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Sample records for brown mussel perna

  1. Aspects of growth, recruitment and conservation of the Brown Mussel Perna perna along the Tsitsikamma Coast

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    R. J. M Crawford

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Beds of brown mussels Perna perna are a dominant feature of the lower tidal range of rocky shores in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park. Mussels in this region attain a length of 30-40 mm by the end of their first year, and the majority probably exceed 50 mm at two years of age. Secondary settlement of plantigrades occurs from midspring through early winter, especially in summer and early autumn, and growth of adult forms is slowest prior to this settlement. Settlement occurs serially and powerful cohorts may be formed. At Nature's Valley density and biomass of mussels inside the park's boundary are significantly higher than in non-protected areas. Older age groups are also more abundant within the park.

  2. Partition of organochlorine concentrations among suspended solids, sediments and brown mussel Perna perna, in tropical bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Petrus; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Longo, Renan; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-11-01

    For evaluating the brown mussel Perna perna as a sentinel organism regarding environmental concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the present study reports original data on the relationship between the concentrations of these chemicals in bottom surface sediments, suspended solids (SS) and concentrations bioaccumulated by this bivalve. Three P. perna cultivation areas, located at three bays in southeastern Brazil were used in this study. The three estuaries are under different degrees of environmental impact. Variations in the OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by the bivalves tended to be similar to those observed in the sediment, but differed from those found in SS. This latter difference might suggest that the SS trapping apparatuses should have been left in place for approximately 60 days (not only 15 days). This longer period would allow the integration of the environmental variability of the OCP and PCB burden adsorbed to this compartment. Authors encourage future studies to evaluate P. perna exposure to OCPs and PCBs through the evaluation of sediment concentrations. PMID:25113178

  3. Assessment of Water Quality in Coastal Environments of Mohammedia Applying Responses of Biochemical Biomarkers in the Brown Mussel Perna perna

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    Laila El Jourmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to assess the marine environment quality in Mohammedia, using the response of the biochemical biomarkers in the brown mussel Perna perna. The biomarkers selected in this work are : glutathione S-transferase (GST as phase II enzyme and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity as neurotoxicity marker. The Oxidative stress is evaluated using catalase (CAT, a well-known anti-oxidant enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation as marker of oxidation of membrane phospholipids through lipid peroxidation. And finally the metallothioneine (MT as stress proteins. Our data indicated that CAT, GST activity and MDA, MT concentration in whole mussel bodies, are a higher and significant (p 0.05 in mussels collected at polluted site when compared to specimen sampled from control one.In contrary the response of AChE activity was significantly inhibited in mussels from polluted site when compared to control value. The multi-marker results confirm that mussels from Mohammedia have been submitted to polluted environment.

  4. Effects of aerial exposure on antioxidant defenses in the brown mussel Perna perna

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    Eduardo Alves de Almeida

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant defenses in digestive gland of mussels Perna perna held in air for 4 hours, exposed to air for 4 hours followed by submersion in water for 30 minutes, and constantly submerged for 4.5 hours. No differences were observed in CAT and GPx activities and in the levels of total GSH. Mussels exposed to air had significantly higher SOD activity, possibly related to a preparative mechanism of defense against oxidative stress during reoxygenation.Mexilhões são periodicamente submetidos a condições de hipóxia seguido de normóxia, como resultado das oscilações nos níveis de maré. Tais condições podem causar um aumento na produção de espécies reativas de oxigenio (EROs nos tecidos, devido a um aumento no fluxo de oxigênio e de equivalentes redutores. Para proteger as células contra as EROs, os organismos possuem enzimas antioxidantes tais como a superóxido dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT e glutationa peroxidase (GPx, assim como o tripeptídeo glutationa (GSH. Neste trabalho, estas defesas antioxidantes foram avaliadas em glândulas digestivas de mexilhões Perna perna expostos ao ar por 4 horas seguido de re-submersão em água do mar por 30 minutos e constantemente submersos por 4,5 horas. Nenhuma diferença foi observada nas atividades da CAT e GPx, assim como nos níveis de GSH total. Mexilhões expostos ao ar tiveram atividade da SOD significativamente maior, possivelmente relacionado a um mecanismo de defesa preparativo contra o estresse oxidativo durante a reoxigenação.

  5. GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION IN NATURAL AND CULTURED MUSSELS OF Perna perna (MOLLUSCA, MYTILIDAE) IN SANTA CATARINA DIFERENCIAÇÃO GENÉTICA DE ESTOQUES NATURAIS E CULTIVO DO MEXILHÃO Perna perna EM SANTA CATARINA.

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    M. B. NOEL; G. C. MANZONI; L. I. WEBER

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse genetically natural beds and cultures of the most commercially important mollusc of Santa Catarina (South Brazil), the brown mussel Perna perna. Two sites were chosen for sampling from natural beds and for settling experimental lines with seeds obtained from each local farm. Experimental lines were maintained during four months for evaluating the growth of mussels from different cultures. DNA was extracted by Chelex-Proteinasek method from adductor muscle a...

  6. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE BROWN MUSSEL Perna perna (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA) EXPOSED TO THE ANIONIC SURFACTANT LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULPHONATE (LAS) = RESPOSTAS FISIOLÓGICAS DE MEXILHÃO Perna perna (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA) EXPOSTO AO SURFACTANTE ANIÔNICO ALQUILBENZENO SULFONATO LINEAR (LAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Freitas Stefanoni; Denis Moledo de Souza Abessa

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS) were evaluated on the mussel Perna perna, using physiological and genotoxic biomarkers. The Micronuclei (MN) assay was used to estimate effects at nuclear level, whereas the physiological effects were evaluated by measuring the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates. Significant effects were observed for the MN assay and the ammonia excretion rate, even in low concentrations. The oxygen consumption was not affected in the tested ...

  7. Epibiosis Reduction on Productivity in a Mussel Culture of Perna perna (Linné, 1758

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    Metri Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated mussels (Perna perna were studied to test for the effects of cleaning on their growth. These effects were examined by experimentally cleaning mussels and by changing mussel density. Treatment was performed twice, at two and four months after immerging the ropes. Two months after the first treatment and three months after the second treatment, mussels were harvested and measured (weight, length, width and thickness. Analysis of variance showed that none of the treatments resulted in increased growth of the mussels, nor did increased density result in decreased growth when compared with the control. It was concluded that it was not necessary to clean the shells to increase harvest.

  8. Epibiosis Reduction on Productivity in a Mussel Culture of Perna perna (Linné, 1758

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    Rafael Metri

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated mussels (Perna perna were studied to test for the effects of cleaning on their growth. These effects were examined by experimentally cleaning mussels and by changing mussel density. Treatment was performed twice, at two and four months after immerging the ropes. Two months after the first treatment and three months after the second treatment, mussels were harvested and measured (weight, length, width and thickness. Analysis of variance showed that none of the treatments resulted in increased growth of the mussels, nor did increased density result in decreased growth when compared with the control. It was concluded that it was not necessary to clean the shells to increase harvest.

  9. MULTIPLE BIOMARKER RESPONSE IN THE MUSSEL, PERNA PERNA TO ASSESS THE MARINE QUALITY IN THE BIG CASABLANCA AREA

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    LAILA EL JOURMI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the marine environment quality in the Big Casablanca area. A number of biochemical markers were measured in the brown mussel, Perna perna, sampled from four sampling sites characterized by a different degree of contamination and human impacts. As biochemical indices; Catalase (CAT, Glutathione S-transferase (GST, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, as well as Malondialdehyde (MDA and Metallothioneine (MT were evaluated in whole soft tissues of mussels collected from the selected sites. The biomarkers showed statistically significant differences at the polluted sites when compared to the control ones. Our data indicated that CAT and GST activity, MDA and MT concentration in whole mussel bodies, are a higher and significant (p < 0.05 in mussels collected at polluted sites when compared to specimen sampled from control ones. In contrary the response of AChE activity was significantly (p<0.05 inhibited in mussels from polluted sites when compared to control values. The multiple biomarker responses obtained for October 2010 and 2011, clearly demonstrate the potential presence of different contaminants in Site1 and Site2 reflecting the intensity of pollution in these areas.

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE BROWN MUSSEL Perna perna (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA EXPOSED TO THE ANIONIC SURFACTANT LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULPHONATE (LAS = RESPOSTAS FISIOLÓGICAS DE MEXILHÃO Perna perna (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA EXPOSTO AO SURFACTANTE ANIÔNICO ALQUILBENZENO SULFONATO LINEAR (LAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Freitas Stefanoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS were evaluated on the mussel Perna perna, using physiological and genotoxic biomarkers. The Micronuclei (MN assay was used to estimate effects at nuclear level, whereas the physiological effects were evaluated by measuring the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates. Significant effects were observed for the MN assay and the ammonia excretion rate, even in low concentrations. The oxygen consumption was not affected in the tested concentrations. For MN and ammonia excretion, the animals exposed to intermediate concentrations were not affected, but responded to the higher concentrations, indicating the existence of compensatory mechanisms at physiological level. However, parallel to this study other authors indicate the presence of progressive effects at the cellular level, suggesting that the organisms are not capable to recover of such increasing effects. Additionally, the results show that the levels of LAS observed for Brazilian coastal waters may chronically affect the biota. = Os efeitos do Alquilbenzeno Sulfonato de Sódio Linear sobre o mexilhão Perna perna foram avaliados por meio do uso de biomarcadores genotóxicos e fisiológicos. O ensaio da taxa de micronúcleos (MN foi conduzido para estimar o efeito ao nível nuclear, enquanto os efeitos fisiológicos foram avaliados através da medição da taxa de consumo de oxigênio e de excreção de amônia. Efeitos significativos foram observados para o ensaio do MN e para a taxa de excreção de amônia, mesmo em baixas concentrações. O consumo do oxigênio não foi afetado pelas concentrações dos ensaios. Para MN e excreção de amônia, os animais expostos às concentrações intermediárias não foram afetados, mas responderam às maiores concentrações, sugerindo a existência de mecanismos compensatórios em nível fisiológico. Contudo, paralelamente ao presente estudo, outros autores demonstraram haver efeitos

  11. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by 60CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to 60Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  12. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by {sup 60}CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela A.; Pusceddu, Fabio H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto, E-mail: gisela.martini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to {sup 60}Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  13. The effect of temperature and salinity on the physiological rates of the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Charrid Resgalla Jr; Elisângela de Souza Brasil; Luis Carlos Salomão

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the rates of respiration, clearance, excretion and absorption efficiency at different temperature and salinity under laboratory conditions for Perna perna. Results showed variations in physiological rates and in acclimatization capacity which, taken together, enabled to understand its behavior in the environment, as well as to estimate its scope for growth. All experiments were carried out in static conditions, in ten replicas with one mussel by flasks. Perna...

  14. Cytotoxic effects of gamma radiation and DEET on Perna perna mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela A.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Silva, Marina V.; Rogero, Jose Roberto, E-mail: gisela.martini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aiming at the protection of aquatic biota becomes desirable progress in identifying and quantifying the presence of chemical contaminants to an evaluation of its bioavailability and harmful effects to the aquatic ecosystem. Diethyltoluamide (DEET) is one of the most commonly used active ingredients in insect repellents and is considered an emergent contaminant. In addition the environment in regions near nuclear facilities (mostly coastal) and in regions with higher level of background radiation, many aquatic organisms could be exposed to radiation, becoming more susceptible to other contaminants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was the investigation of the biological effects of ionizing radiation in combination with the exposure of Perna perna mussels to DEET. Previously it was determined the doses of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation (3 and 107 Gy) and the DEET concentrations (0.02 and 0.001mg L-1) which causes cytotoxicity in lysosomes of Perna perna mussels hemocytes. The effects were evaluated by the neutral red retention time assay in irradiated and non-irradiated organisms. The assays were performed in 72 hours, with readings on each 24 hours. The endpoint was the lysosome membrane disruption causing the decrease of the neutral red retention time observed . The results showed that was no statistic difference of irradiated organisms with 3 Gy and exposed to different concentrations of DEET in comparison with non-irradiated organisms, the mean neutral red retention time in assays was around 40 minutes. The organisms that were exposed to DEET after 107 Gy irradiation dose showed cell lysis and neutral red retention time less than 30 minutes, this suggests that synergistic effect can be observed depending on the irradiated dose and the DEET concentration. (author)

