Wei; ZHANG Guren; HE Guofeng; GU Dexiang; ZHANG Wenqing

    2003-01-01

    The expression patterns of eight defense- related genes in the herbivore-infested and jasmonate- treated (jasmonic acid, JA and its derivative MeJA) rice leaves were analyzed using RT-PCR. The results showed that Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) herbivory induced the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS) genes that are involved in the jasmonate-signaling pathway. Moreover, S. Litura damage resulted in the expression of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS), Bowman-birk proteinase inhibitor (BBPI), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and other rice defense- related genes that were also induced by aqueous JA treatment or gaseous MeJA treatment. These indicated that in rice leaves, the JA-related signaling pathway was involved in the S. Litura-induced chemical defense. Mechanical damage and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) damage induced the expression of LOX gene, but both treatments did not induce the expression of AOS gene. However, BPH damage induced the expression of acidic pathogen-related protein 1 (PR-1a), Chitinase (PR-3), and PAL genes, which is involved in the salicylate- signaling pathway. It was suggested that salicylate-related signaling pathway or other pathways, rather than jasmonate-signaling pathway was involved in the BPH-induced rice plant defense.

  14. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfeng Qi; Yonggen Lou; Jiancai Li; Xiu Han; Ran Li; Jianqiang Wu; Haixin Yu; Lingfei Hu; Yutao Xiao; Jing Lu

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice.

  15. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-06-17

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motives and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity.

  16. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  17. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motifs and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04805.001 PMID:26083713

  18. A resolved outflow of matter from a Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Natta, A; Testi, L; Randich, S; Whelan, Emma T.; Ray, Thomas P.; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-01-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs amongst newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  19. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  20. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  1. EVALUATION OF BROWN COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND SOURCES GENESIS PROGNOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  2. Brown Tumor Shown Flare Phenomenon On Bone Scan After Parathyroidectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Ho; Park, Seol Hoon; Baek, So Ra; Chae, Sun Young; Koh, Jung Min; Kim, Jae Seung; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Brown tumor is the benign bone lesion consists of woven bone and fibrous tissue without matrix, which develop due to chronic excessive osteoclastic activity such as hyperparathyroidism. Usually they appear with normal uptake or occasionally focally increased uptake on bone scan. We present a case with brown tumor shown more increased uptake and more number of lesions on bone scan after parathyroidectomy, and lesser increased uptake on serial bone scans without any other treatment through several months. This finding is thought to be similar to 'flare phenomenon' which is occasionally seen after treatment of metastatic bone lesions of malignant cancer, and may represent curative process of brown tumor with rapid normal bone formation.

  3. Detectability of dirty dust grains in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, C H; Thi, W F; Woitke, P; Helling, CH.

    2006-01-01

    Dust clouds influence the atmospheric structure of brown dwarfs, and they affect the heat transfer and change the gas-phase chemistry. However, the physics of their formation and evolution is not well understood. In this letter, we predict dust signatures and propose a potential observational test of the physics of dust formation in brown dwarf atmosphere based on the spectral features of the different solid components predicted by dust formation theory. A momentum method for the formation of dirty dust grains (nucleation, growth, evaporation, drift) is used in application to a static brown dwarf atmosphere structure to compute the dust grain properties, in particular the heterogeneous grain composition and the grain size. Effective medium and Mie theory are used to compute the extinction of these spherical grains. Dust formation results in grains whose composition differs from that of grains formed at equilibrium. Our kinetic model predicts that solid amorphous SiO2[s] (silica) is one of the most abundant so...

  4. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented.

