WorldWideScience

Sample records for brown pigment gallstones

  1. Gallstones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammert, Frank; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Ko, Cynthia W.; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Portincasa, Piero; Van Erpecum, Karel J.; Van Laarhoven, Cees J.; Wang, David Q H

    2016-01-01

    Gallstones grow inside the gallbladder or biliary tract. These stones can be asymptomatic or symptomatic; only gallstones with symptoms or complications are defined as gallstone disease. Based on their composition, gallstones are classified into cholesterol gallstones, which represent the

  2. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin and the whites of your eyes High fever with chills Types of gallstones Types of gallstones that can form in the gallbladder include: Cholesterol gallstones. The most common type of gallstone, called a cholesterol gallstone, often appears yellow in color. These gallstones are composed mainly of ...

  3. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the abdomen, back, or just under the right arm. Gallstones are most common among older adults, women, overweight people, Native Americans and Mexican Americans. Gallstones are often found during imaging tests ...

  4. Gallstones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publications in English language on gallstones up to 2012 were obtained .... spinal cord injury[43] or with the use of the somatostatin analogue octreotide ... in the Scandinavian countries and Chile and among Native ..... weeks of disability.

  5. The Ability of Bile to Scavenge Superoxide Radicals and Pigment Gallstone Formation in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Lin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After partial ligation of the common bile duct (CBD of guinea pigs, 14 of 16 animals developed pigment gallstones within one week (S group. Intraperitoneal injection of Vit. E and C, each 10 mg/kg daily from 3 days before CBD ligation to one week after the operation (S+V group, decreased the gallstone incidence to 5/14 (exact probability0.05, but Vit. E and C normalized the SR, and the difference between S group and S+V group was significant (p<0.05. These results suggested that Vit. E and C, known as antioxidants, enhanced the ability to scavenge oxygen radical in S+V group; and that in addition to the increases of UCB and Ca2+ concentrations, the participation of oxygen radicals might be of importance for pigment gallstone formation induced by bile duct obstruction.

  6. Response surface optimization of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of edible brown pigment from Macadamia shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. Y.; Liu, Y. J.; Gong, X.; Li, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    The ultrasonic extraction of Edible brown pigment from macadamia shells was researched using response surface methodology (RSM) with 3 factors and 3 levels. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to investigate the effects of Solvent concentration, ratio of water to raw material and extraction time on the extraction yield of brown pigment. By using this new method, the optimum extraction condition was obtained as follows: Ultrasonic treating time 71 min, solvent to sample ratio of 23 mL/g, Alcohol concentrations 62%. Under the optimized condition, the experimental yield of brown pigment was 0.636g.

  7. Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams of unconjugated bilirubin IXα as functions of pH in model bile systems: Implications for pigment gallstone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marvin D.

    2014-01-01

    Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams for unconjugated bilirubin IXα (UCB) in bile are yet to be determined for understanding the physical chemistry of pigment gallstone formation. Also, UCB is a molecule of considerable biomedical importance because it is a potent antioxidant and an inhibitor of atherogenesis. We employed principally a titrimetric approach to obtain metastable and equilibrium UCB solubilities in model bile systems composed of taurine-conjugated bile salts, egg yolk lecithin (mixed long-chain phosphatidylcholines), and cholesterol as functions of total lipid concentration, biliary pH values, and CaCl2 plus NaCl concentrations. Metastable and equilibrium precipitation pH values were obtained, and average pKa values of the two carboxyl groups of UCB were calculated. Added lecithin and increased temperature decreased UCB solubility markedly, whereas increases in bile salt concentrations and molar levels of urea augmented solubility. A wide range of NaCl and cholesterol concentrations resulted in no specific effects, whereas added CaCl2 produced large decreases in UCB solubilities at alkaline pH values only. UV-visible absorption spectra were consistent with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between UCB and bile salts that were strongly influenced by pH. Reliable literature values for UCB compositions of native gallbladder biles revealed that biles from hemolytic mice and humans with black pigment gallstones are markedly supersaturated with UCB and exhibit more acidic pH values, whereas biles from nonstone control animals and patients with cholesterol gallstone are unsaturated with UCB. PMID:25359538

  8. Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams of unconjugated bilirubin IXα as functions of pH in model bile systems: Implications for pigment gallstone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marvin D; Carey, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams for unconjugated bilirubin IXα (UCB) in bile are yet to be determined for understanding the physical chemistry of pigment gallstone formation. Also, UCB is a molecule of considerable biomedical importance because it is a potent antioxidant and an inhibitor of atherogenesis. We employed principally a titrimetric approach to obtain metastable and equilibrium UCB solubilities in model bile systems composed of taurine-conjugated bile salts, egg yolk lecithin (mixed long-chain phosphatidylcholines), and cholesterol as functions of total lipid concentration, biliary pH values, and CaCl2 plus NaCl concentrations. Metastable and equilibrium precipitation pH values were obtained, and average pKa values of the two carboxyl groups of UCB were calculated. Added lecithin and increased temperature decreased UCB solubility markedly, whereas increases in bile salt concentrations and molar levels of urea augmented solubility. A wide range of NaCl and cholesterol concentrations resulted in no specific effects, whereas added CaCl2 produced large decreases in UCB solubilities at alkaline pH values only. UV-visible absorption spectra were consistent with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between UCB and bile salts that were strongly influenced by pH. Reliable literature values for UCB compositions of native gallbladder biles revealed that biles from hemolytic mice and humans with black pigment gallstones are markedly supersaturated with UCB and exhibit more acidic pH values, whereas biles from nonstone control animals and patients with cholesterol gallstone are unsaturated with UCB. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Pigments Characterization and Molecular Identification of Bacterial Symbionts of Brown Algae Padinasp. Collected from Karimunjawa Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Bayu Murti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for carotenoids in nature has been extensively studied because of their applications in foods. One treasure of the biopigment source is symbiotic-microorganisms with marine biota. The advantages of symbiont bacteria are easy to culture and sensitize pigments. The use of symbiont bacteria helps to conserve fish, coral reefs, seagrass, and seaweed. Therefore, the bacteria keeps their existence in their ecosystems. In this study, bacterial symbionts were successfully isolated from brown algae Padina sp. The bacterial symbionts had yellow pigment associated with carotenoids. The pigments were characterized using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with a Photo Diode Array (PDA detector. The carotenoid pigments in the bacterial symbionts were identified as dinoxanthin, lutein and neoxanthin. Molecular identification by using a 16S rRNA gene sequence method, reveals that the bacterial symbionts were closely related to Bacillus marisflavi with a homology of 99%. Keywords :carotenoid pigments, brown algae, Padina, bacterial symbionts, 16S rRNA

  10. Prospective Source of Antimicrobial Compounds From Pigment Produced by Bacteria associated with Brown Alga ( Phaeophyceae ) Isolated from Karimunjawa island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunggani, A. T.; Darmanto, Y. S.; Radjasa, O. K.; Sabdono, A.

    2018-02-01

    Brown algae or Phaeophyceae characterized by their natural pigments that differ from other important algal classes. Several publications proves that brown algae - associated bacteria have great potential in developing marine pharmaceutical industry since they are capable to synthesized numerous bioactive metabolite compounds. However the potency of marine pigmented microbes associated with brown alga to produce natural pigments and antimicrobials has been less studied. Marine pigmented bacteria associated with brown algae collected from Karimunjawa Island were successfully isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity. The aim of this research was evaluated of the antimicrobial activity of pigments extracted from culturable marine pigmented bacteria on some pathogenic bacteria and yeast. The results showed that all isolates had antimicrobial activity and could be prospectively developed as antimicrobial agent producing pigments. The 6 marine pigmented bacteria was identified to genus level as Pseudoalteromonas, Sphingomonas, Serratia, Paracoccus, Vibrio.

  11. Affinity of hydroxyapatite for furfural and a brown pigment formed by furfural and glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbö, H; Eriksen, H M; Rölla, G

    1979-10-01

    The affinity of hydroxyapatite for furfural and a brown pigment formed by furfural and glycine was studied. A series of mixtures containing 1 M furfural and 0.25-2.0 M glycine were incubated at 37 degrees C and aliquots of hydroxyapatite added. The apatite showed a strong affinity for the brown pigment formed, and an excess of glycine in the mixtures appeared to enhance the binding. The adsorption of furfural to hydroxyapatite was estimated by a spectrophotometric method. The data revealed that pretreatment with CaCl2 and glycine significantly increased the adsorption of furfural.

  12. Production of brown and black pigments by using flotation waste from copper slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Emel; Turan, Servet; Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2006-04-01

    One of the major problems in copper-producing countries is the treatment of the large amount of copper slag or copper flotation waste generated from copper slag which contains significant amounts of heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Pb and Co. Dumping or disposal of such large quantities of flotation waste from copper slag causes environmental and space problems. In this study, the treatment of flotation waste from copper slag by a thermal method and its use as an iron source in the production of inorganic brown and black pigments that are used in the ceramic industry were investigated. The pigments were produced by calcining different amounts of flotation waste and chromite, Cr2O3, ZnO and CoO mixtures. The pigments obtained were added to transparent ceramic glazes and porcelainized tile bodies. Their colours were defined by L*a*b* measurements with a spectrophotometer. The results showed that flotation waste from copper slag could be used as an iron source to produce brown and black pigments in both ceramic body and glazes.

  13. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  14. Drying characteristic, enzyme inactivation and browning pigmentation kinetics of controlled humidity-convective drying of banana slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpong, Frederick; Yu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Cunshan; Oteng-Darko, Patricia; Amenorfe, Leticia Peace; Wu, Bengang; Bai, Junwen; Ma, Haile

    2018-04-01

    Investigating the kinetics of enzyme activities and browning indexes in food are very essential in understanding the enzyme inactivation and browning pigmentation reaction during drying processing. In order to understand and predict accurately the enzyme inactivation and browning pigmentation of banana slices using Relative Humidity (RH)-convective hot air dryer aided by ultrasound (US) pretreatment, this study was conducted. Drying was carried out with 20 kHz frequency of US-pretreatment using three durations (10 20 and 30 min) and RH (10 20 and 30%) conditions at 70 °C and 2.0 m/s air velocity. The kinetic study of both enzyme inactivation and browning pigmentation results were compared to their relevance of fit in terms of coefficient of correlation (R2), the root mean square error (RMSE) and the reduced chi-square (χ 2). First order and second-order polynomial kinetic model fitted well for enzyme inactivation and browning indexes respectively. Both enzymes inactivation kinetics and enzymatic browning index (EBI) declined significantly (p drying time in all drying conditions and rate of decrease intensified in longer US-pretreatment duration and lower RH conditions. However, shorter US-pretreatment duration and higher RH conditions reduced the non- enzymatic browning index (NBI) significantly. Again, longer US-pretreatment duration and lower RH shortened the drying time but adversely created more microspores from the micrograph study. Longer US pretreatment and lower RH decrease significantly (p < 0.05) the L* and b* values whereas the a* values was increased.

  15. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  16. Gallstone disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cohort study was to determine whether subjects with gallstone disease identified by screening of a general population had increased overall mortality when compared to gallstone-free participants and to explore causes of death. METHODS: The study population (N...... built. RESULTS: Gallstone disease was present in 10%. Mortality was 46% during median 24.7 years of follow-up with 1% lost. Overall mortality and death from cardiovascular diseases were significantly associated to gallstone disease. Death from unknown causes was significantly associated to gallstone...... disease and death from cancer and gastrointestinal disease was not associated. No differences in mortality for ultrasound-proven gallstones or cholecystectomy were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Gallstone disease is associated with increased overall mortality and to death from cardiovascular disease. Gallstones...

  17. The analogy in the formation of hardness salts and gallstones according to the EPR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichugina, Alina; Tsyro, Larisa; Unger, Felix

    2017-11-01

    The article shows that the hardness salts contain the same crystalline phases as the bile stone pigment. The identity of EPR spectra of hardness salts and pigment of gallstones containing calcium carbonate was established. An analogy between the processes of formation of hardness salts and gallstones is played, in which particles with open spin-orbitals (fermions) play a decisive role.

  18. Brown pigment formation in heated sugar-protein mixed suspensions containing unmodified and peptically modified whey protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongsirikul, Narumol; Hongsprabhas, Parichat

    2016-01-01

    Commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC) was modified by heating the acidified protein suspensions (pH 2.0) at 80 °C for 30 min and treating with pepsin at 37 °C for 60 min. Prior to spray-drying, such modification did not change the molecular weights (MWs) of whey proteins determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After spray-drying the modified whey protein concentrate with trehalose excipient (MWPC-TH), it was found that the α-lactalbumin (α-La) was the major protein that was further hydrolyzed the most. The reconstituted MWPC-TH contained β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the major protein and small molecular weight (MW) peptides of less than 6.5 kDa. The reconstituted MWPC-TH had higher NH2 group, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lower exposed aromatic ring and thiol (SH) contents than did the commercial WPC. Kinetic studies revealed that the addition of MWPC-TH in fructose-glycine solution was able to reduce brown pigment formation in the mixtures heated at 80 to 95 °C by increasing the activation energy (Ea) of brown pigment formation due to the retardation of fluoresced advanced glycation end product (AGEs) formation. The addition of MWPC to reducing sugar-glycine/commercial WPC was also able to lower brown pigment formation in the sterilized (121 °C, 15 min) mixed suspensions containing 0.1 M reducing sugar and 0.5-1.0 % glycine and/or commercial (P < 0.05). It was demonstrated that the modification investigated in this study selectively hydrolyzed α-La and retained β-Lg for the production of antibrowning whey protein concentrate.

  19. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    . Gallstone incidence was assessed through repeated ultrasound examinations. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, self-rated health, lifestyle variables, blood lipids, and use of female sex hormones were measured at the baseline examination. Statistical analyses included logistic regression. Based...... re-examination were followed-up completely (mean 11.6 years, N = 2848). The overall cumulative incidence of gallstones was 0.60% per year. Independent positive determinants for incident gallstones were age, female sex, non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, and gallbladder polyps...... associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...

  20. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship........59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...

  1. Combined microstructural and mineralogical phase characterization of gallstones in a patient-based study in SW Spain - Implications for environmental contamination in their formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Annika; Suárez-Grau, Juan Manuel; Pérez-López, Rafael; Nieto, José Miguel; Garrido, Carlos J; Cobo-Cárdenas, Gema

    2016-12-15

    This study explores the environmental impact of metal exposure on humans through detailed phase and structural characterization of gallstones from two environmentally contrasting populations in Huelva Province (SW Spain). A total of 42 gallstone samples, obtained after surgical intervention at the Riotinto Hospital, were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), FTIR-μ-ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) coupled with an optical microscope, and by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS), and subsequently classified according to their phase composition and structure. Additionally, the patients were enquired for their living habits in order to analyze the source of possible exposure to metal contamination. The gallstones were classified into pure, mixed and composite cholesterol stones, black and brown pigment stones, and carbonate stones. The patients from the study group residing in a region with acknowledged metal contamination of both natural and anthropogenic origin have a higher risk of metal exposure through contaminated soil, particle matter in the air, and consumption of local water and food products. According to our findings, the metal exposure is related to a higher tendency of forming black pigment stones in the study group in comparison to the control group residing in a natural park with nearly pristine environmental conditions. Moreover, the gallstones from the study group showed to contain more abundant metal components, such as Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn, than those from the control group. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the regional environmental impact of metal exposure on human gallstones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An extended chemical analysis of gallstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, P; Kuchhal, N K; Garg, P; Pundir, C S

    2007-09-01

    Chemical composition of gall stones is essential for aetiopathogensis of gallstone disease. We have reported quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol bilirubin, calcium, iron and inorganic phosphate in 120 gallstones from haryana. To extend this chemical analysis of gall stones by studying more cases and by analyzing more chemical constituents. A quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol, total bilirubin, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, bile acids, soluble proteins, sodium potassium, magnesium, copper, oxalate and chlorides of biliary calculi (52 cholesterol, 76 mixed and 72 pigment) retrieved from surgical operation of 200 patients from Haryana state was carried out. Total cholesterol as the major component and total bilirubin, phospholipids, triglycerides, bile acids, fatty acids (esterified), soluble protein, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium, potassium, inorganic phosphate, oxalate and chloride as minor components were found in all types of calculi. The cholesterol stones had higher content of total cholesterol, phospholipids, fatty acids (esterified), inorganic phosphate and copper compared to mixed and pigment stones. The mixed stones had higher content of iron and triglycerides than to cholesterol and pigment stones. The pigment stones were richer in total bilirubin, bile acids, calcium, oxalate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and soluble protein compared to cholesterol and mixed stones. Although total cholesterol was a major component of cholesterol, mixed and pigment gall stone in Haryana, the content of most of the other lipids, cations and anions was different in different gall stones indicating their different mechanism of formation.

  3. Genetics of gallstone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease is a complex disorder where both environmental and genetic factors contribute towards susceptibility to the disease. Epidemiological and family studies suggest a strong genetic component in the causation of this disease. Several genetically derived phenotypes in the population are responsible for variations in lipoprotein types, which in turn affect the amount of cholesterol available in the gall bladder. The genetic polymorphisms in various genes for apo E, apo B, apo A1, LDL receptor, cholesteryl ester transfer and LDL receptor-associated protein have been implicated in gallstone formation. However, presently available information on genetic differences is not able to account for a large number of gallstone patients. The molecular studies in the animal models have not only confirmed the present paradigm of gallstone formation but also helped in identification of novel genes in humans, which might play an important role in pathogenesis of the disease. Precise understanding of such genes and their molecular mechanisms may provide the basis of new targets for rational drug designs and dietary interventions.

  4. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  5. Analysis of Carcinogenic Heavy Metals in Gallstones and its Role in Gallbladder Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Bikash; Maulik, Dhrubajyoti; Mandal, Mousumi; Sarkar, Gautam Narayan; Sengupta, Sanjay; Ghosh, Debidas

    2017-12-01

    Gallstone is a high-risk factor for gallbladder pre-malignancy or malignancy (GB PM-M) but which substances of gallstones definitely assist to turn out in to GB PM-M, remains unclear. This study aimed to find out the presence of carcinogenic heavy metals in gallstones and to explore the aetiopathogenesis of gallbladder pre-malignancy and malignancy. Presence of elements in gallstones was detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then level of carcinogenic heavy metals was estimated in gallstones using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The experiment was carried out in gallstone samples of 46 patients with gallbladder pre-malignant and malignant condition (PM-M group) and 65 sex and age-matched patients with chronic cholecystitis (C-C group). Gallstones were also classified in to three types such as cholesterol stone, mixed stone, and black pigment stone. EDS analysis detected presence of mercury, lead, and cobalt elements in all types of gallstones of both PM-M and C-C groups. AAS analysis revealed significantly higher amount of mercury (p heavy metals also varied among stone types of both groups. EDS phase analysis showed 'dense deposits' of these metals in gallstones. Presence of significantly higher amount of mercury, lead, cobalt, and cadmium in gallstones may play a pivotal role as risk factors in the development of gallbladder malignancy or pre-malignancy. 'Dense deposits' of these metals in the gallstones which is the first observation, may act as crucial doses of carcinogens.

  6. Inhibitory effect of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) on melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells and on pigmentation in brown guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takashi; Ikeda, Katsumi; Saito, Morio

    2011-01-01

    The compounds present in rose hips exerting an inhibitory action against melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells were investigated by dividing an aqueous extract of rose hips (RE) into four fractions. The 50% ethanol eluate from a DIAION HP-20 column significantly reduced the production of melanin and was mainly composed of procyanidin glycosides. We also found that this 50% ethanol eluate reduced the intracellular tyrosinase activity and also had a direct inhibitory effect on tyrosinase obtained as a protein mixture from the melanoma cell lysate. We also investigated the effect of orally administering RE on skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs, and found that the pigmentation was inhibited together with the tyrosinase activity in the skin. These data collectively suggest that proanthocyanidins from RE inhibited melanogenesis in mouse melanoma cells and guinea pig skin, and could be useful as a skin-whitening agent when taken orally.

  7. Changes of tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels in the germinated brown rice of pigmented and nonpigmented cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lean-Teik; Huang, Shao-Hua; Chen, Yen-Ting; Su, Chun-Han

    2013-12-26

    This study examined the changes of tocopherols (Toc), tocotrienols (T3), γ-oryzanol (GO), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in germinated brown rice (GBR) of pigmented and nonpigmented cultivars under different germination conditions. Results showed that the Toc and T3 contents in GBR were significantly different between treatments in both rice cultivars. The pigmented GBR possessed higher total vitamin E, total Toc, total T3, and GO contents than the nonpigmented GBR; however, its level of GABA was lower. The order of the three highest vitamin E homologues in pigmented and nonpigmented GBR was γ-T3 > γ-Toc > α-Toc and α-Toc > γ-T3 > α-T3, respectively; β-Toc, β-T3, δ-Toc, and δ-T3 were present in only small amounts (≤1.0 mg/kg) in GBR of both cultivars. Although both cultivars showed an increase in GABA contents with increasing germination time, the GABA content in nonpigmented GBR was higher.

  8. An experimental study on prediction of gallstone composition by ultrasonography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Beum; Chung, Sae Yul; Kim, Kun Sang; Lee, Yong Chul; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Jin Kyu

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of chemical composition of gallstones is a prerequisite in contemplating the chemical dissolution or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of gallstones. The author retrospectively analysed the correlation between quantitative chemical composition of gallstones and their ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings. The ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT) of 100 consecutive stones obtained from 100 patients were performed under the in vitro condition. Their US and CT findings were grouped with certain pattern and each group was compared with the chemical composition of the stones. Stones with entirely discernible circumference and homogeneous internal echo on US had high bilirubin and low cholesterol content. Acoustic shadows were frequently absent with those stones. Stones with variable internal echo on US had relatively high cholesterol content but their distribution range were wide. There was no correlationship between the cholesterol content and the CT No. of the gallstones. There was positive correlationship between the calcium content and the CT No. of gallstones. The near totally calcified gallstones had very low cholesterol and high residue content. There was no relationship between the calcification type and the ultrasonographic pattern. In conclusion, those stones with entirely discernible circumference and homogeneous internal echo on US were pigment stones. On the contrary, stones with variable internal echo had relatively high cholesterol content. CT could predict the calcium content with CT No., but could not predict the cholesterol content

  9. Relative measurement of heavy elements in the bile gallbladder and gallstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, K.; Vatankhah, S.; Salimi, J.

    2006-01-01

    Particle Induced X-Ray Emission is a suitable method for the analysis of biological samples in which heavy trace elements are contained in light matrix elements. It is very important to know which factors or probably elements act as initial seed and lead to growing the sands. The goal of this study was to compare the relative values of Fe/K, Cu/K and Zn/K for gallstones, gallbladder, and bile of a specific patient for studying the origination of forming the gallstones. Materials and Methods Human gallbladder, bile, and gallstone samples were obtained by surgical operation from 15 patients and are bombarded by 2.0 MeV energy proton beams produced by van de Graaff accelerator in vacuum. All .. the gallstones were chosen of pigment type of stones and, all the patients were adults. In contrast with conventional methods, the shell and center of the sands has been analyzed separately. The PIXE spectrum analysis was performed using the nonlinear least square fitting code AXIL and GUPIX. Results: The results of detected minor and trace elements shows that the precipitation of calcium salt in the bile lead to reduction of crystals' formation. Elemental comparison of pigment type of gallstone and bile shows that the concentration of calcium in the shell of the stones is four times more than that in the bile. Conclusion: Precipitation of the calcium from the saturated bile on the cholesterols as a seed of gallstones led to reduced sands formation. Analysis of the gallbladder of the same patients revealed no relation between elemental concentrations of bile and gallstones

  10. Gallstones in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With prevalence of 10–20% in adults in developed countries, gallstone disease (GSD is one of the most prevalent and costly gastrointestinal tract disorders in the world. In addition to gallstone disease, chronic liver disease (CLD is also an important global public health problem. The reported frequency of gallstone in chronic liver disease tends to be higher. The prevalence of gallstone disease might be related to age, gender, etiology, and severity of liver disease in patients with chronic liver disease. In this review, the aim was to identify the epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment strategies of gallstone disease in chronic liver disease patients.

  11. New insights into the metal partitioning in different microphases of human gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Annika; Roman-Alpiste, Manuel Jesús; Marchesi, Claudio; Suárez-Grau, Juan Manuel; Pérez-López, Rafael

    2017-12-01

    Chronic metal exposure, e.g. from metal mining, may cause accumulation of metals in soft and hard tissues, and in developing biomineralizations in the human body. Gallstones are biomineralizations formed in the gallbladder which are able to trap trace elements from the bile. Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to analyze gallstone cross-sections to trace the elemental abundances and correlate them with the principal phases constituting gallstones, namely cholesterol, Ca bilirubinate salts, Ca carbonate, and Ca phosphate. Five different types of gallstones (pure, mixed, and composite cholesterol stones, pigment stone, and carbonate stone) were chosen according to a previous classification based on phase characterization by different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. These data were combined with bulk solution ICP-MS/OES analyses for total elemental concentrations. The results indicated that cholesterol has a zero capacity to retain elements except for Ca. Hence, pure cholesterol stones contained the lowest bulk metal concentrations, and the metals were found in the scarce carbonate and phosphate phases in these calculi. Calcium and trace element concentrations increased in other types of gallstones along with increasing amount of bilirubinate, carbonates and phosphates; pigment stones being the most enriched in metals. Phosphates were the principal carriers of Ca, P, Na, Mg, Mn, Fe, Pb, and Cd, whereas carbonate phases were enriched in Ca, Mg, Na, and Mn in order of decreasing abundance. Bilirubinate on the other hand was enriched in Ca, Cu, Ag, and Ni. The higher trace metal affinities of bilirubinate and phosphate explain the elevated metal concentrations observed in the pigment stones. These results give new insight to the trace metal behavior in the gallstone formation and the metal accumulation in the human body, validating the possible use of these biomineralizations as a proxy for exposure to metal

  12. Incidence of gallstone disease and complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to describe the epidemiology of gallstone disease in the era of ultrasound screening and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent general population cohorts, including ultrasound screenings, have contributed to our understanding...... of formation and clinical course of gallstone disease. Cohorts of symptomatic gallstone disease have been informative about symptom recurrence and need of treatment. Preventive targets for gallstone formation may include obesity and the associated metabolic changes. The presence of gallstone disease is best...... described as a continuum from asymptomatic to symptomatic disease, with the latter including both pain attacks and complicated disease. Symptomatic disease causes a persistent high risk of symptom recurrence and need of cholecystectomy. The majority of gallstone carriers will remain asymptomatic and about...

  13. Seperation, identification and analysis of pigment (melanin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine strains among 180 Streptomyces isolates produce a diffusible dark brown pigment on both peptone-yeast extract agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar. They also show the positive reaction to Ltyrosine or L-dopa substrates. The pigment has been referred to be as merely as dark brown watersoluble pigment, as melanoid or ...

  14. Bouveret syndrome: gallstone ileus of the duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Zachary P; Love, Katie; Marilley, Mark D; Bower, Curtis E

    2012-10-01

    This is a case of a 59-year-old woman with Bouveret syndrome. An initial endoscopic approach to management is described. Gallstone ileus occurs when a gallstone passes from a cholecystoduodenal fistula or a choledochoduodenal fistula into the gastrointestinal tract and causes obstruction, usually at the ileocecal valve. Bouveret syndrome is a variant of gallstone ileus where the gallstone lodges in the duodenum or pylorus causing a gastric outlet obstruction. The endoscopic and surgical management of this process are important to keep in mind and may be evolving as endoscopic therapies improve.

  15. Gallstones | Njeze | Nigerian Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gallstone disease is a worldwide medical problem, but the incidence rates show substantial geographical variation, with the lowest rates reported in African populations. Publications in English language on gallstones which were obtained from reprint requests and PubMed database formed the basis for this paper.

  16. Correlation between chemical components of billary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, Prasheeda; Garg, Pradeep; Pundir, Chandra S.

    2005-01-01

    Total cholesterol, total bilirubin, calcium, oxalate, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium and potassium were analyzed quantitatively in gallstones, bile of gall bladder and sera of 200 patients of cholelithiasis (52 cholesterol, 76 mixed and 72 pigment stone patients) and their contents were correlated between calculi and bile and sera and bile in these three type of stone patients. A significant positive correlation was observed between total cholesterol, total bilirubin of ...

  17. Cholesterol gallstones and bile host diverse bacterial communities with potential to promote the formation of gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuhong; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yongkang; Nie, Yuanyang; Xu, Peilun; Xia, Baixue; Tian, Fuzhou; Sun, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cholesterol gallstones has increased in recent years. Bacterial infection correlates with the formation of gallstones. We studied the composition and function of bacterial communities in cholesterol gallstones and bile from 22 cholesterol gallstone patients using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Altogether fourteen and eight bacterial genera were detected in cholesterol gallstones and bile, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant bacteria in both cholesterol gallstones and bile. As judged by diversity indices, hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis, the bacterial communities in gallstones were different from those in bile. The gallstone microbiome was considered more stable than that of bile. The different microbial communities may be partially explained by differences in their habitats. We found that 30% of the culturable strains from cholesterol gallstones secreted β-glucuronidase and phospholipase A2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains showed the highest β-glucuronidase activity and produced the highest concentration of phospholipase A2, indicating that Ps. aeruginosa may be a major agent in the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative study of sodium and potassium in different types of gallstones and in serum of subjects with gallstones and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Soomro, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease). It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p<0.05) between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.5). Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subject, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05) concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects. The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects. (author)

  19. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  20. A case-control study of gallstones: a major risk factor for biliary tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Kato, K; Akai, S; Tominaga, S

    1990-01-01

    Because of the strong association between gallstones and biliary tract cancer, we conducted a case-control study of gallstones at Niigata Cancer Center Hospital. Eighty-six cases with gallstones (33 males and 53 females) and 116 hospital controls (56 males and 60 females) were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Gallstones were categorized into cholesterol stones (25 cases) and pigment stones (30 cases) based on the appearance of the stones. In multivariate analyses based on an unconditional logistic regression model, the risk of total gallstones was positively associated with a taste for salty food (relative risk (RR) = 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-4.84), an intake of lettuce and cabbage (RR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.47-6.06) and a family history of biliary diseases (RR = 5.63, 95% CI: 1.76-17.95), and inversely associated with an intake of salted and dried fish (RR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.04-0.64). When analyzed by type of stones, cholesterol stones were associated with a taste for oily food (RR = 3.87, 95% CI: 1.36-11.03) and pigment stones were positively associated with professional or administrative occupation (RR = 4.74, 95% CI: 1.35-16.68) and inversely associated with a taste for less greasy food (RR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.10-0.83). Some of these results are consistent with the results of our previous study on biliary tract cancer.

  1. Analysis of human gallstones by FTIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, Naseem A.; Khand, Fateh D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the composition of gallstones removed from patients in Southern Sindh, Pakistan. 109 gallstone samples surgically removed from as many patients (98 females and 11 males; age range 20 to 80 years) admitted for treatment in Liaquat University hospital, Jamshsoro during 2000 to 2003, were analyzed for composition by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. 74 (67.9%) of the 109 gallstone samples were found to be pure cholesterol stones, 5 (4.6%) pure calcium carbonate stones, 13 (11.9%) cholesterol + calcium carbonate, 10 (9.2%) cholesterol + bilirubin and 07 (6.4%) calcium bilirubinate stones. In mixed composition gallstones cholesterol was concentrated more at periphery than in the center of stone. Cholesterol either singly (67.9%) or in combination with either calcium carbonate (11.9%) or bilirubin (9.2%) was the most predominant component of gallstones. Analysis of gallstones based on FTIR suggests that cholesterol either singly or in combination with either calcium carbonate or bilirubin is the most predominant component of gallstones from Southern Sindh, Pakistan. (author)

  2. New determinants for gallstone disease?
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted

    2018-02-01

    Gallstone disease is highly prevalent in Denmark and other countries of northern Europe, and cholecystectomy for the treatment of clinical gallstone disease is one the most frequently performed surgical procedures. Research efforts for the identification of mechanisms involved in gallstone formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified until now. However, much of this research on determinants for gallstone disease has been hampered by insufficient study designs and by insufficient assessment of gallstone disease by only assessing the selected minority of people with clinical gallstone disease. 
In a Danish general-population cohort screened for gallstone disease with multiple ultrasound examinations, it was possible to both confirm previously identified determinants and to identify new determinants for gallstone disease. Temporal associations for incident gallstone disease and female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and inverse associations for increasing alcohol consumption and cessation of hormone replacement therapy in females were confirmed. New determinants included testosterone and increase in SHBG in males which had directly and inverse associations with incident gallstone disease, respectively. All of the identified determinants for incident gallstone disease found in this thesis can be linked to the three biological mechanisms of gallstone formation.
Other modifiable factors such as tobacco smoking, coffee consumption, dietary habits, physical activity, and blood pressure were not identified as determinants of incident gallstone disease in this thesis. Previous findings from other studies may be hampered by study design without exploration of temporal associations or due to selective assessment of

  3. Bile acid synthesis is increased in Chilean Hispanics with gallstones and in gallstone high-risk Mapuche Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gälman, Cecilia; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Pérez, Rosa Maria; Einarsson, Curt; Ståhle, Lars; Marshall, Guillermo; Nervi, Flavio; Rudling, Mats

    2004-03-01

    Gallstone disease is an important, costly health-care problem in Western societies. It is still unclear whether hepatic lipid regulatory enzymes play primary or secondary roles in gallstone formation. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is increased in gallstone disease and to test whether such a metabolic change, if present, might occur before gallstone formation. A total of 125 Chilean Hispanic women (80 without gallstones and 45 with gallstones) matched for age and body mass index were investigated, along with 40 Chilean Mapuche Indian women (20 without gallstones and 20 with gallstones), a population group in which the prevalence for gallstone disease is very high. Fasting blood plasma samples were assayed for 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and lathosterol, 2 strong indicators for hepatic bile acid and body cholesterol synthesis, respectively. Plasma 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels, corrected for plasma cholesterol, were significantly increased by 50% in Hispanic women with gallstones as compared with gallstone-free Hispanics (P or =100% (P Mapuche Indian women, independently of whether gallstones were present. Plasma lathosterol, corrected for plasma cholesterol, was significantly increased by 22% in Hispanic women with gallstones and in Mapuche Indian women compared with Hispanic women. The results indicate that the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is induced in gallstone disease and precedes gallstone development. These inductions presumably occur as a response to an increased intestinal loss of bile acids.

  4. New determinants for gallstone disease?


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted

    2018-01-01

    screened for gallstone disease with multiple ultrasound examinations, it was possible to both confirm previously identified determinants and to identify new determinants for gallstone disease. Temporal associations for incident gallstone disease and female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and inverse...... is the self-reported exposures which may cause misclassification bias. If explored in future studies, assessment of lifestyle habits should include objective measures in order to contribute any further to existing evidence on determinants for gallstone disease.
Associations for biomarkers of insulin...... formation have a long history and the most established include bile cholesterol saturation, gallbladder motor function, and the enterohepatic circulation of secondary bile salts produced by fecal microbiota. A small number of determinants that are believed to affect these mechanisms have been identified...

  5. Shock-wave lithotripsy of gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, W.E.; Baumgartner, B.R.; Nelson, R.C.; Morris, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the American Dornier MPL-9000 gallstone study on the effectiveness and safety of biliary extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and, in a prospective double blind manner, the need for ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). At our institution, 174 symptomatic patients with gallstones (149 with noncalcified stones and 25 with calcified stones) were randomized to receive UDCA or placebo for 6 months. The gallstones were fragmented in 171/174 patients (98%). Evaluation by ultrasound was done at 6 weeks following ESWL; retreatment was done on 42/174 patients for fragments larger than 5 mm. Cholecystectomy was done in 6/174 patients. The 6- and 12- month stone-free rates were noncalcified stones + UDCA, 31% and 41%; noncalcified stones + placebo, 24% and 15%; calcified gallstones, 8% and 8%

  6. Limitations of CT in the prediction of gallstone composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, J.A.; Mueller, P.R.; Simeone, J.F.; Prien, E.L.; Saini, S.; Tung, G.; Ferrucci, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    Gallstones from 87 patients were harvested at cholecystectomy and selected for thin-section specimen CT and crystallographic analysis. A peripheral rim of density different from the center of the stone was noted in 32 (37%) of 87. The relative attenuations (HU) of the stone rim and stone core were recorded as the difference in attenuation from that of the distilled water bath. The correlation of these measurements with the percent cholesterol content in both the rim and core were poor (r = .57, 0.34, respectively). This paper reports the predictive ability of CT examined by defining predominantly cholesterol stones as having a relative core HV ≥ (62 of 87) and core cholesterol content ≥ 80% (59 of 87). Ct correctly predicted the composition as predominantly cholesterol or pigment in 68 of 87 (78%)

  7. An extended chemical analysis of gallstone

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, P.; Kuchhal, N. K.; Garg, P.; Pundir, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical composition of gall stones is essential for aetiopathogensis of gallstone disease. We have reported quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol bilirubin, calcium, iron and inorganic phosphate in 120 gallstones from haryana. To extend this chemical analysis of gall stones by studying more cases and by analyzing more chemical constituents. A quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol, total bilirubin, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, bile acids, soluble prot...

  8. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 155. Jackson PG, Evans SRT. Biliary system. In: Townsend CM ... 65. Review Date 4/19/2017 Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The ...

  9. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...

  10. Comparative studies of trace elements in two kinds of human gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatankhah, S.; Moosavi, K.; Peyrovan, H.; Salimi, J.

    2003-01-01

    Structural composition of 11 trace elements with Z greater than 13 (Al, P, Si, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, I) was analyzed for the two main groups of human gallstones according to their cholesterol and pigment types by PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission). In both types of stones, the shell and the center were analyzed separately. The gallstones were obtained from 12 patients in wide age group from 22 to 78 years of age during surgical operation. The results show relatively higher values of heavy elements for ages greater than 40. The values of phosphorus in cholesterol type stones are significantly higher than in those of pigment stones. The concentration of calcium in the center of stones is large in comparison with that in the shells. In this paper, a correlation between stone structure and trace elemental concentration has been presented. Comparison of the two essential types of stones (cholesterol and pigment) shows that the center of the pigment stones is very similar to that of the cholesterol type. (author)

  11. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...

  12. Gallstone fragmentation by control electrohydraulic lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, G.A.; Mueller, P.R.; Brink, J.A.; Saini, S.; Picus, D.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have performed in vitro contact electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) of 100 gallstones > 10 mm in diameter to identify physical and technical factors that affect fragmentation success. Ninety-one of 100 stones were fragmented with a 3-F electrode (average, seven shocks; range, 1--42); only 12 stones were fragmented with a single shock. Of the nine stones refractory to 50 shocks, four were > 30 mm in diameter and five stones were densely calcified. The most important variable determining power requirements for fragmentation was gallstone size (R = .58), but radiographic calcification of gallstones was also important (R = .47). Stones < 15 mm tended to produce fragments of left-angle 2 mm; stones right-angle 20 mm tended to produce two to five large discrete fragments (P , .05). In addition, lithotripsy could be conducted equally well in 1:1 dilute diatrizoate contrast agent as in 1:6 normal saline, suggesting that contact EHL could be performed under fluoroscopy

  13. Correlation between chemical components of billary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Prasheeda; Garg, Pradeep; Pundir, Chandra S

    2005-07-01

    Total cholesterol, total bilirubin, calcium, oxalate, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium and potassium were analyzed quantitatively in gallstones, bile of gall bladder and sera of 200 patients of cholelithiasis (52 cholesterol, 76 mixed and 72 pigment stone patients) and their contents were correlated between calculi and bile and sera and bile in these three type of stone patients. A significant positive correlation was observed between total cholesterol, total bilirubin of calculi and bile, copper of bile and sera of cholesterol stone patients, copper of calculi and bile, total bilirubin, oxalate, magnesium, potassium of sera and bile of pigment stone patients and oxalate and iron of stone and bile, total bilirubin, oxalate, sodium of sera and bile of mixed stone patients. A significant negative correlation was found between magnesium of serum and bile of cholesterol stone patients, oxalate of calculi and bile of pigment stone patients and magnesium of serum and bile of mixed stone patients.

  14. Sonographic demonstration of a gallstone ileus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uebel, H.E.; Wilhelm, F.

    1987-01-01

    A woman of 60 years of age with acute abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation and radiological signs of small bowel obstruction was subjected to sonographic examination. Careful examination of the entire abdomen demonstrated a hyperechoic object within the distended terminal ileum with an intensive acoustic shadow. The gallbladder was not visible. This strongly suggested gallstone ileus, especially since the patient had a history of gallbladder disease. She was treated immediately by enterotomy and extraction of a noncalcified obstructing stone. The value of ultrasound in detecting gallstones causing small bowel obstruction is discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. Sonographic demonstration of a gallstone ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uebel, H.E.; Wilhelm, F.

    1987-04-01

    A woman of 60 years of age with acute abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation and radiological signs of small bowel obstruction was subjected to sonographic examination. Careful examination of the entire abdomen demonstrated a hyperechoic object within the distended terminal ileum with an intensive acoustic shadow. The gallbladder was not visible. This strongly suggested gallstone ileus, especially since the patient had a history of gallbladder disease. She was treated immediately by enterotomy and extraction of a noncalcified obstructing stone. The value of ultrasound in detecting gallstones causing small bowel obstruction is discussed.

  16. Postmenopausal Estrogen Therapy and Risk of Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maja Hellfritzsch; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female gender and increasing age are key risk factors for gallstone disease; therefore, postmenopausal women are at high risk. Estrogen increases cholesterol saturation of bile and may further increase gallstone risk, but population-based evidence is sparse. OBJECTIVE: Our objective......, and parity. RESULTS: We identified 16,386 cases with gallstone disease and 163,860 controls. A total of 1,425 cases (8.7 %) and 8,930 controls (5.4 %) were current estrogen users, yielding an adjusted OR for gallstone disease of 1.74 (95 % CI 1.64-1.85) compared with non-users. The corresponding adjusted...

  17. Analysis of heterogeneous gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Brij Bir S; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Jitendra; Rai, Pradeep K; Gondal, Mohammed A; Gondal, Bilal; Singh, Vivek K

    2016-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, no specific sample preparation requirements, non-destructiveness, and versatility. It has been proven to be a robust elemental analysis tool attracting interest because of being applied to a wide range of materials including biomaterials. In this paper, we have performed spectroscopic studies on gallstones which are heterogeneous in nature using LIBS and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) techniques. It has been observed that the presence and relative concentrations of trace elements in different kind of gallstones (cholesterol and pigment gallstones) can easily be determined using LIBS technique. From the experiments carried out on gallstones for trace elemental mapping and detection, it was found that LIBS is a robust tool for such biomedical applications. The stone samples studied in the present paper were classified using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. WD-XRF spectroscopy has been applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major and trace elements present in the gallstone which was compared with the LIBS data. The results obtained in the present paper show interesting prospects for LIBS and WD-XRF to study cholelithiasis better.

  18. New strategies for the treatment of gallstone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulemans, Y. C. A.; Venneman, N. G.; Gouma, D. J.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic gallstones are generally accepted as being the indication for cholecystectomy. Generally, severe abdominal pain in epigastrium and in the right upper abdominal quadrant, and lasting for more than 15 min, is thought to be caused by gallstones. However, many patients with other

  19. Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, T J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J

    2017-06-01

    Previous small studies have shown either no difference or a lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. This study examined the incidence of symptomatic gallstone disease in a cohort of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians, and investigated the associations between nutrient intake and risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. The data were analysed from 49 652 adults enroled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study, one-third of whom were vegetarian. The linked databases of hospital records were used to identify incident cases. Risk by diet group was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Further analysis quantified risk by intakes of selected macronutrients. There were 1182 cases of symptomatic gallstone disease during 687 822 person-years of follow-up (mean=13.85 years). There was a large significant association between increasing body mass index (BMI) and risk of developing symptomatic gallstone disease (overall trend Pvegetarians had a moderately increased risk compared with non-vegetarians (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06-1.41; P=0.006). Although starch consumption was positively associated with gallstones risk (P=0.002 for trend), it did not explain the increased risk in vegetarians. There is a highly significant association of increased BMI with risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. After adjusting for BMI, there is a small but statistically significant positive association between vegetarian diet and symptomatic gallstone disease.