  15. Cytotoxic effects of gamma radiation and DEET on Perna perna mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at the protection of aquatic biota becomes desirable progress in identifying and quantifying the presence of chemical contaminants to an evaluation of its bioavailability and harmful effects to the aquatic ecosystem. Diethyltoluamide (DEET) is one of the most commonly used active ingredients in insect repellents and is considered an emergent contaminant. In addition the environment in regions near nuclear facilities (mostly coastal) and in regions with higher level of background radiation, many aquatic organisms could be exposed to radiation, becoming more susceptible to other contaminants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was the investigation of the biological effects of ionizing radiation in combination with the exposure of Perna perna mussels to DEET. Previously it was determined the doses of 60Co gamma radiation (3 and 107 Gy) and the DEET concentrations (0.02 and 0.001mg L-1) which causes cytotoxicity in lysosomes of Perna perna mussels hemocytes. The effects were evaluated by the neutral red retention time assay in irradiated and non-irradiated organisms. The assays were performed in 72 hours, with readings on each 24 hours. The endpoint was the lysosome membrane disruption causing the decrease of the neutral red retention time observed . The results showed that was no statistic difference of irradiated organisms with 3 Gy and exposed to different concentrations of DEET in comparison with non-irradiated organisms, the mean neutral red retention time in assays was around 40 minutes. The organisms that were exposed to DEET after 107 Gy irradiation dose showed cell lysis and neutral red retention time less than 30 minutes, this suggests that synergistic effect can be observed depending on the irradiated dose and the DEET concentration. (author)

  16. 210Po concentration in Perna Perna mussels: looking for radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Twenty ropes with 400 Perna perna mussels seeds (3 cm shell size) were set-up on floating structures at Cabo Frio Island, Arraial do Cabo, approximately 100 km Northeast of Rio de Janeiro city. A rope was taken out on a monthly basis, and the shell sizes of one hundred seeds were measured. The haemolymph of ten male and ten female individuals was taken, and the same individuals were separated for 210Po/210Pb determination. After one year of monthly sampling, no clear correlation was observed between the 210Po concentration, mussel's age and weight. A mean 210Po concentration of 155 Bq kg-1, wet weight basis, was obtained, which is comparable with data reported in the literature. The radiation dose did not have any observable effect on the micronuclei frequency and DNA breaks in the mussels. This was probably due to the low dose rate, 0.02 mGy d-1, in comparison with the suggested potential dose limit of 10 mGy d-1. (author)

  17. Active biomonitoring of magnesium and manganese using the Perna perna mussel collected in the north shore of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work was to study the active biomonitoring of magnesium and manganese in the seashore of Sao Paulo, using the Perna perna mussel , which was transplanted from an uncontaminated region to probably contaminated sites. Mussel samples acquired in the control region, a mussel farm in Cocanha beach Caraguatatuba, were exposed for three months in the study sites, in Sao Sebastiao, Ilhabela, Ilha das Palmas and Ponta de Itaipu. The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, (INAA).The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic standards of magnesium and manganese for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were done using an hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to associated electronics. For analytical quality control of the results, the certified reference material (CRM) NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue was analyzed and the results obtained indicated good agreement with the certified values. The results obtained in the mussel samples analysis indicated that the samples exposed in Ilhabela in the autumn season presented higher accumulation of magnesium (7051 ± 333 μg g-1) than the other sites. For manganese, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels exposed in Ilha das Palmas in springtime, with 28.5 ± 0.8 μg g-1. It was concluded that it is possible to biomonitor magnesium and manganese by means of the analysis of Perna perna mussels. (author)

  18. TOXICITY TESTS WITH EMBRYOS OF MUSSEL Perna perna: EVALUATION OF SPAWNING AND SENSIBILITY TESTES DE TOXICIDADE COM EMBRIÕES DE Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) (MOLLUSCA: MYTILIDAE): AVALIAÇÕES DE INDUÇÃO E SENSIBILIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    R. W. REIS Fo.; C. RESGALLA Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of this paper was to set up guidelines to standartize the procedure of developing embrio-larval toxicity tests using the native Brazilian mussel Perna perna (Mollusca: Mytilidae). In vitro spawning tests were carried out using adult organisms in order to obtain healthy gametes. Embryos development response caused by variation of temperature, salinity and incubation time was investigated in order to determine the end point and ideal parameter settings to develop toxicity assays. ...

  19. Trace metals in mussel shells and corresponding soft tissue samples: a validation experiment for the use of Perna perna shells in pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellotto, V.R. [Vale do Itajai University (UNIVALI), CTTMAR (Center for Technology Earth and Ocean Science), Itajai (Brazil); Miekeley, N. [Pontifical Catholic University (PUC-Rio), Department of Chemistry, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    The uptake of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soft tissue of Perna perna mussels and their shells has been studied in aquarium experiments in which mussels were exposed for 30 or 60 days to seawater spiked with different concentrations of these contaminants (125 and 500 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Tissue samples were analyzed after acid digestion by conventional solution nebulization ICP-MS. Laser ablation ICP-MS was used for the quantitative determination of trace elements in different areas of the corresponding shells. With the exception of Mn and Zn, all other elements studied showed a significant concentration enhancements in soft tissue, with the magnitude of this enhancement following the order: Cr > Ni > Cd > Cu > Pb. A corresponding increase in most contaminants, although less pronounced, was also observed in the newly formed growth rings of mussel shells, contributing to the validation of Perna perna mussel shell as a bioindicator of toxic elements. (orig.)

  20. Detailed Distribution of Lipids in Greenshell™ Mussel (Perna canaliculus

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    Matthew R. Miller

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenshell™ mussels (GSM–Perna canaliculus are a source of omega-3 (n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Farmed GSM are considered to be a sustainable source of LC-PUFA as they require no dietary inputs, gaining all of their oil by filter-feeding microorganisms from sea water. GSM oil is a high-value product, with a value as much as 1000 times that of fish oils. GSM oil has important health benefits, for example, anti-inflammatory activity. It also contains several minor lipid components that are not present in most fish oil products, and that have their own beneficial effects on human health. We have shown the lipid content of the female GSM (1.9 g/100 g ww was significantly greater than that of the male (1.4 g/100 g ww. Compared with male GSM, female GSM contained more n-3 LC-PUFA, and stored a greater proportion of total lipid in the gonad and mantle. The higher lipid content in the female than the male GSM is most likely related to gamete production. This information will be useful to optimize extraction of oils from GSM, a local and sustainable source of n-3 LC-PUFA.

  1. Differential metallothionein, reduced glutathione and metal levels in Perna perna mussels in two environmentally impacted tropical bays in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavradas, Raquel T; Rocha, Rafael C C; Bordon, Isabella C A C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Godoy, José M; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A

    2016-07-01

    Mussel farming is an important economic activity in Brazil, and these organisms are consumed by the majority of the population in most coastal zones in the country. However, despite the increasing pollution of aquatic ecosystems in Brazil, little is known about the biochemical activity in mussels in response to metal exposure. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate metal and metalloid exposure effects in Perna perna mussels, by determining metal levels, the induction of metallothionein (MT) synthesis, and oxidative stress, in the form of reduced glutathione (GSH) in 3 contaminated areas from the Guanabara Bay in comparison to a reference site, Ilha Grande Bay, both in summer and winter. Metal and metalloid concentrations were also compared to Brazilian and international guidelines, to verify potential health risks to human consumers. Mussels from all sampling sites were shown to be improper for human consumption due to metal contamination, including Ilha Grande Bay, which has previously been considered a reference site. Several statistically significant correlations and seasonal differences were observed between MT, GSH and metals and metalloids in both analyzed tissues. A Discriminant Canonical Analysis indicated that the digestive gland is a better bioindicator for environmental contamination by metals and metalloids in this species and offers further proof that MT variations observed are due to metal exposure and not oxidative stress, since GSH influence for both muscle tissue and the digestive glands was non-significant in this analysis. These results show that P. perna mussels are an adequate sentinel species for metal contamination with significant effects on oxidative stress and metal exposure biomarkers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report metals, metalloids, MT and GSH levels in the muscle tissue of this species. PMID:26994306

  2. The stable carbon isotope composition of green-lipped mussels Perna canaliculus, Marlborough Sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations are shown for the δ13C values of green-lipped mussels, Perna canaliculus, collected on several occasions between October 1983 and April 1985 from six sites in the Marlborough Sounds, South Island, New Zealand. Additional limited data is presented for mussels from two other sites and on other fish and particulate matter. The δ13C in Perna canaliculus was found to vary seasonally, with the least negative values in winter 1984. The δ13C values ranged from -16.7 to -21.3 per thousand, with males on average 0.7 per thousand less negative than females. Phytoplankton composition would be expected to also vary in δ13C with least negative values when at their greatest production rate, i.e. in spring or summer, and thus mussel compositions appear to show a lag of several months. There was no evidence that terrestrial food was important. (author). 25 refs.; 10 figs.; 8 tabs

  3. Response of DNA, proteins, lipids and antioxidant enzymes as measure of toxicity to mercury exposures in green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Studies on exposures of gills of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to sublethal levels of mercury (Hg) indicates that oxidative stress marker like lipids peroxidation and protein carbonyl content increase. With the exception of superoxide dismutase...

  4. Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna) (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca; Bivalvia) Bioenergética de larvas de mexilhão (Perna perna) (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    RADLVC. Jorge; D. Lemos; GS. Moreira

    2007-01-01

    The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna) exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) and benzene (C6H6). When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO4 and C6H6 and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate ...

  5. Monitoramento histopatológico de mexilhão Perna perna da Lagoa de Itaipu, Niterói, RJ Histopathological monitoring assessment of mussels Perna perna at the Itaipu Lagoon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Lima

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Cortes histológicos de 120 mexilhões Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758, coletados na Lagoa de Itaipu, Niterói, RJ, por um período de 12 meses, foram examinados quanto a presença de parasitas e lesões. Noventa exemplares apresentaram cinco diferentes processos patológicos: bucefalose, presença de protozoários Nematopsis sp., inclusões basofílicas não específicas, encapsulamentos parasitários e cistos epiteliais branquiais. Cinquenta animais mostravam duas ou mais patologias concomitantes.Histologic sections of 120 mussels Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758, from Itaipu Lagoon, Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for the presence of parasites and lesions during a period of 12 months. Ninety mussels showed five different pathological processes: bucephalosis, protozoan Nematopsis sp., basophilic non-specific inclusions, parasitic encapsulations and ctenidia epithelial cysts. Fifty animals presented two or more pathological processes at the same time.

  6. Extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) shows inhibition of blood capillary formation in vitro

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mirshahi, M.; Mirshahi, P.; Negro, S.; Soria, J.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Kotnala, S.; Therwath, A.; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 35 - 42 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Extract of Indian Green Mussel, Perna viridis (L.) Shows Inhibition of Blood... the researchers to envisage further investigation on the possible role of the active substances contained in these extracts on the formation of blood capillary and angiogenesis at large. PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation...

  7. Accumulation, distribution and excretion of 134Cs and 65Zn by the green mussels (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two important radionuclides 134Cs and 65Zn were applied to study the accumulation, distribution and excretion of radioactive nuclides in organs and tissues of green mussel Perna Viridis. the results showed that the uptake rate of 134Cs by green mussels was very low and the concentration factor (CF) for 134Cs in the byssus approximated to 1. This CF value was lower than that of other tissues and organs of mussels, but its excretion rate was much higher than that of soft tissues. It was also found that the byssus of mussels had a special ability to accumulate 65Zn. Concentration factor (CF) for 65Zn in the byssus could reach as high as 900, which was much higher than that of any other tissues. However, its excretion rate was lower than that of other tissues and organs. The uptake rate of 65Zn by soft tissues was markedly higher than that of 134Cs. The mussels could also highly concentrate the low level 65Zn even if specific activity of 65Zn was very low in the environmental seawater. Results of radioactive trace experiments showed that the absorption of 134Cs and 65Zn by Perna Viridis was selective

  8. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans. PMID:19839271

  9. Investigation of thermostable metalloproteins in Perna perna mussels from differentially contaminated areas in Southeastern Brazil by bioanalytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavradas, Raquel Teixeira; Rocha, Rafael Christian Chávez; Saint' Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Godoy, José Marcus; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann

    2016-03-01

    Metallomic studies regarding environmental contamination by metals are of value in elucidating metal uptake, trafficking, accumulation and metabolism in biological systems. Many proven bioindicator species, such as bivalves, have not yet, however, been well-characterized regarding their metalloprotein expression in response to environmental contaminants. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate metalloprotein expressions in the thermostable protein fraction of muscle tissue and digestive glands from mussels (Perna perna) from three differentially metal-contaminated sites in Southeastern Brazil in comparison with a reference site. The thermostable protein fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and SEC-HPLC-ICP-MS. Metal content was also determined in both the crude and the purified extracts. Several inter-organ differences were observed, which is to be expected, while inter-site differences regarding thermostable protein content were also verified, indicating accumulation of these elements in muscle tissue and digestive glands and disruption of homeostasis of essential elements, with detoxification attempts by metal-bound proteins, since all metalloproteins present in both matrices eluted bound to at least one non-essential metal. These results are also noteworthy with regard to the adopted reference site, that also seems to be contaminated by toxic metals. PMID:26854248

  10. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  11. Biomonitoring of Mercury Contamination at Petroleum Production Platforms in the Gulf of Thailand using Transplanted Green Mussel, Perna viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatree Ritthong; Narongsak Puanglarp

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of mercury contamination was conducted using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis). Mussels were first exposed to HgCl2 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 nmol/L for 8 weeks at laboratory conditions. The result showed that Hg level in the water decreased rapidly, while Hg in mussels increased coincidentally with the applied doses. After 8 weeks the Hg, levels in tissue were a thousand-fold higher than that in the water. Mussels were then transplanted to 3 petroleum production platforms...