  5. MicroRNAs Are Required for the Feature Maintenance and Differentiation of Brown Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Hyunjii; Alexander, Ryan; Patterson, Heide Christine; Gu, Minxia; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Xu, Dan; Goh, Vera J.; Nguyen, Long N.; Chai, Xiaoran; Huang, Cher X.; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Ghosh, Sujoy; Trajkovski, Mirko; Silver, David L.; Lodish, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation as a natural defense against cold and obesity. Previous studies established microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential regulators of brown adipocyte differentiation, but whether miRNAs are required for the feature maintenance of mature brown adipocytes remains unknown. To address this question, we ablated Dgcr8, a key regulator of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in mature brown as well as in white adipocytes. Adipose tissue–specific Dgcr8 knockout mice displayed enlarged but pale interscapular brown fat with decreased expression of genes characteristic of brown fat and were intolerant to cold exposure. Primary brown adipocyte cultures in vitro confirmed that miRNAs are required for marker gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We also demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for the browning of subcutaneous white adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Using this animal model, we performed miRNA expression profiling analysis and identified a set of BAT-specific miRNAs that are upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and enriched in brown fat compared with other organs. We identified miR-182 and miR-203 as new regulators of brown adipocyte development. Taken together, our study demonstrates an essential role of miRNAs in the maintenance as well as in the differentiation of brown adipocytes. PMID:25008181

  6. MicroRNAs are required for the feature maintenance and differentiation of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Hyunjii; Alexander, Ryan; Patterson, Heide Christine; Gu, Minxia; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Xu, Dan; Goh, Vera J; Nguyen, Long N; Chai, Xiaoran; Huang, Cher X; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Ghosh, Sujoy; Trajkovski, Mirko; Silver, David L; Lodish, Harvey; Sun, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation as a natural defense against cold and obesity. Previous studies established microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential regulators of brown adipocyte differentiation, but whether miRNAs are required for the feature maintenance of mature brown adipocytes remains unknown. To address this question, we ablated Dgcr8, a key regulator of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in mature brown as well as in white adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Dgcr8 knockout mice displayed enlarged but pale interscapular brown fat with decreased expression of genes characteristic of brown fat and were intolerant to cold exposure. Primary brown adipocyte cultures in vitro confirmed that miRNAs are required for marker gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We also demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for the browning of subcutaneous white adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Using this animal model, we performed miRNA expression profiling analysis and identified a set of BAT-specific miRNAs that are upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and enriched in brown fat compared with other organs. We identified miR-182 and miR-203 as new regulators of brown adipocyte development. Taken together, our study demonstrates an essential role of miRNAs in the maintenance as well as in the differentiation of brown adipocytes.

  7. Refined exposure assessment of Brown HT (E 155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA carried out an exposure assessment of Brown HT (E 155 taking into account additional information on its use in foods as consumed. In 2010, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS adopted a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of Brown HT and concluded that dietary exposure in both adults and 1-10 year old children at the high level may exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI for Brown HT of 1.5 mg/kg body weight (bw/day at the upper end of the range. Following this conclusion, the European Commission requested EFSA to perform a refined exposure assessment for this food colour. Data on the presence of Brown HT in foods were requested from relevant stakeholders through a call for usage and concentration data. Usage levels were provided to EFSA for six out of 37 food categories in which Brown HT is authorised. A limited number of analytical results were also reported to EFSA, all below the limit of detection (LOD or limit of quantification (LOQ. Exposure assessment was performed using the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. Three different scenarios were considered, including i exposure estimates based on Maximum Permitted Levels (MPLs, ii a combination of MPLs and reported maximum use levels and iii reported maximum use levels only. Considering the first two scenarios, high exposure levels (95th percentile exceeded the ADI for all age groups, with exception for the elderly. In comparison to the previous assessment, for both children and adults, the current mean exposure estimates are of the same order of magnitude, while the 95th percentile exposure is lower, particularly in adults. The mean and high level exposure estimates of Brown HT are below the ADI for all population groups when considering the reported use levels only.