  20. Increased Risk of Gallstone Disease Following Colectomy for Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, Anders; Brandsborg, Søren; Laurberg, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Objectives:Biochemical studies suggest that patients who have had a colectomy or restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) are at an increased risk of developing gallstone disease, but epidemiological studies are lacking. We evaluated the risk of gallstone disease follo...

  1. Screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Skaaby, Tea; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about temporal associations for screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease is limited. The objective of this study was to determine if screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy was associated with development of cardiovascular disease. A cohort study of three...... of cardiovascular disease through nationwide registers until December 2014. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed including traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and apolipoprotein E genotype. Gallstone disease was identified in 10% (591/5928) of participants at baseline of whom 6.8% had...... gallstones and 3.2% had cholecystectomy. The study population was followed for a period of 32 years with only 1% lost to follow-up. Gallstone disease was associated with all cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio (HR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.17;1.59]) and to the subgroups coronary artery (HR 1...

  2. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaater, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

  3. Gallbladder microbiota variability in Colombian gallstones patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, Ariel Antonio; Carvajal-Restrepo, Hernan; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan Margot; Diaz-Rodriguez, Sergio; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2017-03-31

    Gallbladder stones are a very frequently occurring condition. Despite bile bactericidal activity, many bacteria have been detected inside the gallbladder, and gallstones facilitate their presence. Between 3% and 5% of the patients with Salmonella spp. infection develop the carrier stage, with the bacteria persisting inside the gallbladder, shedding bacteria in their feces without signs of infection. The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria from Colombian patients with gallstones, using standard culturing methods, and to identify Salmonella spp. carriers by molecular techniques. A total of 149 patients (120 female and 29 male) diagnosed with gallstones who underwent cholecystectomy and who did not have symptoms of acute inflammation were included. Gallbladder tissue and bile were cultured and used for DNA extraction and Salmonella spp. hilA gene detection. Of the 149 patients 28 (19%) had positive cultures. Twenty-one (75%) patients with positive cultures were from Medellin's metropolitan area. In this geographical location, the most frequent isolations were Pseudomonas spp. (38%), Klebsiella spp. (23%), and Proteus spp. (9%) in addition to unique cases of other bacteria. In Apartado, the isolates found were Enterobacter cloacae (50%), Raoultella terrigena (32%), and both Enterobacter cloacae and Raoultella terrigena were isolated in one (18%) male patient. Five (3.3%) of the 149 patients had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for the hilA gene of Salmonella spp., all of whom were female and residents of the Medellín metropolitan area. The gallbladder microbiota variability found could be related to geographical, ethnic, and environmental conditions.

  4. Gallstone disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus-the link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olokoba, A.B.; Bojuwoye, B.J.; Olokoba, K.B.; Braimoh, K.T.; Inikori, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the factors predisposing patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus to gallstone disease. One hundred type 2 diabetic patients and 100 age and gender-matched controls underwent real time ultrasonography to study factors predisposing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to gallstone disease. The age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes mellitus and serum lipids were determined in the individuals enrolled for the study. Fifteen percent of the diabetic patients had ultrasound evidence of gallstone disease as compared to 7% in non-diabetic controls. There was a steady increase in the incidence of gallstone disease in diabetic patients with age with a peak incidence in the seventh decade i.e. 60-69 years, and a decline in the eighth decade i.e. 70 - 79 years. The average age of the diabetic patients with gallstone disease - 59.1+ 9.5 years was significantly higher than in those without gallstone disease - 51.8 + 10.5 years (p 0.014). The mean duration of disease in the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was 5.0 + 4.9 years compared with 4.5 + 3.8 years in the diabetic patients without gallstone disease (p=0.772). The mean serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels - 4.3 + 1.3 mmol/L and 1.5 + 0.8 mmol/L respectively in the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was higher than in those without gallstone disease - 3.4 + 0.5 mmol/L (p=0.0941) and 1.4 + 0.7 mmol/L (p=0.712) respectively. The mean body mass index for the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was 26.2 + 5.5 kg /m 2 compared with 25.7 + 6.7 kg/m2 in those without gallstone disease (p=0.755) . Increasing age is a risk factor for gallstone disease in diabetic patients. Hyperlipidaemia, female gender, heavier weight and a longer duration of diabetes mellitus appear to be associated risk factors. (author)

  5. Association between thyroid function and gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry V(o)lzke; Daniel M Robinson; Ulrich John

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate those associations using data of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania.METHODS: A study population of 3 749 residents aged 20-79 years without previously diagnosed thyroid disease was available for analyses. Serum TSH was used to assess thyroid function. Cholelithiasis was defined by either a prior history of cholecystectomy or the presence of gallstones on ultrasound. Logistic regression was performed to analyze independent associations between thyroid function and cholelithiasis.RESULTS: There were 385 persons (10.3%) with low (<0.3 mIU/L), 3 321 persons (88.6%) with normal and 43 persons (1.2%) with high serum TSH levels (>3 mIU/L).The proportion of cholelithiasis among males and females was 14.4% and 25.3%, respectively. Among males, there was an independent relation between high serum TSH and cholelithiasis (OR 3.77; 95%-CI 1.06-13.41; ,P<0.05). zAlso among males, there was a tendency towards an elevated risk of cholelithiasis in persons with low serum TSH (OR 1.40; 95%-CI 0.96-2.02; P = 0.07). In the female population, no such relation was identified.CONCLUSION: There is an association between thyroid and gallstone disease with a gender-specific relation between hypothyroidism and cholelithiasis.

  6. Radiation absorption, water content and contrast medium impregnation of gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Gallstones extracted by surgery were examined for CT density, which was compared with the X-ray film, floating performance and chemical analysis of the stones. So far, the water content of the biliary concrements - 14% on the average - has not been given much attention. Drying will considerably reduce the density; examination of the dried gallstones yields a false picture of direct ray absorption. Pure cholesterol stones do not float in water, and they show positive values on Hounsfield's scale (+30 - +60). The article discusses the question whether CT is suitable for effecting a better selection of gallstone patients who can be treated by drug therapy. (orig.) [de

  7. The development of Gallstone solvent temperature adaptive PID control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; BING; QIAO; BO; YAN

    2012-01-01

    The paper expatiated the work principle,general project,and the control part of the corresponding program of the temperature system in the gallstone dissolving instrument.Gallstone dissolving instrument adopts automatic control solvent cycle of direct solution stone treatment,replacing the traditional external shock wave rock row stone and gallblad-der surgery method.PID control system to realize the gall stone solvent temperature intelligent control,the basic principle of work is as solvent temperature below the set temperature,the relay control heater to solvent to be heated,conversely,no heating,achieve better able to dissolve the the rapeutic effect of gallstones.

  8. Gallstone Ileus: An Unlikely Cause of Mechanical Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Abich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is a rare disease that accounts for 1–4% of intestinal obstructions. Almost exclusively a condition in the older female population, it is a difficult diagnosis to make. We report the case of gallstone ileus in a 94-year-old Caucasian female, who presented to the emergency department with acute-onset nausea, coffee-ground emesis, lack of bowel movement, and abdominal distension. On CT scan, the diagnosis of gallstone ileus was made by the presence of a cholecystoduodenal fistula, pneumobilia, and small bowel obstruction. Emergent laparotomy with a one-stage procedure of enterolithotomy and stone removal by milking the bowel distal to the stone were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful until postoperative day 4 when the patient was found tachycardic, lethargic, and unresponsive. We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of gallstone ileus.

  9. gallstone disease: a call to awareness in subsaharan africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gallstone disease (GSD) is a major global health problem that causes high ... common causes of upper gastrointestinal morbidity and may mimic / be associated ... gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenitis; acute and chronic pancreatitis, ...

  10. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Pleural Fistula in Gallstone Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-abdominal complications of pancreatitis such as pancreaticopleural fistulae are rare. A pancreaticopleural fistula occurs when inflammation of the pancreas and pancreatic ductal disruption lead to leakage of secretions through a fistulous tract into the thorax. The underlying aetiology in the majority of cases is alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis is often delayed given that the majority of patients present with pulmonary symptoms and frequently have large, persistent pleural effusions. The diagnosis is confirmed through imaging and the detection of significantly elevated amylase levels in the pleural exudate. Treatment options include somatostatin analogues, thoracocentesis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP with pancreatic duct stenting, and surgery. The authors present a case of pancreatic pseudocyst pleural fistula in a woman with gallstone pancreatitis presenting with recurrent pneumonias and bilateral pleural effusions.

  11. Study of different concentric rings inside gallstones with LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Rai, Nilesh Kumar; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar; Rai, Pradeep Kumar; Rai, Pramod Kumar; Rai, Suman; Baruah, G D

    2011-07-01

    Gallstones obtained from patients from the north-east region of India (Assam) were studied using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. LIBS spectra of the different layers (in cross-section) of the gallstones were recorded in the spectral region 200-900 nm. Several elements, including calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, silicon, phosphorus, iron, sodium and potassium, were detected in the gallstones. Lighter elements, including carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen were also detected, which demonstrates the superiority of the LIBS technique over other existing analytical techniques. The LIBS technique was applied to investigate the evolution of C(2) swan bands and CN violet bands in the LIBS spectra of the gallstones in air and an argon atmosphere. The different layers (dark and light layers) of the gallstones were discriminated on the basis of the presence and intensities of the spectral lines for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and copper. An attempt was also made to correlate the presence of major and minor elements in the gallstones with the common diet of the population of Assam.

  12. Determinants for Clinical Events in Gallstone Carriers Unaware of their Gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted Shabanzadeh, Daniel; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    , vocational training, and inversely association to a higher physical activity level when compared to being sedentary. Multiple adjusted models confirmed association for total events and body mass index and for complicated events and physical activity. No significant associations were identified for alcohol......, coffee, diet, smoking, or visits to general practitioner and clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: Body mass index, vocational training, and physical activity level were associated to clinical events in long-term follow-up of unaware gallstone carriers. Future trials should investigate clinical effects...

  13. Same-admission versus interval cholecystectomy for mild gallstone pancreatitis (PONCHO): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, D.W. da; Bouwense, S.A.; Schepers, N.J.; Besselink, M.G.; Santvoort, H.C. van; Brunschot, S. van; Bakker, O.J.; Bollen, T.L.; Dejong, C.H.; Goor, H. van; Boermeester, M.A.; Bruno, M.J.; Eijck, C.H. van; Timmer, R.; Weusten, B.L.; Consten, E.C.; Brink, M.A.; Spanier, B.W.; Bilgen, E.J.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Hofker, H.S.; Rosman, C.; Voorburg, A.M.; Bosscha, K.; Duijvendijk, P. van; Gerritsen, J.J.; Heisterkamp, J.; Hingh, I.H. de; Witteman, B.J.; Kruyt, P.M.; Scheepers, J.J.; Molenaar, I.Q.; Schaapherder, A.F.; Manusama, E.R.; Waaij, L.A. van der; Unen, J. van; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Ramshorst, B. van; Gooszen, H.G.; Boerma, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis, cholecystectomy during the same hospital admission might reduce the risk of recurrent gallstone-related complications, compared with the more commonly used strategy of interval cholecystectomy. However, evidence to support same-admission

  14. Same-admission versus interval cholecystectomy for mild gallstone pancreatitis (PONCHO): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Costa, David W.; Bouwense, Stefan A.; Schepers, Nicolien J.; Besselink, Marc G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J.; Bollen, Thomas L.; Dejong, Cornelis H.; van Goor, Harry; Boermeester, Marja A.; Bruno, Marco J.; van Eijck, Casper H.; Timmer, Robin; Weusten, Bas L.; Consten, Esther C.; Brink, Menno A.; Spanier, B. W. Marcel; Bilgen, Ernst Jan Spillenaar; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Hofker, H. Sijbrand; Rosman, Camiel; Voorburg, Annet M.; Bosscha, Koop; van Duijvendijk, Peter; Gerritsen, Jos J.; Heisterkamp, Joos; de Hingh, Ignace H.; Witteman, Ben J.; Kruyt, Philip M.; Scheepers, Joris J.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; Manusama, Eric R.; van der Waaij, Laurens A.; van Unen, Jacco; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; van Ramshorst, Bert; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boerma, Djamila

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis, cholecystectomy during the same hospital admission might reduce the risk of recurrent gallstone-related complications, compared with the more commonly used strategy of interval cholecystectomy. However, evidence to support same-admission

  15. Same-admission versus interval cholecystectomy for mild gallstone pancreatitis (PONCHO) : A multicentre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Costa, David W.; Bouwense, Stefan A.; Schepers, Nicolien J.; Besselink, Marc G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J.; Bollen, Thomas L.; Dejong, Cornelis H.; Van Goor, Harry; Boermeester, Marja A.; Bruno, Marco J.; Van Eijck, Casper H.; Timmer, Robin; Weusten, Bas L.; Consten, Esther C.; Brink, Menno A.; Spanier, B. W Marcel; Bilgen, Ernst Jan Spillenaar; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Hofker, H. Sijbrand; Rosman, Camiel; Voorburg, Annet M.; Bosscha, Koop; Van Duijvendijk, Peter; Gerritsen, Jos J.; Heisterkamp, Joos; De Hingh, Ignace H.; Witteman, Ben J.; Kruyt, Philip M.; Scheepers, Joris J.; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; Manusama, Eric R.; Van Der Waaij, Laurens A.; Van Unen, Jacco; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Van Ramshorst, Bert; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boerma, Djamila

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis, cholecystectomy during the same hospital admission might reduce the risk of recurrent gallstone-related complications, compared with the more commonly used strategy of interval cholecystectomy. However, evidence to support same-admission

  16. Changes in Gallbladder Motility and Gallstone Formation Following Laparoscopic Gastric Banding for Morbid Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal O Al-Jiffry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbid obesity is associated with cholesterol gallstone formation, a risk compounded by rapid weight loss. Laparoscopic gastric banding allows for a measured rate of weight loss, but the subsequent risk for developing gallstones is unknown.

  17. The Assessment of Natural Pigmentation in Archaeological Wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, Annemette Bruselius

    2018-01-01

    Naturally coloured wool contains pigment grains that mainly occur as ellipsoidal organelles (eumelanin) or spher¬ical grains (pheomelanin). Eumelanin is the most commonly occurring pigment, but naturally coloured wool fi¬bres contain both eumelanin and pheomelanin. In black and brown wool....... This can especially be the case if the pigments are degraded. When analysing the textiles from Lønne Hede (a Danish Iron Age inhumation grave), it was difficult to gain exact information about the natural pigmentation in some of the samples. To investigate this further, four samples of red-brown yarns from...... patterned fragments were selected for analyses. Earlier dyestuff analyses of the red-brown yarns gave no results, and it was therefore necessary to test the yarns for natural pigmentation. Three different methods were used for the analy¬ses. Transmitted light microscopy of whole mounts of the fibres...

  18. Lifestyle and gallstone disease: Scope for primary prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Materials and Methods: Cases (n = 150 from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150 were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. Results : Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P 60 years was relatively more susceptible (28%. Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%. Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05. Conclusion : Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention.

  19. Current Views on Genetics and Epigenetics of Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Di Ciaula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol gallstone disease, one of the commonest digestive diseases in western countries, is induced by an imbalance in cholesterol metabolism, which involves intestinal absorption, hepatic biosynthesis, and biliary output of cholesterol, and its conversion to bile acids. Several components of the metabolic syndrome (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia are also well-known risk factors for gallstones, suggesting the existence of interplay between common pathophysiological pathways influenced by insulin resistance, genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Cholesterol gallstones may be enhanced, at least in part, by the abnormal expression of a set of the genes that affect cholesterol homeostasis and lead to insulin resistance. Additionally, epigenetic mechanisms (mainly DNA methylation, histone acetylation/deacetylation, and noncoding microRNAs may modify gene expression in the absence of an altered DNA sequence, in response to different lithogenic environmental stimuli, such as diet, lifestyle, pollutants, also occurring in utero before birth. In this review, we will comment on various steps of the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones and interaction between environmental and genetic factors. The epigenomic approach may offer new options for therapy of gallstones and better possibilities for primary prevention in subjects at risk.

  20. Influence of gallstones and ursodeoxycholic acid therapy on gallbladder emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacs, I.C.; Maisey, M.N.; Murphy, G.M.; Dowling, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Altered gallbladder motility could predispose to, or result from, gallstone formation and could also explain the alleged relief of biliary colic seen during bile acid therapy. Therefore, in 14 controls, 25 patients with radiolucent gallstones, and 14 patients with radiopaque gallstones, the authors used two techniques to measure gallbladder contraction--radionuclide imaging and real-time ultrasound--in response to one of two stimuli--a Lundh meal or intravenous cholecystokinin-octapeptide. Using the radionuclide technique, postprandial gallbladder emptying (t1/2) was prolonged both in patients with radiopaque and radiolucent gallstones when compared with controls. In patients with radiolucent stones, the t1/2 of gallbladder emptying became further prolonged after 1 mo of therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid. A similar pattern of results was seen after cholecystokinin-octapeptide and also with real-time ultrasound. Thus, after both stimuli and using two independent techniques, gallbladder contraction was reduced in patients with gallstones. The slower and less complete gallbladder emptying with ursotherapy might explain the reduction in biliary colic noted during treatment

  1. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and roentgenographic study in 134 asymptomatic gallstone carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirussi, F.; Passera, D.; Iemmolo, R.M.; Nassuato, G.; Okolicsanyi, L.

    1993-01-01

    The authors investigated retrospectively the ultrasonographic and roentgenographic characteristics of the gallstones and the gallbladder in 134 symtom-free carriers and evaluated prospectively the outcome and side effects of 6 to 24 months' ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) therapy in 36 individuals with silent stones. Two-thirds of the 134 subjects had multiple stones, and 71 to 75% had stones less than 15 mm in diameter. Gallstone calcification was detected in 13%. A non-functioning gallbladder was observed in 19%, whereas gallbladder contraction was normal in 64 of 76 gallstone carriers. With regard to oral bile acid treatment, complete and partial dissolutions were achieved in 7 and 9 of 33 subjects, respectively (48.5%). Development of a non-functioning gallbladder occurred in 9%, and acquired gallstone calcification was seen in another 15%. It is concluded that: i) the characteristics of the gallstones and the gallbladder are similar to those observed in symptomatic patients, and ii) UDCA therapy may be given in selected symptom-free carriers for no more than 6 to 12 months. Thereafter, it does not appear to be cost-effective. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Optimal timing of cholecystectomy in children with gallstone pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badru, Faidah; Saxena, Saurabh; Breeden, Robert; Bourdillon, Maximillan; Fitzpatrick, Colleen; Chatoorgoon, Kaveer; Greenspon, Jose; Villalona, Gustavo

    2017-07-01

    Little data exist regarding the recurrence of pancreatitis in pediatric patients with gallstone pancreatitis awaiting cholecystectomy. This study evaluates the recurrence rate of pancreatitis after acute gallstone pancreatitis based on the timing of cholecystectomy in pediatric patients. A retrospective chart review of all patients admitted with gallstone pancreatitis from 2007 to 2015 was performed. Children were divided into the following five groups. Group 1 had surgery during the index admission. Group 2 had surgery within 2 wk of discharge. Group 3 had surgery between 2 and 6 wk postdischarge. Group 4 had surgery 6 wk after discharge, and group 5 patients had no surgery. The recurrence rates of pancreatitis were calculated for all groups. Forty-eight patients with gallstone pancreatitis were identified in this study. The 19 patients in group 1 had no recurrence of their pancreatitis. Of the remaining 29 patients, nine (31%) had recurrence of pancreatitis or required readmission for abdominal pain prior to their cholecystectomy. In group 2, two of the eight patients (25%) had recurrent pancreatitis. In group 3, three of eight patients (37.5%) developed recurrent pancreatitis. In group 4, three of five patients (60%), and in group 5, one of eight. No children in group 5 had demonstrable gallstones at presentation, only sludge in their gallbladder. Cholecystectomy during the index admission is associated with no recurrence or readmission for pancreatitis. Therefore, we recommend that cholecystectomy be performed after resolution of an episode of gallstone pancreatitis during index admission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of gallstones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, H R; Lebensart, P D; Muggia-Sullam, M; Durst, A L

    1989-08-01

    We performed 16 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsies (ESWL) to fragment gallstones in 11 women and 2 men, aged 19 to 57 (mean 41 +/- 10) years, during the past 10 months. Criteria for selection included a history of biliary colic, not more than 3 stones with a total diameter of not more than 30 mm, and a functioning gallbladder. 210 patients were examined, of whom 98 were referred for additional screening by combined ultrasonography and oral cholecystography. This resulted in rejection of another 71 patients due to multiple stones (38%), nonfunctioning gallbladder (22%), calcified stones (12%), stones not visualized in the prone position (9%), excessively large stones (3%) and other reasons (16%). Only 27 patients fulfilled all the criteria. Under epidural or general anesthesia (11 and 2 patients, respectively), we administered 1200-3500 (mean 2250 +/- 750) shock waves at 20-24 KV with the Tripter X1 (Direx, Israel-USA). This is an ultrasound-guided, modular portable, shock-wave generator utilizing underwater high energy spark discharge. Chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acid, 10 mg/kg/day, was started 1 week prior to ESWL and continued for 3 months after disappearance of fragments and debris. We encountered skin petechiae in all patients, transient hematuria in 8, mild biliary colic in 1 and a small liver hematoma in 1. To date, 3 patients are free of stones, while in 7 only sludge and tiny fragments are present which we expect to disappear as a result of the litholytic therapy. 3 patients had fragments larger than 5 mm and required a second ESWL. Thus ESWL, which was indicated in only 13% of screened patients, proved to be safe and can be expected to be successful in 75% of selected candidates.

  4. Coat pigmentation effects in West African Dwarf goats: live weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although coat pigmentation had no significant effect on all the body dimensions studied except leg length, it was observed that the white and or tan goats had the largest frame size on the average followed by the brown (Bbl) goats. They however, had shorter legs when compared with either 1he brown or black goals.

  5. Association Between Screen-Detected Gallstone Disease and Cancer in a Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    , sigmoid colon, and rectal cancers were not associated with gallstone disease. Breast cancer had a weak association with gallstone disease depending on other factors (10.6% of patients with gallstone disease vs 7.41% without; hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-2.11). Pooled...... ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.01). Right-side colon cancer was also associated with gallstone disease (2.57% of patients with gallstone disease vs 0.96% without; hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.78). Pancreatic, esophageal, gastric, pooled colorectal, left-side colon...... nongastrointestinal and prostate cancers were not associated with gallstone disease. Conclusions: Screen-detected gallstone disease in the general population is associated with pooled gastrointestinal and right-side colon cancers. These associations are not due to detection bias or cholecystectomy. Further studies...

  6. Development of a duodenal gallstone ileus with gastric outlet obstruction (Bouveret syndrome four months after successful treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease with cholecystitis and cholangitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnekendonk Guido

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cases of gallstone ileus account for 1% to 4% of all instances of mechanical bowel obstruction. The majority of obstructing gallstones are located in the terminal ileum. Less than 10% of impacted gallstones are located in the duodenum. A gastric outlet obstruction secondary to a gallstone ileus is known as Bouveret syndrome. Gallstones usually enter the bowel through a biliary enteral fistula. Little is known about the formation of such fistulae in the course of gallstone disease. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian woman born in Germany with a gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone ileus (Bouveret syndrome, with a large gallstone impacted in the third part of the duodenum. Diagnostic investigations of our patient included plain abdominal films, gastroscopy and abdominal computed tomography, which showed a biliary enteric fistula between the gallbladder and the duodenal bulb. Our patient was successfully treated by laparotomy, duodenotomy, extraction of the stone, cholecystectomy, and resection of the fistula in a one-stage surgical approach. Histopathological examination showed chronic and acute cholecystitis, with perforated ulceration of the duodenal wall and acute purulent inflammation of the surrounding fatty tissue. Four months prior to developing a gallstone ileus our patient had been hospitalized for cholecystitis, a large gallstone in the gallbladder, cholangitis and a small obstructing gallstone in the common biliary duct. She had been treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, balloon extraction of the common biliary duct gallstone, and intravenous antibiotics. At the time of her first presentation, abdominal ultrasound and endoscopic examination (including esophagogastroduodenoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography had not shown any evidence of a biliary enteral fistula. In the four months preceding the

  7. Gingival pigmentation beneath a metallic crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Hirayasu, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclosed that the essential cause of gingival discoloration following the placement of a metallic crown, was marked deposition of melanin pigment. Deposition of melanin pigment was observed in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and in fibroblasts, macrophages and among intercellular ground substance of the proprial layer. Brown or dark brown colored granules were observed in the deep portion of the proprial layer. Some metallic elements as silver and sulfur were detected. It was presumed that these materials were dental metals accidentally implanted in gingival tissues during the therapeutic procedure. The deposition of melanin pigment closely corresponded with mucosal tissue where these materials were present in the deep portion of the proprial layer. These findings suggested that these materials influenced the physiological metabolism of melanin and induced its pathological deposition in the proprial tissue. (author)

  8. A single centre case series of gallstone sigmoid ileus management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Farkas

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This is the first case series highlighting the differing strategies and challenges faced by clinicians managing gallstone sigmoid ileus. Conservative measures (including manual evacuation, endoscopy, lithotripsy and surgery all play important roles in relieving large bowel obstruction. It is essential to tailor care to individual patients’ needs given the complexities of this potentially life threatening condition.

  9. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  10. Vitamin D and gallstone disease-A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    sample. Determinants of vitamin D status were also explored. A random sample of 4130 people from the population of Copenhagen with ages 41–71 years were invited (N = 4130) and 2650 participants were included. Ultrasound examinations were performed to assess gallstone status and blood samples were drawn...... to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D and biomarkers of renal and hepatic function. Gallstone disease was found in 422 participants. Associations were estimated by logistic regression models. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was not significantly associated with gallstone disease. Time of birth during low vitamin D....... Findings suggest gallstones to be associated to low vitamin D exposure in utero and to renal failure suggesting that vitamin D might have an impact on gallstone disease. Future studies should explore associations for vitamin D and gallstone disease prospectively....

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Serum Lipid Profile in Gallstone Patients and Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Soomro, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible role of serum lipid profile in gallstone formation. For this serum lipid profile such as total, free and bound cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and total lipids were determined in 109 gallstone patients and 100 controls (matched for age, sex and with negative personal or family history of gallstones) treated at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Pakistan. Comparison for serum lipid profile between different groups of gallstone patients and controls revealed no significant variation except for the triacylglycerols and total lipids, which were differed significantly between females of up to 45 and above 45 years age. Comparison for serum lipid profile between pure cholesterol and mixed composition gallstone formers showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between the two groups. The serum lipid profile significantly varied between gallstone patients and controls except bound cholesterol level. Comparison of total cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and total lipids between gallstone patients and controls revealed that there was a significant difference between gallstone patients and controls for (a) females with or without gallstones, (b) females of up to 45 years age and (c) females having more than 3 children. HDL cholesterol is significantly decreased in all the groups of gallstone patients as compared to controls, whereas, bound cholesterol remained non significant in all the groups of gallstone patients when compared with controls. In conclusion, elevated serum total cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols and decreased levels of HDL cholesterol seem to play major contributing role in the pathogenesis of gallstones in females of up to 45 years age with more than three children. (author)

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of gallstones in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Hricak, H.; Margulis, A.R.; Bernhoft, R.; Way, L.W.; Filly, R.A.; Crooks, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging characteristics of gallstones of various composition from 36 patients were studied in vitro using a spin-echo imaging technique. The majority of gallstones (83%) produced no measurable NMR signal despite having a mean water content of 12% and a mean cholesterol content of 61%. Six (17%) of the stones had a weak but measurable signal in the center of the stone, which was thought to represent signal from water in clefts or pores within the stones. The mean water and cholesterol content of the stones with measurable signal did not differ significantly from that of stones with no signal. A possible explanation for these findings, based on the known NMR characteristics of solid materials, is offered

  13. Determination of cholesterol, calcium carbonate and bilirubinate of gallstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Y.; Nazneen, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    Gallstones of seven patients were collected from different parts of North West Frontier and Punjab provinces. These stones were analyzed using Liebermann-Burchard method, estimation technique and Microlab-200 for cholesterol, calcium carbonate (CaCO/sub 3/) and bilirubinate respectively. The levels of cholesterol bilirubinate and CaCO/sub 3/ were found in the ranges of 50-81, 12-40 and 7-19% respectively. All of the stones were found to be mixed type stones that contain cholesterol, bilirubinate and calcium carbonate. The structures of the stones are also shown in the picture, which confirm our analysis data. Possible reasons, which cause formation of gallstones, are discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. A Prediction Rule for Risk Stratification of Incidentally Discovered Gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    % confidence interval [CI], 1.45-3.69), acute cholecystitis (HR, 9.49; 95% CI, 2.05-43.92), and uncomplicated events (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.38-4.71), including cholecystectomy (HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.29-5.60). Multiple stones were associated with all events (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81), complicated events (HR, 2...... the highest risk for events (HR, 11.05; 95% CI, 3.76-32.44; unadjusted absolute risk, 0.0235 events/person-years). CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than 20% of subjects with gallstones develop clinical events. Larger, multiple, and older gallstones are associated with events. Further studies are needed to confirm...

  15. Percutaneous Dissolution of Gallstones using Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Radiolucent cholesterol gallstones can be dissolved rapidly by methyl terc-buryl ether (MTBE) introduced directly into the gallbladder. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter placement is a well established interventional radiology procedure and is the preferred route for MTBE administration. A small number of patients have been treated using nasobiliary placement of a gallbladder catheter. Rapid stirring automatic pump systems allow dissolution of most cholesterol stones, but s...

  16. Solution of a gallstone with methyl-tertiary butyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H J; Roeren, T; Holstege, A; Raedecke, J

    1987-08-01

    Methyl-t-butyl ether is a new agent to dissolve gallstones. The substance proves to be very successful and acts very rapidly. A percutaneous transhepatic drainage supplies an adequate access route to dissolve calculi within the bile ducts. We report the case of a patient where before insertion of an internal stent a stone in the common bile duct was dissolved within 3 1/2 hours.

  17. Chemical nature and distribution of calcium compounds in radiolucent gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, D.K.; Choudhuri, G.; Kumar, J.

    1993-01-01

    A high failure rate for radiolucent cholesterol gallstones to dissolve with oral bile acids may be due to the presence of insoluble calcium compounds. Twenty sets of radiolucent gallstones, 7-20 mm in diameter, obtained from 20 patients undergoing cholecystectomy, were cut, and the outer surface, outer rim, middle portion, and central core areas were scanned for calcium by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scrapings from the four areas of each stone were analysed by infrared spectroscopy. A sample of the crushed stone was used for chemical estimation of cholesterol. 11 of the 20 cholesterol stones showed presence of calcium by EDX; the distribution was peripheral in 5, homogeneous in 4, and central in 2. The chemical compound was calcium bilirubinate in 10 and calcium carbonate in 8 stones. Calcium compounds are present in a high proportion of radiolucent gallstones considered suitable for chemodissolution by conventional criteria. Their unrecognized presence may explain the high failure rate of such stones to respond to medical therapy. 20 refs., 3 figs

  18. Methods of chemical and phase composition analysis of gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, E. I.; Pantushev, V. V.; Voloshin, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    This review presents the instrumental methods used for chemical and phase composition investigation of gallstones. A great body of data has been collected in the literature on the presence of elements and their concentrations, obtained by fluorescence microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, proton (particle) induced X-ray emission, atomic absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, electron paramagnetic resonance. Structural methods—powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy—provide information about organic and inorganic phases in gallstones. Stone morphology was studied at the macrolevel with optical microscopy. Results obtained by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry are discussed. The chemical composition and structure of gallstones determine the strategy of removing stone from the body and treatment of patients: surgery or dissolution in the body. Therefore one chapter of the review describes the potential of dissolution methods. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the disease depend on the development of clinical methods for in vivo investigation, which gave grounds to present the main characteristics and potential of ultrasonography (ultrasound scanning), magnetic resonance imaging, and X-ray computed tomography.

  19. Microbiology of bile in symptomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Akhtar, M.R.; Akhtar, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the microbiology of the bile culture and antimicrobial susceptibility in patients with symptomatic gallstone disease in our setup. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Department Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian from Oct, 2010 to Jun, 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 106 patients underwent cholecystectomy due to symptomatic gallstones and their bile was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and culture sensitivity was performed. Data was analysed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 13. Results: Bile culture was negative in 81 patients (76.4%) and was positive in only 25 patients (23.6%). Escheria Coli was the most common cultured organism in 10 (40%) patients, Klebsiella in 5 (20%) patients, Pseudomonas in 5 (20%) patients, Proteus in 2 (8%) patients, Staphlococcus aureus in 2 (8%) patients and mixed organisms were cultured in 1 patient (4%). Cefoperazone with sulbactum and Amikacin were the most effective prophylactic antibiotics. Conclusion: Bile in majority of patients with symtomatic uncomplicated gallstone disease is sterile. E. coli is the most commonly cultured organism and cefoperazone with sulbactum and amikacin are the most appropriate antibiotics in our setup. (author)

  20. Ursodeoxycholic acid improves gastrointestinal motility defects in gallstone patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colecchia, A; Mazzella, G; Sandri, L; Azzaroli, F; Magliuolo, M; Simoni, P; Bacchi-Reggiani, ML; Roda, E; Festi, D

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To simultaneously evaluate the presence of defects in gallbladder and gastric emptying, as well as in intestinal transit in gallstone patients (GS) and the effect of chronic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) administration on these parameters and on serum bile acids and clinical outcome in GS and controls (CTR). METHODS: After a standard liquid test meal, gallbla-dder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound), oroileal transit time (OITT) (by an immunoenzymatic technique) and serum bile acids (by HPLC) were evaluated before and after 3 mo of UDCA (12 mg/kg bw/d) or placebo administration in 10 symptomatic GS and 10 matched healthy CTR. RESULTS: OITT was longer in GS than in CTR (P < 0.0001); UDCA significantly reduced OITT in GS (P < 0.0001), but not in CTR. GS had longer gastric half-emptying time (t1/2) than CTR (P < 0.0044) at baseline; after UDCA, t1/2 significantly decreased (P < 0.006) in GS but not in CTR. Placebo administration had no effect on gastric emptying and intestinal transit in both GS and CTR. CONCLUSION: The gallstone patient has simultaneous multiple impairments of gallbladder and gastric emptying, as well as of intestinal transit. UDCA administration restores these defects in GS, without any effect in CTR. These results confirm the pathogenetic role of gastrointestinal motility in gallstone disease and suggest an additional mechanism of action for UDCA in reducing bile cholesterol supersaturation. PMID:16981264

  1. Pigment and terracotta analyses of Hellenistic figurines in Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.

    2003-01-01

    The results of the analyses performed on blue, black, brown, orange, white and purple pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, excavated in a rock-cut tomb in the archaeological zone of Chania, Crete, Greece, are presented. Different spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence identified the compounds present in the chromatic layers. X-ray diffraction analysis gave complementary information and further support to the spectral assignments. Optical microscopy revealed the nature and sequence of the pigmented layer on the terracotta. Several precious pigments, such as Egyptian blue for the bluish areas, Tyrian purple for the purple ones, and the rare huntite for the white-pigmented areas were identified among the studied pigmented areas. The pigment analysis provides information on the technical aspects related to terracotta manufacture and preservation, and promotes historical indications on cultural and commercial changes among the Mediterranean civilisations

  2. Randomized, Prospective Comparison of Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Prevention of Gallstones after Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lindsay B; Chang, Craig; Pope, Janet; Kim, Yeonsoo; Liu, Pei; Yates, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have examined the role of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) for the prevention of cholelithiasis (gallstones) following rapid weight loss from restrictive diets, vertical band gastroplasty, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, to date, there have been no prospective, controlled studies examining the role of UDCA for the prevention of gallstones following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of UDCA for prevention of gallstones after SG. Following SG, eligible patients were randomized to a control group who did not receive UDCA treatment or to a group who were prescribed 300 mg UDCA twice daily for 6 months. Gallbladder ultrasounds were performed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Patients with positive findings preoperatively were excluded from the study. Compliance with UDCA was assessed. Between December 2011 and April 2013, 37 patients were randomized to the UDCA treatment arm and 38 patients were randomized to no treatment. At baseline, the two groups were similar. At 6 months, the UDCA group had a statistically significant lower incidence of gallstones (p = 0.032). Analysis revealed no significant difference in gallstones between the two groups at 1 year (p = 0.553 and p = 0.962, respectively). The overall gallstone formation rate was 29.8%. The incidence of gallstones is higher than previously estimated in SG patients. UDCA significantly lowers the gallstone formation rate at 6 months postoperatively.

  3. Extreme Bilirubin Levels as a Causal Risk Factor for Symptomatic Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-01-01

    In individuals without blockage of their bile ducts, levels of plasma bilirubin likely reflect levels of biliary bilirubin; higher biliary bilirubin levels may increase the risk of gallstone disease.......In individuals without blockage of their bile ducts, levels of plasma bilirubin likely reflect levels of biliary bilirubin; higher biliary bilirubin levels may increase the risk of gallstone disease....

  4. Known risk factors do not explain disparities in gallstone prevalence between Denmark and northeast Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Nele; Völzke, Henry; Hampe, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Gallstones are a common disease worldwide, with disparities in the prevalence of the disease in different settings. The aim of the present study was to assess if different distributions of risk factors could explain the disparities in the prevalence of gallstone disease between Denmark...... and northeast Germany. METHODS: Data of 5,559 subjects from the Danish MONICA survey and of 3,647 subjects of the German Study of Health in Pomerania were investigated. Gallstone disease was defined as a prior history of cholecystectomy or the presence of sonographically diagnosed gallstones. Logistic...... regression models were performed to assess the confounding effect of selected risk factors on regional disparities in gallstone disease. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and vocational training, German subjects (women: Odds ratio, OR, 2.46 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.07-2.91); men: OR, 1.89 (95% CI: 1...

  5. Characterization of free and bound fatty acids in human gallstones by capillary gas liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Khand, F.D.; Noorani, M.A.; Bhanger, M.I.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-four human gallstone samples either of pure cholesterol or cholesterol and bilirubin were randomly selected and analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography for the relative percentage composition of free and total fatty acids. The results showed that bound fatty acids were present in higher amounts than the free fatty acids. Amongst the bound fatty acids the percentage occurrence for palmitic acid was highest followed by stearic, oleic, linoleic and myristic acids. Fatty acids myristic, palmitic and linoleic were present in higher amounts in cholesterol gallstones, whereas stearic acid in cholesterol and bilirubin gallstones. When compared, no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the levels of free and bound fatty acids were seen in gallstones of males and females. The results suggest that bound fatty acids have a role to play in the structure of gallstones. (author)

  6. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  7. Preventing a Mass Disease: The Case of Gallstones Disease: Role and Competence for Family Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portincasa, Piero; Di Ciaula, Agostino; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2016-07-01

    Gallstone formation is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors. We searched and reviewed the available literature to define how the primary prevention of gallstones (cholesterol gallstones in particular) could be applied in general practice. Electronic bibliographical databases were searched. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case-controlled studies were analyzed and graded for evidence quality. The epidemiological data confirmed that genetic factors are estimated to account for only approximately 25% of the overall risk of gallstones, while metabolic/environmental factors are at least partially modifiable in stone-free risk groups, and are thus modifiable by primary prevention measures related to diet, lifestyle, and environmental factors (i.e., rapid weight loss, bariatric surgery, somatostatin or analogues therapy, transient gallbladder stasis, and hormone therapy). There is no specific recommendation for the secondary prevention of recurrent gallstones. Family physicians can contribute to preventing gallstones due to their capability to identify and effectively manage several risk factors discussed in this study. Although further studies are needed to better elucidate the involvement of epigenetic factors that may regulate the effect of environment and lifestyle on gene expression in the primary prevention of gallstone formation, preventive interventions are feasible and advisable in the general practice setting.

  8. Indications for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy or Oral Dissolution Therapy with Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Symptomatic Gallstone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cariati

    2014-06-01

    A large Danish study has shown that high bilirubin plasma levels and the genetic variant rs6742078 TT of the enzyme bilirubin glucuronidase UGT1A1 are associated with an increased risk of developing symptomatic gallstone disease. Recent reports regarding the significant association between bilirubin levels and symptomatic gallstone disease open a new chapter about the indication and exclusion criteria for oral dissolution therapy of symptomatic gallstone disease. A highly select subgroup of patients with small, single, radiolucent cholesterol gallstones who received oral dissolution therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA had a reported recurrence of symptomatic gallstone disease of 50% over five years. This is probably related to the persistence of other causal risk factors for gallstones in addition to that of cholesterol suprasaturation. A subgroup of patients with high plasma bilirubin levels and the UGT1A1 genetic variant rs6742078 have a greater risk of recurrence. In conclusion, oral dissolution therapy with UDCA might still be appropriate for patients that refuse laparoscopic cholecystectomy provided they have small (< 0.5 cm, radiolucent cholesterol gallstones and a functioning gallbladder, and have mean plasma bilirubin levels below 1.33 mg/dL and are not homozygous for the UGT1A1 rs6742078 TT genotype. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 161-165

  9. Update on dissolution of gallstones with methyl-tert-butyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Sonnenberg, E.; D'Agostino, H.B.; Hofmann, A.F.; Casola, G.; Varney, R.R.; Jinich, H.; Steingart, C.; McQuade, K.; Hoyt, D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have studied 50 patients who underwent percutaneous MTBE dissolution of gallstones with or without supplemental basketing. All patients had symptomatic gallbladder or ductal stones. Five patients underwent emergency gallbladder drainage for acute calculous cholecystitis; after recovery, their gallstones were dissolved or removed. The other 45 patients had elective gallstone dissolution; preliminary studies on these patients included plain film, US, oral cholecystography, and CT. Follow-up studies were chromatography, US, and cholecystography. Three patients underwent cholecystectomy after MTBE treatment; no averse effects of MTBE were seen histologically. Three patients had stone recurrence. The majority of patients were placed on ursodeoxycholic acid after stone dissolution

  10. Browns Ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1986, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a ''watch list'' of power reactors requiring special attention which included the three BWR units at Brown's Ferry owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The reactors has been closed down voluntarily by the TVA in 1985 in order to deal with a backlog of maintenance and regulatory issues. Intended as short-term, the shutdown was indefinitely extended when the nature and extent of the design changes, accompanying documentation and retrofitting required to satisfy the NRC became apparent. The recovery programme for Unit 2 was completed by 1991 and the reactor returned to service under a dedicated operating staff. Meanwhile, a separate, dedicated, recovery team was set up to manage Unit 3 which was returned to service in December 1995. Browns Ferry 2 was removed from the NRC watch list in June 1992 and Units 1 and 3 in June 1996. Units 2 and 3 have both operated successfully since restart but Unit 1 is currently mothballed and TVA has no plans to bring it back into service. (UK)

  11. Are incident gallstones associated to sex-dependent changes with age? A cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, D M; Holmboe, S A; Sørensen, L T

    2017-01-01

    Age and female sex have repeatedly been identified as gallstone determinants but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. The objectives of this study were to determine if changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were associated with incident gallstones. A cohort...... pressure, blood lipids, self-rated health), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, dietary habits, physical activity level), and indices of reproductive function (number of births, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, male reproductive hormones) were explored in females...... (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.90; 0.98]) and the cessation of hormone replacement therapy (OR 0.29, 95% CI [0.10; 0.83]) inversely determined incident gallstones. In males, increasing levels of SHBG (OR 0.97, 95% CI [0.94; 0.998]) inversely determined incident gallstones. Other changes...