  12. Vanadium determination in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) by instrumental neutron activation analysis using the passive biomonitoring in the Santos coast, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanadium determination present in seawater is of great importance to evaluate marine contamination from industrial sources as well as to identify health hazards since mussels and other marine organisms are used as food. Besides, this evaluation in the Santos coast, SP, Brazil, is important, since this area is impacted by industrial and urban activities and discharges from ships and boats. In a previous study, V results obtained for transplanted mussel (active biomonitoring) were presented. This study aimed the V determination by passive biomonitoring by analyzing Perna perna mussels collected in natural environment, from three sites in Sao Paulo State coast: Cocanha Beach (reference site), Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island. Ninety individuals of mussels were collected in each site between September/08 and July/09 during the four seasons of the year. After shell removal and sample preparation, V was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For analytical quality control, the NIST Standard Reference Material SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue was analyzed and the results presented good accuracy. The V concentrations in mussels on dry mass basis varied from 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.56 ± 0.88 mg kg-1. Statistical tests were applied to the results showing differences on V concentrations among the sampling sites and season of sample collection. (author)

  13. Preparation and characterization of a Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussel reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of certified reference materials in chemical analysis is an important requirement in quality assurance systems, as it allows the validation of analytical methods and the realization of the metrological traceability of results. Then, it is possible to obtain valid and comparable results not only in space, but also in time. In this study, all the steps for the preparation of a national mussel reference material were attained, from the collection of the bulk material to processing steps such as freeze-drying, grinding, bottling and sterilization. Internationally accepted principles were applied for the homogeneity and stability assessment of the material, using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry as analytical techniques. By means of a collaborative program with participation of Brazilian and foreign laboratories, the chemical characterization of the material was performed. Element content in the mass percentage to mg kg-1 range was determined for 47 elements and some radionuclides, naturally present in the material. With the application of suitable statistical treatment to the data, it was considered that the content of 11 of those elements may be certified: As, Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Th and Zn. This study may be considered an important step in the national metrological development, as it shows that the production and characterization of biological reference materials, mussel in particular, is feasible in Brazil, as a tool for quality assurance of environmental and nutritional studies performed in the country. (author)

  14. Cultivation of green mussel, Perna viridis L., on a floating raft in an estuary along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Total production of green mussels, Perna viridis, grown on a raft (16 m sup(2)) for 1 year was 2144.64 kg and biomass (meat weight) was 1040.00 kg. Annual production (P) and biomass (B) estimated were 33.51 and 16.25 kg m sup(-1) respectively...

  15. Dioxin and phthalate uptake and assimilation by the green mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the aqueous uptake and dietary assimilation (trophic transfer) of two endocrine disrupting compounds (dioxin and phathalic acid) in the green mussel Perna viridis were quantified. During short-term exposure period, dioxin rapidly sorbed onto phytoplankton and its accumulation was much higher than that of phthalate. The uptake of these two compounds by the mussels increased with increasing temperature and salinity (for dioxin only). The dietary assimilation of the two contaminants was rather modest (10–64% for dioxin and 20–47% for phthalate), and was greatly dependent on the food species and concentration. Interestingly, dietary assimilation increased with increasing diatom food concentration. Gut passage time was partially responsible for the variable dietary assimilation. Given the high dissolved uptake rate and the modest dietary assimilation, aqueous exposure was predicted to be the dominant bioaccumulation source for both dioxin and phthalate in the green mussels under most conditions. -- Capsule: Aqueous uptake was the predominant pathway for dioxin and phthalate accumulation in marine green mussels

  16. Efficacy of marinades against Listeria monocytogenes cells in suspension or associated with green shell mussels (Perna canaliculus).

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, P. J.; Osborne, C M

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the listericidal efficacies of three marinades used in the production of marinated green shell mussels (Perna canaliculus), decimal reduction times (D values) were determined for a mixture of seven strains of Listeria monocytogenes exposed to marinades in the presence and absence of mussels. With an acetic acid (1.5%, wt/vol) marinade, calculated D values in the presence and absence of mussels were 77.3 and 33.3 h, respectively. Likewise, for an acetic acid (0.75%)-lacti...

  17. The relationship of heavy metals and condition indices of green-lipped mussel perna viridis from contaminated and uncontaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal concentrations and condition indices of green-fipped mussel Perna viridis were detemiined at two different sites of Peninsular Malaysia. Significant negative correlations (p< 0.001) between condition indices and heavy metals were observed. Samples from Kuala Perlis which relatively showed high heavy metals concentrations in mussels exhibited lower condition index while Kg. Tg. Batu with lower heavy metal levels, showed higher condition index. The environmental stress is believed to be responsible for the different physiological index in green-fipped mussel P. viridis. (author)

  18. Estabilidade físico-química e mercado do mexilhão (Perna perna cultivado em Ubatuba - SP Physicochemical stability and market of mussels (Perna perna cultivated in Ubatuba - SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Fabiane Furlan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar o mexilhão Perna perna como alimento no que se refere à estabilidade físico-química, valor nutricional e consumo. Os mexilhões avaliados foram coletados em três regiões distintas do litoral norte de São Paulo: praia da Barra Seca, praia do Engenho da Almada e costão do Cedro. Determinou-se a composição centesimal (umidade, proteína bruta, carboidrato, lipídios e cinza, o valor calórico, o pH e as bases voláteis nitrogenadas totais. Paralelamente foi realizado estudo de mercado, através de questionários não estruturados, aplicados aos comerciantes e consumidores locais. Detectou-se variação dos constituintes químicos dos mexilhões em função da sazonalidade, bem como, do local de origem destes. Estes constituem uma fonte protéica (9,1 g.100 g-1, com baixo teor lipídico (1,1 g.100 g-1 e calórico (72,7 Kcal.100 g-1. Apresentaram uma estabilidade físico-química de 4 dias, sob temperatura de 10 °C (±1, conforme aferido pelos resultados apresentados, que não se correlacionaram entre si. No geral, os estabelecimentos comerciais apontaram uma preferência pela aquisição do mexilhão sem as conchas e uma maior demanda do produto preparado na forma de vinagrete. Foi diagnosticado o desconhecimento do produto pelos consumidores e conseqüente necessidade de marketing visando sua promoção.This research work consisted of characterizing Perna perna mussel as a food in terms of its physicochemical stability, nutritional value and consumption. Specimens of the mussel were collected from three sites off the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, namely Barra Seca, Engenho da Almada and Costão do Cedro. The centesimal composition (humidity, crude protein, carbohydrates, lipids and ash, caloric value, pH and total basic volatile nitrogen were determined. A market study was also carried out based on a nonstructured questionnaire distributed to local tradesmen and consumers. The

  19. Evaluation of magnesium and manganese in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: mollusca, bivalvia) collected in the cost of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cathartino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate magnesium and manganese concentrations in Perna perna mussels by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009 at Cocanha Beach in the city of Caraguatatuba (clean region), and at two sites in Santos Bay (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island). The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were carried out using a hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to Digital Spectral Analyzer. The elemental concentrations were calculated by the comparative method. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b oyster tissue and NRC DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The element concentrations in mussels on dry mass basis varied from 2734 {+-} 205 to 5138 {+-} 507 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg and from 7.35{+-}0.57 to 29.06{+-}3.35 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn. The results obtained in mussel analysis indicated that the samples collected in Itaipu in the winter season presented higher accumulation of Mg than the other sites. For Mn, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels collected in Palmas in summer time. (author)

  20. Preparation and characterization of a Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussel reference material; Preparo e caracterizacao de um material de referencia de mexilhao Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson Goncalves

    2010-07-01

    The use of certified reference materials in chemical analysis is an important requirement in quality assurance systems, as it allows the validation of analytical methods and the realization of the metrological traceability of results. Then, it is possible to obtain valid and comparable results not only in space, but also in time. In this study, all the steps for the preparation of a national mussel reference material were attained, from the collection of the bulk material to processing steps such as freeze-drying, grinding, bottling and sterilization. Internationally accepted principles were applied for the homogeneity and stability assessment of the material, using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry as analytical techniques. By means of a collaborative program with participation of Brazilian and foreign laboratories, the chemical characterization of the material was performed. Element content in the mass percentage to mg kg{sup -1} range was determined for 47 elements and some radionuclides, naturally present in the material. With the application of suitable statistical treatment to the data, it was considered that the content of 11 of those elements may be certified: As, Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Th and Zn. This study may be considered an important step in the national metrological development, as it shows that the production and characterization of biological reference materials, mussel in particular, is feasible in Brazil, as a tool for quality assurance of environmental and nutritional studies performed in the country. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg-1 for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg-1 for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg-1 for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg-1 for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg-1 for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg-1 for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg{sup -1} for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  3. Waterborne cadmium impacts immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic endpoints in green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Cadmium (Cd) significantly altered the proportional composition of haemocytes. •Subchronic exposure increased nuclear aberrations in gill cells. •Branchial nuclear aberrations correlated significantly with gill Cd accumulation. •Cd induced DNA damage in haemocytes. -- Abstract: Mussels are sentinel species that can be used to monitor coastal metal pollution through the application of biomarkers. Among the several important metal toxicants in coastal settings, cadmium (Cd) is of particular concern, being a non-essential metal that is known to cause harmful impacts in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic effects of Cd on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, under laboratory conditions. The acute (96 h; 0, 2000 and 4000 μg Cd L{sup −1}) and subchronic (28 d; 0, 200 and 2000 μg Cd L{sup −1}) toxic effects of waterborne Cd were measured in haemocytes and gill cells using differential haemocyte cell count, the micronucleus test and the comet assay. During subchronic exposure to Cd the relative counts of eosinophils and hyalinocytes increased significantly in Cd-exposed mussels while the proportion of basophils decreased. All of these effects were time- and concentration-dependent. Conversely, the relative numbers of basophils and eosinophils increased significantly during acute Cd exposure. Nuclear aberrations such as the formation of micronuclei, nuclear buds, fragmented-apoptotic cells and binuclei were observed in gill cells of Cd-exposed mussels. All of these parameters increased significantly at 2000 μg Cd L{sup −1} during subchronic exposure to Cd, and all showed a strong and significant correlation to gill Cd accumulation. Comet assay results demonstrated a significant increase in DNA damage in the haemocytes of mussels exposed to subchronic Cd concentrations. The results indicate that Cd has the capacity to induce immune system and genotoxic

  4. Waterborne cadmium impacts immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic endpoints in green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Cadmium (Cd) significantly altered the proportional composition of haemocytes. •Subchronic exposure increased nuclear aberrations in gill cells. •Branchial nuclear aberrations correlated significantly with gill Cd accumulation. •Cd induced DNA damage in haemocytes. -- Abstract: Mussels are sentinel species that can be used to monitor coastal metal pollution through the application of biomarkers. Among the several important metal toxicants in coastal settings, cadmium (Cd) is of particular concern, being a non-essential metal that is known to cause harmful impacts in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunocytotoxic and cytogenotoxic effects of Cd on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, under laboratory conditions. The acute (96 h; 0, 2000 and 4000 μg Cd L−1) and subchronic (28 d; 0, 200 and 2000 μg Cd L−1) toxic effects of waterborne Cd were measured in haemocytes and gill cells using differential haemocyte cell count, the micronucleus test and the comet assay. During subchronic exposure to Cd the relative counts of eosinophils and hyalinocytes increased significantly in Cd-exposed mussels while the proportion of basophils decreased. All of these effects were time- and concentration-dependent. Conversely, the relative numbers of basophils and eosinophils increased significantly during acute Cd exposure. Nuclear aberrations such as the formation of micronuclei, nuclear buds, fragmented-apoptotic cells and binuclei were observed in gill cells of Cd-exposed mussels. All of these parameters increased significantly at 2000 μg Cd L−1 during subchronic exposure to Cd, and all showed a strong and significant correlation to gill Cd accumulation. Comet assay results demonstrated a significant increase in DNA damage in the haemocytes of mussels exposed to subchronic Cd concentrations. The results indicate that Cd has the capacity to induce immune system and genotoxic damage in green

  5. Development of sensitive and specific molecular tools for the efficient detection and discrimination of potentially invasive mussel species of the genus Perna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Joana Dias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine mussels of the genus Perna include three species: P. canaliculus, P. viridis and P. perna. While P. canaliculus appears to be greatlyrestricted to its endemic range of New Zealand, P. perna and P.viridis introductions have been recorded outside their native ranges in severalregions of the globe. Such introductions have often resulted in significant negative ecological, economic and social impacts. Perna perna and P.viridis are exotic to Australia and are listed under the Australian Government National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions as high priority species. Rapid detection of marine pests such as Perna species remains fundamental to their effective containment and control. The present study reports on the development and validation of both conventional and real-time PCR assays suited to the rapid identification and discrimination of juvenile and adult specimens of P. viridis, P. canaliculus and P. perna. The development of a sensitive high-throughput real-time PCR assay offers further potential for the efficient detection of the presence of single Perna specimens in mixed populations of native mussel species, and for early detection of larval stages in ballast water and plankton samples. This assay offers considerable advantages over traditional identification methods and represents an important step in developing capacity for efficient identification and management of Perna species incursions in Australian waters.

