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Sample records for brown pigment gallstones

  1. Analysis of Indian pigment gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautray, T.R.; Vijayan, V.; Panigrahi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission and particle induced γ-ray emission spectroscopic techniques have been carried out to analyse the elemental concentrations of human pigment gallstone samples from eastern region (Orissa) and southern region (Chennai) of India. It was observed that 18 minor/trace elements namely Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were present in the pigment gallstone samples of both the regions. Our study reveals that average concentration of all elements except Ni in south Indian pigment gallstone samples is higher than that of corresponding values in east Indian pigment gallstone samples whereas elements like Al, P, S, Cl and V did not show much variation between these two regions. Fourier transform infra-red analysis was carried out to identify the functional groups and the classification of the pigment type gallstones of both the regions. The thermal behaviour of pigment gallstones was carried out by thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry analysis

  2. Gallstones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammert, Frank; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Ko, Cynthia W.; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Portincasa, Piero; Van Erpecum, Karel J.; Van Laarhoven, Cees J.; Wang, David Q H

    2016-01-01

    Gallstones grow inside the gallbladder or biliary tract. These stones can be asymptomatic or symptomatic; only gallstones with symptoms or complications are defined as gallstone disease. Based on their composition, gallstones are classified into cholesterol gallstones, which represent the

  3. Gallstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel E Njeze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease is a worldwide medical problem, but the incidence rates show substantial geographical variation, with the lowest rates reported in African populations. Publications in English language on gallstones which were obtained from reprint requests and PubMed database formed the basis for this paper. Data extracted from these sources included authors, country, year of publication, age and sex of patients, pathogenesis, risk factors for development of gallstones, racial distribution, presenting symptoms, complications and treatment. Gallstones occur worldwide, however it is commonest among North American Indians and Hispanics but low in Asian and African populations. High biliary protein and lipid concentrations are risk factors for the formation of gallstones, while gallbladder sludge is thought to be the usual precursor of gallstones. Biliary calcium concentration plays a part in bilirubin precipitation and gallstone calcification. Treatment of gallstones should be reserved for those with symptomatic disease, while prophylactic cholecystectomy is recommended for specific groups like children, those with sickle cell disease and those undergoing weight-loss surgical treatments. Treatment should be undertaken for a little percentage of patients with gallstones, as majority of those who harbor them never develop symptoms. The group that should undergo cholecystectomy include those with symptomatic gallstones, sickle cell disease patients with gall stones, and patients with morbid obesity who are undergoing laparotomy for other reasons.

  4. Chemical characterization of pigment gallstones using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolfenden, W.R.; Grant, D.M.; Straight, R.C.; Englert, E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The unique ability of Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis with cross polarization/magic angle spinning techniques to investigate chemical structures of solids is used to probe the chemical characteristics of several gallstone types. New pulse program techniques are used to distinguish various carbon atoms in studying the polymeric nature of the black bilirubinoid pigment of pigment gallstones. Evidence for the involvement of the carboxyl group and noninvolvement of vinyl groups of bilirubinoids in the polymeric bond formation is presented. Conjugated bilirubin structures are found to be present in some solid residues from pigment stones extracted with acidic methanol/chloroform

  5. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... As the body breaks down fat during prolonged fasting and rapid weight loss, the liver secretes extra ... Diseases (NIDDK) supports basic and clinical research into gastrointestinal diseases, including gallstones. Clinical trials are research studies ...

  6. The Ability of Bile to Scavenge Superoxide Radicals and Pigment Gallstone Formation in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Lin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After partial ligation of the common bile duct (CBD of guinea pigs, 14 of 16 animals developed pigment gallstones within one week (S group. Intraperitoneal injection of Vit. E and C, each 10 mg/kg daily from 3 days before CBD ligation to one week after the operation (S+V group, decreased the gallstone incidence to 5/14 (exact probability0.05, but Vit. E and C normalized the SR, and the difference between S group and S+V group was significant (p<0.05. These results suggested that Vit. E and C, known as antioxidants, enhanced the ability to scavenge oxygen radical in S+V group; and that in addition to the increases of UCB and Ca2+ concentrations, the participation of oxygen radicals might be of importance for pigment gallstone formation induced by bile duct obstruction.

  7. Gallstones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , (ii) pigment stones either ... for specific groups like children, those with sickle cell disease and those undergoing weight‑loss surgical .... cholesterol from adipose tissue stores. In fasting associated with severely fat restricted diets, gallbladder.

  8. Response surface optimization of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of edible brown pigment from Macadamia shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Y. J.; Gong, X.; Li, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    The ultrasonic extraction of Edible brown pigment from macadamia shells was researched using response surface methodology (RSM) with 3 factors and 3 levels. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to investigate the effects of Solvent concentration, ratio of water to raw material and extraction time on the extraction yield of brown pigment. By using this new method, the optimum extraction condition was obtained as follows: Ultrasonic treating time 71 min, solvent to sample ratio of 23 mL/g, Alcohol concentrations 62%. Under the optimized condition, the experimental yield of brown pigment was 0.636g.

  9. Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams of unconjugated bilirubin IXα as functions of pH in model bile systems: Implications for pigment gallstone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marvin D; Carey, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams for unconjugated bilirubin IXα (UCB) in bile are yet to be determined for understanding the physical chemistry of pigment gallstone formation. Also, UCB is a molecule of considerable biomedical importance because it is a potent antioxidant and an inhibitor of atherogenesis. We employed principally a titrimetric approach to obtain metastable and equilibrium UCB solubilities in model bile systems composed of taurine-conjugated bile salts, egg yolk lecithin (mixed long-chain phosphatidylcholines), and cholesterol as functions of total lipid concentration, biliary pH values, and CaCl2 plus NaCl concentrations. Metastable and equilibrium precipitation pH values were obtained, and average pKa values of the two carboxyl groups of UCB were calculated. Added lecithin and increased temperature decreased UCB solubility markedly, whereas increases in bile salt concentrations and molar levels of urea augmented solubility. A wide range of NaCl and cholesterol concentrations resulted in no specific effects, whereas added CaCl2 produced large decreases in UCB solubilities at alkaline pH values only. UV-visible absorption spectra were consistent with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between UCB and bile salts that were strongly influenced by pH. Reliable literature values for UCB compositions of native gallbladder biles revealed that biles from hemolytic mice and humans with black pigment gallstones are markedly supersaturated with UCB and exhibit more acidic pH values, whereas biles from nonstone control animals and patients with cholesterol gallstone are unsaturated with UCB. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Pigments Characterization and Molecular Identification of Bacterial Symbionts of Brown Algae Padinasp. Collected from Karimunjawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Bayu Murti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for carotenoids in nature has been extensively studied because of their applications in foods. One treasure of the biopigment source is symbiotic-microorganisms with marine biota. The advantages of symbiont bacteria are easy to culture and sensitize pigments. The use of symbiont bacteria helps to conserve fish, coral reefs, seagrass, and seaweed. Therefore, the bacteria keeps their existence in their ecosystems. In this study, bacterial symbionts were successfully isolated from brown algae Padina sp. The bacterial symbionts had yellow pigment associated with carotenoids. The pigments were characterized using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with a Photo Diode Array (PDA detector. The carotenoid pigments in the bacterial symbionts were identified as dinoxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin. Molecular identification by using a 16S rRNA gene sequence method, reveals that the bacterial symbionts were closely related to Bacillus marisflavi with a homology of 99%. Keywords :carotenoid pigments, brown algae, Padina, bacterial symbionts, 16S rRNA

  11. Prospective Source of Antimicrobial Compounds From Pigment Produced by Bacteria associated with Brown Alga ( Phaeophyceae ) Isolated from Karimunjawa island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunggani, A. T.; Darmanto, Y. S.; Radjasa, O. K.; Sabdono, A.

    2018-02-01

    Brown algae or Phaeophyceae characterized by their natural pigments that differ from other important algal classes. Several publications proves that brown algae - associated bacteria have great potential in developing marine pharmaceutical industry since they are capable to synthesized numerous bioactive metabolite compounds. However the potency of marine pigmented microbes associated with brown alga to produce natural pigments and antimicrobials has been less studied. Marine pigmented bacteria associated with brown algae collected from Karimunjawa Island were successfully isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity. The aim of this research was evaluated of the antimicrobial activity of pigments extracted from culturable marine pigmented bacteria on some pathogenic bacteria and yeast. The results showed that all isolates had antimicrobial activity and could be prospectively developed as antimicrobial agent producing pigments. The 6 marine pigmented bacteria was identified to genus level as Pseudoalteromonas, Sphingomonas, Serratia, Paracoccus, Vibrio.

  12. Effective synthesis route for red-brown pigments based on Ce-Pr-Fe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The oxides with varying Fe content had an intense red-brown colour, with bandgap energy of around 2.2 eV at 0.1 mol% Fe doping. The near infra red reflectance from these pigments, a measure of their ability to reflect rather than absorb heat waves from sunlight was found to be 82.7%, even in the absence of a white ...

  13. Distribution and amount of pigment within the ciliary body and iris of dogs with blue and brown irides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Kim M; Haines, Deborah K; Calvarese, Sara T; Esson, Doug W; Chandler, Heather L

    2010-03-01

    Compare the amount and distribution of pigment in normal canine eyes with blue and brown irides. Eighteen mixed-breed dogs euthanized for population control. Intact globes were removed immediately following euthanasia. Iris color was noted, and globes were evaluated histologically to determine the distribution of pigment. High magnification (x400) digital images were taken of the dorsal and ventral ciliary processes (CP) of 13 eyes with blue irides and 13 eyes with brown irides. Low magnification (x20) images were taken of the dorsal and ventral portions of the ciliary body (CB) of 14 eyes with blue irides and 14 eyes with brown irides. The images were digitally analyzed to determine the percent of the CP and CB that were pigmented in the high and low magnification images, respectively. Eyes with brown irides contained abundant melanin pigment around the CB musculature. This pigment was absent in eyes with blue irides, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001) when digitally analyzed using the low magnification images. Iris color did not have a significant (P = 0.34) impact on the amount of melanin within the CP, as determined using the high magnification images. Compared to eyes with brown irides, eyes with blue irides lack pigment around the CB musculature, but contain comparable amounts of pigment in the CP.

  14. Gallstone ileus: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabrousse, E.; Bartholomot, B.; Sohm, O.; Kastler, B. [Dept. of Radiology A, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France); Wallerand, H. [Dept. of Surgery, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France)

    2000-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of recurrent gallstone cholecystitis. The classic radiographic triad of small bowel obstruction, pneumobilia and ectopic gallstone on abdominal plain radiograph is described with CT imaging. Because of the better resolution of CT compared with abdominal radiography and its recent accession to emergency use, radiologists should be aware of CT findings of gallstone ileus. We report a case in which gallstone ileus was initially diagnosed by CT. (orig.)

  15. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  16. Drying characteristic, enzyme inactivation and browning pigmentation kinetics of controlled humidity-convective drying of banana slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpong, Frederick; Yu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Cunshan; Oteng-Darko, Patricia; Amenorfe, Leticia Peace; Wu, Bengang; Bai, Junwen; Ma, Haile

    2018-04-01

    Investigating the kinetics of enzyme activities and browning indexes in food are very essential in understanding the enzyme inactivation and browning pigmentation reaction during drying processing. In order to understand and predict accurately the enzyme inactivation and browning pigmentation of banana slices using Relative Humidity (RH)-convective hot air dryer aided by ultrasound (US) pretreatment, this study was conducted. Drying was carried out with 20 kHz frequency of US-pretreatment using three durations (10 20 and 30 min) and RH (10 20 and 30%) conditions at 70 °C and 2.0 m/s air velocity. The kinetic study of both enzyme inactivation and browning pigmentation results were compared to their relevance of fit in terms of coefficient of correlation (R2), the root mean square error (RMSE) and the reduced chi-square (χ 2). First order and second-order polynomial kinetic model fitted well for enzyme inactivation and browning indexes respectively. Both enzymes inactivation kinetics and enzymatic browning index (EBI) declined significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing drying time in all drying conditions and rate of decrease intensified in longer US-pretreatment duration and lower RH conditions. However, shorter US-pretreatment duration and higher RH conditions reduced the non- enzymatic browning index (NBI) significantly. Again, longer US-pretreatment duration and lower RH shortened the drying time but adversely created more microspores from the micrograph study. Longer US pretreatment and lower RH decrease significantly (p < 0.05) the L* and b* values whereas the a* values was increased.

  17. Gallstone disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cohort study was to determine whether subjects with gallstone disease identified by screening of a general population had increased overall mortality when compared to gallstone-free participants and to explore causes of death. METHODS: The study population (N...... built. RESULTS: Gallstone disease was present in 10%. Mortality was 46% during median 24.7 years of follow-up with 1% lost. Overall mortality and death from cardiovascular diseases were significantly associated to gallstone disease. Death from unknown causes was significantly associated to gallstone...... disease and death from cancer and gastrointestinal disease was not associated. No differences in mortality for ultrasound-proven gallstones or cholecystectomy were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Gallstone disease is associated with increased overall mortality and to death from cardiovascular disease. Gallstones...

  18. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  19. Fermentation and quality of yellow pigments from golden brown rice solid culture by a selected Monascus mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsmith, Busaba; Thongpradis, Panida; Klinsupa, Worawan; Chantrapornchai, Withida; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai

    2013-10-01

    A single peak (λmax 370) yellow pigment-producing mutant derived from Monascus sp. TISTR 3179 was used for the pigment production in solid rice culture. Various factors affecting yellow tones were investigated. Hom-mali rice variety was the best amongst five Thai local varieties used for fungus culture. It was also better than corn, mungbean, soybean, potato, sweet potato, or cassava tubers. The moisture content and temperature were the key environmental factors affecting the color tones of creamy, tangerine, and golden brown rice solid cultures. The golden brown rice culture gave the highest yellow pigment concentration. Under an optimum room temperature of 28-32 °C, an initial moisture content of 42 %, and 7-day-old inoculum size of 2 % (v/w) the maximum yield at 2,224.63 A370U/gdw of yellow pigment was produced. A mellow yellow powder at 550 A370U/gdw could be obtained using spray-drying techniques. The powder had a moisture content of 5.15 %, a water activity value of 0.398, a hue angle of 73.70 ° (yellowish orange), high lightness (L) of 74.63, color saturation (C) of 28.97, a neutral pH of 7.42, 0.12 % acidity and solubility of 0.211 g/10 ml. It was noteworthy that the Chinese fresh noodle with spray-dried yellow powder showed no discoloration during 8-day storage.

  20. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...... on a prospective protocol, a systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all articles dealing with determinants of incident gallstones. Meta-analyses of comparable determinants were performed through fixed effect models. Results: Participants with no gallstones at baseline and with at least one...... re-examination were followed-up completely (mean 11.6 years, N = 2848). The overall cumulative incidence of gallstones was 0.60% per year. Independent positive determinants for incident gallstones were age, female sex, non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, and gallbladder polyps...

  1. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship........59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...

  2. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1.......59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship....

  3. Combined microstructural and mineralogical phase characterization of gallstones in a patient-based study in SW Spain - Implications for environmental contamination in their formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Annika; Suárez-Grau, Juan Manuel; Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José Miguel; Garrido, Carlos J; Cobo-Cárdenas, Gema

    2016-12-15

    This study explores the environmental impact of metal exposure on humans through detailed phase and structural characterization of gallstones from two environmentally contrasting populations in Huelva Province (SW Spain). A total of 42 gallstone samples, obtained after surgical intervention at the Riotinto Hospital, were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), FTIR-μ-ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) coupled with an optical microscope, and by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS), and subsequently classified according to their phase composition and structure. Additionally, the patients were enquired for their living habits in order to analyze the source of possible exposure to metal contamination. The gallstones were classified into pure, mixed and composite cholesterol stones, black and brown pigment stones, and carbonate stones. The patients from the study group residing in a region with acknowledged metal contamination of both natural and anthropogenic origin have a higher risk of metal exposure through contaminated soil, particle matter in the air, and consumption of local water and food products. According to our findings, the metal exposure is related to a higher tendency of forming black pigment stones in the study group in comparison to the control group residing in a natural park with nearly pristine environmental conditions. Moreover, the gallstones from the study group showed to contain more abundant metal components, such as Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn, than those from the control group. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the regional environmental impact of metal exposure on human gallstones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective synthesis route for red-brown pigments based on Ce – Pr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New cerium-based ceramic pigments, displaying Ce2Pr0.2FexO4.3+y stoichiometry, were obtained .... Obtained gel was centrifuged (5000 rpm, 10 min) and washed thrice with milli-Q H2O and finally with ethanol. The material free of unreacted impurities was air dried at ..... neral turpentine, isopropyl alcohol, methanol and.

  5. Genetics of gallstone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease is a complex disorder where both environmental and genetic factors contribute towards susceptibility to the disease. Epidemiological and family studies suggest a strong genetic component in the causation of this disease. Several genetically derived phenotypes in the population are responsible for variations in lipoprotein types, which in turn affect the amount of cholesterol available in the gall bladder. The genetic polymorphisms in various genes for apo E, apo B, apo A1, LDL receptor, cholesteryl ester transfer and LDL receptor-associated protein have been implicated in gallstone formation. However, presently available information on genetic differences is not able to account for a large number of gallstone patients. The molecular studies in the animal models have not only confirmed the present paradigm of gallstone formation but also helped in identification of novel genes in humans, which might play an important role in pathogenesis of the disease. Precise understanding of such genes and their molecular mechanisms may provide the basis of new targets for rational drug designs and dietary interventions.

  6. Combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data reveals extensive differences between black and brown nearly-isogenic soybean (Glycine max) seed coats enabling the identification of pigment isogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Kovinich, Nik; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Miki, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The R locus controls the color of pigmented soybean (Glycine max) seeds. However information about its control over seed coat biochemistry and gene expressions remains limited. The seed coats of nearly-isogenic black (iRT) and brown (irT) soybean (Glycine max) were known to differ by the presence or absence of anthocyanins, respectively, with genes for only a single enzyme (anthocyanidin synthase) found to be differentially expressed between isolines. We recently identifie...

  7. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  8. Inhibitory effect of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) on melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells and on pigmentation in brown guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takashi; Ikeda, Katsumi; Saito, Morio

    2011-01-01

    The compounds present in rose hips exerting an inhibitory action against melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells were investigated by dividing an aqueous extract of rose hips (RE) into four fractions. The 50% ethanol eluate from a DIAION HP-20 column significantly reduced the production of melanin and was mainly composed of procyanidin glycosides. We also found that this 50% ethanol eluate reduced the intracellular tyrosinase activity and also had a direct inhibitory effect on tyrosinase obtained as a protein mixture from the melanoma cell lysate. We also investigated the effect of orally administering RE on skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs, and found that the pigmentation was inhibited together with the tyrosinase activity in the skin. These data collectively suggest that proanthocyanidins from RE inhibited melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells and guinea pig skin, and could be useful as a skin-whitening agent when taken orally.

  9. Gallstone Hip” and Other Sequelae of Retained Gallstones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Chin

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of gallstones spilled during laparoscopic cholecystostomy has been thought to be relatively benign. Recent experience and a review of the recent literature shows that this is not always the case. We report three cases of complications of retained stones and analyse the literature with regard to types of complications, time to presentation, and recommendations for managing spilled gallstones. Retained gallstones have been shown to cause adhesions in the rat and inflammatory reactions in dogs with no evidence of absorption. The average time to presentation of complications arising from retained gallstones is 27.3 weeks. Complications include: Intraabdominal abscess formation with or without abdominal wall sinus tract formation, persisting abdominal wall sinus tracts from port site abscess, subhepatic inflammatory masses, cholelithoptysis, microabscesses and granuloma formation, liver abscess and “dumbell” shaped abscess with one side of the “dumbell” forming a subcutaneous abscess. We recommend the judicious use of retrieval devices during the extraction phase of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, diligent removal of any spilled stones and awareness of delayed postoperative pain and tenderness as a harbinger of symptomatic retained gallstones. Documentation of intraoperative gallstone spillage, volume, type of gallstones, and effort to retrieve is recommended.

  10. Review: pathogenesis of gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, R H

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this article is to review selected aspects of the pathogenesis of cholesterol-rich, gall-bladder stones (GBS)--with emphasis on recent developments in biliary cholesterol saturation, cholesterol microcrystal nucleation, statis within the gall-bladder and, particularly, on the roles of intestinal transit and altered deoxycholic acid (DCA) metabolism, in GBS development. In biliary cholesterol secretion, transport and saturation, recent developments include evidence in humans and animals, that bile lipid secretion is under genetic control. Thus in mice the md-2 gene, and in humans the MDR-3 gene, encodes for a canalicular protein that acts as a 'flippase' transporting phospholipids from the inner to the outer hemi-leaflet of the canalicular membrane. In the absence of this gene, there is virtually no phospholipid or cholesterol secretion into bile. Furthermore, when inbred strains of mice that have 'lith genes' are fed a lithogenic diet, they become susceptible to high rates of GBS formation. The precipitation/nucleation of cholesterol microcrystals from supersaturated bile remains a critical step in gallstone formation. methods of studying this phenomenon have now been refined from the original 'nucleation time' to measurement of cholesterol appearance/detection times, and crystal growth assays. Furthermore, the results of recent studies indicate that, in addition to classical Rhomboid-shape monohydrate crystals, cholesterol can also crystallize, transiently, as needle-, spiral- and tubule-shaped crystals of anhydrous cholesterol. A lengthy list of promoters, and a shorter list of inhibitors, has now been defined. There are many situations where GB stasis in humans is associated with an increased risk of gallstone formation--including iatrogenic stone formation in acromegalic patients treated chronically with octreotide (OT). As well as GB stasis, however, OT-treated patients all have 'bad' bile which is supersaturated with cholesterol, has excess

  11. Preparation and Angle-Dependent Optical Properties of Brown Al/MnO2 Composite Pigments in Visible and Infrared Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunfeng; Xie, Jianliang; Luo, Mei; Peng, Bo; Deng, Longjiang

    2017-04-01

    Traditional low infrared emissivity coatings based on aluminum flakes cannot own low IR emissivity and low lightness simultaneously. Herein, a new simple efficient method for the synthesis of brown Al/MnO2 composite pigments with low IR emissivity and low lightness is reported, through forming MnO2 layer on aluminum flakes by thermal cracking, then altering the shape and forming nanoshell by stirring in hot flowing liquid. The results indicate that the MnO2 particles, which have tetragonal structure with high crystallinity, are needlelike and forming a complete shell on the aluminum flakes. The optical properties of composite pigments can be tuned by mass of KMnO4 added in precursor and time of hot flowing. Strong angle-dependent optical effects are observed in five different angles through multi-angle reflectance spectrum, while low lightness and low IR emissivity are preserved. This work is expected to provide a new route for the preparation of colored aluminum effect pigments in low infrared emissivity coatings.

  12. Changes of tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels in the germinated brown rice of pigmented and nonpigmented cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lean-Teik; Huang, Shao-Hua; Chen, Yen-Ting; Su, Chun-Han

    2013-12-26

    This study examined the changes of tocopherols (Toc), tocotrienols (T3), γ-oryzanol (GO), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in germinated brown rice (GBR) of pigmented and nonpigmented cultivars under different germination conditions. Results showed that the Toc and T3 contents in GBR were significantly different between treatments in both rice cultivars. The pigmented GBR possessed higher total vitamin E, total Toc, total T3, and GO contents than the nonpigmented GBR; however, its level of GABA was lower. The order of the three highest vitamin E homologues in pigmented and nonpigmented GBR was γ-T3 > γ-Toc > α-Toc and α-Toc > γ-T3 > α-T3, respectively; β-Toc, β-T3, δ-Toc, and δ-T3 were present in only small amounts (≤1.0 mg/kg) in GBR of both cultivars. Although both cultivars showed an increase in GABA contents with increasing germination time, the GABA content in nonpigmented GBR was higher.

  13. Combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data reveals extensive differences between black and brown nearly-isogenic soybean (Glycine max) seed coats enabling the identification of pigment isogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovinich, Nik; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Miki, Brian

    2011-07-29

    The R locus controls the color of pigmented soybean (Glycine max) seeds. However information about its control over seed coat biochemistry and gene expressions remains limited. The seed coats of nearly-isogenic black (iRT) and brown (irT) soybean (Glycine max) were known to differ by the presence or absence of anthocyanins, respectively, with genes for only a single enzyme (anthocyanidin synthase) found to be differentially expressed between isolines. We recently identified and characterized a UDP-glycose:flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase (UGT78K1) from the seed coat of black (iRT) soybean with the aim to engineer seed coat color by suppression of an anthocyanin-specific gene. However, it remained to be investigated whether UGT78K1 was overexpressed with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the black (iRT) seed coat compared to the nearly-isogenic brown (irT) tissue.In this study, we performed a combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data to elucidate the control of the R locus over seed coat biochemistry and to identify pigment biosynthesis genes. Two differentially expressed late-stage anthocyanin biosynthesis isogenes were further characterized, as they may serve as useful targets for the manipulation of soybean grain color while minimizing the potential for unintended effects on the plant system. Metabolite composition differences were found to not be limited to anthocyanins, with specific proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, and phenylpropanoids present exclusively in the black (iRT) or the brown (irT) seed coat. A global analysis of gene expressions identified UGT78K1 and 19 other anthocyanin, (iso)flavonoid, and phenylpropanoid isogenes to be differentially expressed between isolines. A combined analysis of metabolite and gene expression data enabled the assignment of putative functions to biosynthesis and transport isogenes. The recombinant enzymes of two genes were validated to catalyze late-stage steps in anthocyanin biosynthesis in vitro and expression

  14. A Survey on Prevalence and Pathological Findings of Gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Raoofi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 430 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep at a slaughterhouse in Iran, gallstones were found in the gallbladder of 7 sheep (1.6%. Biliary calculi were more frequent in adult and female sheep (<0.05. Chemical analysis of the gallstones revealed 6 sheep with pigment (bilirubin stones and 1 sheep with cholesterol stones. Chemical composition of bile in these sheep was evaluated. Bacteriologic analysis of the bile in the affected sheep revealed bacteria (Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in 5 sheep. Microscopic examination of gallbladders revealed focal calcification, cystic glands, necrosis and atrophy of mucosal layer, edema, diffuse and focal infiltration of lymphocytes in submucosal layer, and hypertrophy of smooth muscles in sheep with gallstones. It was concluded that the prevalence of both types of gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep is low. Cholelithiasis can cause chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, but it is not likely to become clinically significant.

  15. An experimental study on prediction of gallstone composition by ultrasonography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Beum; Chung, Sae Yul; Kim, Kun Sang; Lee, Yong Chul; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Jin Kyu

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of chemical composition of gallstones is a prerequisite in contemplating the chemical dissolution or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of gallstones. The author retrospectively analysed the correlation between quantitative chemical composition of gallstones and their ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings. The ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT) of 100 consecutive stones obtained from 100 patients were performed under the in vitro condition. Their US and CT findings were grouped with certain pattern and each group was compared with the chemical composition of the stones. Stones with entirely discernible circumference and homogeneous internal echo on US had high bilirubin and low cholesterol content. Acoustic shadows were frequently absent with those stones. Stones with variable internal echo on US had relatively high cholesterol content but their distribution range were wide. There was no correlationship between the cholesterol content and the CT No. of the gallstones. There was positive correlationship between the calcium content and the CT No. of gallstones. The near totally calcified gallstones had very low cholesterol and high residue content. There was no relationship between the calcification type and the ultrasonographic pattern. In conclusion, those stones with entirely discernible circumference and homogeneous internal echo on US were pigment stones. On the contrary, stones with variable internal echo had relatively high cholesterol content. CT could predict the calcium content with CT No., but could not predict the cholesterol content

  16. Incidence of gallstone disease and complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted

    2018-01-01

    of formation and clinical course of gallstone disease. Cohorts of symptomatic gallstone disease have been informative about symptom recurrence and need of treatment. Preventive targets for gallstone formation may include obesity and the associated metabolic changes. The presence of gallstone disease is best...... described as a continuum from asymptomatic to symptomatic disease, with the latter including both pain attacks and complicated disease. Symptomatic disease causes a persistent high risk of symptom recurrence and need of cholecystectomy. The majority of gallstone carriers will remain asymptomatic and about...... one in five will develop symptoms. Determinants of disease progression from asymptomatic to symptomatic disease include sex, age, body mass index, and gallstone ultrasound characteristics. SUMMARY: Because of the absence of effective gallstone formation prevention, targets against the metabolic...

  17. Combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data reveals extensive differences between black and brown nearly-isogenic soybean (Glycine max seed coats enabling the identification of pigment isogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnason John T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The R locus controls the color of pigmented soybean (Glycine max seeds. However information about its control over seed coat biochemistry and gene expressions remains limited. The seed coats of nearly-isogenic black (iRT and brown (irT soybean (Glycine max were known to differ by the presence or absence of anthocyanins, respectively, with genes for only a single enzyme (anthocyanidin synthase found to be differentially expressed between isolines. We recently identified and characterized a UDP-glycose:flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase (UGT78K1 from the seed coat of black (iRT soybean with the aim to engineer seed coat color by suppression of an anthocyanin-specific gene. However, it remained to be investigated whether UGT78K1 was overexpressed with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the black (iRT seed coat compared to the nearly-isogenic brown (irT tissue. In this study, we performed a combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data to elucidate the control of the R locus over seed coat biochemistry and to identify pigment biosynthesis genes. Two differentially expressed late-stage anthocyanin biosynthesis isogenes were further characterized, as they may serve as useful targets for the manipulation of soybean grain color while minimizing the potential for unintended effects on the plant system. Results Metabolite composition differences were found to not be limited to anthocyanins, with specific proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, and phenylpropanoids present exclusively in the black (iRT or the brown (irT seed coat. A global analysis of gene expressions identified UGT78K1 and 19 other anthocyanin, (isoflavonoid, and phenylpropanoid isogenes to be differentially expressed between isolines. A combined analysis of metabolite and gene expression data enabled the assignment of putative functions to biosynthesis and transport isogenes. The recombinant enzymes of two genes were validated to catalyze late-stage steps in anthocyanin

  18. Dual-source CT: in vitro characterization of gallstones using dual energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, H.; Heinrich, M.C.; Adamitz, B.; Hinkmann, F.M.; Uder, M.; Kuettner, A.; Krauss, B.; Dimmler, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Despite clinically available high-resolution CT, the detection and classification of gallstones remains a challenge in some cases. This pilot study examines whether noninvasive characterization of gallstones in vitro is possible using dual-energy analysis (DECT) of dual source CT datasets. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 gallstones (0.4 - 1.5 cm) were examined at 80 kV, 140 kV and in the dual-energy mode. The monoenergetic datasets were examined by two independent examiners and classified as calcium, cholesterol or pigment stones. The results were compared with the pathological classification as the clinical gold standard. After creating reference images for each group via dual-energy analysis, the classification was repeated and compared with the gold standard again. Results: Using the monoenergetic analysis at 80 kV, the sensitivity and specificity were 100/84 % and 100/88 % for calcium stones. For cholesterol stones the values were 54/89 % and 54/85 % and for pigment stones 70/80 % for both examiners. At 140 kV, the sensitivity and specificity for calcium stones were 100/84 % for both examiners, 46/92 % for cholesterol stones for both examiners and the sensitivity and specificity were 80/75 % and 80/80 % for pigment stones. Using the reference images established by DECT, both examiners were able to correctly classify all gallstones. (orig.)

  19. [The treatment of gallstone disease in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assen, S. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Goor, H. van; Cools, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Gallstone diseases (asymptomatic, symptomatic and complicated) are frequently seen in the elderly; the prevalence increases proportionally with age. At higher ages (> 60 years) the presentation of symptomatic or complicated gallstone disease is frequently atypical. Complicated gallstone disease

  20. New determinants for gallstone disease?


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted

    2018-01-01

    Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Denmark and other countries of northern Europe, and cholecystectomy for the treatment of clinical gallstone disease is one the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Research efforts for the identification of mechanisms involved in gallstone...... formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified...... until now. However, much of this research on determinants for gallstone disease has been hampered by insufficient study designs and by insufficient assessment of gallstone disease by only assessing the selected minority of people with clinical gallstone disease. 
In a Danish general-population cohort...

  1. Seperation, identification and analysis of pigment (melanin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine strains among 180 Streptomyces isolates produce a diffusible dark brown pigment on both peptone-yeast extract agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar. They also show the positive reaction to Ltyrosine or L-dopa substrates. The pigment has been referred to be as merely as dark brown watersoluble pigment, as melanoid or ...

  2. Gallstones | Njeze | Nigerian Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment should be undertaken for a little percentage of patients with gallstones, as majority of those who harbor them never develop symptoms. The group that should undergo cholecystectomy include those with symptomatic gallstones, sickle cell disease patients with gall stones, and patients with morbid obesity who are ...

  3. Gallstone Ileus: Dilemma in the Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Girish D; Chincholkar, Rajesh G; Agarwal, Jasmine R; Gupta, Madhukar R; Gokhe, Prachiti S; Nadkarni, Amogh R

    2017-06-07

    Gallstone ileus is a mechanical intestinal obstruction caused due to impaction of a large gallstone within the bowel. The ideal treatment of gallstone ileus remains controversial, with the main dilemma being between a one-stage and a two-stage surgical procedure. A 69-year old male patient presented with gallstone ileus. A one-stage procedure with enterolithotomy and primary closure of duodenal fistula was done. His immediate postoperative recovery was uneventful, but after 3 weeks of surgery, he developed respiratory complications and expired of multi-organ failure. In gallstone ileus, patient presents with symptoms of intestinal obstruction. Enterolithotomy alone remains the most common operative method, but the definitive surgical management is still under research. An intraoperative dilemma between a one-stage or two-stage surgery is difficult to resolve in absence of clear guidelines. Hence, more studies are required to come to a consensus in deciding its definitive management.

  4. Comparative study of sodium and potassium in different types of gallstones and in serum of subjects with gallstones and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Soomro, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease). It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p<0.05) between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.5). Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subject, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05) concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects. The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects. (author)

  5. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  6. New determinants for gallstone disease?
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted

    2018-02-01

    Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Denmark and other countries of northern Europe, and cholecystectomy for the treatment of clinical gallstone disease is one the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Research efforts for the identification of mechanisms involved in gallstone formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified until now. However, much of this research on determinants for gallstone disease has been hampered by insufficient study designs and by insufficient assessment of gallstone disease by only assessing the selected minority of people with clinical gallstone disease. 
In a Danish general-population cohort screened for gallstone disease with multiple ultrasound examinations, it was possible to both confirm previously identified determinants and to identify new determinants for gallstone disease. Temporal associations for incident gallstone disease and female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and inverse associations for increasing alcohol consumption and cessation of hormone replacement therapy in females were confirmed. New determinants included testosterone and increase in SHBG in males which had directly and inverse associations with incident gallstone disease, respectively. All of the identified determinants for incident gallstone disease found in this thesis can be linked to the three biological mechanisms of gallstone formation.
Other modifiable factors such as tobacco smoking, coffee consumption, dietary habits, physical activity, and blood pressure were not identified as determinants of incident gallstone disease in this thesis. Previous findings from other studies may be hampered by study design without exploration of temporal associations or due to selective assessment of

  7. Resolution of gallstone ileus with spontaneous evacuation of gallstone: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Anupama; Usha, Thingujam; Bhargava, Satish K; Bhatt, Shuchi; Bhargava, Sumeet; Prakash, Meenakshi; Durgadas, Aggrwal Anupkumar

    2013-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is an infrequent complication of cholelithiasis. The formation of a fistula between the gallbladder and duodenum may allow a gallstone to enter the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Gallstone ileus generally occurs in the elderly patients and is associated with significant mortality. Spontaneous resolution of gallstone ileus after passage of gallstone per rectally, though rare, has been reported Farooq et al. (Emerg Radiol 4(6):421-423, 2007). We describe a 60-year-old woman who presented with a 3-day history of vomiting, pain, distension and constipation .Radiological investigations revealed dilatation of small bowel loops with multiple air fluid levels with a large lamellated radio-opaque density measuring 4.4 cm × 4 cm seen in the right iliac fossa. A possibility of gallstone ileus was kept. Because of co-morbid conditions (post-myocardial infarct with cardiac failure), surgery could not be done and patient was kept on conservative management. Three days later patient had sudden relief of her symptoms after passing a large calculus per rectally suggesting a spontaneous evacuation of gallstone. This case highlights the possibility of spontaneous resolution of gallstone ileus after the passage of gallstone. It has been reported in stones less than 2.5 cm. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which a large stone measuring 4 cm × 3.8 cm passed spontaneously.

  8. Bile acid synthesis is increased in Chilean Hispanics with gallstones and in gallstone high-risk Mapuche Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gälman, Cecilia; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Pérez, Rosa Maria; Einarsson, Curt; Ståhle, Lars; Marshall, Guillermo; Nervi, Flavio; Rudling, Mats

    2004-03-01

    Gallstone disease is an important, costly health-care problem in Western societies. It is still unclear whether hepatic lipid regulatory enzymes play primary or secondary roles in gallstone formation. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is increased in gallstone disease and to test whether such a metabolic change, if present, might occur before gallstone formation. A total of 125 Chilean Hispanic women (80 without gallstones and 45 with gallstones) matched for age and body mass index were investigated, along with 40 Chilean Mapuche Indian women (20 without gallstones and 20 with gallstones), a population group in which the prevalence for gallstone disease is very high. Fasting blood plasma samples were assayed for 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and lathosterol, 2 strong indicators for hepatic bile acid and body cholesterol synthesis, respectively. Plasma 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels, corrected for plasma cholesterol, were significantly increased by 50% in Hispanic women with gallstones as compared with gallstone-free Hispanics (P or =100% (P Mapuche Indian women, independently of whether gallstones were present. Plasma lathosterol, corrected for plasma cholesterol, was significantly increased by 22% in Hispanic women with gallstones and in Mapuche Indian women compared with Hispanic women. The results indicate that the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is induced in gallstone disease and precedes gallstone development. These inductions presumably occur as a response to an increased intestinal loss of bile acids.

  9. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 155. Jackson PG, Evans SRT. Biliary system. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  10. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  11. Comparative studies of trace elements in two kinds of human gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatankhah, S.; Moosavi, K.; Peyrovan, H.; Salimi, J.

    2003-01-01

    Structural composition of 11 trace elements with Z greater than 13 (Al, P, Si, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, I) was analyzed for the two main groups of human gallstones according to their cholesterol and pigment types by PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission). In both types of stones, the shell and the center were analyzed separately. The gallstones were obtained from 12 patients in wide age group from 22 to 78 years of age during surgical operation. The results show relatively higher values of heavy elements for ages greater than 40. The values of phosphorus in cholesterol type stones are significantly higher than in those of pigment stones. The concentration of calcium in the center of stones is large in comparison with that in the shells. In this paper, a correlation between stone structure and trace elemental concentration has been presented. Comparison of the two essential types of stones (cholesterol and pigment) shows that the center of the pigment stones is very similar to that of the cholesterol type. (author)

  12. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...

  13. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  14. PIXE analysis of gallstones from Turkish patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumusoglu, Nazmi T. [Department of Physics, Rize Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Rize (Turkey)]. E-mail: nazmituran@superonline.com; Korkmaz, Filiz [Department of Physics, Rize Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Rize (Turkey); Birchall, Jim [Cyclotron Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2006-06-23

    The trace element analysis of gallstone samples removed by cholecystectomy from 100 Turkish patients has been done by using protons at 23.5 MeV and the PIXE method. Ca, Fe, Mn, K, Cl, Br, Cu and Zn elements were observed in the samples in varying concentrations related to the types of the gallstone. Elemental concentrations of the gall stones for these elements were determined. Rb was used as the internal reference. Ca concentration is the highest and it is followed by Fe, Mn.

  15. PIXE analysis of gallstones from Turkish patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumusoglu, Nazmi T.; Korkmaz, Filiz; Birchall, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The trace element analysis of gallstone samples removed by cholecystectomy from 100 Turkish patients has been done by using protons at 23.5 MeV and the PIXE method. Ca, Fe, Mn, K, Cl, Br, Cu and Zn elements were observed in the samples in varying concentrations related to the types of the gallstone. Elemental concentrations of the gall stones for these elements were determined. Rb was used as the internal reference. Ca concentration is the highest and it is followed by Fe, Mn

  16. Gallstone ileus of duodenum with huge duodenal stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ehsan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal obstruction by a gallstone is an uncommon but important complication of biliary stone disease which mostly affects the elderly. The classic triad of radiological features includes pneumobilia, ectopic gallstone and evidence of intestinal obstruction. Terminal ileum is the most common site of obstruction, followed by jejunum and gastric outlet. We present a case of duodenal gallstone ileus of a large, fluid-density mixed biliary stone with a peripheral rim of hyperdensity (very fine calcification in CT scan. KEY WORDS: Gallstone ileus, duodenum, intestinal obstruction.

  17. Biliary Tract Disorders, Gallbladder Disorders, and Gallstone Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gallstone in the common bile duct is called choledocholithiasis and may cause intermittent or constant discomfort. The pain of choledocholithiasis is usually localized in the upper abdomen, and ...

  18. [Colonic gallstone ileus: A rare cause of intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco-de la Cuadra, Beatriz; López-Ruiz, José Antonio; Tallón-Aguilar, Luis; López-Pérez, José; Oliva-Mompeán, Fernando

    A gallstone colonic ileus is a very rare condition. The case is reported of an 87 year-old patient who came to the Emergency Department due to an intestinal obstruction of several days onset, which was caused by a gallstone affected sigmoid colon. Colonic gallstone ileus is a rare disease that usually occurs in older patients due to the passage of large gallstone directly from the gallbladder to colon, through a cholecystocolonic fistula. It has a high morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Colonic gallstone ileus: the rolling stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Roisin Mary

    2014-10-16

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis accounting for 1-4% of cases of intestinal obstruction with a predominance in the elderly population. Unfortunately, it has an insipid presentation and is associated with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Controversy arises over the management of gallstone ileus, and while surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, the main point of contention surrounds the extent of surgery. We describe the case of an 85-year-old woman who presented with symptoms and signs of large bowel obstruction. Radiological evaluation revealed a 5 cm×3.5 cm gallstone impacted in the sigmoid colon. A laparoscopic-assisted enterolithotomy alone relieved the obstruction with minimal surgical insult and allowed for a swift and uneventful recovery. Our case emphasises the need for a high index of suspicion for the condition as well as highlighting the advantages of the use of laparoscopic surgery in an emergency setting. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Determinants for Clinical Events in Gallstone Carriers Unaware of their Gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted Shabanzadeh, Daniel; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    was median 17.5 years and 99.8% complete. Cox regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Gallstone events occurred in 16.6% participants of whom 7.2% were complicated and 9.4% were uncomplicated. Total events were associated to body mass index. Complicated events were associated to coffee consumption......, coffee, diet, smoking, or visits to general practitioner and clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: Body mass index, vocational training, and physical activity level were associated to clinical events in long-term follow-up of unaware gallstone carriers. Future trials should investigate clinical effects...

  1. Analysis of heterogeneous gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Brij Bir S; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Jitendra; Rai, Pradeep K; Gondal, Mohammed A; Gondal, Bilal; Singh, Vivek K

    2016-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, no specific sample preparation requirements, non-destructiveness, and versatility. It has been proven to be a robust elemental analysis tool attracting interest because of being applied to a wide range of materials including biomaterials. In this paper, we have performed spectroscopic studies on gallstones which are heterogeneous in nature using LIBS and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) techniques. It has been observed that the presence and relative concentrations of trace elements in different kind of gallstones (cholesterol and pigment gallstones) can easily be determined using LIBS technique. From the experiments carried out on gallstones for trace elemental mapping and detection, it was found that LIBS is a robust tool for such biomedical applications. The stone samples studied in the present paper were classified using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. WD-XRF spectroscopy has been applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major and trace elements present in the gallstone which was compared with the LIBS data. The results obtained in the present paper show interesting prospects for LIBS and WD-XRF to study cholelithiasis better.