  8. Regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by myostatin/follistatin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan eSingh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops from perturbations of cellular bioenergetics, when energy uptake exceeds energy expenditure, and represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT has long been known to dissipate energy as heat and contribute to energy expenditure, but its presence and physiological role in adult human physiology has been questioned for years. Recent demonstrations of metabolically active brown fat depots in adult humans have revolutionized current therapeutic approaches for obesity-related diseases. The balance between white adipose tissue (WAT and BAT affects the systemic energy balance and is widely believed to be the key determinant in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily play an important role in regulating overall energy homeostasis by modulation of brown adipocyte characteristics. Inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3/myostatin (Mst signaling promotes browning of white adipocytes, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and protects mice from diet-induced obesity, suggesting the need for development of a novel class of TGF-β/Mst antagonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. We recently described an important role of follistatin (Fst, a soluble glycoprotein that is known to bind and antagonize Mst actions, during brown fat differentiation and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here we highlight various investigations performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to support the contention that targeting TGF-β/Mst signaling enhances brown adipocyte functions and regulates energy balance, reducing insulin resistance and curbing the development of obesity and diabetes.

  9. Study On Extrusion Technological Parameters Of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongyi; Zhou Xianqing; Ling Lizhong

    2001-01-01

    Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-s of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusion parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water soluble index and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factor and response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimal parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisture nrice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  10. Antiviral polysaccharides isolated from Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hui; OOI; Engchoon; Vincent; ANG; Put; O; Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Two relatively pure polysaccharides H3-a1 and H3-b1 had been isolated from the brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus. They were characterized by HPLC, ultraviolet scanning, gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and shown to be two different sulfated polysaccharides with different monosaccharide content, but both with high relative molecular mass. They contained some proteins and uronic acid respectively. The sulfate content and bioactivity of these polysaccharides varied during purification. The fractions derived from the hot water extract also exhibited low anticoagulant effect. This is the first time that the antiherpetic and anticoagulant activities were evaluated for the polysaccharides from the Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus.

  11. Hanbury Brown and Twiss anticorrelation in disordered photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Kondakci, H Esat; Keil, Robert; Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of coherent light transmitted through disordered one-dimensional photonic lattices. Although such a lattice exhibits transverse Anderson localization when a single input site is excited, uniform excitation precludes its observation. By examining the Hanbury Brown--Twiss correlation for a uniformly excited disordered lattice, we observe intensity anticorrelations associated with photon antibunching--a signature of non-Gaussian statistics. Although the measured average intensity distribution is uniform, transverse Anderson localization nevertheless underlies the observed anticorrelation.

  12. [Hibernoma: brown fat retroperitoneal tumor. Report of a pediatric case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Laura; Sierre, Sergio; Bosalec, Andrea; Lipsich, José

    2011-12-01

    Hibernoma is a rare benign tumor of soft tissue, composed of brown fat. This tissue is predominant in hibernating animals and hence its name. Because of its rarity in Pediatrics and difficult diagnosis, we report a 3 month-old patient with a diagnosis consistent with an abdominal tumor. Ultrasound and computed tomography exams showed an infiltrative retroperitoneal tumor, with hypervascular and lipomatous features. After tumor excision, histopathological exam confirmed the diagnosis of hibernoma or brown fat tumor. This presentation describes the characteristics of this type of tumor, rare in children, and reviews the fatty tumors, according to their frequency in pediatric patients.

  13. Occurrence of aflatoxins contamination in brown rice from pakistan.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas A...

  14. On the Symbolism in Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The symbolism in Hawthorne’s short stories is very typical. This paper mainly discusses the use of symbolism in his Young Goodman Brown with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the whole story. Its title, the protagonist ’s name, color of brown, pink, and black, some images such as characters, surroundings and the plot of the whole story have abundant sym-bolic implication. By analyzing the story and the writing methods of symbolism, we can see the theme of Hawthorne ’s stories clearly. Hawthorne reveals that“Evil is the nature of mankind”by the use of these images.

  15. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN USAGE OF BELARUSIAN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for economic evaluation of the effective use of the Belarusian brown coal deposits has been developed on the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data. The obtained methodology allows to perform multi-variant optimization calculations under various uncertainty level without reduction to the same energy effect that is especially important while developing economic forecasts and programs for the long term perspective. Using this methodology evaluation of various directions pertaining to usage of the Belarusian brown coal has been done and recommendations on their possible application have been given in the paper.