  6. Thermal Constraints for Range Expansion of the Invasive Green Mussel, Perna viridis, in the Southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    URIAN, ALYSON G.; Hatle, John D.; GILG, MATTHEW R.

    2010-01-01

    Cold temperatures are thought to be among the most important determining factors of geographic distribution for tropical and sub-tropical marine invertebrates. The Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, has been introduced into coastal waters of Florida where its current distribution is hypothesized to be limited by low temperatures during winter. Lethal and sub-lethal effects (heat shock protein/Hsp70 expression) of cold water and air temperatures were analyzed in two size classes of P. viridis ...

  7. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in the soft tissues of the green mussels, Perna viridis (L.) Bivalve: Mytilacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untreated agro-industrial and domestic waste continuously being damped along the shores of its surrounding provinces and cities pollute the Manila Bay coastal waters. Presumably, its oyster and mussel culture farms are contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Yet, this alarming signs remain barely investigated. Pollution enhanced, the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals threaten the flora and fauna of the aquatic ecosystem. Trace concentrations of toxic elements in the marine food chain can trigger deleterious biochemical, physiological and ecological impact. Known to be bio-accumulated by aquatic organisms, the mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in the edible tissues of Perna viridis were determined. Water and sediments sampled from the mussel culture farms were also analyzed. Results revealed that despite the apparent pollution, except for Cu and Zn, which registered slightly higher values, Hg, Cd and Pb concentrations were much lower than the maximum permissible limits. Even water and sediments samples tested showed that mean concentrations of these elements were still below sublethal limits. (auth.). 79 refs.; 8 figs.; 13 tabs.; 16 plates

  8. Radioprotection against DNA damage by an extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Sreekumar P; Kutty, Binoj C; Chatterji, Anil; Subrayan, Parameswaran P; Mishra, Kaushala Prasad

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the radioprotective ability of a hydrolysate prepared using an enzyme-acid hydrolysis method from the green mussel Perna viridis in terms of its ability to prevent radiation-induced damage in plasmid DNA, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and DNA damage in mice lymphocytes. The mussel hydrolysate (MH) present during irradiation showed significant protection from gamma-radiation-induced strand breaks in plasmid DNA as evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Viability studies by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay showed that preincubation of mice splenic lymphocytes with MH protected them from gamma-radiation-mediated killing. Moreover, the presence of MH during irradiation of isolated mice lymphocytes significantly decreased the DNA damage, as measured by comet assay. Measurement of intracellular ROS by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence revealed that the presence of MH effectively reduced the ROS generated in lymphocytes by both chemical method and gamma-irradiation. Prevention of DNA damage both in plasmid and lymphocytes and cell death in lymphocytes appears correlated with reduction of oxidatively generated free radicals. It is concluded that protection against radiation-induced cell death and DNA damage by MH was attributable to reduction of reactive free radical species generated by gamma-radiation. PMID:18197824

  9. Quality of mussels cultivated and commercialized in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil: monitoration Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus growth after post-harvest processing Tratamento térmico de mexilhões Perna perna como forma de assegurar a qualidade: avaliação do crescimento de Bacillus cereus e de Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Oliveira Salán; Juliana Antunes Galvão; Érika Fabiane Furlan; Ernani Porto; Cláudio Rosa Gallo; Marília Oetterer

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at improving the quality of Perna perna mussels cultivated and commercialized in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, the growth and elimination of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus artificially inoculated in mussels were studied. The inoculation was carried out in "in natura" and pre-cooked mussels for 30 min, and after that the mussels were kept for 10 hours at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C) and under refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Six thermal treatments were evaluated: three ...

  10. Optimizing deacetylation process for chitosan production from green mussel (perna viridis) shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danarto, Y. C.; Distantina, Sperisa

    2016-02-01

    The green mussel (perna viridis) shell waste could be utilized for chitosan production because it contained chitin. Chitin can be derived into chitosan through the deacetylation process. Chitosan is a polysaccharides polymer that is readily soluble in dilute acid solution and easily modified into other useful compounds. This research aimed to study the chitosan production from green mussel shells. This experiment had the following stages, deproteinization process aimed to eliminate the protein content using 1N NaOH solution, demineralization process aimed to remove minerals in green mussel shells as CaCO3 using 1 N HCl solution and decolorization process aimed to eliminate the color pigments and other impurities using ethanol solvent. All process above resulted chitin. Furthermore, chemical modification of chitin into chitosan by deacetylation process. This stage was very important because it greatly affected the chitosan properties. This research studied two different treatment for deacetylation process. The first treatment was the deacetylation process using concentrated NaOH solution (50% w), at high temperatures (90 - 100 °C) for 2 hours extraction, whilw the second treatment was deacetylation process using a low concentration of NaOH solution (15% w), at room temperature for 24 hours. The results showed that deproteinization, demineralization, and decolorizaton was capable of removing protein, mineral, and pigment. This experiment yield chitin 41.6 %wt. Chitosan yield from second treatment was 39.5%w and it was better than first treatment. Chitosan from first treatment had 79.8% degree of deacetylation and 16.5 kDa molecular weight. It was better than first treatment.

  11. Variationas of 210Po Activity in Mussels (Perna viridis) of Samut Sakhon and Its Contribution to Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of 210Po and its effective dose in green mussel (Perna viridis) collected from mussel farming area at the Samut Sakhon province during the period of 2012-2013 are presented. Several parameters including maximum shell length and the physiological performance of mussels using condition index and physical properties of seawater (pH, salinity, conductivity, TDS, DO and cation-anion elements) were measured. Each individual mussel was measured on its maximum shell length which was adopted as size class. The activity concentration of 210Po was determined spectroscopically through its 5.30 MeV alpha particle emission, using 209Po as an internal tracer. The 210Po activity concentration in mussels was found to vary between 1.044 and 6.951 Bq.kg-1 wet weight. The 210Po concentration was higher in smaller sized classes (>35 mm) and lowest in larger ones (40-70 mm). This confirms that larger mussels have lower 210Po levels on a weight basis. The 210Po body burden (activity per mussel) ranged from 1.035 to 17.183 mBq. Contrary to the 210Po concentrations, results of the body burden revealed the lower activities in smaller sized mussels (>35 mm) and the higher in larger sized ones (40-70 mm). The type of fluctuations observed with 210Po concentrations are interpreted as a seasonal effect. Total annual effective 210Po dose due to mussel consumption was calculated to be in the range of 3.081 to 16.401 μSv. Based on the international guideline, the average dose calculated due to 210Po in mussels of Samut Sakhon would not pose any significant radiological impact on human health and the mussels are considered to be safe for intake.

  12. Chlorination-induced genotoxicity in the mussel Perna viridis: assessment by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2016-08-01

    Mussels are important fouling organisms in the cooling water systems of coastal power plants. Continuous low-dose chlorination (CLDC) is being practiced as an effective method to control mussel biofouling in power plant cooling water systems. CLDC effectively controls mussel fouling by discouraging larval settlement rather than by killing the larvae or adults. Mussels are an integral part of the natural benthic community in the receiving water body where the coolant water is discharged. Hence, from a toxicological point of view, they can serve as both target and non-target organisms. Previous researchers have indicated that chlorine residual, rather than elevated temperature, can be the major stress factor in the effluents released from coastal power plants. However, very little data are available on the sub-lethal effects of low level chlorination on representative benthic fauna. In this study, we used native and transplanted mussels (Perna viridis) to study lethal and sub-lethal effects of chlorination in the cooling water circuit of an operating power plant. Experiments involving comet assay suggested that CLDC can cause DNA damage in treated mussels. However, activation of DNA repair appeared to get initiated after the accrued damage reached a threshold. The results indicate that, at chlorine residual levels observed at the discharge point, exposure to chlorinated effluents is unlikely to cause significant genetic damage to mussels in the recipient water body. PMID:27155389

  13. Influence of ph on uptake and bioaccumulation of radiocesium (/sup 137/Cs) in the green mussels perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer experiment was conducted to assess the influence of pH on uptake rate and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs from dissolved phase in soft parts of green mussels (Perna viridis) collected from Karachi Coast, under controlled laboratory condition. Green mussels of size 5-7 cm were subjected to radiocesium activity of 24 KBq L/sup -1/ under three pH levels i.e., 7.5, 8 and 8.5. The uptake of /sup 137/Cs was monitored for a period of seven days. The results showed that uptake and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs in mussels was dependent on pH levels. Higher bioaccumulation factors and uptake rates were found at pH 8. (author)

  14. A comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and petroleum hydrocarbon uptake by mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in Hong Kong coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels had higher levels of contaminants than semi-permeable membrane devices. - The ability of mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from five sites in Hong Kong's coastal waters was compared. Mussels consistently had higher levels of contaminants, but their utility was limited at one highly polluted site due to mortality. Mussels and SPMDs ranked sites differently in terms of individual contaminant levels. Although SPMDs overcome many of the disadvantages of using living organisms to measure contaminants in marine waters, they cannot be used as 'mimics' due to different PAH and PHC accumulation patterns

  15. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC50 = 0.490 mg L−1) and embryo-larval development (IC50 = 0.135 mg L−1) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L−1) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L−1, demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. - Highlights: ► Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations. ► Mechanisms of action oriented assays were more sensitive to detect biological damages. ► Currently there is environmental risks concerned Triclosan in aquatic ecosystems. - Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  16. Variability of filtration and food assimilation rates, respiratory activity and multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism in the mussel Perna perna under lead influence Variabilidade das taxas de filtração, assimilação e respiração e do mecanismo de resistência a multixenobióticos (MXR) no mexilhão Perna perna sob influência do chumbo

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. PESSATTI; C. RESGALLA Jr.; R. W. REIS Fo.; J. KUEHN; L.C. Salomão; J. D. FONTANA

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance that myticulture is conquering in Santa Catarina State (South of Brazil) explains the crescent search for new coastal sites for farming. Physiological and biochemical studies of the mussel Perna perna are important to the establishment of methodologies for program assessment and environmental monitoring, allowing to infer about site quality and possible influences of xenobiotic agents on coastal areas. In order to evaluate effects caused by lead poisoning (1.21 mumol.L...