  2. The Protective Effect of Brown-, Gray-, and Blue-Tinted Lenses against Blue LED Light-Induced Cell Death in A2E-Laden Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Il; Jang, Young Pyo

    2017-01-01

    A2E-laden ARPE-19 cells were exposed to a blue light to induce cytotoxicity, in order to investigate the protective effects of various tinted ophthalmic lenses against photo-induced cytotoxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells laden with A2E, known to be among the etiologies of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Different-colored tinted lenses with varying levels of tint and different filtering characteristics, such as polarized, blue-cut, and photochromatic lenses, were placed over the cells, and the protective efficacies thereof were evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase assay. When tinted lenses were placed over ARPE-19 cells, there were different reductions in cytotoxicity according to the colors and tint levels. The level of protection afforded by brown-tinted lenses was 6.9, 36.1, and 49% with a tint level of 15, 50, and 80%, respectively. For gray-tinted lenses, the protective effect was 16.3, 35, and 43.4% for the corresponding degree of tint, respectively. In the case of blue-tinted lenses, a protective effect of 20% was observed with 80% tinted lenses, but 15 and 50% tinted lenses provided no significant protection. In addition, photochromic lenses showed a protective effect but blue-cut lenses and polarized lenses provided no significant protection. Tinted lenses significantly reduced cytotoxicity in RPE cells irradiated with blue light. The protection was more efficient in lenses with a brown or gray tint than in blue-tinted lenses. Tinted glasses may provide significant protection against potential blue-light-induced photochemical and photo-oxidative damage in RPE cells. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The Role Of Diet In The Pathogenesis Of Cholesterol Gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Garruti, Gabriella; Frühbeck, Gema; De Angelis, Maria; De Bari, Ornella; Q-H Wang, David; Lammert, Frank; Portincasa, Piero

    2017-05-29

    Cholesterol gallstone disease is a major health problem in Westernized countries and depends on a complex interplay between genetic factors, lifestyle and diet, acting on specific pathogenic mechanisms. Overweigh, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and altered cholesterol homeostasis have been linked to increased gallstone occurrence, and several studies point to a number of specific nutrients as risk- or protective factors with respect to gallstone formation in humans, motivating a rising interest in the identification of common and modifiable dietetic factors that put the patients at risk of gallstones or that are able to prevent gallstone formation and growth. In particular, dietary models characterized by increased energy intake with highly refined sugars and sweet foods, high fructose intake, low fiber contents, high fat, consumption of fast food and low vitamin C intake increase the risk of gallstone formation. On the other hand, high intake of monounsaturated fats and fiber, olive oil and fish (ω-3 fatty acids) consumption, vegetable protein intake, fruit, coffee, moderate alcohol consumption and vitamin C supplementation exert a protective role. The effect of some confounding factors (e.g., physical activity) cannot be ruled out, but general recommendations about the multiple beneficial effects of diet on cholesterol gallstones must be kept in mind, in particular in groups at high risk of gallstone formation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Ultrasound prevalence of gallstone disease in diabetic patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gallstones (GS) in the gallbladder (GB) can be responsible for a whole spectrum of disease entities which may lead to a surgical emergency with high mortality. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a debilitating disease that affects all systems in the body, and literature documents a higher incidence of gallstone disease ...

  5. Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, T J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J

    2017-06-01

    Previous small studies have shown either no difference or a lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. This study examined the incidence of symptomatic gallstone disease in a cohort of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians, and investigated the associations between nutrient intake and risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. The data were analysed from 49 652 adults enroled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study, one-third of whom were vegetarian. The linked databases of hospital records were used to identify incident cases. Risk by diet group was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Further analysis quantified risk by intakes of selected macronutrients. There were 1182 cases of symptomatic gallstone disease during 687 822 person-years of follow-up (mean=13.85 years). There was a large significant association between increasing body mass index (BMI) and risk of developing symptomatic gallstone disease (overall trend Pvegetarians had a moderately increased risk compared with non-vegetarians (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06-1.41; P=0.006). Although starch consumption was positively associated with gallstones risk (P=0.002 for trend), it did not explain the increased risk in vegetarians. There is a highly significant association of increased BMI with risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. After adjusting for BMI, there is a small but statistically significant positive association between vegetarian diet and symptomatic gallstone disease.

  6. Increased Risk of Gallstone Disease Following Colectomy for Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, Anders; Brandsborg, Søren; Laurberg, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Objectives:Biochemical studies suggest that patients who have had a colectomy or restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) are at an increased risk of developing gallstone disease, but epidemiological studies are lacking. We evaluated the risk of gallstone disease follo...

  7. Gallstone Formation Prophylaxis after Bariatric Surgery: Experience in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Ahmed Al-Mutlaq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of gallstones formation association with the obesity epidemic and rapid weight loss is dramatically increasing in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the review of literature was to discuss the gallstone formation prophylaxis and weight loss procedure with especial focus to the available related literature from Saudi Arabia. Methods: A review of the literature was made using the most common electronic sources including: electronic database, EMBASE, MEDLINE search using keywords: gallstones, bariatric surgery, weight loss, and Saudi Arabia. The major outcomes gained were related with the different procedure associated with bariatric surgeries to find out possible predictive factors for the development of gallstone and prevention measures. Conclusion: Although there a gap in literature from Saudi Arabia, the real movement towards a more conservative attitude in the gallstone formation prophylaxis after bariatric surgery needs more physicians to be involved to face the increasing biliary complications.

  8. Screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Skaaby, Tea; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about temporal associations for screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease is limited. The objective of this study was to determine if screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy was associated with development of cardiovascular disease. A cohort study of three...... of cardiovascular disease through nationwide registers until December 2014. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed including traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and apolipoprotein E genotype. Gallstone disease was identified in 10% (591/5928) of participants at baseline of whom 6.8% had...... gallstones and 3.2% had cholecystectomy. The study population was followed for a period of 32 years with only 1% lost to follow-up. Gallstone disease was associated with all cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio (HR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.17;1.59]) and to the subgroups coronary artery (HR 1...

  9. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaater, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

  10. Gallstone ileus in an ederly patient Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornambè, Antonino; Tornambè, Giuseppe

    2017-09-04

    To report an another case of gallstone ileus in ederly patient that was treated with simple enterolithotomy. We report a case of 84 years old female that was admitted with intestinal obstruction. A CT scan suggested small bowel obstruction secondary to gallstone ileus. In relation to the overall clinical condition, we decided to perform a simple enterolithotomy. The first case of a cholecysto intestinal fistula with a gallstone within the gastro intestinal tract was described n 1654 by, Thomas Bartholin in a necropsy study. It constitutes the etiologic factor in less than 5% of cases of intestinal obstruction, but up to one quarter of nonstrangulated small bowel obstructions in elderly patients. In conclusion gallstone ileus is increasingly common, especially in the context of an aging population in developed helthcare system. It is an important differential diagnosis in ederly patients presenting with small bowel obstruction because it has a high mortality rate. Enterolithotomy, Gallstone ileus, Intestinal obstruction.

  11. Gallstone disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus-the link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olokoba, A.B.; Bojuwoye, B.J.; Olokoba, K.B.; Braimoh, K.T.; Inikori, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the factors predisposing patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus to gallstone disease. One hundred type 2 diabetic patients and 100 age and gender-matched controls underwent real time ultrasonography to study factors predisposing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to gallstone disease. The age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes mellitus and serum lipids were determined in the individuals enrolled for the study. Fifteen percent of the diabetic patients had ultrasound evidence of gallstone disease as compared to 7% in non-diabetic controls. There was a steady increase in the incidence of gallstone disease in diabetic patients with age with a peak incidence in the seventh decade i.e. 60-69 years, and a decline in the eighth decade i.e. 70 - 79 years. The average age of the diabetic patients with gallstone disease - 59.1+ 9.5 years was significantly higher than in those without gallstone disease - 51.8 + 10.5 years (p 0.014). The mean duration of disease in the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was 5.0 + 4.9 years compared with 4.5 + 3.8 years in the diabetic patients without gallstone disease (p=0.772). The mean serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels - 4.3 + 1.3 mmol/L and 1.5 + 0.8 mmol/L respectively in the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was higher than in those without gallstone disease - 3.4 + 0.5 mmol/L (p=0.0941) and 1.4 + 0.7 mmol/L (p=0.712) respectively. The mean body mass index for the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was 26.2 + 5.5 kg /m 2 compared with 25.7 + 6.7 kg/m2 in those without gallstone disease (p=0.755) . Increasing age is a risk factor for gallstone disease in diabetic patients. Hyperlipidaemia, female gender, heavier weight and a longer duration of diabetes mellitus appear to be associated risk factors. (author)

  12. AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF GALLSTONES AND ITS CLINICAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Venkatachalam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gallstones occur when there is an imbalance in the chemical constituents of bile that result in precipitation of one or more of the components. This disease is, however, a worldwide medical problem, even though there are geographical variations in gallstone prevalence. In most cases, they do not cause symptoms and only 10% and 20% will eventually become symptomatic within 5 years and 20 years of diagnosis. Thus, the average risk of developing symptomatic disease is low and approaches 2.0- 2.6% year in all populations of the world regardless of overall gallstone prevalence. Women during their fertile years are almost twice as likely as men to experience cholelithiasis. Treatment of gallstones depends partly on whether they are causing symptoms or not. This study was conducted at government KAPV Medical College Hospital in patients who had undergone cholecystectomy to delineate their age and sex distribution, symptomatology and to find out the fraction of patients with incidental malignancy in the gallbladder. The aim of the study is to- 1. Study the clinical presentation of gallstone diseases - symptomatology and acuteness of presentation. 2. Study the gender and age, distribution of patients presenting with gallstone diseases and compare with given standards. 3. Study the prevalence of concomitant CBD stones in patients with gallstone diseases. 4. Study the prevalence of gallbladder carcinoma in patients with gallstone diseases. 5. Study the surgical management of patients with gallstone diseases/CBD stone and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS An analysis of patients presenting with gallstone diseases at Government KAPV Medical College Hospital between 2014-2016 was made with regard to the prevalence, age distribution, clinical presentation and the surgical management and outcome. RESULTS In our study, the male-to-female ratio is 1:1.61. The prevalence of symptomatic gallstone diseases in our study is highest in the 40-49 years age group

  13. [Direct gallstone dissolution therapy with GS-100].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, F; Igimi, H

    1993-07-01

    We have developed GS-100, a new direct dissolving drug with strong dissolution property for cholesterol stone by supplementing d-limonene, a dissolvent used since 1974, with 30% medium-chain monoglyceride (MCM). The new drug was applied in 23 patients with gallbladder stones and three with bile duct stone. The presumptive analysis of the composition of the stones was drawn from the CT recordings. As non-invasive therapies, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) dissolution and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), which are commonly used in Europe and America, have been reported as being favourable; however, GS-100 is superior in respect to safety and applicative dimension, suggesting of the possibility of using GS-100 as an important drug in the non-invasive therapy for gallstone in the near future.

  14. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: elimination of densely calcified gallstones and gallstones with calcified rims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, F; Otsuka, K; Kai, M; Maeda, Y; Higashi, S; Setoguchi, T

    2000-03-01

    Until now, radiopaque gallstones have been excluded from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), because these stones in vivo are less sensitive to the forces that cause disintegration. In Japan there is a higher percentage of patients with radiopaque gallstones than in Western countries. Our purpose in working with patients in Japan was to warrant extensive indication of ESWL to radiopaque gallstones, especially densely calcified stones. Retrospective analysis of clinical data. Patients were classified by computed tomography (CT) of stones. Group A consisted of 78 patients whose gallstones were densely calcified (CT attenuation values in Hounsfield units (HU), 473 +/- 323). Group B consisted of 22 patients whose stones had a calcified rim (CT attenuation values, 357 +/- 244). Ninety-eight patients received adjuvant dissolution therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid. Other recommendations, such as a glass of milk at night, were not given to the patients. One university hospital and one general hospital. One hundred consecutive Japanese patients with radiopaque stones in contractile gallbladder (CT attenuation values, > 150 HU, 447 +/- 310, mean +/- SD) were the subjects. With respect to the efficacy of ESWL, a degree of calcification for stones and its relationship with the rates of stone fragmentation and disappearance were assessed. Fragmentation to less than 3 mm in stone diameter was the aim, without limit of shock wave discharges and sessions. After ESWL sessions stones were fragmented successfully in 74 of the 100 patients (57 of the 78 patients in Group A, and 17 of the 22 patients in Group B). The mean number of discharges per patient was 10,435 +/- 8,726. The mean number of discharges for successful stone fragmentation of Group A (9,839 +/- 8,187) was not significantly different from that of Group B (11,376 +/- 6,344). One year after lithotripsy, 60 of the 100 patients were free of stones (45 in Group A, and 15 in Group B). It appears that patients with

  15. Is complicated gallstone disease preceded by biliary colic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Marc G.; Venneman, Niels G.; Go, Peter M.; Broeders, Ivo A.; Siersema, Peter D.; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Erpecum, Karel J.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cholecystectomy in cases of "warning" episodes of biliary colic may prevent biliary pancreatitis. We aimed to determine which proportion of patients with biliary pancreatitis, compared to other complicated and uncomplicated symptomatic gallstone disease, experienced "warning" episodes

  16. In situ analyses of gallstone inner layers by external PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautray, Tapash R., E-mail: tapash77@hotmail.co [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, 2-188-1 Samduk-dong, Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); ARASMIN, G. Udayagiri, Kandhamal, Orissa 762100 (India); Dutta, Koushik; Das, Saubhagya L. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Rautray, Alekh C. [ARASMIN, G. Udayagiri, Kandhamal, Orissa 762100 (India)

    2010-09-15

    External proton induced X-ray emission analyses were carried out to study the elemental profile at different points of two mixed gallstones inner layers. It was observed that ten minor/trace elements namely P, S, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were present in the mixed gallstone layers. Among the elements detected, Ca shows the highest concentration whereas Br, Rb and Sr were found only at some points in trace level. Concentrations of Ca and P were observed to be the highest in the core of the gallstones. The presence of high amount of Cu and Zn on the surface of the gallstones, as compared to other layers, may be due to contamination with bile.

  17. Study of different concentric rings inside gallstones with LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Rai, Nilesh Kumar; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar; Rai, Pradeep Kumar; Rai, Pramod Kumar; Rai, Suman; Baruah, G D

    2011-07-01

    Gallstones obtained from patients from the north-east region of India (Assam) were studied using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. LIBS spectra of the different layers (in cross-section) of the gallstones were recorded in the spectral region 200-900 nm. Several elements, including calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, silicon, phosphorus, iron, sodium and potassium, were detected in the gallstones. Lighter elements, including carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen were also detected, which demonstrates the superiority of the LIBS technique over other existing analytical techniques. The LIBS technique was applied to investigate the evolution of C(2) swan bands and CN violet bands in the LIBS spectra of the gallstones in air and an argon atmosphere. The different layers (dark and light layers) of the gallstones were discriminated on the basis of the presence and intensities of the spectral lines for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and copper. An attempt was also made to correlate the presence of major and minor elements in the gallstones with the common diet of the population of Assam.

  18. Economic and medical benefits of ultrasound screenings for gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Chung-Te; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2015-03-21

    To investigate whether screening for gallstone disease was economically feasible and clinically effective. This clinical study was initially conducted in 2002 in Taipei, Taiwan. The study cohort total included 2386 healthy adults who were voluntarily admitted to a regional teaching hospital for a physical check-up. Annual follow-up screening with ultrasound sonography for gallstone disease continued until December 31, 2007. A decision analysis using the Markov Decision Model was constructed to compare different screening regimes for gallstone disease. The economic evaluation included estimates of both the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of screening for gallstone disease. Direct costs included the cost of screening, regular clinical fees, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and hospitalization. Indirect costs represent the loss of productivity attributable to the patient's disease state, and were estimated using the gross domestic product for 2011 in Taiwan. Longer time intervals in screening for gallstone disease were associated with the reduced efficacy and utility of screening and with increased cost. The cost per life-year gained (average cost-effectiveness ratio) for annual screening, biennial screening, 3-year screening, 4-year screening, 5-year screening, and no-screening was new Taiwan dollars (NTD) 39076, NTD 58059, NTD 72168, NTD 104488, NTD 126941, and NTD 197473, respectively (P economically valuable. Annual screening for gallstone disease should be recommended.

  19. Changes in Gallbladder Motility and Gallstone Formation Following Laparoscopic Gastric Banding for Morbid Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal O Al-Jiffry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbid obesity is associated with cholesterol gallstone formation, a risk compounded by rapid weight loss. Laparoscopic gastric banding allows for a measured rate of weight loss, but the subsequent risk for developing gallstones is unknown.

  20. Gallstone and Severe Hypertriglyceride-Induced Pancreatitis in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Mary Ashley; Ellis, Jeremy; Vengrove, Marc A; Wilcox, Benjamin; Yankowitz, Jerome; Smulian, John C

    2015-09-01

    Patients with biliary disease or underlying dyslipidemias are at risk for pancreatitis in pregnancy. Appropriate treatment can decrease the risk of recurrence and perinatal complications. Prevention of severe lipid elevations can prevent the development of pancreatitis in pregnancy. To review the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of gallstone and severe hypertriglyceride-induced pancreatitis in pregnancy. We performed a literature search regarding pancreatitis, gallstones, hyperlipidemia, and the treatment of both severe hypertriglyceride-induced pancreatitis and gallstone pancreatitis in pregnancy. In the setting of acute pancreatitis, removal of the offending agent, either gallstones or serum lipids, can lead to improved status and decrease recurrence risk. Patients with acute pancreatitis should be treated with analgesia and fluid resuscitation and maintain a nothing-per-os status. In cases of gallstone pancreatitis, removal of the offending stone through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or cholecystectomy can decrease recurrence risk. Severe hypertriglyceride-induced pancreatitis includes similar management. Lipopheresis may be considered in refractory cases. Patients with severe hypercholesterolemia should maintain a low-fat diet and can continue lipid-lowering agents outside the statin class of medications. Preventing severe dyslipidemia in gestation can decrease the risk of pancreatitis and improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  1. Lifestyle and gallstone disease: Scope for primary prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Materials and Methods: Cases (n = 150 from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150 were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. Results : Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P 60 years was relatively more susceptible (28%. Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%. Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05. Conclusion : Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention.

  2. Optimal timing of cholecystectomy in children with gallstone pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badru, Faidah; Saxena, Saurabh; Breeden, Robert; Bourdillon, Maximillan; Fitzpatrick, Colleen; Chatoorgoon, Kaveer; Greenspon, Jose; Villalona, Gustavo

    2017-07-01

    Little data exist regarding the recurrence of pancreatitis in pediatric patients with gallstone pancreatitis awaiting cholecystectomy. This study evaluates the recurrence rate of pancreatitis after acute gallstone pancreatitis based on the timing of cholecystectomy in pediatric patients. A retrospective chart review of all patients admitted with gallstone pancreatitis from 2007 to 2015 was performed. Children were divided into the following five groups. Group 1 had surgery during the index admission. Group 2 had surgery within 2 wk of discharge. Group 3 had surgery between 2 and 6 wk postdischarge. Group 4 had surgery 6 wk after discharge, and group 5 patients had no surgery. The recurrence rates of pancreatitis were calculated for all groups. Forty-eight patients with gallstone pancreatitis were identified in this study. The 19 patients in group 1 had no recurrence of their pancreatitis. Of the remaining 29 patients, nine (31%) had recurrence of pancreatitis or required readmission for abdominal pain prior to their cholecystectomy. In group 2, two of the eight patients (25%) had recurrent pancreatitis. In group 3, three of eight patients (37.5%) developed recurrent pancreatitis. In group 4, three of five patients (60%), and in group 5, one of eight. No children in group 5 had demonstrable gallstones at presentation, only sludge in their gallbladder. Cholecystectomy during the index admission is associated with no recurrence or readmission for pancreatitis. Therefore, we recommend that cholecystectomy be performed after resolution of an episode of gallstone pancreatitis during index admission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ceramic pigment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Co costs and environmental impact, most of the current research activities concerning Co-based blue pigments have been focused upon the minimization of the employed amount of Co in their formulation (thus reducing both the economic costs and the toxicity). Accordingly, several studies have been previously reported on ...

  4. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Coat pigmentation effects in West African Dwarf goats: live weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although coat pigmentation had no significant effect on all the body dimensions studied except leg length, it was observed that the white and or tan goats had the largest frame size on the average followed by the brown (Bbl) goats. They however, had shorter legs when compared with either 1he brown or black goals.

  6. Association Between Screen-Detected Gallstone Disease and Cancer in a Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    , sigmoid colon, and rectal cancers were not associated with gallstone disease. Breast cancer had a weak association with gallstone disease depending on other factors (10.6% of patients with gallstone disease vs 7.41% without; hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-2.11). Pooled...... ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.01). Right-side colon cancer was also associated with gallstone disease (2.57% of patients with gallstone disease vs 0.96% without; hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.78). Pancreatic, esophageal, gastric, pooled colorectal, left-side colon...... nongastrointestinal and prostate cancers were not associated with gallstone disease. Conclusions: Screen-detected gallstone disease in the general population is associated with pooled gastrointestinal and right-side colon cancers. These associations are not due to detection bias or cholecystectomy. Further studies...

  7. Radiological findings in biliary fistula and gallstone ileus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikarinen, H.; Paeivaensalo, M.; Tikkakoski, T.; Saarela, A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Biliary fistual and gallstone ileus are rarely found. The diagnosis is difficult and may be delayed until operation. We reviewed the radiological findings in a retrospective material. Material and Methods: The cases of 16 patients treated for biliary fistula were analyzed with respect to findings at imaging. Ten patients had a spontaneous fistula. Nine of them had an internal bilioduodenal fistula and one had an external fistula with stones passing through a subcutaneous abscess. Five patients also had gallstone ileus and one patient a rare gastric outlet obstruction caused by a gallstone (Bouveret's syndrome). Six patients had an iatrogenic fistula. One of them had internal bile ascites and 5 an external fistula, one of which was a biliocystic fistula resulting from attempted hepatic cyst sclerotherapy. Results: Various imaging modalities were used and there was often a delay in the diagnosis. Imaging did not show the fistula itself in any of the spontaneous cases. However, a nonvisualized or shrunken gallbladder seen at US often coexisted in these cases. CT yielded the diagnosis in one case of gallstone ileus, and a Gastrografin metal yielded it in the case of Bouveret's syndrome. Fistulography and cholangiography provided a correct diagnosis of fistula in all cases of iatrogenic biliocutaneous fistulas. Conclusion: Patients with biliary fistula usually undergo examinations with nonspecific results. The imaging findings could be more specific if the possibility of this diagnosis were remembered. (orig.)

  8. Radiological findings in biliary fistula and gallstone ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikarinen, H. [Univ. Hospital, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Paeivaensalo, M. [Univ. Hospital, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Tikkakoski, T. [Univ. Hospital, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Saarela, A. [Univ. Hospital, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Surgery

    1996-11-01

    Purpose: Biliary fistual and gallstone ileus are rarely found. The diagnosis is difficult and may be delayed until operation. We reviewed the radiological findings in a retrospective material. Material and Methods: The cases of 16 patients treated for biliary fistula were analyzed with respect to findings at imaging. Ten patients had a spontaneous fistula. Nine of them had an internal bilioduodenal fistula and one had an external fistula with stones passing through a subcutaneous abscess. Five patients also had gallstone ileus and one patient a rare gastric outlet obstruction caused by a gallstone (Bouveret`s syndrome). Six patients had an iatrogenic fistula. One of them had internal bile ascites and 5 an external fistula, one of which was a biliocystic fistula resulting from attempted hepatic cyst sclerotherapy. Results: Various imaging modalities were used and there was often a delay in the diagnosis. Imaging did not show the fistula itself in any of the spontaneous cases. However, a nonvisualized or shrunken gallbladder seen at US often coexisted in these cases. CT yielded the diagnosis in one case of gallstone ileus, and a Gastrografin metal yielded it in the case of Bouveret`s syndrome. Fistulography and cholangiography provided a correct diagnosis of fistula in all cases of iatrogenic biliocutaneous fistulas. Conclusion: Patients with biliary fistula usually undergo examinations with nonspecific results. The imaging findings could be more specific if the possibility of this diagnosis were remembered. (orig.).

  9. Gallstone risk in adult patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Andersen, Yuki M.F.; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    and in those with psoriasis as a proxy for obesity using nationwide data for all Danish citizens ≥ 30 years of age. Outcome was a diagnosis of gallstones. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression (cross-sectional study) and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression (cohort study...

  10. gallstone disease: a call to awareness in subsaharan africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDITORIAL. GALLSTONE DISEASE: A CALL TO AWARENESS IN SUBSAHARAN. AFRICA. Julius A. Ogeng'o PhD, MD. Editor in Chief, Anatomy Journal of Africa and Professor of Human Anatomy, ... history and genetics , geography and ethnicity; and modifiable ones like high calorie diet, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus,.

  11. Incidental gallstones on sonography: a retrospective study | Ani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Protocol for routine abdominal ultrasonography often begins with and usually incorporates the right upper quadrant scan. The liver and the gallbladder are well visualized in this body region and any gallstones can be seen more so with the routine preparation of overnight fasting. Methods: A retrospective ...

  12. [Chemical composition of gallstones in Santa Cruz--Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, T; Peredo, R; Chávez, C; Ostria, O; Otari, Y; Kajiwara, T

    1992-01-01

    The knowledge of the gallstones chemical composition is very important from view point of lithogenesis and possible medical therapy of dissolution. The composition (chemical) of gallstones in 30 consecutive cholecystectomized patients were studied in the 2nd. Department of Surgery of Hospital San Juan de Dios, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (altitude 1900 m). All gallbladder stones were washed, counted, measured and dried before sending them to Japan to be processed. The composition of gallstones was analyzed by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Cholesterolemia, age, sex and number of stones were analyzed in cases of pure cholesterol stones. The incidence of pure cholesterol stones was 56.6%, statistically similar to be reported by other authors, but very low if compared with the valley area of Bolivia (Cochabamba altitude 2300 m) where hypothyroidism is frequent. Hypercholesterolemia had little relation with the pure cholesterol gallstones. There was no difference in the chemical composition and the size of the stones, but while their number was small, cholesterol stones were more frequent. The low incidence of pure cholesterol stones may show a bad nutritional condition of our population (poor fat and protein content) and this result is important in order in using the new advance: lithodissolvent drugs.

  13. Transvaginal Hybrid NOTES Procedure for Treatment of Gallstone Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Shiraishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is a rare mechanical bowel obstruction, and previously reported cases have been treated laparoscopically with good results. Although transvaginal hybrid NOTES without a minilaparotomy has been reported to decrease the incidence of surgical wound complications, to our knowledge, this procedure has not been used previously to treat gallstone ileus. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman who underwent transvaginal hybrid NOTES procedure for treatment of gallstone ileus. This case was admitted to our hospital following acute-onset abdominal pain and vomiting. We diagnosed gallstone ileus with cholecystoduodenal fistula by computed tomography and performed totally laparoscopic surgery using only three 5 mm abdominal ports with transvaginal specimen extraction and enterectomy. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and fistula repair were performed 8 months after the initial surgery. The patient experienced additional pain relief and good cosmetic outcomes. In conclusion, using transvaginal hybrid NOTES may become a future option to minimize the invasiveness of other laparoscopic procedures.

  14. A single centre case series of gallstone sigmoid ileus management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Farkas

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This is the first case series highlighting the differing strategies and challenges faced by clinicians managing gallstone sigmoid ileus. Conservative measures (including manual evacuation, endoscopy, lithotripsy and surgery all play important roles in relieving large bowel obstruction. It is essential to tailor care to individual patients’ needs given the complexities of this potentially life threatening condition.

  15. ceramic pigment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sintering process). The other samples show practically the same morphology, and the mean particle size of the obtained powders is in agreement with that for inorganic pigments used in most applications (i.e., between 0.1 and 10 μm [13]). 3.3 Optical spectroscopy (powders). Since Co2SiO4 mineral owes its violet colour to ...

  16. Gingival pigmentation beneath a metallic crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Hirayasu, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclosed that the essential cause of gingival discoloration following the placement of a metallic crown, was marked deposition of melanin pigment. Deposition of melanin pigment was observed in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and in fibroblasts, macrophages and among intercellular ground substance of the proprial layer. Brown or dark brown colored granules were observed in the deep portion of the proprial layer. Some metallic elements as silver and sulfur were detected. It was presumed that these materials were dental metals accidentally implanted in gingival tissues during the therapeutic procedure. The deposition of melanin pigment closely corresponded with mucosal tissue where these materials were present in the deep portion of the proprial layer. These findings suggested that these materials influenced the physiological metabolism of melanin and induced its pathological deposition in the proprial tissue. (author)

  17. Prevalence of Gallstones Compared in Children With Different Intravenous Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Judith; Watson, Tom; McHugh, Kieran; Hill, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The aetiology of biliary liver disease in children with intestinal failure treated with long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) is multifactorial. Risks include the lipid component of PN. The aim of the study was to compare prevalence and outcome of gallstones with different types of intravenous lipids. Liver and biliary tract imaging and relevant clinical details were reviewed in 71 patients (37, 52% boys) treated with PN for >3 months. Types of lipid infused were compared with regard to hepatobiliary abnormalities. In total 369 abdominal ultrasounds were performed in 71 patients of age between 3 months and 17 years. Underlying diagnoses were short bowel syndrome in 20 (28%), small intestinal enteropathy in 34 (48%), and motility disorder in 17 (24%). A total of 67 (94%) children had 362/369 scans on lipid-containing PN. Of the total, 15 (21%) patients had gallstones, 8 (11%) had sludge, and both were detected in 7 (10%) children. The gallstones/sludge resolved in 7 patients (10%) and persisted in 10 (13%). In 6 patients, sludge progressed to form discrete gallstones, and in 9 children, gallstones led to biliary duct dilatation. Four (6%) patients underwent cholecystectomy. Fewer children had abnormalities with the newer mixed lipid emulsion (P = 0.005). There was a higher prevalence of sludge (P = 0.01) on pure soya lipid. Predictors for sludge were young age at PN (P = 0.001), lack of enteral feed (P children on PN. The use of mixed lipid was associated with less biliary complications and should be the first choice of treatment in children.

  18. Application of ultrasonically modified cloud point extraction method for simultaneous enrichment of cadmium and lead in sera of different types of gallstone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mustafa; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Ullah, Naeem; Khan, Sabir; Talpur, Sehrish

    2017-11-01

    A novel and greener ultrasonically assisted/modified cloud point extraction procedure for the simultaneous preconcentration of lead and cadmium in serum samples of different types of gallstone patients was developed. The chelates of the under study metals, formerly formed with 8-hydroxyquinoline, were extracted in the micelles of a nonionic surfactant prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). After the arrival of the cloud point, the critical micellar mass produced was homogenously dispersed in the aqueous phase with the help of ultrasound energy. The reliability of the developed procedure was tested by relative standard deviation (% RSD), which was found to be <5%. The performance of the proposed procedure was checked by applying to certified reference material and spiking standard in real samples. All the experimental parameters were optimized. The developed procedure of Um-CPE was applied successfully for the analysis of the target heavy metals in serum samples of different types of gallstone patients and referents. The higher levels of the understudy metals were observed in the patients as compared to the referents but the levels of the both metal were found to be considerably higher in patients with pigmented gallstones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver cirrhosis: a risk factor for gallstone disease in chronic hepatitis C patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Wang, Zhongfeng; Wang, Le; Pan, Meng; Gao, Pujun

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the possible link between liver cirrhosis and gallstone risk in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in China.To analyze the association between liver cirrhosis and gallstone development, we compared outcomes of 133 Chinese CHC patients with gallstones and an age-, sex-, and hepatitis C virus RNA level-matched control group of 431 CHC patients without gallstones.We found that liver cirrhosis was more prevalent in gallstone patients (40.6%) than in the control group (24.4%). Logistic regression analyses adjusting for demographic features and other gallstone risk factors revealed that liver cirrhosis increased the risk of gallstone development 2-fold (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.122; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.408-3.198). Moreover, multivariate analyses comparing the risk of gallstone development in liver cirrhosis patients with decompensated or compensated liver cirrhosis yielded an estimated AOR (95% CI) of 2.869 (1.277-6.450) in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Gallstone risk also increased significantly with older age (>60 years) (AOR: 2.019; 95% CI: 1.017-4.009).Liver cirrhosis significantly correlates with increased risk of gallstone development in CHC patients in China. Decompensated liver cirrhosis and older age further heighten this risk in patients diagnosed with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis.

  20. Vitamin D and gallstone disease—A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    sample. Determinants of vitamin D status were also explored. A random sample of 4130 people from the population of Copenhagen with ages 41–71 years were invited (N = 4130) and 2650 participants were included. Ultrasound examinations were performed to assess gallstone status and blood samples were drawn...... to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D and biomarkers of renal and hepatic function. Gallstone disease was found in 422 participants. Associations were estimated by logistic regression models. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was not significantly associated with gallstone disease. Time of birth during low vitamin D....... Findings suggest gallstones to be associated to low vitamin D exposure in utero and to renal failure suggesting that vitamin D might have an impact on gallstone disease. Future studies should explore associations for vitamin D and gallstone disease prospectively....

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Serum Lipid Profile in Gallstone Patients and Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Soomro, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible role of serum lipid profile in gallstone formation. For this serum lipid profile such as total, free and bound cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and total lipids were determined in 109 gallstone patients and 100 controls (matched for age, sex and with negative personal or family history of gallstones) treated at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Pakistan. Comparison for serum lipid profile between different groups of gallstone patients and controls revealed no significant variation except for the triacylglycerols and total lipids, which were differed significantly between females of up to 45 and above 45 years age. Comparison for serum lipid profile between pure cholesterol and mixed composition gallstone formers showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups. The serum lipid profile significantly varied between gallstone patients and controls except bound cholesterol level. Comparison of total cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and total lipids between gallstone patients and controls revealed that there was a significant difference between gallstone patients and controls for (a) females with or without gallstones, (b) females of up to 45 years age and (c) females having more than 3 children. HDL cholesterol is significantly decreased in all the groups of gallstone patients as compared to controls, whereas, bound cholesterol remained non significant in all the groups of gallstone patients when compared with controls. In conclusion, elevated serum total cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and decreased levels of HDL cholesterol seem to play major contributing role in the pathogenesis of gallstones in females of up to 45 years age with more than three children. (author)

  2. Dermoscopy Clues in Pigmented Bowen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gutiérrez-Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented tumors have similar clinical features that overlap and hamper diagnosis. Dermoscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy of doubtful melanocytic lesions and has been used as a noninvasive tool in the detection of pigmented lesions (PLs like melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD. Our objective was to show the dermoscopic features of 2 cases of pBD and compare with the findings reported in the literature. Two dermoscopic images of biopsy proven pBD were retrospectively analyzed for dermoscopic patterns. Both cases showed brown regular globules, structureless brown and blue pigmentation, glomerular vessels, hypopigmented regression-like areas, and keratosis. These findings were similar to the cases reported previously. The dermoscopic diagnosis of pBD is based on the absence of criteria for a melanocytic lesion in the presence of glomerular vessels, regular brown globules and keratosis. Although pBD is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of PLs, especially melanoma.

  3. Fluorescent pigment distinguishes between sibling snail species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Keiichi; Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Asami, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    Traditional taxonomy of shell-bearing molluscs does not generally use soft-body coloration. However, the land snails Bradybaena pellucida and B. similaris have been distinguished only on the basis of the color of the soft-body visible through the shell. Thus, the taxonomic status of the two species has traditionally been questionable. We found that dense spots of pigments embedded in the dorsal mantle are responsible for the yellow coloration of B. pellucida . Similar spots in B. similaris are white and less densely aggregated in whorls further from the apex, and the brown color of the hepatopancreas is visible through the shell. The yellow pigments of B. pellucida seep out with mucus from the body in natural and laboratory conditions. The two species became externally indistinguishable after 30 days of laboratory feeding, because the yellow spots disappeared in B. pellucida and the color of the hepatopancreas changed from dark brown to pale brown in both species. Irradiation with ultraviolet A demonstrated that the yellow pigment of B. pellucida fluoresces. Adult specimens of the two species were distinct in penial microsculpture, with F(1) hybrids intermediate in form. Populations of the two species differed significantly in allelic frequencies at four allozyme loci. Therefore, B. pellucida and B. similaris are morphologically and genetically distinct. The fluorescent yellow pigment distinguishes B. pellucida from B. similaris under natural conditions despite its environmental dependence.

  4. A Prediction Rule for Risk Stratification of Incidentally Discovered Gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    % confidence interval [CI], 1.45-3.69), acute cholecystitis (HR, 9.49; 95% CI, 2.05-43.92), and uncomplicated events (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.38-4.71), including cholecystectomy (HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.29-5.60). Multiple stones were associated with all events (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81), complicated events (HR, 2...... the highest risk for events (HR, 11.05; 95% CI, 3.76-32.44; unadjusted absolute risk, 0.0235 events/person-years). CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than 20% of subjects with gallstones develop clinical events. Larger, multiple, and older gallstones are associated with events. Further studies are needed to confirm...

  5. Gallstone Risk in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Andersen, Yuki M.F.; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    Adult atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with overweight, obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Americans, similarly to psoriasis, but no increased risk of CVD has been shown in European patients with AD. This study investigated the prevalence and risk of gallstones in adults with AD...... and in those with psoriasis as a proxy for obesity using nationwide data for all Danish citizens ≥ 30 years of age. Outcome was a diagnosis of gallstones. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression (cross-sectional study) and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression (cohort study.......14–1.23) for psoriasis. During follow-up, adjusted HRs were 0.72 (0.56–0.90) for AD and 1.10 (1.02–1.18) for psoriasis. The findings highlight important differences in obesity and lifestyle factors among patients with AD and those with psoriasis....

  6. Patient-reported outcomes for acute gallstone pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Parkin, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background A number of prominent surgical trials and clinical guidelines regard length of hospital stay and rates of daycase surgery as being of upmost importance following cholecystectomy. However, it is unclear whether these outcomes also matter to patients. This study aimed to identify the factors patients regard as most important when admitted with acute gallstone pathology. Methods A 41-item survey was produced by combining outcomes assessed in recent clinical trials with results from a ...

  7. Increased Risk of Peptic Ulcers Following a Cholecystectomy for Gallstones

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Huang, Chung-Chien; Kao, Li-Ting; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined the relationship between a cholecystectomy and the subsequent risk of peptic ulcers using a population-based database. Data for this study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. This study included 5209 patients who had undergone a cholecystectomy for gallstones and 15,627 sex- and age-matched comparison patients. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who subsequently received a ...

  8. Which Abdominal Symptoms are Associated with Clinical Events in a Population Unaware of Their Gallstones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High rates of persistent symptoms are found following cholecystectomy in patients with gallstones. The aim of this population based cohort study was to determine which symptoms were associated with the development of clinical gallstone events in a population unaware of their gallstone......: In a population of unaware gallstone carriers, it was possible to identify abdominal symptoms associated with later clinical detection of the gallstones. These finding may contribute to a better selection of patients for surgery.......BACKGROUND: High rates of persistent symptoms are found following cholecystectomy in patients with gallstones. The aim of this population based cohort study was to determine which symptoms were associated with the development of clinical gallstone events in a population unaware of their gallstones....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three random population samples from Copenhagen (N = 6037) were examined with ultrasound during 1982-1994. Participants were not informed about gallstone status. Abdominal symptoms were assessed at baseline through a questionnaire. Follow-up for clinical events was performed through...

  9. Methods of chemical and phase composition analysis of gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, E. I.; Pantushev, V. V.; Voloshin, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    This review presents the instrumental methods used for chemical and phase composition investigation of gallstones. A great body of data has been collected in the literature on the presence of elements and their concentrations, obtained by fluorescence microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, proton (particle) induced X-ray emission, atomic absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, electron paramagnetic resonance. Structural methods—powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy—provide information about organic and inorganic phases in gallstones. Stone morphology was studied at the macrolevel with optical microscopy. Results obtained by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry are discussed. The chemical composition and structure of gallstones determine the strategy of removing stone from the body and treatment of patients: surgery or dissolution in the body. Therefore one chapter of the review describes the potential of dissolution methods. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the disease depend on the development of clinical methods for in vivo investigation, which gave grounds to present the main characteristics and potential of ultrasonography (ultrasound scanning), magnetic resonance imaging, and X-ray computed tomography.

  10. Microbiology of bile in symptomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Akhtar, M.R.; Akhtar, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the microbiology of the bile culture and antimicrobial susceptibility in patients with symptomatic gallstone disease in our setup. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Department Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian from Oct, 2010 to Jun, 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 106 patients underwent cholecystectomy due to symptomatic gallstones and their bile was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and culture sensitivity was performed. Data was analysed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 13. Results: Bile culture was negative in 81 patients (76.4%) and was positive in only 25 patients (23.6%). Escheria Coli was the most common cultured organism in 10 (40%) patients, Klebsiella in 5 (20%) patients, Pseudomonas in 5 (20%) patients, Proteus in 2 (8%) patients, Staphlococcus aureus in 2 (8%) patients and mixed organisms were cultured in 1 patient (4%). Cefoperazone with sulbactum and Amikacin were the most effective prophylactic antibiotics. Conclusion: Bile in majority of patients with symtomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease is sterile. E. coli is the most commonly cultured organism and cefoperazone with sulbactum and amikacin are the most appropriate antibiotics in our setup. (author)

  11. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  12. [Gallstone disease during pregnancy at Landspitali University Hospital 1990-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbeinsson, Hordur Mar; Hardardottir, Hildur; Birgisson, Gudjon; Moller, Pall Helgi

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone disease in pregnant patients and their management in Iceland has not been studied. Management of these patients changed after the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, symptoms, diagnostic methods and management of gallstone disease during pregnancy at the National University Hospital of Iceland during the years 1990-2010. This was a retrospective study and included all pregnant women admitted with gallstone diseases to the National University Hospital of Iceland which is the only tertiary hospital in Iceland. Information regarding age, symptoms and diagnostic methods for all women with gallstone disease along with BMI, ASA scores, pathology results and pregnancy related outcomes for women who underwent cholecystectomy were gathered. During the twenty year time period 77 women were admitted with gallstone disease in 139 admissions which makes incidence 0,1% amongst pregnant women. Diagnoses incuded biliary colic (n=59), common bile duct stones (n=10), acute cholecystitis (n=7) and gallstone pancreatitis (n=1). The most common symptom was RUQ pain (n=63). Two preterm births were a direct consequence of gallstone disease. Fifteen women underwent cholecystectomy during pregnancy and 17 during the six week period after birth. Mean BMI was 31,1 and median ASA score was 1. Pathology reports showed chronic inflammation (n=24) and acute inflammation (n=5), one case included gallstones without inflammation Adverse outcomes of surgeries were two cases of gallstones left in the common bile duct. No stillbirths or preterm births resulted from cholecystectomies during pregnancy. Gallstone disease during pregnancy is rare and readmissions are frequent. Pregnancy related complications are rare. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe during pregnancy. Key words: gallstones, pregnancy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Correspondence: Pall Helgi Moller pallm@landspitali.is.

  13. Pigment and terracotta analyses of Hellenistic figurines in Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.

    2003-01-01

    The results of the analyses performed on blue, black, brown, orange, white and purple pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, excavated in a rock-cut tomb in the archaeological zone of Chania, Crete, Greece, are presented. Different spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence identified the compounds present in the chromatic layers. X-ray diffraction analysis gave complementary information and further support to the spectral assignments. Optical microscopy revealed the nature and sequence of the pigmented layer on the terracotta. Several precious pigments, such as Egyptian blue for the bluish areas, Tyrian purple for the purple ones, and the rare huntite for the white-pigmented areas were identified among the studied pigmented areas. The pigment analysis provides information on the technical aspects related to terracotta manufacture and preservation, and promotes historical indications on cultural and commercial changes among the Mediterranean civilisations

  14. Unmaking Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  15. INTERMITTENT GALLSTONE ILEUS FOLLOWING ENDOSCOPIC BILIARY SPHINCTEROTOMY - A CASE-REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OSKAM, J; HEITBRINK, M; SCHATTENKERK, ME

    1993-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with periods of colicky abdominal pain following endoscopic sphincterotomy and lithotripsy for choledocholithiasis. A diagnosis of intermittent gallstone ileus was made, while it appeared that a large gallstone, that was not removed from the common bile duct, obsructed

  16. An analysis of the role of the indigenous microbiota in cholesterol gallstone pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline J Fremont-Rahl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cholesterol gallstone disease is a complex process involving both genetic and environmental variables. No information exists regarding what role if any the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota may play in cholesterol gallstone pathogenesis and whether variations in the microbiota can alter cholesterol gallstone prevalence rates. METHODS: Genetically related substrains (BALB/cJ and BALB/cJBomTac and (BALB/AnNTac and BALB/cByJ of mice obtained from different vendors were compared for cholesterol gallstone prevalence after being fed a lithogenic diet for 8 weeks. The indigenous microbiome was altered in these substrains by oral gavage of fecal slurries as adults, by cross-fostering to mice with divergent flora at <1 day of age or by rederiving into a germ-free state. RESULTS: Alterations in the indigenous microbiome altered significantly the accumulation of mucin gel and normalized gallbladder weight but did not alter cholesterol gallstone susceptibility in conventionally housed SPF mice. Germ-free rederivation rendered mice more susceptible to cholesterol gallstone formation. This susceptibility appeared to be largely due to alterations in gallbladder size and gallbladder wall inflammation. Colonization of germ-free mice with members of altered Schaedler flora normalized the gallstone phenotype to a level similar to conventionally housed mice. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiome may alter aspects of cholesterol gallstone pathogenesis and that in the appropriate circumstances these changes may impact cholesterol cholelithogenesis.

  17. Effect of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) on cholesterol gallstones and bile secretion in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Silvia; Carmona, Agustín; Luis, Juana; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas, René

    2005-09-01

    Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC.) Coville is used for the treatment of gallstones in traditional Mexican medicine. The possible prevention or elimination of gallstones by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaves and twigs of L. tridentata was tested in hamsters fed a rich carbohydrate, fat-free diet. In addition, the effects of the ethanolic extract and its main metabolite, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, on bile secretion in the perfused liver were tested. In the experiment on prevention of gallstones, the dry ethanolic extract at a level of 0.5% of diet completely inhibited gallstone formation, lowered biliary moles percent cholesterol and increased the proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid of hepatic bile. The dry aqueous extract at a level of 1% of diet did not affect gallstone frequency or biliary parameters. In the experiment on elimination of gallstones, the ethanolic extract significantly reduced gallstone frequency, gallbladder bile cholesterol concentration and moles percent cholesterol. Both the ethanolic extract and nordihydroguaiaretic acid had cholestatic effects in the perfused liver, with an EC50 of 34 and 28 mg dL-1, respectively, when perfused for 10 min. This effect was reversible with concentrations up to 40 mg dL-1. The results indicate that L. tridentata could be useful in the treatment of gallstone disease, however care must be taken due to its hepatotoxicity.