  12. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Nuclear Receptor Function and Cholesterol Gallstone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Carmen Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol gallstone disease is highly prevalent in western countries, particularly in women and some specific ethnic groups. The formation of water-insoluble cholesterol crystals is due to a misbalance between the three major lipids present in the bile: cholesterol, bile salts, and phospholipids. Many proteins implicated in biliary lipid secretion in the liver are regulated by several transcription factors, including nuclear receptors LXR and FXR. Human and murine genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, and pharmacological evidence is consistent with the relevance of these nuclear receptors in gallstone formation. In addition, there is emerging data that also suggests a role for estrogen receptor ESR1 in abnormal cholesterol metabolism leading to gallstone disease. A better comprehension of the role of nuclear receptor function in gallstone formation may help to design new and more effective therapeutic strategies for this highly prevalent disease condition.

  13. Relevance of hereditary defects in lipid transport proteins for the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Venneman, N. G.; Portincasa, P.; Kosters, A.; van Erpecum, K. J.; Groen, A. K.

    2004-01-01

    In the formation of cholesterol gallstones, cholesterol hypersecretion into bile causing cholesterol supersaturation and crystallization appears to be the primary factor, with disturbed gallbladder and intestinal motility as secondary factors. Although intestinal uptake mechanisms have not yet been

  14. Decreased Retinol Binding Protein 4 Concentrations are Associated With Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Nien Wang

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: Circulating RBP4 decreases in cholesterol gallstone disease independent of renal function. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between liver function and RBP4 levels in these patients.

  15. On the growth rate of gallstones in the human gallbladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, I.

    1993-05-01

    The growth rate of a single symmetrically oval shaped gallbladder stone weighing 10.8 g was recorded over a period of six years before surgery and removal. The length of the stone was measured by ultrasonography and the growth rate was found to be linear with time, with a value of 0.4 mm/year. A smaller stone growing in the wall of the gallbladder was detected only three years before removal and grew at a rate of ˜ 1.33 mm/year. The morphology and metallic ion chemical composition of the large stone and of a randomly selected small stone weighing about 1.1 g, extracted from another patient, were analyzed and compared. It was found that the large stone contained besides calcium also lead, whereas the small stone contained mainly calcium. It is possible that the lead causes a difference in mechanism between the growth of a single large and growth of multiple small gallstones.

  16. Preoperative prediction model of outcome after cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Anderson, I B; Bardram, L

    1999-01-01

    and sonography evaluated gallbladder motility, gallstones, and gallbladder volume. Preoperative variables in patients with or without postcholecystectomy pain were compared statistically, and significant variables were combined in a logistic regression model to predict the postoperative outcome. RESULTS: Eighty...... and by the absence of 'agonizing' pain and of symptoms coinciding with pain (P model 15 of 18 predicted patients had postoperative pain (PVpos = 0.83). Of 62 patients predicted as having no pain postoperatively, 56 were pain-free (PVneg = 0.90). Overall accuracy...... was 89%. CONCLUSION: From this prospective study a model based on preoperative symptoms was developed to predict postcholecystectomy pain. Since intrastudy reclassification may give too optimistic results, the model should be validated in future studies....

  17. Pigment Production on L-Tryptophan Medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaskes, Stuart; Cammer, Michael; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da) from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular) or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin. PMID:24736553

  18. Pigment production on L-tryptophan medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaskes, Stuart; Cammer, Michael; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da) from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular) or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin.

  19. Pigment production on L-tryptophan medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Chaskes

    Full Text Available In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin.

  20. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HYPOTHYROIDISM IN DIAGNOSED CASE OF GALLSTONE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sundareswar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Disturbances in lipid metabolism, which occur during hypothyroidism lead to the formation of gallstones. This study aims to evaluate the thyroid function pattern in patients with gallstones. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and gallstone disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 patients admitted as inpatients for management of gallstone disease in Department of General Surgery, GRH, Madurai, between September 2014 to August 2015 were evaluated with details of cases, full history, clinical examination, symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism (loss of appetite, gaining weight, tiredness, constipation, cold intolerance, menstrual disturbances, bradycardia, presence or absence of goiter, etc. and investigations (USG abdomen, USG neck, thyroid function test (T3, T4, TSH. Patients are divided according to history, clinical examination, USG neck and lab estimation of T3, T4 and TSH. 1. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Symptom free patient with TSH concentration above upper limit of normal range and T3/T4 or both decrease below normal limit. 2. Clinical Hypothyroidism: In which, there are symptoms of hypothyroidism with TSH level above the upper limit and T3/T4 or both decrease below normal limit. 3. Euthyroid Group: Where clinical and lab tests are within normal range (all these groups may present with or without goiter. RESULTS This study included 200 gallstone patients who were studied prospectively over a period of 1 year from September 2014 to August 2015. Among them, 18 patients had subclinical hypothyroidism and 6 patients had clinical hypothyroidism. A total of 12% of gallstone patients were diagnosed to have hypothyroidism showing that there is association of hypothyroidism with gallstone disease. CONCLUSION Thyroid dysfunction is more common among patients with gallstones and it maybe a risk factor for biliary stone formation. This may be attributed to the absence of the pro-relaxing effects of

  1. Systematic review with meta-analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y-P; Li, W-Q; Sun, Y-L; Zhu, R-T; Wang, W-J

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on coffee consumption reducing the risk of gallstone disease has been contradictory. To perform a meta-analysis of observational studies, to investigate an association and dose-response of coffee consumption with gallstone disease. We used PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify all published studies before June 2015. A random-effects model was used to compute a pooled relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). One case-control study and five prospective cohort studies (with seven cohorts) involving 227,749 participants and 11,477 gallstone disease cases were included. Coffee consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk of gallstone disease (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.89; I(2) = 35.9%), based on prospective studies; specifically, we observed an inverse relation in females, but not in males. The case-control study did not reveal any association between coffee and gallstone disease (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.53). In a dose-response analysis, the RR of gallstone disease was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.91 to 1.00; P = 0.049) per 1 cup/day of coffee consumption. A significant nonlinear dose-response association was also identified (P for nonlinearity = 0.0106). For people who drank 2, 4 and 6 cups of coffee per day, the estimated RRs of gallstone disease were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.99), 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.92) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.88), respectively, compared with the lowest level drinkers. This study suggests that coffee consumption is related to a significantly decreased risk of gallstone disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. High Prevalence of Gallstone Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A New Comorbidity Related to Dyslipidemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, María Carmen; de Lama, Eugenia; Ordoñez-Palau, Sergi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Corbella, Emili; Pintó, Xavier

    2017-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of gallstone disease and identify associated risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared to the general population. Eighty-four women with rheumatoid arthritis were included in the study. Each patient was assessed via a structured interview, physical examination, abdominal ultrasound and blood test including lipid profile. The prevalence of gallstone disease in rheumatoid arthritis was compared with data from a study of the Spanish population matched by age groups. Twenty-eight of the 84 women had gallstone disease (33.3%). RA women with and without gallstone disease were similar in most of the variables assessed, except for older age and menopausal status in the former. A greater prevalence of gallstone disease was seen in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to the general population of the same age; however, the differences were significant only in women aged 60 or older (45.5% versus 23.1% respectively, P-value .008). The age-adjusted OR of developing gallstone disease in RA women compared with general population women was 2,3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.1). A significantly higher HDL3-c subfraction and higher apoA-I/HDL and HDL3-c/TC ratios were observed in patients with gallstone disease. Women with rheumatoid arthritis may have a predisposition to gallstones that can manifest in middle or older age compared with women in the general population. This situation could be related to chronic inflammation and HDL metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  3. Gallstone ileus - the double challenge: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is a rare condition which occurs as an evolutive complication of biliary lithiasis. It occurs after stone migration from extrahepatic biliary tree to the digestive lumen, mostly through a biliary-enteric fistula. This condition involves repeated inflammatory relapses with the formation of local adhesions and generally requires a long evolution. The vast majority of patients with biliary ileus are third aged women who often have concomitant medical illnesses. Gallstone ileus surgery deals with the two components: bowel obstruction and biliary pole. Obstruction solving is approached as a surgical emergency and it requires an attitude adapted to the local situation. The attitude towards biliary surgery for gallstone ileus is a matter in debate. It could be one-stage surgery, elective surgery or expectancy and its choice is imposed by both local and general condition of the patient. We report the case of a middle-age woman whose first symptom of cholelithiasis was the gallstone ileus. Plain upright abdominal radiography revealed air-fluid levels with distended loops of the small bowel and pneumobilia. Laparotomy was decided and exploration revealed an impacted gallstone into the ileum and dense adhesions were found under the liver region. Enterolithotomy for gallstone removal was made. Postoperative evolution was uneventful with discharge on 7th day.

  4. Serum lipids coupled with menopausal status may be used as biomarkers in female gallstone patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, A.Y.; Channa, N.A.; Solangi, D.A.; Tabassum, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Females with different menopausal status are compared for serum lipids to explore the role of menopausal status in developing gallstones. Methodology: This study was conducted at Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan. A total number of 135 female gallstone patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital, Wali Bhai Rajputana Hospital, Hyderabad and other hospitals of Hyderabad, Pakistan and 170 age and gender matched control subjects were selected for the study. The serum samples of patients of different menopausal status and control group were analyzed for the lipid contents. Gallstones recovered from the patients were also analyzed for the composition by FTIR. Results: Serum total cholesterol (TC) and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly varied among all age groups while serum triglycerides (TG), serum very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and serum total lipids (TL) were found to be significantly differed among four different types of gallstone formers. Consumers of non-branded oil and non-branded ghee were found with significant lipid alterations in comparison to control group. Major lipid alterations were found in female gallstone patients with pre and peri-menopause. Conclusion: Raised serum TC, serum TG and decreased serum HDL-C in addition to pre- and peri-menopausal status may be considered as biomarkers for female gallstone patients.

  5. Thyroid dysfunction, either hyper or hypothyroidism, promotes gallstone formation by different mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Xing; Zhao, Qun-zi; Zheng, Shu; Qing, Wen-jie; Miao, Chun-di; Sanjay, Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated comprehensively the effects of thyroid function on gallstone formation in a mouse model. Gonadectomized gallstone-susceptible male C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into three groups each of which received an intervention to induce hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or euthyroidism. After 5 weeks of feeding a lithogenic diet of 15% (w/w) butter fat, 1% (w/w) cholesterol, and 0.5% (w/w) cholic acid, mice were killed for further experiments. The incidence of cholesterol monohydrate crystal formation was 100% in mice with hyperthyroidism, 83% in hypothyroidism, and 33% in euthyroidism, the differences being statistically significant. Among the hepatic lithogenic genes, Trβ was found to be up-regulated and Rxr down-regulated in the mice with hypothyroidism. In contrast, Lxrα, Rxr, and Cyp7α1 were up-regulated and Fxr down-regulated in the mice with hyperthyroidism. In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction, either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, promotes the formation of cholesterol gallstones in C57BL/6 mice. Gene expression differences suggest that thyroid hormone disturbance leads to gallstone formation in different ways. Hyperthyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by regulating expression of the hepatic nuclear receptor genes such as Lxrα and Rxr, which are significant in cholesterol metabolism pathways. However, hypothyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by promoting cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27381728

  6. Protein content in gallstone patients can be a contributing factor in cholelithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channa, N.A.; Memon, A.H.; Awan, A.Y.; Noorani, L.

    2017-01-01

    To find out the protein contents as contributing factor in the cholelithiasis patients. Methodology: The study was conducted during January 2016 to December 2016 at Institute of Biochemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. A total number of 109 cholelithiasis patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Wali Bhai Rajputana Hospital, Hyderabad and Memon Charitable Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan and 294 age and gender matched control subjects were selected for the study. The serum samples of gallstone patients and control subjects were analyzed for the total protein contents by biuret kit method, gallstones recovered from the patients were also analyzed for the protein contents by Bradford method. Results: Cholelithiasis patients showed that gallstone protein contents increased with increasing age. We found increased amount of protein contents in mixed composition of gallstones as compared to pure cholesterol gallstones. Serum protein contents were increased in patients with age group 31-45 years, followed by age group 16-30 years. Female cholelithiasis patients were found with increased serum protein contents (but within normal limits) as compared to male cholelithiasis patients. Increased protein contents were also observed in serum as well as in gallstone samples recovered from multiparous female patients in comparison to triparous female patients. Conclusion: Protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis. (author)

  7. Duodenal Obstruction by a Gallstone (Bouveret's Syndrome Managed by Endoscopic Stone Extraction: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzjosef Schweiger

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric outlet obstruction caused by a large gallstone in the duodenum or pylorus (Bouveret's syndrome is a rare complication of gallstone disease. The presenting symptoms are often nonspecific and include nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain and a history of gallbladder disease. Although the diagnosis is established only at surgery in many cases, preoperative recognition by imaging techniques and endoscopy is desirable. Surgical treatment aims at removal of the ectopic gallstone, closure of the fistula and cholecystectomy. A case of Bouveret's syndrome is presented where endoscopic extraction of the duodenal gallstone was accomplished providing definitive treatment for this patient.

  8. Influence of selected factors on browning of Camembert cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Alexandra; Dillinger, Klaus; Eliskases-Lechner, Frieda; Loureiro, Virgílio; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Rohm, Harald

    2002-05-01

    Experimental Camembert cheeses were made to investigate the effects on browning of the following factors: inoculation with Yarrowia lipolytica, the use of Penicillium candidum strains with different proteolytic activity, the addition of tyrosine, and the addition of Mn2+ thus leading to 16 different variants of cheese. Two physical colour parameters were used to describe browning, depending on the location in the cheeses: a whiteness index for the outside browning (mould mycelium), and a brownness index for the inside browning (surface of the cheese body). Mn2+ promoted a significant increase of browning at both locations, whereas Yar. lipolytica had the opposite effect. Outside browning was significantly more intense when using the Pen. candidum strain with higher proteolytic activity. A significant interaction was found between Yar. lipolytica and Pen. candidum. The yeast had no effect in combination with a low proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum, but significantly reduced proteolysis and browning in combination with a high proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum. We further confirmed that both strains of Pen. candidum were able to produce brown pigments from tyrosine and thus both are presumably responsible for the browning activity in this type of cheese.

  9. Hairless pigmented guinea pigs: a new model for the study of mammalian pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Murray, M S; Pawelek, J M

    1990-09-01

    A stock of hairless pigmented guinea pigs was developed to facilitate studies of mammalian pigmentation. This stock combines the convenience of a hairless animal with a pigmentary system that is similar to human skin. In both human and guinea pig skin, active melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. Hairless albino guinea pigs on an outbred Hartley background (CrI:IAF/HA(hr/hr)BR; designated hr/hr) were mated with red-haired guinea pigs (designated Hr/Hr). Red-haired heterozygotes from the F1 generation (Hr/hr) were then mated with each other or with hairless albino guinea pigs. The F2 generation included hairless pigmented guinea pigs that retained their interfollicular epidermal melanocytes and whose skin was red-brown in color. Following UV irradiation, there was an increase in cutaneous pigmentation as well as an increase in the number of active epidermal melanocytes. An additional strain of black hairless guinea pigs was developed using black Hr/Hr animals and a similar breeding scheme. These two strains should serve as useful models for studies of the mammalian pigment system.

  10. Complexation of cesium 137 by the cap pigments of the bay boletus (Xerocomus badius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumann, C.; Clooth, G.; Steffan, B.; Steglich, W.

    1989-01-01

    Why is 137 Cs strongly enriched in bay boletus but hardly at all in cepe? This question, which arose after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, can now be answered. It was already known that bay boletus contains the unusual pigments badione A and norbadione A in the brown pileus and that these pigments are absent in cepe. The cap pigments are present in the mushroom as potassium complexes. However, the pigments can also bind cesium. Norbadione forms a 1:1 complex with CsCl. This complex can be dissociated by exposure to a strongly acidic cation exchanger. (orig.)

  11. The effect of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the management of idiopathic gallstones in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Karami, Hasan; Barzegarnejad, Ayub

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The most common etiology for gallstones in children is hemolytic diseases; however, the prevalence of nonhemolytic gallstones, which are mostly idiopathic, is increasing. Several studies concerning the treatment of gallstones with respect to the influence of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) have been conducted in adults, but not to the same extent in children. Therefore, this study attempted to examine the effects of lithotripsy on idiopathic gallstones in children. Materials and Methods: In this study, 12 children, all of whom were under 12 years of age and diagnosed with idiopathic gallstones, were treated with ESWL. The average age of the children examined in this study was 6.5 years (range 3-11 years). Patients were treated with 2500-3000 shockwaves per session. The number of shockwaves was 90 shocks/min and the impulse intensity ranged from 10 to 12 kV. The final goal was the fragmentation of stones in pieces with less than 3 mm in dimension. Patients were followed up for 6-30 months. Results: A total of 12 patients were treated with ESWL for 14 rounds. In three patients, complete fragmentation occurred within the first trial and was cleared. The nine remaining patients underwent ESWL 10 times in which an acceptable change in the gallstone's condition was not observed. Five of the patients underwent surgery. The chemical composition of the gallstones showed that the dominant element in them was calcium. Conclusions: Our findings show that performing ESWL can be effective in some children. Further studies with larger population are recommended. Furthermore, it seems increasing the voltage intensity and frequency as conducted in adults accompanied with biliary acids prescription can be effective in children. PMID:25336804

  12. Gallstone Ileus Caused by Cholecystocolonic Fistula and Gallstone Impaction in the Sigmoid Colon: Review of the Literature and Novel Surgical Treatment with Trephine Loop Colostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. O’Brien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of intestinal obstruction and occurs following the formation of a cholecystoenteric fistula, permitting passage of gallstones into the gastrointestinal tract. Impaction of a gallstone in the sigmoid colon is rare and is usually at sites of previous colonic disease. Definitive management can be challenging due to the advanced age and co-morbidity usually seen in this group of patients. We describe a patient successfully managed with on-table endoscopy and, under local anaesthetic, the formation of a left iliac fossa trephine loop colostomy, permitting an enterolithotomy to deliver the stone whilst accommodating for severe pre-existing distal sigmoid diverticular disease. A review of the literature identified various endoscopic and surgical treatments that, depending on local expertise and patient characteristics, can be considered on a case-by-case basis. We advocate the management described in this case for patients presenting with large bowel obstruction due to gallstone ileus, with a background of diverticular disease and who are not fit for general anaesthetic or formal bowel resection, as an alternative to medical palliation alone.

  13. Cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites and pigment accumulation. ... Total reducing sugar and starch content also dropped significantly (-30 and -60%, respectively), much as NASE 14 maintained a relatively higher amount of carbohydrates. Leaf protein levels were significantly reduced at a rate of 0.07 ...

  14. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and roentgenographic study in 134 asymptomatic gallstone carriers; Is oral ursodeoxycholic acid treatment worhtwhile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lirussi, F.; Passera, D.; Iemmolo, R.M.; Nassuato, G.; Okolicsanyi, L. (Inst. of Medicine, Univ. of Parma (Italy))

    1993-03-01

    The authors investigated retrospectively the ultrasonographic and roentgenographic characteristics of the gallstones and the gallbladder in 134 symtom-free carriers and evaluated prospectively the outcome and side effects of 6 to 24 months' ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) therapy in 36 individuals with silent stones. Two-thirds of the 134 subjects had multiple stones, and 71 to 75% had stones less than 15 mm in diameter. Gallstone calcification was detected in 13%. A non-functioning gallbladder was observed in 19%, whereas gallbladder contraction was normal in 64 of 76 gallstone carriers. With regard to oral bile acid treatment, complete and partial dissolutions were achieved in 7 and 9 of 33 subjects, respectively (48.5%). Development of a non-functioning gallbladder occurred in 9%, and acquired gallstone calcification was seen in another 15%. It is concluded that: (i) the characteristics of the gallstones and the gallbladder are similar to those observed in symptomatic patients, and (ii) UDCA therapy may be given in selected symptom-free carriers for no more than 6 to 12 months. Thereafter, it does not appear to be cost-effective. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Black bile of melancholy or gallstones of biliary colics: historical perspectives on cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    Barely 130 years after its first description, cholecystectomies are among the most commonly performed surgeries in the USA. The success of this operation with subsequent technical improvements, such as laparoscopic approaches, caused a paradigm shift in the management of gallstone disease. However, symptoms persist in 10-40 % of successfully operated patients. Reviewing monographs, textbooks, and articles published during the last 300 years, several important factors emerge as likely contributors to limited or poor treatment responses. Early on, clinicians recognized that cholelithiasis is quite common and thus often an incidental finding, especially if patients present with vague or atypical symptoms. Consistent with these observations, patients with such atypical symptoms are less likely to benefit from cholecystectomy. Similarly, lasting improvements are more reliably seen in patients with symptoms of presumed biliary origin and documented gallstones compared to individuals without stones, an important point in view of increasing rates of surgery for biliary dyskinesia. While cholelithiasis can cause serious complications, the overall incidence of clinically relevant problems is so low that prophylactic cholecystectomy cannot be justified. This conclusion corresponds to epidemiologic data showing that the rise in elective cholecystectomies decreased hospitalizations due to gallstone disease, but was associated with a higher volume of postoperative complications, ultimately resulting in stable combined mortality due to gallstone disease and its treatment. These trends highlight the tremendous gains in managing gallstone disease, while at the same time reminding us that the tightening rather than expanding indications for cholecystectomy may improve outcomes.

  16. Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease and Infection with Opisthorchis felineus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Saltykova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system. This study investigated the influence of infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus on the biliary microbiome of residents of the Tomsk region of western Siberia.Samples of bile were provided by 56 study participants, half of who were infected with O. felineus, and all of who were diagnosed with gallstone disease. The microbiota of the bile was investigated using high throughput, Illumina-based sequencing targeting the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. About 2,797, discrete phylotypes of prokaryotes were detected. At the level of phylum, bile from participants with opisthorchiasis showed greater numbers of Synergistetes, Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, TM7 and Verrucomicrobia. Numbers of > 20 phylotypes differed in bile of the O. felineus-infected compared to non-infected participants, including presence of species of the genera Mycoplana, Cellulosimicrobium, Microlunatus and Phycicoccus, and the Archaeans genus, Halogeometricum, and increased numbers of Selenomonas, Bacteroides, Rothia, Leptotrichia, Lactobacillus, Treponema and Klebsiella.Overall, infection with the liver fluke O. felineus modified the biliary microbiome, increasing abundance of bacterial and archaeal phylotypes.

  17. Chlorophyll: The wonder pigment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    Chlorophyll, the green plant pigment, a 'real life force' of living beings, besides synthesizing food, is a great source of vitamins, minerals and other phytochemicals. Adding chlorophyll rich food to our diet fortifies our body against health...

  18. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  19. The influence of temperature on the color of TiO2:Cr pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes Vieira, Fagner Ticiano; Silva Melo, Danniely; Jackson Guedes de Lima, Severino; Longo, Elson; Paskocimas, Carlos Alberto; Silva Junior, Wilson; Gouveia de Souza, Antonio; Garcia dos Santos, Ieda Maria

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 :Cr brown pigments were prepared via a polymeric precursor derived from the Pechini method. The pigments were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-vis spectroscopy, and colorimetry. The increase of the calcination temperature from 700 to 1000 deg. C led to a decrease in the L* values, corresponding to darkening of the pigments. The pigments obtained in this work are darker than those produced by a solid-state reaction method reported before. The change in the pigment color is due to the anatase-rutile phase transition, which leads to a shift in the charge transfer bond (Ti 4+ ↔ O 2- ) due to a change in the crystal field around the chromophore ions. Moreover, the oxidation state of chromium was observed to change, and this also alters the color of the pigments

  20. The ABCG5/8 Cholesterol Transporter and Myocardial Infarction Versus Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study sought to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in ABCG5/8, the transporter responsible for intestinal and hepatobiliary cholesterol efflux, may simultaneously influence plasma and biliary cholesterol levels, and hence risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and gallstone...... disease in opposite directions. BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a causal risk factor for MI, whereas high levels of biliary cholesterol promote gallstone formation. METHODS: A total of 60,239 subjects from Copenhagen were included, including 5,647 with MI...... and 3,174 with symptomatic gallstone disease. Subjects were genotyped for 6 common, nonsynonymous and functional variants in ABCG5/8, and a combined weighted genotype score was calculated. RESULTS: Combined, weighted genotype scores were associated with stepwise decreases in LDL cholesterol of up to 5...

  1. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-16

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  2. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  3. Eggshell Biliverdin and Protoporphyrin Pigments in a Songbird: Are They Derived from Erythrocytes, Blood Plasma, or the Shell Gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Boross, Nóra; Hámori, Susanne; Neuberger, Eszter; Nyiri, Zoltán

    Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments. We found no significant effects of hematocrit level or experimentally elevated anemia on intensity of eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations; therefore, we consider it less likely that eggshell pigments are derived from erythrocytes. In addition, we found no significant associations between female feces biliverdin concentration during egg laying and intensity of eggshell blue-green pigmentation, suggesting that eggshell biliverdin may not originate from the spleen or liver. We found a negative association between plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations during egg laying and eggshell brown chroma. This result suggests that an increased production of protoporphyrin in the liver, which could have elevated plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations, could inhibit eggshell protoporphyrin pigmentation, probably through affecting enzymatic activities. We suggest that both pigments are produced de novo in the shell gland in the canary, but circulating pigment levels may influence shell gland pigment synthesis, thus connecting the physiological status of the female to eggshell coloration.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duck Moon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  5. The outcome of unretrieved gallstones in the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, M A; Deeik, R K; Maffi, T R; Fitzgibbons, R J

    1999-09-01

    Gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with spillage of bile and gallstones occurs in a substantial number of patients (up to 40%). Most surgeons believe that free intraperitoneal stones are not a justification for conversion to laparotomy even if a large number of stones are left in situ. There are, however, a number of reports demonstrating that, on occasion, these unretrieved gallstones may cause infection or abscess, inflammation, fibrosis, adhesions, cutaneous sinuses, small bowel obstruction, or generalized septicemia. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of unretrieved gallstones in the peritoneal cavity after gallbladder perforation during LC. In a 7-year period between 1989 and 1996, prospective data were maintained on 856 patients who underwent LCs by a single surgeon (R. J.F.). Of the 856 patients, 165 (16%) had gallbladder perforations resulting in lost gallstones in the peritoneal cavity. A concerted attempt was made to remove the lost stones using a variety of extraction devices. Of these 165 patients, 106 (64%) were available for follow-up through mail (76%) and by telephone (24%). The mean age of these patients was 64.9 years (range, 18 to 98 years), and the mean follow-up was 44.8 months (range 4.9 to 92.3 months). Of the 106 patients with unretrieved gallstones, we identified four patients with short-term complications and one patient with a long-term complication. The first patient with a short-term complication had pyrexia for 10 days postoperatively. Diagnostic evaluation, which included computed tomography (CT) scan, failed to reveal any abnormality. The patient was treated conservatively with a course of oral antibiotics. In the second patient, cellulitis developed at a drain site after its removal, which resolved with oral antibiotics. The third patient acquired an umbilical wound abscess, which drained spontaneously, requiring no treatment. A sterile subphrenic collection developed in the fourth

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kwon, Duck Moon

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  7. The prevalence and risk factors for cholelithiasis and asymptomatic gallstones in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Yumi; Toyoda, Tomohiko; Kawasoe, Yasutaka; Tateno, Shigeru; Shirai, Takeaki; Matsuo, Kozo; Mizuno, Yoshiko; Ai, Toshiji; Niwa, Koichiro

    2011-10-20

    Cyanosis is considered to be a risk factor for cholelithiasis which is an important complication of cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) in adults. In this study, the prevalence of cholelithiasis and asymptomatic calcium bilirubinate gallstones was evaluated in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Furthermore, risk factors for this potentially high risk complication were assessed. Subjects were derived from 114 consecutive congenital patients who visited our center from May 2008 to January 2009. For analyses of risk factors, we divided them into 4 groups: group A, 15 CCHD patients without reparative surgery (7 men, 31.8 ± 7.0 years old); group B, 41 CCHD patients rendered acyanotic by reparative surgery (21 men, 32.5 ± 11.8 years old); group C, 23 unoperated acyanotic CHD patients (11 men, 42.4 ± 16.4 years old); and group D, 35 patients who were acyanotic before and after operation (18 men, 36.3 ± 14.8 years old). Gallstones were identified by abdominal ultrasound and risk factors were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model. Cholecystectomy was performed in 5/114 (4.3%), asymptomatic gallstones were seen in 16/114 (14%), and symptomatic gallstones except for patients after cholecystectomy were seen in 7/114 (6.1%). In group A, 4 (27%) with gallstones underwent cholecystectomy (pnobody in group C, and 3 patients (8.6%) in group D. By a multivariate logistic regression model, CCHD by nature regardless of repair, prolonged cyanosis periods, higher frequency of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and lower platelet counts were significant factors predicting gallstones (odds ratio 4.48, 1.08, 3.96, and 0.87, 95% CI, 1.14-17.5, 1.00-1.18, 1.65-9.54, and 0.75-0.99, respectively). The prevalence of cholelithiasis and asymptomatic gallstones is significantly high in CCHD patients regardless of cardiac repairs. CCHD by nature, prolonged cyanosis durations, high frequency of CPB and low platelet counts have influences on gallstone formation in adults

  8. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  9. Two rapid pigmentation tests for identification of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, C S; Merz, W G

    1982-01-01

    Two tests were developed for the rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans based on pigment produced by the organism's phenoloxidase activity. Caffeic acid was incorporated into cornmeal agar, a medium used routinely for yeast identification. When tested on this medium, only C. neoformans isolates produced brown pigment. All other yeasts maintained their normal morphology and did not produce the reaction product. A non-medium-based test was developed for same-day identification of C. neoformans isolates. Paper strips saturated with a buffered L-beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-ferric citrate solution were inoculated with isolates and incubated at 37 degrees C. Pigment production occurred only with C. neoformans isolates, many within 60 to 90 min. All other yeasts remained negative. PMID:7040452

  10. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with optic nerve melanocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asorey-García, A; Méndez-Hernández, C D; Santos-Bueso, E; García-Feijoo, J

    2015-10-01

    A 60-year old patient was referred for cataract surgery. The examination showed retrokeratic pigment in the left eye, which had an intraocular pressure of 24 mm Hg. The funduscopy showed a brown lesion on the left optic disk, with adjacent vitreous seeding of pigment. The patient was thus diagnosed with secondary pigment dispersion syndrome due to optic disk melanocytoma. Although melanocytoma is most commonly a benign, stationary tumor, it may present with major complications leading to significant visual loss. A patient with melanocytoma of the optic disk should be examined periodically. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation degradation of molasses pigment. The fading color and product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Hiroko; Sawai, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    Water demand in Tokyo has increased rapidly. Because of the scarcity of water supply sources within the city, Tokyo is dependent on the water from other prefectures. Recycling of municipal effluent is an effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We have studied the radiation treatment of waste water for recycling. In this paper, the radiation decomposition methods for fading color of molasses pigment in the effluent from the sewage treatment plant and in the food industry wastwater were reported. The refractory organic substances (molasses pigment) in samples were degraded by gamma irradiation. The COD values decreased and the dark brown color faded with increasing dosage. The high molecular weight components of molasses pigment were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. The organic acids, such as formic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and succinic acid were measured as intermediates of radiolytic decomposition. When we added hydrogen peroxide in samples to the gamma irradiation process, the dark brown color of molasses pigment faded with greater efficiency. (author)

  12. Diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yie, Miyeon [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi, E-mail: jkm7290@empal.com [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Yul [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients who underwent a diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan for acute pancreatitis were included. The readers assessed the presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, enhancement of gallbladder (GB) and common bile duct (CBD) wall, pericholecystic fat strands, GB wall thickening, stone in the GB or CBD, and focal or diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis on abdominal CT scans. In addition, the maximal transverse luminal diameters of the GB and CBD were measured. Results: The presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, GB wall enhancement and thickening, pericholecystic fat strands, stone in the GB or CBD, and diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis achieved statistical significance for differentiation of gallstone induced pancreatitis from non-biliary pancreatitis (p < 0.05). The mean values of maximal transverse luminal diameter of GB and CBD were significantly higher in gallstone induced pancreatitis group (39.67 {+-} 7.26 mm, 10.20 {+-} 4.13 mm) than non-biliary pancreatitis group (27.01 {+-} 6.14 mm, 3.85 {+-} 2.51 mm, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Gallbladder features of CT in patients with pancreatitis could be the valuable clues for the diagnosis of gallstone induced pancreatitis.

  13. Genetic variation in the cholesterol transporter NPC1L1, ischaemic vascular disease, and gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bo Kobberø; Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    developed IVD or symptomatic gallstone disease, respectively, during follow-up from 1977 to 2013. We genotyped four common NPC1L1 variants, previously associated with reduced LDL cholesterol levels, thus mimicking the effect of ezetimibe, and calculated a weighted genotype score. With increasing genotype...

  14. Gallbladder filling and emptying during cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog. A cholescintigraphic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Ryan, T.; Broderick, W.; Way, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    We studied gallbladder bile flow before, during, and after cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog using infusion cholescintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid. In 18 fasting animals partitioning of bile between gallbladder and intestine was determined every 15 min for 140 min, and gallbladder response to cholecystokinin (5 U/kg X h) was calculated from the gallbladder ejection fraction. Ten prairie dogs were then placed on a 0.4% cholesterol diet and 8 on a regular diet, and the studies were repeated 1, 2, and 6 wk later. The proportion of hepatic bile that entered the gallbladder relative to the intestine varied from one 15-min period to the next, and averaged 28.2% +/- 5.1% at 140 min. Partial spontaneous gallbladder emptying (ejection fraction 11.5% +/- 5.6%) was intermittently observed. Neither the number nor the ejection fraction of spontaneous gallbladder contractions changed during gallstone formation. By contrast, the percent of gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin decreased from 72.1% +/- 5% to 25.9% +/- 9.3% (p less than 0.025) in the first week and was 14.3% +/- 5.5% at 6 wk (p less than 0.01 from prediet values, not significant from first week). Gallbladder filling decreased from 28.2% +/- 5.1% to 6.7% +/- 3% (p less than 0.01), but this change was only observed after 6 wk, when gallstones had formed. This study shows that bile flow into the gallbladder during fasting is not constant; the gallbladder contracts intermittently; gallbladder emptying in response to exogenous cholecystokinin is altered very early during gallstone formation; and gallbladder filling remains unaffected until later stages, when gallstones have formed

  15. Early definitive treatment rate as a quality indicator of care in acute gallstone pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Charman, S C; Palser, T

    2017-11-01

    Early definitive treatment (cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the same admission or within 2 weeks after discharge) of gallstone disease after a biliary attack of acute pancreatitis is standard of care. This study investigated whether compliance with early definitive treatment for acute gallstone pancreatitis can be used as a care quality indicator for the condition. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. All emergency admissions to National Health Service hospitals in England with a first time diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis in the financial years 2008, 2009 and 2010 were examined. Trends in early definitive treatment between hospital trusts were examined and patient morbidity outcomes were determined. During the study interval there were 19 510 patients with an overall rate of early definitive treatment at 34·7 (range 9·4-84·7) per cent. In the 1-year follow-up period, 4661 patients (23·9 per cent) had one or more emergency readmissions for complications related to gallstone pancreatitis. Of these, 2692 (57·8 per cent) were readmissions for acute pancreatitis; 911 (33·8 per cent) were within the first 2 weeks of discharge, with the remaining 1781 (66·2 per cent) occurring after the point at which definitive treatment should have been received. Early definitive treatment resulted in a 39 per cent reduction in readmission risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·58 to 0·65). The risk was further reduced for acute pancreatitis readmissions to 54 per cent in the early definitive treatment group (adjusted RR 0·46, 0·42 to 0·51). In acute gallstone pancreatitis, compliance with recommended early definitive treatment varied considerably, with associated variation in outcomes. Compliance should be used as a quality indicator to improve care. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Antibiotic activity and synergistic effect of antimicrobial peptide against pathogens from a patient with gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Park, Soon Nang; Park, Seong-Cheol; Park, Joon Yong; Park, Yong Ha; Hahm, Joon Soo; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2004-01-01

    HP (2-20) is a peptide derived from the N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein L1 that has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against various species of bacteria. When we tested the effects of HP (2-20), we found that this peptide displayed strong activity against pathogens from a patient with gallstones, but it did not have hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. We also found that HP (2-20) had potent activity against cefazolin sodium-resistant bacterial cell lines, and that HP (2-20) and cefazolin sodium had synergistic effects against cell lines resistant to the latter. To investigate the mechanism of action of HP (2-20), we performed fluorescence activated flow cytometry using pathogens from the patient with gallstones. As determined by propidium iodide (PI) staining, pathogenic bacteria treated with HP (2-20) showed higher fluorescence intensity than untreated cells, similar to melittin-treated cells, and that HP (2-20) acted in an energy- and salt-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HP (2-20) caused significant morphological alterations in the cell surface of pathogens from the patient with gallstones. By determining their 16S rDNA sequences, we found that both the pathogens from the patient with gallstones and the cefazolin sodium-resistant cell lines showed 100% homology with sequences from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taken together, these results suggest that HP (2-20) has antibiotic activity and that it may be used as a lead drug for the treatment of acquired pathogens from patients with gallstones and antibiotic-resistant cell lines

  17. Recreational physical activity is inversely associated with asymptomatic gallstones in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Morán, Santiago; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Morán, Segundo; Duque, Ximena; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Macías, Nayeli; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic research suggests that physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of chronic diseases including gallstones. This study explores the association between recreational physical activity (RPA) and risk of asymptomatic gallstones (AG) in adult Mexican women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of women from the Health Workers Cohort Study. The study population included Mexican women aged 17-94 years, with no history of gallstone (GS) or cholecystectomy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on weight change, gynecological health history, cholesterol-lowering medications and diuretics, history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), PA and diet. PA was calculated in minutes/day, minutes/week and Metabolic Equivalents (METs)/week. Gallstone diagnosis was performed using real-time ultrasonography. The association between RPA and risk of AG was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results. Of the 4,953 women involved in the study, 12.3% were diagnosed with AG. The participants with AG were significantly older, had a higher body mass index, and had a higher prevalence of DM2 than those without AG. The participants with > 30 min/day of RPA had lower odds of AG (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03), regardless of other known risk factors for gallstone disease. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relationship between RPA time and AG risk, especially in women doing more than 150 min a week of RPA (OR = 0.76; 95%CI: 0.61- 0.95; P = 0.02). These findings support the hypothesis that RPA may protect against AG, although further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this association.

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid lowers bile lithogenicity by regulating SCP2 expression in rabbit cholesterol gallstone models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunfeng; Li, Zhonglian; Zhao, Erpeng; Zhang, Ju; Cui, Naiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We designed this study to get insight into the disorder of lipid metabolism during cholesterol gallstone formation and evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on the improvement of bile lithogenicity and on expression of lipid related genes. Methods: Rabbit cholesterol gallstone models were induced by high cholesterol diet. Bile, blood and liver tissues were obtained from rabbits after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks. Bile and blood lipids were measured enzymatically. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) mRNA expressions were detected by using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol saturation index (CSI) was calculated by using Carey table to represent the bile lithogenicity. Results: Rates of gallstone formation of the 4 and 5 week treatment groups were 100 %, but that of the ursodeoxycholic acid treatment group was only 33.3 %. Expression of HMGCR and SCP2 mRNA in the 4 week group was upregulated and that of CYP7A1 mRNA decreased as compared with the 0 week group. Ursodeoxycholic acid could significantly extend nucleation time of bile and lower CSI. Ursodeoxycholic acid could reduce the expression of SCP2, but couldn't influence expression of HMGCR and CYP7A1. Conclusions: Abnormal expression of HMGCR, CYP7A1 and SCP2 might lead to high lithogenicity of bile. Ursodeoxycholic acid could improve bile lipids and lower bile lithogenicity, thereby reducing the incidence of gallstones. So it might be a good preventive drug for cholesterol gallstones. PMID:27847447

  19. YouTube as a source of patient information on gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Suh; Seo, Ho Seok; Hong, Tae Ho

    2014-04-14

    To investigate the quality of YouTube videos on gallstone disease and to assess viewer response according to quality. A YouTube search was performed on September 18, 2013, using the keywords ''gallbladder disease'', ''gallstone disease'', and ''gallstone treatment''. Three researchers assessed the source, length, number of views, number of likes, and days since upload. The upload source was categorised as physician or hospital (PH), medical website or TV channel, commercial website (CW), or civilian. A usefulness score was devised to assess video quality and to categorise the videos into ''very useful'', ''useful'', ''slightly useful'', or ''not useful''. Videos with misleading content were categorised as ''misleading''. One hundred and thirty-one videos were analysed. Seventy-four videos (56.5%) were misleading, 36 (27.5%) were slightly useful, 15 (11.5%) were useful, three (2.3%) were very useful, and three (2.3%) were not useful. The number of mean likes (1.3 ± 1.5 vs 17.2 ± 38.0, P = 0.007) and number of views (756.3 ± 701.0 vs 8910.7 ± 17094.7, P = 0.001) were both significantly lower in the very useful group compared with the misleading group. All three very useful videos were PH videos. Among the 74 misleading videos, 64 (86.5%) were uploaded by a CW. There was no correlation between usefulness and the number of views, the number of likes, or the length. The "gallstone flush" was the method advocated most frequently by misleading videos (25.7%). More than half of the YouTube videos on gallstone disease are misleading. Credible videos uploaded by medical professionals and filtering by the staff of YouTube appear to be necessary.

  20. Antilithogenic influence of dietary capsaicin and curcumin during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstone in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubha, Malenahalli C; Reddy, Raghunatha R L; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2011-04-01

    Spice bioactive compounds, capsaicin and curcumin, were both individually and in combination examined for antilithogenic potential during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstones in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced by feeding mice a high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet for 10 weeks. Groups of mice were maintained on a lithogenic diet that was supplemented with 0.015% capsaicin/0.2% curcumin/0.015% capsaicin + 0.2% curcumin. The lithogenic diet that contained capsaicin, curcumin, or their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 50%, 66%, and 56%, respectively, compared with lithogenic control. This was accompanied by reduced biliary cholesterol and a marginal increase in phospholipid in these spice-fed groups. Increased cholesterol saturation index and cholesterol : phospholipid ratio in the bile caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds. The antilithogenic influence of spice compounds was attributable to the cholesterol-lowering effect of these dietary spices in blood and liver, as well as a moderate increase in phospholipids. Decreased activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase caused by the lithogenic diet were countered by the combination of capsaicin and curcumin. The increased lipid peroxidation and the decreased concentration of ascorbic acid in the liver that was caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds, individually or in combination. Thus, while the capsaicin and curcumin combination did not have an additive influence in reducing the incidence of cholesterol gallstones in mice, their combination nevertheless was more beneficial in enhancing the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzyme ─ glutathione reductase in the lithogenic situation. The antioxidant effects of dietary spice compounds are consistent with the observed reduction in cholesterol gallstones formed under lithogenic condition.

  1. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Kenan, Samuel; Steiner, German C.; Abdul-Quader, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  2. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  3. Column chromatography as a useful step in purification of diatom pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarek, Wiktor; Listwan, Stanisław; Pagacz, Joanna; Leśniak, Piotr; Latowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin are carotenoids found in brown algae and most other heterokonts. These pigments are involved in photosynthetic and photoprotective reactions, and they have many potential health benefits. They can be extracted from diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum by sonication, extraction with chloroform : methanol and preparative thin layer chromatography. We assessed the utility of an additional column chromatography step in purification of these pigments. This novel addition to the isolation protocol increased the purity of fucoxanthin and allowed for concentration of diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin before HPLC separation. The enhanced protocol is useful for obtaining high purity pigments for biochemical studies.

  4. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  5. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main focus on secondary

  6. Dissimilar pigment regulation in Serpula lacrymans and Paxillus involutus during inter-kingdom interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, James P; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kovács, Ákos T; Shelest, Ekaterina; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Production of basidiomycete atromentin-derived pigments like variegatic acid (pulvinic acid-type) and involutin (diarylcyclopentenone) from the brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and the ectomycorrhiza-forming Paxillus involutus, respectively, is induced by complex nutrition, and in the case of S. lacrymans, bacteria. Pigmentation in S. lacrymans was stimulated by 13 different bacteria and cell-wall-damaging enzymes (lytic enzymes and proteases), but not by lysozyme or mechanical damage. The use of protease inhibitors with Bacillus subtilis or heat-killed bacteria during co-culturing with S. lacrymans significantly reduced pigmentation indicating that enzymatic hyphal damage and/or released peptides, rather than mechanical injury, was the major cause of systemic pigment induction. Conversely, no significant pigmentation by bacteria was observed from P. involutus. We found additional putative transcriptional composite elements of atromentin synthetase genes in P. involutus and other ectomycorrhiza-forming species that were absent from S. lacrymans and other brown-rotters. Variegatic and its precursor xerocomic acid, but not involutin, in return inhibited swarming and colony biofilm spreading of Bacillus subtilis, but did not kill B. subtilis. We suggest that dissimilar pigment regulation by fungal lifestyle was a consequence of pigment bioactivity and additional promoter motifs. The focus on basidiomycete natural product gene induction and regulation will assist in future studies to determine global regulators, signalling pathways and associated transcription factors of basidiomycetes.