  17. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Diethyltoluamide (DEET) in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussels non-irradiated and irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have identified the presence of several emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. The occurrence in different environmental matrices has been continuously reported, highlighting the need for toxicity studies. The DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the active ingredient used in most insect repellents, and is present in many commercially available formulations. Apart from chemical pollutants, aquatic organisms are subject to exposure of ionizing radiation from natural sources or in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The present study evaluated the toxicity of DEET in organisms irradiated and non-irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation, and the effects that radiation causes in lysosomes of hemocytes of Perna perna mussel. For this purpose, assays were performed to identify the acute toxicity of DEET concentration and the dose of gamma radiation able to cause mortality. Subsequently, cytotoxicity assays were carried out to assess the stability of the lysosomal membrane in organisms exposed to ionizing radiation and DEET. According to the results obtained in acute toxicity tests, the concentration of DEET that causes mortality of 50% exposed organisms (LC50) is 114,27 mg L-1, and the radiation dose that causes mortality (LD50) is 1068 Gy. In the cytotoxicity assays, the concentration of the non-observed effect (NOEC) for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms 0.0001 mg L-1 and observed effect concentration (LOEC) at concentrations above this. The IC25 (72h) for non-irradiated organisms was 0.0003 mg L-1 and IC50 (72h) was 0.0008 mg L-1 for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms. Despite of the concentrations of effect found in this study were higher than in the environment, both measurements are in the same order of magnitude and should be also take into account the possible synergistic effects of DEET with other contaminants in the aquatic environment. (author)

  18. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  19. Modification of trace metal accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis by exposure to Ag, Cu, and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis affected by previous exposure to Cu, Ag, or Zn, the dietary metal assimilation efficiency (AE) and the uptake rate from the dissolved phase were quantified. The mussel's filtration rate, metallothionein (MT) concentration, and metal tissue burden as well as the metal subcellular partitioning were also determined to illustrate the potential mechanisms underlying the influences caused by one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of the other metals. The green mussels were pre-exposed to Cu, Ag, or Zn for different periods (1-5 weeks) and the bioaccumulation of Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn were concurrently determined. Pre-exposure to the three metals did not result in any significant increase in MT concentration in the green mussels. Ag concentration in the insoluble fraction increased with increasing Ag exposure period and Ag ambient concentration. Our data indicated that Cd assimilation were not influenced by the mussel's pre-exposure to the three metals (Cu, Ag, and Zn), but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn exposure. Although Hg assimilation from food was not affected by the metal pre-exposure, its influx rate from solution was generally inhibited by the exposure to Cu, Ag, and Zn. Ag bioaccumulation was affected the most obviously, in which its AE increased with increasing Ag tissue concentration, and its dissolved uptake decreased with increasing tissue concentrations of Ag and Cu. As an essential metal, Zn bioaccumulation remained relatively stable following the metal pre-exposure, suggesting the regulatory ability of Zn uptake in the mussels. Zn AE was not affected by metal pre-exposure, but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn pre-exposure. All these results indicated that the influences of one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of other metals were metal-specific due to the differential binding and toxicity of metals to the mussels. Such factors should

  20. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Regina L.; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Serrão, Ester A.; Zardi, Gerardo I.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister–lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographic...

  1. NMR-based metabolomic studies on the toxicological effects of cadmium and copper on green mussels Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional toxicology studies have focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. In this study, a system biology tool, metabolomics, was applied to the marine mussel Perna viridis to investigate changes in the metabolic profiles of soft tissue as a response to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both as single metal and as a mixture. The major metabolite changes corresponding to metal exposure are related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Following metal exposure for 1 week, there was a significant increase in the levels of branched chain amino acids, histidine, glutamate, glutamine, hypotaurine, dimethylglycine, arginine and ATP/ADP. For the Cu + Cd co-exposed mussels, the levels of lactate, branched chain amino acid, succinate, and NAD increased, whereas the levels of glucose, glycogen, and ATP/ADP decreased, indicating a different metabolic profile for the single metal exposure groups. After 2 weeks of exposure, the mussels showed acclimatization to Cd exposure based on the recovery of some metabolites. However, the metabolic profile induced by the metal mixture was very similar to that from Cu exposure, suggesting that Cu dominantly induced the metabolic disturbances. Both Cu and Cd may lead to neurotoxicity, disturbances in energy metabolism, and osmoregulation changes. These results demonstrate the high applicability and reliability of NMR-based metabolomics in interpreting the toxicological mechanisms of metals using global metabolic biomarkers.

  2. Monitoramento histopatológico de mexilhão Perna perna da Lagoa de Itaipu, Niterói, RJ Histopathological monitoring assessment of mussels Perna perna at the Itaipu Lagoon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    F.C. Lima; M.G. Abreu; E.F.M. Mesquita

    2001-01-01

    Cortes histológicos de 120 mexilhões Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758), coletados na Lagoa de Itaipu, Niterói, RJ, por um período de 12 meses, foram examinados quanto a presença de parasitas e lesões. Noventa exemplares apresentaram cinco diferentes processos patológicos: bucefalose, presença de protozoários Nematopsis sp., inclusões basofílicas não específicas, encapsulamentos parasitários e cistos epiteliais branquiais. Cinquenta animais mostravam duas ou mais patologias concomitantes.Histologic...

  3. Ictiofauna associada a um cultivo de mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) Norte Catarinense, Sul do Brasil = Ichthyofauna associated with a culture of mussel Perna perna in Northern Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas; Rafael Velastin

    2010-01-01

    Durante os meses de outubro de 2004 e setembro de 2005, foram realizadas coletas para identificação da ictiofauna associada a um cultivo de mexilhão Perna perna, no município de São Francisco do Sul, Estado de Santa Catarina. Foi coletado o total de 511 peixes correspondentes a sete espécies e seis famílias (Blenniidae, Gobiidae, Labrisomidae, Serranidae, Gobiesocidae e Monacanthidae); as espécies Hypleurochilus fissicornis, Bathygobius soporator e Gobiesox strumosus foram as mais abundantes....

  4. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Biochemical biomarkers were measured to assess effects of Cd on Perna canaliculus. •Biochemical responses varied between acute and subchronic exposure to Cd. •MTLP induction correlated strongly with Cd accumulation. •Alkaline phosphatase and glycogen levels decreased during subchronic Cd exposure. •Duration of Cd exposure influenced biochemical biomarker responses in mussels. -- Abstract: The biochemical responses of the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated in order to delineate toxic mechanisms, and the impacts of exposure dose and duration, of this important toxicant in a potential sentinel species. Mussels were exposed for either 96 h (acute: 0, 2000, 4000 μg L{sup −1} Cd) or for 28 d (subchronic: 0, 200, 2000 μg L{sup −1} Cd), and the digestive gland, gill and haemolymph were examined for impacts. Biochemical responses measured included those associated with metal detoxification (metallothionein-like protein; MTLP), oxidative stress (catalase, lipid peroxidation), cellular homeostasis (alkaline phosphatase, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase; NKA), and energy utilisation (glycogen, haemolymph protein). Following acute exposure, digestive gland glycogen and gill NKA activity were significantly altered by Cd exposure relative to levels in mussels exposed to Cd-free seawater. Subchronic Cd exposure resulted in a significant increase in MTLP levels in both the gill and the digestive gland. This increase was correlated strongly with the levels of Cd accumulation measured in these tissues (R = 0.957 for gill, 0.964 for digestive gland). Catalase activity followed a similar pattern, although the correlation with tissue Cd accumulation was not as strong (R = 0.907 for gill, 0.708 for digestive gland) as that for MTLP. Lipid peroxidation increased in the digestive gland at Days 7 and 14 at both subchronic Cd levels tested, but this effect had largely dissipated by Days 21 and 28 (with the exception of

  5. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Biochemical biomarkers were measured to assess effects of Cd on Perna canaliculus. •Biochemical responses varied between acute and subchronic exposure to Cd. •MTLP induction correlated strongly with Cd accumulation. •Alkaline phosphatase and glycogen levels decreased during subchronic Cd exposure. •Duration of Cd exposure influenced biochemical biomarker responses in mussels. -- Abstract: The biochemical responses of the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated in order to delineate toxic mechanisms, and the impacts of exposure dose and duration, of this important toxicant in a potential sentinel species. Mussels were exposed for either 96 h (acute: 0, 2000, 4000 μg L−1 Cd) or for 28 d (subchronic: 0, 200, 2000 μg L−1 Cd), and the digestive gland, gill and haemolymph were examined for impacts. Biochemical responses measured included those associated with metal detoxification (metallothionein-like protein; MTLP), oxidative stress (catalase, lipid peroxidation), cellular homeostasis (alkaline phosphatase, Na+, K+-ATPase; NKA), and energy utilisation (glycogen, haemolymph protein). Following acute exposure, digestive gland glycogen and gill NKA activity were significantly altered by Cd exposure relative to levels in mussels exposed to Cd-free seawater. Subchronic Cd exposure resulted in a significant increase in MTLP levels in both the gill and the digestive gland. This increase was correlated strongly with the levels of Cd accumulation measured in these tissues (R = 0.957 for gill, 0.964 for digestive gland). Catalase activity followed a similar pattern, although the correlation with tissue Cd accumulation was not as strong (R = 0.907 for gill, 0.708 for digestive gland) as that for MTLP. Lipid peroxidation increased in the digestive gland at Days 7 and 14 at both subchronic Cd levels tested, but this effect had largely dissipated by Days 21 and 28 (with the exception of the 2000 μg L−1 group

  6. Ocorrência de Vibrio parahaemolyticus em mexilhões (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 de banco natural do litoral do município de Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brasil Occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in mussels (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 from a natural coastal bed in the municipality of Palhoça, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria B. Archer

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de Vibrio parahaemolyticus em quarenta amostras de mexilhões (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 procedentes de banco natural da praia da Pinheira, município de Palhoça, Santa catarina, durante um período de três meses. Na metodologia de isolamento foi utilizada a técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP com enriquecimento em água alcalina peptonada e subseqüente plaqueamento em ágar TCBS (thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose. Em 52,5% das amostras de mexilhões foi constatada a presença de Vibrio parahaemolyticus, com níveis de contaminação entre A study was carried out on the occurrence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in forty samples of mussels (Perna perna, Linnaeus, 1758 from a natural bed at Pinheira Beach, Municipality of Palhoça, Santa Catarina (Brazil, during a three-month period. The most probable number technique was used for isolation methodology with prior enrichment of samples in alkaline peptone water and subsequent planting on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in 52.5% of samples of mussels with a most probable number range of < 3 to 93 organisms/g. Serotyping was performed on 61 isolates and our findings indicate that 36.1% of these isolates were serologically non-typable; 54.1% of isolates displayed only flagellate antigenic structures and 8.2% had both antigenic structures. None of the isolates were Kanagawa positive.

  7. Growth parameters in the cultured green mussel Perna viridis L. from the Zuari Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Growth parameters for both length and weight were estimated in the raft-grown population of Perna viridis. The asymptotic length (L approaches infinity) and weight (W ) were computed to be 85 mm and 34.37 g respectively. Theoretical length...

  8. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  9. Estabilidade físico-química e mercado do mexilhão (Perna perna) cultivado em Ubatuba - SP Physicochemical stability and market of mussels (Perna perna) cultivated in Ubatuba - SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Érika Fabiane Furlan; Juliana Antunes Galvão; Eduardo Oliveira Salán; Viviane Angeli Yokoyama; Marília Oetterer

    2007-01-01

    O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar o mexilhão Perna perna como alimento no que se refere à estabilidade físico-química, valor nutricional e consumo. Os mexilhões avaliados foram coletados em três regiões distintas do litoral norte de São Paulo: praia da Barra Seca, praia do Engenho da Almada e costão do Cedro. Determinou-se a composição centesimal (umidade, proteína bruta, carboidrato, lipídios e cinza), o valor calórico, o pH e as bases voláteis nitrogenadas totais. Paralelamente foi r...

  10. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    of extracts of smoked and non-smoked cigar tobacco over a period of 16 days, DNA damage was found to be highest in marine mussels exposed to extracts of smoked cigar tobacco. Conversely, more deformed nuclei were detected in marine mussels exposed to extracts...

  11. Antioxidant responses to benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 exposure in the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis (L.), was exposed to two concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.3 μg l-1; 3 μg l-1) and two concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (0.5 μg l-1; 5 μg l-1). In addition, a mixture of the contaminants was used (0.3 μg l-1 B[a]P+0.5 μg l-1 Aroclor 1254; 3 μg l-1 B[a]P+5 μg l-1 Aroclor 1254). All concentrations were nominal. A suite of enzymes [glutathione S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR)], glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the mussel gill and hepatopancreas were monitored over 18 days. CAT and GSH in gill tissue were positively correlated with concentration of Aroclor 1254. Activity of hepatic GST and SOD was significantly related to body burden of Aroclor 1254. LPO, GR and GPx in gill and hepatopancreas and hepatic GST were positively correlated with B[a]P concentration. The results indicate the importance of using biomarkers specific to the type of contaminant(s) that are likely to be present. Controlled laboratory experiments, such as this study, are useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment. - Benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 separately and in combination caused specific induction in a number of antioxidant parameters in the gill and hepatopancreas of green-lipped mussels

  12. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. PMID:25900884

  13. Aquacultura de mexilhão marinho Perna-perna (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, F.

    1984-01-01

    The Mozambican experimental project on mussel culture began in 1977 to promote cheap food production with high protein value for domestic market. The species Perna perna (L.) has been selected due to its abundance, sustainable culture processes and better yields.

  14. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  15. Mercury depuration effectiveness on green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.) from Jakarta Bay using ozone, chitosan and hydrodynamic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiah Ningrum, Endar; Duryadi Solihin, Dedy; Butet, Nurlisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Depuration has been used to eliminate microorganism and toxic chemical contaminants in bivalve. However, scientific research still needs to discover the effectiveness of depuration. This research aimed at assessing the best depuration effectiveness in decreasing mercury (Hg) concentration level in two species of bivalves, green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.). The depuration treatments applied 1.5 ppm ozon, 0.5 ppm chitosan, hydrodynamic technique (1.3 m/s), combination between hydrodynamic-ozon, hydrodynamic-chitosan and ozon-chitosan. The experiment were conducted in mini aquaria for 60 minutes. Mercury concentration was measured in 10 g dry weight of green mussel (4.05±0.020 ppm) and blood cockle (3.27 ± 0.666 ppm). The result showed that mercury depuration were highly effective by combination of ozone-chitosan in green mussel (96.51%) and 1.5 ppm ozone in blood cockle (87.06%).