  18. Risk factors for symptomatic gallstones in patients with liver cirrhosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acalovschi, Monica; Blendea, Dan; Feier, Cristina; Letia, Alfred I; Ratiu, Nadia; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Veres, Adina

    2003-08-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a well-documented risk factor for the formation of gallstones. In cirrhotic patients, gallstones are almost always "silent," and surgery is rarely required. When indicated (symptoms or complications), cholecystectomy implies a high morbidity risk in these patients, especially in the advanced stages of cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk factors for symptom development in cirrhotic patients with gallstones to identify the subgroup of patients at risk of undergoing surgery. A total of 140 patients with liver cirrhosis and gallstones were studied: 97 with asymptomatic and 43 with symptomatic gallstone disease. The risk factors for gallstone formation (age, gender, family history, parity, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia) and the characteristics of liver cirrhosis (etiology, duration, Child class, hypersplenism), gallstones (duration, number, size), and gallbladder (size, wall thickness) were assessed in all patients. In 12 patients (four symptomatic, eight asymptomatic), gallbladder emptying was also evaluated by ultrasound. The association of asymptomatic and symptomatic gallstones with all these parameters was statistically evaluated by Student's t, Mann-Whitney, and chi(2) tests, as well as by means of multiple logistic regression. The causal relationship between these characteristics and gallstone symptoms was also examined by means of the KDD (knowledge discovery from databases) method, with an algorithm for learning Bayesian networks. Advanced age, female gender, viral etiology of cirrhosis, family history of gallstones, and duration of gallstone disease were significantly associated with symptomatic gallstone disease. The number or size of gallstones and the size or emptying of the gallbladder did not differ in symptomatic versus asymptomatic patients. Male gender and alcoholic cirrhosis were inversely correlated with symptom presence. In the multivariate analysis, family history (p = 0.0098) and advanced

  19. Are incident gallstones associated to sex-dependent changes with age? A cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, D M; Holmboe, S A; Sørensen, L T

    2017-01-01

    Age and female sex have repeatedly been identified as gallstone determinants but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. The objectives of this study were to determine if changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were associated with incident gallstones. A cohort...... pressure, blood lipids, self-rated health), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, dietary habits, physical activity level), and indices of reproductive function (number of births, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, male reproductive hormones) were explored in females...... and males separately. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Incident gallstones (gallstones and cholecystectomy) at ultrasound examination in participants initially free of gallstones at baseline occurred in 9.9% of the study population. In females, increasing alcohol consumption (odds ratio...

  20. [Gallstone ileus as a cause of acute abdomen. Importance of early diagnosis for surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pérez, Jesica; Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Bravo-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Medina-Arana y, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon type of mechanical intestinal obstruction caused by an intraluminal gallstone, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult in the Emergency department. This study is a retrospective analysis of the clinical presentation of 5 patients with gallstone ileus treated between 2000-2010. Clinical features, diagnostic testing, and surgical treatment were analyzed. Five patients were included: 2 cases showed bowel obstruction; 2 patients presented a recurrent gallstone ileus with prior surgical intervention; and one patient presented acute peritonitis due to perforation of an ileal diverticula. In all cases CT confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. In our experience, gallstone ileus may present with clinical features other than intestinal obstruction. In suspicious cases CT may be useful to decrease diagnostic delay, which is associated with more complications. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of free and bound fatty acids in human gallstones by capillary gas liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Khand, F.D.; Noorani, M.A.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-four human gallstone samples either of pure cholesterol or cholesterol and bilirubin were randomly selected and analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography for the relative percentage composition of free and total fatty acids. The results showed that bound fatty acids were present in higher amounts than the free fatty acids. Amongst the bound fatty acids the percentage occurrence for palmitic acid was highest followed by stearic, oleic, linoleic and myristic acids. Fatty acids myristic, palmitic and linoleic were present in higher amounts in cholesterol gallstones, whereas stearic acid in cholesterol and bilirubin gallstones. When compared, no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the levels of free and bound fatty acids were seen in gallstones of males and females. The results suggest that bound fatty acids have a role to play in the structure of gallstones. (author)

  2. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  3. The role of oral contraceptive (OCP use in symptomatic gallstone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimian SF

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the relation between oral contraceptive (OCPs use, body mass index, parity, familial history of gallstone disease, history of diabetes, history of hyperlipidemia and gallstone disease in women, we have undertaken a case-control study. The study population comparison 80 hospital patients with diagnosed acute gallstone disease as case group and 200 controls who were patients in hospital with no history of gallstone disease. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and T-student test. The results revealed that: The use of OCPs in case group is higher than that of control group. But there is no significant difference between them. No relation was found between gallstone disease and body mass index, parity, history of diabetes, familial history of gallstone disease, use of OCPs of different types and duration of use. While there was a significant difference between the 2 groups regarding history of hyperlipidemia (P<0.05. Finally we found no correlation between the history of use, types and duration of use of OCPs and symptomatic gallstone disease. There was no indication of any interaction between oral contraceptive use and other risk factors and duration of OCP use and other risk factors in the production of disease.

  4. Risk factors for gallstones and kidney stones in a cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagagnini, Stefania; Heinrich, Henriette; Rossel, Jean-Benoît; Biedermann, Luc; Frei, Pascal; Zeitz, Jonas; Spalinger, Marianne; Battegay, Edouard; Zimmerli, Lukas; Vavricka, Stephan R; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael; Misselwitz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Gallstones and kidney stones are known complications of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Risk factors have been insufficiently studied and explanatory studies date back up to 30 years. It remains unclear, whether improved treatment options also influenced risk factors for these complications. Identifying risk factors for gallstones and kidney stones in IBD patients. Using data from the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study we assessed associations of diseases characteristics with gallstones and kidney stones in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Out of 2323 IBD patients, 104 (7.8%) Crohn's disease (CD) and 38 (3.8%) ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed with gallstones. Significant risk factors for gallstones were diagnosis of CD, age at diagnosis, disease activity and duration, NSAID intake, extra-intestinal manifestations and intestinal surgery. Kidney stones were described in 61 (4.6%) CD and 30 (3.0%) UC patients. Male gender, disease activity, intestinal surgery, NSAID usage and reduced physical activity were significant risk factors. Hospitalization was associated with gallstones and kidney stones. The presence of gallstones increased the risk for kidney stones (OR 4.87, p<0.001). The diagnosis of CD, intestinal surgery, prolonged NSAID use, disease activity and duration and bowel stenosis were significantly associated with cholecystonephrolithiasis in IBD.

  5. Screen-detected gallstone disease and autoimmune diseases - A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2018-01-31

    Gallstone disease is highly prevalent and is associated with systemic inflammation. To determine whether screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy are associated with the occurrence of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases and the most common subgroups thereof. A cohort study of three randomly selected general population samples from Copenhagen was performed. Participants (n = 5928) were examined in the period 1982-1992, underwent abdominal ultrasound examination to detect gallstone disease, and followed through national registers until December 2014 (median 24.7 years) for occurrence of immunological diseases. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed. Gallstone disease was identified in 10% (591/5928) of participants, of whom 6.8% had gallstones and 3.2% had cholecystectomy at baseline. Gallstone disease was associated with incidence of autoimmune diseases (12.9% versus 7.92%; hazard ratio 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.11;1.91]), diabetes mellitus type 1 (5.95% versus 3.67%; 1.53; [1.02;2.30]), and autoimmune thyroid disease (3.70% versus 1.59%; 2.06; [1.26;3.38]). Rheumatoid arthritis, autoinflammatory diseases, or any subgroups thereof were not associated. In a large general population sample, screen-detected gallstone disease was associated with the development of autoimmune diseases during long-term follow-up. Future research efforts are needed to further explore common disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Overview of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  7. Preoperative prediction model of outcome after cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Anderson, I B; Bardram, Linda

    1999-01-01

    and sonography evaluated gallbladder motility, gallstones, and gallbladder volume. Preoperative variables in patients with or without postcholecystectomy pain were compared statistically, and significant variables were combined in a logistic regression model to predict the postoperative outcome. RESULTS: Eighty...... and by the absence of 'agonizing' pain and of symptoms coinciding with pain (P model 15 of 18 predicted patients had postoperative pain (PVpos = 0.83). Of 62 patients predicted as having no pain postoperatively, 56 were pain-free (PVneg = 0.90). Overall accuracy...... was 89%. CONCLUSION: From this prospective study a model based on preoperative symptoms was developed to predict postcholecystectomy pain. Since intrastudy reclassification may give too optimistic results, the model should be validated in future studies....

  8. Clays of volcanic – detrititus strata of North the Bohemian coal basin as a raw material for the preparation of natural mineral pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Rucký

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw materials which are suitable for the preparation of mineral pigments are found in the area of the North Bohemian brown coal basin. Set Experiments on a hydrocyclone were realized as a part of the technological research of the suitability of “bolus” and ochres from the North Bohemian brown coal basin to be applicated as ecological pigments. It was found that this method of processing is suitable for the preparation of the product which can serve as a mineral pigment. Produced pigments were examined concerning their application in the area of paint pigments with a positive result.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Nuclear Receptor Function and Cholesterol Gallstone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Carmen Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol gallstone disease is highly prevalent in western countries, particularly in women and some specific ethnic groups. The formation of water-insoluble cholesterol crystals is due to a misbalance between the three major lipids present in the bile: cholesterol, bile salts, and phospholipids. Many proteins implicated in biliary lipid secretion in the liver are regulated by several transcription factors, including nuclear receptors LXR and FXR. Human and murine genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, and pharmacological evidence is consistent with the relevance of these nuclear receptors in gallstone formation. In addition, there is emerging data that also suggests a role for estrogen receptor ESR1 in abnormal cholesterol metabolism leading to gallstone disease. A better comprehension of the role of nuclear receptor function in gallstone formation may help to design new and more effective therapeutic strategies for this highly prevalent disease condition.

  10. Relevance of hereditary defects in lipid transport proteins for the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Venneman, N. G.; Portincasa, P.; Kosters, A.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Groen, A. K.

    2004-01-01

    In the formation of cholesterol gallstones, cholesterol hypersecretion into bile causing cholesterol supersaturation and crystallization appears to be the primary factor, with disturbed gallbladder and intestinal motility as secondary factors. Although intestinal uptake mechanisms have not yet been

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS ON THE ARSENIC CONTENT IN GALLSTONES OF INHABITANTS FROM SOUTHERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kwapulińki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out on the changes in arsenic content in concretions of gallstones which were taken from 93 women (33 smoking and 60 no smoking and 40 men (14 smoking and 26 no smoking, respectively. The elemental composition of gallstones was determined with ICP-AES method (Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Studies on arsenic occurrence in concretions of gallstones showed the presence of its higher concentrations in case of women (0,55 µg/g in comparison with men (0,50 µg/g. It was shown a differences in pattern of changes of arsenic concentration in gallstones in case of influence of behaviour factors (age, place of living, education, diet, coffee and alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity.

  12. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HYPOTHYROIDISM IN DIAGNOSED CASE OF GALLSTONE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sundareswar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Disturbances in lipid metabolism, which occur during hypothyroidism lead to the formation of gallstones. This study aims to evaluate the thyroid function pattern in patients with gallstones. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and gallstone disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 patients admitted as inpatients for management of gallstone disease in Department of General Surgery, GRH, Madurai, between September 2014 to August 2015 were evaluated with details of cases, full history, clinical examination, symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism (loss of appetite, gaining weight, tiredness, constipation, cold intolerance, menstrual disturbances, bradycardia, presence or absence of goiter, etc. and investigations (USG abdomen, USG neck, thyroid function test (T3, T4, TSH. Patients are divided according to history, clinical examination, USG neck and lab estimation of T3, T4 and TSH. 1. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Symptom free patient with TSH concentration above upper limit of normal range and T3/T4 or both decrease below normal limit. 2. Clinical Hypothyroidism: In which, there are symptoms of hypothyroidism with TSH level above the upper limit and T3/T4 or both decrease below normal limit. 3. Euthyroid Group: Where clinical and lab tests are within normal range (all these groups may present with or without goiter. RESULTS This study included 200 gallstone patients who were studied prospectively over a period of 1 year from September 2014 to August 2015. Among them, 18 patients had subclinical hypothyroidism and 6 patients had clinical hypothyroidism. A total of 12% of gallstone patients were diagnosed to have hypothyroidism showing that there is association of hypothyroidism with gallstone disease. CONCLUSION Thyroid dysfunction is more common among patients with gallstones and it maybe a risk factor for biliary stone formation. This may be attributed to the absence of the pro-relaxing effects of

  13. Impaired intestinal cholecystokinin secretion, a fascinating but overlooked link between coeliac disease and cholesterol gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen H; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaodan; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2017-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic, small intestinal, immune-mediated enteropathy caused by a permanent intolerance to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Clinical studies have found that intestinal cholecystokinin secretion and gallbladder emptying in response to a fatty meal are impaired before coeliac patients start the gluten-free diet (GFD). However, it was never really appreciated whether coeliac disease is associated with gallstones because there were very few studies investigating the mechanism underlying the impact of coeliac disease on the pathogenesis of gallstones. We summarize recent progress on the relationship between coeliac disease and gallstones and propose that coeliac disease is an important risk factor for gallstone formation because defective intestinal cholecystokinin secretion markedly increases susceptibility to cholesterol gallstones via a mechanism involving dysmotility of both the gallbladder and the small intestine. Because GFD can significantly improve the coeliac enteropathy, early diagnosis and therapy in coeliac patients is crucial for preventing the long-term impact of cholecystokinin deficiency on the biliary and intestinal consequences. When gluten is reintroduced, clinical and histologic relapse often occurs in coeliac patients. Moreover, some of the coeliac patients do not respond well to GFD. It is imperative to routinely examine by ultrasonography whether gallbladder motility function is preserved in coeliac patients and monitor whether biliary sludge (a precursor of gallstones) appears in the gallbladder, regardless of whether they are under the GFD programme. To prevent gallstones in coeliac patients, it is urgently needed to investigate the prevalence and pathogenesis of gallstones in these patients. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  14. [Complications due to spilled gallstones and surgical clips left in the abdomen during laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellón-Pavón, Camilo J; Morales-Artero, Sonia; Martínez-Pozuelo, Almudena; Valderrábano-González, Santiago

    2008-07-01

    The presence of biliary gallstones and surgical clips in the abdominal cavity after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy can cause complications, which even though they are uncommon, can be serious. We carried out a review of the various complications, their incidence, related risk factors, ways to deal with them and recommendations to reduce morbidity associated with the presence of ectopic material (gallstones and surgical clips) in the peritoneum.

  15. High Prevalence of Gallstone Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A New Comorbidity Related to Dyslipidemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, María Carmen; de Lama, Eugenia; Ordoñez-Palau, Sergi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Corbella, Emili; Pintó, Xavier

    2017-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of gallstone disease and identify associated risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared to the general population. Eighty-four women with rheumatoid arthritis were included in the study. Each patient was assessed via a structured interview, physical examination, abdominal ultrasound and blood test including lipid profile. The prevalence of gallstone disease in rheumatoid arthritis was compared with data from a study of the Spanish population matched by age groups. Twenty-eight of the 84 women had gallstone disease (33.3%). RA women with and without gallstone disease were similar in most of the variables assessed, except for older age and menopausal status in the former. A greater prevalence of gallstone disease was seen in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to the general population of the same age; however, the differences were significant only in women aged 60 or older (45.5% versus 23.1% respectively, P-value .008). The age-adjusted OR of developing gallstone disease in RA women compared with general population women was 2,3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.1). A significantly higher HDL3-c subfraction and higher apoA-I/HDL and HDL3-c/TC ratios were observed in patients with gallstone disease. Women with rheumatoid arthritis may have a predisposition to gallstones that can manifest in middle or older age compared with women in the general population. This situation could be related to chronic inflammation and HDL metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  16. Pigment production on L-tryptophan medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaskes, Stuart; Cammer, Michael; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da) from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular) or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin.

  17. Pigment Production on L-Tryptophan Medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaskes, Stuart; Cammer, Michael; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da) from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular) or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin. PMID:24736553

  18. Gallstone ileus - the double challenge: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is a rare condition which occurs as an evolutive complication of biliary lithiasis. It occurs after stone migration from extrahepatic biliary tree to the digestive lumen, mostly through a biliary-enteric fistula. This condition involves repeated inflammatory relapses with the formation of local adhesions and generally requires a long evolution. The vast majority of patients with biliary ileus are third aged women who often have concomitant medical illnesses. Gallstone ileus surgery deals with the two components: bowel obstruction and biliary pole. Obstruction solving is approached as a surgical emergency and it requires an attitude adapted to the local situation. The attitude towards biliary surgery for gallstone ileus is a matter in debate. It could be one-stage surgery, elective surgery or expectancy and its choice is imposed by both local and general condition of the patient. We report the case of a middle-age woman whose first symptom of cholelithiasis was the gallstone ileus. Plain upright abdominal radiography revealed air-fluid levels with distended loops of the small bowel and pneumobilia. Laparotomy was decided and exploration revealed an impacted gallstone into the ileum and dense adhesions were found under the liver region. Enterolithotomy for gallstone removal was made. Postoperative evolution was uneventful with discharge on 7th day.

  19. Protein content in gallstone patients can be a contributing factor in cholelithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Memon, A.H.; Awan, A.Y.; Noorani, L.

    2017-01-01

    To find out the protein contents as contributing factor in the cholelithiasis patients. Methodology: The study was conducted during January 2016 to December 2016 at Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. A total number of 109 cholelithiasis patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Wali Bhai Rajputana Hospital, Hyderabad and Memon Charitable Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan and 294 age and gender matched control subjects were selected for the study. The serum samples of gallstone patients and control subjects were analyzed for the total protein contents by biuret kit method, gallstones recovered from the patients were also analyzed for the protein contents by Bradford method. Results: Cholelithiasis patients showed that gallstone protein contents increased with increasing age. We found increased amount of protein contents in mixed composition of gallstones as compared to pure cholesterol gallstones. Serum protein contents were increased in patients with age group 31-45 years, followed by age group 16-30 years. Female cholelithiasis patients were found with increased serum protein contents (but within normal limits) as compared to male cholelithiasis patients. Increased protein contents were also observed in serum as well as in gallstone samples recovered from multiparous female patients in comparison to triparous female patients. Conclusion: Protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis. (author)

  20. Prevention of cholesterol gallstones by inhibiting hepatic biosynthesis and intestinal absorption of cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen H; Portincasa, Piero; de Bari, Ornella; Liu, Kristina J; Garruti, Gabriella; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Wang, David Q.-H

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial disease influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors, and represents a failure of biliary cholesterol homeostasis in which the physical-chemical balance of cholesterol solubility in bile is disturbed. The primary pathophysiologic event is persistent hepatic hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol, which has both hepatic and small intestinal components. The majority of the environmental factors are probably related to Western-type dietary habits, including excess cholesterol consumption. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the US, is nowadays a major treatment for gallstones. However, it is invasive and can cause surgical complications, and not all patients with symptomatic gallstones are candidates for surgery. The hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been employed as first-line pharmacological therapy in a subgroup of symptomatic patients with small, radiolucent cholesterol gallstones. Long-term administration of UDCA can promote the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. However, the optimal use of UDCA is not always achieved in clinical practice because of failure to titrate the dose adequately. Therefore, the development of novel, effective, and noninvasive therapies is crucial for reducing the costs of health care associated with gallstones. In this review, we summarize recent progress in investigating the inhibitory effects of ezetimibe and statins on intestinal absorption and hepatic biosynthesis of cholesterol, respectively, for the treatment of gallstones, as well as in elucidating their molecular mechanisms by which combination therapy could prevent this very common liver disease worldwide. PMID:23419155

  1. Thyroid dysfunction, either hyper or hypothyroidism, promotes gallstone formation by different mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Xing; Zhao, Qun-zi; Zheng, Shu; Qing, Wen-jie; Miao, Chun-di; Sanjay, Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated comprehensively the effects of thyroid function on gallstone formation in a mouse model. Gonadectomized gallstone-susceptible male C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into three groups each of which received an intervention to induce hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or euthyroidism. After 5 weeks of feeding a lithogenic diet of 15% (w/w) butter fat, 1% (w/w) cholesterol, and 0.5% (w/w) cholic acid, mice were killed for further experiments. The incidence of cholesterol monohydrate crystal formation was 100% in mice with hyperthyroidism, 83% in hypothyroidism, and 33% in euthyroidism, the differences being statistically significant. Among the hepatic lithogenic genes, Trβ was found to be up-regulated and Rxr down-regulated in the mice with hypothyroidism. In contrast, Lxrα, Rxr, and Cyp7α1 were up-regulated and Fxr down-regulated in the mice with hyperthyroidism. In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction, either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, promotes the formation of cholesterol gallstones in C57BL/6 mice. Gene expression differences suggest that thyroid hormone disturbance leads to gallstone formation in different ways. Hyperthyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by regulating expression of the hepatic nuclear receptor genes such as Lxrα and Rxr, which are significant in cholesterol metabolism pathways. However, hypothyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by promoting cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27381728

  2. Serum lipids coupled with menopausal status may be used as biomarkers in female gallstone patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, A.Y.; Channa, N.A.; Solangi, D.A.; Tabassum, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Females with different menopausal status are compared for serum lipids to explore the role of menopausal status in developing gallstones. Methodology: This study was conducted at Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan. A total number of 135 female gallstone patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital, Wali Bhai Rajputana Hospital, Hyderabad and other hospitals of Hyderabad, Pakistan and 170 age and gender matched control subjects were selected for the study. The serum samples of patients of different menopausal status and control group were analyzed for the lipid contents. Gallstones recovered from the patients were also analyzed for the composition by FTIR. Results: Serum total cholesterol (TC) and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly varied among all age groups while serum triglycerides (TG), serum very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and serum total lipids (TL) were found to be significantly differed among four different types of gallstone formers. Consumers of non-branded oil and non-branded ghee were found with significant lipid alterations in comparison to control group. Major lipid alterations were found in female gallstone patients with pre and peri-menopause. Conclusion: Raised serum TC, serum TG and decreased serum HDL-C in addition to pre- and peri-menopausal status may be considered as biomarkers for female gallstone patients.

  3. Genetic disorders of pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Thierry; Mantoux, Frédéric; Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    More than 127 loci are actually known to affect pigmentation in mouse when they are mutated. From embryogenesis to transfer of melanin to the keratinocytes or melanocytes survival, any defect is able to alter the pigmentation process. Many gene mutations are now described, but the function of their product protein and their implication in melanogenesis are only partially understood. Each genetic pigmentation disorder brings new clues in the understanding of the pigmentation process. According to the main genodermatoses known to induce hypo- or hyperpigmentation, we emphasize in this review the last advances in the understanding of the physiopathology of these diseases and try to connect, when possible, the mutation to the clinical phenotype.

  4. Solitary black pigment stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpers, C.; Wosiewitz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Solitary pigment stones of the gall-bladder are rare (1.7%). 82,5% are radiopaque, 17.5% radiolucent. 64,8% of radiopaque solitary pigment stones have the structure of a cockade. Such cockades take years to develop. Solitary cholesterol stones with a nucleus of a radiopaque pigment stone should not be treated for litholysis. 8% of solitary cholesterol stones with a cross diameter below 15 mm. possess a radiolucent pigment stone nucleus. X-ray diagnosis for selecting litholytic treatment remains the safest method, especially if the radiologist compares his films regularly with the specimens after surgery. (orig.) [de

  5. Duodenal Obstruction by a Gallstone (Bouveret's Syndrome Managed by Endoscopic Stone Extraction: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzjosef Schweiger

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric outlet obstruction caused by a large gallstone in the duodenum or pylorus (Bouveret's syndrome is a rare complication of gallstone disease. The presenting symptoms are often nonspecific and include nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain and a history of gallbladder disease. Although the diagnosis is established only at surgery in many cases, preoperative recognition by imaging techniques and endoscopy is desirable. Surgical treatment aims at removal of the ectopic gallstone, closure of the fistula and cholecystectomy. A case of Bouveret's syndrome is presented where endoscopic extraction of the duodenal gallstone was accomplished providing definitive treatment for this patient.

  6. Hepatitis C Virus Infection Increases Risk of Gallstone Disease in Elderly Chinese Patients with Chronic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Gao, Pujun

    2018-03-15

    We investigated possible links between the etiology of liver disease and gallstone risk in Chinese patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We compared the outcomes of 267 Chinese CLD patients with gallstones and those of a control group of 1,015 CLD patients without gallstones. Logistic regression analyses adjusting for demographic features and other gallstone risk factors revealed that liver cirrhosis increased the risk of gallstone development twofold [adjusted odds ratio (AOR); 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.343 (1.710-3.211)]. HCV infection increased gallstone risk 1-2-fold [AOR; 95% CI: 1.582 (1.066-2.347)] higher than did HBV infection. Multivariate analyses of the risk of developing gallstones in patients with liver cirrhosis after an HCV or HBV infection yielded an estimated AOR (95% CI) of 1.601 (1.063-2.413) in patients with an HCV infection. In elderly patients with CLD (≥60 years of age), gallstone risk also increased significantly after an HCV infection [AOR (95% CI): 2.394 (1.066-5.375)]. HCV infection, older age, and liver cirrhosis significantly correlate with an increased risk of gallstone development in Chinese patients with CLD. HCV infection further increases this risk in both patients with liver cirrhosis and in elderly CLD patients (≥60 years of age).

  7. The Assessment of Natural Pigmentation in Archaeological Wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, Annemette Bruselius

    2018-01-01

    , transmitted light microscopy of cross-sections dyed with Toluidine Blue O, and transmission electron microscopy of cross-sections. The results showed that it was difficult to detect any pigments by transmitted light microscopy of whole mounts of the fibres. Transmitted light microscopy of dyed cross......, the majority of the grains are eumel¬anin, whereas red and yellow wool contain mainly pheomelanin. Transmitted light microscopy of whole mounts of the fibres is commonly used for the detection of natural pigment grains. However, it can be difficult to detect the pigment grains exclusively by transmitted light...... patterned fragments were selected for analyses. Earlier dyestuff analyses of the red-brown yarns gave no results, and it was therefore necessary to test the yarns for natural pigmentation. Three different methods were used for the analy¬ses. Transmitted light microscopy of whole mounts of the fibres...

  8. Complexation of cesium 137 by the cap pigments of the bay boletus (Xerocomus badius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumann, C.; Clooth, G. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Nuklearchemie); Steffan, B.; Steglich, W. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie und Biochemie)

    1989-04-01

    Why is /sup 137/Cs strongly enriched in bay boletus but hardly at all in cepe This question, which arose after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, can now be answered. It was already known that bay boletus contains the unusual pigments badione A and norbadione A in the brown pileus and that these pigments are absent in cepe. The cap pigments are present in the mushroom as potassium complexes. However, the pigments can also bind cesium. Norbadione forms a 1:1 complex with CsCl. This complex can be dissociated by exposure to a strongly acidic cation exchanger. (orig.).

  9. Gallstone Ileus Caused by Cholecystocolonic Fistula and Gallstone Impaction in the Sigmoid Colon: Review of the Literature and Novel Surgical Treatment with Trephine Loop Colostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. O’Brien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction and occurs following the formation of a cholecystoenteric fistula, permitting passage of gallstones into the gastrointestinal tract. Impaction of a gallstone in the sigmoid colon is rare and is usually at sites of previous colonic disease. Definitive management can be challenging due to the advanced age and co-morbidity usually seen in this group of patients. We describe a patient successfully managed with on-table endoscopy and, under local anaesthetic, the formation of a left iliac fossa trephine loop colostomy, permitting an enterolithotomy to deliver the stone whilst accommodating for severe pre-existing distal sigmoid diverticular disease. A review of the literature identified various endoscopic and surgical treatments that, depending on local expertise and patient characteristics, can be considered on a case-by-case basis. We advocate the management described in this case for patients presenting with large bowel obstruction due to gallstone ileus, with a background of diverticular disease and who are not fit for general anaesthetic or formal bowel resection, as an alternative to medical palliation alone.

  10. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  11. Increased Risk of Peptic Ulcers Following a Cholecystectomy for Gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Huang, Chung-Chien; Kao, Li-Ting; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-07-29

    This retrospective cohort study examined the relationship between a cholecystectomy and the subsequent risk of peptic ulcers using a population-based database. Data for this study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. This study included 5209 patients who had undergone a cholecystectomy for gallstones and 15,627 sex- and age-matched comparison patients. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who subsequently received a diagnosis of peptic ulcers. We found that of the 20,836 sampled patients, 2033 patients (9.76%) received a diagnosis of peptic ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period: 674 from the study group (12.94% of the patients who underwent a cholecystectomy) and 1359 from the comparison group (8.70% of the comparison patients). The stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for peptic ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period was 1.48 (95% CI = 1.34~1.64) for patients who underwent a cholecystectomy than comparison patients. Furthermore, the adjusted HRs of gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers during the 5-year follow-up period were 1.70 and 1.71, respectively, for patients who underwent a cholecystectomy compared to comparison patients. This study demonstrated a relationship between a cholecystectomy and a subsequent diagnosis of peptic ulcers.

  12. [Bouveret's syndrome: A rare presentation of gallstone ileus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Avilés, Luis; Arce-Guridi, Héctor Tonalli; Mercado, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome is defined as gastric outlet obstruction caused by duodenal impaction of a gallstone which passes into the duodenal bulb through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. We reported the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented intermittent epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss of 2-months duration. The patient admitted alcohol and methamphetamine abuse. She had not fever, dehydration or jaundice. Amylase, electrolytes, enzymes, and creatinine level were within normal limits. Seven months previously she was seen in the emergency department for acute cholecystitis. In that occasion, an abdominal ultrasound was reported with cholelithiasis without dilatation of the intra/extra-hepatic bile duct. Abdominal plain radiographs showed no relevant findings. A laparoscopic surgery was performed. During the procedure a sub-hepatic plastron with firm adhesions was found. The gallbladder was found attached to the duodenal bulb and an impacted calculus in the duodenum. The procedure was converted to surgery. Surgeon decided to perform a Bilroth 1 as the best choice. Seven days later, she was discharged. The clinical manifestations of the Bouveret's syndrome are nonspecific. Preoperative diagnosis is a challenge for clinicians because of the rarity of this condition. Treatment must be individualized.

  13. [Microbial sources of pigments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizares-Villanueva, R O; Ríos-Leal, E; Olvera Ramírez, R; Ponce Noyola, T; Márquez Rocha, F

    1998-01-01

    Pigments from natural sources has been obtained since long time ago, and their interest has increased due to the toxicity problems caused by those of synthetic origin. In this way the pigments from microbial sources are a good alternative. Some of more important natural pigments, are the carotenoids, flavonoids (anthocyanins) and some tetrapirroles (chloropyls, phycobilliproteins). Another group less important are the betalains and quinones. The carotenoids are molecules formed by isoprenoids units and the most important used as colorant are the alpha and beta carotene which are precursors of vitamin A, and some xantophylls as astaxanthin. The pigment more used in the industry is the beta-carotene which is obtained from some microalgae and cyanobacteria. The astaxanthin another important carotenoid is a red pigment of great commercial value, and it is used in the pharmaceutical feed and acuaculture industries. This pigments is mainly obtained from Phaffia rhodozyma and Haematococcus pluvialis and other organisms. The phycobilliproteins obtained from cyanobacteria and some group of algae, have recently been increased on the food industries. In the last years it has been used as fluorescent marker in biochemical assays. Our research group have carried out studies about the factors that improve the production of these pigments obtained from different microbial species as well as the methods for their extraction and application.

  14. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  15. Ursodeoxycholic acid for the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease after bariatric surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (UPGRADE trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, Thomas C. C.; Haal, Sylke; de Brauw, L. Maurits; Acherman, Yair I. Z.; Bruin, Sjoerd; van de Laar, Arnold W. J. M.; Moes, Daan E.; van Wagensveld, Bart A.; de Vries, Claire E. E.; van Veen, Ruben; Schouten, Ruben; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Fockens, Paul; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Voermans, Rogier P.

    2017-01-01

    The number of bariatric interventions for morbid obesity is increasing worldwide. Rapid weight loss is a major risk factor for gallstone development. Approximately 11 % of patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass develop symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallstone disease can lead to severe

  16. The ABCG5/8 Cholesterol Transporter and Myocardial Infarction Versus Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study sought to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in ABCG5/8, the transporter responsible for intestinal and hepatobiliary cholesterol efflux, may simultaneously influence plasma and biliary cholesterol levels, and hence risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and gallstone...... disease in opposite directions. BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a causal risk factor for MI, whereas high levels of biliary cholesterol promote gallstone formation. METHODS: A total of 60,239 subjects from Copenhagen were included, including 5,647 with MI...... and 3,174 with symptomatic gallstone disease. Subjects were genotyped for 6 common, nonsynonymous and functional variants in ABCG5/8, and a combined weighted genotype score was calculated. RESULTS: Combined, weighted genotype scores were associated with stepwise decreases in LDL cholesterol of up to 5...

  17. The epidemiology of gallstones in a 70-year-old Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Kay, L; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1990-01-01

    A random sample of 540 men and women aged 70 years who lived in the western part of Copenhagen County was drawn from the National Central Person Register. The response rate was 74.8% among men and 63.7% among women. Each subject had the gallbladder examined by ultrasonography. The prevalence...... of gallstone disease was 30.2% and 18.8% among women and men, respectively, being significantly higher among women. Prevalence was assessed in relation to different social and clinical variables. In the univariate analyses gallstone disease was significantly associated with familial occurrence of gallstone...... disease and high body mass index, whereas it was not significantly associated with social status, childbirths, age at menopause, usage of menopausal hormone therapy, abstinence from alcohol, history of smoking, slimming treatments, and physical activity. By means of a multivariate analysis the history...

  18. Pigments in Thermophilic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, T; Rao, Sanjay SR; Maheshwari, R

    1986-01-01

    UV and visible absorption spectra of thermophilic fungi were obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy. Based on these data as well as on the chem. properties and IR spectra, it is suggested that the pigments may be hydroxylated polycyclic quinones.

  19. Chlorophyll: The wonder pigment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    Chlorophyll, the green plant pigment, a 'real life force' of living beings, besides synthesizing food, is a great source of vitamins, minerals and other phytochemicals. Adding chlorophyll rich food to our diet fortifies our body against health...

  20. The influence of temperature on the color of TiO2:Cr pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes Vieira, Fagner Ticiano; Silva Melo, Danniely; Jackson Guedes de Lima, Severino; Longo, Elson; Paskocimas, Carlos Alberto; Silva Junior, Wilson; Gouveia de Souza, Antonio; Garcia dos Santos, Ieda Maria

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 :Cr brown pigments were prepared via a polymeric precursor derived from the Pechini method. The pigments were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-vis spectroscopy, and colorimetry. The increase of the calcination temperature from 700 to 1000 deg. C led to a decrease in the L* values, corresponding to darkening of the pigments. The pigments obtained in this work are darker than those produced by a solid-state reaction method reported before. The change in the pigment color is due to the anatase-rutile phase transition, which leads to a shift in the charge transfer bond (Ti 4+ ↔ O 2- ) due to a change in the crystal field around the chromophore ions. Moreover, the oxidation state of chromium was observed to change, and this also alters the color of the pigments

  1. Comparison of Virtual Unenhanced Images Derived From Dual-Energy CT With True Unenhanced Images in Evaluation of Gallstone Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han A; Lee, Young Hwan; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Bang, Dong-Ho; Park, Dong Eun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare gallstones on virtual unenhanced images and true unenhanced images acquired with dual-energy CT (DECT). We enrolled 112 patients with right upper quadrant pain and clinically suspected acute cholecystitis or gallstone who underwent DECT--including unenhanced, arterial, and portal phases. Eighty-three gallstones with composition proven by semiquantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy from 45 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy (40 cholesterol gallstones from 21 patients, 43 calcium gallstones from 24 patients) were included. CT images were retrospectively evaluated for stone size, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of gallstone to bile, and visibility and density of gallstones for each image set. The visibility of each type of stone was compared with a paired t test. Both cholesterol and calcium stones measured smaller on virtual unenhanced images than on true unenhanced images, yielding a lower sensitivity of virtual unenhanced images for detecting small gallstones. Mean CNR of cholesterol stones was 2.45 ± 1.32 versus 1.67 ± 1.55 (p < 0.032) and that of calcium stones was 10.59 ± 7.15 and 14.11 ± 9.81 (p < 0.001) for virtual unenhanced and true unenhanced images, respectively. For calcium stones, two readers found 43 of 43 (100%) on true unenhanced images; one reader found 41 of 43 (95%) and the other, 37 of 43 (86%) on virtual unenhanced images. For cholesterol stones, one reader found 20 of 40 (50%) and the other 19 of 40 (47%) on true unenhanced images versus 34 of 40 (85%) and 30 of 40 (75%), respectively, on virtual unenhanced images. The visibility of cholesterol stones was higher on virtual unenhanced images, but that of calcium stones was lower. Virtual unenhanced images at DECT allow better visualization of cholesterol gallstones, but true unenhanced images allow better visualization of calcium and small gallstones.

  2. Prodigiosin-like pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, N N

    1975-05-01

    Prodigiosin, the bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens, has also been identified in Pseudomonas magnesiorubra, Vibrio psychroerythrus, and two Gram-negative rod-shaped mesophilic marine bacteria not members of the genus Serratia. Prodigiosin is sometimes bound to proteins; thus, extracts may require acid treatment before isolation of the pigment. Higher homologs of prodigiosin have been detected by mass spectroscopy. A mutant strain of S. marcescens produced nor-prodigiosin, in which the methoxy group of prodigiosin is replaced by a hydroxy group. Another mutant strain produced a blue tetrapyrrole pigment whose structure is a dimer of prodigiosin's rings A and B. Three novel biosynthetic analogs of prodigiosin have been obtained using a colorless mutant which does make rings A and B but not ring C and which can couple rings A and B with some added monopyrroles similar to ring C. The structures of three prodiginine (prodigiosin-like) pigments from streptomyces have been elucidated. All have the methoxytripyrrole aromatic nucleus of prodigiosin and all have an 11 carbon aliphatic side chain attached at carbon 2 of ring C. In two of the pigments the side chain is also linked to another carbon of ring C. The earlier literature about prodiginine pigments from actinomycetes has been interpreted and evaluated in light of the most recent findings. The structure elucidation of six prodiginine pigments from Actinomadurae (Nocardiae) has been completed. Only one, undecylprodiginine, is the same as from a streptomycete. For three of the six pigments, nine carbon side chains are observed and in four of them the side chain is attached to carbon 5 of ring A as well as carbon 2 of ring C so that a large ring is formed which includes the three pyrrole moieties. A section on identification summarized useful methods and presents information with which any known prodiginine pigment can be identified. The final step in the biosynthesis of prodigiosin was known to be

  3. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  4. Elevated body mass index as a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    disease during up to 34 years of follow-up. Subjects were genotyped for three common variants known to associate with BMI: FTO(rs9939609); MC4R(rs17782313); and TMEM18(rs6548238). The number of BMI-increasing alleles was calculated for each participant. In observational analyses, mean baseline BMI was 55......Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of gallstone disease. Whether this reflects a causal association is unknown. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we studied 77,679 individuals from the general population. Of these, 4,106 developed symptomatic gallstone...

  5. Known risk factors do not explain disparities in gallstone prevalence between Denmark and northeast Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Nele; Völzke, Henry; Hampe, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    .52-2.36)) had approximatively twice the odds of gallstones than Danes. Inclusion of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, coffee use) did not affect this result, whereas adjustment for body mass index (BMI), lipids, diabetes, and use of oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and parity...... (women only) changed the estimates considerable, but still Germans (women: OR, 1.65 (95% CI: 1.36-2.00); men: OR, 1.61 (95% CI: 1.27-2.04)) had higher odds than Danes. CONCLUSIONS: German individuals had a higher prevalence of gallstones than Danes. This difference was partly explained by a higher BMI...

  6. The prevalence and risk factors for cholelithiasis and asymptomatic gallstones in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Yumi; Toyoda, Tomohiko; Kawasoe, Yasutaka; Tateno, Shigeru; Shirai, Takeaki; Matsuo, Kozo; Mizuno, Yoshiko; Ai, Toshiji; Niwa, Koichiro

    2011-10-20

    Cyanosis is considered to be a risk factor for cholelithiasis which is an important complication of cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) in adults. In this study, the prevalence of cholelithiasis and asymptomatic calcium bilirubinate gallstones was evaluated in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Furthermore, risk factors for this potentially high risk complication were assessed. Subjects were derived from 114 consecutive congenital patients who visited our center from May 2008 to January 2009. For analyses of risk factors, we divided them into 4 groups: group A, 15 CCHD patients without reparative surgery (7 men, 31.8 ± 7.0 years old); group B, 41 CCHD patients rendered acyanotic by reparative surgery (21 men, 32.5 ± 11.8 years old); group C, 23 unoperated acyanotic CHD patients (11 men, 42.4 ± 16.4 years old); and group D, 35 patients who were acyanotic before and after operation (18 men, 36.3 ± 14.8 years old). Gallstones were identified by abdominal ultrasound and risk factors were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model. Cholecystectomy was performed in 5/114 (4.3%), asymptomatic gallstones were seen in 16/114 (14%), and symptomatic gallstones except for patients after cholecystectomy were seen in 7/114 (6.1%). In group A, 4 (27%) with gallstones underwent cholecystectomy (pnobody in group C, and 3 patients (8.6%) in group D. By a multivariate logistic regression model, CCHD by nature regardless of repair, prolonged cyanosis periods, higher frequency of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and lower platelet counts were significant factors predicting gallstones (odds ratio 4.48, 1.08, 3.96, and 0.87, 95% CI, 1.14-17.5, 1.00-1.18, 1.65-9.54, and 0.75-0.99, respectively). The prevalence of cholelithiasis and asymptomatic gallstones is significantly high in CCHD patients regardless of cardiac repairs. CCHD by nature, prolonged cyanosis durations, high frequency of CPB and low platelet counts have influences on gallstone formation in adults

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kwon, Duck Moon

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duck Moon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  9. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  10. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  11. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-16

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  12. Eggshell Biliverdin and Protoporphyrin Pigments in a Songbird: Are They Derived from Erythrocytes, Blood Plasma, or the Shell Gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Boross, Nóra; Hámori, Susanne; Neuberger, Eszter; Nyiri, Zoltán

    Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments. We found no significant effects of hematocrit level or experimentally elevated anemia on intensity of eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations; therefore, we consider it less likely that eggshell pigments are derived from erythrocytes. In addition, we found no significant associations between female feces biliverdin concentration during egg laying and intensity of eggshell blue-green pigmentation, suggesting that eggshell biliverdin may not originate from the spleen or liver. We found a negative association between plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations during egg laying and eggshell brown chroma. This result suggests that an increased production of protoporphyrin in the liver, which could have elevated plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations, could inhibit eggshell protoporphyrin pigmentation, probably through affecting enzymatic activities. We suggest that both pigments are produced de novo in the shell gland in the canary, but circulating pigment levels may influence shell gland pigment synthesis, thus connecting the physiological status of the female to eggshell coloration.

  13. Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Broiler carcass skin color is important in the United States and Mexico. This study evaluated the use of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets at commercial levels. Birds were fed natural or synthetic pigments at low or high levels, simulating US and Mexican commercial practices. Skin color was measured during live production (3 to 7 wk of age) and after slaughter and chilling. The natural pigments had consistently greater skin b* values (yellowness) than the synthetic pigments. The high levels produced greater skin b* values than the low levels, regardless of source. The synthetic pigments had a slower increase in skin b* but reached the same level as the natural low by 7 wk. There was no difference in skin a* values (redness) due to pigment source or level or the age of the bird. By 7 wk, all pigment sources approached plateau levels in the blood, but the synthetic pigment diet produced higher blood levels of yellow and red pigments than the natural pigment diets. Processing intensified skin yellowness and reduced skin redness. These data suggest that although synthetic pigments might have been absorbed better than natural ones, natural pigments were more efficient at increasing skin yellowness and there were only small differences between high and low levels for each pigment source. This finding may allow reduction in pigment use and feed cost to achieve the same skin acceptance by the consumer.

  14. Variation of calcium, copper and iron levels in serum, bile and stone samples of patients having different types of gallstone: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mustafa; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Sirajuddin; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Sabir; Kadar, Salma

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological data among the human population has shown a significantly increased incidence of gallstone (GS) disease worldwide. It was studied that some essential (calcium) and transition elements (iron and copper) in bile play an important role in the development of GS. The estimation of calcium, copper and iron were carried out in the serum, gall bladder bile and different types of GS (cholesterol, mixed and pigmented) of 172 patients, age ranged 20-55years. For comparative purpose age matched referents not suffering from GS diseases were also selected. Biliary concentrations of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) were correlated with their concentrations in serum and different types of GS samples. The ratio of Ca, Fe and Cu in bile with serum was also calculated. Understudy metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after acid decomposition of matrices of selected samples. The Ca concentrations in serum samples were significantly higher in patients with pigmented GS as compared to controls (pdifference was significant for pigmented GS patients (p>0.001). The contents of Cu and Fe in serum and bile of all patients (except female cholesterol GS patient have low serum iron concentration) were found to be higher than control, but difference was significant in those patients who have pigmented GS. The concentration of Ca, Fe and Cu in different types GS were found in the order, Pigmented>mixed>cholesterol. The bile/serum ratio for Ca, Cu and Fe was found to be significantly higher in pigmented GS patients. Gall bladder bile was slightly alkaline in patients as compared to referents. The density of bile was found to be higher in patients as compared to the referents. Various functional groups present in different types of GS samples were confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The higher density and pH of bile, elevated concentrations of transition elements in all types of biological samples (serum, bile and GS), could be an

  15. Chrons's disease in Stockholm County : epidemiological panorama and associated gallstone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lapidus, Annika

    1998-01-01

    CROHN'S DISEASE IN STOCKHOLM COUNTY EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PANORAMA AND ASSOCIATED GALLSTONE DISEASE Annika Lapidus, M.D. Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of obscure etiology, affecting any part of the gastrointestinal tract but the ileocaecal region in particular. The annual incidence has gradually been...