  16. Non-equilibrium chemistry in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Saumon, D S; Freedman, R S; Lodders, K

    2002-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and ammonia have been detected in the spectrum of Gl 229B at abundances that differ substantially from those obtained from chemical equilibrium. Vertical mixing in the atmosphere is a mechanism that can drive slowly reacting species out of chemical equilibrium. We explore the effects of vertical mixing as a function of mixing efficiency and effective temperature on the chemical abundances in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and on their spectra. The models compare favorably with the observational evidence and indicate that vertical mixing plays an important role in brown dwarf atmospheres.

  17. Brown Dwarfs: A New Class of Stellar Lighthouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Brown dwarfs, thought just a few years ago to be incapable of emitting any significant amounts of radio waves, have been discovered putting out extremely bright "lighthouse beams" of radio waves, much like pulsars. A team of astronomers made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope. Artist's Conception of Brown Dwarf Artist's conception of "mini-aurorae" at poles of brown dwarf, producing beams of strong radio emission. CREDIT: Hallinan et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information "These beams rotate with the brown dwarf, and we see them when the beam passes over the Earth. This is the same way we see pulses from pulsars," said Gregg Hallinan of the National University of Ireland Galway. "We now think brown dwarfs may be a missing link between pulsars and planets in our own Solar System, which also emit, but more weakly," he added. Brown dwarfs are enigmatic objects that are too small to be stars but too large to be planets. They are sometimes called "failed stars" because they have too little mass to trigger hydrogen fusion reactions at their cores, the source of the energy output in larger stars. With roughly 15 to 80 times the mass of Jupiter, the largest planet in our Solar System, brown dwarfs were long thought to exist. However, it was not until 1995 that astronomers were able to actually find one. A few dozen now are known. In 2001, a group of summer students at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory used the VLA to observe a brown dwarf, even though they had been told by seasoned astronomers that brown dwarfs are not observable at radio wavelengths. Their discovery of a strong flare of radio emission from the object surprised astronomers and the students' scientific paper on the discovery was published in the prestigous scientific journal Nature. Hallinan and his team observed a set of brown dwarfs with the VLA last year, and found that three of the objects emit extremely

  18. BIO-DIAGNOSTICS OF STABILITY OF BROWN CALCAREOUS SOIL OF UTRISH NATURAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikov S. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have presented a number of modeling experiments to investigate the chemical pollution of brown calcareous soil. It assesses the stability of brown calcareous soil of a nature reserve called Utrish to contamination with heavy metals in biological parameters. Pollution of brown calcareous soil with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil causes a significant reduction in biological parameters. The degree of reduction depends on the nature of the contaminant and its concentration in the soil. The study showed that the indicators used in the biological condition of the soil, could be recommended for use for diagnosis, monitoring, and regulation of chemical pollution of brown soil. According to the degree of resistance to chemical contamination, the brown soils of Russia form the following series: typical brown - brown carbonate - brown leached

  19. The role of brown adipose tissue in temperature regulation. [of hibernating and hypothermic mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The thermogenetic capacities of brown adipose tissue were studied on marmots, rats and monkeys in response to cold exposure. All experiments indicated that the brown fat produced heat and slowed the cooling of tissues.

  20. Pharmacological Activation of Thyroid Hormone Receptors Elicits a Functional Conversion of White to Brown Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Z. Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT into a tissue with brown adipose tissue (BAT-like activity, often referred to as “browning,” represents an intriguing strategy for combating obesity and metabolic disease. We demonstrate that thyroid hormone receptor (TR activation by a synthetic agonist markedly induces a program of adaptive thermogenesis in subcutaneous WAT that coincides with a restoration of cold tolerance to cold-intolerant mice. Distinct from most other browning agents, pharmacological TR activation dissociates the browning of WAT from activation of classical BAT. TR agonism also induces the browning of white adipocytes in vitro, indicating that TR-mediated browning is cell autonomous. These data establish TR agonists as a class of browning agents, implicate the TRs in the browning of WAT, and suggest a profound pharmacological potential of this action.