  16. Uptake and elimination of brevetoxin in the invasive green mussel, Perna viridis, during natural Karenia brevis blooms in southwest Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Soudant, Philippe; Volety, Aswani K

    2015-04-01

    Perna viridis is a recently introduced species to US coastal waters and have vigorously spread throughout the southeastern seaboard since their invasion. Little information regarding their response to local environmental factors has been reported including responses to the local HAB species, Karenia brevis. This study monitored the tissue toxin concentration of brevetoxins in P. viridis from existing populations throughout two consecutive natural K. brevis blooms. The results showed P. viridis to rapidly accumulate PbTx upon exposure to the bloom, far exceeding the peak tissue concentrations of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, sampled during the same period, 57,653 ± 15,937 and 33,462 ± 10,391 ng g(-1) PbTx-3 equivalent, respectively. Further, P. viridis retained high PbTx concentrations in their tissues post bloom remaining above the regulatory limit for human consumption for 4-5 months, significantly longer than the depuration time of 2-8 weeks for native oyster and clam species. In the second year, the bloom persisted at high cell concentrations resulting in prolonged exposure and higher PbTx tissue concentrations indicating increased bioaccumulation in green mussels. While this species is not currently harvested for human consumption, the threat for post bloom trophic transfer could pose negative impacts on other important fisheries and higher food web implications. PMID:25681577

  17. Proximate biochemical composition and caloric potential in the raft-grown green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The biochemical components of the mussel tissue, cultured on the raft were estimated. The range of variation in the content of moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipid, organic carbon and ash were 66.8-90.1; 46.2-67.4; 11.7-18.6; 2.9-7.4; 19...

  18. Accumulation and Clearance of PAHs and CYP1A Levels in Farmed Green Mussels (Perna viridis L. from a Coastal Industrial Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaporn Cholumpai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Green mussels (Perna viridis L. that inhabit along coastal areas with established petro-chemical industries are likely to be exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. In year 2011, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs accumulated (i.e. total of 16 PAH congeners in three different sizes of farmed mussels in the Maptaphut industrial estate which is an industrial park in the Gulf of Thailand. The levels of mean total PAHs (0.4303 ± 0.3067 µg/g dry weight in large sized (consumable size mussels were 16 and 8 times higher than medium and small sized mussels. Levels of total carcinogenic PAHs (0.0311± 0.0310 µg/g dry weight in consumable size mussels were 15 and 11 times higher compared to medium and small sized mussels. Two carcinogenic PAHs (i.e. chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene were detected in all sized mussels. The ratio of high molecular weight versus low molecular weight PAHs in all sized mussels indicated the presence of pyrogenic PAHs contamination over petrogenic PAHs in this coastal area. Further studies were carried out in year 2012 involved depuration in consumable sized mussels and effects on the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A biomarker were analyzed over a 30 day depuration period. The half-life was five days for total PAH burden (0.4765 ± 0.0615 µg/g dry weight, which included four non-carcinogenic PAHs. After 10, 15 and 30 days depuration in clean water, the mean total PAHs levels decreased gradually but yet significantly (0.2501 ± 0.0186, 0.1350 ± 0.0122 and 0.1554 ± 0.0353 µg/g dry weight, respectively compared to the PAH levels at day 0. Levels of CYP1A declined accordingly and at 30 days depuration CYP1A protein levels were significantly reduced by almost 3-fold compared the PAH levels in mussels from the Maptaphut industrial estate. The results show that farmed green mussels reared for human consumptions are exposed to PAHs including carcinogenic PAHs and that clearance of these PAHs is evident at 30 days depuration. This study

  19. Extending the shelf-life of refrigerated green mussel (Perna viridis under modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP on the keeping quality of green mussel stored at 4C was investigated.Inhibition of the bacterial growth increased proportionally to the CO2 concentration in the packaging, and maximuminhibition was achieved with 100% CO2. Mussel stored under CO2-enriched atmosphere had lower total volatile base, trimethylamineand TCA-soluble peptide contents than those stored in air (P<0.05. However, the increase in exudate loss wasobserved for samples packaged in high-CO2 atmosphere, suggesting the denaturation of muscle proteins by carbonic acidformed. The odor and flavor acceptability of CO2-enriched packaged samples, particularly with 80 and 100% CO2, wasaccepted throughout the storage of 12 days, compared with six days for those stored in air. Therefore, MAP with 80% CO2,10% O2 and 10% N2 was chosen as the optimum condition for extending the shelf-life of green mussel. Packaging withinclusion of O2 should be considered to avoid the outbreak of strictly anaerobic toxin producing bacteria.

  20. Uptake and depuration of PAHs and chlorinated pesticides by semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semi-batch seawater experiments were conducted to follow the uptake and release of selected PAHs (anthracene, fluorathene, pyrene and B[a]P) and organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT) in semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis). Mathematical models were applied to describe the uptake and elimination curves of the contaminants for SPMDs, and kinetic parameters, such as uptake rate constants, and equilibrium triolein/water partitioning coefficients were calculated. SPMD data showed a good fit to estimate rate constant and partition coefficient equations, but only those contaminants which partitioned mainly in the dissolved phase (α-HCH and dieldrin) were well explained for mussels. Poor conformity of the other contaminants indicated mussels uptake by routes other than diffusion, such as ingestion of algae. An apparent equilibrium state was only noted for α-HCH in mussels. Aldrin was not detected in mussels in the first few days of exposure, indicating potential metabolism of this compound. B[a]P was not detected in the triolein of SPMDs, which suggests that the membrane may act as a reservoir. Loss of spiked B[a]P from the triolein was evident in a depuration experiment, which may indicate transfer to the membrane. Rate constants for mussels were higher than those for SPMDs, but the reverse was true for partition coefficients. Overall, mussels and SPMDs had similar uptake rates for all compounds in this study, excluding p,p'-DDT and dieldrin. Contaminant elimination took place more rapidly in mussels, implying that SPMDs are better candidates for detecting episodic discharge of organic contaminants

  1. Mussel-based monitoring of trace metal and organic contaminants along the east coast of China using Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green lipped mussels, Perna viridis, and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were collected from seven locations along the east coast of China in September and October 2001. The mussel tissues were analyzed for metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg), and trace organic contaminants including organochlorine compounds (OCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; based on 24 individual PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Maximum concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg in the mussel tissues were 0.14, 26.76, 5.31, 15.72, 4.78, 2.93, 7.40, 231.0, 54.17, 1002 and 317.3 μg/g dry weight respectively. Levels of DDTs, PAHs, PCBs and PHCs in the mussel samples were 14-640, 456-3495, 1-13 ng/g and 621-2863 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Results of this study indicated that contaminant levels were, in general, higher or at least comparable to those reported in other local or regional studies. Mussel samples collected in Chongming Dao in Shanghai and Jiao Zhou Wan in Qingdao had significantly higher levels of metal and trace organic contaminants among the seven sampling stations. Examination of the contaminant profiles suggests that PHCs originated from petrogenic sources, while both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources were important for PAHs. The generally high levels of metals and organochlorine compounds are probably the result of increasingly intense industrial activities along the east coast of China. An assessment of potential risks to human health due to consumption of the mussels was undertaken for the metals, PCBs, DDTs and chlordanes, and the results indicated that all metals, except Ni, could pose a health risk to heavy seafood consumers, while Hg appears to be of concern even for low level consumers. - Mussel-based monitoring revealed trace metal and organic contaminants which pose potential human health risks

  2. Cytogenetic studies in green mussel, Perna viridis (Mytiloida: Pteriomorphia), from West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.

    studies have received a little consideration than they actually deserve. Karyotypic details have been documented in several animal groups including a few Bivalvia species (Cornet and Soulard 1990; Wada and Komaru 1993; Insua et al. 1998; Martı´nez- Lage et... and methods Green mussels were collected from the Central West Coast of India. Live animals were brought to the laboratory and acclimatized for ten days in tanks containing aerated sea- water at 25C176C and fed upon phytoplankton Chaetocerous sp. Animals were...

  3. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlecar, X. N.; Jena, K. B.; Chainy, G. B. N.

    2008-03-01

    Investigations on seasonal variation in oxidative stress biomarkers were carried out on the natural population of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis collected from Bambolim beach area of Goa. Oxidative stress indices such as lipid peroxidation (LPX), hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) were measured in gills and digestive gland of P. viridis during February, May, August and November. The present study reveals two important aspects regarding the antioxidant defence status of tissues of P. viridis. Firstly, antioxidant capacity of tissues of P. viridis exhibits seasonal variation. Secondly, various components of antioxidant capacity such as oxidative stress markers, levels of antioxidant enzymes and small antioxidant molecules vary differently in tissues with respect to different seasons. Although the oxidative stress status of gills and digestive gland of P. viridis expressed in terms of LPX and H 2O 2 was the lowest in February, its level was maximal in gills and digestive gland during May and November, respectively. While activities of SOD and GPX of tissues of P. viridis were found to be low in August, activities of CAT and GR were recorded to be low in February. GST activity in gills although remained high in February, in digestive gland elevated values were recorded in August and November. A seasonal variation in the levels of small antioxidant molecules was also noticed. Among non enzymatic antioxidants ASA content of tissues was maximal in May and August in comparison to February and November, but GSH remained high in November. It therefore appears that environmental factors may play a crucial role in regulating the oxidative stress capacity of tissues of P. viridis.

  4. Aeromonas spp. e Plesiomonas shigelloides isoladas a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna in natura e pré-cozidos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema aquático é o habitat de mexilhões (Perna perna, animais filtradores que refletem a qualidade ambiental através de análise microbiológica de sua carne. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a presença de patógenos emergentes (Aeromonas hydrophila e Plesiomonas shigelloides, em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos coletados por pescadores da Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 86 amostras de mexilhões (43 in natura e 43 pré-cozidos as quais foram submetidas a enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA acrescida de 1 e 3% de Cloreto de Sódio (NaCl e em solução Salina de Butterfield, incubadas a 37ºC por 24 horas. Em seguida, foram semeadas em Ágar Seletivo para Pseudomonas-Aeromonas (GSP, Ágar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e Ágar Inositol Bile Verde Brilhante (IBB. A análise geral dos resultados permitiu a identificação de Areomonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides em 86% das amostras de mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidas avaliadas. A posterior caracterização bioquímica permitiu a identificação das espécies Aeromonas media (37,10%, A. hydrophila (15,50%, A. caviae (14,80%, A. veronii biogrupo veronii (11,60%, Aeromonas sp. (7,36%, A. sobria (4,20%, A. trota (4,20%, A. schubertii (1,31%, A. jandaei (1,31%, A. veronii biogrupo sobria (0,52% e Plesiomonas shigelloides (2,10%. A relevância epidemiológica desses microrganismos em casos de gastrenterite humana, após consumo de mexilhões crus ou parcialmente cozidos, revela a importância de alertar as autoridades de Saúde Pública no Brasil, sobre a presença desses patógenos na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a saúde humana.The aquatic ecosystem is the habitat of mussels, filtrating animals that reflect the ambient quality through microbiological analysis. In the present investigation, we evaluated the presence of emergent pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas

  5. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Diethyltoluamide (DEET) in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussels non-irradiated and irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Avaliacao da citotoxicidade do dietiltoluamida (DEET) em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) irradiados e nao irradiados com radiacao gama de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela de Assis

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have identified the presence of several emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. The occurrence in different environmental matrices has been continuously reported, highlighting the need for toxicity studies. The DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) is the active ingredient used in most insect repellents, and is present in many commercially available formulations. Apart from chemical pollutants, aquatic organisms are subject to exposure of ionizing radiation from natural sources or in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The present study evaluated the toxicity of DEET in organisms irradiated and non-irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, and the effects that radiation causes in lysosomes of hemocytes of Perna perna mussel. For this purpose, assays were performed to identify the acute toxicity of DEET concentration and the dose of gamma radiation able to cause mortality. Subsequently, cytotoxicity assays were carried out to assess the stability of the lysosomal membrane in organisms exposed to ionizing radiation and DEET. According to the results obtained in acute toxicity tests, the concentration of DEET that causes mortality of 50% exposed organisms (LC50) is 114,27 mg L{sup -1}, and the radiation dose that causes mortality (LD50) is 1068 Gy. In the cytotoxicity assays, the concentration of the non-observed effect (NOEC) for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms 0.0001 mg L-1 and observed effect concentration (LOEC) at concentrations above this. The IC25 (72h) for non-irradiated organisms was 0.0003 mg L-1 and IC50 (72h) was 0.0008 mg L{sup -1} for irradiated and non-irradiated organisms. Despite of the concentrations of effect found in this study were higher than in the environment, both measurements are in the same order of magnitude and should be also take into account the possible synergistic effects of DEET with other contaminants in the aquatic environment. (author)