  16. Diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yie, Miyeon [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi, E-mail: jkm7290@empal.com [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Yul [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients who underwent a diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan for acute pancreatitis were included. The readers assessed the presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, enhancement of gallbladder (GB) and common bile duct (CBD) wall, pericholecystic fat strands, GB wall thickening, stone in the GB or CBD, and focal or diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis on abdominal CT scans. In addition, the maximal transverse luminal diameters of the GB and CBD were measured. Results: The presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, GB wall enhancement and thickening, pericholecystic fat strands, stone in the GB or CBD, and diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis achieved statistical significance for differentiation of gallstone induced pancreatitis from non-biliary pancreatitis (p < 0.05). The mean values of maximal transverse luminal diameter of GB and CBD were significantly higher in gallstone induced pancreatitis group (39.67 {+-} 7.26 mm, 10.20 {+-} 4.13 mm) than non-biliary pancreatitis group (27.01 {+-} 6.14 mm, 3.85 {+-} 2.51 mm, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Gallbladder features of CT in patients with pancreatitis could be the valuable clues for the diagnosis of gallstone induced pancreatitis.

  17. Genetic variation in the cholesterol transporter NPC1L1, ischaemic vascular disease, and gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bo Kobberø; Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    developed IVD or symptomatic gallstone disease, respectively, during follow-up from 1977 to 2013. We genotyped four common NPC1L1 variants, previously associated with reduced LDL cholesterol levels, thus mimicking the effect of ezetimibe, and calculated a weighted genotype score. With increasing genotype...

  18. Prevalence of gallstones in buffaloes slaughtered in Tabriz abattoir and its correlation with hepatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahram Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The liver is one of the largest and most active organs of the body. One of the most important functions of the liver is its involvement in lipid metabolism, production of bile and excretion of waste products through bile. The purpose of the present research is to examine the prevalence of gallstones in the buffaloes slaughtered in the city of Tabriz and to evaluate some of their hepatic parameters. In this study, blood samples of 100 Buffaloes aged 4-5 years were taken prior to slaughter as well as their postmortem gallbladder samples. The blood sera were isolated and parameters such as Cholesterol, triglyceride, AST, ALT and ALP were measured by colorimetric method. The gallbladder specimens were opened and evaluated for the presence or absence of stones. The laboratory analysis of gallstones was carried out through biochemical kit method. Of 100 buffalos, ten were found to have gallstones, composed of bilirubin calcium, cholesterol, calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate, respectively. Of the parameters evaluated, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline-phosphatase levels had increased significantly. Gallstones can block bile excretion, thereby causing damage to the liver.

  19. Diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, Miyeon; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Yul; Choi, Dongil

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients who underwent a diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan for acute pancreatitis were included. The readers assessed the presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, enhancement of gallbladder (GB) and common bile duct (CBD) wall, pericholecystic fat strands, GB wall thickening, stone in the GB or CBD, and focal or diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis on abdominal CT scans. In addition, the maximal transverse luminal diameters of the GB and CBD were measured. Results: The presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, GB wall enhancement and thickening, pericholecystic fat strands, stone in the GB or CBD, and diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis achieved statistical significance for differentiation of gallstone induced pancreatitis from non-biliary pancreatitis (p < 0.05). The mean values of maximal transverse luminal diameter of GB and CBD were significantly higher in gallstone induced pancreatitis group (39.67 ± 7.26 mm, 10.20 ± 4.13 mm) than non-biliary pancreatitis group (27.01 ± 6.14 mm, 3.85 ± 2.51 mm, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Gallbladder features of CT in patients with pancreatitis could be the valuable clues for the diagnosis of gallstone induced pancreatitis.

  20. Radiation degradation of molasses pigment. The fading color and product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Hiroko; Sawai, Takeshi [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1993-02-01

    Water demand in Tokyo has increased rapidly. Because of the scarcity of water supply sources within the city, Tokyo is dependent on the water from other prefectures. Recycling of municipal effluent is an effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We have studied the radiation treatment of waste water for recycling. In this paper, the radiation decomposition methods for fading color of molasses pigment in the effluent from the sewage treatment plant and in the food industry wastwater were reported. The refractory organic substances (molasses pigment) in samples were degraded by gamma irradiation. The COD values decreased and the dark brown color faded with increasing dosage. The high molecular weight components of molasses pigment were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. The organic acids, such as formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and succinic acid were measured as intermediates of radiolytic decomposition. When we added hydrogen peroxide in samples to the gamma irradiation process, the dark brown color of molasses pigment faded with greater efficiency. (author).

  1. Radiation degradation of molasses pigment. The fading color and product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Hiroko; Sawai, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    Water demand in Tokyo has increased rapidly. Because of the scarcity of water supply sources within the city, Tokyo is dependent on the water from other prefectures. Recycling of municipal effluent is an effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We have studied the radiation treatment of waste water for recycling. In this paper, the radiation decomposition methods for fading color of molasses pigment in the effluent from the sewage treatment plant and in the food industry wastwater were reported. The refractory organic substances (molasses pigment) in samples were degraded by gamma irradiation. The COD values decreased and the dark brown color faded with increasing dosage. The high molecular weight components of molasses pigment were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. The organic acids, such as formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and succinic acid were measured as intermediates of radiolytic decomposition. When we added hydrogen peroxide in samples to the gamma irradiation process, the dark brown color of molasses pigment faded with greater efficiency. (author)

  2. Plasmodesmata of brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10?20?nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD ...

  3. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    that glycolytic flux is important for β-adrenergically induced oxygen consumption, and highlights that glucose oxidation serves multiple purposes in brown adipocytes. Together the studies describe novel aspects of glucose consumption adding to the understanding of substrate oxidation in activated brown adipocytes....... Taken together the research presented in this thesis describes novel aspects of BAT physiology, adding to the growing understanding of brown adipocyte activation and fuel preferences....

  4. YouTube as a source of patient information on gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Suh; Seo, Ho Seok; Hong, Tae Ho

    2014-04-14

    To investigate the quality of YouTube videos on gallstone disease and to assess viewer response according to quality. A YouTube search was performed on September 18, 2013, using the keywords ''gallbladder disease'', ''gallstone disease'', and ''gallstone treatment''. Three researchers assessed the source, length, number of views, number of likes, and days since upload. The upload source was categorised as physician or hospital (PH), medical website or TV channel, commercial website (CW), or civilian. A usefulness score was devised to assess video quality and to categorise the videos into ''very useful'', ''useful'', ''slightly useful'', or ''not useful''. Videos with misleading content were categorised as ''misleading''. One hundred and thirty-one videos were analysed. Seventy-four videos (56.5%) were misleading, 36 (27.5%) were slightly useful, 15 (11.5%) were useful, three (2.3%) were very useful, and three (2.3%) were not useful. The number of mean likes (1.3 ± 1.5 vs 17.2 ± 38.0, P = 0.007) and number of views (756.3 ± 701.0 vs 8910.7 ± 17094.7, P = 0.001) were both significantly lower in the very useful group compared with the misleading group. All three very useful videos were PH videos. Among the 74 misleading videos, 64 (86.5%) were uploaded by a CW. There was no correlation between usefulness and the number of views, the number of likes, or the length. The "gallstone flush" was the method advocated most frequently by misleading videos (25.7%). More than half of the YouTube videos on gallstone disease are misleading. Credible videos uploaded by medical professionals and filtering by the staff of YouTube appear to be necessary.

  5. Early definitive treatment rate as a quality indicator of care in acute gallstone pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Charman, S C; Palser, T

    2017-11-01

    Early definitive treatment (cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the same admission or within 2 weeks after discharge) of gallstone disease after a biliary attack of acute pancreatitis is standard of care. This study investigated whether compliance with early definitive treatment for acute gallstone pancreatitis can be used as a care quality indicator for the condition. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. All emergency admissions to National Health Service hospitals in England with a first time diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis in the financial years 2008, 2009 and 2010 were examined. Trends in early definitive treatment between hospital trusts were examined and patient morbidity outcomes were determined. During the study interval there were 19 510 patients with an overall rate of early definitive treatment at 34·7 (range 9·4-84·7) per cent. In the 1-year follow-up period, 4661 patients (23·9 per cent) had one or more emergency readmissions for complications related to gallstone pancreatitis. Of these, 2692 (57·8 per cent) were readmissions for acute pancreatitis; 911 (33·8 per cent) were within the first 2 weeks of discharge, with the remaining 1781 (66·2 per cent) occurring after the point at which definitive treatment should have been received. Early definitive treatment resulted in a 39 per cent reduction in readmission risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·58 to 0·65). The risk was further reduced for acute pancreatitis readmissions to 54 per cent in the early definitive treatment group (adjusted RR 0·46, 0·42 to 0·51). In acute gallstone pancreatitis, compliance with recommended early definitive treatment varied considerably, with associated variation in outcomes. Compliance should be used as a quality indicator to improve care. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCG8 polymorphisms in gallstone disease in an Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddapuram, Siva Prasad; Mahurkar, Swapna; Duvvuru, Nageshwar Reddy; Mitnala, Sasikala; Guduru, Venkat Rao; Rebala, Pradeep; Mansard, Magnus Jayaraj

    2010-06-01

    Gallstone formation is characterized by the abnormal regulation of cholesterol trafficking and solubilization. The prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD) differs between ethnic groups sharing the common environment. These differences can be explained by a genetic predisposition to gallstone formation. Studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) D19H and T400K in the cholesterol transporter gene ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 8 (ABCG8) in patients with cholesterol gallstones. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between D19H and T400K polymorphisms in the ABCG8 gene and GSD in an Indian population, and the effects of these polymorphisms on cholesterol levels in sera and bile. A total of 226 patients with GSD were analyzed for their lipid profile in plasma and bile. A total of 289 controls were recruited, and their plasma lipid profile was analyzed by standard protocols. The genotype of SNP D19H and T400K of ABCG8 was analyzed in 226 patients and 222 control samples. SNP D19H was analyzed by direct sequencing, and SNP T400K genotyping was assayed by the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. There was no significant difference in the allelic distribution of SNP T400K between the GSD and gallstone-free groups (P > 0.05), but the distribution of the SNP variant, D19H, was significantly higher (P = 0.017, odds ratio = 2.274) in patients compared to controls. The analysis of serum and bile cholesterol followed a strong association with genotypes. SNP D19H, but not SNP T400K, in the ABCG8 gene is significantly associated with GSD in an Indian population.

  7. Gallbladder filling and emptying during cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog. A cholescintigraphic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Ryan, T.; Broderick, W.; Way, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    We studied gallbladder bile flow before, during, and after cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog using infusion cholescintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid. In 18 fasting animals partitioning of bile between gallbladder and intestine was determined every 15 min for 140 min, and gallbladder response to cholecystokinin (5 U/kg X h) was calculated from the gallbladder ejection fraction. Ten prairie dogs were then placed on a 0.4% cholesterol diet and 8 on a regular diet, and the studies were repeated 1, 2, and 6 wk later. The proportion of hepatic bile that entered the gallbladder relative to the intestine varied from one 15-min period to the next, and averaged 28.2% +/- 5.1% at 140 min. Partial spontaneous gallbladder emptying (ejection fraction 11.5% +/- 5.6%) was intermittently observed. Neither the number nor the ejection fraction of spontaneous gallbladder contractions changed during gallstone formation. By contrast, the percent of gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin decreased from 72.1% +/- 5% to 25.9% +/- 9.3% (p less than 0.025) in the first week and was 14.3% +/- 5.5% at 6 wk (p less than 0.01 from prediet values, not significant from first week). Gallbladder filling decreased from 28.2% +/- 5.1% to 6.7% +/- 3% (p less than 0.01), but this change was only observed after 6 wk, when gallstones had formed. This study shows that bile flow into the gallbladder during fasting is not constant; the gallbladder contracts intermittently; gallbladder emptying in response to exogenous cholecystokinin is altered very early during gallstone formation; and gallbladder filling remains unaffected until later stages, when gallstones have formed

  8. [Gallstones and "liver obstruction" in medical texts of antiquity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, Frank; Steger, Florian

    2018-03-01

    Gallstones are rarely mentioned in the medical texts of antiquity. The physician, Alexander of Tralles mentions-for the first time-stones in the gallbladder as a possible cause for obstructive jaundice. This designation is found in his textbook on medicine under the heading "obstruction of the liver". Based on that observation, we describe the ancient history of hepatic obstruction and investigate the connection with the rare reference of gallstones in the medical texts of antiquity.  First, we evaluated the medico-historical literature on bile-stones and liver obstruction in antiquity, which has been published since 1900. The identified ancient sources we have analyzed for the purposes of etiology, diagnostics and therapy. Second, we searched for additional ancient sources with a combined keyword search in Greek and Latin text databases to check the completeness of the mentions of gallstones and liver obstructions known from the research literature.  There are two mentions of stones in the liver and gallbladder: Aristotle probably describes stones in the liver of slaughtered sacrificial animals and the late-antique physician, Alexander of Tralles, in the gallbladder of humans. The mechanical obstruction of the bile ducts as a cause of jaundice has been known since Diocles of Karystos (4 th century BC). For the first time, Galen of Pergamon describes the disease pattern of a liver obstruction (2 nd century AC). This was due to the coagulation of the yellow bile, one of the four humors of ancient humoral pathology.  Although gallstones were rarely mentioned, the clinical presentation of gallstone disease was known to ancient authors of medical texts and was referred to as liver obstruction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Selective use of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in clinical practice may miss choledocholithiasis in gallstone pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Sanket; Sammour, Tarik; McEntee, Bernard; Davis, Nicola; Hill, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Gallstone pancreatitis is a consequence of ampullary obstruction by common bile duct (CBD) calculi. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has been advocated for routine use to diagnose choledocholithiasis. However, the selective use of MRCP in clinically equivocal situations has not been explored until now. This study examines the diagnostic value of selective MRCP in gallstone pancreatitis. Methods We conducted a retrospective audit of all presentations of gallstone pancreatitis between January 2001 and December 2007 at Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Demographic data, clinical presentation, biochemical and radiological findings and outcomes were reviewed. Results There were 339 cases of gallstone pancreatitis during the study period; 236 patients were women and the mean age was 52 years. Overall, choledocholithiasis was diagnosed in 95 patients. A total of 117 patients underwent MRCP within a median of 4 days of admission, with 15 (13.7%) showing choledocholithiasis. There was no significant difference in time to MRCP between positive and negative groups. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)/intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) confirmed 13 of 15 stones within a median of 2.5 days. However, MRCP missed 8 cases of choledocholithiasis subsequently demonstrated on ERCP/IOC, where clinical suspicion remained after a negative MRCP. Its sensitivity was 62% and specificity 98%. The positive likelihood ratio was 6.5 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.1. In all, 222 patients followed different clinical pathways with 82 CBD stones diagnosed by ERCP/IOC. Conclusion Selective MRCP is highly specific in gallstone pancreatitis but may not be sensitive enough to exclude choledocholithiasis in this context. PMID:21092433

  10. Recreational physical activity is inversely associated with asymptomatic gallstones in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Morán, Santiago; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Morán, Segundo; Duque, Ximena; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Macías, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic research suggests that physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of chronic diseases including gallstones. This study explores the association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and risk of asymptomatic gallstones (AG) in adult Mexican women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of women from the Health Workers Cohort Study. The study population included Mexican women aged 17-94 years, with no history of gallstone (GS) or cholecystectomy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on weight change, gynecological health history, cholesterol-lowering medications and diuretics, history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), PA and diet. PA was calculated in minutes/day, minutes/week and Metabolic Equivalents (METs)/week. Gallstone diagnosis was performed using real-time ultrasonography. The association between RPA and risk of AG was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results. Of the 4,953 women involved in the study, 12.3% were diagnosed with AG. The participants with AG were significantly older, had a higher body mass index, and had a higher prevalence of DM2 than those without AG. The participants with > 30 min/day of RPA had lower odds of AG (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03), regardless of other known risk factors for gallstone disease. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relationship between RPA time and AG risk, especially in women doing more than 150 min a week of RPA (OR = 0.76; 95%CI: 0.61- 0.95; P = 0.02). These findings support the hypothesis that RPA may protect against AG, although further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this association.

  11. Antibiotic activity and synergistic effect of antimicrobial peptide against pathogens from a patient with gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Park, Soon Nang; Park, Seong-Cheol; Park, Joon Yong; Park, Yong Ha; Hahm, Joon Soo; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2004-01-01

    HP (2-20) is a peptide derived from the N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein L1 that has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against various species of bacteria. When we tested the effects of HP (2-20), we found that this peptide displayed strong activity against pathogens from a patient with gallstones, but it did not have hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. We also found that HP (2-20) had potent activity against cefazolin sodium-resistant bacterial cell lines, and that HP (2-20) and cefazolin sodium had synergistic effects against cell lines resistant to the latter. To investigate the mechanism of action of HP (2-20), we performed fluorescence activated flow cytometry using pathogens from the patient with gallstones. As determined by propidium iodide (PI) staining, pathogenic bacteria treated with HP (2-20) showed higher fluorescence intensity than untreated cells, similar to melittin-treated cells, and that HP (2-20) acted in an energy- and salt-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HP (2-20) caused significant morphological alterations in the cell surface of pathogens from the patient with gallstones. By determining their 16S rDNA sequences, we found that both the pathogens from the patient with gallstones and the cefazolin sodium-resistant cell lines showed 100% homology with sequences from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taken together, these results suggest that HP (2-20) has antibiotic activity and that it may be used as a lead drug for the treatment of acquired pathogens from patients with gallstones and antibiotic-resistant cell lines

  12. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter.......Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  13. Column chromatography as a useful step in purification of diatom pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarek, Wiktor; Listwan, Stanisław; Pagacz, Joanna; Leśniak, Piotr; Latowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin are carotenoids found in brown algae and most other heterokonts. These pigments are involved in photosynthetic and photoprotective reactions, and they have many potential health benefits. They can be extracted from diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum by sonication, extraction with chloroform : methanol and preparative thin layer chromatography. We assessed the utility of an additional column chromatography step in purification of these pigments. This novel addition to the isolation protocol increased the purity of fucoxanthin and allowed for concentration of diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin before HPLC separation. The enhanced protocol is useful for obtaining high purity pigments for biochemical studies.

  14. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Kenan, Samuel; Steiner, German C.; Abdul-Quader, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  15. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  16. Dissimilar pigment regulation in Serpula lacrymans and Paxillus involutus during inter-kingdom interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, James P; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kovács, Ákos T; Shelest, Ekaterina; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Production of basidiomycete atromentin-derived pigments like variegatic acid (pulvinic acid-type) and involutin (diarylcyclopentenone) from the brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and the ectomycorrhiza-forming Paxillus involutus, respectively, is induced by complex nutrition, and in the case of S. lacrymans, bacteria. Pigmentation in S. lacrymans was stimulated by 13 different bacteria and cell-wall-damaging enzymes (lytic enzymes and proteases), but not by lysozyme or mechanical damage. The use of protease inhibitors with Bacillus subtilis or heat-killed bacteria during co-culturing with S. lacrymans significantly reduced pigmentation indicating that enzymatic hyphal damage and/or released peptides, rather than mechanical injury, was the major cause of systemic pigment induction. Conversely, no significant pigmentation by bacteria was observed from P. involutus. We found additional putative transcriptional composite elements of atromentin synthetase genes in P. involutus and other ectomycorrhiza-forming species that were absent from S. lacrymans and other brown-rotters. Variegatic and its precursor xerocomic acid, but not involutin, in return inhibited swarming and colony biofilm spreading of Bacillus subtilis, but did not kill B. subtilis. We suggest that dissimilar pigment regulation by fungal lifestyle was a consequence of pigment bioactivity and additional promoter motifs. The focus on basidiomycete natural product gene induction and regulation will assist in future studies to determine global regulators, signalling pathways and associated transcription factors of basidiomycetes.

  17. Isolation and characterization of melanin pigment from yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiujun; Wu, Biao; Zhou, Liqing; Liu, Zhihong; Dong, Yinghui; Yang, Aiguo

    2017-04-01

    Melanin is one of the essential compounds in the pigments of molluscan shells. However, the effects of melanin on color variations in molluscs are largely unknown. Our previous study suggests that Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis might contain melanin pigment in the dark brown shell. We therefore isolated melanin from the pigmented shells using hydrochloric acid method, and characterized the types of melanin pigments by spectrophotometry. The purified melanin, which was verified by spectrophotometry scanning and HPLC analysis, showed the typical characteristics of melanin absorption spectra and HPLC chromatograms. The contents of pheomelanin and eumelanin in pigmented shells, which were determined by the linear standard curve of melanin at 405 nm and 350 nm absorbance, were 48.23 ± 1.350 and 157.65 ± 5.905 mg, respectively. The present results indicate that the brown-pigmented shells of scallops comprise approximately 76.6% of eumelanin and 23.4% of pheomelanin, which supports the presence of eumelanin-rich pigment in scallop shells. Therefore, the combination of hydrochloric acid extraction and spectrophotometric quantification is a rapid and efficient method to isolate and quantify melanin in shells. This will facilitate the melanin studies related to shell color polymorphism and the selective breeding of bivalves with different shell colors.

  18. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main focus on secondary

  19. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main  focus

  20. Laurie M Brown

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Laurie M Brown. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 874-878 Personal Reflections. To Have Been a Student of Richard Feynman · Laurie M Brown · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  1. Alterations in Mc1r gene expression are associated with regressive pigmentation in Astyanax cavefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Bethany A; Gross, Joshua B

    2015-11-01

    Diverse changes in coloration across distant taxa are mediated through alterations in certain highly conserved pigmentation genes. Among these genes, Mc1r is a frequent target for mutation, and many documented alterations involve coding sequence changes. We investigated whether regulatory mutations in Mc1r may also contribute to pigmentation loss in the blind Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus. This species comprises multiple independent cave populations that have evolved reduced (or absent) melanic pigmentation as a consequence of living in darkness for millions of generations. Among the most salient cave-associated traits, complete absence (albinism) or reduced levels of pigmentation (brown) have long been the focus of degenerative pigmentation research in Astyanax. These two Mendelian traits have been linked to specific coding mutations in Oca2 (albinism) and Mc1r (brown). However, four of the seven caves harboring the brown phenotype exhibit unaffected coding sequences compared to surface fish. Thus, diverse genetic changes involving the same genes likely impact reduced pigmentation among cavefish populations. Using both sequence and expression analyses, we show that certain cave-dwelling populations harboring the brown mutation have substantial alterations to the putative Mc1r cis-regulatory region. Several of these sequence mutations in the Mc1r 5' region were present across multiple, independent cave populations. This study suggests that pigmentation reduction in Astyanax cavefish evolves through a combination of both coding and cis-regulatory mutations. Moreover, this study represents one of the first attempts to identify regulatory alterations linked to regressive changes in cave-dwelling populations of A. mexicanus.

  2. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  3. Crafting identities and accessing opportunities post-Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Margaret Beale

    2005-11-01

    Decades following Brown v. Board of Education (1954), issues regarding the effects of skin color, poverty, and racial differences in the availability of protective factors persist. For a multiethnic sample of mainly African American (56%), female (69%), and high-achieving (65%) youths, a dual-axis model of vulnerability is used to compare four groups of youths identified as high, masked, low, and undetermined vulnerability on the basis of the presence of risk and protective factors. Risks included level of poverty, number of parents in home, and skin-color pigmentation. Protective factors included youths' perceptions of school climate, parental monitoring, and consonance between skin pigmentation and preferred skin color. The author suggests that 50 years post-Brown, issues concerning White privilege, color stereotyping, power discrepancies, and economic disparities maintain "invisible" and persistent hurdles for vulnerable youths who vary on available protective factors. Findings confirm the impact of vulnerability on psychosocial and achievement outcomes. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Miniinvasive technologies in surgery of gallstone disease complicated by mechanical jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nikonenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ntry. Mechanical jaundice is frequent complication of gallstone disease both in urgent and in planned surgery. In the last few years the increase of amount of patients with mechanical jaundice, especially persons of elderly and senile age, is marked and the results of their treatment don’t satisfy surgeons fully. A similar situation cannot remain regardless and requires the search of new ways of decision of this problem. Research aim. Determination of the most optimal methods of diagnostics and treatment of patients with the gallstone disease complicated by mechanical jaundice and estimation of efficiency of their application. Materials and research methods. The results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 3054 patients with gallstone disease and its complications are analyzed. Experience of surgical treatment of 297 (9,7% patients with gallstone disease complicated by mechanical jaundice is presented. The most frequent complications were: choledocholithiasis, mechanical jaundice - in 290 (9,5% patients, combination of choledocholithiasis with stenosis of large duodenal papilla - in 218 (7,1%, stricture of choledoch - in 7 (0,2%. Endoscopic papillosphincterotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed for 263 (8,6% patients with mechanical jaundice. Research results. On the I stage of treatment of mechanical jaundice in 263 (8,6% patients with choledocholithiasis and combination of choledocholithiasis with stenosis of large duodenal papilla endoscopic papillosphincterotomy was performed. On the II stage of treatment of patients laparoscopic cholecystectomy was conducted. It was performed on the 2-7 days after endoscopic papillosphincterotomy and verification of the absence of stones in choledoch. The new method of implementation of laparoscopic cholecystectomy the key moment of which is subserosal coagulation of branches of cystic artery is described. The curatively-diagnostic algorithm of treatment of patients with gallstone disease

  5. ANALYSIS OF BILIARY CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN IRON-DEFICIENT PATIENTS OPERATED FOR GALLSTONE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kannan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gallstone disease is a common gastrointestinal problem in day-to-day practice. The old concept that a typical gallstone sufferer is fat, fertile, flatulent female of 50. This is partially true as the disease has been found in women soon after their first delivery who are thin and underweight and in males also. Conditions that favour the formation of cholesterol gallstones are super saturation of bile with cholesterol, kinetically favourable nucleation and presence of cholesterol crystals in the gallbladder long enough to agglomerate into a stone. Recent studies have defined the role of trace elements (Fe, Ca, Zn and Cu and defective pH in the formation of gallstones. The aim of the study is to determine the association of iron deficiency in super saturation of bile. This cross-sectional study of 50 patients was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. Biliary cholesterol and serum cholesterol were compared in iron deficient and non-iron deficient patients having gallstones. A low serum iron level is a factor in bile super saturation with respect to cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. 50 patients suffering from cholelithiasis confirmed by USG were divided into two groups based on serum iron values. Group A consists of patients with normal serum iron (non-anaemic and Group B of patients with less than normal serum iron (anaemic. RESULTS Serum total cholesterol of the patients of cholelithiasis was not different among groups categorised based on serum iron levels. There were no significant variations in the serum cholesterol contents of both the groups. Also, there was no significant variation of the above parameter in the male and female patients. CONCLUSION Though, it is difficult to draw a causal

  6. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega A, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  7. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Canovas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update.

  8. Successful Multimodality Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by an Impacted Gallstone (Bouveret's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N. Rogart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bouveret's syndrome is a rare condition of gastric outlet obstruction resulting from the migration of a gallstone through a choledochoduodenal fistula. Due to the large size of these stones and the difficult location in which they become impacted, endoscopic treatment is unsuccessful and most patients require surgery. We report the case of an elderly male who presented with nausea and hematemesis, and was found on CT scan and endoscopy to have an obstructing gallstone in his duodenal bulb. After several endoscopic sessions and the use of multiple instruments including a Holmium: YAG laser and electrohydraulic lithotripter, fragmentation and endoscopic removal of the stone were successful. We believe this to be the first case of Bouveret's syndrome successfully treated by endoscopy alone in the United States. We describe the difficulties encountered which necessitated varied and innovative therapeutic techniques.

  9. Gallstone fistula with a gastric duplication cyst: an unusual complication of cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasprit Bhamrah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystitis can result in complications if not completely treated. These include gallbladder empyema, perforation and cholecystoenteric fistula.We report the first incidence of cholecystitis resulting in a gallstone fistula with a gastric duplication cyst. A 71 year old patient presented with generalised peritonism that was worst in the epigastric area. Computer tomography (CT revealed a perforated necrotic gallbladder. Emergency laparotomy, cholecystectomy, partial gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction was required. The patient made a slow but full recovery.Pathology results revealed that chronic cholecystitis had resulted in a fistula with a duplication cyst overlying the greater curve of the stomach. Several one centimeter gallstones were found within the cyst cavity.

  10. Proinflammatory cytokines in alcohol or gallstone induced acute pancreatitis. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders Møller; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: If differences of inflammatory pathways in acute pancreatitis exist for various etiologies, selective and specific antiinflammatory and other modulatory treatment regimens might be indicated. Circulating levels of prominent proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, 8, 18, and TNF-alpha were...... measured in patients having their first attack of either alcohol- or gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Seventy-five consecutive patients were prospectively included over a 15-month period, sixty of them being either alcohol- or gallstone-induced. All patients were treated according...... and clinical outcome is independent of the underlying etiology. Revealing the complex spatial and temporal profile of proinflammatory cytokine expression in acute pancreatitis is necessary and important for the development of a more targeted rational therapy....

  11. Bouveret's syndrome complicated by distal gallstone ileus after laser lithotropsy using Holmium: YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers John B

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bouveret's syndrome is an unusual presentation of duodenal obstruction caused by the passage of a large gallstone through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Endoscopic therapy has been used as first-line treatment, especially in patients with high surgical risk. Case presentation We report a 67-year-old woman who underwent an endoscopic attempt to fragment and retrieve a duodenal stone using a Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser (Ho:YAG which resulted in small bowel obstruction. The patient successfully underwent enterolithotomy without cholecystectomy or closure of the fistula. Conclusion We conclude that, distal gallstone obstruction, due to migration of partially fragmented stones, can occur as a possible complication of laser lithotripsy treatment of Bouveret's syndrome and might require urgent enterolithotomy.

  12. ENDOSURGICAL TREATMENT OF GALL-STONE DISEASE COMPLICATED BY CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASISAND DISTAL STRUCTURE OF COMMON BILE DUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Vanjushin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of treatment of 67 patients with gall-stone disease complicated by choledocholithiasis and distal section stenosis of the common bile duct during the period from 2002 till 2007 is presented in the article. This group of patients took part in a research study of the single-stage method of treatment with laparoscopy has been preferably performed in this group of patients. The laparoscopy treatment techniques have been proved to be highly effective

  13. The role of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the management of acute gallstone pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq, J; McCormack, D; Metcalfe, MS; Dennison, AR; Garcea, G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to identify whether magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) can be used selectively in patients with acute gallstone pancreatitis to detect choledocholithiasis, based on liver function tests (LFTs) and ultrasonography appearance. Methods All patients admitted between January 2008 and January 2011 with gallstone pancreatitis (amylase >300u/l) who underwent MRCP were included in the study. LFTs and radiology reports were obtained from the respective computer systems. RESULTS Overall, 173 patients with acute gallstone pancreatitis underwent MRCP and 30% (52/173) showed choledocholithiasis. The mean bilirubin level was significantly higher in those with choledocholithiasis (46 ±5µmol/l vs 36 ±3µmol/l, p=0.0388) although there was no significant difference in alkaline phosphatase (276 ±25iu/l vs 229 ±16iu/l, p=0.1154). However, sensitivity of abnormal bilirubin (>21µmol/l) for choledocholithiasis was only 62% and specificity was 41%. Sensitivity of abnormal alkaline phosphatase (>140iu/l) for choledocholithiasis was only 75% and specificity was 37%. There was a significant association between biliary dilatation on ultrasonography and choledocholithiasis on MRCP (p=0.0099) although the sensitivity of biliary dilatation for choledocholithiasis was only 44% and the specificity was 79%. Furthermore, there was no difference in the incidence of choledocholithiasis on MRCP for those patients with persistently deranged LFTs versus those whose LFTs returned to normal (relative risk: 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.61–1.89, p=1.00). Overall, 10% of patients with choledocholithiasis on MRCP had entirely normal LFTs on admission and no biliary dilatation or choledocholithiasis on ultrasonography. Conclusions All patients with acute gallstone pancreatitis should undergo specific imaging, preferably MRCP, to exclude choledocholithiasis as LFTs and ultrasonography are inaccurate in predicting common bile duct stones. PMID

  14. Compound analysis of gallstones using dual energy computed tomography-Results in a phantom model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Schulz, Julian R.; Zedler, Barbara; Graf, Thomas G.; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The potential of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for the analysis of gallstone compounds was investigated. The main goal was to find parameters, that can reliably define high percentage (>70%) cholesterol stones without calcium components. Materials and methods: 35 gallstones were analyzed with DECT using a phantom model. Stone samples were put into specimen containers filled with formalin. Containers were put into a water-filled cylindrical acrylic glass phantom. DECT scans were performed using a tube voltage/current of 140 kV/83 mAs (tube A) and 80 kV/340 mAs (tube B). ROI-measurements to determine CT attenuation of each sector of the stones that had different appearance on the CT images were performed. Finally, semi-quantitative infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of these sectors was performed for chemical analysis. Results: ROI-measurements were performed in 45 different sectors in 35 gallstones. Sectors containing >70% of cholesterol and no calcium component (n = 20) on FTIR could be identified with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity on DECT. These sectors showed typical attenuation of -8 ± 4 HU at 80 kV and +22 ± 3 HU at 140 kV. Even the presence of a small calcium component (<10%) hindered the reliable identification of cholesterol components as such. Conclusion: Dual energy CT allows for reliable identification of gallstones containing a high percentage of cholesterol and no calcium component in this pre-clinical phantom model. Results from in vivo or anthropomorphic phantom trials will have to confirm these results. This may enable the identification of patients eligible for non-surgical treatment options in the future.

  15. Depigmentation and Characterization of Fucoidan from Brown Seaweed Sargassum binderi Sonder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepudin, Endang; Sinurat, Ellya; Azmi Suryabrata, Ira

    2018-01-01

    Fucoidan has many uses in the field of pharmacology, therefore it is necessary to improve the quality of fucoidan by increasing its purity. The objective of this study was to remove brown pigment from seaweed and observe the effect of the result to the activity of isolated fucoidan. In this study, the pigment was removed by organic solvents in the maceration step. The pigment removal using ethanol was found to give a better result than that of the solvent mixture (methanol: chloroform: water) from previous study, indicated by the appearance of fucoidan color. The result showed fucoidan has a better color, total carbohydrate was 89.23% and total sulphate 18.74%.

  16. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  17. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  18. Field Brown Dwarfs & GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, M.; Jordi, C.

    Because of their very red colours and intrinsic faintness, field brown dwarfs will represent a small but valuable subset of the GAIA catalogue. The return of the astrometric satellite is expected to be important because of the inherent difficulty of obtaining good parallaxes in general and for this class of objects in particular. Our first estimates show that, due to the photometric sensitivity of the astrometric CCD (ASM1) towards relatively blue objects, GAIA is unlikely to detect field brown dwarfs that have not been already seen is previous near-IR surveys, to the notable exception of the galactic plane region. The real advantage of GAIA over ground-based surveys will be the very accurate (to within a few percents) astrometric data for a few thousands brown dwarfs. These data should permit a detailed mapping of the transition region between stellar and substellar regimes, together with the kinematical and density patterns of the youngest brown dwarfs in our neighbourhood.

  19. Transcriptomics in brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Brown algae are distributed worldwide on rocky shores. They are importenet components of ecosystems, they provide habitat, shelter and serve as nurseries for various marine organisms. The geographic as well as depth distribution of macroalgae is constrained by abiotic factors, especially light and temperature. It is therefore likely that due to the global change, distribution patterns of these organisms will change. In this work the molecular acclimation of two prominent brown macroalgae, Sac...

  20. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open.

  1. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  2. Pigmented villo nodular synovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disorder affecting joints. Methods : We reviewed 19 cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis out of 481 arthroscopic synovial biopsies over a period of ten years. A common presenting symptom was locking. Both diffuse and localized forms were diagnosed. Duration of symptoms varied from 5 months to3 years. We report our experience of patients treated by arthroscopic excision for localized villonodular synovitis and arthroscopic synovectomy for diffuse villonodular synovitis followed by intraarticular Yttrium. Results : In diffuse villonodular synovitis arthroscopic total synovectomy was done a using special angular and straight motorized shaver through different portals to reach all corners of the joint. Localized variety was treated by excising the pedicle attached to the synovium. In our series none of the patients with localized villonodular synovitis showed recurrence till date. Three cases of diffuse variety presented with effusion and swelling three to six months after treatment and were managed by arthoscopic synovial shaving. Two cases who showed recurrence after one year were subjected to intraarticular 90Y isotope injection. Conclusion : Arthroscopic synovectomy helps in reducing morbidity. Radiation and intraarticular Injection of 90 Y are alternative modes of treatment.

  3. Metagenomic sequencing of bile from gallstone patients to identify different microbial community patterns and novel biliary bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongzhang; Ye, Fuqiang; Xie, Lu; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Zhen; Xu, Peisong; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high worldwide prevalence of gallstone disease, the role of the biliary microbiota in gallstone pathogenesis remains obscure. Next-generation sequencing offers advantages for systematically understanding the human microbiota; however, there have been few such investigations of the biliary microbiome. Here, we performed whole-metagenome shotgun (WMS) sequencing and 16S rRNA sequencing on bile samples from 15 Chinese patients with gallstone disease. Microbial communities of most individuals were clustered into two types, according to the relative enrichment of different intestinal bacterial species. In the bile samples, oral cavity/respiratory tract inhabitants were more prevalent than intestinal inhabitants and existed in both community types. Unexpectedly, the two types were not associated with fever status or surgical history, and many bacteria were patient-specific. We identified 13 novel biliary bacteria based on WMS sequencing, as well as genes encoding putative proteins related to gallstone formation and bile resistance (e.g., β-glucuronidase and multidrug efflux pumps). Bile samples from gallstone patients had reduced microbial diversity compared to healthy faecal samples. Patient samples were enriched in pathways related to oxidative stress and flagellar assembly, whereas carbohydrate metabolic pathways showed varying behaviours. As the first biliary WMS survey, our study reveals the complexity and specificity of biliary microecology. PMID:26625708

  4. [Gallstone ileus in underlying stenosis of the sigmoid due to recurrent diverticulitis--a rare complication of cholelithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Theilmann, Lorenz; Vöhringer, Ulrich; Abdel Samie, Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis and an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction. It accounts for about 1-4% of all mechanical bowel obstructions. The clinical symptoms and signs of gallstone ileus are mostly nonspecific. An 82-year-old woman with recurrent diverticulitis of the sigmoid was admitted because of cramping right upper abdominal pain and signs of large bowel obstruction. Abdominal ultrasound revealed pneumobilia and severe diverticulitis of the sigmoid with signs of ileus. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography visualized the cholecystoenteric fistula. In addition, computed tomography (CT) scan revealed two stones 3 cm in diameter leading to nearly complete obstruction of the sigmoid. The patient underwent an open cholecystectomy, closure of the cholecystoenteric fistula, and sigmoidectomy. This case report demonstrates that relative stenoses of the sigmoid due to recurrent diverticulitis may predispose to the impaction of foreign bodies. Gallstone ileus is a rare but important differential diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. Ultrasound and CT scans are very helpful in diagnosing gallstone ileus. The treatment is surgical. Unfortunately, surgical therapy of this rare complication is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate due to multiple comorbidities and age-related problems of these patients. The management of patients with gallstone ileus should be individualized.

  5. Computed tomography on the diagnosis of gallstones with special reference to stone composition and CT attenuation value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaji, Shuji; Noguchi, Takashi; Mizumoto, Ryuji

    1982-01-01

    In 272 cases with gallstone disease, the relationship between the gross appearance of gallstones or the stone composition analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and the CT appearance or the CT attenuation value of stones was studied to evaluate a clinical usefulness of computed tomography on the diagnosis of gallstones. 23% of gallbladder stones, 6% of common bile duct stones, none of intrahepatic stones, and as a whole 15.5% of all gallstones were radiopaque on the abdominal plain X-ray films. When compared with the main composition of stones analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, the CT attenuation value was lower than 60 Hounsfiled Units (H.U.) in cholesterol, 60 to 140 H.U. in calcium bilirubinate and it was higher than 140 H.U. in calcium carbonate. Therefore, CT scan was very useful not only on the diagnosis of gallstone disease, but also to evaluate the main composition of stones, the mechanism of stone formation and the indication for medical treatment. (author)

  6. Radiation degradation of molasses pigment. 2. Molecular weight fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1996-01-01

    Water demand in Tokyo has increased rapidly. Because of the scarcity of water sources within the city, Tokyo is dependent on water from other prefectures. Recycling of municipal effluent is an effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We have studied the radiation treatment of waste water for recycling. The degradation of molasses pigments in waste water from yeast factory by radiation was investigated. The dialyzed molasses pigments and non-dialyzed samples in waste waters were compared in chromaticity, UV absorption, color different and COD. The dialysis and fractionation by permeable membrane were carried out with Seamless Cellulose tubing (Union Carbide Corporation) and spectra/Por membrane (Spectrum Medical Industries INC.) The TOC values decreased and the dark brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components of molasses pigment were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and decomposed to carbon dioxide. The relationships between the value of chromaticity/TOC and molecular weight of molasses pigments were obtained by radiation. (author)

  7. The location of protoporphyrin in the eggshell of brown-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R

    2013-10-01

    Protoporphyrin has been identified as the main eggshell pigment in brown-shelled eggs. However, there has been some uncertainty concerning the distribution of the pigment within the shell (and cuticle) in brown-shelled eggs. Most previous studies have suggested that the bulk of the shell pigment is deposited in the cuticle of the shell. The present study measured the levels of protoporphyrin in intact eggshells and in shells from which the cuticle had been removed, using eggs from flocks at 3 different ages. This enabled the calculation of the relative amount of protoporphyrin in the calcareous eggshell and the cuticle layer of the eggshell. The majority of the protoporphyrin pigment was located in the calcareous part of the eggshell (80-87%) with a minority contained within the cuticle (13-20%). These findings suggest that studies focused on maintenance of shell color in brown-shelled eggs need to consider the stage of egg formation at which the reduction in pigment deposition is occurring.

  8. Lipophilic pigments from the benthos of a perennially ice-covered Antarctic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, A. C.; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Cronin, S. E.; Des Marais, D. J.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    The benthos of a perennially ice-covered Antarctic lake, Lake Hoare, contained three distinct 'signatures' of lipophilic pigments. Cyanobacterial mats found in the moat at the periphery of the lake were dominated by the carotenoid myxoxanthophyll; carotenoids: chlorophyll a ratios in this high light environment ranged from 3 to 6.8. Chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin, pigments typical of golden-brown algae, were found at 10 to 20 m depths where the benthos is aerobic. Anaerobic benthic sediments at 20 to 30 m depths were characterized by a third pigment signature dominated by a carotenoid, tentatively identified as alloxanthin from planktonic cryptomonads, and by phaeophytin b from senescent green algae. Pigments were not found associated with alternating organic and sediment layers. As microzooplankton grazers are absent from this closed system and transformation rates are reduced at low temperatures, the benthos beneath the lake ice appears to contain a record of past phytoplankton blooms undergoing decay.

  9. Dissimilar pigment regulation in Serpula lacrymans and Paxillus involutus during inter-kingdom interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, James P.; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kovács, Ákos T.

    2018-01-01

    Production of basidiomycete atromentin-derived pigments like variegatic acid (pulvinic acid-type) and involutin (diarylcyclopentenone) from the brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and the ectomycorrhiza-forming Paxillus involutus, respectively, is induced by complex nutrition, and in the case of S...... of Bacillus subtilis, but did not kill B. subtilis. We suggest that dissimilar pigment regulation by fungal lifestyle was a consequence of pigment bioactivity and additional promoter motifs. The focus on basidiomycete natural product gene induction and regulation will assist in future studies to determine....... lacrymans, bacteria. Pigmentation in S. lacrymans was stimulated by 13 different bacteria and cell-wall-damaging enzymes (lytic enzymes and proteases), but not by lysozyme or mechanical damage. The use of protease inhibitors with Bacillus subtilis or heat-killed bacteria during co-culturing with S...