  1. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  2. Field Efficacy of Sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC against Nilaparvata lugens(St(a)l)%氟啶虫胺腈对褐飞虱的田间防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林仁魁; 邹华娇; 吴德飞

    2012-01-01

    [目的]明确240 g/L氟啶虫胺腈悬浮剂对褐飞虱的田间控制作用及最佳使用剂量.[方法]采用田间喷雾法,对氟啶虫胺腈37.5、50、75、100 g a.i./hm2四种不同剂量处理防治褐飞虱效果进行试验研究.[结果]240 g/L氟啶虫胺腈悬浮剂37.5、50 g a.i./hm2两种剂量处理,药后1~3 d对褐飞虱的防效为51.42%~68.51%,药后7~14 d的防效为61.00%~79.10%,与对照药剂25%噻嗪酮可湿性粉剂112.5 g a.i./hm2剂量处理相比,速效性相当,但持效性差;而75、100 g a.i./hm2两种剂量处理,药后1~3 d防效为67.18%~74.11%,药后7~14 d防效为81.26%~89.22%,与对照药剂25%噻嗪酮可湿性粉剂112.5 g a.i./hm2剂量处理相比,速效性更好,而持效性相当.[结论]240 g/L氟啶虫胺腈悬浮剂75~100 g a.i./hm2剂量喷雾处理,能有效控制褐飞虱的发生为害,可供生产上推广应用.%[Aims] The paper aims to conform the efficacy and the optimum dosage of sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC on controlling Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) in rice field. [Methods] Using the method of field spray, the efficacy of sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC with dosage of 37.5, 50, 75, 100 g a.i./ha on controling N. lugens were determined. [Results] The control effects of sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC with dosage of 37.5 and 50 g a.i./ha after 1-3 days after treatment were 51.42-68.51%, and 61.00-79.10% after 7-14 days, the rapid control effects had no significant difference compared with uprofezin 25% WP at 1 125 g a.i./ha , but the uprofezin 25% WP did have more persistent control effects. The control effects at 75 and 100 g a.i./ha after application of 1-3 days were 67.18-74.11%, and 81.26-89.22% after 7-14 days, the persistent control effects had no significant difference with uprofezin 25% WP at 1125 g a.i./ha, but sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC has more rapid control effects. [Conclusions] The dosage of 75-100 g a.i./ha of sulfoxaflor 240 g/L SC could effectively control the populations of N

  3. Soluble Proteins in Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) by SDS-PAGE%褐飞虱可溶性蛋白 SDS-PAGE 电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁梓强; 梁士可; 张梅; 王方海

    2015-01-01

    The soluble proteins in Nilaparvata lugens adults and nymphs were analyzed by SDS-PAGE e-lectrophoresis.Results showed that there were almost equal number protein bands in all types of adult samples, most bands in different wing or gender samples existed content differences except female adult-specific protein band.There were four bands significantly higher in long-winged adult samples than in short-winged adult samples;in the comparison of male and female adult samples, it was found that there were two bands higher in males than in females, while other three bands higher in females than in males. The bands in nymph samples were gradually increased with the increase of age, four bands were constant-ly expressed in each instar period, one more band appeared in 5th instar nymph samples, and one band could be detected from the 4th instar.In addition, the contents of two bands were found much higher in long wing bud nymphs (9.029, 9.563 ng/μL) than those in short wing bud nymphs (5.133, 3.111 ng/μL) .Last we discussed the relationships among the different bands and wing dimorphism or sex differ-entiation in insects.%采用SDS-PAGE电泳分析褐飞虱成虫和各龄期若虫的可溶性蛋白,结果表明,成虫各类样品中,条带数量基本相同,只发现一条雌性成虫所特有的蛋白条带,而多数条带在不同翅型或性别样品中存在着含量差异。如有4条条带在长翅型中的含量明显高于短翅型中的含量;在雌、雄成虫样品的比较中则发现2条条带在雄虫中含量高于雌虫,而另有3条条带在雌虫中含量高于雄虫。若虫样品随着龄期升高,条带逐渐增多,发现有4条条带在各个龄期中均有表达,1条条带只在5龄若虫样品中出现,另有1条条带从4龄期开始出现。此外,还发现有2条条带在长翅芽若虫样品中的含量(9.029,9.563 ng/μL )明显高于短翅芽若虫样品中的含量(5.133,3.111 ng/μL)。并