  6. Influences of dissolved and colloidal organic carbon on the uptake of Ag, Cd, and Cr by the marine mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross-flow ultrafiltration and radiotracer techniques were used to study the influences of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colloidal organic carbon (COC) on the bioavailability of Ag, Cd, and Cr to the green mussel Perna viridis. We examined the uptake of these metals by the mussels at different concentrations of DOC and COC from different origins (estuarine, coastal, and diatom decomposed). Using the DOC originating from the decomposed diatom (Thalassiosira pseudonana), we demonstrated that Cd and Cr uptake, quantified by the concentration factor (DCF), increased linearly with increasing DOC concentration. There was, however, no consistent influence of natural DOC concentration on the metal uptake when the DOC was obtained from different sources of seawater (coastal and estuarine). The influences of COC on metal bioavailability were metal-specific and dependent on the geochemical properties of colloids and colloid-metal complexation. Cd uptake rate was not influenced by the COC concentrations. Uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Cr was enhanced by 3.4x, whereas the uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Ag was decreased by 8.2x compared with the uptake of low molecular weight Cr and Ag (<1 kDa). The uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Cr and Ag was generally lower than the uptake of metals bound with the same type of colloids for 2 days. Further aging of the colloid-metal binding reduced metal bioavailability to the mussels. In the presence of different sizes of colloidal particles where there was no major binding of colloids with the metals, metal uptake by the mussels was not influenced by different COC concentrations. Overall, our study suggests that although metal dissociation from colloids may be an important step for the uptake of colloidal metals, other mechanisms such as pinocytosis and co-transport may also be involved in the uptake of these metals, especially in aquatic environments with high DOC and COC concentrations. - Organic carbon

  7. BIOMONITORING OF AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM,COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC IN THE COASTAL WETLAND WATER BY USING GILLS OF THE GREEN- LIPPED MUSSEL PERNA VIRIDIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Ahmad Ismail; Abdul Rahim Ismail; Soon Guan Tan

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in the gills and remaining soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from 12 geographical sites ( 10 from the west and 2 from the east coastal waters) of Peninsular Malaysia. All samples showed that the levels of Cd, Pb and Zn were generally higher in the gill than those in the remaining soft tissues. These results could be due to the fact that gills are the first organ of metal accumulation and larger surface area with mucus sheets in the organ. Since the mussel gill is a better accumulator of Cd, Pb and Zn of ambient seawater than remaining soft tissue, it is a potential indicator of ambient levels of dissolved metals in the ambient seawater. However, further validations based on laboratory conditions are needed.

  8. Assessment of trace element contamination and bioaccumulation in algae (Ulva lactuca), mussels (Perna perna), shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus), and fish (Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron) along the Senegalese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Howsam, Michael; Diop, Cheikh; Goossens, Jean F; Diouf, Amadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of 11 elements were quantified in five marine species from different trophic levels of a food web (algae, mussel, shrimp and fish), representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters, and including species of commercial importance. Significant differences in element concentrations and bioaccumulation were demonstrated, revealing the utility of employing a suite of organisms as bioindicators to monitor metal contamination in coastal areas. There was no clear seasonal pattern in concentration of elements, however inter-site differences were observed. Calculations of transfer factors for all the studied elements showed that transfer factors from water were greater than those from sediments. For shrimp and mussel, the concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the EU's maximum level for human consumption, however high concentrations of arsenic in shrimp were recorded at all sites. PMID:26763317

  9. Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C. K.; Ismail, A.; Tan, S. G.; Abdul Rahim, I.

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the ratios of the shell metals to the soft tissue metals were different at each sampling site. Nevertheless, the Cd and Pb levels in the shells were always higher than those in the soft tissues, while the Zn level was higher in the soft tissues than in the shells. In comparison with soft tissues, the degrees of variability for Pb and Cd concentrations in the shells were lower. The lower degrees of variability and significant ( Pshells support the use of the mussel shell as a suitable biomonitoring material for the two metals rather than the soft tissue since this indicated that there is more precision (lower CV) in the determination of metal concentrations in the shell than in the soft tissue. Experimental work showed that the pattern of depuration in the shell was not similar to that of the soft tissue although their patterns of accumulation were similar. This indicated that the depuration of heavy metals in the shell was not affected by the physiological conditions of the mussels. Although Zn could be regulated by the soft tissue, the incorporated Cd, Pb and Zn remained in the shell matrices. The present results support the use of the total shell of P. viridis as a potential biomonitoring material for long-term contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn.

  10. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  11. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  12. Differential proteomic responses in hepatopancreas and adductor muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to stresses induced by cadmium and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to reveal the proteomic responses in the hepatopancreas and adductor muscle of a common biomonitor, Perna viridis after 14-day exposure to two model chemicals, cadmium (Cd; a toxic metal) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; a pro-oxidant), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. Unique sets of tissue-specific protein expression signatures were revealed corresponding to the two treatment groups. In the hepatopancreas, 15 and 2 spots responded to Cd and H2O2 treatments respectively. 6 and 7 spots were differentially expressed in the adductor muscle for Cd and H2O2 treatments, respectively. 15 differentially expressed spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. These proteins are involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis, oxidative stress response, redox homeostasis and protein folding, heat-shock response, and muscle contraction modulation. This is the first time, to have demonstrated that Cd exposure not only leads to substantial oxidative stress but also results in endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatopancreas of the mussel. Such notable stress responses may be attributable to high Cd accumulation in this tissue. Our results suggested that investigations on these stress-associated protein changes could be used as a new and complementary approach in pollution monitoring by this popular biomonitor species.

  13. Impairment of green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) physiology by waterborne cadmium: Relationship to tissue bioaccumulation and effect of exposure duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2012-11-15

    Laboratory studies were performed to assess the impact of acute and subchronic cadmium (Cd) exposure on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus. A 96 h median lethal concentration (LC{sub 50}) value of 8160 {mu}g L{sup -1} was determined, characterising this species as relatively tolerant to Cd exposure. Acute (96 h; at 2000 and 4000 {mu}g Cd L{sup -1}) and subchronic (28 d; at 200 and 2000 {mu}g Cd L{sup -1}) waterborne exposures were then conducted to investigate the impact of Cd exposure on physiological responses (e.g. clearance (feeding) rate, absorption efficiency, oxygen uptake, ammonia production, oxygen to nitrogen ratio, scope for growth) and tissue Cd accumulation. Cd accumulation in digestive gland showed saturation with respect to increasing exposure concentration, while the gill tissue Cd accumulation followed a positive linear relationship with Cd exposure level. Clearance rates declined during both acute and subchronic exposures at levels of 2000 {mu}g Cd L{sup -1} or higher. Impairments of clearance rates were strongly correlated with tissue Cd accumulation. Coupled with their importance as a food source, and their wide coastal distribution, these data suggests that P. canaliculus may be a species useful as an indicator species for trace metal pollution in coastal environments.

  14. Preparation of gluten free bread enriched with green mussel (Perna canaliculus) protein hydrolysates and characterization of peptides responsible for mussel flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykrishnaraj, M; Roopa, B S; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-11-15

    Green mussel protein hydrolysates (GMPH) utilization for the enrichment of gluten-free bread followed by characterization of flavour peptides using chromatography and electronic nose techniques have been done. The degree of hydrolysis was carried out in each protease digest, and the higher degree of hydrolysis was observed in pepsin digestion. Gluten-free (GF) bread was formulated by using buckwheat flour (BWF), rice flour (RF) and chickpea flour (CPF) (70:20:10) and GMPH were added in the range of 0-20% in the GF bread for enrichment with GMPH. Radar plot of the electronic nose analysis showed that the sensors P30/2, T30/1 and T70/2 had a higher response to the GF bread and GMPH. Consequently, the peptide sequence was obtained manually by ESI-MS spectra of GMPH (KGYSSYICDK) and F-II (SSYCIVKICDK). Flavour quality was 97% discriminately comparable to the GMPH and F-II fractions. Mussel flavoured GF bread can be included in the celiac diet. PMID:27283688

  15. Metabolism of pectenotoxins in brown crabs Cancer pagurus fed with blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoxin

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the metabolism of pectenotoxins in brown crabs ( Cancer pagurus). The crabs were fed with blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) for 21 d then depurated for 42 d. We extracted the toxins from the digestive glands of contaminated crabs, uncontaminated crabs (control group), and the meat of blue mussels using methanol. Extracts of the crab digestive glands were fractionated by liquid-liquid partitioning and solid phase extraction. The fractions were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-MSn). We detected a new PTX-like compound, designated as metabolite-1. The MS2 mass spectrum of the metabolite-1 [M+Na]+ ion at m/z 897.5 revealed fragment ions at m/z 853.5 and 555.5, typical of those exhibited by other pectenotoxins.

  16. Physiological rates in different classes of sizes of Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) submmited to experimental loboratory conditions Taxas fisiológicas do mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) em diferentes classes de tamanho e condições de manutenção em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    C. RESGALLA Jr.; E. S. Brasil; L.C. Salomão

    2006-01-01

    Physiological studies of the mussel Perna perna in Brazil are almost 30 years behind those of other, more exhaustively investigated species, such as Mytilus edulis. Little is known about the variations in physiological rates due to size and the consequences of maintaining P. perna in laboratory conditions. This work investigated the variations in respiration, clearance, excretion and absorption efficiency rates of P. perna, classified by size and acclimatized in a laboratory, monitoring the m...

  17. Polonium-210 in marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) inhabiting the southern coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin; Rajan, M P

    2014-12-01

    The present study focused on the determination of the alpha-emitter, (210)Po, in two species of marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) commonly available in the southern coastal region of India. The brown mussel, Perna indica was collected from the west coast and the green mussel, Perna viridis from the east coast. The concentration of (210)Po was related to the allometry (length of shell, wet/dry weight of shell/soft tissue) of the mussels and significant results were found. The study period focused on three seasons namely, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon for a 1-year period (2010-2011). The results revealed higher activity levels in smaller-sized mussels compared to larger ones. Marked variation in (210)Po activity concentration was noted in the whole-body soft tissues between seasons and sampling site (p mussels was performed using the ERICA Assessment tool. The chronic exposure to mussels due to (210)Po was found to be lesser than the global benchmark dose rate of 10 μGy h(-1). The effective ingestion dose to adults who intake mussels was estimated to be in the range 5.1-34.9 μSv y(-1). The measurement contributes to the furthering of knowledge of (210)Po, since no data exist in this region. PMID:25042075

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF THE MUSSEL PERNA PERNA IN TWO CULTIVATION SITES IN THE NORTH COAST OF SANTA CATARINA STATE. VARIABILIDADE NAS TAXAS FISIOLÓGICAS DO MEXILHÃO PERNA PERNA EM DOIS SÍTIOS DE CULTIVO DO LITORAL NORTE DE SANTA CATARINA

    OpenAIRE

    C. RESGALLA Jr.; De Manzoni, G.; K. N. KUROSHIMA; Fo. REIS; R.W.; K. S. LAITANO

    2000-01-01

    With the growing socioeconomic activity of mussel farming on Santa Catarina’s coast, the identification of new cultivation sites became necessary. Among a variety of methods used for the analysis of potential producing areas, studying of the mussel physiological rates may be considered as one of the most appropriated, specially when addressing the monitoring of sites already established and the negative effects of environmental pollution. This report presents a preliminary comparison between ...

  19. O mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus) (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) em cultivo na Armação do Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brasil The mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus) (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) in culture at the Armação of the Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano W. C. Marenzi; Branco, Joaquim O.

    2005-01-01

    Para verificar a viabilidade do cultivo do mexilhão, P. perna (Linnaeus, 1758) no sul do Brasil, duas experiências foram executadas na Armação de Itapocoroy. Das variáveis físicas e químicas foram analisadas a salinidade, temperatura e o oxigênio, que se mostraram ideais para esta espécie e, os macronutrientes também dentro dos níveis esperados para a região, não indicando poluição orgânica no local. O crescimento médio foi de 0,58 cm/mês e o aumento do peso foi de 2,57 g/mês. Curvas de cresc...