  10. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  11. Identification of Shell Colour Pigments in Marine Snails Clanculus pharaonius and C. margaritarius (Trochoidea; Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S.; Wakamatsu, K.; Goral, T.; Edwards, N. P.; Wogelius, R. A.; Henkel, T.; de Oliveira, L. F. C.; Maia, L. F.; Strekopytov, S.; Speiser, D. I.; Marsden, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Colour and pattern are key traits with important roles in camouflage, warning and attraction. Ideally, in order to begin to understand the evolution and ecology of colour in nature, it is important to identify and, where possible, fully characterise pigments using biochemical methods. The phylum Mollusca includes some of the most beautiful exemplars of biological pigmentation, with the vivid colours of sea shells particularly prized by collectors and scientists alike. Biochemical studies of molluscan shell colour were fairly common in the last century, but few of these studies have been confirmed using modern methods and very few shell pigments have been fully characterised. Here, we use modern chemical and multi-modal spectroscopic techniques to identify two porphyrin pigments and eumelanin in the shell of marine snails Clanculus pharaonius and C margaritarius. The same porphyrins were also identified in coloured foot tissue of both species. We use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to show definitively that these porphyrins are uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III. Evidence from confocal microscopy analyses shows that the distribution of porphyrin pigments corresponds to the striking pink-red of C. pharaonius shells, as well as pink-red dots and lines on the early whorls of C. margaritarius and yellow-brown colour of later whorls. Additional HPLC results suggest that eumelanin is likely responsible for black spots. We refer to the two differently coloured porphyrin pigments as trochopuniceus (pink-red) and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown) in order to distinguish between them. Trochopuniceus and trochoxouthos were not found in the shell of a third species of the same superfamily, Calliostoma zizyphinum, despite its superficially similar colouration, suggesting that this species has different shell pigments. These findings have important implications for the study of colour and pattern in molluscs specifically, but in other taxa more generally, since this

  12. Identification of Shell Colour Pigments in Marine Snails Clanculus pharaonius and C. margaritarius (Trochoidea; Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S T; Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K; Goral, T; Edwards, N P; Wogelius, R A; Henkel, T; de Oliveira, L F C; Maia, L F; Strekopytov, S; Jeffries, T; Speiser, D I; Marsden, J T

    2016-01-01

    Colour and pattern are key traits with important roles in camouflage, warning and attraction. Ideally, in order to begin to understand the evolution and ecology of colour in nature, it is important to identify and, where possible, fully characterise pigments using biochemical methods. The phylum Mollusca includes some of the most beautiful exemplars of biological pigmentation, with the vivid colours of sea shells particularly prized by collectors and scientists alike. Biochemical studies of molluscan shell colour were fairly common in the last century, but few of these studies have been confirmed using modern methods and very few shell pigments have been fully characterised. Here, we use modern chemical and multi-modal spectroscopic techniques to identify two porphyrin pigments and eumelanin in the shell of marine snails Clanculus pharaonius and C margaritarius. The same porphyrins were also identified in coloured foot tissue of both species. We use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to show definitively that these porphyrins are uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III. Evidence from confocal microscopy analyses shows that the distribution of porphyrin pigments corresponds to the striking pink-red of C. pharaonius shells, as well as pink-red dots and lines on the early whorls of C. margaritarius and yellow-brown colour of later whorls. Additional HPLC results suggest that eumelanin is likely responsible for black spots. We refer to the two differently coloured porphyrin pigments as trochopuniceus (pink-red) and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown) in order to distinguish between them. Trochopuniceus and trochoxouthos were not found in the shell of a third species of the same superfamily, Calliostoma zizyphinum, despite its superficially similar colouration, suggesting that this species has different shell pigments. These findings have important implications for the study of colour and pattern in molluscs specifically, but in other taxa more generally, since this

  13. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  14. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.

  15. Raman analysis of ancient pigments on a tile from the Citadel of Algiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, L D; De Waal, D

    2008-12-15

    A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of a multi-coloured (yellow, blue, white, redish-brown and brown-black) tile shard from the Citadel of Algiers was undertaken. XRD and EDX were used as complementary techniques. The study shows that the heterogeneous three-shade yellow pigment on the tile is composed largely of the ancient ternary (Pb-Sn-Sb) pyrochlore oxide with a dominant Pb-O vibration at 127 cm(-1) consistent with the Pb2SnSbO6.5 structure as verified by XRD. The literature assignment of this band at 132 cm(-1) probably comes from a mixture of pigments. The redish-brown and the brown-black pigments are found to be Naples yellow (Pb2Sb2O7) and lead(II) stannate (Pb2SnO4), respectively, while cobalt blue (CoAl2O4) gives the blue colour and cassiterite (SnO2) is the origin of the white colour. The bulk of the tile body is composed mainly of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4) and Quartz (alpha-SiO2) with traces of calcite (CaCO3) and amorphous carbon. Micro-Raman spectroscopy proved to be very useful in the characterization of pigments as well as the tile body. These results further establish Raman spectroscopy as a technique of choice for the analysis of pigments on archaeological artifacts. The results obtained here could be used in the restoration and preservation programme of the Citadel itself which stands today as a symbol of pre-colonial Algerian heritage.

  16. Fundamental and clinical study of CT-cholangiography in diagnosis of gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okayama, Yasutaka (Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1990-08-01

    Six hundred and ninety cases were studied in order to assess the usefulness of combined computed tomography-cholangiography (CT-c) in the diagnosis of gallstones. Iotroxic acid (Biliscopin) was injected as a contrast medium for the intravenous method and propionic acid (Osbil) was administered for the oral method. Optimal imaging conditions, window width, window level, amount of contrast medium and scan time were determined in a study of fundamentals. Clinical examination of biliary tract imaging capability focused on evaluation of the effects of contrast medium, patient age and liver function abnormality. Comparison of CT-c with intravenous cholangiography (IVC) alone revealed accurate diagnosis even in the cases of non-visualized gallbladder by IVC. Furthermore, computed tomography (CT) was not able to visualize non-dilated bile ducts in many cases, but CT-c could clearly assessed in such patients. The diagnostic rates of gallstones in different locations, obtained by various imaging techniques, were as follows: (1) In cholecystolithiasis, 99% by ultrasonography (US), 82% by IVC, 94% by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), 77% by CT, 99% by CT-c (intravenous method), and 98% by CT-c (oral method). The rate attained by CT-c was almost equivalent to that by US; (2) In choledocholithiasis, 32% by US, 44% by IVC, 100% by ERC, 37% by CT, and 96% by CT-c. CT-c was proved to be significantly superior to other non-invasive imaging methods. A comparative study of stone size demonstrated CT-c to be particularly useful for detecting the stones of 5 mm or smaller diameter; (3) In hepatolithiasis, while suspicious diagnostic rates were 100% by US and 50% by CT, definite diagnostic rates were 0% by US, 0% by IVC, 50% by ERC, 25% by CT and 75% by CT-c. Thus, the results indicate that application of CT-c as a new, non-invasive technique for diagnosing gallstones is warranted. (author).

  17. Fundamental and clinical study of CT-cholangiography in diagnosis of gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okayama, Yasutaka

    1990-01-01

    Six hundred and ninety cases were studied in order to assess the usefulness of combined computed tomography-cholangiography (CT-c) in the diagnosis of gallstones. Iotroxic acid (Biliscopin) was injected as a contrast medium for the intravenous method and propionic acid (Osbil) was administered for the oral method. Optimal imaging conditions, window width, window level, amount of contrast medium and scan time were determined in a study of fundamentals. Clinical examination of biliary tract imaging capability focused on evaluation of the effects of contrast medium, patient age and liver function abnormality. Comparison of CT-c with intravenous cholangiography (IVC) alone revealed accurate diagnosis even in the cases of non-visualized gallbladder by IVC. Furthermore, computed tomography (CT) was not able to visualize non-dilated bile ducts in many cases, but CT-c could clearly assessed in such patients. The diagnostic rates of gallstones in different locations, obtained by various imaging techniques, were as follows: (1) In cholecystolithiasis, 99% by ultrasonography (US), 82% by IVC, 94% by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), 77% by CT, 99% by CT-c (intravenous method), and 98% by CT-c (oral method). The rate attained by CT-c was almost equivalent to that by US; (2) In choledocholithiasis, 32% by US, 44% by IVC, 100% by ERC, 37% by CT, and 96% by CT-c. CT-c was proved to be significantly superior to other non-invasive imaging methods. A comparative study of stone size demonstrated CT-c to be particularly useful for detecting the stones of 5 mm or smaller diameter; (3) In hepatolithiasis, while suspicious diagnostic rates were 100% by US and 50% by CT, definite diagnostic rates were 0% by US, 0% by IVC, 50% by ERC, 25% by CT and 75% by CT-c. Thus, the results indicate that application of CT-c as a new, non-invasive technique for diagnosing gallstones is warranted. (author)

  18. Comparison of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation and sphincterotomy in young patients with CBD stones and gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Ri; Moon, Jong Ho; Choi, Hyun Jong; Kim, Dong Choon; Ha, Ji Su; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo; Cho, Young Deok; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EBS) results in permanent loss of sphincter function and its long-term complications are unknown. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is an alternative procedure that preserves sphincter function, although it is associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis than is EBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and outcomes of EPBD with limited indications for removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones combined with gallstones in patients younger than 40 years. Young (age CBD stones combined with gallstones on imaging studies were enrolled in this study. A total of 132 patients were randomly divided into the EPBD group (n = 62) or the EBS group (n = 70) for extraction of CBD stones. The ballooning size of EPBD ranged from 6 to 10 mm. Complete bile duct clearance was achieved in 98.4 % (61/62) of the EPBD group and 100 % (70/70) of the EBS group. Mechanical lithotripsy was required in 8.1 % (5/62) of the EPBD group and 8.6 % (6/70) of the EBS group. The early complication rates were 8.1 % (5/62) (five pancreatitis) in the EPBD group and 11.4 % (8/70) (five [7.1 %] pancreatitis, two bleeding and one perforation) in the EBS group. The recurrence rates of CBD stones were 1.6 % (1/62) in the EPBD group and 5.7 % (4/70) in the EBS group. EPBD with limited indications was safe and effective as EBS for removal of CBD stones combined with gallstones in young patients who had a longer life expectancy.

  19. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001. Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59 for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy.

  20. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  1. Gallstone-Induced Perforation of the Common Bile Duct in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dabbas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic biliary system is a rare presentation of ductal stones. We report the case of a twenty-year-old woman presenting at term with biliary peritonitis caused by common bile duct (CBD perforation due to an impacted stone in the distal common bile duct. The patient had suffered a single herald episode of acute gallstone pancreatitis during the third trimester. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy, bile duct exploration, and removal of the ductal stone. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF INSULIN RESISTANCE INDEX (HOMA-IR) AND LIPID PROFILE AMONG SUDANESE WOMEN WITH GALLSTONES.

    OpenAIRE

    Nisreen Abdalmuty Abdalrahman; Amar Mohamed Ismail.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and lipid profile level in Sudanese gallstones (GSs) patients and their association with study variables. In case control study 80 clinically diagnosed GSs patients were recruited, and 80 apparently health age matched women as control group. Fasting insulin, glucose and lipid profile (TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C) were measured using TOSOH-311? and Mindray-380? analyzers. IR-index was calculated using HOMA-IR formula. Obese pos...

  3. Natural pigments and sacred art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  4. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti-prolifer...

  5. Light reflection from crystal platelets in iridophores determines green or brown skin coloration in Takydromus lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Takeo; Esashi, Jyunko; Hasegawa, Masami

    2017-04-01

    Brown and green are the most commonly imitated colors in prey animals because both colors occur in a range of habitats. Many researchers have evaluated survival with respect to background color matching, but the pigment cell mechanisms underlying such coloration are not known. Dorsal coloration of East Asian Takydromus lizards has shifted from green to brown or from brown to green on multiple occasions during the diversification of the genus, thus giving us an opportunity to examine the cellular mechanisms of background color matching. Brown and green skin were found to differ with respect to the morphological characteristics of iridophores, with different thicknesses of the reflecting platelets and the cytoplasmic spacing between platelets, despite a shared vertical arrangement of pigment cells, i.e., xanthophores in the upper layer, iridophores in the middle layer, and melanophores at the bottom of the dermal layer, among the different Takydromus lizards. Iridophores of brown skin reflected longer wavelengths of light than those of green skin, which may be attributed to the thicker platelets and longer distances between platelets in brown skin. We discuss the potential role of genetic and intracellular mechanisms explaining the thickness and orientation of the light-reflecting platelets of iridophores in Takydromus lizards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of Pigments in Colored Layers of a Painting by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, O. I.; Pankin, D. V.; Povolotckaia, A. V.; Borisov, E. V.; Beznosova, M. O.; Krivul'ko, T. A.; Kurochkin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Using the method of Raman spectroscopy the pigment composition is investigated of, and the brushwork technique used in, the original layer of a 19th century painting is established. It is an overdoor worked, presumably, by Antoine Jean-Etienne Faivre. It is established that the artist used the following pigments: cinnabar and dyes on the basis of goethite and hematite (for red, yellow-orange, and brown shades), ultramarine and Prussian blue (for blue shades), and Emerald green and a mixture of blue and yellow shades (to obtain a green color). It is determined that white lead was used a primer.

  7. Activation of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α Subunit Pathway in Steatotic Liver Contributes to Formation of Cholesterol Gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yoichiro; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tsukita, Sohei; Takahashi, Kei; Maekawa, Masamitsu; Honma, Midori; Ikeda, Masanori; Murakami, Keigo; Munakata, Yuichiro; Shirai, Yuta; Kodama, Shinjiro; Sugisawa, Takashi; Chiba, Yumiko; Kondo, Yasuteru; Kaneko, Keizo; Uno, Kenji; Sawada, Shojiro; Imai, Junta; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Kozo; Sasano, Hironobu; Mano, Nariyasu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Katagiri, Hideki

    2017-05-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α subunit (HIF1A) is a transcription factor that controls the cellular response to hypoxia and is activated in hepatocytes of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD increases the risk for cholesterol gallstone disease by unclear mechanisms. We studied the relationship between HIF1A and gallstone formation associated with liver steatosis. We performed studies with mice with inducible disruption of Hif1a in hepatocytes via a Cre adenoviral vector (inducible hepatocyte-selective HIF1A knockout [iH-HIFKO] mice), and mice without disruption of Hif1a (control mice). Mice were fed a diet rich in cholesterol and cholate for 1 or 2 weeks; gallbladders were collected and the number of gallstones was determined. Livers and biliary tissues were analyzed by histology, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblots. We measured concentrations of bile acid, cholesterol, and phospholipid in bile and rates of bile flow. Primary hepatocytes and cholangiocytes were isolated and analyzed. HIF1A was knocked down in Hepa1-6 cells with small interfering RNAs. Liver biopsy samples from patients with NAFLD, with or without gallstones, were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Control mice fed a diet rich in cholesterol and cholate developed liver steatosis with hypoxia; levels of HIF1A protein were increased in hepatocytes around central veins and 90% of mice developed cholesterol gallstones. Only 20% of the iH-HIFKO mice developed cholesterol gallstones. In iH-HIFKO mice, the biliary lipid concentration was reduced by 36%, compared with control mice, and bile flow was increased by 35%. We observed increased water secretion from hepatocytes into bile canaliculi to mediate these effects, resulting in suppression of cholelithogenesis. Hepatic expression of aquaporin 8 (AQP8) protein was 1.5-fold higher in iH-HIFKO mice than in control mice. Under hypoxic

  8. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Unique proline-benzoquinone pigment from the colored nectar of "bird's Coca cola tree" functions in bird attractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Hong; Liu, Yan; Hua, Juan; Niu, Xue-Mei; Jing, Shu-Xi; Zhao, Xu; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2012-08-17

    The major pigment responsible for the dark brown nectar of the "bird's Coca cola tree", Leucosceptrum canum (Labiatae), was isolated and identified as a unique symmetric proline-quinone conjugate, 2,5-di-(N-(-)-prolyl)-para-benzoquinone (DPBQ). Behavioral experiments with both isolated and synthetic authentic samples indicated that DPBQ functions mainly as a color attractant to bird pollinators.

  10. Gastric outlet obstruction by a lost gallstone: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koichopolos, Jennifer; Hamidi, Moska; Cecchini, Matthew; Leslie, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Spilled gallstones from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be a source of significant morbidity, most commonly causing abscesses and fistulae. Preventative measures for loss, careful removal during the initial surgery, and good documentation of any concern for remaining intraperitoneal stones needs to be performed with the initial surgery. An 80-year-old male with a history of complicated biliary disease resulting in a cholecystectomy presented to general surgery clinic with increasing symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction. CT imaging was concerning for a malignant process despite negative biopsies. A distal gastrectomy and Billroth II reconstruction was performed and final pathology showed dense inflammation with a single calcified stone incarcerated within the gastric wall of the inflamed pylorus and no malignancy. Stones lost during laparoscopic cholecystectomy are not innocuous and preventative measures for loss, careful removal during the initial surgery, and good documentation of any concern for remaining intraperitoneal stones. This is the first case of gastric outlet obstruction caused by an intramural obstruction of the pylorus from a spilled gallstone during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and subsequent inflammation. This is an etiology that must be considered in new cases of gastric outlet obstruction and can mimic malignancy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrathin choledochoscope improves outcomes in the treatment of gallstones and suspected choledocholithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong-Tian; Liang, Bin; Liu, Yang; Yang, Tao; Zeng, Jian-Ping; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to compare laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and simultaneous laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration (LTCBDE) using an ultrathin choledochoscope with LC followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERC) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) when indicated. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients seen between 2004 and 2014 and treated with LC+LTCBDE or LC for gallstones and suspected choledocholithiasis. Postoperative complications and surgical outcomes were compared using t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, or chi-square test. 115 patients underwent successful LC+LTCBDE and 112 LC; follow-up data was available for 103 and 106 patients, respectively. Seventeen patients (16.5%) in the LC+LTCBDE group and 10 (28.6%) in the LC+ERC+ES group developed complications (P = 0.114). The LC+LTCBDE group had a significantly higher rate of satisfactory biliary function outcomes than the LC+ERC+ES group (98.1% vs. 85.7%, respectively) (P = 0.017). Single-step LC+LTCBDE using an ultrathin choledochoscope may provide better outcomes in patients with gallstones and suspected choledocholithiasis.

  12. Chronology of cholelithiasis. Dating gallstones from atmospheric radiocarbon produced by nuclear bomb explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, H.Y.; Druffel, E.R.; Rampone, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the natural history of cholelithiasis in 59 samples of stones from the gallbladder or common bile duct in 15 patients, using as a tracer for the timing of stone formation the 14 C released into the environment during nuclear weapons testing. The ages of the stones were correlated with the dates of onset of symptoms and with other clinical data. None of 11 symptomatic patients had symptoms or complications until at least two years (mean +/- SD, 8.0 +/- 5.1 years) after stone formation began. There was a lag time of 11.7 +/- 4.6 years between initial stone formation and cholecystectomy. The growth rates of stones from 11 symptomatic patients and 4 asymptomatic patients were similar (2.6 +/- 1.4 and 2.6 +/- 1.1 mm per year). Studies of two stones retrieved from the common bile duct showed that one had the same age as a cholecystic stone; the other, removed two years after cholecystectomy, apparently grew in the common bile duct. The long latency period between the formation of gallstones and the onset of symptoms indicates that interruption of the natural progression of gallstone disease is potentially possible with medical therapy

  13. Gallstone disease does not predict liver histology in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yusuf; Ayyildiz, Talat; Akin, Hakan; Colak, Yasar; Ozturk, Oguzhan; Senates, Ebubekir; Tuncer, Ilyas; Dolar, Enver

    2014-05-01

    We sought to examine whether the presence of gallstone disease (GD) in patients with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with liver fibrosis and histological nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) score. We included 441 Turkish patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. GD was diagnosed in the presence of sonographic evidence of gallstones, echogenic material within the gallbladder with constant shadowing and little or no visualization of the gallbladder or absence of gallbladder at ultrasonography, coupled with a history of cholecystectomy. Fifty-four patients (12.2%) had GD (GD+ subjects). Compared with the GD- subjects, GD+ patients were older, had a higher body mass index and were more likely to be female and have metabolic syndrome. However, GD+ patients did not have a higher risk of advanced fibrosis or definite NASH on histology. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, the prevalence of GD in NAFLD patients was not associated with significant fibrosis (≥2) (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 2.21; p=0.68) or definite NASH (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.495 to 2.12; p=0.84). The presence of GD is not independently associated with advanced fibrosis and definite NASH in adult Turkish patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.

  14. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium | Chintapenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mangrove Penicillium producing red pigment was cultured in an optimized medium that was designed by the authors previously and used in this study. The purpose of this study was to identify the pigment and also to study the effect of bio elements on pigment production. Pigment from the medium was efficiently extracted ...

  15. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... A mangrove Penicillium producing red pigment was cultured in an optimized medium that was designed by the authors previously and used in this study. The purpose of this study was to identify the pigment and also to study the effect of bio elements on pigment production. Pigment from the medium was.

  16. Oral pigmentation induced by Premarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérusse, R; Morency, R

    1991-07-01

    Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity are important entities. The wide range of their clinical differential diagnosis includes such diverse systemic conditions as Addison's disease, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, malignant melanoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, as well as specific oral lesions, such as amalgam tattoo or gingival melanosis. This paper reports a very rare cause of oral pigmentation, a melanic type, related to the use of Premarin.

  17. Drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hage Amaro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The authors make a review of drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments(DPDs, a form of retinal pigment epithelium detachment(PED that evolves from confluent and large soft drusen.Drusenoidretinal pigment epithelial detachments are a recognized element of the "dry" AMD. Until now, no treatment is indicated in drusenoid PEDs. The authors describe the clinical characteristics of drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments (DPEDs and make a review of the DPEDs related in the international literature. We related in this revision paper the multimodal advanced image exams in two cases of dusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments (DPEDs and the general characteristics of thisfinding associated with Dry Macular degeneration.Upon examination of the ocular fundusDPEDs emerge as well-circumscribed yellow or yellow–white elevations of the RPE that are usually found within the macula.They may show scalloped borders and a slightly irregular surface. When visualized using fluorescein angiography (FA,DPEDs are typically described as faint hyper-fluorescent in the early phase followed by a slow increase in fluorescence throughout the transit stage of the study without late leakage. With optical coherence tomography (OCT, drusenoid PEDs usually show a smooth contour of the detached hyperreflective RPE band that may have an undulating appearance.Drusenoid PEDs encompass far above the ground possibility type of "dry" AMD that develops in relationship with large confluent soft drusen.At this point no treatment is utilized in drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachment(DPEDs.

  18. Four Susceptibility Loci for Gallstone Disease Identified in a Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Amit D; Andersson, Charlotte; Buch, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 280 cases identified the hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCG8 as a locus associated with risk for gallstone disease, but findings have not been reported from any other GWAS of this phenotype. We performed a large-scale, meta-analysis o...

  19. Pathobiology of cholesterol gallstone disease: from equilibrium ternary phase diagram to agents preventing cholesterol crystallization and stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portincasa, Piero; Moschetta, Antonio; Calamita, Giuseppe; Margari, Antonio; Palasciano, Giuseppe

    2003-03-01

    The primum movens in cholesterol gallstone formation is hypersecretion of hepatic cholesterol, chronic surpersaturation of bile with cholesterol and rapid precipitation of cholesterol crystals in the gallbladder from cholesterol-enriched vesicles. Associated events include biochemical defects (increased biliary mucin, and increased proportions of hydrophobic bile salts in the intestine and gallbladder), motility defects (gallbladder smooth muscle hypocontractility in vitro and gallbladder stasis in vivo, sluggish intestinal transit), and an abnormal genetic background. The study of physical-chemical factors and pathways leading to cholesterol crystallization in bile has clinical relevance and the task can be carried out in different ways. The lithogenicity of bile is investigated in artificial model biles made by three biliary lipids - cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids - variably combined in systems plotting within the equilibrium ternary phase diagram; also, crystallization propensity of ex vivo incubated human bile is studied by biochemical analysis of precipitated crystals, polarizing quantitative light microscopy and turbidimetric methods. The present review will focus on the recent advances in the field of pathobiology of cholesterol gallstones, by underscoring the role of early events like water transport, lipid transport, crystallization phenomena - including a genetic background - in gallstone pathogenesis. Agents delaying or preventing precipitation of cholesterol crystals and gallstone formation in bile will also be discussed.

  20. Four Susceptibility Loci for Gallstone Disease Identified in a Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, A.D. (Amit D.); Andersson, C. (Charlotte); T. Buch (Thorsten); Stender, S. (Stefan); R. Noordam; L.-C. Weng; Weeke, P.E. (Peter E.); P. Auer (Paul); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); C. Chen (Constance); Choi, H. (Hyon); Curhan, G. (Gary); J.C. Denny (Joshua C.); I. de Vivo (Immaculata); Eicher, J.D. (John D.); D. Ellinghaus (David); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); Fuchs, C. (Charles); Gala, M. (Manish); J. Haessler (Jeff); A. Hofman (Albert); Hu, F. (Frank); D. Hunter (David); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry); J.H. Kang; C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kraft (Peter); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); P.L. Lutsey (Pamela); S. Darwish Murad (Sarwa); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); L.R. Pasquale (Louis); A. Reiner (Alexander); P.M. Ridker (Paul); E.B. Rimm (Eric B.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); Shaffer, C.M. (Christian M.); C. Schafmayer (Clemens); Tamimi, R.M. (Rulla M.); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); Wakabayashi, Y. (Yoshiyuki); J.L. Wiggs (Janey L.); Zhu, J. (Jun); Roden, D.M. (Dan M.); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); W. Tang (Weihong); A. Teumer (Alexander); J. Hampe (Jochen); A. Tybjaerg-Hansen; D.I. Chasman (Daniel); Chan, A.T. (Andrew T.); A.D. Johnson (Andrew)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground & Aims A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 280 cases identified the hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCG8 as a locus associated with risk for gallstone disease, but findings have not been reported from any other GWAS of this phenotype. We performed a large-scale,

  1. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs.

  2. Referral pathways of patients with gallstones: a potential source of financial waste in the U.K. National Health Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, David; Knox, Margaret; Kanakala, Venkat; Richardson, Stuart; Seymour, Keith; Attwood, Stephen; Slater, Bary

    2010-01-01

    Gallstone-related illnesses are one of the most common reasons for emergency hospital admissions, often with serious complications. Standard treatment of uncomplicated gallstone-disease is by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which can be safely and cost-effectively performed during a short hospital stay or as day-case. This paper aims to evaluate the referral pattern of patients with gallstones, which treatment is given and whether patients admitted as emergency could have benefited from earlier elective referral. The management of these patients is examined in the context of payment by results to determine cost and potential savings. The approach takens was prospective clinical audit and patient questionnaire in a district general hospital. Cost comparisons were made using secondary care income (NHS tariff) and estimated cost of hospitalisation, investigations and treatment. Between May and July 2007, 114 patients were admitted with symptomatic gallstones, 62 (54.4 per cent) were emergencies. Cholecystectomy was performed in all 52 elective patients and performed or planned for 59/62 (95.2 per cent) emergencies. A total 17/62 emergencies (27.4 per cent) presented with complications of gallstones. 38/62 (61.3 per cent) had similar symptoms before, with 21/38 (55.3 per cent) diagnosed in primary care or by another hospital department. 11 (52.4 per cent) of these had not been referred for a surgical opinion; taking account of age, co-morbidity and data acquired for elective admissions, the cost of their treatment could have been reduced by at least pounds 16,194. A large proportion of patients admitted with symptomatic biliary disease could have been referred earlier and electively. Such referral practice could improve the quality of care and reduce cost for the NHS both in primary and secondary care.

  3. Related allopolyploids display distinct floral pigment profiles and transgressive pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W; Berardi, Andrea E; Smith, Stacey D; Litt, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Both polyploidy and shifts in floral color have marked angiosperm evolution. Here, we investigate the biochemical basis of the novel and diverse floral phenotypes seen in allopolyploids in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) and examine the extent to which the merging of distinct genomes alters flavonoid pigment production. We analyzed flavonol and anthocyanin pigments from Nicotiana allopolyploids of different ages (N. tabacum, 0.2 million years old; several species from Nicotiana section Repandae, 4.5 million years old; and five lines of first-generation synthetic N. tabacum) as well as their diploid progenitors. Allopolyploid floral pigment profiles tend not to overlap with their progenitors or related allopolyploids, and allopolyploids produce transgressive pigments that are not present in either progenitor. Differences in floral color among N. tabacum accessions seems mainly to be due to variation in cyanidin concentration, but changes in flavonol concentrations among accessions are also present. Competition for substrates within the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to make either flavonols or anthocyanins may drive the differences seen among related allopolyploids. Some of the pigment differences observed in allopolyploids may be associated with making flowers more visible to nocturnal pollinators. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Im Chung; Su Noh Ryu; Mi Young Kang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body...

  5. The visual pigment cyanide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1989-12-01

    The visual pigment of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) with its in situ absorption maximum at 521 nm has its spectral position at 500 to 505 nm when chloride-deficient digitonin is used for the extraction. In this case the addition of chloride or bromide to the extract restores the maximum to 521 nm. This property, characteristic of gecko pigments in general, does not occur with any of the rhodopsins that have been tested. Simple salts of cyanide, a pseudohalogenoid with an ionic radius close to those of chloride and bromide and/or its hydrolysis product attacks both this gecko pigment and rhodopsins in the dark. This is seen as a slow thermal loss of photopigment if (sodium) cyanide is present at concentrations above 40 mM for the gecko pigment and 150 mM for the rhodopsins of the midshipman (Porichthys notatus) and of the frog (Rana pipiens). In all cases the loss of the photopigment is accompanied by the appearance of a spectral product with maximum absorption at about 340 nm. Cyanide addition has no effect on the photosensitivity of the native pigments and neither does it alter, as do chloride, bromide and other anions, the spectral absorbance curve. The spectral product at 340 nm also appears when the visual pigments are photolyzed in the presence of cyanide salts below the threshold concentrations given above. Incubation of digitonin-solubilized all-trans-retinal with (sodium) cyanide leads to a reaction product with absorption spectrum similar to that obtained with visual pigments under comparable conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Effect of newly developed pigments and ultraviolet absorbers on the color change of pigmented silicone elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit G Kheur

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The newly developed pigment led to increased color stability as compared to commercially available pigments. Addition of UV stabilizer, Chimassorb led to a further reduction in color change of the pigmented elastomer.

  7. Differential sensitivity of pigmented and non-pigmented marine bacteria to metals and antibiotics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The response of pigmented and non-pigmented marine bacteria to metals and antibiotics was investigated. The two groups responded differently to heavy metals and antibiotics. Pigmented bacteria were more resistant to metals. Among the metals, Zn...

  8. Diversity and functional properties of bistable pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

    2010-11-01

    Rhodopsin and related opsin-based pigments, which are photosensitive membrane proteins, have been extensively studied using a wide variety of techniques, with rhodopsin being the most understood G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Animals use various opsin-based pigments for vision and a wide variety of non-visual functions. Many functionally varied pigments are roughly divided into two kinds, based on their photoreaction: bistable and monostable pigments. Bistable pigments are thermally stable before and after photo-activation, but monostable pigments are stable only before activation. Here, we review the diversity of bistable pigments and their molecular characteristics. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying different molecular characteristics of bistable and monostable pigments. In addition, the potential of bistable pigments as a GPCR model is proposed.

  9. Zidovudine-induced nail pigmentation in a 12-year-old boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawre, Sanjeevani M.; Pore, Shraddha M.; Nandeshwar, Manish B.; Masood, Nausheen M.

    2012-01-01

    Zidovudine is an important component of first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens used to manage pediatric HIV. Nail pigmentation with zidovudine is a well-documented occurrence in adults, especially dark-skinned individuals. But it has so far not been reported in children. Here, we report a pediatric case of zidovudine-induced nail pigmentation. A 12-year-old boy receiving ART with zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine presented to dermatology OPD with complaint of diffuse bluish-brown discoloration of all fingernails. The pigmentation was noticed by the patient after 3 months of initiating zidovudine-based regimen. It first appeared in thumb nails, gradually involved all fingernails, and increased in intensity over time. Though harmless and reversible, psychological aspects of this noticeable side effect may hamper adherence to therapy and may lead to unnecessary investigations and treatment for misdiagnosis such as cyanosis or melanoma. PMID:23248416

  10. Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration in Pregnancy With Acute Gallstone Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young W.; Chung, Mathew H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: We present a case in which a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration was performed safely in a pregnant patient with acute gallstone pancreatitis. Case Report: A 25-year-old female, gravida 4 para 3, at 14-weeks gestation presented to her obstetrician with complaints of epigastric pain radiating to the back. She was otherwise healthy with no past medical or surgical history. A physical examination revealed a healthy young female with no evidence of jaundice and in no acute distress. An abdominal examination was remarkable for a gravid abdomen with mild tenderness to palpation in her epigastrium and negative Murphy's sign. The patient safely underwent a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Conclusion: This case illustrates the role of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in the diagnosis and treatment of possible choledocholithiasis in a pregnant patient. PMID:16709365

  11. Research progress in association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and gallstone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Ying

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and gallstone disease (GD are considered the manifestations of metabolic syndrome in the liver and gallbladder. NAFLD and GD are closely related to insulin resistance (IR, obesity, dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, and so on. Worldwide studies, which have been reviewed, show that both NAFLD and GD have the common risk factors, such as IR, obesity, dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, and middle-aged and elderly women. NAFLD is the risk factor for GD. GD, closely related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis, accelerates the progression of NAFLD. Thus, it is considered that the prevention and treatment of NAFLD can reduce the incidence of GD, and the progression of NAFLD can be delayed by the prevention and treatment of GD.

  12. An unforgettable concurrence: Successfully managed gallstone ileus accompanied by diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikki Singal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of gall stones associated with potentially serious morbidity and mortality. Case Report: We reported a 60-year-old male case who presented with renal failure and pain in right hypochondriac region. He also had a history of brain infarcts along with diabetes which is an additional factor for mortality. On Computed Tomography of the abdomen, he was diagnosed to have cholecystocholedochal fistula including air in the gall bladder and obstruction in the distal part of the ileum. Computed tomography plays an important role to make the proper diagnosis and in treatment. Conclusion s: As in our case, diagnosis was challengeable because of renal failure,diabetes, septicaemia and intestinal obstruction (peritonitis. We did surgery on the basis of peritonitis which remains the only choice in such cases. . In follow- up of 1 month patient was doing well and asymptomatic.

  13. Accumulation of pigment granules in lacrymal gland epithelium in practolol-treated beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchitani, M; Narama, I; Kohda, S

    1989-04-01

    A 6-month oral toxicity test of practolol was carried out in beagle dogs as a reference control for a newly developed beta blocker. No significant drug-induced changes were detected in any animals by various ophthalmological examinations such as ERG, tear flow, lysozymal activity in tears, etc. However, an unusual pathological change was detected in the lacrymal gland of all five dogs treated with practolol and not in control animals. Macroscopically, the lacrymal glands assumed a blackish brown to deep black colour on both the outside and the cut surface. Microscopically, fine, dark-brown pigment granules were present in the apical and supra-nuclear portion of the cytoplasm of predominantly serosal type epithelial cells. These pigments reacted positively to Schmorl's method for lipofuscin, but gave a negative PAS reaction for polysaccharide, Prussian blue for iron and Ziehl-Neelsen method for ceroid pigment. They were detected as membrane-bound electron-dense bodies by electron microscopy. Similar pigments were also deposited in the cytoplasm of the apocrine sweat gland. Although the mechanism of the accumulation of these granules is far from clear, concentration of practolol in the lacrymal gland is considered to be very closely related to the presence of these granules. A possible mechanism for ocular toxicity by practolol, involving this change, is discussed.

  14. Genome-wide association analysis identifies potential regulatory genes for eumelanin pigmentation in chicken plumage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Du, X; Wei, S; Gu, L; Li, N; Gong, Y; Li, S

    2017-10-01

    Plumage color in chicken is determined by the proportion of eumelanin and pheomelanin pigmentation. As the main ingredient in plumage melanin, eumelanin plays a key role in the dark black, brown and grey coloration. However, very few studies have been performed to identify the related genes and mutations on a genome-wide scale. Herein, a resource family consisting of one backcross population and two F2 cross populations between a black roster and Yukou Brown I parent stockbreed was constructed for identification of genes related to eumelanin pigmentation. Chickens with eumelanin in their plumage were classified as the case group, and the rest were considered the control group. A genome-wide association study of this phenotype and genotypes using Affymetrix 600K HD SNP arrays in this F2 family revealed 13 significantly associated SNPs and in 10 separate genes on chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 5. Based on previous studies in model species, we inferred that genes, including NUAK family kinase 1 (NUAK1) and sonic hedgehog (SHH), may play roles in the development of neural crest cells or melanoblasts during the embryonic period, which may also affect the eumelanin pigmentation. Our results facilitate the understanding of the genetic basis of eumelanin pigmentation in chicken plumage. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  16. Routine histopathology of gallbladder after elective cholecystectomy for gallstones: waste of resources or a justified act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Faisal G; Memon, Ahmer A; Abro, Arshad H; Sasoli, Nazeer A; Ahmad, Lubna

    2013-07-08

    Selective approach for sending cholecystectomy specimens for histopathology results in missing discrete pathologies such as premalignant benign lesions such as porcelain gallbladder, carcinoma-in-situ, and early carcinomas. To avoid such blunders therefore, every cholecystectomy specimen should be routinely examined histologically. Unfortunately, the practice of discarding gallbladder specimen is standard in most tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan including the primary investigators' own institution. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility or otherwise of performing histopathology in every specimen of gallbladder. This cohort study included 220 patients with gallstones for cholecystectomy. All cases with known secondaries from gallbladder, local invasion from other viscera, traumatic rupture of gallbladder, gross malignancy of gallbladder found during surgery was excluded from the study. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in majority of cases except in those cases where anatomical distortion and dense adhesions prevented laparoscopy. All gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathology, irrespective of their gross appearance. Over a period of two years, 220 patients with symptomatic gallstones were admitted for cholecystectomy. Most of the patients were females (88%). Ninety two per cent patients presented with upper abdominal pain of varying duration. All specimens were sent for histopathology. Two hundred and three of the specimens showed evidence chronic cholecystitis, 7 acute cholecystitis with mucocele, 3 acute cholecystitis with empyema and one chronic cholecystitis associated with poly. Six gallbladders (2.8%) showed adenocarcinoma of varying differentiation along with cholelithiasis. The histopathological spectrum of gallbladder is extremely variable. Incidental diagnosis of carcinoma gall bladder is not rare; if the protocol of routine histopathology of all gallbladder specimens is not followed, subclinical malignancies would fail to

  17. The association between gallstone disease and plaque in the abdominopelvic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the atheromatous plaque, in the abdominopelvic arteries as a marker of cardiac risk in patients with or without gallstone disease (GD. Materials and Methods: A total of 136 patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Forty-eight patients had GD and the remaining 88 patients did not. The presence or absence of gallstones was noted during abdominal ultrasonography while vascular risk factors such as plaque formation, intima-media thickness, plaque calcification, mural thrombus, stenosis, aneurysm, and inflammation were recorded during an abdominopelvic computed tomography scan. In addition, percentage of the abdominopelvic aorta surface covered by atheromatous plaque was calculated. Results: The mean age of patients with GD and without GD was 50.81 ± 16.20 and 50.40 ± 12.43, respectively. Patients with GD were more likely to have diabetes mellitus, a higher body mass index (BMI (P < 0.001, and higher cholesterol (P < 0.01, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P < 0.02 levels. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding other atherosclerotic risk factors. Patients with GD had significantly higher rates of the vascular risk factors as intima-media thickness, plaque formation, calcification, aneurysm, mural thrombosis, stenosis, and inflammation in all abdominal arterial segments other than aneurysm in the femoral arteries. In addition, patients with GD had severe atheromatous plaques in the abdominal aorta, common iliac, external iliac, and common femoral artery (CFA. In patients with GD, parameters of age, BMI, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were all correlated with the severity of the atheromatous plaque in abdominal aorta, common iliac, external iliac, and CFA. Conclusion: We demonstrated a direct relationship between GD and abdominopelvic atheromatous plaque, which is a marker for increased cardiovascular risk, for the first time in the literature

  18. Iris pigmentation and AC thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, A F; Mukherjee, D; Chumlea, W C; Siervogel, R M

    1983-03-01

    Data from 160 White children were used to analyze possible associations between iris pigmentation and AC pure-tone thresholds. Iris pigmentation was graded from iris color using glass models of eyes, and AC thresholds were obtained under carefully controlled conditions. Analyses of variance using two groupings of iris color grades showed no evidence of an association between iris color grade and AC thresholds. Furthermore, inspection of arrays of the actual glass eye models, in conjunction with the order of mean thresholds at each test frequency, did not indicate the presence of an association between iris color grades and thresholds. It was concluded that while iris pigmentation may be related to some aspects of hearing ability, it does not appear to be related to AC thresholds in children.

  19. Characteristic Elemental Composition of Oil Pigments using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Jin; Lim, Sung Jin; Song, Yu Na; Kim, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this study is to identify the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis as a non-destructive examination tool for the quantitative composition analysis associated with authentication, restoration, and conservation of art objects in the field of cultural heritage. Generally, the chemical composition of pigments are associated with the colors such as white, yellow, orange, red, green, blue and black, and it varies with raw materials of pigments. According to the colors of a different pigments, chemical compositions are as follows; for example, white pigments were used for a mixture of Pb(CO 3 ) 2 , PbSO 4 , PbO, Pb(OH) 2 , ZnO, ZnS, TiO 2 , BaSO 4 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , As 2 S 3 , etc.; black pigments were series of carbon black, borne ash, MnO+Mn 2 O 3 , etc.; red pigments were Fe 2 O 3 , Pb 3 O 4 , HgS, PbMo 4 , CdS+CdSe, etc.; brown and yellow pigments were PbCrO 4 , ZnCrO 4 , CdS-ZnS, K 3 [Co(NO 2 ) 6 ], Pb(SbO 3 ) 2 , C 19 H 16 O 11 Mg, SrCrO 4 , etc.; green pigments were Cr 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O(OH) 4 , Cu(C 2 H 3 O 2 )-2Cu(OH) 2 ), Cr 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -CoO, etc.; blue pigments were Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 , CoO-Al 2 O 3 , Na 8 - 10 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 S 2-4 , etc. This first step is to obtain quantitative data on the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in oil pigments and to explain pigment sources by statistical treatment as reported in many literatures. The determination of major, minor and micro elements in the subject materials are essential in many fields of basic science and technology as well as commercial and industrial fields. In particular, direct analysis of a sample offers a more effective investigation method in these fields. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has an inherent advantage of being a non-destructive, simultaneously multi-elemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity. In order to characterize the elemental contents of art objects, the quantitative analysis of oil pigment series was

  20. Changes in brown eggshell color as the hen ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaşi, A Z; Miles, R D; Balaban, M O; Portier, K M

    2007-02-01

    The color of eggshells from eggs laid by commercial-type Hy-Line brown hens 25 wk of age was studied over a period of 10 mo. Color measurements were made by a color machine vision system and were analyzed using a mixed model to calculate between and within hen variances and to investigate the effect of time on shell color. Hens laid eggs with lighter colored shells as the flock aged, as evidenced by the lightness (L*) values increasing in time. A decrease in pigmentation was associated with a decrease in the amount of redness (a*) in the eggshell. When L* and a* values were corrected for egg weight, the rate of change in the L* and a* values decreased, indicating that size of the egg was a major factor affecting the color of the eggshell. These findings quantified the observations that older hens lay lighter colored eggs due to an increase in egg size associated with no proportionate change in the quantity of pigment deposited over the shell surface. Using a 2-stage sampling analysis and the variances between and within hens, sample sizes required to estimate the color of eggshells within 5% of the true mean were calculated. Accordingly, 11 eggs would need to be collected from each of the 51 hens housed for a study of brown eggshell color using the L*, a*, and b* (yellowness) coordinates.

  1. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Manipadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing′s syndrome and has characteristic gross and microscopic pathologic findings. We report a case of PPNAD in a 15-year-old boy, which was not associated with Carney′s complex. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice.

  2. Key factors for UV curable pigment dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magny, B.; Pezron, E.; Ciceron, P.H.; Askienazy, A.

    1999-01-01

    UV oligomers with good pigment dispersion are needed to allow good formulation flexibility and possibility to apply thinner films. Pigment dispersion mainly depends on three phenomena: the wetting of agglomerates, the breakage of agglomerates by mechanical stress and the stabilization of smaller agglomerates and primary particles against flocculation. It has been shown that oligomers with low viscosity and low surface tension induce a good pigment wetting. Examples of monomers and oligomers for good pigment dispersion are given

  3. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  4. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  5. Is endoscopic ultrasound needed as an add-on test for gallstone diseases without choledocholithiasis on multidetector computed tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Byoung Wook; Hong, Ji Taek; Choi, Young Chul; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Kim, Hyung Kil; Park, Shin Goo; Jeon, Yong Sun

    2012-12-01

    Choledocholithiasis commonly occurs in patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Although the recently developed multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan enhances the ability to diagnose choledocholithiasis, this technique is considered to have some limitations for evaluating the common bile duct (CBD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity for performing endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) as an add-on test to detect choledocholithiasis in patients who were diagnosed with gallstone disease without choledocholithiasis based on MDCT. Three hundred twenty patients with gallstone disease and no evidence of CBD stones according to MDCT underwent EUS between March 2006 and April 2011. If CBD stones were suspected based on the EUS results or clinical symptoms, a final diagnosis was obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The patients' medical records were retrospectively analyzed based on clinical symptoms, biochemical findings, and results of the imaging studies. CBD stones were not detected with MDCT in 41 (12.8 %) out of 320 patients with gallstone disease. The causes for these discrepancies could be attributed to small stone size (n = 19, 46.3 %), isodensity (n = 18, 43.9 %), impacted stones (n = 1, 2.4 %), and misdiagnosis (n = 3, 7.3 %). If EUS were used as a triage tool, unnecessary diagnostic ERCP and its complications could be avoided for 245 (76.6 %) patients. MDCT may not be a primary technique for detecting CBD stones. EUS should be performed instead as an add-on test to evaluate the CBD for patients with gallstone-related disease. In particular, EUS should be routinely recommended for patients with abnormal liver enzyme levels, pancreatitis, and dilated CBD.