  4. Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning of Chlorogenic Acid by Sulfur-Containing Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Vincken, J.P.; Verloop, J.W.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The antibrowning activity of sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) was compared to that of other sulfur-containing compounds. Inhibition of enzymatic browning was investigated using a model browning system consisting of mushroom tyrosinase and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Development of brown color (spectra

  5. After Brown U.'s Report on Slavery, Silence (So Far)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article, discusses Brown University's slavery report, a 106-page narrative examination of the early connections between Brown University and slavery, that has been greeted--so far--with silence. The report, done at the behest of Ruth J. Simmons, Brown's president and herself a descendant of slaves, is an unsparing look at a shameful side of…

  6. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 No description Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...es http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes...RX341044,SRX341420,SRX341421,SRX341046,SRX478161,SRX341027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...341028,SRX341760,SRX341767,SRX341763,SRX341027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX800019,SRX978691,SRX978690,SRX978689,SRX978688 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X800018,SRX800019,SRX185797,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X185879,SRX978689,SRX978688,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  18. File list: NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 No description Adipocyte Brown adipocytes htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX4...78163,SRX143805,SRX185879 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX800014,SRX978690,SRX978689,SRX978688,SRX800019 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X978688,SRX800019,SRX478163,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX978688,SRX800015,SRX800014,SRX800018,SRX800019 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX978689,SRX800015,SRX800014,SRX800018,SRX800019 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X800019,SRX185797,SRX478163,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  10. File list: NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX1...43805,SRX185879,SRX478163 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX1...85879,SRX143805,SRX478163 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  16. User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

  17. Astronaut Curtis Brown on flight deck mockup during training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, STS-66 pilot, mans the pilot's station during a rehearsal of procedures to be followed during the launch and entry phases of their scheduled November 1994 flight. This rehearsal, held in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures.

  18. Stylistic Analysis of Robert Browning's Poem "Patriot into Traitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mumtaz; Irshad, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    The stylistic analysis of Robert Browning's poem "Patriot into Traitor" is done by using graphological, phonological, morphological and lexico-syntactic patterns. This analysis is helpful in decoding the underlying meanings of the poem. It clearly brings to surface what the poet really wants to impart.

  19. Gaia, Non-Single Stars, Brown Dwarfs, and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Sozzetti, A

    2014-01-01

    In its all-sky survey, Gaia will monitor astrometrically and photometrically millions of main-sequence stars with sufficient sensitivity to brown dwarf companions within a few AUs from their host stars and to transiting brown dwarfs on very short periods, respectively. Furthermore, thousands of detected ultra-cool dwarfs in the backyard of the Sun will have direct (absolute) distance estimates from Gaia, and for these Gaia astrometry will be of sufficient precision to reveal any orbiting companions with masses as low as that of Jupiter. Gaia observations thus bear the potential for critical contributions to many important questions in brown dwarfs astrophysics (how do they form in isolation and as companions to stars? Can planets form around them? What are their fundamental parameters such as ages, masses, and radii? What is their atmospheric physics?), and their connection to stars and planets. The full legacy potential of Gaia in the realm of brown dwarf science will be realized when combined with other det...