  7. Variation of calcium, copper and iron levels in serum, bile and stone samples of patients having different types of gallstone: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mustafa; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Sirajuddin; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Sabir; Kadar, Salma

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological data among the human population has shown a significantly increased incidence of gallstone (GS) disease worldwide. It was studied that some essential (calcium) and transition elements (iron and copper) in bile play an important role in the development of GS. The estimation of calcium, copper and iron were carried out in the serum, gall bladder bile and different types of GS (cholesterol, mixed and pigmented) of 172 patients, age ranged 20-55years. For comparative purpose age matched referents not suffering from GS diseases were also selected. Biliary concentrations of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) were correlated with their concentrations in serum and different types of GS samples. The ratio of Ca, Fe and Cu in bile with serum was also calculated. Understudy metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after acid decomposition of matrices of selected samples. The Ca concentrations in serum samples were significantly higher in patients with pigmented GS as compared to controls (p0.001). The contents of Cu and Fe in serum and bile of all patients (except female cholesterol GS patient have low serum iron concentration) were found to be higher than control, but difference was significant in those patients who have pigmented GS. The concentration of Ca, Fe and Cu in different types GS were found in the order, Pigmented>mixed>cholesterol. The bile/serum ratio for Ca, Cu and Fe was found to be significantly higher in pigmented GS patients. Gall bladder bile was slightly alkaline in patients as compared to referents. The density of bile was found to be higher in patients as compared to the referents. Various functional groups present in different types of GS samples were confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The higher density and pH of bile, elevated concentrations of transition elements in all types of biological samples (serum, bile and GS), could be an important factor for the formation of different types of

  8. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  9. Ursodeoxycholic Acid in the Prevention of Gallstone Formation After Bariatric Surgery: an Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouliotis, Dimitrios E; Tasiopoulou, Vasiliki S; Svokos, Alexis A; Svokos, Konstantina A; Chatedaki, Christina; Sioka, Eleni; Zacharoulis, Dimitris

    2017-11-01

    We aim to review the available literature on obese patients treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in order to prevent gallstone formation after bariatric surgery. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria incorporating 1355 patients. Random-effects meta-analysis showed a lower incidence of gallstone formation in patients taking UDCA. Subgroup analysis reported fewer cases of gallstone disease in the UDCA group in relation to different bariatric procedures, doses of administered UDCA, and time from bariatric surgery. Adverse events were similar in both groups. Fewer patients required cholecystectomy in UDCA group. No deaths were reported. The administration of UDCA after bariatric surgery seems to prevent gallstone formation.

  10. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega A, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  11. Metformin Use Correlates with Reduced Risk of Gallstones in Diabetic Patients: A 12-Year Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Kuan-Fu; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Lai, Shih-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Few studies are available on the association between gallstones and metformin use. The objective of the study was to determine whether metformin use is associated with gallstones. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. Subjects of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were included from 2002 to 2013. The metformin-exposure group was defined as ≥29 cumulative defined daily dose (DDD) of met...

  12. Metformin Use Correlates with Reduced Risk of Gallstones in Diabetic Patients: A 12-Year Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan-Fu Liao; Kuan-Fu Liao; Hsun-Yang Chuang; Shih-Wei Lai; Shih-Wei Lai

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Few studies are available on the association between gallstones and metformin use. The objective of the study was to determine whether metformin use is associated with gallstones.Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. Subjects of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were included from 2002 to 2013. The metformin-exposure group was defined as ≥29 cumulative defined daily dose (DDD) of metf...

  13. ANALYSIS OF BILIARY CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN IRON-DEFICIENT PATIENTS OPERATED FOR GALLSTONE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kannan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gallstone disease is a common gastrointestinal problem in day-to-day practice. The old concept that a typical gallstone sufferer is fat, fertile, flatulent female of 50. This is partially true as the disease has been found in women soon after their first delivery who are thin and underweight and in males also. Conditions that favour the formation of cholesterol gallstones are super saturation of bile with cholesterol, kinetically favourable nucleation and presence of cholesterol crystals in the gallbladder long enough to agglomerate into a stone. Recent studies have defined the role of trace elements (Fe, Ca, Zn and Cu and defective pH in the formation of gallstones. The aim of the study is to determine the association of iron deficiency in super saturation of bile. This cross-sectional study of 50 patients was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. Biliary cholesterol and serum cholesterol were compared in iron deficient and non-iron deficient patients having gallstones. A low serum iron level is a factor in bile super saturation with respect to cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. 50 patients suffering from cholelithiasis confirmed by USG were divided into two groups based on serum iron values. Group A consists of patients with normal serum iron (non-anaemic and Group B of patients with less than normal serum iron (anaemic. RESULTS Serum total cholesterol of the patients of cholelithiasis was not different among groups categorised based on serum iron levels. There were no significant variations in the serum cholesterol contents of both the groups. Also, there was no significant variation of the above parameter in the male and female patients. CONCLUSION Though, it is difficult to draw a causal

  14. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    . The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...

  15. The number of metabolic abnormalities associated with the risk of gallstones in a non-diabetic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Tsai

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with gallstones, independent of hepatitis C infection or chronic kidney disease (CKD, in a non-diabetic population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 8,188 Chinese adult participants that underwent a self-motivated health examination were recruited into the final analysis after excluding the subjects who had a history of cholecystectomy, diabetes mellitus, or were currently using antihypertensive or lipid-lowering agents. Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or that attenuated ultrasound transmission. RESULTS: A total of 447 subjects (5.5% had gallstones, with 239 (5.1% men and 208 (6.0% women. After adjusting for age, gender, obesity, education level, and lifestyle factors, included current smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and CKD, there was a positive association between metabolic syndrome and gallstones. Moreover, as compared to subjects without metabolic abnormalities, subjects with one, two, and three or more suffered from a 35, 40, and 59% higher risk of gallstones, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher risk of gallstones independent of hepatitis C or CKD, and a dose-dependent effect of metabolic abnormalities also exists.

  16. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Canovas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update.

  17. The changes of bile dynamics in patients with gallstones by quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wei'na; Yu Shupeng

    2004-01-01

    The gold standard of diagnosing SOD is endoscopic sphincter of Oddi manometry, but it is not widely used because it is invasive, expensive and there are more complicateds after examination. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy can give us quantitative parameters of bile emptying and it is a noninvasive, sensitive and accurate method in diagnosing SOD. The bile dynamics after cholecystectomy was seldom studied, the aim of this study is to obtain the normal changes of bile emptying after cholecystectomy by hepatobiliary scintigraphy and provide basis for diagnosing SOD. Objective: Quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy, a noninvasive method used to diagnose dysfunction of bile duct, can show bile secretion and outflow in bile duct. The goal of this study was to examine the dynamics of bile secretion and outflow by quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients with gallstones, postcholecystectomy and normal groups, got the parameters of normal changes of bile emptying in postcholecystectomy patients and to help diagnosing SOD. Methods: 1 Patients. 31 patients with gallstones, demonstrated single or multiple gallstones by abdominal ultrasonography; 12 normal controls and 12 patients after cholecystectomy. They were all rulled out liver diseases and bile duct stones by liver function tests and US respectively, the diameter of common bile duct were normal, liver functions were normal and there were not symptoms of bile duct diseases. 2 Methods. All the patients were examined by fatty meal * hepatobiliary scintigraphy according to the same method. after fasting over 4 hours, 740 MBq 99m Tc-EHIDA was injected intravenously. Images were recorded continuously at one frame per minute for 100 minutes, at 60th minute two fry eggs were taken. Then the parameters of of bile emptying (Tmax in liver and common bile duct, T1/2 in liver and common bile duct, time of duodenal appeared (DAT), transit time from liver to duodenol(HDTT) and half-emptying time in common bile duct after fatty

  18. Bile anaerobic bacteria detection and antibiotic susceptibility in patients with gallstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Xiang, Ting-Hai; Shi, Jing-Sen; Zhang, Bing-Yuan

    2003-08-01

    To detect bile anaerobic bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility in 59 patients with gallstones who had had cholecystectomy. BACT/ALERT 120 microbe detection system and SCEPTOR microbe detection system were used to detect bile anaerobic bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility. The ratio of anaerobic bacteria to the patients examined was 52.5% (31/59). Obligate anaerobe bile culture showed positive results in 4 patients. B. fragilis (37.8%) was the major type of anaerobic bacteria in bile. Most (81.8%) of anaerobic bacteria were sensitive to metronidazole, and imipenem was suitable for beta-lactamase bacteria. Culture of anaerobic bacteria in logarithmic phase can improve the positive rate of the culture. There are some relations between anaerobic infection and gallstone formation.

  19. Bouveret's syndrome complicated by distal gallstone ileus after laser lithotropsy using Holmium: YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers John B

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bouveret's syndrome is an unusual presentation of duodenal obstruction caused by the passage of a large gallstone through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Endoscopic therapy has been used as first-line treatment, especially in patients with high surgical risk. Case presentation We report a 67-year-old woman who underwent an endoscopic attempt to fragment and retrieve a duodenal stone using a Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser (Ho:YAG which resulted in small bowel obstruction. The patient successfully underwent enterolithotomy without cholecystectomy or closure of the fistula. Conclusion We conclude that, distal gallstone obstruction, due to migration of partially fragmented stones, can occur as a possible complication of laser lithotripsy treatment of Bouveret's syndrome and might require urgent enterolithotomy.

  20. The efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on single dense calcified gallstones according to computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Takao (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine); Shimono, Kazuko; Moriyama, Shigeru; Masuda, Touru; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Umegae, Satoru; Nagata, Norikazu

    1993-05-01

    The efficacy and complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for single gallstones were compared between 15 patients with a CT-lucent stone and 18 patients with a dense calcified stone. In all of five patients with a stone smaller than 10 mm in diameter, complete or sufficient clearance was observed, regardless of calcification. However, in 28 patients with a stone larger than 11 mm in diameter, the rates of complete or sufficient clearance were lower in those with a dense calcified stone (64%) than in those with a computed tomography (CT) lucent stone (93%). There was no difference in the rate of complications between patients with a CT-lucent stone and those with a dense calcified stone. These results thus suggest that extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy may be safely employed for patients with a single calcified gallstone. (author).

  1. Making the invisible visible: improving conspicuity of noncalcified gallstones using dual-energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeda, Jennifer W; Richardson, Ian J; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI) increases detectability of noncalcified gallstones on dual-energy CT (DECT) compared with conventional CT imaging. This retrospective IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study included consecutive patients who underwent DECT of the abdomen in the Emergency Department during a 30-month period (July 1, 2013-December 31, 2015), with a comparison US or MR within 1-year. 51 patients (36F, 15M; mean age 52 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All DECT were acquired on a dual-source 128 × 2 slice scanner using either 80/Sn140 or 100/Sn140 kVp pairs. Source images at high and low kVp were used for DE post-processing with VMI. Within 3 mm reconstructed images, regions of interest of 0.5 cm 2 were placed on noncalcified gallstones and bile to record hounsfield units (HU) at VMI energy levels ranging between 40 and 190 keV. Noncalcified gallstones uniformly demonstrated lowest HU at 40 keV and increase at higher keV; the HU of bile varied at higher keV. Few of the noncalcified stones are visible at 70 keV (simulating a conventional 120 kVp scan), with measured contrast (bile-stone HU difference) 20 HU in 2%. Contrast was maximal at 40 keV, where 100% demonstrated >20 HU difference from surrounding bile, 75% >44 HU difference, and 50% >60 HU difference. A paired t test demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between this stone-bile contrast at 40 vs. 70 keV and 70 vs. 190 keV. Low keV virtual monochromatic imaging increased conspicuity of noncalcified gallstones, improving their detectability.

  2. Compound analysis of gallstones using dual energy computed tomography-Results in a phantom model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ralf W., E-mail: ralfwbauer@aol.co [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Schulz, Julian R., E-mail: julian.schulz@t-online.d [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Zedler, Barbara, E-mail: zedler@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Department of Forensic Medicine, Clinic of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Kennedyallee 104, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Graf, Thomas G., E-mail: thomas.gt.graf@siemens.co [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Computed Tomography, Physics and Applications, Siemensstrasse 1, 91313 Forchheim (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: t.vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The potential of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for the analysis of gallstone compounds was investigated. The main goal was to find parameters, that can reliably define high percentage (>70%) cholesterol stones without calcium components. Materials and methods: 35 gallstones were analyzed with DECT using a phantom model. Stone samples were put into specimen containers filled with formalin. Containers were put into a water-filled cylindrical acrylic glass phantom. DECT scans were performed using a tube voltage/current of 140 kV/83 mAs (tube A) and 80 kV/340 mAs (tube B). ROI-measurements to determine CT attenuation of each sector of the stones that had different appearance on the CT images were performed. Finally, semi-quantitative infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of these sectors was performed for chemical analysis. Results: ROI-measurements were performed in 45 different sectors in 35 gallstones. Sectors containing >70% of cholesterol and no calcium component (n = 20) on FTIR could be identified with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity on DECT. These sectors showed typical attenuation of -8 {+-} 4 HU at 80 kV and +22 {+-} 3 HU at 140 kV. Even the presence of a small calcium component (<10%) hindered the reliable identification of cholesterol components as such. Conclusion: Dual energy CT allows for reliable identification of gallstones containing a high percentage of cholesterol and no calcium component in this pre-clinical phantom model. Results from in vivo or anthropomorphic phantom trials will have to confirm these results. This may enable the identification of patients eligible for non-surgical treatment options in the future.

  3. Compound analysis of gallstones using dual energy computed tomography-Results in a phantom model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Schulz, Julian R.; Zedler, Barbara; Graf, Thomas G.; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The potential of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for the analysis of gallstone compounds was investigated. The main goal was to find parameters, that can reliably define high percentage (>70%) cholesterol stones without calcium components. Materials and methods: 35 gallstones were analyzed with DECT using a phantom model. Stone samples were put into specimen containers filled with formalin. Containers were put into a water-filled cylindrical acrylic glass phantom. DECT scans were performed using a tube voltage/current of 140 kV/83 mAs (tube A) and 80 kV/340 mAs (tube B). ROI-measurements to determine CT attenuation of each sector of the stones that had different appearance on the CT images were performed. Finally, semi-quantitative infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of these sectors was performed for chemical analysis. Results: ROI-measurements were performed in 45 different sectors in 35 gallstones. Sectors containing >70% of cholesterol and no calcium component (n = 20) on FTIR could be identified with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity on DECT. These sectors showed typical attenuation of -8 ± 4 HU at 80 kV and +22 ± 3 HU at 140 kV. Even the presence of a small calcium component (<10%) hindered the reliable identification of cholesterol components as such. Conclusion: Dual energy CT allows for reliable identification of gallstones containing a high percentage of cholesterol and no calcium component in this pre-clinical phantom model. Results from in vivo or anthropomorphic phantom trials will have to confirm these results. This may enable the identification of patients eligible for non-surgical treatment options in the future.

  4. Intra-Hepatic Spillage of Gallstones as a Late Complication of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: MR Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragozzino, Alfonso; Puglia, Marta; Romano, Federica; Imbriaco, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Spillage of gallstones in the abdominal cavity may rarely occur during the course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Dropped gallstones in the peritoneal and extra-peritoneal cavity are usually asymptomatic. However, they may lead to abscess formation with an estimated incidence of about 0.3%. Common locations of the abscess are in the abdominal wall followed by the intra-abdominal cavity, usually in the sub-hepatic or retro-peritoneum inferior to the sub-hepatic space. We hereby describe an unusual case of infected spilled gallstones in the right sub-phrenic space, prospectively detected on abdominal MRI performed two years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in a patient with only a mild right-sided abdominal complaint. This case highlights the role of MRI in suggesting the right diagnosis in cases with vague or even absent symptomatology. In our case the patient’s history together with high quality abdomen MRI allowed the correct diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware of this rare and late onset complication, even after many years from surgery as an incidental finding in almost asymptomatic patients

  5. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  6. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  7. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  8. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  9. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  10. Radiation degradation of molasses pigment. 2. Molecular weight fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1996-01-01

    Water demand in Tokyo has increased rapidly. Because of the scarcity of water sources within the city, Tokyo is dependent on water from other prefectures. Recycling of municipal effluent is an effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We have studied the radiation treatment of waste water for recycling. The degradation of molasses pigments in waste water from yeast factory by radiation was investigated. The dialyzed molasses pigments and non-dialyzed samples in waste waters were compared in chromaticity, UV absorption, color different and COD. The dialysis and fractionation by permeable membrane were carried out with Seamless Cellulose tubing (Union Carbide Corporation) and spectra/Por membrane (Spectrum Medical Industries INC.) The TOC values decreased and the dark brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components of molasses pigment were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and decomposed to carbon dioxide. The relationships between the value of chromaticity/TOC and molecular weight of molasses pigments were obtained by radiation. (author)

  11. Genetic Basis of Melanin Pigmentation in Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Martin, Arnaud; Perry, Michael W; van der Burg, Karin R L; Matsuoka, Yuji; Monteiro, Antónia; Reed, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Despite the variety, prominence, and adaptive significance of butterfly wing patterns, surprisingly little is known about the genetic basis of wing color diversity. Even though there is intense interest in wing pattern evolution and development, the technical challenge of genetically manipulating butterflies has slowed efforts to functionally characterize color pattern development genes. To identify candidate wing pigmentation genes, we used RNA sequencing to characterize transcription across multiple stages of butterfly wing development, and between different color pattern elements, in the painted lady butterfly Vanessa cardui This allowed us to pinpoint genes specifically associated with red and black pigment patterns. To test the functions of a subset of genes associated with presumptive melanin pigmentation, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in four different butterfly genera. pale , Ddc , and yellow knockouts displayed reduction of melanin pigmentation, consistent with previous findings in other insects. Interestingly, however, yellow-d , ebony , and black knockouts revealed that these genes have localized effects on tuning the color of red, brown, and ochre pattern elements. These results point to previously undescribed mechanisms for modulating the color of specific wing pattern elements in butterflies, and provide an expanded portrait of the insect melanin pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Dissimilar pigment regulation in Serpula lacrymans and Paxillus involutus during inter-kingdom interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, James P.; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kovács, Ákos T.

    2018-01-01

    Production of basidiomycete atromentin-derived pigments like variegatic acid (pulvinic acid-type) and involutin (diarylcyclopentenone) from the brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and the ectomycorrhiza-forming Paxillus involutus, respectively, is induced by complex nutrition, and in the case of S...... of Bacillus subtilis, but did not kill B. subtilis. We suggest that dissimilar pigment regulation by fungal lifestyle was a consequence of pigment bioactivity and additional promoter motifs. The focus on basidiomycete natural product gene induction and regulation will assist in future studies to determine....... lacrymans, bacteria. Pigmentation in S. lacrymans was stimulated by 13 different bacteria and cell-wall-damaging enzymes (lytic enzymes and proteases), but not by lysozyme or mechanical damage. The use of protease inhibitors with Bacillus subtilis or heat-killed bacteria during co-culturing with S...

  13. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... Key words: Penicillium, 2-(4-acetyl phenyl) acetic acid, bio elements, salts, soluble pigment. .... Table 1. Characteristics of the pigment fractions after solvent extraction. ..... naphthoquinone pigment by Fusarium verticillioides.

  14. Apolipoprotein E4 genotype and gallbladder motility influence speed of gallstone clearance and risk of recurrence after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portincasa, P.; van Erpecum, K. J.; van de Meeberg, P. C.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; de Bruin, T. W.; van Berge-Henegouwen, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is an effective treatment in selected gallstone patients, but stone recurrence is a major drawback, Factors potentially influencing gallstone clearance and recurrence were studied in 84 patients in whom stone dissolution was diagnosed after ESWL plus bile

  15. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.

  16. Natural pigments and sacred art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  17. Raman analysis of ancient pigments on a tile from the Citadel of Algiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, L. D.; De Waal, D.

    2008-12-01

    A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of a multi-coloured (yellow, blue, white, redish-brown and brown-black) tile shard from the Citadel of Algiers was undertaken. XRD and EDX were used as complementary techniques. The study shows that the heterogeneous three-shade yellow pigment on the tile is composed largely of the ancient ternary (Pb-Sn-Sb) pyrochlore oxide with a dominant Pb-O vibration at 127 cm -1 consistent with the Pb 2SnSbO 6.5 structure as verified by XRD. The literature assignment of this band at 132 cm -1 probably comes from a mixture of pigments. The redish-brown and the brown-black pigments are found to be Naples yellow (Pb 2Sb 2O 7) and lead(II) stannate (Pb 2SnO 4), respectively, while cobalt blue (CoAl 2O 4) gives the blue colour and cassiterite (SnO 2) is the origin of the white colour. The bulk of the tile body is composed mainly of hematite (α-Fe 2O 3), maghemite (γ-Fe 2O 3), magnetite (Fe 3O 4) and Quartz (α-SiO 2) with traces of calcite (CaCO 3) and amorphous carbon. Micro-Raman spectroscopy proved to be very useful in the characterization of pigments as well as the tile body. These results further establish Raman spectroscopy as a technique of choice for the analysis of pigments on archaeological artifacts. The results obtained here could be used in the restoration and preservation programme of the Citadel itself which stands today as a symbol of pre-colonial Algerian heritage.

  18. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001. Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59 for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy.

  19. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute gallstone pancreatitis in index hospital admission: feasibility and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrasi, Ahmed Khan; Syed, Bm; Memon, Amir Iqbal; Laghari, Abdul Aziz; Talpur, K Altaf Hussain; Qureshi, Jawaid Naeem

    2014-05-01

    Acute gallstone pancreatitis is quite common throughout the globe. Conventionally definitive cholecystectomy has been delayed in index hospital admission. Since the last decade timing of cholecystectomy is gradually shifting towards the earlier phase of disease and currently gallstone pancreatitis is being evaluated as a further indication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is also great concern regarding compliance of patients for definitive surgery due to poverty, ignorance and illiteracy in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a definitive treatment in patients with mild and resolving gall stone pancreatitis. This was a prospective study from July 2009 to June 2012. Patients were diagnosed by clinical examination, biochemical tests, ultrasonography and contrast enhanced CT. Patients with mild form of the disease (Ranson Score ≤3) and who showed clinical improvement were offered laparoscopic cholecystectomy in index hospital admission. Those who were unfit for surgery were referred for endoscopic sphincterotomy. Common bile duct stones were excluded preoperatively. A total of 38 patients were admitted with acute gallstone pancreatitis in the study period. The mean age of patients was 46.3 years with male to female ratio of 11/27. 22 (57.8%) patients were selected for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and procedure was completed successfully. Ten (26.3%) patients were referred for ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy and 11 (28.9%) were managed by conservative treatment and went without any definitive treatment. Mean duration of time from onset of symptoms and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 7 days (range 4-10). Mean duration of operative time was 45 minutes and hospital stay was 7 days. There was no operative mortality. No major intra-operative or post-operative complication was recorded. two patients (9%) had minor complications. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely

  20. Identification of Pigments in Colored Layers of a Painting by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, O. I.; Pankin, D. V.; Povolotckaia, A. V.; Borisov, E. V.; Beznosova, M. O.; Krivul'ko, T. A.; Kurochkin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Using the method of Raman spectroscopy the pigment composition is investigated of, and the brushwork technique used in, the original layer of a 19th century painting is established. It is an overdoor worked, presumably, by Antoine Jean-Etienne Faivre. It is established that the artist used the following pigments: cinnabar and dyes on the basis of goethite and hematite (for red, yellow-orange, and brown shades), ultramarine and Prussian blue (for blue shades), and Emerald green and a mixture of blue and yellow shades (to obtain a green color). It is determined that white lead was used a primer.

  1. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  2. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    BREAD COLORING CHEESE SPREAD CHEMICAL REACTIONS FLAVOR OXIDATION DAIRY PRODUCTS...nutritional intake, and decrease waste due to non-consumption of sensory degraded ration components. 1.1 Maillard Browning Maillard browning, also

  3. Activation of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α Subunit Pathway in Steatotic Liver Contributes to Formation of Cholesterol Gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yoichiro; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tsukita, Sohei; Takahashi, Kei; Maekawa, Masamitsu; Honma, Midori; Ikeda, Masanori; Murakami, Keigo; Munakata, Yuichiro; Shirai, Yuta; Kodama, Shinjiro; Sugisawa, Takashi; Chiba, Yumiko; Kondo, Yasuteru; Kaneko, Keizo; Uno, Kenji; Sawada, Shojiro; Imai, Junta; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Kozo; Sasano, Hironobu; Mano, Nariyasu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Katagiri, Hideki

    2017-05-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α subunit (HIF1A) is a transcription factor that controls the cellular response to hypoxia and is activated in hepatocytes of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD increases the risk for cholesterol gallstone disease by unclear mechanisms. We studied the relationship between HIF1A and gallstone formation associated with liver steatosis. We performed studies with mice with inducible disruption of Hif1a in hepatocytes via a Cre adenoviral vector (inducible hepatocyte-selective HIF1A knockout [iH-HIFKO] mice), and mice without disruption of Hif1a (control mice). Mice were fed a diet rich in cholesterol and cholate for 1 or 2 weeks; gallbladders were collected and the number of gallstones was determined. Livers and biliary tissues were analyzed by histology, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblots. We measured concentrations of bile acid, cholesterol, and phospholipid in bile and rates of bile flow. Primary hepatocytes and cholangiocytes were isolated and analyzed. HIF1A was knocked down in Hepa1-6 cells with small interfering RNAs. Liver biopsy samples from patients with NAFLD, with or without gallstones, were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Control mice fed a diet rich in cholesterol and cholate developed liver steatosis with hypoxia; levels of HIF1A protein were increased in hepatocytes around central veins and 90% of mice developed cholesterol gallstones. Only 20% of the iH-HIFKO mice developed cholesterol gallstones. In iH-HIFKO mice, the biliary lipid concentration was reduced by 36%, compared with control mice, and bile flow was increased by 35%. We observed increased water secretion from hepatocytes into bile canaliculi to mediate these effects, resulting in suppression of cholelithogenesis. Hepatic expression of aquaporin 8 (AQP8) protein was 1.5-fold higher in iH-HIFKO mice than in control mice. Under hypoxic

  4. Unique proline-benzoquinone pigment from the colored nectar of "bird's Coca cola tree" functions in bird attractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Hong; Liu, Yan; Hua, Juan; Niu, Xue-Mei; Jing, Shu-Xi; Zhao, Xu; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2012-08-17

    The major pigment responsible for the dark brown nectar of the "bird's Coca cola tree", Leucosceptrum canum (Labiatae), was isolated and identified as a unique symmetric proline-quinone conjugate, 2,5-di-(N-(-)-prolyl)-para-benzoquinone (DPBQ). Behavioral experiments with both isolated and synthetic authentic samples indicated that DPBQ functions mainly as a color attractant to bird pollinators.

  5. Browns Ferry fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkleroad, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A synopsis of the March 22, 1975 fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is discussed. Emphasis is placed on events prior to and during the fire. How the fire started, fire fighting activities, fire and smoke development, and restoration activities are discussed

  6. Light reflection from crystal platelets in iridophores determines green or brown skin coloration in Takydromus lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Takeo; Esashi, Jyunko; Hasegawa, Masami

    2017-04-01

    Brown and green are the most commonly imitated colors in prey animals because both colors occur in a range of habitats. Many researchers have evaluated survival with respect to background color matching, but the pigment cell mechanisms underlying such coloration are not known. Dorsal coloration of East Asian Takydromus lizards has shifted from green to brown or from brown to green on multiple occasions during the diversification of the genus, thus giving us an opportunity to examine the cellular mechanisms of background color matching. Brown and green skin were found to differ with respect to the morphological characteristics of iridophores, with different thicknesses of the reflecting platelets and the cytoplasmic spacing between platelets, despite a shared vertical arrangement of pigment cells, i.e., xanthophores in the upper layer, iridophores in the middle layer, and melanophores at the bottom of the dermal layer, among the different Takydromus lizards. Iridophores of brown skin reflected longer wavelengths of light than those of green skin, which may be attributed to the thicker platelets and longer distances between platelets in brown skin. We discuss the potential role of genetic and intracellular mechanisms explaining the thickness and orientation of the light-reflecting platelets of iridophores in Takydromus lizards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of minor and trace elements in gallstones by induction of characteristic ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Watt, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Samples from five patients were analysed using three different techniques for cross-verification: NAA, PIXE, and XRF. In addition, certified standards of bovine liver and oyster tissue from the NBS, Washington, were re-analysed using the different techniques to confirm the accuracy of the experimental procedures. NAA of five gallstones was used for the quantitative analysis of 19 elements with Z>11. The concentrations of Cl, K+Ca, Mn, Fe and Cu+Zn were determined by PIXE and those of Mg, P, S, K and Ca by XRF. In most cases the concentrations were in the range of a few PPB to a few hundred PPM. The spatial distribution of the component elements was obtained using XRF with a scanning electron microscope and the results demonstrated that calcium was present centrally in all the stones. The analysis of gallbladder bile from four patients showed that the calcium concentration was much greater than normal, indicating that calcium and other elements play an important role in stone formation. Infrared spectroscopy showed that the calcium salts were present in gallstones in three compound forms: calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate and calcium bilirubinate. Reasons for the cause of calcium precipitation are discussed. (author)

  8. Abdominal wall sinus due to impacting gallstone during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an unusual complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, T E; Papaziogas, B T; Koutelidakis, I M; Papaziogas, T B

    2002-02-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, perforation of the gallbladder can occurs in extraction of the gallbladder. The fate of such lost gallstones, which can lead to the formation of an abscess, an abdominal wall mass, or a persistent sinus, has not been studied adequately. Herein we report the case of a persistent sinus of the abdominal wall after an emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an 82-year-old woman with gangrenous cholecystitis and perforation of the friable wall in association with an empyema of the gallbladder. The culture of the obtained pus was positive for Escherichia coli. After a small leak of dirty fluid from the wound of the epigastric port site of 4 months' duration, surgical exploration under local anesthesia revealed that the sinus was caused by spilled gallstones impacting into the abdominal wall between the posterior sheath and left rectus abdominalis muscle. The removal of the stones resulted in complete healing. Long-term complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy involving the abdominal wall are rare but important possible consequences that could be avoided.

  9. The rotary gallstone lithotrite to aid gallbladder extraction in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackier, J M; Hunter, J G; Paz-Partlow, M; Cuschieri, A

    1992-01-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a large stone burden may cause difficulty when extracting the gallbladder through the abdominal wall. Currently, the alternatives available to the surgeon include increasing the incision, removing stones singly, or utilizing complex fragmentation techniques like the pulsed dye laser. We have employed an electromechanical rotary gallstone lithotrite (RGL) to fragment stones to an aspiratable size. Initially, cholesterol spheres were pulverized in a latex balloon to demonstrate the efficacy of the device. Then, human gallstones were placed in the balloon and reduced to fragments less than or equal to 1 mm from initial sizes of 4-24 mm. Human stones were then inserted in ex vivo porcine gallbladders in a controlled experiment and treated with the device. Ten out of 12 tests were completed within 30 s; one test required 49 s and one 105 s to achieve complete fragmentation. Blinded histological evaluation demonstrated that tissue abrasion caused by use of the device would not interfere with the diagnosis of unsuspected malignancy. Clinical trials have now commenced under the auspices of the hospital ethical committee.

  10. Is the loss of gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy an underestimated complication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinzani, S; Tos, M; Gornati, R; Molteni, B; Poliziani, D; Taschieri, A M

    2000-04-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy entails an increased risk of gallbladder rupture and consequent loss of stones in the abdominal cavity. Herein we report the case of a 51-year-old male patient, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2 years before presentation to our hospital. He had experienced tension sensation and epigastric pain since 4 months postoperatively. A well-defined epigastric mass, which was hard and painful on palpation, was detected and later confirmed by ultrasonography and CT scan. Explorative laparotomy revealed a mass in the area of the gastrocolic ligament,resulting from biliary gallstones in conjunction with a perimetral inflammatory reaction. A review of the literature showed that the incidence of gallbladder lesions during laparoscopy is 13-40%. In order to prevent this complication, meticulous isolation of the gallbladder, proper dissection of the cystic duct and artery, and careful extraction through the umbilical access are required. Ligation after the rupture or use of an endo-bag may be helpful. The loss of gallstones and their retention in the abdominal cavity should be noted in the description of the surgical procedure.

  11. The influence of gallbladder function on the symptomatology in gallstone patients, and the outcome after cholecystectomy or expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Kjaergaard; Qvist, Niels

    2007-01-01

    gallstone disease. Fifty-six patients had a functioning gallbladder and 44 had a nonfunctioning gallbladder. Patients with a nonfunctioning gallbladder had significantly more vomiting and received more pain-killing injections during pain attacks. Otherwise, there were no differences in pain patterns...

  12. The visual pigment cyanide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1989-12-01

    The visual pigment of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) with its in situ absorption maximum at 521 nm has its spectral position at 500 to 505 nm when chloride-deficient digitonin is used for the extraction. In this case the addition of chloride or bromide to the extract restores the maximum to 521 nm. This property, characteristic of gecko pigments in general, does not occur with any of the rhodopsins that have been tested. Simple salts of cyanide, a pseudohalogenoid with an ionic radius close to those of chloride and bromide and/or its hydrolysis product attacks both this gecko pigment and rhodopsins in the dark. This is seen as a slow thermal loss of photopigment if (sodium) cyanide is present at concentrations above 40 mM for the gecko pigment and 150 mM for the rhodopsins of the midshipman (Porichthys notatus) and of the frog (Rana pipiens). In all cases the loss of the photopigment is accompanied by the appearance of a spectral product with maximum absorption at about 340 nm. Cyanide addition has no effect on the photosensitivity of the native pigments and neither does it alter, as do chloride, bromide and other anions, the spectral absorbance curve. The spectral product at 340 nm also appears when the visual pigments are photolyzed in the presence of cyanide salts below the threshold concentrations given above. Incubation of digitonin-solubilized all-trans-retinal with (sodium) cyanide leads to a reaction product with absorption spectrum similar to that obtained with visual pigments under comparable conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Yujuan Suo; Daofeng Zhang; Fangning Jin; Hang Zhao; Chunlei Shi

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to...

  14. Seasonal variations of antioxidants in the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Safafar, Hamed; Pedersen, Anja

    Mainly the brown seaweeds are known for their high antioxidative capacity within the specific compounds such as phlorotannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, pigments, and these natural antioxidants are of high industrial interest. Previous studies have shown large seasonal variations in biomass...... composition. The aim of this study was to see if there was a seasonal variation in the antioxidant content of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima), compare two cultivation sites, REF and IMTA, and test different solvents applied for extractions, methanol or ethyl acetate. Rope cultivated sugar kelp were sampled...

  15. Diversity and functional properties of bistable pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

    2010-11-01

    Rhodopsin and related opsin-based pigments, which are photosensitive membrane proteins, have been extensively studied using a wide variety of techniques, with rhodopsin being the most understood G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Animals use various opsin-based pigments for vision and a wide variety of non-visual functions. Many functionally varied pigments are roughly divided into two kinds, based on their photoreaction: bistable and monostable pigments. Bistable pigments are thermally stable before and after photo-activation, but monostable pigments are stable only before activation. Here, we review the diversity of bistable pigments and their molecular characteristics. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying different molecular characteristics of bistable and monostable pigments. In addition, the potential of bistable pigments as a GPCR model is proposed.

  16. Annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome: pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Burak; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Deniz, Nurettin; Catak, Onur

    2008-12-01

    To report annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in a case of pigment dispersion syndrome. Case report. A 36-year-old female with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the right eye over the past 1-2 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Remarkably, annular and central dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule was noted in the right eye. Annular pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The way of central pigmentation is the entrance of aqueous to Berger's space. In our case, it is probable that spontaneous detachment of the anterior hyaloid membrane aided this entrance.

  17. Zidovudine-induced nail pigmentation in a 12-year-old boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawre, Sanjeevani M.; Pore, Shraddha M.; Nandeshwar, Manish B.; Masood, Nausheen M.

    2012-01-01

    Zidovudine is an important component of first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens used to manage pediatric HIV. Nail pigmentation with zidovudine is a well-documented occurrence in adults, especially dark-skinned individuals. But it has so far not been reported in children. Here, we report a pediatric case of zidovudine-induced nail pigmentation. A 12-year-old boy receiving ART with zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine presented to dermatology OPD with complaint of diffuse bluish-brown discoloration of all fingernails. The pigmentation was noticed by the patient after 3 months of initiating zidovudine-based regimen. It first appeared in thumb nails, gradually involved all fingernails, and increased in intensity over time. Though harmless and reversible, psychological aspects of this noticeable side effect may hamper adherence to therapy and may lead to unnecessary investigations and treatment for misdiagnosis such as cyanosis or melanoma. PMID:23248416

  18. Antiadipogenic Activity of γ-Oryzanol and Its Stability in Pigmented Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatel, Igor Otavio; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Yoon, Haelim; Yoon, Young; Han, Sang-Ik; Correa, Camila Renata; Fecchio, Denise; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2016-07-01

    γ-Oryzanol, a prevalent compound in pigmented rice varieties, has been reported to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Antiadipogenic activities of γ-oryzanol were determined in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and mouse-derived 3T3-L1 cells. γ-Oryzanol significantly decreased lipid accumulation and reduced glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in both adipocytes. In addition, γ-oryzanol in four pigmented rice varieties (black with giant embryo, brown, sugary brown, and red) was stable when stored at 4°C and also at room temperature for 22 weeks, whereas other bioactives such as lutein and β-carotene were stable only at -80°C. Furthermore, the yield of γ-oryzanol from these rice varieties was significantly increased through steaming and roasting processes. Therefore, γ-oryzanol exerts antiadipogenic activity by suppressing adipocyte differentiations and is stable in pigmented rice for an extended period of time during storage and after cooking. Thus, the intake of pigmented rice may be a useful strategy for preventing obesity.

  19. Synthesis of Cr-doped CaTiSiO5 ceramic pigments by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubenova, T. Stoyanova; Matteucci, F.; Costa, A.L.; Dondi, M.; Ocana, M.; Carda, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cr-doped CaTiSiO 5 was synthesized by spray drying and conventional ceramic method in order to assess its potential as ceramic pigment. The evolution of the phase composition with thermal treatment was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and thermal analyses (DTA-TGA-EGA). Powder morphology and particle size distribution were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction, respectively. The color efficiency of pigments was evaluated by optical spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) and colorimetric analysis (CIE Lab). Results proved that spray drying is an efficient procedure to prepare highly reactive pigment precursors. The spray-dried powders consist of hollow spherical particles with aggregate size in the 1-10 μm range, developing a brown coloration. Optical spectra reveal the occurrence of Cr(III) and Cr(IV), both responsible for the brown color of this pigment. The former occupies the octahedral site of titanite, in substitution of Ti(IV), while the latter is located at the tetrahedral site, where replaces Si(IV)

  20. Non-Destructive Multi-Analytical Approach to Study the Pigments of Wall Painting Fragments Reused in Mortars from the Archaeological Site of Pompeii (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Miriello

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the excavations carried out in Via di Mercurio (Regio VI, 9, 3 in Pompeii, in 2015, some red, green, black, and brown wall painting fragments were found in the preparatory layer of an ancient pavement which was probably built after the 62 AD earthquake. These fragments, derived from the rubble, were used as coarse aggregate to prepare the mortar for building the pavement. The wall painting fragments are exceptionally well preserved, which is an uncommon occurrence in the city of Pompeii. However, as they were enclosed in the mortar, the wall painting fragments were protected from the high temperatures (probably ranging between 180 °C and 380 °C produced by the eruption in 79 AD. The pigmented outer surface of each sample was analyzed using a non-destructive multi-analytical approach, by combining spectrophotometric colorimetry and portable X-ray fluorescence with micro-Raman spectroscopy. The compositional characterization of the samples revealed the presence of cuprorivaite, goethite, and celadonite in the green pigments; hematite in the red pigments; goethite in the brown pigment; and charcoal in the black pigment. These data probably provide us with the most “faithful picture” of the various red, green, black, and brown pigments used in Pompeii prior to the 79 AD eruption.

  1. Characteristic Elemental Composition of Oil Pigments using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Jin; Lim, Sung Jin; Song, Yu Na; Kim, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of this study is to identify the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis as a non-destructive examination tool for the quantitative composition analysis associated with authentication, restoration, and conservation of art objects in the field of cultural heritage. Generally, the chemical composition of pigments are associated with the colors such as white, yellow, orange, red, green, blue and black, and it varies with raw materials of pigments. According to the colors of a different pigments, chemical compositions are as follows; for example, white pigments were used for a mixture of Pb(CO 3 ) 2 , PbSO 4 , PbO, Pb(OH) 2 , ZnO, ZnS, TiO 2 , BaSO 4 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , As 2 S 3 , etc.; black pigments were series of carbon black, borne ash, MnO+Mn 2 O 3 , etc.; red pigments were Fe 2 O 3 , Pb 3 O 4 , HgS, PbMo 4 , CdS+CdSe, etc.; brown and yellow pigments were PbCrO 4 , ZnCrO 4 , CdS-ZnS, K 3 [Co(NO 2 ) 6 ], Pb(SbO 3 ) 2 , C 19 H 16 O 11 Mg, SrCrO 4 , etc.; green pigments were Cr 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O(OH) 4 , Cu(C 2 H 3 O 2 )-2Cu(OH) 2 ), Cr 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -CoO, etc.; blue pigments were Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 , CoO-Al 2 O 3 , Na 8 - 10 Al 6 Si 6 O 24 S 2-4 , etc. This first step is to obtain quantitative data on the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in oil pigments and to explain pigment sources by statistical treatment as reported in many literatures. The determination of major, minor and micro elements in the subject materials are essential in many fields of basic science and technology as well as commercial and industrial fields. In particular, direct analysis of a sample offers a more effective investigation method in these fields. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has an inherent advantage of being a non-destructive, simultaneously multi-elemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity. In order to characterize the elemental contents of art objects, the quantitative analysis of oil pigment series was

  2. Combined laparoscopic cholecystectomy with ileostomy reversal: A method of delayed definitive management of postoperative gallstone pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav V Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional management of gallstone pancreatitis (GP has been to perform cholecystectomy during the same hospital admission after resolution. However, when GP develops in the immediate postoperative period from a major colorectal operation, cholecystectomy may be fraught with difficulty due to the inflammatory response that occurs. Thus, delaying cholecystectomy until the inflammatory response subsides may be worthwhile, and it maximizes the chances of completing the cholecystectomy laparoscopically. We have described our management of 2 patients with GP occurring after colorectal operations, which required proximal diverting ileostomy. In both cases, we deferred management of GP with either endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP or medical conservative measures during the acute attack and performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy during ostomy reversal surgery utilizing the existing ostomy takedown site for port placement. Both patients tolerated this management well.