  6. Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Gallstone Removal Using a 12-Fr Sheath in High-Risk Surgical Patients with Acute Cholecystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan [Keimyung University, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Andong General Hospital, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae Beom [Gyeonsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic cholecystolithotomy under fluoroscopic guidance in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis. Sixty-three consecutive patients of high surgical risk with acute calculous cholecystitis underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallstone removal under conscious sedation. The stones were extracted through the 12-Fr sheath using a Wittich nitinol stone basket under fluoroscopic guidance on three days after performing a percutaneous cholecystostomy. Large or hard stones were fragmented using either the snare guide wire technique or the metallic cannula technique. Gallstones were successfully removed from 59 of the 63 patients (94%). Reasons for stone removal failure included the inability to grasp a large stone in two patients, and the loss of tract during the procedure in two patients with a contracted gallbladder. The mean hospitalization duration was 7.3 days for acute cholecystitis patients and 9.4 days for gallbladder empyema patients. Bile peritonitis requiring percutaneous drainage developed in two patients. No symptomatic recurrence occurred during follow-up (mean, 608.3 days). Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gallstone removal using a 12-Fr sheath is technically feasible and clinically effective in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis

  7. A single gene causes an interspecific difference in pigmentation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed-Braimah, Yasir H; Sweigart, Andrea L

    2015-05-01

    The genetic basis of species differences remains understudied. Studies in insects have contributed significantly to our understanding of morphological evolution. Pigmentation traits in particular have received a great deal of attention and several genes in the insect pigmentation pathway have been implicated in inter- and intraspecific differences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about many of the genes in this pathway and their potential role in understudied taxa. Here we genetically analyze the puparium color difference between members of the virilis group of Drosophila. The puparium of Drosophila virilis is black, while those of D. americana, D. novamexicana, and D. lummei are brown. We used a series of backcross hybrid populations between D. americana and D. virilis to map the genomic interval responsible for the difference between this species pair. First, we show that the pupal case color difference is caused by a single Mendelizing factor, which we ultimately map to an ∼11-kb region on chromosome 5. The mapped interval includes only the first exon and regulatory region(s) of the dopamine N-acetyltransferase gene (Dat). This gene encodes an enzyme that is known to play a part in the insect pigmentation pathway. Second, we show that this gene is highly expressed at the onset of pupation in light brown taxa (D. americana and D. novamexicana) relative to D. virilis, but not in the dark brown D. lummei. Finally, we examine the role of Dat in adult pigmentation between D. americana (heavily melanized) and D. novamexicana (lightly melanized) and find no discernible effect of this gene in adults. Our results demonstrate that a single gene is entirely or almost entirely responsible for a morphological difference between species. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. The Effect of Irradiation Treatment on the Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Legume Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation treatment, at room temperature, on the non-enzymatic browning reaction (Millerd reaction products, MRPs) generated in soybeans, broad beans and dried peas seeds at dose levels of 10, 30 and 60 kGy and their effects on the chemical constituents, soluble protein, available lysine and in vitro protein digestibility. The formation of MRPs in the studied legumes was assayed by monitoring the formation of brown pigments (browning intensity) by spectrophotometric method. The results revealed that the chemical composition of irradiated legumes showed non-significant differences relative to the raw one. A dose dependent decrease in soluble proteins and available lysine in the three legumes were observed. The non-enzymatic browning reaction was significantly increased with increasing the radiation dose, which was proved by changes in browning index tests. At the same time, the in vitro protein digestibility was increased after irradiation up to 60 kGy. Irradiation of dried peas with 60 kGy produced higher browning index than the other legumes. A positive correlation was observed between the radiation dose and the browning index for soybeans (R2= 0.96), broad beans (R2 = 0.81) and dried peas (R2 = 0.97) which means that 96%, 81% and 97 of the variation in the incidence of non-enzymatic browning reaction in soybean, broad bean and dried peas, respectively, are due to the effect of irradiation treatments. The present study suggests that the formation of non-enzymatic browning reaction did not impair the nutritional quality of legumes, therefore, the process of irradiation was helpful in increasing the in vitro protein digestibility of studied legumes. These results clearly indicated that gamma irradiation processing at the studied doses can add valuable effects to the studied legumes

  9. FOX and ETS family transcription factors regulate the pigment cell lineage in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinwen; Lindsay-Mosher, Nicole; Li, Yan; Molinaro, Alyssa M; Pellettieri, Jason; Pearson, Bret J

    2017-12-15

    Many pigment cells acquire unique structural properties and gene expression profiles during animal development. The underlying differentiation pathways have been well characterized in cells formed during embryogenesis, such as the neural crest-derived melanocyte. However, much less is known about the developmental origins of pigment cells produced in adult organisms during tissue homeostasis and repair. Here we report a lineage analysis of ommochrome- and porphyrin-producing cells in the brown, freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea Using an RNA-sequencing approach, we identified two classes of markers expressed in sequential fashion when new pigment cells are generated during regeneration or in response to pigment cell ablation. We also report roles for FOXF-1 and ETS-1 transcription factors, as well as for an FGFR-like molecule, in the specification and maintenance of this cell type. Together, our results provide insights into mechanisms of adult pigment cell development in the strikingly colorful Platyhelminthes phylum. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Glycine as a regulator of tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Malassezia furfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchmann, Thorsten; Hort, Wiebke; Krämer, Hans-Joachim; Mayser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the addition of different amino nitrogens on growth, morphology and secondary metabolism of Malassezia furfur were investigated. After primary culture on Dixon agar, M. furfur CBS 1878 was transferred into a fluid medium together with the nitrogen sources, glycine (Gly) or tryptophan (Trp), or a combination of both. Growth was measured by means of a direct cell counting method and pigment synthesis was photometrically assessed. Addition of glycine resulted in an exponential increase in biomass, but not in pigment production. Tryptophan as the sole nitrogen source caused distinct brown staining of the medium, without increasing biomass. Simultaneous equimolar addition of both amino acids resulted in an initial increase in biomass as a sign of preferential metabolism of glycine, followed by a growth plateau and pigment production which, caused by higher biomass, occurred more rapidly than after addition of tryptophan alone. The yeast-cell morphology changed from round to oval. Addition of glycine to the tryptophan-containing liquid culture stopped pigment formation with simultaneous growth induction. These in vitro on-off phenomena depending on the nitrogen source might be significant in the pathogenesis of pityriasis versicolor: hyperhidrosis followed by preferential consumption of individual nitrogen sources such as glycine with exponential growth and thereafter transamination of tryptophan and TRP-dependent pigment synthesis. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Exploring the microbiota of the red-brown defect in smear-ripened cheese by 454-pyrosequencing and its prevention using different cleaning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Carafa, Ilaria; Tuohy, Kieran; Cervantes, Gonzalo; Vernetti, Luca; Barmaz, Andrea; Larcher, Roberto; Franciosi, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Red-brown pigmentation can occasionally form in smeared-ripened cheese such as Fontina during the ripening process. This reaction is due to over-development of the typical microbiota present on the rind. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between red-brown pigmentation and the traditional utilization of wooden shelves during cheese ripening. The first part of the paper focuses on the characterisation of yeast and bacterial microbiota: plate counts and 454-pyrosequencing were performed in spoiled (n = 6) and non-spoiled cheeses (n = 6) and on the wooden shelves used during ripening. The second part shows different systems tested for cleaning the wooden shelves and avoiding the development of the red-brown defect in cheese: washing with hot water and ozone treatment. Actinobacteria, dominated on the wooden shelves, suggesting to be responsible for the red-brown pigmentation; they were also found in traces in the defected cheese samples. Galactomyces and Debaryomyces were the main species characterizing the yeast population, with Debaryomyces being the most dominant species on the shelves used during ripening of the red-brown defective cheese. Hot water treatment reduced the microbial contamination of shelves, whereas only the ozone treatment ensured complete elimination of both yeast and bacteria, resulting in the cheese rind not having the red-brown defect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Browning reaction systems as sources of mutagens and antimutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powrie, W D; Wu, C H; Molund, V P

    1986-08-01

    Heated food systems contain hundreds of chemical compounds, some being mutagenic and others being antimutagenic. Studies have indicated that foods exposed to drying, frying, roasting, baking, and broiling conditions possess net mutagenic activity as assessed by the Ames/Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test and the chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. With the above-mentioned heat treatment of food, nonenzymic browning reactions are generally proceeding at rapid rates and are involved in the development of mutagens. Caramelization and Maillard reactions are two important pathways in the nonenzymic browning of food and are responsible for the formation of volatile aromatic compounds, intermediate nonvolatile compounds, and brown pigments called melanoidins. Heated sugar-amino acid mixtures possessed mutagenic activities which have been assessed by short-term bioassays. Purified Maillard and caramelization reaction products such as reductones, dicarbonyls, pyrazines, and furan derivatives have exhibited mutagenicity and clastogenicity. The water-insoluble fraction (WIF) of instant coffee and a model-system melanoidin (MSM) have been shown to inhibit the mutagenicity of known carcinogens--aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), and benzo(a)pyrene (BP)--in aqueous dispersion. WIF and MSM were found to be effective binding agents for the carcinogens.

  13. The clinical efficacy of paremyd with and without dapiprazole in subjects with light and dark brown irides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anicho, U M; Cooper, J; Feldman, J; Jaanus, S D; Dignam, K

    1999-02-01

    Paremyd, a mydriatic formulation of 0.25% tropicamide and 1.0% hydroxyamphetamine hydrobromide provides adequate dilation for binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy in young Caucasians. We studied the clinical effectiveness of Paremyd in dilating heavily pigmented eyes by comparing its mydriatic efficacy in Blacks, Asians and Caucasians with light and dark brown irides. We also evaluated the efficacy of one drop of dapiprazole (Rev-Eyes) in reversing Paremyd-induced mydriasis in our subject sample. In a masked, randomized, controlled experimental design, several visual functions which included pupillary dilation, near visual acuity, amplitude of accommodation, ocular hyperemia, and discomfort glare were measured at 30-min intervals, for a total of 300 min, in subjects dilated with a single drop of Paremyd in each eye. Ease of binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy was also assessed. A 3-way analysis of variance was used to assess changes in these measures as function of irides color/pigmentation (designated as light or dark brown iris color), presence or absence of dapiprazole, and test time interval. We found that subjects in our light brown irides group (mainly Caucasians) dilated faster than subjects in our dark brown irides group (mainly Blacks). Dapiprazole increased the speed of recovery from pupillary dilation for all subjects, but more so for those with light rather than dark brown irides. Similarly, subjects with light rather than dark brown irides recovered accommodative function more quickly. Although neither the use of dapiprazole nor the degree of iris color/pigmentation was significantly related to visual acuity or glare discomfort, there was a clear trend that these visual measures were affected to a greater degree in subjects with dark brown (primarily Blacks) rather than light brown irides. Overall, Paremyd provided adequate dilation for binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy in all subjects irrespective of iris color/pigmentation. Our data indicate that a single

  14. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-02

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.

  15. Short communication: Aqueous-acetone extraction improves the drawbacks of using dimethylsulfoxide as solvent for photometric pigment quantification in Quercus ilex leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Gonzalez-Cascon

    2017-10-01

    Research highlights: Oxidizing conditions and polyphenol concentrations in Q. ilex leaves generated brown colorations in the DMSO extraction procedure, interfering with the photometric measurements in the red-orange region. Aqueous-acetone extraction was free from interference. DMSO should be avoided for pigment determination in Q. ilex leaves or when comparing different tree species.

  16. Four Susceptibility Loci for Gallstone Disease Identified in a Meta-analysis of Genome-wide Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amit D.; Andersson, Charlotte; Buch, Stephan; Stender, Stefan; Noordam, Raymond; Weng, Lu-Chen; Weeke, Peter E.; Auer, Paul L.; Boehm, Bernhard; Chen, Constance; Choi, Hyon; Curhan, Gary; Denny, Joshua C.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Eicher, John D.; Ellinghaus, David; Folsom, Aaron R.; Fuchs, Charles; Gala, Manish; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Hunter, David J.; Janssen, Harry L.A.; Kang, Jae H.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Murad, Sarwa Darwish; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Reiner, Alex P.; Ridker, Paul M; Rimm, Eric; Rose, Lynda M.; Shaffer, Christian M.; Schafmayer, Clemens; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Uitterlinden, André G; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Wakabayashi, Yoshiyuki; Wiggs, Janey L.; Zhu, Jun; Roden, Dan M.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Tang, Weihong; Teumer, Alexander; Hampe, Jochen; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chan, Andrew T.; Johnson, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims A genome wide association study (GWAS) of 280 cases identified the hepatic cholesterol transporter ABCG8 as a locus associated with risk for gallstone disease, but findings have not been reported from any other GWAS of this phenotype. We performed a large-scale meta-analysis of GWASs of individuals of European ancestry with available prior genotype data, to identify additional genetic risk factors for gallstone disease. Methods We obtained per-allele odds ratio (OR) and standard error estimates using age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models within each of the 10 discovery studies (8720 cases and 55,152 controls). We performed an inverse variance weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis of study specific estimates to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were independently associated with gallstone disease. Associations were replicated in 6489 cases and 62,797 controls. Results We observed independent associations for 2 SNPs at the ABCG8 locus: rs11887534 (OR = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54–1.86; P=2.44×10−60) and rs4245791 (OR=1.27; P=1.90×10−34). We also identified and/or replicated associations for rs9843304 in TM4SF4 (OR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.08–1.16; P=6.09×10−11), rs2547231 in SULT2A1 (encodes a sulfo-conjugation enzyme that acts on hydroxysteroids and cholesterol-derived sterol bile acids), (OR=1.17, 95% CI, 1.12– 1.21;P=2.24×10−10), rs1260326 in GCKR (encodes a glucokinase regulator) (OR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.07–1.17; P=2.55×10−10), and rs6471717 near CYP7A1 (encodes an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to primary bile acids) (OR=1.11; 95% CI, 1.08–1.15; P=8.84×10−9). Among individuals of African American and Hispanic American ancestry, rs11887534 and rs4245791 were positively associated with gallstone disease risk, while the association for the rs1260326 variant was inverse. Conclusions In this large-scale GWAS of gallstone disease, we identified 4 loci in genes that have

  17. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in these...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  19. Arthroscopic treatment of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving bilateral shoulders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Kyung Sub; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2010-06-09

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a lesion of benign proliferative synovium that invades joint, tendon sheath, and bursa. It mainly occurs in 1 joint, the knee joint or hand, and multi-joint invasion is reported to be atrophy of the deltoid and infraspinatus and a mass-like protrusion on the anterior portion of left shoulder. Active forward elevation was limited to 30 degrees on the right and 90 degrees on the left. Overall synovial hyperplasia and nodular mass was observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Massive rotator cuff tear and invasion of the lesion toward the subacromial space and deltoid muscle was noted as well. Arthroscopic examination revealed a typical finding of PVNS: yellowish brown pigmentation over the overall joint capsule and subacromial space. Arthroscopic total synovectomy without rotator cuff repair was performed for both shoulders. Clinical outcomes showed good pain relief and no recurrence of the disease, although range of motion and muscle strength was not significantly improved, possibly due to accompanied massive rotator cuff tear. Arthroscopic total synovectomy in the treatment of PVNS of the shoulder joint is a minimally invasive and effective method, which makes it possible to access the whole joint space and subacromial space. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Influence of delayed cholecystectomy after acute gallstone pancreatitis on recurrence: consequences of lack of resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bejarano-González

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is often a relapsing condition, particularly when its triggering factor persists. Our goal is to determine the recurrence rate of acute biliary pancreatitis after an initial episode, and the time to relapse, as well as to identify the risk factors for recurrence. Material and method: We included all patients admitted for a first acute gallstone pancreatitis event during four years. Primary endpoints included readmission for recurrence and time to relapse. Results: We included 296 patients admitted on a total of 386 occasions. The incidence of acute biliary pancreatitis in our setting is 17.5/100,000 population/year. In all, 19.6% of pancreatitis were severe (22.6% of severe acute pancreatitis for first episodes versus 3.6% for recurring pancreatitis, with an overall mortality of 4.4%. Overall recurrence rate was 15.5%, with a median time to relapse of 82 days. In total, 14.2% of patients relapsed after an acute pancreatitis event without cholecystectomy or endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography. Severe acute pancreatitis recur in 7.2% of patients, whereas mild cases do so in 16.3%, this being the only risk factor for recurrence thus far identified. Conclusions: Patients admitted for pancreatitis should undergo cholecystectomy as soon as possible or be guaranteed priority on the waiting list. Otherwise, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography with sphincterotomy may be an alternative to surgery for selected patients.

  1. Non-invasive assessment of choledocholithiasis in patients with gallstones and abnormal liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jiffry, Bilal O; Elfateh, Abdeen; Chundrigar, Tariq; Othman, Bassem; Almalki, Owaid; Rayza, Fares; Niyaz, Hashem; Elmakhzangy, Hesham; Hatem, Mohammed

    2013-09-21

    To find a non-invasive strategy for detecting choledocholithiasis before cholecystectomy, with an acceptable negative rate of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. All patients with symptomatic gallstones were included in the study. Patients with abnormal liver functions and common bile duct abnormalities on ultrasound were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Patients with normal ultrasound were referred to magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. All those who had a negative magnetic resonance or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiography. Seventy-eight point five percent of patients had laparoscopic cholecystectomy directly with no further investigations. Twenty-one point five percent had abnormal liver function tests, of which 52.8% had normal ultrasound results. This strategy avoided unnecessary magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in 47.2% of patients with abnormal liver function tests with a negative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography rate of 10%. It also avoided un-necessary endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in 35.2% of patients with abnormal liver function. This strategy reduces the cost of the routine use of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, in the diagnosis and treatment of common bile duct stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  2. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria: A prospective source of natural antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Pawar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria screened for its antioxidant potentials reveals 55.5% of the organisms were able to synthesize antioxidant compounds. DPPH assay showed 20% of the organisms to reach a antioxidant zone of 1 cm and 8.3% of the strains more than 3 cm. Pseudomonas koreensis (JX915782 a Sargassum associated yellowish brown pigmented bacteria have better activity than known commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT against DPPH scavenging. Serratia rubidaea (JX915783, an associate of Ulva sp. and Pseudomonas argentinensis (JX915781 an epiphyte of Chaetomorpha media, were also contributed significantly towards ABTS (7.2% ± 0.03 to 15.2 ± 0.09%; 1.8% ± 0.01 to 15.7 ± 0.22% and FRAP (1.81 ± 0.01 to 9.35 ± 0.98; 7.97 ± 0.12 to 18.70 ± 1.84 μg/mL of AsA Eq. respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed bacteria that have higher antioxidant activity belongs to a bacterial class Gammaproteobacteria. Statistical analysis of phenolic contents in relation with other parameters like DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and FRAP are well correlated (p < 0.05. Results obtained from the current study inferred that the seaweed associated pigmented bacteria have enormous potential on antioxidant compounds and need to be extracted in a larger way for clinical applications.

  3. Ecological-friendly pigments from fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Teixeira, Maria F S; De Conti, Roseli; Esposito, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    The dyestuff industry is suffering from the increases in costs of feedstock and energy for dye synthesis, and they are under increasing pressure to minimize the damage to the environment. The industries are continuously looking for cheaper, more environmentally friendly routes to existing dyes. The aim of this minireview is to discuss the most important advances in the fungal pigment area and its interest in biotechnological applications. Characteristic pigments are produced by a wide variety of fungi and the chemical composition of natural dyes are described. These pigments exhibit several biological activities besides cytotoxicity. The synthetic pigments authorized by the EC and in USA and the natural pigments available in the world market are discussed. The obstacle to the exploitation of new natural pigments sources is the food legislation, requesting costly toxicological research, manufacturing costs, and acceptance by consumers. The dislike for novel ingredients is likely to be the biggest impediment for expansion of the pigment list in the near future. If the necessary toxicological testing and the comparison with accepted pigments are made, the fungal pigments, could be acceptable by the current consumer. The potentiality of pigment production in Brazil is possible due to tremendous Amazonian region biodiversity.

  4. Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaban, R.; Moellmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmentated (B lt /B lt ) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). The authors show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, they conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. The studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the B lt mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation

  5. A study on eggshell pigmentation: biliverdin in blue-shelled chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R; Xu, G Y; Liu, Z Z; Li, J Y; Yang, N

    2006-03-01

    Biliverdin is an important pigment in the eggshell of chickens and other avian species. Determination of the biosynthesis site for biliverdin is essential for understanding the biochemical process and genetic basis of eggshell pigmentation. Either blood or the shell gland could be the biosynthesis site of eggshell biliverdin. A segregation population with full-sib sisters genotyped Oo and oo, which laid blue-shelled eggs and light brown eggs, respectively, was constructed in a native Chinese chicken breed. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry and HPLC were used to determine the biliverdin concentration in eggshells, blood, bile, excreta, and shell gland of both groups of chickens. Biliverdin content was significantly different between egg shells of blue-shelled and brown-shelled chickens (P < 0.01). Blood and bile were tested 3 to 4 h before oviposition, and excreta was tested randomly. Results showed no significant difference in biliverdin concentration in blood, bile, and excreta between the 2 groups. In the shell gland, the biliverdin contents for the blue-shelled and brown-shelled chickens were 8.25 +/- 2.55 and 1.29 +/- 0.12 nmol/g, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that blood is not the biosynthesis site of the shell biliverdin. Biliverdin is most likely synthesized in the shell gland and then deposited onto the eggshell of chickens.

  6. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Potential Regulatory Proteins Involved in Chicken Eggshell Brownness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqi Li

    Full Text Available Brown eggs are popular in many countries and consumers regard eggshell brownness as an important indicator of egg quality. However, the potential regulatory proteins and detailed molecular mechanisms regulating eggshell brownness have yet to be clearly defined. In the present study, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis with iTRAQ technology in the shell gland epithelium of hens laying dark and light brown eggs to investigate the candidate proteins and molecular mechanisms underlying variation in chicken eggshell brownness. The results indicated 147 differentially expressed proteins between these two groups, among which 65 and 82 proteins were significantly up-regulated in the light and dark groups, respectively. Functional analysis indicated that in the light group, the down-regulated iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein (Iba57 would decrease the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX; furthermore, the up-regulated protein solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator, member 5 (SLC25A5 and down-regulated translocator protein (TSPO would lead to increased amounts of protoporphyrin IX transported into the mitochondria matrix to form heme with iron, which is supplied by ovotransferrin protein (TF. In other words, chickens from the light group produce less protoporphyrin IX, which is mainly used for heme synthesis. Therefore, the exported protoporphyrin IX available for eggshell deposition and brownness is reduced in the light group. The current study provides valuable information to elucidate variation of chicken eggshell brownness, and demonstrates the feasibility and sensitivity of iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis in providing useful insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying brown eggshell pigmentation.

  7. Optimal number of pigments in photosynthetic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenko, Simon; Žnidarič, Marko

    2012-01-01

    We study excitation energy transfer in a simple model of a photosynthetic complex. The model, described by the Lindblad equation, consists of pigments interacting via dipole–dipole interaction. The overlapping of pigments induces an on-site energy disorder, providing a mechanism for blocking the excitation transfer. Based on the average efficiency as well as the robustness of random configurations of pigments, we calculate the optimal number of pigments that should be enclosed in a pigment–protein complex of a given size. The results suggest that a large fraction of pigment configurations are efficient as well as robust if the number of pigments is properly chosen. We compare the optimal results of the model to the structure of pigment–protein complexes as found in nature, finding good agreement. (paper)

  8. Studies of binary cerium(IV)-praseodymium(IV) and cerium(IV)-terbium(IV) oxides as pigments for ceramic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, L.M.L.

    1991-01-01

    It was investigated a series of pigments of general composition Ce 1-x Pr x O 2 , and Ce x Tb y O 2 , exhibiting radish and brown colors, respectively, and high temperature stability. The pigments were obtained by dissolving appropriate amounts of the pure lanthanide oxides in acids and precipitating the rare earths as mixed oxalates, which were isolated and calcined under air, at 1000 0 C. X-Ray powder diffractograms were consistent with a cubic structure for the pigments. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, using Gouy method, indicated the presence of Pr(IV) ions in the Ce 1-x Pr x O 2 pigments and of Terbium predominantly as Tb(III) ions in the Ce-tb mixed oxides. A new method, based on suspension of solid samples in PVA-STB gels (STB = sodium tetradecaborate), was employed for the measurements of the electronic spectra of the pigments. The thermal behaviour the pigments was investigated by the calcination of the oxalates in the temperature range of 500 to 1200 O C, from 10 to 60 minutes. (author)

  9. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Das Jayanta Kumar; Gangopadhyay Asok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the on...

  10. Production of Monascus-like azaphilone Pigment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  11. PRODUCTION OF MONASCUS-LIKE AZAPHILONE PIGMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  12. Electron crystallography of organic pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, G

    1997-10-01

    The principle aim of this thesis is the detailing of the development and subsequent use of electron crystallographic techniques which employ the maximum entropy approach. An account is given of the electron microscope as a crystallographic instrument, along with the necessary theory involved. Also, an overview of the development of electron crystallography, as a whole, is given. This progresses to a description of the maximum entropy methodology and how use can be made of electron diffraction data in ab initio phasing techniques. Details are also given of the utilisation of image derived phases in the determination of structural information. Extensive examples are given of the use of the maximum entropy program MICE, as applied to a variety of structural problems. A particular area of interest covered by this thesis is regarding the solid state structure of organic pigments. A detailed structure review of both {beta}-naphthol and acetoacetanilide pigments was undertaken. Information gained from this review was used as a starting point for the attempted structural elucidation of a related pigment, Barium Lake Red C. Details are given of the synthesis, electron microscope studies and subsequent ab initio phasing procedures applied in the determination of structural information on Barium Lake Red C. The final sections of this thesis detail electron crystallographic analyses of three quite different structures. Common to all was the use of maximum entropy methods, both for ab initio phasing and use of image derived phases. Overall, it is shown that electron crystallographic structure analyses using maximum entropy methods are successful using electron diffraction data and do provide distinct structural information even when significant perturbations to the data exist. (author)

  13. Melanin pigmented solar absorbing surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallas, J.M.; Eisner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Selectivity enhancement is shown to result for melanin, a black biopolymer pigment, for sufficiently low sample density. The effect is proposed to follow from a consideration of the evanescent waves associated with the total internal reflection phenomenon. A relationship is discussed among powder density, pH and the paramagnetic properties of melanin; this relationship is shown to be consistent with, and offer support to an amino-acid side group proposed earlier as part of the melanin structure. A brief discussion is also presented on the optical properties of melanin and the relative importance of quinhydrone, a change transfer complex believed to exist in the polymeric structure of melanin.

  14. Pigmented poroid neoplasm mimicking nodular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Tsuyoshi; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Ueno, Takashi; Kawana, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    We reported the case of a 92-year-old woman with a pigmented and non-pigmented surface of the pedunculated nodule on her lower leg. Microscopic examination revealed that this nodule consisted of a component of small, dark, homogenous, poroid cells and cuticular cells in the dermis. The histopathological features of the lesion were consistent with poroid neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed that HMB-45 and Melan-A were positive in malanocytes and melanophages of the pigmented areas. Unlike most poroid neoplasms, this case showed pigmented lesion mimicked nodular melanoma.

  15. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  16. Characterization of pigments applied on archaeological material from Chincha's Culture by x-rays fluorescence and transmission electronic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, Alcides; Olivera, Paula

    2007-01-01

    The elementary characterization of some pigments applied in the decoration of recipients used by our ancestors of the Chincha Culture by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)method was allowed. Additionally, the morphological and crystalline characterization by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) method has been possible. The results have allowed identifying the presence of mercury sulphur (HgS) (cinnabar) in the red pigment on the 'mate'; the black and white pigments are constituted by materials of organic aspect; in the case the dark brown one they are constituted by organic matter and ferric oxide. This work also demonstrates that a portable EDXRF spectrometer is the most suitable for the study of pieces of our cultural patrimony, mainly of those that are difficult to transport from an archaeological place or museum to an analytic laboratory by reason of its dimensions and conservation conditions. (author)

  17. Circadian rhythm of outside-nest activity in wild (WWCPS), albino and pigmented laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjek, Rafał; Modlińska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest) has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups.

  18. The pigments from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Earth pigments from the three excavations at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Western Cape Province, South Africa), spanning the terminal middle Pleistocene and earlier late Pleistocene, are described and analyzed. Qualitative geological categorization primarily rested on textural, fabric, and iron enrichment attributes. Comprehensive recovery allowed identification of non-anthropic pigmentaceous materials, questionable pigments, and 380 pigments (1.08 kg). Less chemically altered pigments were typically fine-grained sedimentary (FGS) rocks, tending to be soft, highly micaceous, prone to laminar fragmentation, and with reddish-brown streaks of intermediate nuance. More iron-enriched forms tended to be harder, denser, poorly micaceous, and with redder streaks of more saturated nuance. Some still qualified as FGS forms, but a large number were categorized as sandstone or iron oxide. Despite some temporal change in raw material profiles, circumstantial evidence suggests primarily local procurement from one outcrop throughout the sequence. Definitely utilized pieces (12.7%) were overwhelmingly ground. Unusual forms of modification include several notched pieces and a deliberately scraped 'chevron.' Controlling for fragmentation, streak properties of utilized versus unutilized pieces were used to investigate selective criteria. There was robust evidence for preferential grinding of the reddest materials, strongly suggestive evidence for saturation and darkness being subordinate selective criteria, and some indication of more intensive grinding of materials with the reddest, most saturated, and darkest streaks, and for some deliberate heating of pigments. These findings challenge the initial stages of color lexicalization predicted by the various versions of the basic color term (BCT) hypothesis, they provide grounds for rejecting hafting as a general explanatory hypothesis, and they cannot be accounted for by incidental heating. The results are more consistent with agreed upon

  19. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chun; Chiou, Chia; Lin, Ming-Nan; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease (GSD) and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians. This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model. The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08) and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22) predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73) are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians. Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1) age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2) age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  20. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease (GSD and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians.This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model.The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08 and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22 predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13, and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73 are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians.Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1 age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2 age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  1. Dietary fenugreek and onion attenuate cholesterol gallstone formation in lithogenic diet–fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Raghunatha R L; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2011-01-01

    An animal study was conducted to evaluate the antilithogenic effect of a combination of dietary fenugreek seeds and onion. Lithogenic conditions were induced in mice by feeding them a high (0.5%) cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 weeks. Fenugreek (12%) and onion (2%) were included individually and in combination in this HCD. Fenugreek, onion and their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 75%, 27% and 76%, respectively, with attendant reduction in total cholesterol content by 38–42%, 50–72% and 61–80% in serum, liver and bile respectively. Consequently, the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was reduced significantly in serum, liver and bile. The cholesterol saturation index of bile was reduced from 4.14 to 1.38 by the combination of fenugreek and onion and to 2.33 by onion alone. The phospholipid and bile acid contents of the bile were also increased. Changes in the hepatic enzyme activities (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase, cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and cholesterol-27-hydroxylase) induced by HCD were countered by fenugreek, onion and their combination. Hepatic lipid peroxides were reduced by 19–22% and 39–45% with fenugreek, onion and their combination included in the diet along with the HCD. Increased accumulation of fat in the liver and inflammation of the gallbladder membrane produced by HCD were reduced by fenugreek, onion and their combination. The antilithogenic influence was highest with fenugreek alone, and the presence of onion along with it did not further increase this effect. There was also no additive effect of the two spices in the recovery of antioxidant molecules or in the antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:21756271

  2. Gallstone disease and obesity: a population-based study on abdominal fat distribution and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmard, Amir Reza; Merat, Shahin; Kooraki, Soheil; Ashraf, Mahya; Keshtkar, Abbas; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Jafari, Elham; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests the visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. We aimed to investigate the value of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue thickness (VAT) for prediction of gallstone disease (GSD) in general population by focus on gender differences and comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this cross-sectional survey, 1,494 subjects (51.4 % men), aged above 50, randomly selected from Golestan Cohort Study residing in Gonbad City, Iran, underwent anthropometric measurements and abdominal ultrasonography. Prevalence of GSD was 17.8% (95% CI 15.9-19.8). Following adjustment for age and then other potential risk factors, all obesity indices, except for SAT, were associated with GSD in women with the highest odds ratio observed in WHtR (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.89). In contrast, WHR was the only associated index in men (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08-2.06). The trend of increasing obesity measures across the quartiles with the risk of GSD was significant in subgroups of WHtR and BMI in women and WHR in men. No significant association was found between SAT and GSD in men or women. The best anthropometric indicators of the risk of GSD may differ by gender. In men, WHR might be the only preferred index to estimate risk of GSD. WHtR, WHR, VAT and BMI are associated with GSD risk in women, although WHtR might better explain this risk. SAT is the poor indicator for identifying subjects with GSD in both genders.

  3. Two cases of cystic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture due to acute cholecystitis with gallstone impaction in the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Shogo; Arahata, Kyouko; Itou, Asako; Takarabe, Sakiko; Kimura, Kayoko; Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Nishida, Jiro; Fujiyama, Yoshiki; Takigawa, Yutaka; Matsui, Junichi

    2016-09-01

    A cystic artery aneurysm is a rare cause of hemobilia. Herein, we report two cases of acute cholecystitis with a ruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. Two patients (a 69-year-old man and an 83-year-old man) were admitted to our hospital because of acute cholecystitis with gallstone impaction in the neck. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) was performed for both patients. After a few days of PTGBD, gallbladder hemorrhage was observed. Abdominal angiography showed cystic artery aneurysm. A transcatheter arterial embolization was therefore performed, followed by an open cholecystectomy.

  4. Seasonal variations of antioxidants in the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Safafar, Hamed; Pedersen, Anja

    composition. The aim of this study was to see if there was a seasonal variation in the antioxidant content of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima), compare two cultivation sites, REF and IMTA, and test different solvents applied for extractions, methanol or ethyl acetate. Rope cultivated sugar kelp were sampled......Mainly the brown seaweeds are known for their high antioxidative capacity within the specific compounds such as phlorotannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, pigments, and these natural antioxidants are of high industrial interest. Previous studies have shown large seasonal variations in biomass...... both in close proximity to a blue mussel and fish farm (IMTA) and at a reference/control site (REF), both outside Horsens fjord in Denmark. Sugar kelp biomass was measured (n=3) at 2 m depth in 2013-2014, and freeze dried and stored frozen for further analyses. In relation to the extraction, two...

  5. A possible variant of Bouveret's syndrome presenting as a duodenal stump obstruction by a gallstone after Roux-en-Y gastrectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Shruti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bouveret's syndrome is characterized by gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone in the duodenum, usually in association with a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Case presentation We report the case of a 69-year-old Caucasian man who developed duodenal stump obstruction due to an impacted gallstone after having previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastrectomy. Conclusions Duodenal stump obstruction after Roux-en-Y gastrectomy is rare, and may be difficult to manage. Patients who present with upper gastrointestinal or pancreatobiliary pathology after previous gastric surgery should be managed in centres with the availability of appropriate endoscopic and surgical experience.

  6. Association of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms of ATP binding cassette G8 gene with gallstone disease: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and gallstone disease using meta-analysis and compared the hepatic ABCG5/G8 mRNA expression and biliary lipids composition in patients with different genotypes of T400K and Y54C.Data were analyzed using the Stata/SE 11.0 software and a random- effects model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Hepatic mRNA expression of ABCG5/G8 genes in 182 patients with gallstone disease and 35 gallstone-free patients who underwent cholecystectomy were determined using real-time PCR. Genotypes of Y54C and T400K in the ABCG8 gene were determined by allelic discrimination using either genomic DNA or hepatic cDNA as template by Taqman assays. Biliary compostion in gallbladder bile was assayed in these patients as well.Ten papers including 13 cohorts were included for the final analysis. In the genotype model, the overall association between genotype with gallstone was significant for D19H (OR = 2.43, 95%CI: 2.23-2.64, P<0.001, and for Y54C (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.01-1.83, P = 0.044, or T400K (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.96-1.43. P = 0.110. In allele model, minor alleles of D19H polymorphism (allele D: OR = 2.25, 95%CI: 2.10-2.42, P<0.001 and of T400K polymorphism (allele K: OR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.06-1.31, P<0.001 were related with an increased risk of gallstone disease. However, minor allele of Y54C polymorphism (allele Y, OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.96-1.21, P = 0.146 was not related with gallstone disease. I(2 statistics indicated no significant between-study heterogeneity for all genetic models for any of the three polymorphisms. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested the absence of publication bias as well. However, no association of T400K and Y54C polymorphism with hepatic ABCG8/G5 mRNA expression or biliary lipids composition was found.Our study showed strong association of D19H polymorphism with gallstone disease. T400K and Y54C polymorphism, though to

  7. Paraneoplastic addisonian pigmentation and acquired ichthyosis as presenting features of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Raza, N.

    2010-01-01

    Black brown hyperpigmentation of the mucosae, sun exposed skin, palmar creases and frictional sites (Addisonian pigmentation) is characteristic of Addison disease. However, it can also occur as a para neoplastic manifestation of tumours like bronchogenic carcinoma. Acquired ichthyosis starts later in life and can also be a para neoplastic presentation.We report a unique combination of para neoplastic Addisonian pigmentation and acquired ichthyosis as presenting features in a patient with undiagnosed multiple myeloma. To the best of our knowledge this combination of para neoplastic dermatosis has not been documented before in multiple myeloma. It is concluded that the presence of more than one suspicious dermatosis may be an indicator of being para neoplastic requiring necessary work-up. (author)

  8. A WD40-repeat protein controls proanthocyanidin and phytomelanin pigmentation in the seed coats of the Japanese morning glory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeung-Il; Hoshino, Atsushi

    2012-03-15

    The protein complex composed of the transcriptional regulators containing R2R3-MYB domains, bHLH domains, and WDR in plants controls various epidermal traits, including anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pigmentation, trichome and root hair formation, and vacuolar pH. In the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil), InMYB1 having R2R3-MYB domains and InWDR1 containing WDR were shown to regulate anthocyanin pigmentation in flowers, and InWDR1 was reported to control dark-brown pigmentation and trichome formation on seed coats. Here, we report that the seed pigments of I. nil mainly comprise proanthocyanidins and phytomelanins and that these pigments are drastically reduced in the ivory seed coats of an InWDR1 mutant. In addition, a transgenic plant of the InWDR1 mutant carrying the active InWDR1 gene produced dark-brown seeds, further confirming that InWDR1 regulates seed pigmentation. Early steps in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways are thought to be common. In the InWDR1 mutant, none of the structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis that showed reduced expression in the white flowers were down-regulated in the ivory seeds, which suggests that InWDR1 may activate different sets of the structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis in flowers and proanthocyanidin production in seeds. As in the flowers, however, we noticed that the expression of InbHLH2 encoding a bHLH regulator was down-regulated in the seeds of the InWDR1 mutant. We discuss the implications of these results with respect to the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in the seed coats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology.

  10. Analysis of ancient pigments by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jian; Xu Cunyi

    1999-01-01

    Raman microscopy can be applied for the spatial resolution, and non-destructive in situ analysis of inorganic pigments in pottery, manuscripts and paintings. Compared with other techniques, it is the best single technique for this purpose. An overview is presented of the applications of Raman microscopy in the analysis of ancient pigments

  11. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  12. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food...

  13. Quantifying Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ziabari, Omid; Shingleton, Alexander W

    2017-06-01

    Pigmentation is a morphologically simple but highly variable trait that often has adaptive significance. It has served extensively as a model for understanding the development and evolution of morphological phenotypes. Abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster has been particularly useful, allowing researchers to identify the loci that underlie inter- and intraspecific variations in morphology. Hitherto, however, D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation has been largely assayed qualitatively, through scoring, rather than quantitatively, which limits the forms of statistical analysis that can be applied to pigmentation data. This work describes a new methodology that allows for the quantification of various aspects of the abdominal pigmentation pattern of adult D. melanogaster. The protocol includes specimen mounting, image capture, data extraction, and analysis. All the software used for image capture and analysis feature macros written for open-source image analysis. The advantage of this approach is the ability to precisely measure pigmentation traits using a methodology that is highly reproducible across different imaging systems. While the technique has been used to measure variation in the tergal pigmentation patterns of adult D. melanogaster, the methodology is flexible and broadly applicable to pigmentation patterns in myriad different organisms.

  14. Pigmented skin disorders: Evaluation and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentary disorders are disturbances of human skin color. Minor changes in the cellular physiology of the skin can dramatically affect pigment production in positive or negative manner. In this these, associated diseases, therapeutical options and disease parameters for the pigmentation disorder

  15. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation.

  16. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculating...... the cultivation medium with an inoculum of Penicillium to form a cultivation composition; d) cultivating the inoculated cultivation composition of (c); e) separating the one or more produced pigment compositions. The method of the invention may be used for producing Monascus-like pigment compositions for use...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  17. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity.…

  18. Brown at 50: Keeping Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    The story of Brown is compelling. Blacks and Whites alike understood that the Jim Crow system of "separate but equal" was a convenient fiction. There was no actual effort to ensure that Whites and Blacks were provided the same services. Invariably, the White schools had higher funding, better buildings, newer supplies and so on. Indeed,…

  19. Ezetimibe: Its Novel Effects on the Prevention and the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella de Bari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe can significantly reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations by inhibiting the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1, an intestinal sterol influx transporter that can actively facilitate the uptake of cholesterol for intestinal absorption. Unexpectedly, ezetimibe treatment also induces a complete resistance to cholesterol gallstone formation and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in addition to preventing hypercholesterolemia in mice on a Western diet. Because chylomicrons are the vehicles with which the enterocytes transport cholesterol and fatty acids into the body, ezetimibe could prevent these two most prevalent hepatobiliary diseases possibly through the regulation of chylomicron-derived cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in the liver. It is highly likely that there is an intestinal and hepatic cross-talk through the chylomicron pathway. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms whereby cholesterol and fatty acids are absorbed from the intestine could offer an efficacious novel approach to the prevention and the treatment of cholesterol gallstones and NAFLD.

  20. Structure of plant bile pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  1. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus...

  3. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications. PMID:28690593

  4. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications.

  5. [DYNAMIC OF CLINICAL, LABORATORY AND SONOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS AFTER SUCCESSFUL LITHOLITIC THERAPY AT PATIENTS WITH GALLSTONE DISEASE IN ASSOCIATION WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, O V; Akhmedov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the leading clinical, immunological and sonographic pararneters, reflecting the efficiency of Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) at the rate of 10 mg per 1 kg of body weight in the treatment of gallstone disease in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). An assessment of clinical, biochemical immunological and sonographic parameters in 54 patients with gallstone disease associated with the metabolic syndrome before and after the six-month treatment UDCA were made. In accordance with our results the significant predictors, reflecting successful litholitic therapy at patients with gallstone disease in association with metabolic syndrome are decrease the serum concentration of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (P = 0.003), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (P = 0.001), increase the serum concentration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (P = 0.02), decrease the left liver lobe thickness (P = 0,003) and the thickness of gallbladder wall (P = 0.0002). The results of our study have shown that the therapy with ursodesoxycholic acid of patients with metabolic syndrome leads to decrease of factors of gallstone progression (elevated levels of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and increased thickness of the left lobe liver and gallbladder wall).

  6. Inhibitory effect of 5-iodotubercidin on pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Il; Jeong, Hae Bong; Ro, Hyunju; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2017-09-02

    Melanin pigments are the primary contributors for the skin color. They are produced in melanocytes and then transferred to keratinocytes, eventually giving various colors on skin surface. Although many depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agents have been developed, there is still a growing demand on materials for reducing pigmentation. We attempted to find materials for depigmentation and/or skin-lightening using the small molecule compounds commercially available, and found that 5-iodotubercidin had inhibitory potential on pigmentation. When HM3KO melanoma cells were treated with 5-iodotubercidin, pigmentation was dramatically reduced. The 5-iodotubercidin decreased the protein level for pigmentation-related molecules such as MITF, tyrosinase, and TRP1. In addition, 5-iodotubercidin decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, while increased the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. These data suggest that 5-iodotubercidin inhibits melanogenesis via the regulation of intracellular signaling related with pigmentation. Finally, 5-iodotubercidin markedly inhibited the melanogenesis of zebrafish embryos, an in vivo evaluation model for pigmentation. Together, these data suggest that 5-iodotubercidin can be developed as a depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effective synthesis route for red-brown pigments based on Ce – Pr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    either iron oxide or cadmium sulphoselenide encapsu- lated in zircon or oxide matrices.16,17 Inner orbital f–f transitions, wherein the electrons are shielded by the. 5s and 5p electrons, provides for optically pure bril- liant colours.18–21 Since 1990, lighter rare earths such as the lanthanides, whose global production as of ...