  20. Regulation of brown adipose tissue by stress and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. van den Beukel (Anneke)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDue to the increasing incidence of obesity, more means of treating obesity are necessary. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential target tissue via which obesity can be treated due to its unique ability to use energy to produce heat. Not much is known however about the mechanisms via w

  1. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  2. Ms.Brown is introducing their exhibition to Miss Jiang.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Miss Jiang:I want to know more about the International HouseholdUtensil Exhibition.Ms.Brown:It is an exhibition with a 32-year history,catering to clientsfrom South Africa and Mexico.Over the past 32 years,the exhibition hasbeen well known for its high efficiency in signing contracts.

  3. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The spatia

  4. Derek Denny-Brown: the man behind the ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Faber, Ingrid; Martins, Carlos Roberto; Casseb, Raphael F; Nucci, Anamarli; França, Marcondes C; Teive, Hélio A G

    2017-02-01

    The authors present an historical review about the main contributions of Professor Derek Denny-Brown to neurology. Some of his achievements include the first description of sensory neuronopathies, and some of the essential textbooks on the function and anatomy of the basal ganglia. In 2016, on the 35th anniversary of his death, modern neurologists are still strongly influenced by his legacy.

  5. Scientific Works by Wiener and Lévy After Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Takeyuki

    2008-07-01

    Brownian motion was recognized as a scientific research object by R. Brown in 1827, and then many scientists studied the motion within science. Two famous mathematicians, N. Wiener and P. Lévy, studied Browniam motion mainly in mathematics. We appreciate their works and would like to note that their results play very important role in the study of biological phenomena.

  6. Fighting Back Like a Man: The Morality of "Murphy Brown."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Mickey

    A study used Carol Gilligan's work on the legitimization of the female voice to examine the degree to which care and justice perspectives are expressed in the voice of television character "Murphy Brown" in the situation comedy of the same name. Two episodes of the show were analyzed to examine how Murphy resolved moral dilemmas. Although the…

  7. Gastrointestinal tract of the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potter, M.A.; Lentle, R.G.; Birtles, M.J.; Thomas, D.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    The caeca of the brown kiwi Apteryx mantelli increased in length isometrically with body mass, but wall mass and thus mucosal thickness increased allometrically. Kiwi caeca are sacculate, with greater thickness of mucosa in the proximal portions. The caecal mucosa is similar to the small intestinal

  8. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

  9. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  10. A New Bromophenol from the Brown Alga Leathesia nana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Li XU; Xiao FAN; Fu Hang SONG; Jie Lu ZHAO; Li Jun HAN; Jian Gong SHI

    2004-01-01

    A novel bromophenol was isolated from ethanolic extract of the brown alga Leathesia nana S.et G. The structure was elucidated as (E)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl- propenal by spectroscopic methods including IR, HREIMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  11. "Brown" at 62: School Segregation by Race, Poverty and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary; Ee, Jongyeon; Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    As the anniversary of "Brown v. Board of Education" decision arrives again without any major initiatives to mitigate spreading and deepening segregation in the nation's schools, the Civil Rights Project adds to a growing national discussion with a research brief drawn from a much broader study of school segregation to be published in…

  12. Neuroradiologic findings in brown snake envenomation: Computed tomography demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midyett, F.A. [Townsville General Hospital, Townsville, QLD (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1998-08-01

    A case of fatal brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation is presented. The CT examinations show rapid development and progression of atypical bilateral intracerebral haematomas (ICH) which produce a fatal outcome despite correction of the underlying coagulopathy. The striking CT appearance suggests coagulopathy and is predictive of increased mortality. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 10 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Habitable Planets Eclipsing Brown Dwarfs: Strategies for Detection and Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Belu, Adrian R; Raymond, Sean N; Pallé, Enric; Street, Rachel; Sahu, D K; Von Braun, Kaspar; Bolmont, Emeline; Figueira, Pedro; Anupama, G C; Ribas, Ignasi

    2013-01-01

    Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting brown dwarfs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (PHZ out). Habitable planets with PHZ out shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g. 8-10 hrs) can be screened with 100 percent completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous brown dwarfs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g. from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved - 3 telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known brown dwarfs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5 +5.6-1.4 and 56 +31-13 percent, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that bro...