  3. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  4. Shared decision-making during surgical consultation for gallstones at a safety-net hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueck, Krislynn M; Leal, Isabel M; Wan, Charlie C; Goldberg, Braden F; Saunders, Tamara E; Millas, Stefanos G; Liang, Mike K; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S

    2018-04-01

    Understanding patient perspectives regarding shared decision-making is crucial to providing informed, patient-centered care. Little is known about perceptions of vulnerable patients regarding shared decision-making during surgical consultation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a validated tool reflects perceptions of shared decision-making accurately among patients seeking surgical consultation for gallstones at a safety-net hospital. A mixed methods study was conducted in a sample of adult patients with gallstones evaluated at a safety-net surgery clinic between May to July 2016. Semi-structured interviews were conducted after their initial surgical consultation and analyzed for emerging themes. Patients were administered the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire and Autonomy Preference Scale. Univariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with shared decision-making and to compare the results of the surveys to those of the interviews. The majority of patients (N = 30) were female (90%), Hispanic (80%), Spanish-speaking (70%), and middle-aged (45.7 ± 16 years). The proportion of patients who perceived shared decision-making was greater in the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire versus the interviews (83% vs 27%, P decision for operation was not associated with shared decision-making. Contributory factors to this discordance include patient unfamiliarity with shared decision-making, deference to surgeon authority, lack of discussion about different treatments, and confusion between aligned versus shared decisions. Available questionnaires may overestimate shared decision-making in vulnerable patients suggesting the need for alternative or modifications to existing methods. Furthermore, such metrics should be assessed for correlation with patient-reported outcomes, such as satisfaction with decisions and health status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The association between gallstone disease and plaque in the abdominopelvic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the atheromatous plaque, in the abdominopelvic arteries as a marker of cardiac risk in patients with or without gallstone disease (GD. Materials and Methods: A total of 136 patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Forty-eight patients had GD and the remaining 88 patients did not. The presence or absence of gallstones was noted during abdominal ultrasonography while vascular risk factors such as plaque formation, intima-media thickness, plaque calcification, mural thrombus, stenosis, aneurysm, and inflammation were recorded during an abdominopelvic computed tomography scan. In addition, percentage of the abdominopelvic aorta surface covered by atheromatous plaque was calculated. Results: The mean age of patients with GD and without GD was 50.81 ± 16.20 and 50.40 ± 12.43, respectively. Patients with GD were more likely to have diabetes mellitus, a higher body mass index (BMI (P < 0.001, and higher cholesterol (P < 0.01, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P < 0.02 levels. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding other atherosclerotic risk factors. Patients with GD had significantly higher rates of the vascular risk factors as intima-media thickness, plaque formation, calcification, aneurysm, mural thrombosis, stenosis, and inflammation in all abdominal arterial segments other than aneurysm in the femoral arteries. In addition, patients with GD had severe atheromatous plaques in the abdominal aorta, common iliac, external iliac, and common femoral artery (CFA. In patients with GD, parameters of age, BMI, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were all correlated with the severity of the atheromatous plaque in abdominal aorta, common iliac, external iliac, and CFA. Conclusion: We demonstrated a direct relationship between GD and abdominopelvic atheromatous plaque, which is a marker for increased cardiovascular risk, for the first time in the literature

  6. Long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroi, Sayoko E; Lark, Kurt K; Sieving, Paul A; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Katz, Gregory J; Ritch, Robert

    2003-12-01

    To describe pigment dispersion associated with long anterior zonules. Multicenter observational case series. Fifteen patients, seven of whom were treated for glaucoma or ocular hypertension, were identified with long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on one anterior capsule specimen. All patients had anterior zonules that inserted centrally on the lens capsule. Signs of pigment dispersion included corneal endothelial pigmentation, loss of the pupillary ruff, and variable trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Ultrasound biomicroscopy verified the lack of posterior iris insertion and concavity. There was no exfoliation material. Transmission electron microscopy showed zonular lamellae with adherent pigment granules, and no exfoliation material. Long anterior zonules inserted onto the central lens capsule may cause mechanical disruption of the pigment epithelium at the pupillary ruff and central iris leading to pigment dispersion.

  7. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, R.; Rivera, E.; Perez Fontan, F.J.; Yebra, T.; Fuente, C. de la

    1994-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is an un-common lesion of the synovium that typically involves diffusely the knee. We present the MR findings of two cases involving the knee,one of them diffuse and the other one localized in the supra patellar bursa. (Author)

  8. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Manipadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing′s syndrome and has characteristic gross and microscopic pathologic findings. We report a case of PPNAD in a 15-year-old boy, which was not associated with Carney′s complex. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice.

  9. Key factors for UV curable pigment dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magny, B.; Pezron, E.; Ciceron, P.H.; Askienazy, A.

    1999-01-01

    UV oligomers with good pigment dispersion are needed to allow good formulation flexibility and possibility to apply thinner films. Pigment dispersion mainly depends on three phenomena: the wetting of agglomerates, the breakage of agglomerates by mechanical stress and the stabilization of smaller agglomerates and primary particles against flocculation. It has been shown that oligomers with low viscosity and low surface tension induce a good pigment wetting. Examples of monomers and oligomers for good pigment dispersion are given

  10. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  11. Ocular toxicity of AUY922 in pigmented and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Danielle; VerHoeve, James; Schadt, Heiko; Vicart, Axel; Walker, Ursula Junker; Turner, Oliver; Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Wolford, Suzanne T.; Miller, Paul E.; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Hong; Akimov, Mikhail; Kluwe, William

    2016-01-01

    AUY922, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor is associated with ocular adverse events (AEs). To provide a better understanding of ocular AEs in patients, 4 investigative studies were performed in a step-wise approach to assess retinal structure and function in pigmented (Brown Norway) and albino (Wistar) rats. In rats administered 30 mg/kg of AUY922, the AUC 0–24 h and C max are comparable to that in patients at 70 mg/m 2 . AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was poorly tolerated by rats with morbidity or mortality generally after the third weekly treatment. Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. The ERG changes were dose dependent, consistent with an effect on the photoreceptors, and fully reversible. The ERG effects could not be minimized by decreasing the C max while maintaining AUC. Histopathological changes were seen mainly when rats were administered AUY922 at 100 mg/kg. The 2-hour infusion of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg caused disorganization of the outer segment photoreceptor morphology in male Brown Norway rats; the severity of the disorganization increased with the number of administrations, but was reversible during a 4-week posttreatment period. There was no major difference in ocular response between Brown Norway and Wistar rats. No changes in serum iron levels, and no changes in rhodopsin, PDE6α, β-transducin concentrations, or retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 expression were observed after single and multiple infusions of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg compared to vehicle-treated controls. AUY922 retinal toxicity in rats recapitulates and further characterizes that reported in patients and is shown to be reversible, while a precise molecular mechanism for the effect was not determined. - Highlights: • Ocular toxicity of AUY922 was assessed in Brown Norway and Wistar rats. • AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was generally not well tolerated by rats. • Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. • ERG changes

  12. Ocular toxicity of AUY922 in pigmented and albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.roman@novartis.com [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); VerHoeve, James [Ocular Services on Demand, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Schadt, Heiko; Vicart, Axel; Walker, Ursula Junker [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Turner, Oliver [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Richardson, Terrilyn A. [Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH (United States); Wolford, Suzanne T. [Covance Laboratories Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Miller, Paul E. [Comparative Ophthalmic Research Laboratory (CORL), University of Wisconsin, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Madison, WI (United States); Zhou, Wei [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Lu, Hong [Biologics Clinical Pharmacology, Janssen BioTherapeutics at Johnson & Johnson, Spring House, PA (United States); Akimov, Mikhail [Oncology Global Development, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Kluwe, William [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    AUY922, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor is associated with ocular adverse events (AEs). To provide a better understanding of ocular AEs in patients, 4 investigative studies were performed in a step-wise approach to assess retinal structure and function in pigmented (Brown Norway) and albino (Wistar) rats. In rats administered 30 mg/kg of AUY922, the AUC{sub 0–24} {sub h} and C{sub max} are comparable to that in patients at 70 mg/m{sup 2}. AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was poorly tolerated by rats with morbidity or mortality generally after the third weekly treatment. Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. The ERG changes were dose dependent, consistent with an effect on the photoreceptors, and fully reversible. The ERG effects could not be minimized by decreasing the C{sub max} while maintaining AUC. Histopathological changes were seen mainly when rats were administered AUY922 at 100 mg/kg. The 2-hour infusion of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg caused disorganization of the outer segment photoreceptor morphology in male Brown Norway rats; the severity of the disorganization increased with the number of administrations, but was reversible during a 4-week posttreatment period. There was no major difference in ocular response between Brown Norway and Wistar rats. No changes in serum iron levels, and no changes in rhodopsin, PDE6α, β-transducin concentrations, or retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 expression were observed after single and multiple infusions of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg compared to vehicle-treated controls. AUY922 retinal toxicity in rats recapitulates and further characterizes that reported in patients and is shown to be reversible, while a precise molecular mechanism for the effect was not determined. - Highlights: • Ocular toxicity of AUY922 was assessed in Brown Norway and Wistar rats. • AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was generally not well tolerated by rats. • Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30

  13. Usefulness of CT-scan in the diagnosis and therapeutic approach of gallstone ileus: report of two surgically treated cases

    OpenAIRE

    Michele, Danzi; Luciano, Grimaldi; Massimiliano, Fabozzi; Stefano, Reggio; Roberta, Danzi; Ernesto, Soscia; Bruno, Amato

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallstone ileus is a rare cause of gastrointestinal obstruction, more frequent in elderly patients, whose treatment is essentially surgical, although some para-surgical and mini-invasive possibilities exist, allowing the solution of such obstructive condition in a completely non-invasive way. Description In our study, after reporting two cases of biliary ileus managed by our surgical division, we will analyze the most suitable diagnostic procedures and the therapeutic approaches to...

  14. Biliary lipid composition and gallstone formation in rabbits fed on soy protein, cholesterol, casein and modified casein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozben, T

    1989-01-01

    In four experimental groups, rabbits were fed on diets containing soy beans, soy beans plus cholesterol (1%, w/w), casein and modified casein for 8 weeks. Biliary lipid levels, lithogenic-index values and the rate of gallstone formation were determined. The highest mean relative concentrations (mol%) of cholesterol and phospholipid were found in the soy bean + cholesterol group, and the highest mean relative bile acid concentration was in the soy bean group. The lowest mean relative cholester...

  15. Efficacy of Magnesium Trihydrate of Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Chenodeoxycholic Acid for Gallstone Dissolution: A Prospective Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck; Dong, Seok Ho; Lee, Seung-Ok; Ryu, Ji Kon; Lee, Don Haeng; Jeong, Seok; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Lee, Jin; Koh, Dong Hee; Park, Eun Taek; Lee, In-Seok; Yoo, Byung Moo; Kim, Jin Hong

    2015-07-01

    Cholecystectomy is necessary for the treatment of symptomatic or complicated gallbladder (GB) stones, but oral litholysis with bile acids is an attractive alternative therapeutic option for asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium trihydrate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on gallstone dissolution and to investigate improvements in gallstone-related symptoms. A prospective, multicenter, phase 4 clinical study to determine the efficacy of orally administered magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA was performed from January 2011 to June 2013. The inclusion criteria were GB stone diameter ≤15 mm, GB ejection fraction ≥50%, radiolucency on plain X-ray, and asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic patients. The patients were prescribed one capsule of magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA at breakfast and two capsules at bedtime for 6 months. The dissolution rate, response rate, and change in symptom score were evaluated. A total of 237 subjects were enrolled, and 195 subjects completed the treatment. The dissolution rate was 45.1% and the response rate was 47.2% (92/195) after 6 months of administration of magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA. Only the stone diameter was significantly associated with the response rate. Both the symptom score and the number of patients with symptoms significantly decreased regardless of stone dissolution. Adverse events necessitating discontinuation of the drug, surgery, or endoscopic management occurred in 2.5% (6/237) of patients. Magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA is a well-tolerated bile acid that showed similar efficacy for gallstone dissolution and improvement of gallstone-related symptoms as that shown in previous studies.

  16. A single gene causes an interspecific difference in pigmentation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed-Braimah, Yasir H; Sweigart, Andrea L

    2015-05-01

    The genetic basis of species differences remains understudied. Studies in insects have contributed significantly to our understanding of morphological evolution. Pigmentation traits in particular have received a great deal of attention and several genes in the insect pigmentation pathway have been implicated in inter- and intraspecific differences. Nonetheless, much remains unknown about many of the genes in this pathway and their potential role in understudied taxa. Here we genetically analyze the puparium color difference between members of the virilis group of Drosophila. The puparium of Drosophila virilis is black, while those of D. americana, D. novamexicana, and D. lummei are brown. We used a series of backcross hybrid populations between D. americana and D. virilis to map the genomic interval responsible for the difference between this species pair. First, we show that the pupal case color difference is caused by a single Mendelizing factor, which we ultimately map to an ∼11-kb region on chromosome 5. The mapped interval includes only the first exon and regulatory region(s) of the dopamine N-acetyltransferase gene (Dat). This gene encodes an enzyme that is known to play a part in the insect pigmentation pathway. Second, we show that this gene is highly expressed at the onset of pupation in light brown taxa (D. americana and D. novamexicana) relative to D. virilis, but not in the dark brown D. lummei. Finally, we examine the role of Dat in adult pigmentation between D. americana (heavily melanized) and D. novamexicana (lightly melanized) and find no discernible effect of this gene in adults. Our results demonstrate that a single gene is entirely or almost entirely responsible for a morphological difference between species. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Effect of Ursodeoxycholic Acid Alone and Ursodeoxycholic Acid Plus Domperidone on Radiolucent Gallstones and Gallbladder Contractility in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA alone and UDCA plus domperidone on dissolution of solitary or multiple gallstones. Methods. Fifty-three patients with cholesterol gallstones were randomized into three treatment groups: group I (=22 was given UDCA (15 mg/kg/day alone and group II (=18 was treated with domperidone (30 mg/day in addition to UDCA. The control group (=13 was followed without a medical treatment. Gallbladder volumes and ejection fractions were measured sonographically in all patients before and after treatment. Results. After 12 months of treatment, stone dissolution was found in 9 (40.9% of the patients in group I and 7 (38.8% of the patients in group II. The difference was statistically significant compared to controls in both treatment groups (0.05. All the patients that achieved dissolution had multiple gallstones except for one patient with a solitary stone in group I. Neither monotherapy of UDCA nor the combination with domperidone affected the ejection fraction of gallbladder. Conclusions. Combination with domperidone did not potentiate the efficacy of UDCA. It has been observed that both UDCA alone and UDCA plus domperidone treatment did not affect ejection fraction of gallbladder.

  18. Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Gallstone Removal Using a 12-Fr Sheath in High-Risk Surgical Patients with Acute Cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Yong Joo; Shin, Tae Beom

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic cholecystolithotomy under fluoroscopic guidance in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis. Sixty-three consecutive patients of high surgical risk with acute calculous cholecystitis underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallstone removal under conscious sedation. The stones were extracted through the 12-Fr sheath using a Wittich nitinol stone basket under fluoroscopic guidance on three days after performing a percutaneous cholecystostomy. Large or hard stones were fragmented using either the snare guide wire technique or the metallic cannula technique. Gallstones were successfully removed from 59 of the 63 patients (94%). Reasons for stone removal failure included the inability to grasp a large stone in two patients, and the loss of tract during the procedure in two patients with a contracted gallbladder. The mean hospitalization duration was 7.3 days for acute cholecystitis patients and 9.4 days for gallbladder empyema patients. Bile peritonitis requiring percutaneous drainage developed in two patients. No symptomatic recurrence occurred during follow-up (mean, 608.3 days). Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gallstone removal using a 12-Fr sheath is technically feasible and clinically effective in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis

  19. Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Gallstone Removal Using a 12-Fr Sheath in High-Risk Surgical Patients with Acute Cholecystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan [Keimyung University, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Andong General Hospital, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae Beom [Gyeonsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic cholecystolithotomy under fluoroscopic guidance in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis. Sixty-three consecutive patients of high surgical risk with acute calculous cholecystitis underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallstone removal under conscious sedation. The stones were extracted through the 12-Fr sheath using a Wittich nitinol stone basket under fluoroscopic guidance on three days after performing a percutaneous cholecystostomy. Large or hard stones were fragmented using either the snare guide wire technique or the metallic cannula technique. Gallstones were successfully removed from 59 of the 63 patients (94%). Reasons for stone removal failure included the inability to grasp a large stone in two patients, and the loss of tract during the procedure in two patients with a contracted gallbladder. The mean hospitalization duration was 7.3 days for acute cholecystitis patients and 9.4 days for gallbladder empyema patients. Bile peritonitis requiring percutaneous drainage developed in two patients. No symptomatic recurrence occurred during follow-up (mean, 608.3 days). Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gallstone removal using a 12-Fr sheath is technically feasible and clinically effective in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis

  20. Skin pigmentation kinetics after UVB exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    There have been few previous studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure, and these have included only fair-skinned persons. The current study investigated pigmentation increase to steady state and fading in 12 Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis. Over...... a period of 3 weeks the subjects were UV-irradiated 6 times on the right side of the back and 12 times on the left side using a Solar Simulator and narrowband UVB with equal sub-Minimal Melanogenesis Doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured from skin remittance at 555 urn and 660 nm...... (allowing correction for erythema). The absolute pigmentation increase was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation, therefore the percentage pigmentation increase was higher in fair-skinned volunteers. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in darker-skinned persons for single and multiple UV...

  1. Selected gene polymorphisms effect on skin and hair pigmentation in Polish children at the prepubertal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Aneta; Rosset, Iwona; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Siewierska-Górska, Anna; Pietrowska, Edyta; Strapagiel, Dominik

    2016-11-01

    Background : Human pigmentation, similarly as many other biological features, changes in the course of post-natal ontogenesis, while in case of hair, pigmentation changes are more distinctive than in the skin or the iris. It is therefore extremely important to identify the genes, involved in the constitution of human pigmentation features at various stages of ontogenesis. Results of this type of analyses are of high practical significance in forensic study because they enable to create mathematical tools, allowing for prediction of the pigmentation phenotype, based on DNA studies. Aim : The objective of the investigation was finding out whether the genes, associated with pigmentation of adult subjects, differentiated in any way the newly forming pigmentation phenotype in Polish prepubertal children. Material and methods : The study encompassed Polish children, aged 7 to 10 years, without any abnormalities in skin or hair pigmentation. A total of 245 children were examined. Constitutive skin pigmentation according to skin melanin index (SMI) was evaluated, using a dermaspectrometer, and classified into three groups based on the reference values of 25 and 75 percentile for Polish children. Hair colors were evaluated by means of the descriptive Fischer-Saller scale and classified by a division of color variants (as accepted in that scale) (light blonde, blonde, dark blonde, brown and dark brown). In saliva samples, collected from the children, five (5) single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: SNPs : rs1800401 ( OCA2 -15q11.2-q12), rs35264875 ( TPCN2 -11q13.3), rs16891982 ( SLC45A2 -5p13.2), rs12913832 ( HERC2 -15q13) and rs1805007 ( MC1R -16q24.3). An association between each allele of verified genotype and skin and hair color phenotypes was assessed, using the z-statistic and associated p -value. The quality of classifiers was evaluated by 10-fold stratified cross-validation and was characterized by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve

  2. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyan; Seay, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We construct a grid of brown dwarf model atmospheres spanning a wide range of atmospheric metallicity (0.3x ≤ met ≤ 100x), C/O ratios (0.25x ≤ C/O ≤ 2.5x), and cloud properties, encompassing atmospheres of effective temperatures 200 ≤ Teff ≤ 2400 K and gravities 2.5 ≤ log g ≤ 5.5. We produce the expected temperature-pressure profiles and emergent spectra from an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium. We can then compare our predicted spectra to observations and retrieval results to aid in their predictions and influence future missions and telescopic observations. In our poster we briefly describe our modeling methodology and present our progress on model grid construction, spanning solar and subsolar C/O and metallicity.

  3. Short communication: Aqueous-acetone extraction improves the drawbacks of using dimethylsulfoxide as solvent for photometric pigment quantification in Quercus ilex leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Gonzalez-Cascon

    2017-10-01

    Research highlights: Oxidizing conditions and polyphenol concentrations in Q. ilex leaves generated brown colorations in the DMSO extraction procedure, interfering with the photometric measurements in the red-orange region. Aqueous-acetone extraction was free from interference. DMSO should be avoided for pigment determination in Q. ilex leaves or when comparing different tree species.

  4. The Effect of Irradiation Treatment on the Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Legume Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation treatment, at room temperature, on the non-enzymatic browning reaction (Millerd reaction products, MRPs) generated in soybeans, broad beans and dried peas seeds at dose levels of 10, 30 and 60 kGy and their effects on the chemical constituents, soluble protein, available lysine and in vitro protein digestibility. The formation of MRPs in the studied legumes was assayed by monitoring the formation of brown pigments (browning intensity) by spectrophotometric method. The results revealed that the chemical composition of irradiated legumes showed non-significant differences relative to the raw one. A dose dependent decrease in soluble proteins and available lysine in the three legumes were observed. The non-enzymatic browning reaction was significantly increased with increasing the radiation dose, which was proved by changes in browning index tests. At the same time, the in vitro protein digestibility was increased after irradiation up to 60 kGy. Irradiation of dried peas with 60 kGy produced higher browning index than the other legumes. A positive correlation was observed between the radiation dose and the browning index for soybeans (R2= 0.96), broad beans (R2 = 0.81) and dried peas (R2 = 0.97) which means that 96%, 81% and 97 of the variation in the incidence of non-enzymatic browning reaction in soybean, broad bean and dried peas, respectively, are due to the effect of irradiation treatments. The present study suggests that the formation of non-enzymatic browning reaction did not impair the nutritional quality of legumes, therefore, the process of irradiation was helpful in increasing the in vitro protein digestibility of studied legumes. These results clearly indicated that gamma irradiation processing at the studied doses can add valuable effects to the studied legumes

  5. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria: A prospective source of natural antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Pawar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria screened for its antioxidant potentials reveals 55.5% of the organisms were able to synthesize antioxidant compounds. DPPH assay showed 20% of the organisms to reach a antioxidant zone of 1 cm and 8.3% of the strains more than 3 cm. Pseudomonas koreensis (JX915782 a Sargassum associated yellowish brown pigmented bacteria have better activity than known commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT against DPPH scavenging. Serratia rubidaea (JX915783, an associate of Ulva sp. and Pseudomonas argentinensis (JX915781 an epiphyte of Chaetomorpha media, were also contributed significantly towards ABTS (7.2% ± 0.03 to 15.2 ± 0.09%; 1.8% ± 0.01 to 15.7 ± 0.22% and FRAP (1.81 ± 0.01 to 9.35 ± 0.98; 7.97 ± 0.12 to 18.70 ± 1.84 μg/mL of AsA Eq. respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed bacteria that have higher antioxidant activity belongs to a bacterial class Gammaproteobacteria. Statistical analysis of phenolic contents in relation with other parameters like DPPH, ABTS, reducing power and FRAP are well correlated (p < 0.05. Results obtained from the current study inferred that the seaweed associated pigmented bacteria have enormous potential on antioxidant compounds and need to be extracted in a larger way for clinical applications.

  6. Ecological-friendly pigments from fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Teixeira, Maria F S; De Conti, Roseli; Esposito, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    The dyestuff industry is suffering from the increases in costs of feedstock and energy for dye synthesis, and they are under increasing pressure to minimize the damage to the environment. The industries are continuously looking for cheaper, more environmentally friendly routes to existing dyes. The aim of this minireview is to discuss the most important advances in the fungal pigment area and its interest in biotechnological applications. Characteristic pigments are produced by a wide variety of fungi and the chemical composition of natural dyes are described. These pigments exhibit several biological activities besides cytotoxicity. The synthetic pigments authorized by the EC and in USA and the natural pigments available in the world market are discussed. The obstacle to the exploitation of new natural pigments sources is the food legislation, requesting costly toxicological research, manufacturing costs, and acceptance by consumers. The dislike for novel ingredients is likely to be the biggest impediment for expansion of the pigment list in the near future. If the necessary toxicological testing and the comparison with accepted pigments are made, the fungal pigments, could be acceptable by the current consumer. The potentiality of pigment production in Brazil is possible due to tremendous Amazonian region biodiversity.

  7. Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaban, R.; Moellmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmentated (B lt /B lt ) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). The authors show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, they conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. The studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the B lt mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation

  8. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in these...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  10. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-03-07

    To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.

  11. Influence of delayed cholecystectomy after acute gallstone pancreatitis on recurrence: consequences of lack of resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bejarano-González

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is often a relapsing condition, particularly when its triggering factor persists. Our goal is to determine the recurrence rate of acute biliary pancreatitis after an initial episode, and the time to relapse, as well as to identify the risk factors for recurrence. Material and method: We included all patients admitted for a first acute gallstone pancreatitis event during four years. Primary endpoints included readmission for recurrence and time to relapse. Results: We included 296 patients admitted on a total of 386 occasions. The incidence of acute biliary pancreatitis in our setting is 17.5/100,000 population/year. In all, 19.6% of pancreatitis were severe (22.6% of severe acute pancreatitis for first episodes versus 3.6% for recurring pancreatitis, with an overall mortality of 4.4%. Overall recurrence rate was 15.5%, with a median time to relapse of 82 days. In total, 14.2% of patients relapsed after an acute pancreatitis event without cholecystectomy or endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography. Severe acute pancreatitis recur in 7.2% of patients, whereas mild cases do so in 16.3%, this being the only risk factor for recurrence thus far identified. Conclusions: Patients admitted for pancreatitis should undergo cholecystectomy as soon as possible or be guaranteed priority on the waiting list. Otherwise, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography with sphincterotomy may be an alternative to surgery for selected patients.

  12. Is Surgery Safe In Gallstone-related Acute Diseases In Elderly Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkan, Z.; Kanat, B. H.; Gonen, A. N.; Bozan, M. B.; Erol, F.; Gul, E.; Gundogdu, Z.; Yazar, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determinate the safety of the surgical treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis in elderly patients. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of General Surgery, Elazig Training and Research Hospital, Elazig, Turkey, from January 2010 to July 2012. Methodology: Records of 172 patients with acute complications of biliary calculi, aged over 65 years, were included. Patients were assessed for demographic information, hospitalisation diagnosis, leucocyte count, ASA classification, treatment type, conversion rates, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS version 20.0. Result: The sample included 128 females (74.4 percentage) and 44 males (25.6 percentage). Patients' diagnoses included 135 (78.4 percentage) acute cholecystitis and 37 (21.6 percentage) acute pancreatitis. Medical treatment was offered to 113 patients (65.7 percentage). Open cholecystectomy was directly performed in 17 patients (9.9 percentage). Two patients (4.8 percentage) were converted to an open cholecystectomy during surgery, while a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed sucessfully on 42 patients (24.4 percentage). Those who underwent surgery were discharged as cured, except for minimal surgical complications. Conclusion: Treatment choice in acute gallstone complications in the elderly depends on the patient's general condition, severity of the disease, and ASA score. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a good option in selected elderly patients with acute cholecystitis and non-severe acute biliary pancreatitis. (author)

  13. Trace Elements Distribution in Human Gallstones, Bile and Gallbladder Tissues Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugassa, I. O.; Khrbish, Y. S.; Bshir, A. T.; Doubali, K.; Abugassa, S. O.

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on the elemental distribution in different types of gallstones; bile and gallbladder tissues using neutron activation analysis technique based on k0-INAA method in Tajura center. Samples were collected from patients who undergone open surgery of gallbladder (cholecystectomy) at El-khadra University Hospital in Tripoli, aged between 23-80 yr. The samples obtained from patients who don't suffer from any chronic diseases, therefore, they were not taking any medications that might elevate the concentration of certain elements in the body. Samples were prepared and lyophilized by different process in a clean room. All samples were irradiated in the reactor and measured in the neutron activation laboratory. In order to obtain accurate results, Au and Zr flux monitors were irradiated with the samples for flux ratio (f) and α determinations and to account for any flux variations within the container. The irradiations of the samples were carried out in the reactor channels VCR11 and VCR12 for 8 hours under f (32 and 14) and α parameters (0.0183, 0.1678) respectively. More than 20 elements were determined in the above mentioned samples. Several SRM were irradiated with the samples to insure the reliability of the results.

  14. Radurization of brown shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.; Muenzner, R.

    1976-01-01

    Brown shrimps (Crangon vulgaris) from the North sea coast were blanched on board, and irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma-rays at a minimum dose of 130 krad either before or after peeling. Other samples were irradiated before and after peeling. Control samples remained untreated or were preserved with benzoic acid. Irradiation before peeling did not result in a lasting improvement of keeping quality. However, irradiation of the peeled shrimp meat resulted in a reduction of the total bacterial load by up to 4 orders of magnitude. Shelf life until the initial microbial count was reached was 9 days for chemically treated samples, 18 days for samples irradiated after peeling, and 20 days for samples irradiated before and after peeling. Sensory evaluation and determination of volatile basic nitrogen gave similar results. The obtained diminution of the counts of staphylococci, enterococci and enterobacteriaceae reduces the hygienic hazard. Radurization of shrimp meat proved to be a satisfactory means of preservation. Introduction of the product into the market and best presentation and packaging require further investigations. (orig.) [de

  15. Production of Monascus-like azaphilone Pigment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  16. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Das Jayanta Kumar; Gangopadhyay Asok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the on...

  17. PRODUCTION OF MONASCUS-LIKE AZAPHILONE PIGMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  18. Bioproduction and characterization of extracellular melanin-like pigment from industrially polluted metagenomic library equipped Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shivani; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sonani, Ravi R; Ray, Arabinda; Sharma, Rakesh; Madamwar, Datta

    2018-04-15

    To explore the potential genes from the industrially polluted Amlakhadi canal, located in Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India, its community genome was extracted and cloned into E. coli EPI300™-T1 R using a fosmid vector (pCC2 FOS™) generating a library of 3,92,000 clones with average size of 40kb of DNA-insert. From this library, the clone DM1 producing brown colored melanin-like pigment was isolated and characterized. For over expression of the pigment, further sub-cloning of the clone DM1 was done. Sub-clone containing 10kb of the insert was sequenced for gene identification. The amino acids sequence of a protein 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), which is know to be involved in melanin biosynthesis was obtained from the gene sequence. The sequence-homology based 3D structure model of HPPD was constructed and analyzed. The physico-chemical nature of pigment was further analysed using 1 H and 13 C NMR, LC-MS, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. The pigment was readily soluble in DMSO with an absorption maximum around 290nm. Based on the genetic and chemical characterization, the compound was confirmed as melanin-like pigment. The present results indicate that the metagenomic library from industrially polluted environment generated a microbial tool for the production of melanin-like pigment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies of binary cerium(IV)-praseodymium(IV) and cerium(IV)-terbium(IV) oxides as pigments for ceramic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, L.M.L.

    1991-01-01

    It was investigated a series of pigments of general composition Ce 1-x Pr x O 2 , and Ce x Tb y O 2 , exhibiting radish and brown colors, respectively, and high temperature stability. The pigments were obtained by dissolving appropriate amounts of the pure lanthanide oxides in acids and precipitating the rare earths as mixed oxalates, which were isolated and calcined under air, at 1000 0 C. X-Ray powder diffractograms were consistent with a cubic structure for the pigments. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, using Gouy method, indicated the presence of Pr(IV) ions in the Ce 1-x Pr x O 2 pigments and of Terbium predominantly as Tb(III) ions in the Ce-tb mixed oxides. A new method, based on suspension of solid samples in PVA-STB gels (STB = sodium tetradecaborate), was employed for the measurements of the electronic spectra of the pigments. The thermal behaviour the pigments was investigated by the calcination of the oxalates in the temperature range of 500 to 1200 O C, from 10 to 60 minutes. (author)

  20. Dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule associated with the pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danny Y; Volpicelli, Mark; Singh, Kuldev

    2003-12-01

    To report an unusual case of pigment dispersion syndrome associated with unilateral dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule. Case report. A 59-year-old male with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the left eye over the past 10 to 20 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including the presence of bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Of note, there was remarkably dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule in the eye with decreased visual acuity. Pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The optimal treatment of this unusual condition remains undetermined.

  1. Electron crystallography of organic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, G.

    1997-10-01

    The principle aim of this thesis is the detailing of the development and subsequent use of electron crystallographic techniques which employ the maximum entropy approach. An account is given of the electron microscope as a crystallographic instrument, along with the necessary theory involved. Also, an overview of the development of electron crystallography, as a whole, is given. This progresses to a description of the maximum entropy methodology and how use can be made of electron diffraction data in ab initio phasing techniques. Details are also given of the utilisation of image derived phases in the determination of structural information. Extensive examples are given of the use of the maximum entropy program MICE, as applied to a variety of structural problems. A particular area of interest covered by this thesis is regarding the solid state structure of organic pigments. A detailed structure review of both β-naphthol and acetoacetanilide pigments was undertaken. Information gained from this review was used as a starting point for the attempted structural elucidation of a related pigment, Barium Lake Red C. Details are given of the synthesis, electron microscope studies and subsequent ab initio phasing procedures applied in the determination of structural information on Barium Lake Red C. The final sections of this thesis detail electron crystallographic analyses of three quite different structures. Common to all was the use of maximum entropy methods, both for ab initio phasing and use of image derived phases. Overall, it is shown that electron crystallographic structure analyses using maximum entropy methods are successful using electron diffraction data and do provide distinct structural information even when significant perturbations to the data exist. (author)

  2. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Adam S; Garc?a, Dana M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog) is one example. Previous research indicates that the ca...

  3. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    OpenAIRE

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and musc...

  4. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Potential Regulatory Proteins Involved in Chicken Eggshell Brownness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqi Li

    Full Text Available Brown eggs are popular in many countries and consumers regard eggshell brownness as an important indicator of egg quality. However, the potential regulatory proteins and detailed molecular mechanisms regulating eggshell brownness have yet to be clearly defined. In the present study, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis with iTRAQ technology in the shell gland epithelium of hens laying dark and light brown eggs to investigate the candidate proteins and molecular mechanisms underlying variation in chicken eggshell brownness. The results indicated 147 differentially expressed proteins between these two groups, among which 65 and 82 proteins were significantly up-regulated in the light and dark groups, respectively. Functional analysis indicated that in the light group, the down-regulated iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein (Iba57 would decrease the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX; furthermore, the up-regulated protein solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator, member 5 (SLC25A5 and down-regulated translocator protein (TSPO would lead to increased amounts of protoporphyrin IX transported into the mitochondria matrix to form heme with iron, which is supplied by ovotransferrin protein (TF. In other words, chickens from the light group produce less protoporphyrin IX, which is mainly used for heme synthesis. Therefore, the exported protoporphyrin IX available for eggshell deposition and brownness is reduced in the light group. The current study provides valuable information to elucidate variation of chicken eggshell brownness, and demonstrates the feasibility and sensitivity of iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis in providing useful insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying brown eggshell pigmentation.

  5. Characterization of pigments applied on archaeological material from Chincha's Culture by x-rays fluorescence and transmission electronic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, Alcides; Olivera, Paula

    2007-01-01

    The elementary characterization of some pigments applied in the decoration of recipients used by our ancestors of the Chincha Culture by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)method was allowed. Additionally, the morphological and crystalline characterization by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) method has been possible. The results have allowed identifying the presence of mercury sulphur (HgS) (cinnabar) in the red pigment on the 'mate'; the black and white pigments are constituted by materials of organic aspect; in the case the dark brown one they are constituted by organic matter and ferric oxide. This work also demonstrates that a portable EDXRF spectrometer is the most suitable for the study of pieces of our cultural patrimony, mainly of those that are difficult to transport from an archaeological place or museum to an analytic laboratory by reason of its dimensions and conservation conditions. (author)

  6. Paraneoplastic addisonian pigmentation and acquired ichthyosis as presenting features of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Raza, N.

    2010-01-01

    Black brown hyperpigmentation of the mucosae, sun exposed skin, palmar creases and frictional sites (Addisonian pigmentation) is characteristic of Addison disease. However, it can also occur as a para neoplastic manifestation of tumours like bronchogenic carcinoma. Acquired ichthyosis starts later in life and can also be a para neoplastic presentation.We report a unique combination of para neoplastic Addisonian pigmentation and acquired ichthyosis as presenting features in a patient with undiagnosed multiple myeloma. To the best of our knowledge this combination of para neoplastic dermatosis has not been documented before in multiple myeloma. It is concluded that the presence of more than one suspicious dermatosis may be an indicator of being para neoplastic requiring necessary work-up. (author)

  7. Cost Optimization of Mortars Containing Different Pigments and Their Freeze-Thaw Resistance Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Alper Yıldızel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is common to use colored concrete or mortar in prefabricated concrete and reinforced concrete construction elements. Within the scope of this study, colored mortars were obtained with the addition of brown, yellow, black, and red pigments into the white cement. Those mixtures are examined for their compressive strength, unit weight, water absorption, and freeze-thaw resistance. Subsequent to comparison of these properties, a cost optimization has been conducted in order to compare pigment costs. The outcomes showed that the pore structure in architectural mortar applications plays an important role in terms of durability. And cost optimization results show that light colored minerals can be used instead of white cements.

  8. Pigmentation changes in Siderastrea spp. during bleaching events in the costal reefs of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the occurrence of seasonal changes in the pigmentation of colonies of Siderastrea spp. during bleaching events on coastal reefs in northeastern Brazil. Bleached affected almost 50% of coral colonies analyzed in Cabo Branco reefs (Paraiba state in the summer of 2005. The same phenomenon was detected along various coastal reefs in northeastern Brazil during the summer of 2007 and 2008. These events were seasonal, and began with the emergence of pale colonies that became pale-pink and then purple during the rainy months. The patterns and intensity of colonies pigmentation changes varied with the studied sites. The decrease in zooxanthellae density and chlorophyll-a content was quantified in the colonies with their pigmentation pattern altered (bleaching. Microbiological analyses revealed higher densities of bacteria in pink colonies (bleached as compared to brown colonies (normal. Environmental disturbances may lead to the pigmentation changes in Siderastrea spp., but the immediate causes of this phenomenon are not clear and require further investigations.

  9. A WD40-repeat protein controls proanthocyanidin and phytomelanin pigmentation in the seed coats of the Japanese morning glory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeung-Il; Hoshino, Atsushi

    2012-03-15

    The protein complex composed of the transcriptional regulators containing R2R3-MYB domains, bHLH domains, and WDR in plants controls various epidermal traits, including anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pigmentation, trichome and root hair formation, and vacuolar pH. In the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil), InMYB1 having R2R3-MYB domains and InWDR1 containing WDR were shown to regulate anthocyanin pigmentation in flowers, and InWDR1 was reported to control dark-brown pigmentation and trichome formation on seed coats. Here, we report that the seed pigments of I. nil mainly comprise proanthocyanidins and phytomelanins and that these pigments are drastically reduced in the ivory seed coats of an InWDR1 mutant. In addition, a transgenic plant of the InWDR1 mutant carrying the active InWDR1 gene produced dark-brown seeds, further confirming that InWDR1 regulates seed pigmentation. Early steps in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathways are thought to be common. In the InWDR1 mutant, none of the structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis that showed reduced expression in the white flowers were down-regulated in the ivory seeds, which suggests that InWDR1 may activate different sets of the structural genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis in flowers and proanthocyanidin production in seeds. As in the flowers, however, we noticed that the expression of InbHLH2 encoding a bHLH regulator was down-regulated in the seeds of the InWDR1 mutant. We discuss the implications of these results with respect to the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in the seed coats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms of ATP binding cassette G8 gene with gallstone disease: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and gallstone disease using meta-analysis and compared the hepatic ABCG5/G8 mRNA expression and biliary lipids composition in patients with different genotypes of T400K and Y54C.Data were analyzed using the Stata/SE 11.0 software and a random- effects model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Hepatic mRNA expression of ABCG5/G8 genes in 182 patients with gallstone disease and 35 gallstone-free patients who underwent cholecystectomy were determined using real-time PCR. Genotypes of Y54C and T400K in the ABCG8 gene were determined by allelic discrimination using either genomic DNA or hepatic cDNA as template by Taqman assays. Biliary compostion in gallbladder bile was assayed in these patients as well.Ten papers including 13 cohorts were included for the final analysis. In the genotype model, the overall association between genotype with gallstone was significant for D19H (OR = 2.43, 95%CI: 2.23-2.64, P<0.001, and for Y54C (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.01-1.83, P = 0.044, or T400K (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.96-1.43. P = 0.110. In allele model, minor alleles of D19H polymorphism (allele D: OR = 2.25, 95%CI: 2.10-2.42, P<0.001 and of T400K polymorphism (allele K: OR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.06-1.31, P<0.001 were related with an increased risk of gallstone disease. However, minor allele of Y54C polymorphism (allele Y, OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.96-1.21, P = 0.146 was not related with gallstone disease. I(2 statistics indicated no significant between-study heterogeneity for all genetic models for any of the three polymorphisms. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested the absence of publication bias as well. However, no association of T400K and Y54C polymorphism with hepatic ABCG8/G5 mRNA expression or biliary lipids composition was found.Our study showed strong association of D19H polymorphism with gallstone disease. T400K and Y54C polymorphism, though to

  11. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease (GSD and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians.This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model.The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08 and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22 predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13, and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73 are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians.Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1 age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2 age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  12. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chun; Chiou, Chia; Lin, Ming-Nan; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease (GSD) and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians. This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model. The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08) and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22) predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73) are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians. Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1) age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2) age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  13. Gallstone disease and obesity: a population-based study on abdominal fat distribution and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmard, Amir Reza; Merat, Shahin; Kooraki, Soheil; Ashraf, Mahya; Keshtkar, Abbas; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Jafari, Elham; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests the visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. We aimed to investigate the value of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue thickness (VAT) for prediction of gallstone disease (GSD) in general population by focus on gender differences and comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this cross-sectional survey, 1,494 subjects (51.4 % men), aged above 50, randomly selected from Golestan Cohort Study residing in Gonbad City, Iran, underwent anthropometric measurements and abdominal ultrasonography. Prevalence of GSD was 17.8% (95% CI 15.9-19.8). Following adjustment for age and then other potential risk factors, all obesity indices, except for SAT, were associated with GSD in women with the highest odds ratio observed in WHtR (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.89). In contrast, WHR was the only associated index in men (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08-2.06). The trend of increasing obesity measures across the quartiles with the risk of GSD was significant in subgroups of WHtR and BMI in women and WHR in men. No significant association was found between SAT and GSD in men or women. The best anthropometric indicators of the risk of GSD may differ by gender. In men, WHR might be the only preferred index to estimate risk of GSD. WHtR, WHR, VAT and BMI are associated with GSD risk in women, although WHtR might better explain this risk. SAT is the poor indicator for identifying subjects with GSD in both genders.

  14. Brown coal gasification made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Few Victorians will be aware that gas derived from coal was first used in 1849 to provide lighting in a baker's shop in Swanston Street, long before electric lighting came to the State. The first commercial 'gas works' came on stream in 1856 and Melbourne then had street lighting run on gas. By 1892 there were 50 such gas works across the State. Virtually all were fed with black coal imported from New South Wales. Brown coal was first discovered west of Melbourne in 1857, and the Latrobe Valley deposits were identified in the early 1870s. Unfortunately, such wet brown coal did not suit the gas works. Various attempts to commercialise Victorian brown coal met with mixed success as it struggled to compete with imported New South Wales black coal. In June 1924 Yallourn A transmitted the first electric power to Melbourne, and thus began the Latrobe Valley's long association with generating electric power from brown coal. Around 1950, the Metropolitan Gas Company applied for financial assistance to build a towns gas plant using imported German gasification technology which had been originally designed for a brown coal briquette feed. The State Government promptly acquired the company and formed the Gas and Fuel Corporation. The Morwell Gasification Plant was opened on 9 December 1956 and began supplying Melbourne with medium heating value towns gas

  15. Analysis of ancient pigments by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jian; Xu Cunyi

    1999-01-01

    Raman microscopy can be applied for the spatial resolution, and non-destructive in situ analysis of inorganic pigments in pottery, manuscripts and paintings. Compared with other techniques, it is the best single technique for this purpose. An overview is presented of the applications of Raman microscopy in the analysis of ancient pigments

  16. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food...