  8. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques; Caracterizacion de pigmentos prehispanicos por tecnicas analiticas modernas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega A, M

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  9. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Walker, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF. 30 refs

  10. Extensive Pigmented Bowen's Disease of Genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Şengezer, Mustafa; Şengezer, Naki; Deveci, Mustafa

    1993-01-01

    Genital bölgenin yaygın pigmente bowen hastalığı. Pigmente Bowen hastalığı oldukça nadirdir. Burada genital yörede yerleşimli yaygın bir bowen olgusu sunulmuş, klinik ve histolojik özellikleriyle pigmentasyon mekanizması ve tedavi yaklaşımları tartışılmıştır. Bowen hastalığı pigmente lezyonların ayrıca tanısında dikkate alınması gereken bir durumdur.

  11. Is preoperative MRCP necessary for patients with gallstones? An analysis of the factors related to missed diagnosis of choledocholithiasis by preoperative ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan; Yang, Zhengpeng; Li, Zhituo; Zhang, Weihui; Xue, Dongbo

    2015-11-14

    The diagnosis of associated choledocholithiasis prior to cholecystectomy for patients with gallstones is important for the surgical decision and treatment efficacy. However, whether ultrasound is sufficient for preoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis remains controversial, with different opinions on whether routine magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is needed to detect the possible presence of common bile duct (CBD) stones. In this study, a total of 413 patients with gallstones who were admitted to the Department of General Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University in China for a period of 3 years and underwent both ultrasound and MRCP examinations were retrospectively analysed. After reviewing and screening these cases according to the literature, 11 indicators including gender, age, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, γ-aminotransferase, CBD diameter, and concurrent acute cholecystitis were selected and comparatively analysed. Among the 413 patients, a total of 109 cases showed concurrent gallstones and choledocholithiasis, accounting for 26.39 % of all cases. Among them, 60 cases of choledocholithiasis were revealed by ultrasound examination, accounting for 55.05 %, while 49 cases of choledocholithiasis were not detected by ultrasound examination but were confirmed by MRCP instead (the missed diagnosis rate of ultrasound was 44.95 %). The results of statistical analysis suggested that alanine aminotransferase, acute cholecystitis, and CBD diameter were the three most relevant factors for missed diagnosis by ultrasound. The accuracy of preoperative ultrasonography for the diagnosis of associated CBD stones for patients with gallstones is not high. However, elevated alanine aminotransferase, concurrent acute cholecystitis, and CBD diameter were identified as key factors that may affect the accuracy of the diagnosis. Thus

  12. An algorithm for the characterization of digital images of pigmented lesions of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera-González, Laura Y.; Delgado-Atencio, José A.; Valdiviezo-Navarro, Juan C.; Cunill-Rodríguez, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer in human in all over the world with an increase number of victims yearly. One traditional form of diagnosis melanoma is by using the so called ABCDE rule which stands for Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter and Evolution of the lesion. For melanoma lesions, the color as a descriptor exhibits heterogeneous values, ranging from light brown to dark brown (sometimes blue reddish or even white). Therefore, investigating on color features from digital melanoma images could provide insights for developing automated algorithms for melanoma discrimination from common nevus. In this research work, an algorithm is proposed and tested to characterize the color in a pigmented lesion. The developed algorithm measures the hue of different sites in the same pigmented area from a digital image using the HSI color space. The algorithm was applied to 40 digital images of unequivocal melanomas and 40 images of common nevus, which were taken from several data bases. Preliminary results indicate that visible color changes of melanoma sites are well accounted by the proposed algorithm. Other factors, such as quality of images and the influence of the shiny areas on the results obtained with the proposed algorithm are discussed.

  13. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  14. Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plensdorf, Scott; Livieratos, Maria; Dada, Nabil

    2017-12-15

    Pigmentation disorders are commonly diagnosed, evaluated, and treated in primary care practices. Typical hyperpigmentation disorders include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, ephelides (freckles), and café au lait macules. These conditions are generally benign but can be distressing to patients. Appropriate dermatologic history, skin examination, and skin biopsy, when appropriate, can help exclude melanoma and its precursors. In addition to addressing the underlying condition, hyperpigmentation is treated with topical agents, chemical peels, cryotherapy, light or laser therapy, or a combination of these methods. Café au lait macules are treated with surgical excision or laser therapy if treatment is desired. Hypopigmentation disorders include vitiligo, pityriasis alba, tinea versicolor, and postinflammatory hypopigmentation. Treatment of vitiligo depends on the distribution and extent of skin involvement, and includes topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, ultraviolet A therapy (with or without psoralens), narrowband ultraviolet B therapy, and cosmetic coverage. Patients with stable, self-limited vitiligo may be candidates for surgical grafting techniques, whereas those with extensive disease may be candidates for depigmentation therapy to make skin tone appear more even. Other hypopigmentation disorders may improve or resolve with treatment of the underlying condition.

  15. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  16. [Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Mannagetta, J; Hutarew, G

    2012-09-01

    The oral mucosa contains melanocytes, even though one might not suspect this when examining white subjects. Drug-induced pigmentation is usually irregularly distributed over the oral mucosa; typical causes are contraceptives and tetracyclines. Localized traumatic pigmentation can be due to injuries contaminated by foreign material (dust). Not infrequently an amalgam tattoo can be seen, caused by introduction of amalgam during dental treatment with rotating instruments. Focal melanosis is harmless. Neoplastic pigmentation is rare. Melanotic nevi are small with indistinct borders. Malignant melanoma occurs predominantly on the maxilla or hard palate. Frequently it has already metastasized by the time of diagnosis. Verification by biopsy is essential if a lesion has suddenly appeared, is extensive, elevated, with irregular pigmentation and has no obvious cause.

  17. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the onset of pigmented xerodermoid is said to be delayed till third to fourth decade of life, it seems the disease may appear earlier in the tropics. Early diagnosis and management could be life-saving.

  18. Pigment Production Analysis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Paterson, Elyse K; Ruiz, Rolando; Ganesan, Anand K

    2016-05-25

    The human epidermal melanocyte is a highly specialized pigmented cell that serves to protect the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) damage through the production of melanin, or melanogenesis. Misregulation in melanogenesis leading to either hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is found in human diseases such as malasma and vitiligo. Current therapies for these diseases are largely unsuccessful and the need for new therapies is necessary. In order to identify genes and or compounds that can alter melanogenesis, methods are required that can detect changes in pigment production as well as expression of key melanogenesis transcription factors and enzymes. Here we describe methods to detect changes in melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line, MNT-1, by (1) analyzing pigment production by measuring the absorbance of melanin present by spectrophotometry, (2) analyzing transcript expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by qunatitative reverse-transcription (RT)PCR and (3) analyzing protein expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by Western blot (WB).

  19. Natural Products among Brown Algae: The Case of Cystoseira schiffneri Hamel (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Abdelkader Ben; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Anesi, Andrea; Hammami, Saoussen; Mighri, Zine; Guella, Graziano

    2017-04-01

    A chemotaxonomic study on the marine brown alga Cystoseira schiffneri collected from the Tunisian marine coast allowed us to identify kjellmanianone (1) and a new isololiolide derivative named schiffnerilolide (2). The structure elucidation and the assignment of relative configurations of the isolated natural products were based on advanced mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. This outcome suggested a close phylogenetic relationship of C. schiffneri with brown algae belonging to genus Sargassum C. Agardh. Molecular characterization using the nuclear small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene (18S) sequence as genetic marker was made. Pigment analysis showed a significant seasonal change of carotenoids, in particular of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol. Also galactolipids, the main constituents of the thylakoid membranes, showed remarkable seasonal changes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Orange-brown chromonychia and Kawasaki disease: a possible novel association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarotto, Lucia; Rubin, Giulia; Bonadies, Luca; Valerio, Enrico; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl with clinical and laboratory signs of Kawasaki disease (KD) was hospitalized and given intravenous immunoglobulin plus aspirin therapy, with rapid defervescence and clinical improvement, and was discharged 48 hours after admission. At the time of her follow-up echocardiography on day 14, orange-brown pigmentation of the nail beds was noticed and confirmed with dermoscopy. No clear association between KD and orange-brown chromonychia has been demonstrated, although reports and case series suggest a possible link between these two entities. We suggest that this particular finding might be encompassed in late (subacute) changes of extremities as part of KD diagnostic criteria. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pigment analyses of a portrait and paint box of Turkish artist Feyhaman Duran (1886-1970): The EDXRF, FT-IR and micro Raman spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Emre, Gulder; Gulec, Ahmet; Basaran, Sait

    2012-04-01

    The samples obtained from nine different places of Ataturk portrait (oil on canvas, 86 cm × 136 cm) by Feyhaman Duran (1886-1970), one of the famous Turkish painters of the 20th century, together with five pigment samples (two different white, two different yellow and blue), obtained as powders from artist's paint box, were analysed by EDXRF, FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopic methods, in order to characterise the pigments used by the artist. Informative Raman signals were not obtained from most of the samples of the portrait, due to huge fluorescence caused by the presence of impurities and organic materials in the samples, however the Raman spectrum of the sample from skin coloured part of the portrait and the pigment samples obtained from the paint box of the artist were found to be very informative to shed light on the determination of the pigments used. Analysis revealed the presences of chrome yellow (PbCrO4), strontium yellow (SrCrO4) and Cadmium yellow (CdS) as yellow, chromium oxides (Cr2O3 and Cr2O3·2H2O) as green, natural red ochre as red, brown ochre as brown and ivory black or bone black (C + Ca3(PO4)2) and manganese oxides (Mn2O3 and MnO2) as black pigments, in the composition of the Ataturk portrait. Lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2), calcite (CaCO3), barite (BaSO4), zinc white (ZnO) and titanium white (TiO2) were used as extenders to lighten the colours and/or as for ground level painting. Powder pigment samples, obtained from the paint box of artist, were found to be mixed pigments rather than pure ones.

  2. Preparation, characterization and application of some anti- corrosive molybdate pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghaffar, M.A.; El-Sawy, S.M.; Ahmed, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some molybdate pigments of single and mixed metal ions, namely, zinc, calcium and zinc-calcium molybdates were prepared, characterized and evaluated according to international standard methods. The evaluated pigments were incorporated in some paint formulations. The physicomechanical, chemical and corrosion protective properties of the paint films were measured; this was done in comparison with a commercial imported molybdate pigment. It was found that, the prepared pigments under investigation are fine white crystalline powders of suitable pigment properties. They can be successfully used as environmentally acceptable anti corrosive pigments. They can replace satisfactorily the similar commercial imported pigment and possess adequate or superior properties against corrosion

  3. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Micrococcus luteus Cartenoid pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z. Majeed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartenoids are group of pigments, with enormous types different structurally and functionally, have colors range from red to yellow found in a wide variety of plants, fungi, algae and bacteria. The animals took from food because they cannot make it, on contrary, the plants and microbes produce them due to subjection to environment. The aim of the study is to isolate and characterize the cartenoid pigment from Micrococcus luteus. The pigment extraction was done by acetone, and then was characterized with UltraViolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Then, it was tested for antibacterial activity against five different bacterial isolates and antifungal activity tests against six different fungal isolates by well diffusion method. The results found that, the extracted pigment having antibacterial activity and antifungal activity and having the ability to absorb UVA rays within the range of 300-500 nm. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial effect of pigment, even when the extraction and isolation were done by two culture mediums (Nutrient Broth and Luria Bertani Broth. There were considerable inhibition percentages of adhesion after subjection to Cartenoid pigment ranged between (5.71, 23.84 % for Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively and all the 11 isolate changed from Biofilm producer to non-producer. The isolated compound can be used against different bacterial and fungal infections. So they had a great future in medicine, cosmetics and as a sun protecting agent.

  5. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  6. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutiérrez, P.C. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Miserque, F. [CEA, DEN, DPC/SCCME/LECA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomé, L. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2013-07-15

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings.

  7. The Ectocarpus genome and the independent evolution of multicellularity in brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, J Mark; Sterck, Lieven; Rouzé, Pierre; Scornet, Delphine; Allen, Andrew E; Amoutzias, Grigoris; Anthouard, Veronique; Artiguenave, François; Aury, Jean-Marc; Badger, Jonathan H; Beszteri, Bank; Billiau, Kenny; Bonnet, Eric; Bothwell, John H; Bowler, Chris; Boyen, Catherine; Brownlee, Colin; Carrano, Carl J; Charrier, Bénédicte; Cho, Ga Youn; Coelho, Susana M; Collén, Jonas; Corre, Erwan; Da Silva, Corinne; Delage, Ludovic; Delaroque, Nicolas; Dittami, Simon M; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Elias, Marek; Farnham, Garry; Gachon, Claire M M; Gschloessl, Bernhard; Heesch, Svenja; Jabbari, Kamel; Jubin, Claire; Kawai, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kei; Kloareg, Bernard; Küpper, Frithjof C; Lang, Daniel; Le Bail, Aude; Leblanc, Catherine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lohr, Martin; Lopez, Pascal J; Martens, Cindy; Maumus, Florian; Michel, Gurvan; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Morales, Julia; Moreau, Hervé; Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Napoli, Carolyn A; Nelson, David R; Nyvall-Collén, Pi; Peters, Akira F; Pommier, Cyril; Potin, Philippe; Poulain, Julie; Quesneville, Hadi; Read, Betsy; Rensing, Stefan A; Ritter, Andrés; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Samanta, Manoj; Samson, Gaelle; Schroeder, Declan C; Ségurens, Béatrice; Strittmatter, Martina; Tonon, Thierry; Tregear, James W; Valentin, Klaus; von Dassow, Peter; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Van de Peer, Yves; Wincker, Patrick

    2010-06-03

    Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) are complex photosynthetic organisms with a very different evolutionary history to green plants, to which they are only distantly related. These seaweeds are the dominant species in rocky coastal ecosystems and they exhibit many interesting adaptations to these, often harsh, environments. Brown algae are also one of only a small number of eukaryotic lineages that have evolved complex multicellularity (Fig. 1). We report the 214 million base pair (Mbp) genome sequence of the filamentous seaweed Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye, a model organism for brown algae, closely related to the kelps (Fig. 1). Genome features such as the presence of an extended set of light-harvesting and pigment biosynthesis genes and new metabolic processes such as halide metabolism help explain the ability of this organism to cope with the highly variable tidal environment. The evolution of multicellularity in this lineage is correlated with the presence of a rich array of signal transduction genes. Of particular interest is the presence of a family of receptor kinases, as the independent evolution of related molecules has been linked with the emergence of multicellularity in both the animal and green plant lineages. The Ectocarpus genome sequence represents an important step towards developing this organism as a model species, providing the possibility to combine genomic and genetic approaches to explore these and other aspects of brown algal biology further.

  8. Applicability of hydrogen peroxide in brown tide control - culture and microcosm studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varunpreet Randhawa

    Full Text Available Brown tide algal blooms, caused by the excessive growth of Aureococcus anophagefferens, recur in several northeastern US coastal bays. Direct bloom control could alleviate the ecological and economic damage associated with bloom outbreak. This paper explored the effectiveness and safety of natural chemical biocide hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 for brown tide bloom control. Culture studies showed that H(2O(2 at 1.6 mg L(-1 effectively eradicated high density A. anophagefferens within 24-hr, but caused no significant growth inhibition in the diatoms, prymnesiophytes, green algae and dinoflagellates of >2-3 μm cell sizes among 12 phytoplankton species tested over 1-week observation. When applied to brown tide bloom prone natural seawater in a microcosm study, this treatment effectively removed the developing brown tide bloom, while the rest of phytoplankton assemblage (quantified via HPLC based marker pigment analyses, particularly the diatoms and green algae, experienced only transient suppression then recovered with total chlorophyll a exceeding that in the controls within 72-hr; cyanobacteria was not eradicated but was still reduced about 50% at 72-hr, as compared to the controls. The action of H(2O(2 against phytoplankton as a function of cell size and cell wall structure, and a realistic scenario of H(2O(2 application were discussed.

  9. Level-adjusted funnel plots based on predicted marginal expectations: an application to prophylactic antibiotics in gallstone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, Lars; Darkahi, Bahman; Sandblom, Gabriel; Berglund, Lars

    2014-09-20

    Funnel plots are widely used to visualize grouped data, for example, in institutional comparison. This paper extends the concept to a multi-level setting, displaying one level at a time, adjusted for the other levels, as well as for covariates at all levels. These level-adjusted funnel plots are based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo fit of a random effects model, translating the estimated model parameters to predicted marginal expectations. Working within the estimation framework, we accommodate outlying institutions using heavy-tailed random effects distributions. We also develop computer-efficient methods to compute predicted probabilities in the case of dichotomous outcome data and various random effect distributions. We apply the method to a data set on prophylactic antibiotics in gallstone surgery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Studying the stabilization of vegetable pigments using 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inanejshvili, Zh.A.; Prokof'eva, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    With the help of labeled cathine tea-leaf substance it has been discovered that the later forms a specific complex with the red beet pigment. This obviously appears to be the reason for the pigment stability. An increase of the labeled cathine substance portion taken to stabilize the red pigment leads to lowering down the portion of the labeled pigment taking part in the reaction. The results from the experiment can be practically used in food industry for plant pigments

  11. Pigment Production from Immobilized Monascus sp. Utilizing Polymeric Resin Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Patrick J.; Wang, Henry Y.

    1984-01-01

    Pigment production by the fungus Monascus sp. was studied to determine why Monascus sp. provides more pigment in solid culture than in submerged culture. Adding a sterilized nonionic polymeric adsorbent resin directly to the growing submerged culture did not enhance the pigment production, thus indicating that pigment extraction is probably not a factor. Monascus cells immobilized in hydrogel were studied and exhibited decreased pigment production as a result of immobilization. This result is...

  12. Hyperspectral Distinction of Two Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals Based on Their Pigments and Corresponding Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Torres-Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The coloration of tropical reef corals is mainly due to their association with photosynthetic dinoflagellates commonly known as zooxanthellae. Combining High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, spectroscopy and derivative analysis we provide a novel approach to discriminate between the Caribbean shallow-water corals Acropora cervicornis and Porites porites based on their associated pigments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the total array of pigments found within the coral holobiont is reported. A total of 20 different pigments were identified including chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls. Of these, eleven pigments were common to both species, eight were present only in A. cervicornis, and three were present only in P. porites. Given that these corals are living in similar physical conditions, we hypothesize that this pigment composition difference is likely a consequence of harboring different zooxanthellae clades with a possible influence of endolithic green or brown algae. We tested the effect of this difference in pigments on the reflectance spectra of both species. An important outcome was the correlation of total pigment concentration with coral reflectance spectra up to a 97% confidence level. Derivative analysis of the reflectance curves showed particular differences between species at wavelengths where several chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls absorb. Within species variability of spectral features was not significant while interspecies variability was highly significant. We recognize that the detection of such differences with actual airborne or satellite remote sensors is extremely difficult. Nonetheless, based on our results, the combination of these techniques (HPLC, spectroscopy and derivative analysis can be used as a robust approach for the development of a site specific spectral library for the identification of shallow-water coral species. Studies (Torres-Pérez, NASA Postdoctoral

  13. Adaptive variation in beach mice produced by two interacting pigmentation genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C Steiner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the genetic basis of ecologically important morphological variation such as the diverse color patterns of mammals. Here we identify genetic changes contributing to an adaptive difference in color pattern between two subspecies of oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus. One mainland subspecies has a cryptic dark brown dorsal coat, while a younger beach-dwelling subspecies has a lighter coat produced by natural selection for camouflage on pale coastal sand dunes. Using genome-wide linkage mapping, we identified three chromosomal regions (two of major and one of minor effect associated with differences in pigmentation traits. Two candidate genes, the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r and its antagonist, the Agouti signaling protein (Agouti, map to independent regions that together are responsible for most of the difference in pigmentation between subspecies. A derived mutation in the coding region of Mc1r, rather than change in its expression level, contributes to light pigmentation. Conversely, beach mice have a derived increase in Agouti mRNA expression but no changes in protein sequence. These two genes also interact epistatically: the phenotypic effects of Mc1r are visible only in genetic backgrounds containing the derived Agouti allele. These results demonstrate that cryptic coloration can be based largely on a few interacting genes of major effect.

  14. Renal pigmentation due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A L; Blaine, E T; Lewis, A D

    2015-05-01

    Renal pigmentation due to the administration of exogenous compounds is an uncommon finding in most species. This report describes renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions of the proximal convoluted tubules due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque. An 11-year-old Indian-origin rhesus macaque with a medical history of chronic intermittent vomiting had been treated with bismuth subsalicylate, famotidine, and omeprazole singly or in combination over the course of 8 years. At necropsy, the renal cortices were diffusely dark green to black. Light and electron microscopy revealed intranuclear inclusions within the majority of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These inclusions appeared magenta to brown when stained with hematoxylin and eosin and were negative by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. Elemental analysis performed on frozen kidney measured bismuth levels to be markedly elevated at 110.6 ppm, approximately 500 to 1000 times acceptable limits. To our knowledge, this is the first report of renal bismuth deposition in a rhesus macaque resulting in renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Betalain: a particular class of antioxidant pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gharras, Hasna

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the stability of betalains in juices prepared from Moroccan yellow cactus pears (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) as a function of temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100 degrees C with juices at pH 3.5, 5 and 6.5. The degree of pigment retention decreased when the temperature increased. The degradation constant rates were determined for thermal degradation rates of pseudo-first order. The Arrhenius plot obtained for the degradation of betaxanthin from the yellow fruits was not linear. Regardless of the temperature of treatment, the lowest degradation was obtained for pH 5. When some stabilizers were tested for the protection of pigments, the results showed that ascorbic acid was a better protective agent at pH 3.5, increasing the protection by 40%. The inhibitive action of betalain pigments extracted from cactus pears towards corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid was investigated using electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the presence of natural pigments reduces the corrosion rate of the tested metal, especially on addition of the red pigments (97%). The inhibition efficiency increases as the pigment concentration of extracts increases. It was also found that the pigments tested act as mixed inhibitors. The inhibitive action of the extracts is discussed in term of adsorption and that such adsorption follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated values of the free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous.

  16. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  17. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  18. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  19. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  20. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  1. Fish pigmentation and the melanocortin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Laura; Suarez-Bregua, Paula; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-09-01

    The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes. The α-Msh peptide, the most documented Mc1r agonist involved in pigmentation, is produced in the pituitary gland, activating melanin synthesis by binding to Mc1r in fish melanophores. Finally, Asip1 is the putative factor for establishing the evolutionarily conserved dorso-ventral pigment pattern found across vertebrates. However, we are just starting to understand how other melanocortin system components are acting in this complex regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solis, C.; Sanchez-Hernandez, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytan, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  3. Effect of Red Pepper ( Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3. In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3. In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05. However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05. All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05 the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  4. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  5. Genetic and functional identification of the likely causative variant for cholesterol gallstone disease at the ABCG5/8 lithogenic locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Kampen, Oliver; Buch, Stephan; Nothnagel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sterolin locus (ABCG5/ABCG8) confers susceptibility for cholesterol gallstone disease in humans. Both the responsible variant and the molecular mechanism causing an increased incidence of gallstones in these patients have as yet not been identified. Genetic mapping utilized patient samples from...... Germany (2,808 cases, 2,089 controls), Chile (680 cases, 442 controls), Denmark (366 cases, 766 controls), India (247 cases, 224 controls), and China (280 cases, 244 controls). Analysis of allelic imbalance in complementary DNA (cDNA) samples from human liver (n = 22) was performed using pyrosequencing....... Transiently transfected HEK293 cells were used for [(3) H]-cholesterol export assays, analysis of protein expression, and localization of allelic constructs. Through fine mapping in German and Chilean samples, an ∼250 kB disease-associated interval could be defined for this locus. Lack of allelic imbalance...

  6. Melanin pigmented periradicular lesions of extracted teeth: a report of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoregie, F O; Odukoya, O; Ojo, M A; Saheeb, B D

    2011-09-01

    This article reports 3 cases of melanin pigmented lesions among 75 histologically diagnosed periradicular lesions of extracted teeth. Case 1 was a 25-year old male who presented with one week history of toothache involving a tender carious left mandibular second molar tooth (37), with periapical radiolucency and diagnosed clinically as acute apical periodontitis. The lesion was diagnosed histologically (using Haematoxylin and Eosin) as periapical granuloma, while histochemical examination (using Masson-Fontana technique) showed the presence of round/oval shaped melanin pigmented macrophages (melanophage) in the lesion. Case 2 was a 54-year old male with one week history of toothache associated with tender carious right maxillary first molar tooth (16) with periapical radiolucency. A clinical diagnosis of acute apical periodontitis was made, but histological and histochemical examination showed a melanin pigmented periapical granuloma with spindle shaped melanophage. Case 3 was a 28-year old female who presented with 4 days history of toothache, involving the tender left mandibular first molar tooth (36). The lesion had periapical radiolucency and a clinical diagnosis of acute apical periodontitis. On examination histologically and histochemically, the lesion was diagnosed as an intraosseous melanocytic naevi with dark-brown nests of round naevus cells. In conclusion, this article shows the rarity of melanin pigmented periradicular lesions in the jaws. The cases reported suggest that the trigger for formation of melanin-pigmented cells in the periradicular lesions may be related to the acute phase of the lesions. Further study is recommended to determine if the remnants of the migratory neural crest cells are the precursors of melanin-pigmented cells in the periradicular region.

  7. Eggshell appearance does not signal maternal corticosterone exposure in Japanese quail: an experimental study with brown-spotted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Camille; Cassey, Phillip; Lovell, Paul G; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S James; Spencer, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown) is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green) is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control) or corticosterone (treatment). We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an avian visual

  8. Eggshell appearance does not signal maternal corticosterone exposure in Japanese quail: an experimental study with brown-spotted eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Duval

    Full Text Available Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control or corticosterone (treatment. We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an

  9. Consortial brown tide − picocyanobacteria blooms in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathan S; Litaker, R. Wayne; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Vandersea, Mark W.; Sunda, William G.; Reid, James P.; Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    A brown tide bloom of Aureoumbra lagunensis developed in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba during a period of drought in 2013 that followed heavy winds and rainfall from Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012. Based on satellite images and water turbidity measurements, the bloom appeared to initiate in January 2013. The causative species (A. lagunensis) was confirmed by microscopic observation, and pigment and genetic analyses of bloom samples collected on May 28 of that year. During that time, A. lagunensis reached concentrations of 900,000 cells ml−1 (28 ppm by biovolume) in the middle portion of the Bay. Samples could not be collected from the northern (Cuban) half of the Bay because of political considerations. Subsequent sampling of the southern half of the Bay in November 2013, April 2014, and October 2014 showed persistent lower concentrations of A. lagunensis, with dominance shifting to the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (up to 33 ppm in April), an algal group that comprised a minor bloom component on May 28. Thus, unlike the brown tide bloom in Laguna Madre, which lasted 8 years, the bloom in Guantánamo Bay was short-lived, much like recent blooms in the Indian River, Florida. Although hypersaline conditions have been linked to brown tide development in the lagoons of Texas and Florida, observed euhaline conditions in Guantánamo Bay (salinity 35–36) indicate that strong hypersalinity is not a requirement for A. lagunensis bloom formation. Microzooplankton biomass dominated by ciliates was high during the observed peak of the brown tide, and ciliate abundance was high compared to other systems not impacted by brown tide. Preferential grazing by zooplankton on non-brown tide species, as shown in A. lagunensis blooms in Texas and Florida, may have been a factor in the development of the Cuban brown tide bloom. However, subsequent selection of microzooplankton capable of utilizing A. lagunensis as a primary food source may have contributed to the

  10. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal

    2017-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  11. Nanomechanical analysis of pigmented human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Michal; Zadlo, Andrzej; Pilat, Anna; Olchawa, Magdalena; Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Burda, Kvetoslava; Böhm, Markus; Sarna, Tadeusz

    2013-09-01

    Based on hitherto measurements of elasticity of various cells in vitro and ex vivo, cancer cells are generally believed to be much softer than their normal counterparts. In spite of significant research efforts on the elasticity of cancer cells, only few studies were undertaken with melanoma cells. However, there are no reports concerning pigmented melanoma cells. Here, we report for the first time on the elasticity of pigmented human melanoma cells. The obtained data show that melanin significantly increases the stiffness of pigmented melanoma cells and that the effect depends on the amount of melanin inside the cells. The dramatic impact of melanin on the nanomechanical properties of cells puts into question widely accepted paradigm about all cancer cells being softer than their normal counterparts. Our findings reveal significant limitations of the nanodiagnosis approach for melanoma and contribute to better understanding of cell elasticity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  13. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-12-16

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation.

  14. Effects of ozone on plant pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of ozone on plants were studied, with emphasis on leaf bleaching, chlorosis, and appearance of reddish flecks on leaves. Leaves were analyzed with emphasis on ozone-induced destruction of chlorophyll and the formation of red anthrocyanin pigments. Leaves were exposed to 20 pphm to O/sub 3/. Pigments in Brassica pekinensis, morning glory, Zelkova serrata, and Prunus yedonensis were analyzed. Exposure to O/sub 3/ decreased the amount of chlorophyll, lowered the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b, and caused anthrocyanin to form. From these results and from symptoms of O/sub 3/ injury to broad leaves (such as early appearance of yellow or red pigments in the leaves and premature fall of leaves), and published microscopic observations of chloroplast, it was deduced that O/sub 3/ accelerated the senescence of leaves and of the plant itself. 15 references.

  15. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are predominant pigments in bumblebee (Apidae: Bombus pubescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Polidori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus are well known for their important inter- and intra-specific variation in hair (or pubescence color patterns, but the chemical nature of the pigments associated with these patterns is not fully understood. For example, though melanization is believed to provide darker colors, it still unknown which types of melanin are responsible for each color, and no conclusive data are available for the lighter colors, including white. Methods By using dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis on 12 species/subspecies of bumblebees from seven subgenera, we tested the hypothesis that eumelanin and pheomelanin, the two main melanin types occurring in animals, are largely responsible for bumblebee pubescence coloration. Results Eumelanin and pheomelanin occur in bumblebee pubescence. Black pigmentation is due to prevalent eumelanin, with visible signals of additional pheomelanin, while the yellow, orange, red and brown hairs clearly include pheomelanin. On the other hand, white hairs reward very weak Raman signals, suggesting that they are depigmented. Additional non-melanic pigments in yellow hair cannot be excluded but need other techniques to be detected. Raman spectra were more similar across similarly colored hairs, with no apparent effect of phylogeny and both melanin types appeared to be already used at the beginning of bumblebee radiation. Discussion We suggest that the two main melanin forms, at variable amounts and/or vibrational states, are sufficient in giving almost the whole color range of bumblebee pubescence, allowing these insects to use a single precursor instead of synthesizing a variety of chemically different pigments. This would agree with commonly seen color interchanges between body segments across Bombus species.

  16. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are predominant pigments in bumblebee (Apidae: Bombus) pubescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Carlo; Jorge, Alberto; Ornosa, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus ) are well known for their important inter- and intra-specific variation in hair (or pubescence) color patterns, but the chemical nature of the pigments associated with these patterns is not fully understood. For example, though melanization is believed to provide darker colors, it still unknown which types of melanin are responsible for each color, and no conclusive data are available for the lighter colors, including white. By using dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis on 12 species/subspecies of bumblebees from seven subgenera, we tested the hypothesis that eumelanin and pheomelanin, the two main melanin types occurring in animals, are largely responsible for bumblebee pubescence coloration. Eumelanin and pheomelanin occur in bumblebee pubescence. Black pigmentation is due to prevalent eumelanin, with visible signals of additional pheomelanin, while the yellow, orange, red and brown hairs clearly include pheomelanin. On the other hand, white hairs reward very weak Raman signals, suggesting that they are depigmented. Additional non-melanic pigments in yellow hair cannot be excluded but need other techniques to be detected. Raman spectra were more similar across similarly colored hairs, with no apparent effect of phylogeny and both melanin types appeared to be already used at the beginning of bumblebee radiation. We suggest that the two main melanin forms, at variable amounts and/or vibrational states, are sufficient in giving almost the whole color range of bumblebee pubescence, allowing these insects to use a single precursor instead of synthesizing a variety of chemically different pigments. This would agree with commonly seen color interchanges between body segments across Bombus species.

  17. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica, its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown and belly (white-to-brownish feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations

  18. Fucoxanthin from brown seaweed Sargassum cristaefolium tea in acid pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningsih, Hartati; Mufti, Eka Deviana; Nurhanief, Ardian Eko

    2017-05-01

    Dried tea Sargassum cristaefolium contains the pigment fucoxanthin, which is responsible for the red-orange color found in brown algae, and is a kind of photosynthetic pigment. Fucoxanthin can be used as an anti-obesity, anticancer, anti-cholesterol, and anti-diabetic agent and as a food colorant, but it is very unstable. The aim of this research was to determine the stability of fucoxanthin from dried tea brown algae at different pH (2, 6). This involved thin layer chromatography, peak absorption, wavelength analysis and reposition in FTIR. The research showed that fucoxanthin from fresh and dried tea Sargassum cristaefolium using chromatography columns had an orange color, Rf value of 0.26-0.28, and a spectral pattern in acetone solvent of 446.3-447.4 λmax. Fucoxanthin at pH 2 showed that there was no allenic group, as fucoxanthin solution had a pale yellow color. It is therefore shown that fucoxanthin is not stable in acid solution.

  19. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural…

  20. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  1. Cytoskeleton and Morphogenesis in Brown Algae

    OpenAIRE

    KATSAROS, CHRISTOS; KARYOPHYLLIS, DEMOSTHENES; GALATIS, BASIL

    2006-01-01

    • Background Morphogenesis on a cellular level includes processes in which cytoskeleton and cell wall expansion are strongly involved. In brown algal zygotes, microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments (AFs) participate in polarity axis fixation, cell division and tip growth. Brown algal vegetative cells lack a cortical MT cytoskeleton, and are characterized by centriole-bearing centrosomes, which function as microtubule organizing centres.

  2. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing...... with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches....

  3. Brown vs. Board of Education Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    IDEA, UCLA

    2004-01-01

    This booklet was designed for K-12 classrooms and community groups examining the legacy of Brown v Board for California. The booklet chronicles the national battle for equal schooling up to and since the Brown decision. It also highlights the history of school segregation in California and the ongoing struggle for equal schooling.

  4. "Brown" and Black-White Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" only presumed to eliminate the "de jure" apartheid that existed in 1954. It was never intended to resolve the "de facto" gap in minority achievement that still faces education policymakers today. Sociologist David J. Armor goes beyond "Brown" to identify a set of definite risk…

  5. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1...

  6. Thermochemical modelling of brown dwarf discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, A. J.; Kamp, I.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W.-F.; Rab, Ch.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.

    The physical properties of brown dwarf discs, in terms of their shapes and sizes, are still largely unexplored by observations. ALMA has by far the best capabilities to observe these discs in sub-mm CO lines and dust continuum, while also spatially resolving some discs. To what extent brown dwarf

  7. Effects of glucocorticoids on human brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Johanna L; Agada, Hadiya; Jang, Christina; Ward, Micheal; Wetzig, Neil; Ho, Ken K Y

    2015-02-01

    Clinical cases of glucocorticoid (GC) excess are characterized by increased fat mass and obesity through the accumulation of white adipocytes. The effects of GCs on growth and function of brown adipose tissue are unknown and may contribute to the negative energy balance observed clinically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GCs on proliferation, differentiation, and metabolic function of brown adipocytes. Human brown adipocytes sourced from supraclavicular fat biopsies were grown in culture and differentiated to mature adipocytes. Human white adipocytes sourced from subcutaneous abdominal fat biopsies were cultured as controls. Effects of dexamethasone on growth, differentiation (UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A expression), and function (oxygen consumption rate (OCR)) of brown adipocytes were quantified. Dexamethasone (1 μM) significantly stimulated the proliferation of brown preadipocytes and reduced that of white preadipocytes. During differentiation, dexamethasone (at 0.1, 1, and 10 μM) stimulated the expression of UCP1, CIDEA, and PPARGC1A in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced by fourfold to sixfold the OCR of brown adipocytes. Isoprenaline (100 nM) significantly increased (Peffects were significantly reduced (Peffects on development and function of brown adipocytes. These findings provide strong evidence for an effect of GCs on the biology of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) and for the involvement of the BAT system in the metabolic manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  9. UV-B affects the immune system and promotes nuclear abnormalities in pigmented and non-pigmented bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Fanali, Lara Zácari; De Oliveira, Classius

    2018-03-01

    Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) DNA damage caused by UV will be more pronounced in non-pigmented than in pigmented animals; 2) LPS increases leukocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented animals by systemic inflammation; 3) The combined LPS and UV exposure will decrease the number of leukocytes. We found that the frequency of immune cells differed between pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. UV exposure increased mast cells and DNA damage in erythrocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles, while leukocytes decreased after UV exposure. Non-pigmented tadpoles experienced DNA damage and a lower lymphocyte count earlier than pigmented tadpoles. UV altered immune cells likely as a consequence of local and systemic inflammation. These alterations were less severe in pigmented than in non-pigmented animals. UV and LPS increased internal melanin in pigmented tadpoles, which were correlated with DNA damage and leukocytes. Here, we described for the first time the effects of UV and LPS in immune cells of pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. In addition, we demonstrated that internal melanin in tadpoles help in these defenses, since leukocyte responses were faster in non-pigmented animals, supporting the hypothesis that melanin is involved in the initial innate immune response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk of peptic ulcer, oesophagitis, pancreatitis or gallstone in patients with unexplained chest/epigastric pain and normal upper endoscopy: a 10-year Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, E M; Drewes, A M; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies have examined the risk of upper gastrointestinal diseases among patients with unexplained chest/epigastric pain (UCEP) and a normal upper endoscopy. AIM: To examine the relative risk of peptic ulcer, oesophagitis, pancreatitis or gallstone in UCEP patients. METHODS...... for peptic ulcer, oesophagitis, pancreatitis or gallstone. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the adjusted relative risks among UCEP patients or = 1 year after upper endoscopy were for peptic ulcer 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-18.4] and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-3.4), for oesophagitis 8.2 (95% CI 1.......2-59.2) and 1.9 (95% CI 0.7-5.0), for pancreatitis 9.2 (95% CI 2.0-41.8) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.4-10.5), and for gallstone 14.1 (95% CI 5.4-37.2) and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-5.8). CONCLUSIONS: UCEP is positively associated with all study outcomes especially in the first year after upper endoscopy, indicating that peptic...

  11. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  12. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE DYE AND PIGMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This risk assessment calculates the maximum loadings of constituents found in dyes and pigment industries waste streams which can be disposed in different types of waste management units without causing health benchmarks to be exceeded at plausible receptor locations. The assessment focuses on potential risks from volatilization and leaching to groundwater of constituents disposed in surface impoundments and landfills with either clay liners or composite liners. This product will be used by EPA decision makers to assist in determining whether certain waste streams generated by the dyes and pigments industries should be designated as hazardous.

  13. The synthesis, characterization and optical properties of Si4+ and Pr4+ doped Y6 MoO12 compounds: environmentally benign inorganic pigments with high NIR reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Giable; Reddy, M.L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Much interest has attended roofing materials with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance, so that interiors stay cool, thereby reducing the demand for air conditioned buildings. The heat producing region of the infrared radiations ranges from 700-1100 nm. Replacing conventional pigments with 'cool pigments' that absorb less NIR radiation can provide coatings similar in color to that of conventional roofing materials, but with higher solar reflectance. NIR reflective pigments have been used in the military, construction, plastics and ink industries. Complex inorganic pigments based on mixed metal oxides (eg., chromium green, cobalt blue, cadmium stannate, lead chromate, cadmium yellow and chrome titanate yellow), which have been used in camouflage, absorb visible light but reflect the NIR portion of incident radiation. However, many of these pigments are toxic and there is a need to develop novel colored, NIR-reflecting inorganic pigments that are less hazardous to the environment. In this work, a series of NIR reflective colored pigments of formula Y 6-x M x MoO 12+δ (where M Si 4+ or Pr 4+ and x ranges from 0 to 1.0) were synthesized by traditional solid-state route and applied to asbestos cement roofing material so as to evaluate their use as 'cool pigments'. The phase purity of the calcined pigment samples were determined using powder X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectance of the powdered pigment samples were measured using a UV-Vis-NIR Spectrometer. The Lab color coordinates were evaluated by CIE 1976 color scale. Replacing Si 4+ for Y 3+ in Y 6 MoO 12 changed the color from light-yellow to dark-yellow and the band gap decreased from 2.60 to 2.45 eV due to O 2p -Mo 4d charge transfer transitions. In contrast, replacing Pr 4+ for Y 3+ changed the color from light yellow to dark brown and the band gap shifted from 2.60 to 1.90 eV. The coloring mechanism is based on the introduction of an additional 4f 1 electron energy level of Pr 4

  14. Meta-Analysis of Early Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ± Endoscopic Sphincterotomy (ES) Versus Conservative Management for Gallstone Pancreatitis (GSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstow, Matthew J; Yunus, Rossita M; Hossain, Md Belal; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed A

    2015-06-01

    The utility of early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ± endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) in the treatment of gallstone pancreatitis (GSP) is still contentious. The aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the treatment of GSP by early ERCP ± ES versus conservative management and analyzing the patient outcomes. A search of Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews identified all RCTs comparing early ERCP to conservative management in GSP published between January 1970 and January 2014. Search terms included "Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)"; "Endoscopic sphincterotomy"; "Gallstones"; "Bile duct stones"; "Gallstone pancreatitis"; "Biliary pancreatitis"; "Randomize/Randomised controlled trials"; "Conservative management/treatment"; "Human"; "English." Only prospective RCTs comparing early intervention (ie, between 24 and 72 h) with ERCP ± ES versus conservative management in GSP were included. Data extraction and critical appraisal was carried out independently by 2 authors (M.J.B. and M.A.M.) using predefined data fields. Variables analyzed included severity of pancreatitis (mild or severe), overall mortality, overall complications which included pseudocyst formation, organ failure (renal, respiratory, and cardiac), abnormal coagulation, biliary sepsis, and development of pancreatic abscess/phlegmon. The quality of RCTs was assessed using Jadad's scoring system. Random-effects model was used to calculate the outcomes of both binary and continuous data. Heterogeneity among the outcome variables of these trials was determined by the Cochran Q statistic and I2 index. The meta-analysis was prepared in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. Eleven RCTs consisting of 1314 patients (conservative management=662, ERCP=652) were analyzed. There was a

  15. Characterization of the photosynthetic conditions and pigment profiles of the colour strains of Hypnea musciformis from field-collected and in vitro cultured samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela R. P. Fernandes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen JV Lamour. is a species of great economic interest as it produces Κ-carrageenan and has shown biological activities against HIV and HSV viruses. This species displays different colour strains in its natural habitat, which may have implications for the biotechnological potential of the species. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic apparatus and pigment profile of three colour strains of H. musciformis (green, brown and red in their natural habitat and in culture. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II was measured with a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer and pigments were quantified by spectrofluorimetry (chlorophyll a and spectrophotometry (phycobiliproteins. In the natural habitat, we detected significant differences between the colour strains for the following photochemical parameters: the green strain had a higher effective quantum yield (ΦPSII than the red strain and a higher maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax than the brown and red strains. Saturation irradiances were 1000 µE.m-2.s-1 (green and 500 µE.m-2.s-1 (brown and red. Concerning in vitro culture, the green strain presented the lowest ΦPSII, rETRmax, and α rETR, while the brown strain presented the highest values for these same parameters. The chlorophyll a content of the cultured green strain was the lowest. The phycoerythrin contents of the three colour strains were unchanged by either natural of in vitro conditions: lower in green, intermediate in brown and higher in the red strain, ensuring the chromatic identity of the strains. Our results suggest that the green strain has a better performance when exposed to high irradiance, but a lower efficiency under low irradiance compared to the brown and red strains.

  16. Characterization of the photosynthetic conditions and pigment profiles of the colour strains of Hypnea musciformis from field-collected and in vitro cultured samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela R. P. Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen JV Lamour. is a species of great economic interest as it produces Κ-carrageenan and has shown biological activities against HIV and HSV viruses. This species displays different colour strains in its natural habitat, which may have implications for the biotechnological potential of the species. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic apparatus and pigment profile of three colour strains of H. musciformis (green, brown and red in their natural habitat and in culture. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II was measured with a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer and pigments were quantified by spectrofluorimetry (chlorophyll a and spectrophotometry (phycobiliproteins. In the natural habitat, we detected significant differences between the colour strains for the following photochemical parameters: the green strain had a higher effective quantum yield (ΦPSII than the red strain and a higher maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax than the brown and red strains. Saturation irradiances were 1000 µE.m-2.s-1 (green and 500 µE.m-2.s-1 (brown and red. Concerning in vitro culture, the green strain presented the lowest ΦPSII, rETRmax, and α rETR, while the brown strain presented the highest values for these same parameters. The chlorophyll a content of the cultured green strain was the lowest. The phycoerythrin contents of the three colour strains were unchanged by either natural of in vitro conditions: lower in green, intermediate in brown and higher in the red strain, ensuring the chromatic identity of the strains. Our results suggest that the green strain has a better performance when exposed to high irradiance, but a lower efficiency under low irradiance compared to the brown and red strains.

  17. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  18. Skin Pigmentation Kinetics after Exposure to Ultraviolet A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis after 6 and 12 exposures on the back using broadband UVA and UVA1 with equal sub-minimal melanogenic doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured by skin reflectance at 555 and 660 urn. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in dark......Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12......-fold, respectively. The absolute increase in pigmentation was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation; therefore the percentage increase in pigmentation was higher in fair-skinned subjects. The absolute increase in pigmentation was higher and it took 2-3 days longer to reach steady-state after 12 UV exposures...