  14. A Stock Pricing Model Based on Arithmetic Brown Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yong-xin; HAN Wen-xiu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new stock pricing model based on arithmetic Brown motion. The model overcomes the shortcomings of Gordon model completely. With the model investors can estimate the stock value of surplus companies, deficit companies, zero increase companies and bankrupt companies in long term investment or in short term investment.

  15. "Brown," Political Economy, and the Scientific Education of African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, William F., IV

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this chapter are threefold. The first goal is to examine the scientific attainment of African Americans in the post-"Brown" era. The term scientific attainment is used here to describe more broadly mathematics and scientific achievement as measured in trend studies, academic coursework, and degrees. A second, related goal is to…

  16. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  17. Primary hyperparathyroidism with rare presentation as multiple brown tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Doshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism with an uncommon presentation as multiple brown tumours, which may easily be mistaken for a primary bone neoplasm. A brief literature review and its clinical and surgical management are also discussed here.

  18. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbeé, J.F.P.; Boon, M.R.; Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Bartelt, A.; Schlein, C.; Worthmann, A.; Kooijman, S.; Hoeke, G.; Mol, I.M.; John, C.; Jung, C.; Vazirpanah, N.; Brouwers, L.P.J.; Gordts, P.L.S.M.; Esko, J.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Scheja, L.; Heeren, J.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by b3-adrenergic rece

  19. Brown adipose tissue takes up plasma triglycerides mostly after lipolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Dijk, Wieneke; Buijs, Jeroen T.; Kersten, Sander; Havekes, Louis M.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Berbée, Jimmy F.P.; Boon, Mariëtte R.; Rensen, Patrick C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) produces heat by burning TGs that are stored within intracellular lipid droplets and need to be replenished by the uptake of TG-derived FA from plasma. It is currently unclear whether BAT takes up FA via uptake of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), after lipolysis-mediated li

  20. Transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps Rice with Insect and Herbicide Resistance Acted No Adverse Impacts on the Population Growth of a Non-Target Herbivore, the White-Backed Planthopper, Under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zeng-bin; HAN Nai-shun; TIAN Jun-ce; PENG Yu-fa; HU Cui; GUO Yu-yuan; SHEN Zhi-cheng; YE Gong-yin

    2014-01-01

    Numerous Bt rice lines expressing Cry protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have been developed since 1989. However, the potential risks posed by Bt rice on non-target organisms still remain debate. The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the most economically important insect pests of rice in Asian countries and also one of the main non-target herbivores of transgenic rice. In the current study, impacts of transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps rice (G6H1) with both insect and herbicide resistance on WBPH were evaluated to ascertain whether this transgenic rice line had potential risks for this sap-sucking pest under laboratory and ifeld conditions. The laboratory results showed that no signiifcant difference in egg developmental duration, nymphal survival rate and female fecundity was found for WBPH between G6H1 and its non-transgenic isoline (XS110). However, the development duration of nymphs was signiifcantly shorter and female longevity signiifcantly longer when WBPH fed on G6H1 by comparison with those on its control. To verify the results found in laboratory, a 3-yr ifeld trial was conducted to monitor WBPH population using both the vacuum-suction machine and beat plate methods. Although the seasonal density of WBPH nymphs and total density of nymphs and adults were not signiifcantly affected by transgenic rice regardless of the sampling methods, the seasonal density of WBPH adults in transgenic rice plots was slightly lower than that in the control when using the vacuum-suction machine. Based on these results both from laboratory and ifeld, it is clear that our tested transgenic rice line will not lead higher population of WBPH. However, long-term ifeld experiments to monitor the population dynamics of WPBH at large scale need to be conducted to conifrm the present conclusions in future.