  17. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2009-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents theA non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to

  18. Pigmented skin disorders: Evaluation and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentary disorders are disturbances of human skin color. Minor changes in the cellular physiology of the skin can dramatically affect pigment production in positive or negative manner. In this these, associated diseases, therapeutical options and disease parameters for the pigmentation disorder

  19. Effect of ripening, heat processing, and fat type on the micellarization of pigments from jalapeño peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime David; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar

    2013-10-16

    Raw and heat-processed (boiled and grilled) jalapeño peppers at three intermediate ripening stages (brown, 50% red, and 75% red) were digested in vitro without fat and in the presence of soybean oil (SO) or beef tallow (BT), and the micellarization of their lipid soluble pigments (LSP) was measured. The micelles from digestions with brown, 50% red, and 75% red peppers contained up to 27, 35, and 29 different LSP, respectively. Boiling and grilling decreased the micellarization of LSP from brown peppers, whereas the opposite was observed with 75% red peppers. Heat processing did not clearly affect the micellarization of LSP from 50% red fruits. The impact of fat on LSP micellarization was ripening-dependent, but the micellarization of the less polar carotenoids was always increased by SO or BT. This positive effect of fat was higher with SO than with BT.

  20. Laugier-hunziker syndrome: A rare cause of oral and acral pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silonie Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS is an acquired, benign pigmentary skin condition involving oral cavity including lower lip in the form of brown black macules 1-5 mm in size, frequently associated with longitudinal melanonychia. There is no underlying systemic abnormality or malignant predisposition associated with LHS, and therefore the prognosis is good. Important differential diagnoses include Peutz Jeghers syndrome and Addison′s disease among other causes of oral and acral pigmentation. Treatment is sought mainly for cosmetic reasons and Q-switched Nd-Yag laser/ Q-switched alexandrite therapy and cryosurgery have been tried with varying success.

  1. Comparison of protoporphyrin IX content and related gene expression in the tissues of chickens laying brown-shelled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqi; Chen, Sirui; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an immediate precursor of heme, is the main pigment resulting in the brown coloration of eggshell. The brownness and uniformity of the eggshell are important marketing considerations. In this study, 9 chickens laying darker brown shelled eggs and 9 chickens laying lighter brown shelled eggs were selected from 464 individually caged layers in a Rhode Island Red pureline. The PpIX contents were measured with a Microplate Reader at the wavelength of 412 nm and were compared in different tissues of the 2 groups. Although no significant difference in serum, bile, and excreta was found between the 2 groups, PpIX content in the shell gland and eggshell of the darker group was higher than in those of the lighter group, suggesting that PpIX was synthesized in the shell gland. We further determined the expression levels of 8 genes encoding enzymes involved in the heme synthesis and transport in the liver and shell gland at 6 h postoviposition by quantitative PCR. The results showed that expression of aminolevulinic acid synthase-1 (ALAS1) was higher in the liver of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs, whereas in the shell gland the expression levels of ALAS1, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX), ATP-binding cassette family members ABCB7 and ABCG2, and receptor for feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FLVCR) were significantly higher in the hens laying darker brown shelled eggs. Our results demonstrated that hens laying darker brown shelled eggs could deposit more PpIX onto the eggshell and the brownness of the eggshell was dependent on the total quantity of PpIX in the eggshell. More heme was synthesized in the liver and shell gland of hens laying darker brown shelled eggs than those of hens laying lighter brown shelled eggs. High expression level of ABCG2 might facilitate the accumulation of PpIX in the shell gland.

  2. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    the cultivation medium with an inoculum of Penicillium to form a cultivation composition; d) cultivating the inoculated cultivation composition of (c); e) separating the one or more produced pigment compositions. The method of the invention may be used for producing Monascus-like pigment compositions for use......The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculating...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  3. Analysis of flavonoids and the flavonoid structural genes in brown fiber of upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3'H, and GhF3'5'H were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. RESULT: The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL. The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

  4. Consumer Acceptance and Preference Study (CAPS) on brown and undermilled Indian rice varieties in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and undermilled rice among urban south Indians. Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and nonslum residences in Chennai participated (n = 82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (undermilled). Thus, 9 rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of 3 days. A 7-point hedonic scale was used to rate consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data, and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste, and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed a willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice, if affordable, after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Though most consumers preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or undermilled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults.

  5. Structure of plant bile pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  6. The Composition and The Content of The Main Pigments on Dodders Plant Cuscuta australis R.Br. and Cassytha filiformis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriyanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on dodders plant Cuscuta australis R.Br. and Cassytha filiformis L was done to analyze their pigment composition and content. The pigment composition was analyzed by the use of thin layer chromatography (TLC method based on spot color and retardation factor. The water content was measured according to Sudarmadji et. al. The chlorophylls and carotenoid contents were calculated by Porra et. al. and Gross equation, respectively. Result showed that Cuscuta australis R.Br. (green yellowish and orange and Cassytha filiformis L. (green and brown reddish had similar pigment composition consist of carotene, pheophytin a, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and xanthophyll. The average of the chlorophyll content from the highest to the lowest one was Cassytha filiformis L. green followed by Cuscuta australis R.Br. green yellowish and orange, while the total chlorophyll of Cassytha filiformis L. brown reddish was relatively similar with other dodders plant. The average of the carotenoid content from the highest to the lowest was Cuscuta australis R.Br. orange followed by Cuscuta australis R.Br. green yellowish. The pigment content of Cassytha filiformis L. was relatively similar to Cassytha filiformis L. brown reddish.

  7. Browns Ferry charcoal adsorber incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews the temperature excursion in the charcoal adsorber beds of the Browns Ferry Unit 3 off-gas system that occurred on July 17, 1977. Significant temperature increases were experienced in the charcoal adsorber beds when charcoal fines were ignited by the ignition of a combustible mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the off-gas system. The Browns Ferry off-gas system is described, and events leading up to and surrounding the incident are discussed. The follow-up investigation by Tennessee Valley Authority and General Electric Company personnel and their recommendations for system and operational modifications are summarized

  8. Laparoscopic and ultrasound assisted management of gallstone ileus after biliointestinal bypass Case report and a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Mauro; Bozzo, Samantha; Centurelli, Andrea; Giovanelli, Alessandro; Vasino, Michele Ciocca

    2016-05-24

    To report about an additional case of biliary ileus after bariatric surgery is reported and extensively reviewing the literature on this topic. We reviewed the literature and found three cases of gallstone ileus (GI) that occurred after bariatric surgery. A 41 year old patient presented a GI eight years after a biliointestinal bypass (BIB) for morbid obesity. The patient complained of abdominal pain for two weeks. Computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasound (US) allowed a preoperative diagnosis of GI and planning of surgical strategy. Surgical treatment was carried out through laparoscopic-assisted enterolithotomy alone procedure. This choice is supported discussing the related issues: morbidity, potential recurrence, eventual developing of gallbladder carcinoma. It is the first reported case of GI after BIB preoperatively diagnosed through CT scan and US, and treated with a laparoscopic assisted approach. Additional considerations concerning preoperative diagnosis, surgical strategy, technical details and follow-up can be usefully applied even in non post-bariatric biliary ileus. Biliointestinal bypass, Gallstone ileus, Laparoscopy, Ultrasonography.

  9. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32.

  10. Beta-alanine and dopamine in the reddish brown scales of Papilio butterflies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umebachi, Yoshishige; Ishizaki, Yumi

    1983-01-01

    (1) Reddish brown scales of the anal eye spot in the hind-wings of P. demoleus and P. machaon have been examined for β-alanine and dopamine. (2) The scales were fractionated into 70% ethanol-soluble fraction, 4% HCl-methanol-soluble fraction, and the residua l scales, and the β-alanine content of each fraction was determined. Most of the β-alanine present in the scales has been found in the residual scales. On acid hydrolysis of the residual scales, the β-alanine has been rather rapidly released, and the hydrolysate has contained a large amount of β-alanine. (3) The protein-bound brown pigment (HCl-ppt fraction), which was extracted with 1 N NaOH and precipitated by being acidified with HCl, has contained a large amount of β-alanine. In most or at least some of the β-alanine, the NH 2 -group has been proved to be free. (4) 14 C-Labelled β-alanine and 14 C-dopamine, which were injected at prepupal or pupal stage, have been incorporated in the highest degree into the residual scales. And the 14 C has been confirmed to be present in the HCl-ppt fraction. (5) All these results indicate that the pigment of the reddish brown scales contains β-alanine and dopamine. (author)

  11. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Suo, Yujuan; Zhang, Daofeng; Jin, Fangning; Zhao, Hang; Shi, Chunlei

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus , is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD 450 ) of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM . Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs) and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59%) and ST25 (13%). Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus , non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus .

  12. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphyloxanthin (STX, a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD450 of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM. Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59% and ST25 (13%. Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus, non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus.

  13. Agaricus bisporus browning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolivet, S.; Arpin, N.; Wichers, H.J.; Pellon, G.

    1998-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus browning is a common and economically detrimental phenomenon, in which melanogenic phenols are enzymically processed into quinones, which evolve eventually to melanins. This review deals with the two fundamental sides of this process, enzyme(s) and phenolic substrates. Mushroom

  14. Cleanup at Browns Ferry 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Brad; Janvrin, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    When major work had to be done in the drywell of Browns Ferry 3, the utility, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), decided that it made sense to make it ''street clothes clean'' for workers. This not only made work easier, it saved time and millions of dollars. (author)

  15. [DYNAMIC OF CLINICAL, LABORATORY AND SONOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS AFTER SUCCESSFUL LITHOLITIC THERAPY AT PATIENTS WITH GALLSTONE DISEASE IN ASSOCIATION WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, O V; Akhmedov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the leading clinical, immunological and sonographic pararneters, reflecting the efficiency of Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) at the rate of 10 mg per 1 kg of body weight in the treatment of gallstone disease in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). An assessment of clinical, biochemical immunological and sonographic parameters in 54 patients with gallstone disease associated with the metabolic syndrome before and after the six-month treatment UDCA were made. In accordance with our results the significant predictors, reflecting successful litholitic therapy at patients with gallstone disease in association with metabolic syndrome are decrease the serum concentration of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (P = 0.003), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (P = 0.001), increase the serum concentration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (P = 0.02), decrease the left liver lobe thickness (P = 0,003) and the thickness of gallbladder wall (P = 0.0002). The results of our study have shown that the therapy with ursodesoxycholic acid of patients with metabolic syndrome leads to decrease of factors of gallstone progression (elevated levels of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and increased thickness of the left lobe liver and gallbladder wall).

  16. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to...

  17. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculati...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  18. Non-conventional synthesis of ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziubak, C.; Rutkowski, R.; Gebel, R.

    2003-01-01

    A short characterization of traditional methods of homogenization of components, used to produce ceramic pigments, was presented. Efficient and economic methods are searched to prepare raw material sets for ceramic pigments as alternative methods for the traditional way of wet mixing in ball mill or of dry mixing in the mixer of 'Z' type. The results of research of the use of sol-gel method to achieve these aims are presented. At the present stage of research, carried out on the yellow praseodymium and coral-pink iron-zirconium pigments show that traditional methods are better. (author)

  19. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques; Caracterizacion de pigmentos prehispanicos por tecnicas analiticas modernas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega A, M

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  20. Characterization of pre-hispanic pigments by modern analytical techniques; Caracterizacion de pigmentos prehispanicos por tecnicas analiticas modernas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega A, M

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the study of mural painting pigments from two archaeological sites (The Great Temple in Mexico city and Cacaxtla) was performed to know their materials composition, identify their structural characteristics and properties by using modern analytical techniques. Blue, ochre, red and black pigments of Mexica culture (1325-1521 a.C. / late Post Classic period); blue, ochre, red, brown, pink, green and white of Olmeca- Xicalanca culture (700-900 a.C. / Epiclassic period) were studied. Data about materials used, technological evolution, mineralogical background, cultural interchange and origin was obtained. Environmental exposition of these paintings since their discovering has produced changes and damage on their materials. Therefore, stability of some pigments has been notorious, ''Maya Blue'' specially presents extraordinary resistance to diluted and concentrated acids and alkalis including boiling condition, acqua regia, solvents, oxidant and reducing agents, moderate heat and biocorrosi6n; for that reason its study was emphasized. ''Maya Blue'' pigment was synthesized in laboratory using the processes described by historic sources (with indigophera suffruticosa leaves and synthetic indigo) up to obtain a stable pigment including acqua regia action. Clay matrix sorbs nearly 0.4 weight percent of organic dye, which cover 79% of palygorskita surface area. (Author)

  1. The brown dwarf kinematics project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jackie K.

    2010-10-01

    Brown dwarfs are a recent addition to the plethora of objects studied in Astronomy. With theoretical masses between 13 and 75 MJupiter , they lack sustained stable Hydrogen burning so they never join the stellar main sequence. They have physical properties similar to both planets and low-mass stars so studies of their population inform on both. The distances and kinematics of brown dwarfs provide key statistical constraints on their ages, moving group membership, absolute brightnesses, evolutionary trends, and multiplicity. Yet, until my thesis, fundamental measurements of parallax and proper motion were made for only a relatively small fraction of the known population. To address this deficiency, I initiated the Brown Dwarf Kinematics (BDKP). Over the past four years I have re-imaged the majority of spectroscopically confirmed field brown dwarfs (or ultracool dwarfs---UCDs) and created the largest proper motion catalog for ultracool dwarfs to date. Using new astrometric information I examined population characteristics such as ages calculated from velocity dispersions and correlations between kinematics and colors. Using proper motions, I identified several new wide co-moving companions and investigated binding energy (and hence formation) limitations as well as the frequency of hierarchical companions. Concurrently over the past four years I have been conducting a parallax survey of 84 UCDs including those showing spectral signatures of youth, metal-poor brown dwarfs, and those within 20 pc of the Sun. Using absolute magnitude relations in J,H, and K, I identified overluminous binary candidates and investigated known flux-reversal binaries. Using current evolutionary models, I compared the MK vs J-K color magnitude diagram to model predictions and found that the low-surface gravity dwarfs are significantly red-ward and underluminous of predictions and a handful of late-type T dwarfs may require thicker clouds to account for their scatter.

  2. Effective synthesis route for red-brown pigments based on Ce – Pr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial .... Self propagation RT. 59. Ce–Ti– .... ated by the conventional determination of mass tone as ..... Wagner C D and Muilenberg G E 1979 Handbook.

  3. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-07-13

    In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  4. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  5. Characteristic Elemental Composition of Oil Pigments using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sung Jin; Song, Yu Na; Kim, Ken [National Museum of Contemporary Art, Gwacheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The principal aim of this study is to identify the applicability of instrumental neutron activation analysis as a non-destructive examination tool for the quantitative composition analysis associated with authentication, restoration, and conservation of art objects in the field of cultural heritage. Generally, the chemical composition of pigments are associated with the colors such as white, yellow, orange, red, green, blue and black, and it varies with raw materials of pigments. According to the colors of a different pigments, chemical compositions are as follows; for example, white pigments were used for a mixture of Pb(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}, PbSO{sub 4}, PbO, Pb(OH){sub 2}, ZnO, ZnS, TiO{sub 2}, BaSO{sub 4}, CaCO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, As{sub 2}S{sub 3}, etc.; black pigments were series of carbon black, borne ash, MnO+Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc.; red pigments were Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HgS, PbMo{sub 4}, CdS+CdSe, etc.; brown and yellow pigments were PbCrO{sub 4}, ZnCrO{sub 4}, CdS-ZnS, K{sub 3}[Co(NO{sub 2}){sub 6}], Pb(SbO{sub 3}){sub 2}, C{sub 19}H{sub 16}O{sub 11}Mg, SrCrO{sub 4}, etc.; green pigments were Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O(OH){sub 4}, Cu(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2})-2Cu(OH){sub 2}), Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CoO, etc.; blue pigments were Fe{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}, CoO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 8}-{sub 10}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}S{sub 2-4}, etc. This first step is to obtain quantitative data on the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in oil pigments and to explain pigment sources by statistical treatment as reported in many literatures. The determination of major, minor and micro elements in the subject materials are essential in many fields of basic science and technology as well as commercial and industrial fields. In particular, direct analysis of a sample offers a more effective investigation method in these fields. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has an inherent advantage of being a

  6. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the onset of pigmented xerodermoid is said to be delayed till third to fourth decade of life, it seems the disease may appear earlier in the tropics. Early diagnosis and management could be life-saving.

  7. Pigment Production Analysis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Paterson, Elyse K; Ruiz, Rolando; Ganesan, Anand K

    2016-05-25

    The human epidermal melanocyte is a highly specialized pigmented cell that serves to protect the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) damage through the production of melanin, or melanogenesis. Misregulation in melanogenesis leading to either hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is found in human diseases such as malasma and vitiligo. Current therapies for these diseases are largely unsuccessful and the need for new therapies is necessary. In order to identify genes and or compounds that can alter melanogenesis, methods are required that can detect changes in pigment production as well as expression of key melanogenesis transcription factors and enzymes. Here we describe methods to detect changes in melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line, MNT-1, by (1) analyzing pigment production by measuring the absorbance of melanin present by spectrophotometry, (2) analyzing transcript expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by qunatitative reverse-transcription (RT)PCR and (3) analyzing protein expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by Western blot (WB).

  8. Corrosion inhibition by lithium zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibakhshi, E.; Ghasemi, E.; Mahdavian, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Synthesis of lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) by chemical co-precipitation method. •Corrosion inhibition activity of pigments compare with zinc phosphate (ZP). •LZP showed superior corrosion inhibition effect in EIS measurements. •Evaluation of adhesion strength and dispersion stability. -- Abstract: Lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) has been synthesized through a co-precipitation process and characterized by XRD and IR spectroscopy. The inhibitive performances of this pigment for corrosion of mild steel have been discussed in comparison with the zinc phosphate (ZP) in the pigment extract solution by means of EIS and in the epoxy coating by means of salt spray. The EIS and salt spray results revealed the superior corrosion inhibitive effect of LZP compared to ZP. Moreover, adhesion strength and dispersion stability of the pigmented epoxy coating showed the advantage of LZP compared to ZP

  9. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    One of the most serious ecological problems is muta- ... UV irradiation mutagenesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-. 124 .... certain balance between the pigment content in the algal ... is bombarded with the full brunt of solar UV (ultraviolet).

  10. Familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovell, A M; Damji, K F; Dohadwala, A A; Hodge, W G; Allingham, R R

    2001-02-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome affects up to 4% of the white population. It is characterized by the presence of transillumination defects, Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Open-angle glaucoma will develop in as many as 50% of affected patients. In this study we describe the familial occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome in six North American pedigrees and the phenotypic characteristics with respect to pigment dispersion syndrome and glaucoma. Probands with pigment dispersion syndrome were identified in glaucoma clinics at university eye centres in Ottawa and Durham, NC. Families with two or more affected members were evaluated. All willing members in each family underwent a thorough clinical examination and were classified as affected with pigment dispersion syndrome, suspect or unaffected. The previous medical records were reviewed to obtain the past medical and ocular history, including risk factors for glaucoma. All six families are white. Three families show at least two generations of affected members. Of the 43 subjects examined 58% were women. All 14 affected members showed moderate to heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation and either Krukenberg's spindle or transillumination defects. The affected members were also considerably more myopic (mean spherical equivalent for the right eye -4.72 dioptres) than the suspect group or the unaffected group (mean spherical equivalent -0.79 D and +1.19 D respectively) (p pigment dispersion syndrome. Our ultimate goal is to identify the gene(s) that causes this disorder in order to clarify its molecular etiology and pathophysiology. This may give rise to a molecular classification of the disease as well as provide the foundation for genetic testing and new treatment approaches.

  11. Preparation, characterization and application of some anti- corrosive molybdate pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghaffar, M.A.; El-Sawy, S.M.; Ahmed, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some molybdate pigments of single and mixed metal ions, namely, zinc, calcium and zinc-calcium molybdates were prepared, characterized and evaluated according to international standard methods. The evaluated pigments were incorporated in some paint formulations. The physicomechanical, chemical and corrosion protective properties of the paint films were measured; this was done in comparison with a commercial imported molybdate pigment. It was found that, the prepared pigments under investigation are fine white crystalline powders of suitable pigment properties. They can be successfully used as environmentally acceptable anti corrosive pigments. They can replace satisfactorily the similar commercial imported pigment and possess adequate or superior properties against corrosion

  12. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...

  13. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Walker, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF. 30 refs

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Micrococcus luteus Cartenoid pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z. Majeed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartenoids are group of pigments, with enormous types different structurally and functionally, have colors range from red to yellow found in a wide variety of plants, fungi, algae and bacteria. The animals took from food because they cannot make it, on contrary, the plants and microbes produce them due to subjection to environment. The aim of the study is to isolate and characterize the cartenoid pigment from Micrococcus luteus. The pigment extraction was done by acetone, and then was characterized with UltraViolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Then, it was tested for antibacterial activity against five different bacterial isolates and antifungal activity tests against six different fungal isolates by well diffusion method. The results found that, the extracted pigment having antibacterial activity and antifungal activity and having the ability to absorb UVA rays within the range of 300-500 nm. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial effect of pigment, even when the extraction and isolation were done by two culture mediums (Nutrient Broth and Luria Bertani Broth. There were considerable inhibition percentages of adhesion after subjection to Cartenoid pigment ranged between (5.71, 23.84 % for Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively and all the 11 isolate changed from Biofilm producer to non-producer. The isolated compound can be used against different bacterial and fungal infections. So they had a great future in medicine, cosmetics and as a sun protecting agent.

  15. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  16. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  17. Pigment Production from Immobilized Monascus sp. Utilizing Polymeric Resin Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Patrick J.; Wang, Henry Y.

    1984-01-01

    Pigment production by the fungus Monascus sp. was studied to determine why Monascus sp. provides more pigment in solid culture than in submerged culture. Adding a sterilized nonionic polymeric adsorbent resin directly to the growing submerged culture did not enhance the pigment production, thus indicating that pigment extraction is probably not a factor. Monascus cells immobilized in hydrogel were studied and exhibited decreased pigment production as a result of immobilization. This result is...

  18. Brown dwarfs and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarter, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The astronomical missing-mass problem (the discrepancy between the dynamical mass estimate and the sum of individual masses in large groupings) is considered, and possible explanations are advanced. The existence of brown dwarfs (stars not massive enough to shine by nuclear burning) and black holes (extremely high density matter contraction such that gravitation allows no light emission) thus far provides the most plausible solutions

  19. Hyperspectral Distinction of Two Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals Based on Their Pigments and Corresponding Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Torres-Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The coloration of tropical reef corals is mainly due to their association with photosynthetic dinoflagellates commonly known as zooxanthellae. Combining High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, spectroscopy and derivative analysis we provide a novel approach to discriminate between the Caribbean shallow-water corals Acropora cervicornis and Porites porites based on their associated pigments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the total array of pigments found within the coral holobiont is reported. A total of 20 different pigments were identified including chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls. Of these, eleven pigments were common to both species, eight were present only in A. cervicornis, and three were present only in P. porites. Given that these corals are living in similar physical conditions, we hypothesize that this pigment composition difference is likely a consequence of harboring different zooxanthellae clades with a possible influence of endolithic green or brown algae. We tested the effect of this difference in pigments on the reflectance spectra of both species. An important outcome was the correlation of total pigment concentration with coral reflectance spectra up to a 97% confidence level. Derivative analysis of the reflectance curves showed particular differences between species at wavelengths where several chlorophylls, carotenes and xanthophylls absorb. Within species variability of spectral features was not significant while interspecies variability was highly significant. We recognize that the detection of such differences with actual airborne or satellite remote sensors is extremely difficult. Nonetheless, based on our results, the combination of these techniques (HPLC, spectroscopy and derivative analysis can be used as a robust approach for the development of a site specific spectral library for the identification of shallow-water coral species. Studies (Torres-Pérez, NASA Postdoctoral

  20. Treatment Options for Congenital Pigmented Nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testimonial: Robert Brown Testimonial: Rita Pink Testimonial: Jade Price 2006 Nevus Outreach Conference Perspective: Hilary Welch Perspectives: ... laser doctor may be able to use the right laser in the right way to bring about ...

  1. Four Susceptibility Loci for Gallstone Disease Identified in a Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Amit D; Andersson, Charlotte; Buch, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    discovery studies (8720 cases and 55,152 controls). We performed an inverse variance weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis of study-specific estimates to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were associated independently with gallstone disease. Associations were replicated in 6489 cases and 62...... in TM4SF4 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P = 6.09 × 10(-11)), rs2547231 in SULT2A1 (encodes a sulfoconjugation enzyme that acts on hydroxysteroids and cholesterol-derived sterol bile acids) (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.12-1.21; P = 2.24 × 10(-10)), rs1260326 in glucokinase regulatory protein (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1...

  2. Comparison of efficacy between choledochoscopic gallbladder-preserving cholelithotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in treatment of gallstones: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Hua

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo systematically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of choledochoscopic gallbladder-preserving cholelithotomy (CGPC and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC in the treatment of gallstones. MethodsThe databases of CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs related to CGPC and LC in the treatment of gallstones published up to June 2015. Data extraction and quality evaluation were performed for the literature included, and Review Manager 5.3 was used for the meta-analysis. ResultsFive RCTs involving 685 patients were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that CGPC group and LC group had significant differences in operation time (OR=8.85, 95% CI: 049-17.21, P=0.04 and incidence of postoperative diarrhea (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.11-0.53, P=0.000 4. However, no significant differences were seen between the two groups in intraoperative bleeding volume (OR=-12.37, 95% CI: -29.73-4.99, P=0.16, time to postoperative intestinal function recovery (OR=-7.19, 95% CI: -24.28-9.90, P=0.41, hospitalization days (OR=-0.17, 95% CI: -1.98-1.63, P=0.85, and hospital costs (OR=-1.14, 95% CI: -2.57-0.28, P=0.12. ConclusionThe operation time and incidence of postoperative diarrhea in CGPC are superior to those in LC, while no significant differences are observed in intraoperative bleeding volume, time to postoperative intestinal function recovery, hospitalization days, and hospital costs. Due to a limited number of articles included and publication bias, RCTs with a large sample size and high quality are needed to provide more effective data.

  3. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saksens, N.T.; Krebs, M.P.; Schoenmaker, F.E.; Hicks, W.; Yu, M.; Shi, L.; Rowe, L.; Collin, G.B.; Charette, J.R.; Letteboer, S.J.; Neveling, K.; Moorsel, T.W. van; Abu-Ltaif, S.; Baere, E. De; Walraedt, S.; Banfi, S.; Simonelli, F.; Cremers, F.P.; Boon, C.J.; Roepman, R.; Leroy, B.P.; Peachey, N.S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Nishina, P.M.; Hollander, A.I. den

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the CTNNA1 gene (encoding alpha-catenin 1) in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment

  4. miR-488 determines coat pigmentation by down-regulating the pigment-producing gene pro-opiomelanocortin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Ma, S; Xue, L; Li, Y; Wang, J; He, X; Zhu, Z; Dong, C

    2016-10-31

    Coat color is a key economic trait in wool- and fur-producing animals. Coat color is controlled by complex mechanisms. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a gene involved in pigment formation. Previous studies suggested that miR-488 might target the POMC mRNA. This study aimed to determine whether miR-488 could affect coat color by regulating POMC and to explore the regulatory roles of miR-488 on coat color in mammals. A dual fluorescence report vector containing the 3'-UTR of POMC was built to determine whether miR-488 could post-transcriptionally regulate POMC expression. Then, a eukaryotic vector expressing miR-488 was built and transfected into mouse keratinocytes to confirm the regulatory mechanism in vitro. Compared with gray mice, the expression of POMC mRNA was 3.36-fold higher in black mice and 1.29-fold higher in brown mice. The results showed that miR-488 could control mice coat color by combining with the 3'-UTR seed sequence of POMC mRNA to achieve the degradation of POMC mRNA, therefore playing a role in POMC expression. This study revealed the roles of miR-488 in animal coat color and enriches our knowledge about the determination of coat color in mammals.

  5. Fish pigmentation and the melanocortin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Laura; Suarez-Bregua, Paula; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-09-01

    The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes. The α-Msh peptide, the most documented Mc1r agonist involved in pigmentation, is produced in the pituitary gland, activating melanin synthesis by binding to Mc1r in fish melanophores. Finally, Asip1 is the putative factor for establishing the evolutionarily conserved dorso-ventral pigment pattern found across vertebrates. However, we are just starting to understand how other melanocortin system components are acting in this complex regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  7. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  8. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  9. Effect of Red Pepper ( Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3. In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3. In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05. However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05. All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05 the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  10. A Point Mutation in an F-Box Domain-Containing Protein Is Responsible for Brown Hull Phenotype in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of pigments affects the color of rice hulls while only limited information is known about its underlying mechanisms. In the present study, a rice brown hull 6 (bh6 mutant was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS-induced IR64 mutant bank. Brown pigments started to accumulate in bh6 rice hulls after heading and reached a higher level in mature seeds. Some major agronomic traits including panicle length and 1000-grain weight in bh6 were significantly lower than those in its corresponding wild type IR64, while other agronomic traits such as plant height, growth duration and seed-setting rate were largely similar between the two genotypes. The analysis of pigment content showed that the contents of total flavonoids and anthocyanin in bh6 hulls were significantly higher than those in IR64 hulls. Our results showed that the brown hull phenotype in bh6 was controlled by a single recessive gene which locates on the long arm of chromosome 9. Sequencing analysis detected a single base substitution (G/A at position 1013 of the candidate gene (LOC_Os09g12150 encoding an F-box domain-containing protein (FBX310. Functional complementation experiment using the wild type allele can rescue the phenotype in bh6. Thus, we named this mutated gene as OsFBX310bh6, an allele of OsFBX310 functioning as an inhibitor of brown hull. The isolation of OsFBX310bh6 and its wild type allele can provide useful experimental materials and will facilitate the studies on revealing the mechanisms of flavonoid metabolism in monocot plants.

  11. Modification of cadmium pigments for colouring of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinskaya, T.V.; Livshits, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Modification conditions are studied of cadmium pigments, obtained by different methods, aliphatic acids(C 5 , C 8 and C 17 ). It is found, that cadmium pigments can adsorb acids with the number of atoms of carbon not less than 8. Stearic acid adsorption on lemon cadmium pigment taken as an example has shown the efficiency of pigment modification influence on its dispersancy in non-polar medium. Modification of yellow cadmium pigments of stearic acid makes possible to obtain pigment output forms ensuring a good particle distribution during polyolefine colouring

  12. Unraveling the chemical identity of meat pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, R B; Shahidi, F

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the chemistry of nitrite curing of meat and meat products as it relates to the development of cured meat color and provides a detailed account of how nitrite-free processed meats could be prepared using the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment (CCMP). Thus, a chemical description of meat color, both raw and cooked, and characterization of nitrosylheme pigments follows. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), visible and infrared spectroscopic studies, evidence has been provided to support the hypothesis that the chemical structure of the preformed CCMP is identical to that of the pigment prepared in situ after thermal processing of nitrite-cured meat and is in fact a mononitrosylheme complex. An appendix, which describes the basic principles of EPR spectroscopy used in the context of this review, is attached.

  13. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  14. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal

    2017-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  15. Corneal collagen crosslinking and pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHood, Benjamin R; Moore, Sacha

    2017-03-01

    We describe the case of a keratoconus patient with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) who was treated for progressive corneal ectasia with corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). Pigment dispersion syndrome has been shown to have associated morphologic changes of the corneal endothelium. Corneal CXL has the potential to cause toxicity to the corneal endothelium, and adjacent pigment might increase the likelihood of damage. In this case, the presence of PDS had no detrimental effect on the outcome of treatment, and no complications were observed at 12 months follow-up, indicating that it may be safe to perform corneal CXL in the setting of PDS. This is an important observation as the number of indications for corneal CXL grows. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  17. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  18. Eumelanin and pheomelanin are predominant pigments in bumblebee (Apidae: Bombus pubescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Polidori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus are well known for their important inter- and intra-specific variation in hair (or pubescence color patterns, but the chemical nature of the pigments associated with these patterns is not fully understood. For example, though melanization is believed to provide darker colors, it still unknown which types of melanin are responsible for each color, and no conclusive data are available for the lighter colors, including white. Methods By using dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis on 12 species/subspecies of bumblebees from seven subgenera, we tested the hypothesis that eumelanin and pheomelanin, the two main melanin types occurring in animals, are largely responsible for bumblebee pubescence coloration. Results Eumelanin and pheomelanin occur in bumblebee pubescence. Black pigmentation is due to prevalent eumelanin, with visible signals of additional pheomelanin, while the yellow, orange, red and brown hairs clearly include pheomelanin. On the other hand, white hairs reward very weak Raman signals, suggesting that they are depigmented. Additional non-melanic pigments in yellow hair cannot be excluded but need other techniques to be detected. Raman spectra were more similar across similarly colored hairs, with no apparent effect of phylogeny and both melanin types appeared to be already used at the beginning of bumblebee radiation. Discussion We suggest that the two main melanin forms, at variable amounts and/or vibrational states, are sufficient in giving almost the whole color range of bumblebee pubescence, allowing these insects to use a single precursor instead of synthesizing a variety of chemically different pigments. This would agree with commonly seen color interchanges between body segments across Bombus species.

  19. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica, its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown and belly (white-to-brownish feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations

  20. Genetic and functional identification of the likely causative variant for cholesterol gallstone disease at the ABCG5/8 lithogenic locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Kampen, Oliver; Buch, Stephan; Nothnagel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sterolin locus (ABCG5/ABCG8) confers susceptibility for cholesterol gallstone disease in humans. Both the responsible variant and the molecular mechanism causing an increased incidence of gallstones in these patients have as yet not been identified. Genetic mapping utilized patient samples from...... Germany (2,808 cases, 2,089 controls), Chile (680 cases, 442 controls), Denmark (366 cases, 766 controls), India (247 cases, 224 controls), and China (280 cases, 244 controls). Analysis of allelic imbalance in complementary DNA (cDNA) samples from human liver (n = 22) was performed using pyrosequencing....... Transiently transfected HEK293 cells were used for [(3) H]-cholesterol export assays, analysis of protein expression, and localization of allelic constructs. Through fine mapping in German and Chilean samples, an ∼250 kB disease-associated interval could be defined for this locus. Lack of allelic imbalance...

  1. UV-B affects the immune system and promotes nuclear abnormalities in pigmented and non-pigmented bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Fanali, Lara Zácari; De Oliveira, Classius

    2018-03-01

    Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) DNA damage caused by UV will be more pronounced in non-pigmented than in pigmented animals; 2) LPS increases leukocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented animals by systemic inflammation; 3) The combined LPS and UV exposure will decrease the number of leukocytes. We found that the frequency of immune cells differed between pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. UV exposure increased mast cells and DNA damage in erythrocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles, while leukocytes decreased after UV exposure. Non-pigmented tadpoles experienced DNA damage and a lower lymphocyte count earlier than pigmented tadpoles. UV altered immune cells likely as a consequence of local and systemic inflammation. These alterations were less severe in pigmented than in non-pigmented animals. UV and LPS increased internal melanin in pigmented tadpoles, which were correlated with DNA damage and leukocytes. Here, we described for the first time the effects of UV and LPS in immune cells of pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. In addition, we demonstrated that internal melanin in tadpoles help in these defenses, since leukocyte responses were faster in non-pigmented animals, supporting the hypothesis that melanin is involved in the initial innate immune response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  3. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  4. Pigmentation, anesthesia, behavioral factors, and salicylate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Issing, W; Brennan, J F; Sasaki, C T

    1988-02-01

    In four experiments, 54 pigmented rats were used to examine the time course of sodium salicylate uptake in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and perilymph. Subjects were tested under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia or while conscious. Compared with previously reported data from albino rats, pigmented subjects generally showed increased salicylate uptake. Moreover, the data suggested two different, time-dependent clearance mechanisms in conscious animals not observed in anesthetized rats. Daily injections of salicylate did not produce an accumulation of salicylate in serum. Systematically higher levels of salicylate were observed in perilymph compared with cerebrospinal fluid. Behavioral procedures, including water deprivation and conditioned suppression of ongoing drinking levels, had no effect on salicylate levels.

  5. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Di Grezia, G.; Gatta, G.; Rella, R.; Donatello, D.; Falco, G.; Grassi, R.; Grassi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today’s experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical interven...

  6. Eggshell appearance does not signal maternal corticosterone exposure in Japanese quail: an experimental study with brown-spotted eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Duval

    Full Text Available Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control or corticosterone (treatment. We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an

  7. The synthesis, characterization and optical properties of Si4+ and Pr4+ doped Y6 MoO12 compounds: environmentally benign inorganic pigments with high NIR reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Giable; Reddy, M.L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Much interest has attended roofing materials with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance, so that interiors stay cool, thereby reducing the demand for air conditioned buildings. The heat producing region of the infrared radiations ranges from 700-1100 nm. Replacing conventional pigments with 'cool pigments' that absorb less NIR radiation can provide coatings similar in color to that of conventional roofing materials, but with higher solar reflectance. NIR reflective pigments have been used in the military, construction, plastics and ink industries. Complex inorganic pigments based on mixed metal oxides (eg., chromium green, cobalt blue, cadmium stannate, lead chromate, cadmium yellow and chrome titanate yellow), which have been used in camouflage, absorb visible light but reflect the NIR portion of incident radiation. However, many of these pigments are toxic and there is a need to develop novel colored, NIR-reflecting inorganic pigments that are less hazardous to the environment. In this work, a series of NIR reflective colored pigments of formula Y 6-x M x MoO 12+δ (where M Si 4+ or Pr 4+ and x ranges from 0 to 1.0) were synthesized by traditional solid-state route and applied to asbestos cement roofing material so as to evaluate their use as 'cool pigments'. The phase purity of the calcined pigment samples were determined using powder X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectance of the powdered pigment samples were measured using a UV-Vis-NIR Spectrometer. The Lab color coordinates were evaluated by CIE 1976 color scale. Replacing Si 4+ for Y 3+ in Y 6 MoO 12 changed the color from light-yellow to dark-yellow and the band gap decreased from 2.60 to 2.45 eV due to O 2p -Mo 4d charge transfer transitions. In contrast, replacing Pr 4+ for Y 3+ changed the color from light yellow to dark brown and the band gap shifted from 2.60 to 1.90 eV. The coloring mechanism is based on the introduction of an additional 4f 1 electron energy level of Pr 4

  8. Morpho-functional gastric pre-and post-operative changes in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cholecystectomy, gold standard treatment for gallbladder lithiasis, is closely associated with increased bile reflux into the stomach as amply demonstrated by experimental studies. The high prevalence of gallstones in the population and the consequent widespread use of surgical removal of the gallbladder require an assessment of the relationship between cholecystectomy and gastric mucosal disorders. Morphological evaluations performed on serial pre and post – surgical biopsies have provided new acquisitions about gastric damage induced by bile in the organ. Methods 62 elderly patients with gallstone related disease were recruited in a 30 months period. All patients were subjected to the most appropriate treatment (Laparoscopic cholecystectomy). The subjects had a pre-surgical evaluation with: • dyspeptic symptoms questionnaire, • gastric endoscopy with body, antrum, and fundus random biopsies, • histo-pathological analysis of samples and elaboration of bile reflux index (BRI). The same evaluation was repeated at a 6 months follow-up. Results In our series the duodeno-gastric reflux and the consensual biliary gastritis, assessed histologically with the BRI, was found in 58% of the patients after 6 months from cholecystectomy. The demonstrated bile reflux had no effect on H. pylori’s gastric colonization nor on the induction of gastric precancerous lesions. Conclusions Cholecystectomy, gold standard treatment for gallstone-related diseases, is practiced in a high percentage of patients with this condition. Such procedure, considered by many harmless, was, in our study, associated with a significant risk of developing biliary gastritis after 6 months during the postoperative period. PMID:23173777

  9. Risk of peptic ulcer, oesophagitis, pancreatitis or gallstone in patients with unexplained chest/epigastric pain and normal upper endoscopy: a 10-year Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, E M; Drewes, A M; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies have examined the risk of upper gastrointestinal diseases among patients with unexplained chest/epigastric pain (UCEP) and a normal upper endoscopy. AIM: To examine the relative risk of peptic ulcer, oesophagitis, pancreatitis or gallstone in UCEP patients. METHODS...... for peptic ulcer, oesophagitis, pancreatitis or gallstone. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the adjusted relative risks among UCEP patients or = 1 year after upper endoscopy were for peptic ulcer 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-18.4] and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-3.4), for oesophagitis 8.2 (95% CI 1.......2-59.2) and 1.9 (95% CI 0.7-5.0), for pancreatitis 9.2 (95% CI 2.0-41.8) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.4-10.5), and for gallstone 14.1 (95% CI 5.4-37.2) and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-5.8). CONCLUSIONS: UCEP is positively associated with all study outcomes especially in the first year after upper endoscopy, indicating that peptic...

  10. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  11. Consortial brown tide - picocyanobacteria blooms in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathan S; Litaker, R Wayne; Kenworthy, W Judson; Vandersea, Mark W; Sunda, William G; Reid, James P; Slone, Daniel H; Butler, Susan

    2018-03-01

    A brown tide bloom of Aureoumbra lagunensis developed in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba during a period of drought in 2013 that followed heavy winds and rainfall from Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012. Based on satellite images and water turbidity measurements, the bloom appeared to initiate in January 2013. The causative species (A. lagunensis) was confirmed by microscopic observation, and pigment and genetic analyses of bloom samples collected on May 28 of that year. During that time, A. lagunensis reached concentrations of 900,000 cells ml -1 (28 ppm by biovolume) in the middle portion of the Bay. Samples could not be collected from the northern (Cuban) half of the Bay because of political considerations. Subsequent sampling of the southern half of the Bay in November 2013, April 2014, and October 2014 showed persistent lower concentrations of A. lagunensis, with dominance shifting to the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (up to 33 ppm in April), an algal group that comprised a minor bloom component on May 28. Thus, unlike the brown tide bloom in Laguna Madre, which lasted 8 years, the bloom in Guantánamo Bay was short-lived, much like recent blooms in the Indian River, Florida. Although hypersaline conditions have been linked to brown tide development in the lagoons of Texas and Florida, observed euhaline conditions in Guantánamo Bay (salinity 35-36) indicate that strong hypersalinity is not a requirement for A. lagunensis bloom formation. Microzooplankton biomass dominated by ciliates was high during the observed peak of the brown tide, and ciliate abundance was high compared to other systems not impacted by brown tide. Preferential grazing by zooplankton on non-brown tide species, as shown in A. lagunensis blooms in Texas and Florida, may have been a factor in the development of the Cuban brown tide bloom. However, subsequent selection of microzooplankton capable of utilizing A. lagunensis as a primary food source may have contributed to the short-lived duration

  12. Consortial brown tide − picocyanobacteria blooms in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathan S; Litaker, R. Wayne; Kenworthy, W. Judson; Vandersea, Mark W.; Sunda, William G.; Reid, James P.; Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    A brown tide bloom of Aureoumbra lagunensis developed in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba during a period of drought in 2013 that followed heavy winds and rainfall from Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012. Based on satellite images and water turbidity measurements, the bloom appeared to initiate in January 2013. The causative species (A. lagunensis) was confirmed by microscopic observation, and pigment and genetic analyses of bloom samples collected on May 28 of that year. During that time, A. lagunensis reached concentrations of 900,000 cells ml−1 (28 ppm by biovolume) in the middle portion of the Bay. Samples could not be collected from the northern (Cuban) half of the Bay because of political considerations. Subsequent sampling of the southern half of the Bay in November 2013, April 2014, and October 2014 showed persistent lower concentrations of A. lagunensis, with dominance shifting to the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (up to 33 ppm in April), an algal group that comprised a minor bloom component on May 28. Thus, unlike the brown tide bloom in Laguna Madre, which lasted 8 years, the bloom in Guantánamo Bay was short-lived, much like recent blooms in the Indian River, Florida. Although hypersaline conditions have been linked to brown tide development in the lagoons of Texas and Florida, observed euhaline conditions in Guantánamo Bay (salinity 35–36) indicate that strong hypersalinity is not a requirement for A. lagunensis bloom formation. Microzooplankton biomass dominated by ciliates was high during the observed peak of the brown tide, and ciliate abundance was high compared to other systems not impacted by brown tide. Preferential grazing by zooplankton on non-brown tide species, as shown in A. lagunensis blooms in Texas and Florida, may have been a factor in the development of the Cuban brown tide bloom. However, subsequent selection of microzooplankton capable of utilizing A. lagunensis as a primary food source may have contributed to the

  13. Fucoxanthin from brown seaweed Sargassum cristaefolium tea in acid pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningsih, Hartati; Mufti, Eka Deviana; Nurhanief, Ardian Eko

    2017-05-01

    Dried tea Sargassum cristaefolium contains the pigment fucoxanthin, which is responsible for the red-orange color found in brown algae, and is a kind of photosynthetic pigment. Fucoxanthin can be used as an anti-obesity, anticancer, anti-cholesterol, and anti-diabetic agent and as a food colorant, but it is very unstable. The aim of this research was to determine the stability of fucoxanthin from dried tea brown algae at different pH (2, 6). This involved thin layer chromatography, peak absorption, wavelength analysis and reposition in FTIR. The research showed that fucoxanthin from fresh and dried tea Sargassum cristaefolium using chromatography columns had an orange color, Rf value of 0.26-0.28, and a spectral pattern in acetone solvent of 446.3-447.4 λmax. Fucoxanthin at pH 2 showed that there was no allenic group, as fucoxanthin solution had a pale yellow color. It is therefore shown that fucoxanthin is not stable in acid solution.