  19. Photoacclimation in microphytobenthos and the role of xanthophyll pigments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Brotas, Vanda; Consalvey, Mireille; Forster, Rodney M.; Gillespie, David; Jesus, Bruno; Roggeveld, Jan; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2008-01-01

    Estuarine microphytobenthos are frequently exposed to excessively high irradiances. Photoinhibition in microalgae is prevented by various photophysiological responses. We describe here the role of the xanthophyll pigments in photoacclimation. The pigment composition of the microphytobenthos was

  20. Gingival pigmentation reduction: A novel therapeutic modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H V Mahesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present clinical study was to compare the effectiveness of radiofrequency de-epithelialization and conventional (slicing method in reducing gingival pigmentation on long term basis by split mouth design. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 maxillary gingival units from 4 subjects aged between 15-30 years were considered for this clincal study and the selected gingival units were made plaque free and clinically healthy before subjectiing these sites to one of the procedures. The selected sites were abraded by either the conventional (slicing method (14 gingival units of 21, 22, 23, 24 or by radiofrequency (14 gingival units of 11, 12, 13, 14. After the procedure periodontal dressing was applied to protect the operated area. After 1 week periodontal dressing was removed and the area was irrigated with saline. Follow up examination was done on 30th, 60th and 90 th days to evaluate the recurrence of pigmentation, if any. Results: It was obsereved that, sites operated with conventional (slicing method, showed higher mean pigmentation than the sites treated with the radioablation during the follow up period of 90 days. Conclusion: When used judiciously, radiofrequency can be clinically valuable, safe and effective method to reduce pigmentation of gingiva.

  1. Gingival Pigmentation Reduction: A Novel Therapeutic Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, H V; Harish, M R; Shashikumar, B M; Ramya, K S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present clinical study was to compare the effectiveness of radiofrequency de-epithelialization and conventional (slicing) method in reducing gingival pigmentation on long term basis by split mouth design. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 maxillary gingival units from 4 subjects aged between 15-30 years were considered for this clincal study and the selected gingival units were made plaque free and clinically healthy before subjectiing these sites to one of the procedures. The selected sites were abraded by either the conventional (slicing) method (14 gingival units of 21, 22, 23, 24) or by radiofrequency (14 gingival units of 11, 12, 13, 14). After the procedure periodontal dressing was applied to protect the operated area. After 1 week periodontal dressing was removed and the area was irrigated with saline. Follow up examination was done on 30th, 60th and 90th days to evaluate the recurrence of pigmentation, if any. Results: It was obsereved that, sites operated with conventional (slicing) method, showed higher mean pigmentation than the sites treated with the radioablation during the follow up period of 90 days. Conclusion: When used judiciously, radiofrequency can be clinically valuable, safe and effective method to reduce pigmentation of gingiva. PMID:23060709

  2. The mechanism of gingiva metallic pigmentations formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Joska, L.; Venclíková, Z.; Poddaná, M.; Benada, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-7 ISSN 1432-6981 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pigmentation * gingiva * electrochemistry Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.233, year: 2009

  3. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculati...

  4. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  5. INHERITANCE OF PIGMENTATION PATTERNS IN TALINUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biologia Plantarum42, 621-624. Maekawa, M. 1996. Recent information on anthocyanin pigmentation. Rice Genetics. Newsletter13, 25-26. Mustapha, Y. 2007. Inheritance of flower colour in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). International Journal of Pure and Applied. Sciences1(1), 10-19. Nya, E.J. and Eka M.J. 2007.

  6. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  7. Renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jayaprakash; Chandrika; Laxman, Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been steadily increasing. There are several morphological types of renal cell carcinoma. Recognizing histologic patterns of renal cell carcinoma is important for correct diagnosis and subsequent medical care for the patient. Melanotic tumors in the kidney are very rare. Here, we present an unusual case of renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment. PMID:20877613

  8. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    formation of photo-electrons; this can cause a variety of chemical reactions leading to mutations. Upon irradiation, the cells begin to synthsise carotenoids and quantity of carotenoids produced depends on the intensity of UV radiation. Concerning UV effect on the photosynthetic pigments of plants and algae, some studies ...

  9. Flower pigment analysis of Melastoma malabathricum | Janna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to analyse the colour pigment, anthocyanin, that can be detected in flower and their stability in extracted form. All the analysed results will be used in the next study for the production of new food colouring material. From the observation, it shows that S3 flower developmental stage contains the ...

  10. New applications for polychromatic effect pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maile, F. J.; Filip, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2016), s. 35-38 ISSN 1468-1412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : pigments * texture * appearance * effect * polychromatic Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/filip-0458988.pdf

  11. Quantitative X-ray analysis of pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M. Marrocos de

    1987-01-01

    The 'matrix-flushing' and the 'adiabatic principle' methods have been applied for the quantitative analysis through X-ray diffraction patterns of pigments and extenders mixtures, frequently used in paint industry. The results obtained have shown the usefulness of these methods, but still ask for improving their accuracy. (Author) [pt

  12. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii 124y-1 showed that mutagenic activity was observed significantly in both Tekeli River and Pavlodar Oil Refinery in Kazakhstan; the waste water of the Pavlodar Oil Refinery had high-toxicity while the water of the Tekeli River had medium-toxicity.

  13. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... genic pollution of the natural environment. Therefore, detection of mutagenic compounds in .... offers many advantages such as less pollution, simple operation and sterile cultivation condition ..... UV radiation on photothynsis and pigment composition of the alpine snow alga Chlamydomonas nivalis and the.

  14. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  15. Pigments produced by the bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthiwong , Nuthathai; Caro , Yanis; Fouillaud , Mireille; Laurent , Philippe; Valla , A.; Dufossé , Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Poster communication, 7th International Congress of Pigments in Food – New technologies towards health, through colors, Novara, Italy, June 18-21, 2013.; International audience; Since several decades, pigments have been used as a taxonomic tool for the identification and classification of bacteria. Nowadays, pigment producing microorganisms have been also widely interested in scientific disciplines because of their biotechnological potential. With the growing interest in microbial pigments be...

  16. Pigment patterns in adult fish result from superimposition of two largely independent pigmentation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceinos, Rosa M; Guillot, Raúl; Kelsh, Robert N; Cerdá-Reverter, José M; Rotllant, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Dorso-ventral pigment pattern differences are the most widespread pigmentary adaptations in vertebrates. In mammals, this pattern is controlled by regulating melanin chemistry in melanocytes using a protein, agouti-signalling peptide (ASIP). In fish, studies of pigment patterning have focused on stripe formation, identifying a core striping mechanism dependent upon interactions between different pigment cell types. In contrast, mechanisms driving the dorso-ventral countershading pattern have been overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that, in fact, zebrafish utilize two distinct adult pigment patterning mechanisms - an ancient dorso-ventral patterning mechanism, and a more recent striping mechanism based on cell-cell interactions; remarkably, the dorso-ventral patterning mechanism also utilizes ASIP. These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a...-based pearlescent pigments may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable...

  18. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.3128 Section... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or iron... pigments listed in paragraph (a) of this section may be used as a color additive in contact lenses in...

  19. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a... pearlescent pigments may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in...

  20. Effect of pigment concentration on fastness and color values of thermal and UV curable pigment printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Gulcin; Kalav, Berdan; Karagüzel Kayaoğlu, Burçak

    2017-10-01

    In the current study, it is aimed to determine the effect of pigment concentration on fastness and colour values of thermal and ultraviolet (UV) curable pigment printing on synthetic leather. For this purpose, thermal curable solvent-based and UV curable water-based formulations were prepared with different pigment concentrations (3, 5 and 7%) separately and applied by screen printing technique using a screen printing machine. Samples printed with solvent-based formulations were thermally cured and samples printed with water-based formulations were cured using a UV curing machine equipped with gallium and mercury (Ga/Hg) lamps at room temperature. The crock fastness values of samples printed with solvent-based formulations showed that increase in pigment concentration was not effective on both dry and wet crock fastness values. On the other hand, in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations, dry crock fastness was improved and evaluated as very good for all pigment concentrations. However, increasing the pigment concentration affected the wet crock fastness values adversely and lower values were observed. As the energy level increased for each irradiation source, the fastness values were improved. In comparison with samples printed with solvent-based formulations, samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations yielded higher K/S values at all pigment concentrations. The results suggested that, higher K/S values can be obtained in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations at a lower pigment concentration compared to samples printed with solvent-based formulations.

  1. Effects of some hydrocolloids and water activity on nonenzymic browning of concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögüs, F; Düzdemir, C; Eren, S

    2000-12-01

    5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) accumulation and brown pigment formation (BPF) were studied in the presence and absence of some hydrocolloids in concentrated orange juice. The influence of addition of 1.5% xanthan gum (XG) and 1.5% XG and 0.5% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were observed on the nonenzymic browning reactions in concentrated orange juice at 45, 60, and 75 degrees C. The effect of water activity was also observed by replacing the samples into different water activity media (0.11 +/- 0.01, 0.30 +/- 0.01, 0.50 +/- 0.01, 0.75 +/- 0.01, and 0.80 +/- 0.01). It was observed that the samples containing 1.5% XG and 0.5% MCC showed the lowest BPF and HMF accumulation, whereas the browning rate and HMF accumulation in pure orange juice were the highest at all temperatures. Maximum BPF and HMF accumulation were observed in the range of water activity between 0.30 and 0.75. The lowest values were observed at aw 0.80.

  2. Wing-Pigments of Butterflies as Reviewed from the Systematic and Taxonomic Points of View

    OpenAIRE

    梅鉢, 幸重; Yoshishige, UMEBACHI; 金沢大学理学部生物学教室; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kanazawa University

    1988-01-01

    Wing-pigments of butterflies are reviewed especially from the standpoint of distribution. The pigments include pteridine pigments, ommochromes, papiliochromes, tetrapyrrolic pigments, flavonoids, and others. Chemistry and biochemistry of these pigments are briefly described, and their distributions are described in detail, especially in the Pieridae, Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, and Satyridae. Interestingly, some pigments are characteristic of some taxonomic groups such as family, subsfamily, a...

  3. Introduction of a rod pigment aromatic cluster does not improve the structural stability of the human green cone pigment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.E.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Bovee-Geurts, P.H.M.; Grip, W.J. de

    2007-01-01

    In the course of our studies on the structure/function relationship of visual pigments, we have expressed the human green cone pigment in the baculovirus/insect cell expression system. Purification of the human green cone pigment, however, has so far proven to be severely hampered by the low thermal

  4. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10: normal control diet (NC and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH or germinated Superhongmi (GSH rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  5. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo Im; Ryu, Su Noh; Kang, Mi Young

    2016-10-21

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups ( n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  6. Prevalence and clinical features of pigmented oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Yazan; Sawair, Faleh; Al-Karadsheh, Omar; Scully, Crispian

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relative prevalence, types, and clinical features of pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa in 1275 patients attending a university hospital for dental care. Patients attending dental clinics at The University of Jordan Hospital over a 1-year period were examined for the presence of oral pigmentations. Histopathological examination was performed on focally pigmented lesions with a suspicious or uncertain clinical diagnosis. A total of 386 (30.2%) patients were found to have oral pigmentations. Of these, racial pigmentation (39.9%) and smokers' melanosis (32.9%) were the most common causes of oral pigmentations. Other causes included amalgam tattoo (18.9%), focal melanotic macules (5.7%), postinflammatory pigmentation (1.6%), pigmentation due to medications or systemic disease (0.52%), heavy metal deposits (0.26%), and oral nevus (0.26%). Gingivae and buccal mucosae were the most common sites for oral pigmentations. Pigmentations of the oral mucosa are common. Gingivae and buccal mucosae are the most common sites for oral pigmentations. Proper history and recognition of clinical features are important for effective management. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Comparative study on the incidence and outcomes of pigmented versus non pigmented keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence, outcomes and establish factors determining visual prognosis of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi in comparison with nonpigmented fungi. Materials and Methods: All culture-proven cases of fungal keratitis from January 2006 to August 2008 were drawn from a computerized database and cases with adequate documentation were analyzed for predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, microbiology and treatment methods. Outcomes of keratitis due to pigmented and nonpigmented fungi were compared using t-test and χ2 test. Results: Of 373 cases of keratomycosis during the study period, pigmented fungi were etiological agents in 117 eyes (31.3% and nonpigmented fungi in 256 eyes (68.7%. Eyes with nonpigmented keratitis had significantly larger ulcers (14.96 mm 2 and poorer vision (1.42 logMAR at presentation compared to those with keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi (P=0.01. The characteristic macroscopic pigmentation was seen in only 14.5% in the pigmented keratitis group. Both groups responded favorably to medical therapy (78.1% vs. 69.1% with scar formation (P=0.32 and showed a significant improvement in mean visual acuity compared with that at presentation (P<0.01. Visual improvement in terms of line gainers and losers in the subgroup of eyes that experienced healing was also similar. Location of the ulcer was the only factor that had significant predictive value for visual outcome (P=0.021. Conclusion: Incidence of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi may be increasing as compared to previous data. These eyes have similar response to medical therapy and similar visual outcome compared to nonpigmented keratitis. Central ulcers have a poor visual outcome.

  8. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  9. UVR: sun, lamps, pigmentation and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C M; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D. The hea......Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D....... The health benefits of UVR exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D pathways will be discussed in this themed issue in the following articles....

  10. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (ppigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (ppigment are

  11. Sequences associated with human iris pigmentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Frudakis, Tony; Thomas, Matthew; Gaskin, Zach; Venkateswarlu, K; Chandra, K Suresh; Ginjupalli, Siva; Gunturi, Sitaram; Natrajan, Sivamani; Ponnuswamy, Viswanathan K; Ponnuswamy, K N

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether and how common polymorphisms are associated with natural distributions of iris colors, we surveyed 851 individuals of mainly European descent at 335 SNP loci in 13 pigmentation genes and 419 other SNPs distributed throughout the genome and known or thought to be informative for certain elements of population structure. We identified numerous SNPs, haplotypes, and diplotypes (diploid pairs of haplotypes) within the OCA2, MYO5A, TYRP1, AIM, DCT, and TYR genes and the CYP1A2...

  12. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, B.; O'Connor, S.; Pittelkow, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  13. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04543.001 PMID:25513726

  14. Tetrapyrrole pigments in the geologic record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louda, J.W.; Baker, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of our ongoing studies on the fossilization of biotic tetrapyrrole pigments and is directed at revealing the utility of such study in assessing pre-, syn- and post-depositional processes. Diagenesis is found to become fated during oxic or anoxic deposition as to pigment destruction or fossilization, respectively. The progress of organic maturation has been followed in suited of oceanic sediments as well as shales and petroleum crudes from various basins in the US and Canada. Early catagenesis is witnessed by the release (ex kerogen.) of large quantities, re bitumen, of C28 to C34 V=O porphyrins. As catagenesis continues pigment concentration decreases, due to dilution, and higher C number porphyrins (C34-C45+) are added. Once the source is depleted or divorced from the bitumen, maturation leads to dealkylation which ends in the destruction of all tetrapyrrole structure. These changes are in concert with a shift from DPEP to ETIO dominance and parallel overall organic maturation in strict fashions. Organic source and paleoenvironment may also be addressed through porphyrin studies. Patterns of tetrapyrroles can differentiate the more allochthonous nature of black shale OM in the N. Atlantic from the autochthonous materials in these sequences in the margins of N.W. Africa and the S. Atlantic (high yield, DPEP).

  15. Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of ′black gums′ are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  16. Inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on tyrosinase and its application in controlling pericarp browning of harvested longan fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Fen; Hu, Yong-Hua; Lin, He-Tong; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Yi-Hui; Zhang, Shen; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2013-03-20

    Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), also known as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), is a key enzyme in pigment biosynthesis of organisms. The inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase and effects of propyl gallate on pericarp browning of harvested longan fruits in relation to phenolic metabolism were investigated. The results showed that propyl gallate could potently inhibit diphenolase activity of tyrosinase. The inhibitor concentration leading to 50% activity lost (IC50) was determined to be 0.685 mM. Kinetic analyses showed that propyl gallate was a reversible and mixed type inhibitor on this enzyme. The inhibition constants (K(IS) and K(I)) were determined to be 2.135 and 0.661 mM, respectively. Furthermore, the results also showed that propyl gallate treatment inhibited activities of PPO and POD in pericarp of harvested longan fruits, and maintained higher contents of total phenol and flavonoid of longan pericarp. Moreover, propyl gallate treatment also delayed the increases of browning index and browning degree in pericarp of harvested longan fruits. Therefore, application of propyl gallate may be a promising method for inhibiting tyrosinase activity, controlling pericarp browning, and extending shelf life of harvested longan fruits.

  17. A Rare Case of Concomitant Maxilla and Mandible Brown Tumours, Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, Parathyroid Adenoma, and Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Borguezan Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The brown tumour of hyperparathyroidism is a result of a metabolic disorder caused by primary hyperparathyroidism. Report. We described a case of a 37-year-old female patient presenting bimaxillary intraoral lesions and swelling in the neck. Incisional biopsy of the oral lesion was performed and histopathological examination revealed a central giant cell lesion composed by intense haemorrhagic exudate, abundant presence of giant cells, and areas with hemosiderin pigment. The patient also presented high levels of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone, hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue, bilateral parenchymal nephropathy, and densitometry lower than expected, showing an advanced stage of osteitis fibrosa cystica. Synchronous parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma were confirmed by imaging exams and histopathologically. Conclusion. The composition of all the clinical, pathological, and imaging findings led to the final diagnosis of brown tumour of hyperparathyroidism. The occurrence of parathyroid adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and brown tumours of hyperparathyroidism in their late stage (osteitis fibrosa cystica associated with oral brown tumours involving the mandible and maxilla is extremely rare.

  18. Presence of quorum-sensing inhibitor-like compounds from bacteria isolated from the brown alga Colpomenia sinuosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabhapathy, M; Yamazaki, G; Ishida, A; Sasaki, H; Nagata, S

    2009-11-01

    Several Gram-negative bacterial species use N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules as quorum-sensing (QS) signals to regulate various biological functions. Similarly, various bacteria can stimulate, inhibit or inactivate QS signals in other bacteria by producing molecules called as quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSI). Our aim was to screen and identify the epibiotic bacteria associated with brown algae for their ability of producing QS-inhibiting activity. QSI screenings were conducted on several epibiotic bacteria isolated from a marine brown alga Colpomenia sinuosa, using Serratia rubidaea JCM 14263 as an indicator organism. Strain JCM 14263 controls the production of red pigment, prodigiosin by AHL QS. Out of 96 bacteria, which were isolated from the surface of the brown alga, 12% of strains showed the ability to produce QSI, which was observed from the pigmentation inhibition on Ser. rubidaea JCM 14263 without affecting its growth. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing method demonstrated bacterial isolates showing QS inhibition-producing bacteria belonging to the Bacillaceae (Firmicutes), Pseudomonadaceae (Proteobacteria), Pseudoalteromonadaceae (Proteobacteria) and Vibrionaceae (Proteobacteria). An appreciable percentage of bacteria isolated from the brown alga produced QSI-like compounds. The screening method using Ser. rubidaea described in this report will facilitate the rapid identification of QSI-producing bacteria from marine environment. This study reveals new avenue for future environmental applications. This study also suggests that these algal epibiotic bacteria may play a role in the defensive mechanism for their host by producing QSI or QSI-like compounds to suppress the settlement of other competitive bacteria.

  19. Byzantine wall paintings from Kastoria, northern Greece: spectroscopic study of pigments and efflorescing salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanidis, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Strati, Aggeliki; Gkimourtzina, Amalia; Papoulidou, Androniki

    2011-02-01

    This study concerns the investigation of pigments and efflorescence phenomena on the wall paintings of Kastoria, a rural, non-metropolitan Byzantine town. A large number of representative samples were collected from the murals of three churches, dated to post-Byzantine era (14th-17th c. AD). The identified pigments for the red colour were hematite (Fe2O3), cinnabar (HgS) and minium (Pb3O4), while brown and yellow colours were attributed to mixtures of ochres (Fe-oxides and hydroxides) and lime. The utilization of admixtures of iron, lead and mercury compounds was also attested in order to render specific tones on the painted surfaces. Black and dark blue hues were prepared using black carbon and Mn in some cases. Grey colours were assigned to a mixture of black carbon and lime. Green colour is rather attributed to admixtures of Fe-rich minerals and lime and not to the commonly used green earths. Baryte (BaSO4) was also evidenced as a filler or extender. Phosphorous was detected and connected to proteinaceous material and Mo and Sb were traced which are probably affiliated to Fe-oxides. Regarding efflorescing salts, the determined compounds are: calcite, dolomite, gypsum, halite, nitratine, natron and mirabilite, all of which are related to temperature and humidity changes and moisture fluctuations inside the wall paintings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytical evidences of the use of iron-gall ink as a pigment on miniature paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Calà, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    Iron-gall ink (IGI) has been used by scribes for writing since at least the 4th century CE. Another typical use of this ink was for drawing: many Old Masters created beautiful sketches in brown-black hues. Despite its widespread use to draw lines, it seems like IGI was hardly used for painting as well. In fact, the number of identification on manuscripts is very low at present. This could be partially due to a lack of reliable diagnostic information. In this work we tried to better define the possibility of identifying IGI as a pigment on illuminate manuscripts, evaluating the pros and cons of three different techniques: UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optic fibres (FORS), Raman spectroscopy and XRF spectrometry. With concern to in situ non-invasive analysis, Raman spectroscopy has the best diagnostic power but FORS seems to provide the better compromise between selectivity and ease of application. Moreover, new analytical evidences was given on the particular use of IGI by ancient illuminators: a non-invasive and micro-invasive diagnostic survey on Western manuscripts datable in the range 6-16th centuries was carried out showing that, apart from its widespread use as an ink for writing and drawing, IGI was largely used as a pigment too. The large number of identification obtained allows us to hypothesise that this pigment was used all through medieval Europe up to at least the Renaissance, where its use is already documented in drawing. The occurrence of IGI in miniature paintings older than 6th century or more recent than 16th century cannot be excluded, as is its use beyond Europe; further measurements could instead widen the time range and the geographic area. Nevertheless, the present study allows shedding a new light on the use of this colourant all along the period of medieval and Renaissance miniature painting art.

  1. Gallstone disease is associated with more severe liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ludovica Fracanzani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and gallstone disease (GD are both highly prevalent in the general population and associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of GD in a cross sectional study of NAFLD patients and to define whether the presence of GD is associated with diabetes and predicts more severe liver disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We merged databases of four Liver Units, comprising 524 consecutive biopsy-proven NAFLD (373 males observed between January 2003 and June 2010. GD was diagnosed in 108 (20%, and 313 cases (60% were classified by liver biopsy as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The GD subgroup was characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of females, prediabetes/diabetes, abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, older age, higher BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and lower ALT. The prevalence of GD progressively increased with advancing fibrosis and with the severity of necroinflammatory activity (p for trend  = 0.0001 and  = 0.01, respectively, without differences in the severity of steatosis. At multivariate analysis GD was associated with female gender (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04-1.8, age (OR 1.027, 95% CI1.003-1.05, fasting glucose (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.33 and NASH (OR 1.40,95% CI 1.06-1.89, whereas ALT levels were associated with a lower GD risk (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99. When subjects with cirrhosis were excluded from analysis, the association between GD and fasting glucose, female gender, and NASH was maintained. CONCLUSION: Patients with NAFLD have a high prevalence of GD, which characterizes subjects with altered glucose regulation and more advanced liver disease.

  2. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and interval cholecystectomy are reasonable alternatives to index cholecystectomy in severe acute gallstone pancreatitis (GSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Yeeting, Sim; Whigham, Carole; Judson, Hannah; Polignano, Francesco M; Tait, Iain S

    2008-08-01

    UK guidelines for gallstone pancreatitis (GSP) advocate definitive treatment during the index admission, or within 2 weeks of discharge. However, this target may not always be achievable. This study reviewed current management of GSP in a university hospital and evaluated the risk associated with interval cholecystectomy. All patients that presented with GSP over a 4-year period (2002-2005) were stratified for disease severity (APACHE II). Patient demographics, time to definitive therapy [index cholecystectomy; endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES); Interval cholecystectomy], and readmission rates were analysed retrospectively. 100 patients admitted with GSP. Disease severity was mild in 54 patients and severe in 46 patients. Twenty-two patients unsuitable for surgery underwent ES as definitive treatment with no readmissions. Seventy-eight patients underwent cholecystectomy, of which 40 (58%) had an index cholecystectomy, and 38 (42%) an interval cholecystectomy. Only 10 patients with severe GSP had an index cholecystectomy, whilst 30 were readmitted for Interval cholecystectomy (p = 0.04). The median APACHE score was 4 [standard deviation (SD) 3.8] for index cholecystectomy and 8 (SD 2.6) for Interval cholecystectomy (p GSP had ES prior to discharge for interval cholecystectomy. Two (5%) patients were readmitted: with acute cholecystitis (n = 1) and acute pancreatitis (n = 1) , whilst awaiting interval cholecystectomy. No mortality was noted in the Index or Interval group. This study demonstrates that overall 62% (22 endoscopic sphincterotomy and 40 index cholecystectomy) of patients with GSP have definitive therapy during the Index admission. However, surgery was deferred in the majority (n = 30) of patients with severe GSP, and 19/30 underwent ES prior to discharge. ES and interval cholecystectomy in severe GSP is associated with minimal morbidity and readmission rates, and is considered a reasonable alternative to an index cholecystectomy in patients with severe GSP.

  3. [Effects of fiber administration in the prevention of gallstones in obese patients on a reducing diet. A clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, S; Uribe, M; Prado, M E; de la Mora, G; Muñoz, R M; Pérez, M F; Milke, P; Blancas, J M; Dehesa, M

    1997-01-01

    Nearly 30% of the obese patients treated with hypoenergetic diets for weight reduction develop gallstone disease (GD). Until the present time, the use of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDA) is the only available therapeutic measure to avoid the development of GD. Dietary fiber induce a bile acid synthesis. A double-blind clinical trial was conducted to compare the effect of rational diet plus UDA vs a rational diet supplemented with Psyllium plantago (Pp) for the prevention of GD in obese subjects undergoing a weight-reduction diet. Patients with a body mass index (BMI = weight in Kg/square height in m) of 30 Kg/m2 or more and with normal gallbladder and biliary tree ultrasound (GBUS) were included. Weight-reduction diets were individually calculated for each patient according to their energy expenditure (EE). Patients were randomly and blindly assigned either to group I (diet + 750 mg UDA + fiber placebo) or group II (diet + 15 g Pp+ UDA placebo). An anthropometric evaluation was performed to each patient before and after the two-month treatment, as well as resting EE by indirect calorimetry, GBUS and endoscopy for the determination of cholesterol crystals in duodenal bile. Weight reduction was similar in both groups (group I = 6 +/- 2 Kg vs group II = 6 +/- 3 Kg). GD development was observed in one patient of group I (5.5%) and two patients of group II (p > 0.05). All patients with GD lost a minimum of 4 Kg during the study period. GD development did not correlate with the presence of crystals in the duodenal bile at the beginning of the study. Our results suggest a beneficial effect of a rational diet with fiber supplementation to prevent GD development in obese patients included in a weight reduction program.

  4. Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Juan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index 2O3 (300 mg/day for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies, all with a body mass index Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS.

  5. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Overexpression of a three-gene conidial pigment biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus nidulans reveals the first NRPS known to acetylate tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Calvin T; Chang, Shu-Lin; Entwistle, Ruth; Ahn, Green; Lin, Tzu-Shyang; Petrova, Vessela; Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Praseuth, Mike B; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Oakley, Berl R; Wang, Clay C C

    2017-04-01

    Fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are megasynthetases that produce cyclic and acyclic peptides. In Aspergillus nidulans, the NRPS ivoA (AN10576) has been associated with the biosynthesis of grey-brown conidiophore pigments. Another gene, ivoB (AN0231), has been demonstrated to be an N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase that putatively acts downstream of IvoA. A third gene, ivoC, has also been predicted to be involved in pigment biosynthesis based on publicly available genomic and transcriptomic information. In this paper, we report the replacement of the promoters of the ivoA, ivoB, and ivoC genes with the inducible promoter alcA in a single cotransformation. Co-overexpression of the three genes resulted in the production of a dark-brown pigment in hyphae. In addition, overexpression of each of the Ivo genes, ivoA-C, individually or in combination, allowed us to isolate intermediates and confirm the function of each gene. IvoA was found to be the first known NRPS to carry out the acetylation of the amino acid, tryptophan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parichy, David M; Spiewak, Jessica E

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage, and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve-associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Patterns and Drivers of Egg Pigment Intensity and Colour Diversity in the Ocean: A Meta-Analysis of Phylum Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E M; Hamel, J-F; Mercier, A

    Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green. We explore the ways in which these colour patterns correlate with behavioural, morphological, geographic and phylogenetic variables in extant classes of Echinodermata, a phylum that has close phylogenetic ties with chordates and representatives in nearly all marine environments. Results of multivariate analyses show that intensely pigmented eggs are characteristic of pelagic or external development whereas pale eggs are commonly brooded internally. Of the five egg colours catalogued, orange and yellow are the most common. Yellow eggs are a primitive character, associated with all types of development (predominant in internal brooders), whereas green eggs are always pelagic, occur in the most derived orders of each class and are restricted to the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Orange eggs are geographically ubiquitous and may represent a 'universal' egg pigment that functions well under a diversity of environmental conditions. Finally, green occurs chiefly in the classes Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea, orange in Asteroidea, yellow in Echinoidea, and brown in Holothuroidea. By examining an unprecedented combination of egg colours/intensities and reproductive strategies, this phylum-wide study sheds new light on the role and drivers of egg pigmentation, drawing parallels with theories developed from the study of more derived vertebrate taxa. The primary use of pigments (of any colour) to protect externally developing eggs from oxidative damage and predation is

  9. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Marie Pangan Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. Objective: This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Method: The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5 and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Results: Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Conclusion: Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities.

  10. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lara Marie Pangan; Kang, Mi Young; Yi, Seong Joon; Chung, Soo Im

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5) and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities.

  11. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lara Marie Pangan; Kang, Mi Young; Yi, Seong Joon; Chung, Soo Im

    2016-01-01

    Background In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. Objective This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Method The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5) and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Results Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Conclusion Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities. PMID:27032671

  12. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia’s virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Objective: Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Method: Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 – 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Results: Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H2O2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Conclusion: Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens. PMID:28567147

  13. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dana M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms, our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  14. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia 's virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 - 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H 2 O 2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens .

  15. Adjustment of pigment composition in Desmarestia (Desmarestiaceae species along a sub-Antarctic to Antarctic latitudinal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mansilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis at high latitudes demands efficient strategies of light utilization to maintain algal fitness and performance. The fitness, and physiological adaptation, of a plant or algae species depends in part on the abundance and efficiency of the pigments it can produce to utilize the light resource from its environment. We quantified pigment composition and concentration in six species of the brown macroalgal genus Desmarestia, collected from sub-Antarctic sites (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel–Cape Horn Province and sites on the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent islands. Sub-Antarctic Desmarestia species exhibited lower concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin than endemic Antarctic species. Antarctic samples of D. menziesii and D. antarctica collected along a decreasing latitudinal gradient showed spatial and interspecific differences in light-harvesting pigment composition. Our results suggest distinct physiological adjustments in Desmarestia species in response to heterogeneous abiotic environmental conditions. The marine sub-Antarctic and Antarctic ecosystems are characterized by harsh environments (e.g., extreme irradiance, photoperiod, temperature, salinity to which the physiology of macroalgal species must adapt.

  16. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  17. Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy with which relevant atmospheric parameters must be estimated to derive photoplankton pigment concentrations of a given accuracy, from measurements of the ocean's apparent spectral radiance at satellite altitudes, is examined. A phytoplankton pigment algorithm is developed which relates the pigment concentration (c) to the three ratios of upwelling radiance just beneath the sea surface which can be formed from wavelengths (lambda) 440, 520 and 550 nm.

  18. Aging of the hair follicle pigmentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-07-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations.

  19. Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

  20. Whither do the microlensing Brown Dwarfs rove?

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro; Mollerach, S; Roulet, Esteban; de Rujula, A; Giudice, G; Mollerach, S; Roulet, E

    1995-01-01

    The EROS and MACHO collaborations have reported observations of light curves of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud that are compatible with gravitational microlensing by intervening massive objects, presumably Brown-Dwarf stars. The OGLE and MACHO teams have also seen similar events in the direction of the galactic Bulge. Current data are insufficient to decide whether the Brown-Dwarfs are dark-matter constituents of the non-luminous galactic Halo, or belong to a more conventional population, such as that of faint stars in the galactic Spheroid, in its Thin or Thick Disks, or in their possible LMC counterparts. We discuss in detail how further observations of microlensing rates and of the moments of the distribution of event durations, can help resolve the issue of the Brown-Dwarf location, and eventually provide information on the mass function of the dark objects.

  1. Development of waste-based ceramic pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, G.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of ceramic pigments using industrial wastes as primary sources. In this context, the use of Al-rich sludge generated in the wastewater treatment unit of an anodising or surface coating industrial plant, and a galvanizing sludge from the Cr/Ni plating process, will be detailed. The ceramic pigments reported here were prepared using typical solid state reactions involving the metal rich sludge. The main focus will be on the synthesis of chrome-tin orchid cassiterite (Sn,CrO2, chrome-tin red malayaite Ca(Cr,SnSiO5, victoria green garnet Ca3Cr2Si3O12, and chrome alumina pink/green corundum (Cr,Al2O3 pigments. The pigments were fully characterised and then were tested in a standard ceramic glaze after. Typical working conditions and colour development will be reported.

    Se presenta la preparación de pigmentos cerámicos empleando residuos industriales como fuente de materias primas. Se detallan el uso de barros ricos en aluminio obtenidos en los tratamientos de depuración de aguas de plantas industriales de anodizado y barros de galvanizados de chapados de Cr/Ni. Los pigmentos cerámicos se prepararon empleando reacción en estados sólido a partir del barro rico en metal. Los principales pigmentos estudiados son orquídea casiterita de cromo-estaño (Sn,CrO2, malayita rojo de cromo-estaño Ca(Sn,CrSiO3, granate verde victoria Ca3Cr2Si3O12, y corindón rosa/verde de cromo alúmina (Cr,Al2O3. Los pigmentos fueron caracterizados y ensayados después de ser vidriados en cerámicas estándares. Se presentan las condiciones de trabajo y el desarrollo de color.

  2. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  3. Pigments and oligomers for inks - moving towards the best combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.; Smith, S.; Grierson, W.; Devine, E.

    1999-01-01

    The formulation of UV curable printing inks depends on several complex factors. If the individual components of the ink are not complementary, then performance problems can arise. One critical combination is that between the pigment and the oligomer. In a new approach to improve understanding of pigment/oligomer interactions, the resources of a pigment manufacturer and an oligomer manufacturer have been combined to investigate the problem. Initial screening of process yellow pigments and several oligomer types highlighted performance variations which were then examined in more detail

  4. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chadwick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options.

  5. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  6. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  7. Brown dwarfs in retrogradely precessing cataclysmic variables?

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    Martin E.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We compare Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations of retrogradely precessing accretion disks that have a white dwarf primary and a main sequence secondary with observational data and with theory on retrograde precession via tidal torques like those by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth [1, 2]. Assuming the primary does not accrete much of the mass lost from the secondary, we identify the theoretical low mass star/brown dwarf boundary. We find no observational candidates in our study that could qualify as brown dwarfs.

  8. Brown tumor of mandible with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.K.; Khan, F.A.; Siddiq, A.; Hanif, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted and released by the parathyroid glands, the activity of which is controlled by the ionized serum calcium level. Increased PTH secretion results in hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary types. Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased parathyroid hormone secretion occurring as a result of abnormality in one or more of the parathyroid glands. Brown tumors are non-neoplastic lesions as a result of abnormal bone metabolism in cases of hyperparathyroidism, creating a local destructive phenomenon. A rare case of a young female patient with brown tumors in her mandible associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, is reported. (author)

  9. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

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    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  10. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

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    Tian Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown alpacas. Results Two small RNA libraries from white alpaca (WA and brown alpaca (BA skin were sequenced with the aid of Illumina sequencing technology. 272 and 267 conserved miRNAs were obtained from the WA and BA skin libraries, respectively. Of these conserved miRNAs, 35 and 13 were more abundant in WA and BA skin, respectively. The targets of these miRNAs were predicted and grouped based on Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in the melanogenesis pathway controlling pigmentation. In addition to the conserved miRNAs, we also obtained 22 potentially novel miRNAs from the WA and BA skin libraries. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in skin of animals of different coat colors by deep sequencing analysis. We discovered a collection of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in WA and BA skin. The results suggest important potential functions of miRNAs in coat color regulation.

  11. Halovenus rubra sp. nov., isolated from salted brown alga Laminaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin; Li, Zheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain R28(T) was isolated from the brown alga Laminaria produced at Dalian, Liaoning Province, China. The cells of the strain were pleomorphic and lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies. Strain R28(T) was able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 42 °C), in the presence of 3.1-5.1 M NaCl (optimum 3.9 M NaCl), with 0.005-1.0 M MgCl(2) (optimum 0.01 M MgCl(2)) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). The minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 15 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were identified as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, and two glycolipids chromatographically identical to those of Halovenus aranensis CGMCC 1.11001(T). The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain R28(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Hvn. aranensis CGMCC 1.11001(T) (91.9-97.2 and 82.9 % nucleotide identity, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain R28(T) was determined to be 56.3 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain R28(T) (=CGMCC 1.10592(T) = JCM 17269(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Halovenus, for which the name Halovenus rubra sp. nov. is proposed.

  12. Temporal Change in Fur Color in Museum Specimens of Mammals: Reddish-Brown Species Get Redder with Storage Time

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    Andrew K. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Museum collections have great value for zoological research, but despite careful preservation, over time specimens can show subtle changes in color. We examined the effect of storage time on fur color of two reddish-brown species, golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli and eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus. Using image analysis, we obtained color data (hue, saturation, and density on 91 golden mice and 49 chipmunks from Georgia, USA. Analyses that considered body size, gender, and collection year showed significant effects of year on fur color of golden mice (hue and saturation and of agouti color of chipmunks. Older specimens tended to be redder in color than newer specimens, consistent with a prior study of red bats (Lasiurus borealis. Hair samples showed reddening of fine body hairs, but not in thicker guard hairs. There was no temporal change in black or white stripe color in chipmunks, indicating that this temporal effect would be limited to species with reddish-brown fur. This effect may be caused by breakdown of eumelanin pigments (which make dark colors over time, leaving a greater proportion of pheomelanin pigments (which make red colors. These results show that storage time needs to be considered in research projects where fur color is of importance.

  13. Zinc deficiency leads to lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats.

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    Sylvie Julien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult Long Evans (LE rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4-3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane.

  14. Stem Cell Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The Role of Pigmentation as Maturation Marker and Gene Expression Profile Comparison with Human Endogenous Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A; Jacobs, J G; Catsburg, L A E; Ten Brink, J B; Koster, C; Schlingemann, R O; van Meurs, J; Gorgels, T G M F; Moerland, P D; Heine, V M; Bergen, A A

    2017-10-01

    In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deteriorates, leading to photoreceptor decay and severe vision loss. New therapeutic strategies aim at RPE replacement by transplantation of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE. Several protocols to generate RPE have been developed where appearance of pigmentation is commonly used as indicator of RPE differentiation and maturation. It is, however, unclear how different pigmentation stages reflect developmental stages and functionality of PSC-derived RPE cells. We generated human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) cells and investigated their gene expression profiles at early pigmentation (EP) and late pigmentation (LP) stages. In addition, we compared the hESC-RPE samples with human endogenous RPE. We used a common reference design microarray (44 K). Our analysis showed that maturing hESC-RPE, upon acquiring pigmentation, expresses markers specific for human RPE. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that EP and LP hESC-RPE do not differ much in gene expression. Our data further showed that pigmented hESC-RPE has a significant lower expression than human endogenous RPE in the visual cycle and oxidative stress pathways. In contrast, we observed a significantly higher expression of pathways related to the process adhesion-to-polarity model that is typical of developing epithelial cells. We conclude that, in vitro, the first appearance of pigmentation hallmarks differentiated RPE. However, further increase in pigmentation does not result in much significant gene expression changes and does not add important RPE functionalities. Consequently, our results suggest that the time span for obtaining differentiated hESC-RPE cells, that are suitable for transplantation, may be greatly reduced.

  15. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

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    Andreeva, Atanaska S; Busheva, Mira C; Stoitchkova, Katerina V; Tzonova, Iren K, E-mail: katys@phys.uni-sofia.b

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ss-carotene (ss-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ss-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  16. Enamel ultrastructure in pigmented hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J T; Lord, V; Robinson, C; Shore, R

    1992-10-01

    Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary condition of enamel that is presumed to result from defects during the maturation stage of enamel development. This study characterized the enamel ultrastructure and enamel crystallite morphology, as well as the distribution of organic material in enamel affected with pigmented hypomaturation AI. Enamel exhibiting autosomal recessive pigmented hypomaturation AI was sectioned or fractured and examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Enamel samples were treated with 30% NaOCl or 8 M urea to remove organic components and determine the effect of deproteinization on crystallite morphology. These were compared with untreated normal enamel samples. The enamel crystallites in hypomaturation AI exhibited considerable variability in size and morphology. Examination of deproteinized tissue indicated that the AI crystallites had a thick coating, presumably of organic or partially mineralized material, which was not visible in normal enamel. The results of this investigation provide further evidence that hypomaturation AI is associated with the retention of organic material that is most probably enamel protein. Enamel protein retention is likely to be involved in the inhibition of normal crystallite growth resulting in the morphological crystallite abnormalities associated with this disorder.

  17. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease

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    Stefan W. Ryter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, are endogenously-derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  18. Epigenetic’s role in fish pigmentation

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    Laura Cal Delgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti coat colour gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule whose differential expression produces the characteristic dorsal-ventral pigment pattern observed in most mammals. We have recently demonstrated that this well-characterised mechanism from mammals also applies to fish with their much more complex pigment patterns. However, the developmental mechanism through which agouti acts to establish these colour differences remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate agouti gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the agouti promoter and identification of possible putative regulatory elements that govern basal promoter activity. Specifically, the investigation was focused on the occurrence and role of CpG dinucleotides methylation in the agouti putative promoter sequence and on a possible epigenetic level of regulation of agouti expression. We report here expression analyses of eGFP expression from transgenic zebrafish containing an 8kb-agouti-Tol2-eGFP construct. eGFP expression was specifically found in the brain area and neural tube of Tol2 transposon vector transgenic embryos. Computer-based analysis revealed a putative CpG island immediately proximal to the translation start site. Global inhibition of methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine promoted agouti production in association with decreasing CpG methylation. Taken together, these data identify a contributory role for DNA methylation in regulating agouti expression in zebrafish embryogenesis.

  19. Spontaneous Large Serous Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear

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    Voraporn Chaikitmongkol

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report cases of spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE tear complicating serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED. Methods: The records of 3 Asian patients with spontaneous giant RPE tear were reviewed retrospectively by including clinical presentation, angiography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual outcome. Results: Three patients (4 eyes were included in this study, with a mean age of 48.3 (42–56 years, and a mean follow-up period of 7.75 (4–18 months. Fundus examination in all patients showed giant RPE tear associated with bullous PED. Two cases had a history of prior corticosteroid use, and 1 had no history of medication use. All 3 patients developed spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid with no treatment. However, in patients who used corticosteroids, initial progression of the tear and subretinal fluid were observed despite ceasing medication. On subsequent follow-up, an incomplete RPE regeneration was demonstrated by fundus autofluorescence imaging, and choroidal neovascularization developed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Large PED with RPE tear is a rare manifestation. When the fovea is spared, visual prognosis is favorable. No specific treatment is required, but careful choroidal neovascularization monitoring should be performed.

  20. Structural and Visible-Near Infrared Optical Properties of Cr-Doped TiO2 for Colored Cool Pigments

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    Yuan, Le; Weng, Xiaolong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Qingyong; Deng, Longjiang

    2017-11-01

    Chromium-doped TiO2 pigments were synthesized via a solid-state reaction method and studied with X-ray diffraction, SEM, XPS, and UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy. The incorporation of Cr3+ accelerates the transition from the anatase phase to the rutile phase and compresses the crystal lattice. Moreover, the particle morphology, energy gap, and reflectance spectrum of Cr-doped TiO2 pigments is affected by the crystal structure and doping concentration. For the rutile samples, some of the Cr3+ ions are oxidized to Cr4+ after sintering at a high temperature, which leads to a strong near-infrared absorption band due to the 3A2 → 3 T1 electric dipole-allowed transitions of Cr4+. And the decrease of the band gap causes an obvious redshift of the optical absorption edges as the doping concentration increases. Thus, the VIS and near-infrared average reflectance of the rutile Ti1 - x Cr x O2 sample decrease by 60.2 and 58%, respectively, when the Cr content increases to x = 0.0375. Meanwhile, the color changes to black brown. However, for the anatase Ti1 - x Cr x O2 pigments, only the VIS reflection spectrum is inhibited by forming some characteristic visible light absorption peaks of Cr3+. The morphology, band gap, and NIR reflectance are not significantly affected. Finally, a Cr-doped anatase TiO2 pigment with a brownish-yellow color and 90% near-infrared reflectance can be obtained.