  14. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  15. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  16. Characterization of the photosynthetic conditions and pigment profiles of the colour strains of Hypnea musciformis from field-collected and in vitro cultured samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela R. P. Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen JV Lamour. is a species of great economic interest as it produces Κ-carrageenan and has shown biological activities against HIV and HSV viruses. This species displays different colour strains in its natural habitat, which may have implications for the biotechnological potential of the species. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic apparatus and pigment profile of three colour strains of H. musciformis (green, brown and red in their natural habitat and in culture. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II was measured with a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer and pigments were quantified by spectrofluorimetry (chlorophyll a and spectrophotometry (phycobiliproteins. In the natural habitat, we detected significant differences between the colour strains for the following photochemical parameters: the green strain had a higher effective quantum yield (ΦPSII than the red strain and a higher maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax than the brown and red strains. Saturation irradiances were 1000 µE.m-2.s-1 (green and 500 µE.m-2.s-1 (brown and red. Concerning in vitro culture, the green strain presented the lowest ΦPSII, rETRmax, and α rETR, while the brown strain presented the highest values for these same parameters. The chlorophyll a content of the cultured green strain was the lowest. The phycoerythrin contents of the three colour strains were unchanged by either natural of in vitro conditions: lower in green, intermediate in brown and higher in the red strain, ensuring the chromatic identity of the strains. Our results suggest that the green strain has a better performance when exposed to high irradiance, but a lower efficiency under low irradiance compared to the brown and red strains.

  17. Thermochemical modelling of brown dwarf discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, A. J.; Kamp, I.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W.-F.; Rab, Ch.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.

    The physical properties of brown dwarf discs, in terms of their shapes and sizes, are still largely unexplored by observations. ALMA has by far the best capabilities to observe these discs in sub-mm CO lines and dust continuum, while also spatially resolving some discs. To what extent brown dwarf

  18. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  19. Thyroid hormones induce browning of white fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Contreras, Cristina; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The canonical view about the effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on thermogenesis assumes that the hypothalamus acts merely as a modulator of the sympathetic outflow on brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent data have challenged that vision by demonstrating that THs act on the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the thermogenic program in BAT, leading to increased thermogenesis and weight loss. Current data have shown that in addition to activation of brown fat, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) might also be an important thermogenic mechanism. However, the possible central effects of THs on the browning of white fat remain unclear. Here, we show that 3,3′,5,5′ tetraiodothyroxyne (T4)-induced hyperthyroidism promotes a marked browning of WAT. Of note, central or VMH-specific administration of 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) recapitulates that effect. The specific genetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK in the VMH reversed the central effect of T3 on browning. Finally, we also showed that the expression of browning genes in human WAT correlates with serum T4. Overall, these data indicate that THs induce browning of WAT and that this mechanism is mediated via the central effects of THs on energy balance. PMID:27913573

  20. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  1. The mechanism of gingiva metallic pigmentations formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Joska, L.; Venclíková, Z.; Poddaná, M.; Benada, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-7 ISSN 1432-6981 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pigmentation * gingiva * electrochemistry Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.233, year: 2009

  2. Flower pigment analysis of Melastoma malabathricum | Janna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to analyse the colour pigment, anthocyanin, that can be detected in flower and their stability in extracted form. All the analysed results will be used in the next study for the production of new food colouring material. From the observation, it shows that S3 flower developmental stage contains the ...

  3. Quantitative X-ray analysis of pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M. Marrocos de

    1987-01-01

    The 'matrix-flushing' and the 'adiabatic principle' methods have been applied for the quantitative analysis through X-ray diffraction patterns of pigments and extenders mixtures, frequently used in paint industry. The results obtained have shown the usefulness of these methods, but still ask for improving their accuracy. (Author) [pt

  4. Retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy in Briard dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, R M; Cabral, L; Gooch, L; Bedford, P G; Boulton, M E

    1996-01-01

    The eyes of normal Briard dogs, Briards affected with inherited retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED) and a range of normal crossbred and beagle dogs were examined and the histopathology of RPED in the Briard was compared with the histopathological features of ageing in the normal canine retina. RPED was characterised by the accumulation of auto-fluorescent lipofuscin-like inclusions in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which initially involved only non-pigmented RPE cells overlying the tapetum but subsequently spread to all pigmented RPE cells. Secondary neuro-retinal degeneration was characterised by a gradual loss of the outer nuclear layer and the subsequent atrophy and degeneration of the inner retina. The loss of primary photoreceptors in the peripheral retina was accompanied by the migration of photoreceptor nuclei and appeared to resemble severe changes due to ageing. Intra-vitreal radiolabelled leucine was used to examine the rate of turnover of the outer segments of the rods in some Briards, but no significant variations were found. The activity of acid phosphatase in RPE was assayed in vitro and showed comparable regional variations in Briard and crossbred dogs. The results suggest that RPED in the Briard is unlikely to be due either to an increased rate of turnover of rod outer segments (and thus an increased phagocytic load) or to a primary insufficiency of lysosomal enzyme.

  5. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... astaxanthin level. (2) Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with paracoccus pigment may contain only... additive is used to enhance the pink to orange-red color of the flesh of salmonid fish. (2) The quantity of... section. (2) The presence of the color additive in finished fish feed prepared according to paragraph (c...

  6. NON-AQUEOUS PIGMENTED INKJET INKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2010-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink includes a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents the residue of polyethyleneimine having a number-average molecular weight of at least 100; A represents

  7. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOOGMARTENS, IVAN; Bernaerts, Katrien; DEROOVER, GEERT

    2008-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprising C.I. Pigment Yellow 150 and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents the residue of polyethyleneimine having a number-average molecular weight of at least 100; A represents

  8. New applications for polychromatic effect pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maile, F. J.; Filip, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2016), s. 35-38 ISSN 1468-1412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : pigments * texture * appearance * effect * polychromatic Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/filip-0458988.pdf

  9. Pigment dispersion syndrome: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheie, H G; Cameron, J D

    1981-01-01

    This study involved a group of 407 patients (799 eyes) with pigment dispersion syndrome gathered from a glaucoma population of 9200 patients. The sex distribution was equal. The majority (65%) of patients were myopic. The incidence of retinal detachment was 6.4%. No patients were black, but 5 were mulatto. Approximately one-quarter of the patients wih pigment dispersion syndrome (31% of the men, 19% of the women) had glaucoma. The average age of onset of glaucoma was 15 years less than in control patients with chronic simple glaucoma. When both eyes were affected by glaucoma, the glaucoma was consistently more severe in the eye with the more heavily pigmented angle. The degree of iris transillumination was found to be of no importance in predicting the presence of glaucoma or the severity of trabecular pigmentation. The pressure in 66% of the eyes with pigmentary glaucoma was controlled medically. A higher percentage of patients with pigmentary glaucoma required surgery than patients in the control group with chronic simple glaucoma. Men with pigmentary glaucoma required surgery at a much earlier age than women with pigmentary glaucoma. PMID:7236571

  10. Hyperspectral remote sensing of plant pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, George Alan

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of pigment concentrations are diagnostic of a range of plant physiological properties and processes. This paper appraises the developing technologies and analytical methods for quantifying pigments non-destructively and repeatedly across a range of spatial scales using hyperspectral remote sensing. Progress in deriving predictive relationships between various characteristics and transforms of hyperspectral reflectance data are evaluated and the roles of leaf and canopy radiative transfer models are reviewed. Requirements are identified for more extensive intercomparisons of different approaches and for further work on the strategies for interpreting canopy scale data. The paper examines the prospects for extending research to the wider range of pigments in addition to chlorophyll, testing emerging methods of hyperspectral analysis and exploring the fusion of hyperspectral and LIDAR remote sensing. In spite of these opportunities for further development and the refinement of techniques, current evidence of an expanding range of applications in the ecophysiological, environmental, agricultural, and forestry sciences highlights the growing value of hyperspectral remote sensing of plant pigments.

  11. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  12. Pigments produced by the bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthiwong , Nuthathai; Caro , Yanis; Fouillaud , Mireille; Laurent , Philippe; Valla , A.; Dufossé , Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Poster communication, 7th International Congress of Pigments in Food – New technologies towards health, through colors, Novara, Italy, June 18-21, 2013.; International audience; Since several decades, pigments have been used as a taxonomic tool for the identification and classification of bacteria. Nowadays, pigment producing microorganisms have been also widely interested in scientific disciplines because of their biotechnological potential. With the growing interest in microbial pigments be...

  13. Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus resembling a pigmented neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma.

  14. Effect of pigment concentration on fastness and color values of thermal and UV curable pigment printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Gulcin; Kalav, Berdan; Karagüzel Kayaoğlu, Burçak

    2017-10-01

    In the current study, it is aimed to determine the effect of pigment concentration on fastness and colour values of thermal and ultraviolet (UV) curable pigment printing on synthetic leather. For this purpose, thermal curable solvent-based and UV curable water-based formulations were prepared with different pigment concentrations (3, 5 and 7%) separately and applied by screen printing technique using a screen printing machine. Samples printed with solvent-based formulations were thermally cured and samples printed with water-based formulations were cured using a UV curing machine equipped with gallium and mercury (Ga/Hg) lamps at room temperature. The crock fastness values of samples printed with solvent-based formulations showed that increase in pigment concentration was not effective on both dry and wet crock fastness values. On the other hand, in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations, dry crock fastness was improved and evaluated as very good for all pigment concentrations. However, increasing the pigment concentration affected the wet crock fastness values adversely and lower values were observed. As the energy level increased for each irradiation source, the fastness values were improved. In comparison with samples printed with solvent-based formulations, samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations yielded higher K/S values at all pigment concentrations. The results suggested that, higher K/S values can be obtained in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations at a lower pigment concentration compared to samples printed with solvent-based formulations.

  15. The concave iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lance; Ong, Ee Lin; Crowston, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To visualize the changes of the iris contour in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome after blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Observational case series. A total of 33 eyes of 20 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Each eye was imaged along the horizontal 0- to 180-degree meridian using the Visante Anterior Segment Imaging System (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Scans were performed at baseline and after focusing on an internal fixation target for 5 minutes, forced blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis with pilocarpine 2%. Quantitative analysis of the changes in the iris configuration. After 5 minutes of continual fixation, the iris became planar with the mean ± standard deviation curvature decreasing from 214 ± 74 μm to 67 ± 76 μm (P pigment dispersion syndrome after forced blinking, but the iris concavity recovered to 227 ± 113 μm (P = 0.34) and 238 ± 119 μm (P = 0.19) with the -3.0 and -6.0 diopter lenses, respectively. Pilocarpine-induced miosis caused the iris to assume a planar configuration in all subjects. This study shows that the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome assumes a planar configuration when fixating and that the concavity of the iris surface is not restored by blinking. Accommodation restored the iris concavity, suggesting that the posterior curvature of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome is induced and probably maintained, at least in part, by accommodation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  17. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mezaine Hani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg′s spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger′s from the posterior chamber.

  18. Esthetic management of a patient with severely fluorosed enamel and pigmented gingiva: A conservative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated brown or white defects of less than few tenths of millimeter depth can be successfully treated with microabrasion. However, for deeper enamel defects, a combination of various techniques such as microabrasion/macroabrasion along with bleaching or full or partial veneering are available. Template-assisted direct veneering technique helps for better separation and contouring of individual tooth through which composite resin can be applied directly to tooth structure and artistically sculpted. Frequently, the gingival hyperpigmentation is caused by excessive melanin deposits mainly located in the basal and suprabasal cell layers of the epithelium. Recently, laser ablation has been recognized as one of the most effective, pleasant, and reliable techniques. This article describes a conservative approach for a complete smile makeover of a patient with severe fluorosis and pigmented gingiva with the help of enamel microabrasion and template-assisted direct composite veneering followed by laser depigmentation of gingiva.

  19. DNA damage in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, Håkan; Grunnet, N

    1998-01-01

    The induction of DNA damage by commonly used printing ink pigments, C.I. pigment orange 5 (C.I. 12075) and C.I. pigment yellow 12 (C.I. 21090), was investigated in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with the comet assay. C.I. pigment yellow 12 is a 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based diarylide pigment...

  20. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  1. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, B.; O'Connor, S.; Pittelkow, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  2. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, B.; O`Connor, S. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Division of Archaeology and Natural History; Pittelkow, Y. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Coombs Computing Unit

    1997-12-31

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people.

  3. UVR: sun, lamps, pigmentation and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C M; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D....... The health benefits of UVR exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D pathways will be discussed in this themed issue in the following articles....

  4. TPC2 polymorphisms associated with a hair pigmentation phenotype in humans result in gain of channel function by independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Kai; Schludi, Verena; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Butz, Elisabeth; Nguyen, O N Phuong; Müller, Martin; Krüger, Jens; Kammerbauer, Claudia; Ben-Johny, Manu; Vollmar, Angelika M; Berking, Carola; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian A; Grimm, Christian

    2017-10-10

    Two-pore channels (TPCs) are endolysosomal cation channels. Two members exist in humans, TPC1 and TPC2. Functional roles associated with the ubiquitously expressed TPCs include VEGF-induced neoangiogenesis, LDL-cholesterol trafficking and degradation, physical endurance under fasting conditions, autophagy regulation, the acrosome reaction in sperm, cancer cell migration, and intracellular trafficking of pathogens such as Ebola virus or bacterial toxins (e.g., cholera toxin). In a genome-wide association study for variants associated with human pigmentation characteristics two coding variants of TPC2, rs35264875 (encoding M484L) and rs3829241 (encoding G734E), have been found to be associated with a shift from brown to blond hair color. In two recent follow-up studies a role for TPC2 in pigmentation has been further confirmed. However, these human polymorphic variants have not been functionally characterized until now. The development of endolysosomal patch-clamp techniques has made it possible to investigate directly ion channel activities and characteristics in isolated endolysosomal organelles. We applied this technique here to scrutinize channel characteristics of the polymorphic TPC2 variants in direct comparison with WT. We found that both polymorphisms lead to a gain of channel function by independent mechanisms. We next conducted a clinical study with more than 100 blond- and brown/black-haired individuals. We performed a genotype/phenotype analysis and subsequently isolated fibroblasts from WT and polymorphic variant carriers for endolysosomal patch-clamp experimentation to confirm key in vitro findings.

  5. MRI diagnosis of pigmented villonodular synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhongpu; Sui Zhengyan; Xue Jianrong; Song Cuizhi; Liu Yuekui; Li Jinwang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MRI characteristics of pigmented villonodular synovitis. Methods: MRI and clinic data of 14 patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis proved by pathology were reviewed retrospectively. Results: MRI showed diffusible lesions in all 14 cases. 12 cases were located in knee joint, 2 in hip. MRI revealed nodules and masses formed by villis hyperplasia in the joints. MRI demonstrated the nodules with slightly low signal intensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI in 13 cases, the destruction of the cartilage in 8 cases, the destruction of the ligament in 5 cases, and the hydropsy in joint cavity in 10 cases, the destruction of the meniscus in 2 cases. Conclusion: The typical features of pigmented villonodular synovitis on MRI revealed the nodules formed by villis hyperplasia in the joint. Hemosiderin in the nodules demonstrated slightly low signal intensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI, with the presence of typical features like 'foam rubber cushion' sign and 'lichen' sign. (authors)

  6. Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of ′black gums′ are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  7. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were posit...... in these hares. This is the first report of antibodies to EBHSV, EBHSV-antigen, and electron microscopy findings in free-ranging European brown hares from South America....

  8. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  9. UVB shielding role of FeCl{sub 3} and certain cyanobacterial pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Tyagi, M.B.; Srinivas, G.; Singh, N.; Kumar, H.D. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany; Sinha, R.P. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany]|[Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany). Institut fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie; Haeder, D.P. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany). Institut fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie

    1996-08-01

    The shielding role of ferric iron (FeCl{sub 3}) and certain cyanobacterial pigments (a brown-colored pigment from Scytonema hofmanii culture filtrate and a pink extract from Nostoc spongiaeforme) against UVB-induced damage in the filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum has been demonstrated. Addition of these colored compounds to agarose gels (1-3 mm thick) resulted in a considerable decrease in UVB transmittance through the gels. The lowest UVB transmittance (15%) occurred through a 3 mm gel containing 0.01% FeCl{sub 3}, followed by S. hofmanii culture filtrate (40%) and N. spongiaeforme extract (50%). These substances appear to act as very efficient UVB-absorbing screens. Percent survival and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} uptake of N. muscorum increased significantly if UVB exposure was given on gels containing FeCl{sub 3} or other UVB-shielding substances. The highest protection of N. muscorum was recorded with FeCl{sub 3}, followed by S. hofmanii culture filtrate and N. spongiaeforme extract. Such UV-shielding substances if present in required concentration range may enhance the survival of cyanobacteria exposed to high levels of UVB. (author).

  10. UVB shielding role of FeCl3 and certain cyanobacterial pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Tyagi, M.B.; Srinivas, G.; Singh, N.; Kumar, H.D.; Sinha, R.P.; Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet, Erlangen; Haeder, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    The shielding role of ferric iron (FeCl 3 ) and certain cyanobacterial pigments (a brown-colored pigment from Scytonema hofmanii culture filtrate and a pink extract from Nostoc spongiaeforme) against UVB-induced damage in the filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum has been demonstrated. Addition of these colored compounds to agarose gels (1-3 mm thick) resulted in a considerable decrease in UVB transmittance through the gels. The lowest UVB transmittance (15%) occurred through a 3 mm gel containing 0.01% FeCl 3 , followed by S. hofmanii culture filtrate (40%) and N. spongiaeforme extract (50%). These substances appear to act as very efficient UVB-absorbing screens. Percent survival and 14 CO 2 uptake of N. muscorum increased significantly if UVB exposure was given on gels containing FeCl 3 or other UVB-shielding substances. The highest protection of N. muscorum was recorded with FeCl 3 , followed by S. hofmanii culture filtrate and N. spongiaeforme extract. Such UV-shielding substances if present in required concentration range may enhance the survival of cyanobacteria exposed to high levels of UVB. (author)

  11. Plant pigment types, distributions, and influences on shallow water submerged aquatic vegetation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Virnstein, Robert

    2004-11-01

    Development of robust protocols for use in mapping shallow water habitats using hyperspectral imagery requires knowledge of absorbing and scattering features present in the environment. These include, but are not limited to, water quality parameters, phytoplankton concentrations and species, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) species and densities, epiphytic growth on SAV, benthic microalgae and substrate reflectance characteristics. In the Indian River Lagoon, Fl. USA we conceptualize the system as having three possible basic layers, water column and SAV bed above the bottom. Each layer is occupied by plants with their associated light absorbing pigments that occur in varying proportions and concentrations. Phytoplankton communities are composed primarily of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria. SAV beds, including flowering plants and green, red, and brown macro-algae exist along density gradients ranging in coverage from 0-100%. SAV beds may be monotypic, or more typically, mixtures of the several species that may or may not be covered in epiphytes. Shallow water benthic substrates are colonized by periphyton communities that include diatoms, dinoflagellates, chlorophytes and cyanobacteria. Inflection spectra created form ASIA hyperspectral data display a combination of features related to water and select plant pigment absorption peaks.

  12. Production of fine coke from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigs, H B

    1977-08-01

    The coke supply of the iron and steel industry, the design, function, and special features of the open-hearth are described, including coking properties and applications of the culm coke produced from brown coal. (In German)

  13. Browning phenomenon of medieval stained glass windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Jessica; Rossano, Stéphanie; Loisel, Claudine; Trcera, Nicolas; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Bousta, Faisl; Pallot-Frossard, Isabelle

    2015-04-07

    In this work, three pieces of historical on-site glass windows dated from the 13th to 16th century and one archeological sample (8th century) showing Mn-rich brown spots at their surface or subsurface have been characterized by optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The oxidation state of Mn as well as the Mn environment in the alteration phase have been characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn K-edge. Results show that the oxidation state of Mn and therefore the nature of the alteration phase varies according to the sample considered and is correlated with the extent of the brown alteration. The larger the brown areas the more oxidized the Mn. However, by contrast with literature, the samples presenting the more extended brown areas are not similar to pyrolusite and contain Mn mainly under a (+III) oxidation state.

  14. Correlation of pasting behaviors with total phenolic compounds and starch digestibility of indigenous pigmented rice grown in upper Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapa Ponjanta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thailand has one of the most important rice genetic resources with white, light brown, brown, red, and purple rice bran colors. The latter believed to have potential for health benefits due to their phenolic content. Recently researchers have indicated that starch digestive enzymes, including salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and α-glucosidases, can be inhibited by phenolic compounds. Although pasting properties of rice flour are key determinants of quality significantly impacting the final product texture, there is no in-depth study on their correlation with phenolic compound and starch digestibility. Methods: Rice flour from twelve varieties, three from each of five bran colors (white, brown, red, and purple, were evaluated for pasting properties (RVA-3D, total phenolic compounds, amylose content, resistant starch and estimated glycemic index. Simple correlation coefficients were calculated for the relationships between pasting properties (final viscosity, breakdown, setback and pasting temperature and total phenolic compounds, resistant starch and estimated glycemic index. Results: Within each rice variety, red and purple pigmented flours had higher total phenolic compounds (TPC and more resistant starch than that of white flours. The TPC and resistant starch content of the flours ranged between 7.83- 47.3 mg/L and 2.44–10.50% respectively, and producing 60-80 of estimated glycemic index. Viscosity behavior showed that pigmented with low amylose rice had lower viscosity temperature than that of pigmented with high amylose rice flour, but higher in peak viscosity. Correlation coefficients of pasting temperature, final viscosity, break down and setback with TCP was observed to be inversely related to glycemic index. However, it was positively correlated to the resistant starch and amylose content. Conclusions: Pigmented rice flour is a better source of TPC and resistant starch which in turn provides low glycemic index. This

  15. Analytical evidences of the use of iron-gall ink as a pigment on miniature paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Calà, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    Iron-gall ink (IGI) has been used by scribes for writing since at least the 4th century CE. Another typical use of this ink was for drawing: many Old Masters created beautiful sketches in brown-black hues. Despite its widespread use to draw lines, it seems like IGI was hardly used for painting as well. In fact, the number of identification on manuscripts is very low at present. This could be partially due to a lack of reliable diagnostic information. In this work we tried to better define the possibility of identifying IGI as a pigment on illuminate manuscripts, evaluating the pros and cons of three different techniques: UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optic fibres (FORS), Raman spectroscopy and XRF spectrometry. With concern to in situ non-invasive analysis, Raman spectroscopy has the best diagnostic power but FORS seems to provide the better compromise between selectivity and ease of application. Moreover, new analytical evidences was given on the particular use of IGI by ancient illuminators: a non-invasive and micro-invasive diagnostic survey on Western manuscripts datable in the range 6-16th centuries was carried out showing that, apart from its widespread use as an ink for writing and drawing, IGI was largely used as a pigment too. The large number of identification obtained allows us to hypothesise that this pigment was used all through medieval Europe up to at least the Renaissance, where its use is already documented in drawing. The occurrence of IGI in miniature paintings older than 6th century or more recent than 16th century cannot be excluded, as is its use beyond Europe; further measurements could instead widen the time range and the geographic area. Nevertheless, the present study allows shedding a new light on the use of this colourant all along the period of medieval and Renaissance miniature painting art.

  16. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  17. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative Carrier Solvents for Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Pittis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of both naturally occurring and synthetic pigmented wood has been prevalent in woodcraft for centuries. Modern manifestations generally involve either woodworkers’ aniline dyes, or pigments derived from a special class of fungi known as spalting fungi. While fungal pigments are more renewable than anilines and pose less of an environmental risk, the carrier required for these pigments—dichloromethane (DCM—is both problematic for humans and tends to only deposit the pigments on the surface of wood instead of evenly within the material. Internal coloration of wood is key to adoption of a pigmenting system by woodworkers. To address this issue, five solvents that had moderate solubility with the pigments extracted from Chlorociboria aeruginosa and Scytalidium cuboideum were identified, in the hopes that a reduction in solubility would result in a greater amount of the pigment deposited inside the wood. Of the tested solvents, acetonitrile was found to produce the highest internal color in ash, Douglas-fir, madrone, mountain hemlock, Port-Orford cedar, Pacific silver fir, red alder and sugar maple. While these carrier solvents are not ideal for extracting the pigments from the fungi, acetonitrile in particular does appear to allow for more pigment to be deposited within wood. The use of acetonitrile over DCM offers new opportunities for possible industrial spalting applications, in which larger pieces of wood could be uniformly pigmented and sold to the end user in larger quantities than are currently available with spalted wood.

  19. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia 's virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 - 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H 2 O 2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens .

  20. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adam S; García, Dana M

    2007-12-19

    Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog) is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II) failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms), our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  1. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dana M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms, our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  2. Patterns and Drivers of Egg Pigment Intensity and Colour Diversity in the Ocean: A Meta-Analysis of Phylum Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E M; Hamel, J-F; Mercier, A

    Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green. We explore the ways in which these colour patterns correlate with behavioural, morphological, geographic and phylogenetic variables in extant classes of Echinodermata, a phylum that has close phylogenetic ties with chordates and representatives in nearly all marine environments. Results of multivariate analyses show that intensely pigmented eggs are characteristic of pelagic or external development whereas pale eggs are commonly brooded internally. Of the five egg colours catalogued, orange and yellow are the most common. Yellow eggs are a primitive character, associated with all types of development (predominant in internal brooders), whereas green eggs are always pelagic, occur in the most derived orders of each class and are restricted to the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Orange eggs are geographically ubiquitous and may represent a 'universal' egg pigment that functions well under a diversity of environmental conditions. Finally, green occurs chiefly in the classes Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea, orange in Asteroidea, yellow in Echinoidea, and brown in Holothuroidea. By examining an unprecedented combination of egg colours/intensities and reproductive strategies, this phylum-wide study sheds new light on the role and drivers of egg pigmentation, drawing parallels with theories developed from the study of more derived vertebrate taxa. The primary use of pigments (of any colour) to protect externally developing eggs from oxidative damage and predation is

  3. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Marie Pangan Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. Objective: This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Method: The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5 and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Results: Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Conclusion: Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities.

  4. EPR imaging and HPLC characterization of the pigment-based organic free radical in black soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Maeda, Hayato

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the location and distribution of paramagnetic species in dry black, brown, and yellow (normal) soybean seeds using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-band (9 GHz) EPR imaging (EPRI), and HPLC. EPR primarily detected two paramagnetic species in black soybean. These two different radical species were assigned as stable organic radical and Mn 2+  species based on the g values and hyperfine structures. The signal from the stable radical was noted at g ≈ 2.00 and was relatively strong and stable. Subsequent noninvasive two-dimensional (2D) EPRI of the radical present in black soybean revealed that the stable radical was primarily located in the pigmented region of the soybean coat, with very few radicals observed in the soybean cotyledon (interior). Pigments extracted from black soybean were analyzed using HPLC. The major compound was found to be cyanidin-3-glucoside. Multi-EPR and HPLC results indicate that the stable radical was only found within the pigmented region of the soybean coat, and it could be cyanidin-3-glucoside or an oxidative decomposition product.

  5. Overlap of Acute Cholecystitis with Gallstones and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Gallbladder in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of gallbladder cancer presenting with acute cholecystitis is 2.3%, squamous cell carcinoma is rarely seen, and overlap of acute cholecystitis and squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare condition in the literature. Presentation of Case. A 75-year-old woman was admitted to emergency service with a pain in the right upper quadrant, nausea, and vomiting. The patient was considered as having acute cholecystitis. During the exploration because Hartman’s pouch was not dissected, it was adhered to the cystic duct and had fibrotic adhesion. It could not be understood whether this adhesion was a tumor or a fibrotic tumor and thus we performed cholecystectomy with a 1 cm resection of the choledochus. Pathological examination revealed the presence of (R0, T1 N0 M0 squamous cell carcinoma with clean resection borders and there was no in tumor five dissected lymph nodes. The patient has been followed up for about two years and no clinical problem has been observed throughout the follow-up. Discussion. Acute cholecystitis with gallstones may overlap with gallbladder cancer and generally presents nonspecific symptoms. No additional imaging techniques were performed since no clinical sign except for the wall thickening was detected and no suspected malignancy such as mass was detected on USG. Squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder shows poor diagnosis, but since its overlap with cholecystitis presents early symptoms and thus leads to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the localization of the carcinoma is of prime importance. Conclusion. Gallbladder cancer should be kept in mind in elderly patients with acute cholecystitis.

  6. Gallstone disease is associated with more severe liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ludovica Fracanzani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and gallstone disease (GD are both highly prevalent in the general population and associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of GD in a cross sectional study of NAFLD patients and to define whether the presence of GD is associated with diabetes and predicts more severe liver disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We merged databases of four Liver Units, comprising 524 consecutive biopsy-proven NAFLD (373 males observed between January 2003 and June 2010. GD was diagnosed in 108 (20%, and 313 cases (60% were classified by liver biopsy as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The GD subgroup was characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of females, prediabetes/diabetes, abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, older age, higher BMI, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and lower ALT. The prevalence of GD progressively increased with advancing fibrosis and with the severity of necroinflammatory activity (p for trend  = 0.0001 and  = 0.01, respectively, without differences in the severity of steatosis. At multivariate analysis GD was associated with female gender (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04-1.8, age (OR 1.027, 95% CI1.003-1.05, fasting glucose (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.33 and NASH (OR 1.40,95% CI 1.06-1.89, whereas ALT levels were associated with a lower GD risk (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99. When subjects with cirrhosis were excluded from analysis, the association between GD and fasting glucose, female gender, and NASH was maintained. CONCLUSION: Patients with NAFLD have a high prevalence of GD, which characterizes subjects with altered glucose regulation and more advanced liver disease.

  7. Pigment dispersion syndrome masquerading as acute anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Rodríguez-García, Alejandro; Foster, C Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Signs and symptoms of pigment dispersion may be confused with those of acute anterior uveitis. This case series is intended to aid the ophthalmologist in the clinical differentiation between these two disorders. The authors present a series of 6 patients with pigment dispersion who were initially diagnosed as having acute anterior uveitis and treated with anti-inflammatory medication, including corticosteroids. The patients were referred for a second opinion due to poor or no response to therapy and were found to have pigment dispersion instead of uveitis. Symptoms of pigment dispersion may consist of blurred vision, redness, ocular pain, and photophobia, all of which are also symptoms of acute anterior uveitis. These symptoms, plus the fact that pigment floating in the aqueous humor can be mistaken for inflammation, make diagnosis challenging. Moreover, the possible co-existence of true anterior uveitis and pigment dispersion makes the diagnosis and treatment more difficult.

  8. Blue Pseudoazulene-Skeleton Pigments of Natural Origin

    OpenAIRE

    井上, 謙一郎; イノウエ, ケンイチロウ; KENICHIRO, INOUE

    1993-01-01

    Genipin, an iridoid constituent of Genipa americana, readily reacts with amino acids in the presence of oxygen to give a mixture of polymeric blue pigments whose structures are not determined. In the basic studies to elucidate the structure and formation mechnism of blue pigments, the reaction of genipin with methylamine in the absence of oxygen yielded 9 red compounds leading to blue pigments. In this article, the structures and spectroscopic properties of these red compounds were described....

  9. Emerging greener extraction systems for fungal pigments isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau , Juliana; Venkatachalam , Mekala; Fouillaud , Mireille; Dufossé , Laurent; Caro , Yanis

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Filamentous fungi produce a mixture of various metabolites such as pigments, fatty acids, proteins and other cellular metabolites. Thus, extraction and isolation of the pigmented molecules of interest are necessary steps before proceeding to any further utilization of these metabolites for commercial applications. Pigments can be stored within the biomass, excreted in the fermentation broth or both, suggesting that extraction methods need to be developed accordingly to...

  10. Destruction of liver haem by norethindrone. Conversion into green pigments

    OpenAIRE

    White, Ian N. H.

    1981-01-01

    1. Factors affecting the norethindrone-mediated conversion of hepatic haem into green pigments have been studied in the rat. Concentrations of haem and green pigments were estimated spectrophotometrically after esterification and separation by silica gel high-pressure liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). 2. Accumulation of green pigments in the liver was dependent on the dose of steroid and the time after dosing, maximum values being reached after 4–8h. Phenobarbitone pretreatment of rats result...

  11. Light-induced vegetative anthocyanin pigmentation in Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Nick W.; Lewis, David H.; Zhang, Huaibi; Irving, Louis J.; Jameson, Paula E.; Davies, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The Lc petunia system, which displays enhanced, light-induced vegetative pigmentation, was used to investigate how high light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis, and to assess the effects of anthocyanin pigmentation upon photosynthesis. Lc petunia plants displayed intense purple anthocyanin pigmentation throughout the leaves and stems when grown under high-light conditions, yet remain acyanic when grown under shade conditions. The coloured phenotypes matched with an accumulation of anthocyanins...

  12. Development of waste-based ceramic pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, G.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of ceramic pigments using industrial wastes as primary sources. In this context, the use of Al-rich sludge generated in the wastewater treatment unit of an anodising or surface coating industrial plant, and a galvanizing sludge from the Cr/Ni plating process, will be detailed. The ceramic pigments reported here were prepared using typical solid state reactions involving the metal rich sludge. The main focus will be on the synthesis of chrome-tin orchid cassiterite (Sn,CrO2, chrome-tin red malayaite Ca(Cr,SnSiO5, victoria green garnet Ca3Cr2Si3O12, and chrome alumina pink/green corundum (Cr,Al2O3 pigments. The pigments were fully characterised and then were tested in a standard ceramic glaze after. Typical working conditions and colour development will be reported.

    Se presenta la preparación de pigmentos cerámicos empleando residuos industriales como fuente de materias primas. Se detallan el uso de barros ricos en aluminio obtenidos en los tratamientos de depuración de aguas de plantas industriales de anodizado y barros de galvanizados de chapados de Cr/Ni. Los pigmentos cerámicos se prepararon empleando reacción en estados sólido a partir del barro rico en metal. Los principales pigmentos estudiados son orquídea casiterita de cromo-estaño (Sn,CrO2, malayita rojo de cromo-estaño Ca(Sn,CrSiO3, granate verde victoria Ca3Cr2Si3O12, y corindón rosa/verde de cromo alúmina (Cr,Al2O3. Los pigmentos fueron caracterizados y ensayados después de ser vidriados en cerámicas estándares. Se presentan las condiciones de trabajo y el desarrollo de color.

  13. Study of Malayaite and Malayaite Cobalt Pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, C.; Arriola, H.; Nava, N.

    2005-01-01

    Calcium tin silicate, CaSnSiO 5 , called Malayaite is synthesized with equimolecular quantities of calcium oxide, silica and stannic oxide followed by a thermic process. In this work, the synthesis of Malayaite and the structure of a Malayaite-based pigment, Sn/Co pink, is investigated by X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The results indicate Malayaite and Cassiterite formation, but the ion cobalt incorporated in the Malayaite structure, diminishes the Cassiterite proportion and causes larger asymmetry in the environment of the tin atom.

  14. State of art in research of ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulcova, P.; Trojan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The research of our laboratory is focused on investigation of special inorganic pigments, mainly on ceramic pigments. many pigments used just now are questionable from the hygienic point of view. The fact that the most of the pigments contain problematic elements opens necessity of substitution of pigments containing toxic metals (chromium). Yellow ceramic pigments commonly used such as Pb 2 Sb 2 O 7 , PbCrO 4 and CdS are now being expelled from the market because of their toxicity. For this reason the main attention has been directed to the synthesis of new inorganic compounds mainly with yellow, orange and red colour hues, which can be used as pigments for colouring of glaze, plastics or building materials. In harmony with this postulate the pigments based on CeO 2 represent new special inorganic pigments with high-temperature stability have been synthesized. The commercial significance is in thermal, chemical and light stability, combined with their low toxicity. (author)

  15. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  16. Pigments and oligomers for inks - moving towards the best combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.; Smith, S.; Grierson, W.; Devine, E.

    1999-01-01

    The formulation of UV curable printing inks depends on several complex factors. If the individual components of the ink are not complementary, then performance problems can arise. One critical combination is that between the pigment and the oligomer. In a new approach to improve understanding of pigment/oligomer interactions, the resources of a pigment manufacturer and an oligomer manufacturer have been combined to investigate the problem. Initial screening of process yellow pigments and several oligomer types highlighted performance variations which were then examined in more detail

  17. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chadwick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options.

  18. Pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma--a major review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyadurupola, Nuwan; Broadway, David C

    2008-12-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is an interesting condition that can lead to secondary open angle glaucoma. Pigmentary glaucoma is primarily a disease of young people, myopes and men. PDS is characterized by the presence of Krukenberg spindles, iris trans-illumination defects, trabecular meshwork pigmentation and backward bowing of the iris. Posterior bowing of the iris causes rubbing of the pigmented iris epithelium against lens structures, liberation of pigment and trabecular meshwork changes that result in reduced aqueous outflow with the risk of glaucoma. Peripheral laser iridotomy can reverse backward bowing of the iris and may prevent progression of pigmentary glaucoma.

  19. 75 FR 52930 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... of presscake and dry color. Pigment dispersions in any form (e.g., pigment dispersed in oleoresins... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23... order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India to determine whether Meghmani Pigments (Meghmani) is the...

  20. Zinc deficiency leads to lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Julien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult Long Evans (LE rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4-3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane.

  1. Nitric oxide-dependent pigment migration induced by ultraviolet radiation in retinal pigment cells of the crab Neohelice granulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Daza de Moraes Vaz Batista; Guterres, Laís Pereira; Votto, Ana Paula de Souza; Vargas, Marcelo Alves; Boyle, Robert Tew; Trindade, Gilma Santos; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the occurrence of pigment dispersion in retinal pigment cells exposed to UVA and UVB radiation, and to investigate the possible participation of a nitric oxide (NO) pathway. Retinal pigment cells from Neohelice granulata were obtained by cellular dissociation. Cells were analyzed for 30 min in the dark (control) and then exposed to 1.1 and 3.3 J cm(-2) UVA, 0.07 and 0.9 J cm(-2) UVB, 20 nmβ-PDH (pigment dispersing hormone) or 10 μm SIN-1 (NO donor). Histological analyses were performed to verify the UV effect in vivo. Cultured cells were exposed to 250 μm L-NAME (NO synthase blocker) and afterwards were treated with UVA, UVB or β-PDH. The retinal cells in culture displayed significant pigment dispersion in response to UVA, UVB and β-PDH. The same responses to UVA and UVB were observed in vivo. SIN-1 did not induce pigment dispersion in the cell cultures. L-NAME significantly decreased the pigment dispersion induced by UVA and UVB but not by β-PDH. All retinal cells showed an immunopositive reaction against neuronal nitric oxide synthases. Therefore, UVA and UVB radiation are capable of inducing pigment dispersion in retinal pigment cells of Neohelice granulata and this dispersion may be nitric oxide synthase dependent. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation. The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Epigenetic’s role in fish pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cal Delgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti coat colour gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule whose differential expression produces the characteristic dorsal-ventral pigment pattern observed in most mammals. We have recently demonstrated that this well-characterised mechanism from mammals also applies to fish with their much more complex pigment patterns. However, the developmental mechanism through which agouti acts to establish these colour differences remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate agouti gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the agouti promoter and identification of possible putative regulatory elements that govern basal promoter activity. Specifically, the investigation was focused on the occurrence and role of CpG dinucleotides methylation in the agouti putative promoter sequence and on a possible epigenetic level of regulation of agouti expression. We report here expression analyses of eGFP expression from transgenic zebrafish containing an 8kb-agouti-Tol2-eGFP construct. eGFP expression was specifically found in the brain area and neural tube of Tol2 transposon vector transgenic embryos. Computer-based analysis revealed a putative CpG island immediately proximal to the translation start site. Global inhibition of methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine promoted agouti production in association with decreasing CpG methylation. Taken together, these data identify a contributory role for DNA methylation in regulating agouti expression in zebrafish embryogenesis.

  3. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S; Busheva, Mira C; Stoitchkova, Katerina V; Tzonova, Iren K, E-mail: katys@phys.uni-sofia.b

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ss-carotene (ss-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ss-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  4. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  5. Analysis of metallic pigments by ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelicon, P.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M.; Kunaver, M.; Simcic, J.; Budnar, M.

    2002-01-01

    Metallic paints consist of metallic flakes dispersed in a resinous binder, i.e. a light-element polymer matrix. The spatial distribution and orientation of metallic flakes inside the matrix determines the covering efficiency of the paint, glossiness, and its angular-dependent properties such as lightness flop or color flop (two-tone). Such coatings are extensively used for a functional (i.e. security) as well as decorative purpose. The ion microbeam analysis of two types of silver paint with imbedded metallic flakes has been performed to determine the spatial distribution of the aluminum flakes in paint layer. The average sizes of the aluminum flakes were 23 μm (size distribution 10-37) and 49 μm (size distribution 34-75), respectively. The proton beam with the size of 2x2 μm 2 at Ljubljana ion microprobe has been used to scan the surface of the pigments. PIXE mapping of Al Kα map shows lateral distribution of the aluminum flakes, whereas the RBS slicing method reveals tomograms of the flakes in uppermost 7 μm of the pigment layer. The series of point analysis aligned over the single flake reveal the flake angle in respect to the polymer matrix surface. The angular sensitivity is well below 1 angular degree

  6. Ion microprobe analysis of metallic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelicon, P.; Simcic, J.; Budnar, M.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M.; Kunavaer, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Metallic paints consist of metallic flakes dispersed m a resinous binder, i.e. a light-element polymer matrix. The spatial distribution and orientation of metallic flakes inside the matrix determines the covering efficiency of the paint, glossiness, and its angular-dependent properties such as lightness flop or color flop (two-tone). Such coatings are extensively used for a functional (i.e. security) as well as decorative purpose. The ion microbeam analysis of two types of silver paint with imbedded metallic flake has been performed to test the ability of the ion microbeam spectroscopic methods on this type of samples. The average sizes of the aluminium flakes were 23 (size distribution 10-37) and 49 (size distribution 34-75) micrometers, respectively. The proton beam with the size of 2x2 micrometers at Ljubljana ion microprobe has been used to scan the surface of the pigments. PIXE mapping of Al Kα map shows lateral distribution of the aluminum flakes, whereas the RBS slicing method reveals tomographic image of the flakes in uppermost 5 micrometers of the pigment layer. The flake distribution in the larger layer depths has been accessed by RBS analysis in a point mode. (author)

  7. Pigmented Oral Lichen Planus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firstine Kelsi Hartanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is a chronic muccocutaneous inflammatory disorder. Oral lichen planus (OLP has certain specific characteristics in its clinical presentation, but can also be presented in forms resembling other diseases. This may introduce difficulty in the diagnostic process. It has been reported that OLP affects between 0.1 to 4% individuals, predominantly women and people over 40 years old. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman complained of a non-healing ulcer present for 1.5 months. Intraorally, multiple white striae with prominent central areas of brownish hyperpigmentation were apparent on the right and left buccal mucosa, right and left buccal sulcus, and lateral and dorsum of the tongue. A biopsy was completed and the histopathology features confirmed the diagnosis of OLP. For the initial treatment, a topical corticosteroid was prescribed, followed by steroid mouthwash. Response to this treatment was positive. OLP has been frequently reported to affect women over the age of 40, with psychological stress as a primary predisposing factor. The clinical presentation is characteristic of Wickham’s striae with erosive areas. However, a biopsy and histopathological examination is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis. The clinical feature of pigmented OLP has been reported and confirmed by microscopic finding of band-like lymphocytic appearance which is the pathognomonic features of OLP, along with basal cell liquefaction degeneration, and melanin in continence at the lamina propria. Conclusion: Pigmented OLP is a variant of erosive OLP. Anamnesis, clinical presentation, and histopathological examination confirm diagnosis.

  8. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Ryter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, are endogenously-derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  9. The gecko visual pigments. The behavior of opsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F

    1979-05-01

    The 521-pigment extracted out of the retina of the Tokay gecko has the typical stereospecificity of the vertebrate visual pigments. This is true for the pigment in the chloride-depleted, "blue-shifted" state as well as for the normal pigment with added chloride. While in the chloride-deficient state, pigment regeneration occurred with both 11-cis- and 9-cis-retinals and the regenerated photopigments were also in the blue-shifted, chloride-depleted state. As with the native pigment, these regenerated pigments were bathochromically shifted to their normal positions by the addition of chloride. Chloride-deficient opsin by itself also responded to chloride for the pigment regenerated with 11-cis-retinal from such chloride-treated opsin was in the normal 521-position. Regeneration was always rapid, reaching completion in less than 5 min, and was significantly faster than for cow rhodopsin regenerating under the same conditions. This rapid rate was found with or without chloride, with both 11-cis- and 9-cis-retinals and in the presence of the sulfhydryl poison, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (PMB). Like the native chloride-deficient pigment, the regenerated chloride-depleted photopigments responded to PMB by a blue shift beyond the position of the chloride-deficient state. The addition of chloride to these "poisoned" regenerated pigments caused a bathochromic shift of such magnitude as to indicate a repair of both the PMB and chloride-deficient blue shift. In this discussion the possible implications of these results to phylogenetic considerations are considered as well as to some molecular properties of the 521-pigment.

  10. Clinical characteristics of pigment dispersion syndrome in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, G; Wang, N; Tang, X; Zhang, S; Chen, H

    2009-08-01

    To report clinical findings and characteristics of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) in Chinese patients. PDS suspects with any one of the following signs: corneal endothelial pigmentation, iris transillumination defects (ITDs), pigment granule dusting on anterior iris surface, posterior iris bowing, trabecular meshwork (TM) pigmentation, and lenticular or zonular pigmentation were evaluated for PDS at the glaucoma specialty clinic at Beijing Tongren Eye Centre. Diagnosis of PDS required at least two of the following signs: Krukenberg spindle, moderate-to-heavy TM pigmentation (>or=Scheie II) and any degree of lenticular and/or zonular pigmentation. Eighteen patients (12 males and six females) were identified as having PDS during a 1-year period, with mean age of 35.5+/-7.0 years (range, 22-49). All but two eyes from two patients had myopia of -0.5 D or greater, with mean spherical equivalent power of -5.20+/-5.80 D (range, -24.75+/-0.5). The average IOP at initial diagnosis was 33.7+/-10.5 mm Hg (range, 16-56). Fifteen patients (83.3%) were found to have pigmentary glaucoma at their initial diagnosis. All patients showed homogenous increased TM pigmentation as well as lenticular and/or zonular pigmentation. 61.1% of patients (11 of 18) had Krukenberg spindle. None of the patients exhibited spoke-like midperipheral ITDs except for trace-isolated transillumination in both eyes of the two patients. The most common clinical findings in Chinese PDS patients include homogeneous TM pigmentation and pigment granule dusting on lens zonules and/or posterior peripheral lens surface. ITDs are uncommon in Chinese patients with PDS.

  11. Chloroquine causes similar electroretinogram modifications, neuronal phospholipidosis and marked impairment of synaptic vesicle transport in Albino and Pigmented Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezmi, Stéphane; Rokh, Najla; Saint-Macary, Gérard; Pino, Michael; Sallez, Valérie; Thevenard, Françoise; Roome, Nigel; Rosolen, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Retinal toxicity of chloroquine has been known for several years, but the mechanism(s) of toxicity remain controversial; some author support the idea that the binding of chloroquine to melanin pigments in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) play a major toxic role by concentrating the drug in the eye. In our study, 12 albinos Sprague-Dawley (SD) and 12 pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats were treated orally for 3 months with chloroquine to compare functional and pathological findings. On Flash electroretinograms (ERG) performed in scotopic conditions, similar and progressive (time-dependent) delayed onset and decreased amplitudes of oscillatory potentials (from Day 71) and b-waves (on Day 92) were identified in both BN and SD rats. In both strains, identical morphological changes consisted of neuronal phospholipidosis associated with UV auto-fluorescence without evidence of retinal degeneration and gliosis; the RPE did not show any morphological lesions or autofluorescence. IHC analyses demonstrated a decrease in GABA expression in the inner nuclear layer. In addition, a marked accumulation of synaptic vesicles coupled with a marked disruption of neurofilaments in the optic nerve fibers was identified. In conclusion, ERG observations were very similar to those described in humans. Comparable ERG modifications, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings were observed in the retina of both rat strains suggesting that melanin pigment is unlikely involved. chloroquine-induced impairment of synaptic vesicle transport, likely related to disruption of neurofilaments was identified and non-previously reported. This new mechanism of toxicity may also be responsible for the burry vision described in humans chronically treated with chloroquine

  12. Chloroquine causes similar electroretinogram modifications, neuronal phospholipidosis and marked impairment of synaptic vesicle transport in albino and pigmented rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezmi, Stéphane; Rokh, Najla; Saint-Macary, Gérard; Pino, Michael; Sallez, Valérie; Thevenard, Françoise; Roome, Nigel; Rosolen, Serge

    2013-06-07

    Retinal toxicity of chloroquine has been known for several years, but the mechanism(s) of toxicity remain controversial; some author support the idea that the binding of chloroquine to melanin pigments in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) play a major toxic role by concentrating the drug in the eye. In our study, 12 albinos Sprague-Dawley (SD) and 12 pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats were treated orally for 3 months with chloroquine to compare functional and pathological findings. On Flash electroretinograms (ERG) performed in scotopic conditions, similar and progressive (time-dependent) delayed onset and decreased amplitudes of oscillatory potentials (from Day 71) and b-waves (on Day 92) were identified in both BN and SD rats. In both strains, identical morphological changes consisted of neuronal phospholipidosis associated with UV auto-fluorescence without evidence of retinal degeneration and gliosis; the RPE did not show any morphological lesions or autofluorescence. IHC analyses demonstrated a decrease in GABA expression in the inner nuclear layer. In addition, a marked accumulation of synaptic vesicles coupled with a marked disruption of neurofilaments in the optic nerve fibers was identified. In conclusion, ERG observations were very similar to those described in humans. Comparable ERG modifications, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings were observed in the retina of both rat strains suggesting that melanin pigment is unlikely involved. chloroquine-induced impairment of synaptic vesicle transport, likely related to disruption of neurofilaments was identified and non-previously reported. This new mechanism of toxicity may also be responsible for the burry vision described in humans chronically treated with chloroquine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural and Visible-Near Infrared Optical Properties of Cr-Doped TiO2 for Colored Cool Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Le; Weng, Xiaolong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Qingyong; Deng, Longjiang

    2017-11-01

    Chromium-doped TiO2 pigments were synthesized via a solid-state reaction method and studied with X-ray diffraction, SEM, XPS, and UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy. The incorporation of Cr3+ accelerates the transition from the anatase phase to the rutile phase and compresses the crystal lattice. Moreover, the particle morphology, energy gap, and reflectance spectrum of Cr-doped TiO2 pigments is affected by the crystal structure and doping concentration. For the rutile samples, some of the Cr3+ ions are oxidized to Cr4+ after sintering at a high temperature, which leads to a strong near-infrared absorption band due to the 3A2 → 3 T1 electric dipole-allowed transitions of Cr4+. And the decrease of the band gap causes an obvious redshift of the optical absorption edges as the doping concentration increases. Thus, the VIS and near-infrared average reflectance of the rutile Ti1 - x Cr x O2 sample decrease by 60.2 and 58%, respectively, when the Cr content increases to x = 0.0375. Meanwhile, the color changes to black brown. However, for the anatase Ti1 - x Cr x O2 pigments, only the VIS reflection spectrum is inhibited by forming some characteristic visible light absorption peaks of Cr3+. The morphology, band gap, and NIR reflectance are not significantly affected. Finally, a Cr-doped anatase TiO2 pigment with a brownish-yellow color and 90% near-infrared reflectance can be obtained.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of CeO2-TiO2-Pr6O11 solid solutions for environmentally benign nontoxic red pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Giable; Rao, Padala Prabhakar; Reddy, Mundlapudi Lakshmipathi

    2006-01-01

    New inorganic pigments Ce 1-(x+y) Ti x Pr y O 2 (x ranges from 0.05 to 0.195 and y ranges from 0.005 to 0.15) based on CeO 2 -TiO 2 -Pr 6 O 11 solid solutions have been synthesized by solid-state route with a goal of preparing environmentally secure red colorants. Characterizations using XRD, UV-vis spectroscopy and CIE 1976 color coordinates assessment reveals the formation of pigments displaying colors ranging from brick red to dark brown. The coloring mechanism is based on the introduction of additional electronic level of energy in the cerianite forbidden band from the unpaired 4f electron of lanthanide ion. (author)

  15. Properties of sorbents from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    The surface and sorptional properties of carbonaceous materials prepared from brown coal and their relation to minerals content and coal bulk density as technologically important parameters of starting coal were described. Chars were prepared from brown coal of North Bohemian Brown Coal District and activated with CO{sub 2} in a large-scale laboratory unit. Their surface and sorptive properties were investigated. It was found that mineral matter/ash content favourably affects the mesoporosity development in chars/activated chars as the sorption capacity increased with increasing ash content in chars. No influence of ash content on the macroporosity was observed. With the activated chars, both the inner surface and sorption capacity showed the maximum in the burn-off range of 41-64%. Optimization of the process is discussed.

  16. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown alpacas. Results Two small RNA libraries from white alpaca (WA and brown alpaca (BA skin were sequenced with the aid of Illumina sequencing technology. 272 and 267 conserved miRNAs were obtained from the WA and BA skin libraries, respectively. Of these conserved miRNAs, 35 and 13 were more abundant in WA and BA skin, respectively. The targets of these miRNAs were predicted and grouped based on Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in the melanogenesis pathway controlling pigmentation. In addition to the conserved miRNAs, we also obtained 22 potentially novel miRNAs from the WA and BA skin libraries. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in skin of animals of different coat colors by deep sequencing analysis. We discovered a collection of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in WA and BA skin. The results suggest important potential functions of miRNAs in coat color regulation.

  17. Brown dwarfs in retrogradely precessing cataclysmic variables?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin E.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We compare Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic simulations of retrogradely precessing accretion disks that have a white dwarf primary and a main sequence secondary with observational data and with theory on retrograde precession via tidal torques like those by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth [1, 2]. Assuming the primary does not accrete much of the mass lost from the secondary, we identify the theoretical low mass star/brown dwarf boundary. We find no observational candidates in our study that could qualify as brown dwarfs.

  18. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  19. Fuel briquettes from brown coals of Yakutia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Nikolaeva; V.G. Latyshev; O.N. Burenina [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Oil and Gas Problems

    2009-04-15

    Experimental data on the development of technology for the manufacture of briquetted fuel from brown coals with the use of various petroleum binders are presented. The influence of the moisture content, the coal particle-size composition, the binder type and concentration, the compacting pressure, and heat treatment regimes on the mechanical properties of the materials was studied. The optimal compositions and optimal values of the engineering parameters for the production of graded briquetted fuel from brown coals of the Kangalassy deposit in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) were established.

  20. Brown tumor of mandible with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.K.; Khan, F.A.; Siddiq, A.; Hanif, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted and released by the parathyroid glands, the activity of which is controlled by the ionized serum calcium level. Increased PTH secretion results in hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary types. Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased parathyroid hormone secretion occurring as a result of abnormality in one or more of the parathyroid glands. Brown tumors are non-neoplastic lesions as a result of abnormal bone metabolism in cases of hyperparathyroidism, creating a local destructive phenomenon. A rare case of a young female patient with brown tumors in her mandible associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, is reported. (author)

  1. Benchmarking Brown Dwarf Models With a Non-irradiated Transiting Brown Dwarf in Praesepe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas; Marley, Mark; Line, Michael; Gizis, John

    2018-05-01

    We wish to use 9.4 hours of Spitzer time to observe two eclipses, one each at 3.6um and 4.5um, of the transiting brown dwarf AD 3116b. AD 3116b is a 54.2+/-4.3 MJ, 1.08+/-0.07 RJ object on a 1.98 day orbit about a 3200K M-dwarf. Uniquely, AD 3116 and its host star are both members of Praesepe, a 690+/-60 Myr old open cluster. AD 3116b is thus one of two transiting brown dwarfs for which we have a robust isochronal age that is not dependent upon brown dwarf evolutionary models, and the youngest brown dwarf for which this is the case. Importantly, the flux AD 3116b receives from its host star is only 0.7% of its predicted internal luminosity (Saumon & Marley 2008). This makes AD 3116b the first known transiting brown dwarf that simultaneously has a well-defined age, and that receives a negligible amount of external irradiation, and a unique laboratory to test radius and luminosity predictions from brown dwarf evolutionary models. Our goal is to measure the emission from the brown dwarf. AD 3116b should have large, 25 mmag, eclipse depths in the Spitzer bandpasses, and we expect to measure them with a precision of +/-0.50 mmag at 3.6um and +/-0.54 mmag at 4.5um. This will allow us to make measure AD 3116b?s internal effective temperature to +/-40K. We will also use the upcoming Gaia DR2 parallaxes to measure AD 3116b's absolute IRAC magnitudes and color, and hence determine the cloud properties of the atmosphere. As the only known brown dwarf with an independently measured mass, radius, and age, Spitzer measurements of AD 3116b's luminosity and clouds will provide a critical benchmark for brown dwarf observation and theory.

  2. Free radical scavenging activities of pigment extract from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The macroporous resin adsorption method was used to purify the pigment from Hibiscus syriacus L. petals. Through the comparison of the adsorption and desorption rates of six types of macroporous resins including AB-8, S-8, NKA-9, DM-130, D101 and 860021 to the pigment, 860021 resin was selected as the most ...

  3. Optimization of fermentation conditions for red pigment production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An extracellular pigment-producing ascomycetous filamentous fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium was obtained from soil and its optimal culture conditions investigated. The optimal culture conditions for pigment production were as follows; soluble starch 2% (670 units), peptone (880 units), pH 9.0 (900 units); ...

  4. Intraclutch variation in avian eggshell pigmentation: the anaemia hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Greet; De Neve, Liesbeth; Lens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Many passerine species lay eggs that are speckled with dark protoporphyrin pigmentation. Because protoporphyrin is mainly derived from the blood, we here formulate and test a new hypothesis that links an increase in anaemia along the laying sequence to within-clutch variation in egg pigmentation. More intense pigmentation is expected if pigments accumulate during enhanced red blood cell production in response to anaemia. Reduced pigmentation is expected if pigments are derived from the degradation of red blood cells that circulate in smaller numbers due to blood loss. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated anaemia in great tit (Parus major) females by infesting the nests with hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) prior to egg laying. Polychromatophil (i.e., immature red blood cells) percentage, as a measure of blood cell production, was positively correlated with parasite load confirming that female great tits experienced stronger anaemia when infested with haematophagous parasites during egg laying. We found a positive relationship between spot darkness and laying order that weakened under high parasite load. This result suggests that anaemia in females due to blood-sucking parasites led to diminished protoporphyrin from disintegrated red blood cells and hence a decreased deposition of protoporphyrin. However, the overall increase in pigment darkness along the laying sequence suggests that pigments also accumulate by enhanced red blood cell production caused by anaemia due to egg production itself.

  5. Analysis of basidiomycete pigments in situ by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, James P; Matthäus, Christian; Lenz, Claudius; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-02-07

    Basidiomycetes, that is, mushroom-type fungi, are known to produce pigments in response to environmental impacts. As antioxidants with a high level of unsaturation, these compounds can neutralize highly oxidative species. In the event of close contact with other microbes, the enzymatically controlled pigment production is triggered and pigment secretion is generated at the interaction zone. The identification and analysis of these pigments is important to understand the defense mechanism of fungi, which is essential to counteract an uncontrolled spread of harmful species. Usually, a detailed analysis of the pigments is time consuming as it depends on laborious sample preparation and isolation procedures. Furthermore, the applied protocols often influence the chemical integrity of the compound of interest. A possibility to noninvasively investigate the pigmentation is Raman microspectroscopy. The methodology has the potential to analyze the chemical composition of the sample spatially resolved at the interaction zone. After the acquisition of a representative spectroscopic library, the pigment production by basidiomycetes was monitored for during response to different fungi and bacteria. The presented results describe a very efficient noninvasive way of pigment analysis which can be applied with minimal sample preparation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis of new environment-friendly yellow pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Shinya; Masui, Toshiyuki; Imanaka, Nobuhito

    2006-01-01

    New inorganic pigments based on amorphous cerium tungstate, Ce 1-x M x W 2 O 8 (M = Zr or Ti, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6), were synthesized and their color properties were characterized from the viewpoint of possible ecological inorganic pigments. The Ce 1-x M x W 2 O 8 materials absorb the visible and the ultraviolet light under 500 nm efficiently, which is originated in the O 2p -Ce 4f and the O 2p -W 5d double charge transfer transitions, and, as a result, the pigments can show a brilliant yellow color. The optical absorption edge wavelength of these pigments depends on the Zr or Ti content, and the effective yellow hue was observed at x = 0.2 for both pigments. The color properties of the present pigments suggest that they have a potential to be applied as a satisfactory pigment for paints. Furthermore, these pigments can be prepared by a simple co-precipitation method. They are inert and safe and do not produce side effects in the human body because they are composed of non-toxic and safe elements

  7. Microscopic Analysis of Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath M. Vega Gutierrez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and Chlorociboria aeruginascens have been shown to successfully dye materials, like wood, bamboo, and textiles, however, there is no information about their binding mechanisms. Due to this, a microscopic study was performed to provide information to future manufacturers interested in these pigments. The results of this study show that S. ganodermophthorum and C. aeruginosa form an amorphous layer on substrates, while S. cuboideum forms crystal-like structures. The attachment and morphology indicate that there might be different chemical and physical interactions between the extracted pigments and the materials. This possibility can explain the high resistance of the pigments to UV light and color fastness that makes them competitive against synthetic pigments. These properties make these pigments a viable option for an industry that demands natural pigments with the properties of the synthetic ones.

  8. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.

    2003-01-01

    the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...... wine....

  10. Primary description of surface water phytoplankton pigment patterns in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, R.K.; Anil, A; Narale, D.D.; Chitari, R.R.; Kulkarni, V.V.

    . Comparison of pigment data with microscopic cell counts indicated a significant relationship between the diatom pigment index (Diat sub (DP)) and diatom abundance. However, the relationship between the dinoflagellate pigment index (Dino sub (DP...

  11. Consumer Acceptance and Preference Study [CAPS] on Brown and Under Milled Indian Rice Varieties in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and under milled rice among urban south Indians. Methods Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and non-slum residences in Chennai participated (n=82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (under milled). Thus nine rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of three days. A hedonic 7-point scale was used to rate the consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Results Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice if affordable after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Conclusion While most consumers’ preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or under milled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults. PMID:24015699

  12. Optimization and design of pigments for heat-insulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guang-Hai; Zhang Yue

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that heat insulating property of infrared reflective coatings is obtained through the use of pigments which diffuse near-infrared thermal radiation. Suitable structure and size distribution of pigments would attain maximum diffuse infrared radiation and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. The optimum structure and size range of pigments for reflective infrared coatings are studied by using Kubelka—Munk theory, Mie model and independent scattering approximation. Taking titania particle as the pigment embedded in an inorganic coating, the computational results show that core-shell particles present excellent scattering ability, more so than solid and hollow spherical particles. The optimum radius range of core-shell particles is around 0.3 ∼ 1.6 μm. Furthermore, the influence of shell thickness on optical parameters of the coating is also obvious and the optimal thickness of shell is 100–300 nm. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. Optimization and design of pigments for heat-insulating coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports that heat insulating property of infrared reflective coatings is obtained through the use of pigments which diffuse near-infrared thermal radiation. Suitable structure and size distribution of pigments would attain maximum diffuse infrared radiation and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. The optimum structure and size range of pigments for reflective infrared coatings are studied by using Kubelka—Munk theory, Mie model and independent scattering approximation. Taking titania particle as the pigment embedded in an inorganic coating, the computational results show that core-shell particles present excellent scattering ability, more so than solid and hollow spherical particles. The optimum radius range of core-shell particles is around 0.3 ~ 1.6 μm. Furthermore, the influence of shell thickness on optical parameters of the coating is also obvious and the optimal thickness of shell is 100-300 nm.

  14. Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for pigment production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Nagarajan, Dillirani; Zhang, Quanguo; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Duu-Jong

    Pigments (mainly carotenoids) are important nutraceuticals known for their potent anti-oxidant activities and have been used extensively as high end health supplements. Microalgae are the most promising sources of natural carotenoids and are devoid of the toxic effects associated with synthetic derivatives. Compared to photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae in well-controlled bioreactors for pigments production has attracted much attention for commercial applications due to overcoming the difficulties associated with the supply of CO 2 and light, as well as avoiding the contamination problems and land requirements in open autotrophic culture systems. In this review, the heterotrophic metabolic potential of microalgae and their uses in pigment production are comprehensively described. Strategies to enhance pigment production under heterotrophic conditions are critically discussed and the challenges faced in heterotrophic pigment production with possible alternative solutions are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na + with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  16. Chemical characterisation of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazulla Barreda, M. F.; Rodrigo Edo, M.; Blasco Roca, E.; Orduna Cordero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper addresses the development of a methodology that allows the complete chemical characterisation of zircon cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments including minor and major elements. To develop the methodology, five zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide pigments with different hues were selected, studying the different measurement process steps, from sample preparation to the optimisation of the measurement of the different components of the pigments by spectroscopic techniques (WD-XRF and elemental analysis by combustion and IR detection). The chemical characterisation method developed was validated with synthetic standards prepared from the mixture of certified reference materials and pure oxides because no certified referenced materials of this type of pigments were commercially available. The developed method can be used for a complete chemical characterization of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments with a very low uncertainty for all the elements analysed. (Author)

  17. Studies on the bio production of monascus red pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    there is an increasing interest on natural pigments to replace some currently used synthetic dyes, since the latter have been associated with toxic effects in foods. the red pigment of the fungus Monascus is widely used in all the world as food additives or pharmaceuticals. although pigment production by Monascus spp.in chemically defined media is well documented, very few information is available about the use of agro-industrial wastes. in this regard, the present study has been devoted to investigate the effect of different parameters on red pigment production by the local isolated strain of M. purpureu, in an attempt to maximize the production, and also to develop a potential fermentation process for the production of red pigment using potato processing wastewater (PPW,waters used to wash the potato slices prior to cooking in chips and crisp manufacture) as cheap production medium

  18. Ultraviolet radiation effects on pigmentation in the cyanobacterium ''Phormidium uncinatum''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkor, V.A.; Haeder, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Baikal strain of the cyanobacterium Phormidium uncinatum was found to possess the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, while the Tuebingen strain of Phormidium contained, in addition to these, the biliprotein phycoerythrin. Sucrose gradient centrifugation of the pigment extracts resulted in a separation of the phycobiliproteins into several bands, which according to their absorption and fluorescence properties, were identified as monomers, trimers and hexamers. With increasing UV-B irradiation the heavier aggregates were broken down into smaller components. Photobleaching of these accessory pigments also occurred. FPLC gel filtration analyses of the pigments also showed loss of heavier aggregates of the phycobilins and bleaching of the pigments. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the sucrose gradient and FPLC fractions indicated loss of the biliproteins with increasing UV-B irradiation. The loss of the β- were more rapid than that of the α- subunits. Increasing levels of ultraviolet irradiation is therefore deleterious to these organism. (author)

  19. Single Molecule Spectroscopy on Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jelezko, F; Schuler, S; Thews, E; Tietz, C; Wechsler, A; Wrachtrup, J

    2001-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy was applied to unravel the energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Detailed analysis of excitation and fluorescence emission spectra has been made for peripheral plant antenna LHC II and Photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Optical transitions of individual pigments were resolved under nonselective excitation of antenna chlorophylls. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy of individual plant antenna LHC II indicates that at low temperatures, the excitation energy is localized on the red-most Chl a pool absorbing at 680 nm. More than one pigment molecule is responsible for the fluorescence emission of the LHC II trimer. The spectral lines of single Chl a molecules absorbing at 675 nm are broadened because of the Foerster energy transfer towards the red-most pigments. Low-temperature spectroscopy on single PS I trimers indicates that two subgroups of pigments, which are present in the red antenna pool, differ by the strength of t...

  20. Effects of the nonsugar fraction of brown sugar on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced photoaging in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Hayashi, Teruaki; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2009-04-01

    Brown sugar has been used traditionally for the treatment of skin trouble as a component of soaps or lotions. Symptoms of aging including wrinkles and pigmentation develop earlier in sun-exposed skin than unexposed skin, a phenomenon referred to as photoaging. Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is one of the most important environmental factors influencing photoaging. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the nonsugar fraction of brown sugar prevents chronic UVB-induced aging of the skin using melanin-possessing hairless mice. The nonsugar fraction (1% or 3% solution, 50 mul/mouse) was applied topically to the dorsal region every day for 19 weeks. Both solutions prevented an increase in skin thickness and reduction in skin elasticity caused by the UVB. The 3% solution also prevented wrinkles and melanin pigmentation as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels. Increases in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in UVB-irradiated skin was inhibited by the nonsugar fraction. Prevention of UVB-induced aging of the skin by topical application of the nonsugar fraction of brown sugar may be due to inhibition of increases in MMP-2 and VEGF expression.

  1. Fixed pigmented erythema due to cimetidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almamy Diabaté

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fixed pigmented erythema (EPF is pathognomonic of drug-induced toxicity. Antisecretory drugs are among the most commonly not responsible drugs. EPF secondary to cimetidine administration has rarely been described. We report an EPF case during a cimetidine-based treatment in Bouake. A 43-year-old patient, HIV negative, consults for an EPF located on both sides of the breasts, on the 5th day of an antiulcer treatment comprising compressed cimetidine and gastric dressing based on phosphatase d ‘aluminum. The diagnosis is made in front of the characteristic aspect of the lesion of EPF and the early reappearance of lesions recurring exactly in the same places, after the reintroduction of cimetidine. The discovery of an EPF imposes a strict etiological approach in search of the responsible drug. During anti-ulcer treatment, the practitioner should bear in mind the potential role of cimetidine.

  2. Dietary modification of human macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B R; Johnson, E J; Russell, R M; Krinsky, N I; Yeum, K J; Edwards, R B; Snodderly, D M

    1997-08-01

    The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. Macular pigment was measured psychophysically for 13 subjects. Serum concentrations of L, Z, and beta-carotene were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven subjects modified their usual daily diets by adding 60 g of spinach (10.8 mg L, 0.3 mg Z, 5 mg beta-carotene) and ten also added 150 g of corn (0.3 mg Z, 0.4 mg L); two other subjects were given only corn. Dietary modification lasted up to 15 weeks. For the subjects fed spinach or spinach and corn, three types of responses to dietary modification were identified: Eight "retinal responders" had increases in serum L (mean, 33%; SD, 22%) and in MP density (mean, 19%; SD, 11%); two "retinal nonresponders" showed substantial increases in serum L (mean, 31%) but not in MP density (mean, -11%); one "serum and retinal nonresponder" showed no changes in serum L, Z, or beta-carotene and no change in MP density. For the two subjects given only corn, serum L changed little (+11%, -6%), but in one subject serum Z increased (70%) and MP density increased (25%). Increases in MP density were obtained within 4 weeks of dietary modification for most, but not all, subjects. When MP density increased with dietary modification, it remained elevated for at least several months after resuming an unmodified diet. Augmentation of MP for both experimental and clinical investigation appears to be feasible for many persons.

  3. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  4. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  5. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  6. Tom Brown appointed Dean of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    James Thomas "Tom" Brown, former senior associate dean of the Dean of Students office, has been appointed as the Dean of Students. The Dean of Students office is responsible for the coordination of student advocacy, new student orientation and parent programs, and responding to student emergencies in collaboration with Judicial Affairs, Residence Life, Cook Counseling Center, Schiffert Health Center, and other departments and agencies.

  7. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( toluene-derived SOM after ammonia exposure at varied RHs. The results suggest that the production of light-absorbing nitrogen-containing compounds from multiphase reactions with ammonia was kinetically limited in the glassy organic matrix, which otherwise produce brown carbon. The results of this study have significant implications for production and optical properties of brown carbon in urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  8. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  9. Brown midrib sorghum deserves a look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage sorghum varieties have been developed to allow them to thrive under low moisture and poor soil conditions while producing adequate amounts of forage. In addition, newer varieties, such as the brown midrib (BMR) hybrids, can be alternatives to conventional varieties as they contain less lignin...

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were performed to clarify the influence of various factors which might be involved in vascular regulation. Topical application of lidocain ...and treatment with reserpine effectively blocked, while denervation of brown fat, syrosingopine and atropine were ineffective to prevent the blood flow

  11. Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindiola, Tatcho Jr.; Niemann, Yolanda Flores; Rodriguez, Nestor

    This book analyzes how African and Hispanic Americans perceive and interact with one another, highlighting black-brown relations in Houston, Texas, one of the largest cities with a majority ethnic population and one in which Hispanic Americans outnumber African Americans. Using results from several sociological studies, the book examines: how each…

  12. Black-Brown Relations: Are Alliances Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klor de Alva, J. Jorge; West, Cornel

    1997-01-01

    Dialogue between Cornel West and Jorge Klor de Alva explores the question of black-brown alliances, those between African Americans and Hispanic Americans. If minority groups can put aside the difference of skin color and join to combat economic and social racism, they can have far-reaching and meaningful impacts on society. (SLD)

  13. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in food only within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  14. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  15. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a maxillary brown tumour caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to parathyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a large swelling in the right maxilla, which caused right-sided nasal obstruction, intermittent bleeding and diplopia. A computed tomography scan demonstrated ...

  16. Treatment of peat, brown coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francke, F C

    1917-11-02

    Treatment of peat, brown coal, lignite, sapropel, oil shale, wood and the like, characterized by the fact, that the material is dried in a drum having side gas-entrance and gas-exit pipes, and is provided in the known way with ledges under slow turning and then is distilled at a temperature below 550/sup 0/ C.

  17. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  18. Characterization of photoreceptor cell types in the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus (Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, K D; Lagerholm, S; Clubwala, R; Silver, M T; Haughey, D; Ryan, J M; Loew, E R; Deutschlander, M E; Kenyon, K L

    2009-12-01

    We report the expression of three visual opsins in the retina of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus, Vespertilionidae). Gene sequences for a rod-specific opsin and two cone-specific opsins were cloned from cDNA derived from bat eyes. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that the two cone opsins correspond to an ultraviolet short-wavelength opsin (SWS1) and a long-wavelength opsin (LWS). Immunocytochemistry using antisera to visual opsins revealed that the little brown bat retina contains two types of cone photoreceptors within a rod-dominated background. However, unlike other mammalian photoreceptors, M. lucifugus cones and rods are morphologically indistinguishable by light microscopy. Both photoreceptor types have a thin, elongated outer segment. Using microspectrophotometry we classified the absorption spectrum for the ubiquitous rods. Similar to other mammals, bat rhodopsin has an absorption peak near 500 nm. Although we were unable to confirm a spectral range, cellular and molecular analyses indicate that M. lucifugus expresses two types of cone visual pigments located within the photoreceptor layer. This study provides important insights into the visual capacity of a nocturnal microchiropteran species.

  19. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  20. Search for brown dwarfs in the IRAS data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    A report is given on the initial searches for brown dwarf stars in the IRAS data bases. The paper was presented to the workshop on 'Astrophysics of brown dwarfs', Virginia, USA, 1985. To date no brown dwarfs have been discovered in the solar neighbourhood. Opportunities for future searches with greater sensitivity and different wavelengths are outlined. (U.K.)

  1. The brown coal. Present state and development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenknecht, J.

    1994-01-01

    A present state of Polish power plants fueled by brown coal is presented. Their economic results are compared with the achievements of power stations fueled by black coal. The basic data concerning brown coal reserves, production and consumption are given. The problems of environmental protection are discussed. The different applications of brown coal are mentioned. Its importance for energy balance is stressed. 6 tabs

  2. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean

    2016-01-01

    active set size. Moreover, the generalisation permits a novel approach to feature selection from Brown clusters: We show that the standard approach of shearing the Brown clustering output tree at arbitrary bitlengths is lossy and that features should be chosen instead by rolling up Generalised Brown...

  3. A Panchromatic View of Brown Dwarf Aurorae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian [University of Colorado Boulder, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder CO, 80303 (United States); Hallinan, Gregg; Kao, Melodie M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, 1200 E. California Avenue, Pasadena CA, 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Stellar coronal activity has been shown to persist into the low-mass star regime, down to late M-dwarf spectral types. However, there is now an accumulation of evidence suggesting that at the end of the main sequence, there is a transition in the nature of the magnetic activity from chromospheric and coronal to planet-like and auroral, from local impulsive heating via flares and MHD wave dissipation to energy dissipation from strong large-scale magnetospheric current systems. We examine this transition and the prevalence of auroral activity in brown dwarfs through a compilation of multiwavelength surveys of magnetic activity, including radio, X-ray, and optical. We compile the results of those surveys and place their conclusions in the context of auroral emission as a consequence of large-scale magnetospheric current systems that accelerate energetic electron beams and drive the particles to impact the cool atmospheric gas. We explore the different manifestations of auroral phenomena, like H α , in brown dwarf atmospheres and define their distinguishing characteristics. We conclude that large-amplitude photometric variability in the near-infrared is most likely a consequence of clouds in brown dwarf atmospheres, but that auroral activity may be responsible for long-lived stable surface features. We report a connection between auroral H α emission and quiescent radio emission in electron cyclotron maser instability pulsing brown dwarfs, suggesting a potential underlying physical connection between quiescent and auroral emissions. We also discuss the electrodynamic engines powering brown dwarf aurorae and the possible role of satellites around these systems both to power the aurorae and seed the magnetosphere with plasma.

  4. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (pfeeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (pfeed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  5. Impact of Pigments on Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Ivanauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe an impact of using iron oxide pigment on self-compacting concrete (SCC properties. We have experimented with adding portions of iron oxide pigment from 3 % to 6 % into cement paste. A few alternative pigments (chromic oxide and iron oxide hydroxide were used for performing the same experiments. The impact of these pigments on a normal cement paste is described in this paper. We demonstrate that iron oxide pigment reduces the need for water in a normal cement paste. However, adding the pigment also reduces the compressive strength of concrete up to 20 %. The concrete specimens were tested in various time spans, i.e. 1 day to 28 days, by keeping them in 20 ± 2 ºC water – normal consolidation regimen. Some of the specimens were processed in steam chamber, at 60 ºC in order to make the process of the cement hydration faster, as well as to estimate an impact of active SiO2 proportion in ash on SCC properties. We show that using iron oxide pigment for SCC mixture increases the slump-flow property of concrete mix up to 5 %. Experiments with solidified concrete have demonstrated that iron oxide diminishes water absorption up to 6 % and decreases open concrete porosity that makes concrete resistant against freezing. Article in Lithuanian

  6. Optimizing Angkak Pigments and Lovastatin Production By Monascus purpureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASIM DANURI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Angkak pigments and lovastatin had been reported very useful as natural coloring agents, as an agent to increase thrombocyte level in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, and also as a compound that was able to control blood cholesterol level. Three strains of fungus Monascus purpureus AKI, AKII, and 915 were selected to produce angkak pigments and lovastatin in potato dextrose agar (PDA medium. The best fungus strain, which is AKII, was then applied in three kinds of rice media (white rice IR-42, red rice BP-1804-IF-9, and a combination of 1:1 (w/w white IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 for solid fermentation. The best medium and fermentation times were determined for the production of angkak pigments and lovastatin separately. Results showed that strains, media, and duration of fermentations gave significant effect on the amount of pigment produced. Strain AKII produced highest concentration of angkak pigments. The combination of rice (White IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 produced the highest pigment than the individual white and red rie it self. The optimum duration of fermentation was 16 days for strains AKI and AKII, but only 15 days for strain 915. Therefore the strain AKII with media combination of rice and a fermentation time of 16 days were used to investigate the additional effect of various minerals. Addition of the mineral individually gave significant increased on angkak pigment production by AKII, where as the addition of minerals mixture in the forth tube did not.

  7. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, M. Sánchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhée, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-08-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the "Maya blue" pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si8(Mg2Al2)O20(OH)2(OH2)4.4H2O and an organic colourant (indigo: C16H10N2O2), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  8. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S.G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si 8 (Mg 2 Al 2 )O 20 (OH) 2 (OH 2 ) 4 .4H 2 O and an organic colourant (indigo: C 16 H 10 N 2 O 2 ), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue

  9. Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreola, F.; Barbieri, L.; Bondioli, F.; Cannio, M.; Ferrari, A.M.; Lancellotti, I.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium(III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to color ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr 0.04 Sn 0.97 SiO 5 and green Ca 3 Cr 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furthermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr 2 O 3 . The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr 2 O 3

  10. Skin Pigmentation Kinetics after Exposure to Ultraviolet A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12 Scandinav......Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12...... Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis after 6 and 12 exposures on the back using broadband UVA and UVA1 with equal sub-minimal melanogenic doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured by skin reflectance at 555 and 660 urn. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in dark......-skinned persons after a single broadband UVA exposure, but independent of pigmentation/skin type after single and multiple UVA1 exposures. To elicit minimal melanogenic doses after 6 and 12 exposures, every dose is lowered by a factor of 2 and 3, respectively, but the cumulative dose increases three- and four...

  11. Crystalline Organic Pigment-Based Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haichang; Deng, Ruonan; Wang, Jing; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yu-Ming; Liu, Kewei; Taubert, Clinton J; Cheng, Stephen Z D; Zhu, Yu

    2017-07-05

    Three conjugated pigment molecules with fused hydrogen bonds, 3,7-diphenylpyrrolo[2,3-f]indole-2,6(1H,5H)-dione (BDP), (E)-6,6'-dibromo-[3,3'-biindolinylidene]-2,2'-dione (IIDG), and 3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo-[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (TDPP), were studied in this work. The insoluble pigment molecules were functionalized with tert-butoxylcarbonyl (t-Boc) groups to form soluble pigment precursors (BDP-Boc, IIDG-Boc, and TDPP-Boc) with latent hydrogen bonding. The single crystals of soluble pigment precursors were obtained. Upon simple thermal annealing, the t-Boc groups were removed and the soluble pigment precursor molecules with latent hydrogen bonding were converted into the original pigment molecules with fused hydrogen bonding. Structural analysis indicated that the highly crystalline soluble precursors were directly converted into highly crystalline insoluble pigments, which are usually only achievable by gas-phase routes like physical vapor transport. The distinct crystal structure after the thermal annealing treatment suggests that fused hydrogen bonding is pivotal for the rearrangement of molecules to form a new crystal in solid state, which leads to over 2 orders of magnitude enhancement in charge mobility in organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices. This work demonstrated that crystalline OFET devices with insoluble pigment molecules can be fabricated by their soluble precursors. The results indicated that a variety of commercially available conjugated pigments could be potential active materials for high-performance OFETs.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Heterocyclic Azo Pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asniza, M.; Issam, A.M.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    A new heterocyclic coupling agent has been produced from the reaction of maleic anhydride and p-aminophenol, namely N-(4-hexahydrophenol)maleimide. The coupling agent underwent azo coupling reaction with aromatic amine, which is p-aminophenol to produce a new heterocyclic azo pigment. The pigment was then subjected to solubility, hiding power and light fastness test. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet/ Visible (UV/Vis) Spectroscopy, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR) were used to obtain the characteristics and structural features of the pigment. (author)

  13. Quantitative analysis of ancient Egyptian pigments by external PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.; Tsunokami, T.; Murai, R.; Maeda, K.; Harigai, I.; Nakayama, Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakurai, K.; Sasa, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Pigments painted on Egyptian excavations in the 18th Dynasty were analyzed successfully by external PIXE with the aid of the X-ray diffraction. A white pigment was composed on Mg 3 Ca(CO 3 ) 4 ; red: αFe 2 O 3 , αFeO.OH and AsS; pink: Mixtures of white and red pigments; yellow: αFeO.OH and As 2 S 3 ; and blue: CaO.CuO.4SiO 2 . (orig.)

  14. New Yellow Synergist for Stable Pigment Dispersion of Inkjet Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gihyun; Lee, Hayoon; Jung, Hyocheol; Kang, Seokwoo; Park, Jongwook

    2018-02-01

    Minimizing ink droplet and self-dispersed pigment mixture are becoming hot issues for high resolution of inkjet printing. New synergist including sulfonic acid group of PY-74 was suggested and synthesized. Pigment itself did not show water solubility but new synergist, SY-11 exhibited good solubility in water and organic solvents such as DMSO and DMF. When aqueous pigment ink was prepared with SY-11, storage stability of the ink has been remained for 7 days under periodically repeated heating and cooling conditions. Particle size of formulated ink was around 150 nm.

  15. Multispectral diagnostic imaging of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel K; Lukic, Ana; Yang, Yongyi; Wilensky, Jacob T; Wernick, Miles N

    2012-08-01

    To determine if wavelength selection with near infrared iris imaging may enhance iris transillumination defects (ITDs) in pigment dispersion syndrome. An experimental apparatus was used to acquire iris images in 6 African-American (AA) and 6 White patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Light-emitting diode probes of 6 different spectral bands (700 to 950 nm) were used to project light into patients' eyes. Iris patterns were photographed, ITD regions of interest were outlined, and region of interest contrasts were calculated for each spectral band. Contrasts varied as a function of wavelength (Ppigmented eyes may be slightly longer than for less pigmented eyes.

  16. The role of the lens in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lance

    2010-12-01

    In patients with pigment dispersion syndrome, changes of the iris configuration can occur with accommodation, blinking, miotics, and following a laser iridotomy. This observational case series looks at the changes following cataract surgery in 3 eyes with signs of pigment dispersion, symptomatic cataracts, and no previous laser iridotomy that were imaged with optical coherence tomography. The iris was concave posteriorly in dark and light lighting conditions, and became flat following an uncomplicated cataract operation. This may be explained by the elimination of iridolenticular contact, which contributes to the mechanism of reverse pupil block. These iris changes suggest the lens plays an important role in the mechanism of pigment dispersion. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, G.; Rella, R.; Donatello, D.; Falco, G.; Grassi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today's experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy. PMID:28638830

  18. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Grezia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today’s experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy.

  19. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Grezia, G; Gatta, G; Rella, R; Donatello, D; Falco, G; Grassi, R; Grassi, R

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today's experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy.

  20. Comparison of the dynamics of bile emptying by quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy before and after cholecystectomy in patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madácsy, L; Toftdahl, D B; Middelfart, H V

    1999-01-01

    of cholecystectomy on the bile flow has not yet been investigated. The goal of the current study was to examine the dynamics and normal variations of bile flow by quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy before and after cholecystectomy in a group of patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease. METHODS: Twenty...... patients were evaluated before and after cholecystectomy through cholecystokinin octapeptide-augmented quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy, and quantitative parameters of bile emptying (Tmax: time to peak activity, T1/2: half-emptying time before and after cholecystokinin octapeptide and duodenum...... appearance time) were determined and then compared. RESULTS: Before operation, the bile outflow displayed wide variations, with a moderately delayed common bile duct emptying time in some patients. After cholecystectomy, the T1/2 of the common bile duct decreased significantly when compared...