  20. Vibrio spp. isolados a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna in natura e pré-cozidos de Estação Experimental de Cultivo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Vibrio spp. isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna of an Experimental Station Culture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A análise microbiológica dos mexilhões reflete a qualidade do habitat aquático, pois estes animais podem reter em seus organismos diversos patógenos, dentre os quais aqueles pertencentes à família Vibrionaceae. No presente estudo foi avaliada a presença de Vibrio spp. em mexilhões (in natura e pré-cozidos, comercializados na Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões, situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram avaliadas 86 amostras, tomando como procedimento, o enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA adicionada de 1 e 3% de NaCl, isolamento em Agar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e confirmação das colônias típicas por análise bioquímica. Dentre as 12 espécies de Vibrio identificadas destacaram-se como de maior prevalência as espécies Vibrio alginolyticus, V. cholerae não-O1, V. parahaemolyticus, V. carchariae e Vibrio vulnificus. A relevância epidemiológica destes patógenos associada a casos de gastrenterite humana após consumo de mexilhões crus ou parcialmente cozidos, reforça a importância de alertar as autoridades de Vigilância Sanitária sobre sua presença na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a Saúde Pública.The microbiology analysis of mussels reflects the aquatic environment quality because these animals retain various pathogens such as Vibrionaceae family microorganisms in their organism. In the present investigation, we evaluated the presence of Vibrio spp. in mussels (in natura and precooked commercialized at an Experimental Station Mussel Culture in Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. A total of 86 samples were analyzed using the enrichment in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW added to 1 and 3% of NaCl, isolated in Thiossulfate Citrate Bile Sucrose Agar (TCBS and confirmed that there were suspect colonies by biochemical tests. The results showed the identification of 12 different Vibrio species whereby Vibrio alginolyticus, V. cholerae non-O1, V. parahaemolyticus, V. carchariae

  1. Polonium-210 in marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) inhabiting the southern coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study focused on the determination of the alpha-emitter, 210Po, in two species of marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) commonly available in the southern coastal region of India. The brown mussel, Perna indica was collected from the west coast and the green mussel, Perna viridis from the east coast. The concentration of 210Po was related to the allometry (length of shell, wet/dry weight of shell/soft tissue) of the mussels and significant results were found. The study period focused on three seasons namely, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon for a 1-year period (2010–2011). The results revealed higher activity levels in smaller-sized mussels compared to larger ones. Marked variation in 210Po activity concentration was noted in the whole-body soft tissues between seasons and sampling site (p < 0.05). The dose rate assessment for mussels was performed using the ERICA Assessment tool. The chronic exposure to mussels due to 210Po was found to be lesser than the global benchmark dose rate of 10 μGy h−1. The effective ingestion dose to adults who intake mussels was estimated to be in the range 5.1–34.9 μSv y−1. The measurement contributes to the furthering of knowledge of 210Po, since no data exist in this region. - Highlights: • Polonium-210 was quantified in two species of Mytilid mussels inhabiting southern coast of India. • Polonium-210 activity showed significant variation among size classes, between seasons and sampling site. • The internal dose rate to mussels and the dose assessment to the adult population were performed

  2. Field Measurements Indicate Unexpected, Serious Underestimation of Mussel Heart Rates and Thermal Tolerance by Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliarolo, Morgana; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to predict the response of species to long-term environmental change are generally based on extrapolations from laboratory experiments that inevitably simplify the complex interacting effects that occur in the field. We recorded heart rates of two genetic lineages of the brown mussel Perna perna over a full tidal cycle in-situ at two different sites in order to evaluate the cardiac responses of the two genetic lineages present on the South African coast to temperature and the immersion/emersion cycle. “Robomussel” temperature loggers were used to monitor thermal conditions at the two sites over one year. Comparison with live animals showed that robomussels provided a good estimate of mussel body temperatures. A significant difference in estimated body temperatures was observed between the sites and the results showed that, under natural conditions, temperatures regularly approach or exceed the thermal limits of P. perna identified in the laboratory. The two P. perna lineages showed similar tidal and diel patterns of heart rate, with higher cardiac activity during daytime immersion and minimal values during daytime emersion. Comparison of the heart rates measured in the field with data previously measured in the laboratory indicates that laboratory results seriously underestimate heart rate activity, by as much as 75%, especially during immersion. Unexpectedly, field estimates of body temperatures indicated an ability to tolerate temperatures considered lethal on the basis of laboratory measurements. This suggests that the interaction of abiotic conditions in the field does not necessarily raise vulnerability to high temperatures. PMID:26840775

  3. Field Measurements Indicate Unexpected, Serious Underestimation of Mussel Heart Rates and Thermal Tolerance by Laboratory Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliarolo, Morgana; McQuaid, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to predict the response of species to long-term environmental change are generally based on extrapolations from laboratory experiments that inevitably simplify the complex interacting effects that occur in the field. We recorded heart rates of two genetic lineages of the brown mussel Perna perna over a full tidal cycle in-situ at two different sites in order to evaluate the cardiac responses of the two genetic lineages present on the South African coast to temperature and the immersion/emersion cycle. "Robomussel" temperature loggers were used to monitor thermal conditions at the two sites over one year. Comparison with live animals showed that robomussels provided a good estimate of mussel body temperatures. A significant difference in estimated body temperatures was observed between the sites and the results showed that, under natural conditions, temperatures regularly approach or exceed the thermal limits of P. perna identified in the laboratory. The two P. perna lineages showed similar tidal and diel patterns of heart rate, with higher cardiac activity during daytime immersion and minimal values during daytime emersion. Comparison of the heart rates measured in the field with data previously measured in the laboratory indicates that laboratory results seriously underestimate heart rate activity, by as much as 75%, especially during immersion. Unexpectedly, field estimates of body temperatures indicated an ability to tolerate temperatures considered lethal on the basis of laboratory measurements. This suggests that the interaction of abiotic conditions in the field does not necessarily raise vulnerability to high temperatures. PMID:26840775

  4. Ictiofauna associada a um cultivo de mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) Norte Catarinense, Sul do Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.2515 Ichthyofauna associated with a culture of mussel Perna perna in Northern Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i1.2515

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Velastin; Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Durante os meses de outubro de 2004 e setembro de 2005, foram realizadas coletas para identificação da ictiofauna associada a um cultivo de mexilhão Perna perna, no município de São Francisco do Sul, Estado de Santa Catarina. Foi coletado o total de 511 peixes correspondentes a sete espécies e seis famílias (Blenniidae, Gobiidae, Labrisomidae, Serranidae, Gobiesocidae e Monacanthidae); as espécies Hypleurochilus fissicornis, Bathygobius soporator e Gobiesox strumosus foram as mais abundantes....

  5. Vibrio parahaemolyticus produtores de urease isolados a partir de ostras (Crassostrea rizophorae coletadas in natura em restaurantes e mexilhões (Perna perna de banco natural Vibrio parahaemolyticus urease positive isolated from in natura oysters (Crassostrea rizophorae collected at restaurants and mussels (Perna perna harvested from natural habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença de Vibrio parahaemolyticus foi avaliada em 50 amostras de moluscos bivalves marinhos compostas por 40 amostras de ostras coletadas em 15 restaurantes do Rio de Janeiro e 10 amostras de mexilhões capturados de banco natural em Ponta de Itaipú - Niterói. Foram empregadas a técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP para a enumeração de V. parahaemolyticus utilizando Caldo Glicosado Salgado com Teepol (GSTB e Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA com 3% de cloreto de sódio (NaCl. Paralelamente foi realizada técnica de enriquecimento em APA com 1 e 3% de NaCl. Decorrido o período de incubação de ambas as técnicas, foi realizado plaqueamento em ágar TCBS (Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose. Todas as cepas de V. parahaemolyticus isoladas através das duas técnicas foram testadas para o fenômeno de Kanagawa e, quanto à produção de urease. Do total de 141 cepas de V. parahaemolyticus isoladas, 62% revelaram-se urease positivas e, dentre estas, os sorotipos predominantes foram O10:K?, O11:K? e O3:K57 dentre o total de 24 sorotipos urease positivos identificados. Embora todas as cepas de V. parahaemolyticus tenham sido Kanagawa negativas, os resultados apontam elevada incidência desta espécie em ostras comercializadas em restaurantes.The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were detected in 50 marine bivalve mollusks composed by 40 oysters samples collected at 15 restaurants in Rio de Janeiro City and 10 wild mussels' samples harvested in Ponta de Itaipu-Niterói. The Most Probable Number (MPN technique was employed for the enumeration of V. parahaemolyticus, using glucose salt teepol broth (GSTB and alcaline peptone water (APW with 3% NaCl. At the same time, the samples were submitted on direct plating with APW added 1 and 3% NaCl. Both techniques were followed by plating onto TCBS agar. All the V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated were tested for Kanagawa phenomenon and they were also tested for the presence of urease. A total of 141 V

  6. ESTIMATIVA DO TEMPO DE RECUPERAÇÃO DE UM BANCO NATURAL DO MEXILHÃO PERNA PERNA (LINNAEUS, 1758) NA BAÍA DE SANTOS, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Barrella; Helcio Luis de Almeida Marques; Marcelo Barbosa Henriques; Orlando Martins Pereira

    2001-01-01

    Mussel population Perna perna proceeding from Urubuqueçaba Island, anatural bed of Santos Bay, São Paulo State, Brazil, have been studied in order to determine: the growth curve and the condition index of the mussel population fixed in the exploitation areas and to estimate the restoration time of the mussel beds exploited by shellfish gatherers. The results showed that: According to the growth curve obtained, P. perna fixes itself on the coast at 1.96 months of life and reaches the length of...

  7. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel

  8. Preliminary studies on the holding of live mussels after harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, W.G.; Orano, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Green mussel (Perna viridis) were harvested to study the applicability of chilling to keep the mussels alive for a longer period of time and to review existing methods of packaging and transport. Data obtained from preliminary studies indicated the effectiveness of keeping mussels alive as long as 4 days with minimal mortality rates.

  9. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathlean, Justin A.; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Zardi, Gerardo I.; Nicastro, Katy R.

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  10. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathlean, Justin A; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D; Ng, Terence P T; Zardi, Gerardo I; Nicastro, Katy R

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  11. In vivo effects of metals on the acetylcholinesterase activity of the Perna perna mussel’s digestive gland

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Celso Dias Bainy; Marisa Helena Gennari de Medeiros; Paolo Di Mascio; Eduardo Alves de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is strongly inhibited by organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, and also by metals. However, recent reports indicate that some metals can activate AChE during acute exposure. In this work, we were interested in evaluating the effect of trace metal exposure (12, 24, 72 and 120 h) on the AChE activity of Perna perna mussel’s digestive gland. Mussels exposed to Fe or Cu showed no changes in AChE activity during the whole per...

  12. Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis and its protective role against ROS induced lipidperoxidation and protein carbonyl

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Jagtap, T.G.; Verlecar, X.N.

    862 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy Vol. 4 (4) 862-870 October 2010. ISSN 0973-8916 Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis Abstract The antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of green-lipped mussel (Perna viridis) were evaluated....N. Verlecar* Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa-403004 *For correspondence - verlecar@nio.org 863Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy Vol. 4 (4) 862-870 October 2010. ISSN 0973-8916 Jena et al...

  13. The Effects of Mercury Exposure on the Surface Morphology of Gill Filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the possibility that changes in the surface morphology of mussel (Perna perna) gill filaments may be used to indicate the relative toxicity of pollutants in the marine environment. Healthy, adult P. perna were collected and immersed in 2 free-flow tanks. Mercury was added to seawater as it entered tank 1 to achieve a constant level of 50 μg/l-1 over 24 days. Uncontaminated seawater was circulated over the mussels in tank 2 (control) for the same period. A 25 mm2 area of gill filament was removed from each of the 5 specimens before and after 24 days immersion in tank 2, and after immersion for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 days in tank 1. These were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The remaining soft tissues from each animal were analysed for mercury using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Mercury concentration increased from 0.13 (pre-immersion) to 87 μg/g after day 24. Surface morphology remained normal for all animals in tank 2 and for those exposed to Hg for up to 8 days. However, from 16 to 24 days exposure there was a gradual increase in the diameters of microvilli, a depletion of abfrontal cilia, an increase in abnormal, perhaps necrotic cells and an unusual increase in the number of cilia on the lateral surfaces. These results confirm that P. perna is an efficient bio-accumulator and suggest that their gill pathomorphology may be a useful indicator of toxicity

  14. In vivo effects of metals on the acetylcholinesterase activity of the Perna perna mussel’s digestive gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Celso Dias Bainy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE is strongly inhibited by organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, and also by metals. However, recent reports indicate that some metals can activate AChE during acute exposure. In this work, we were interested in evaluating the effect of trace metal exposure (12, 24, 72 and 120 h on the AChE activity of Perna perna mussel’s digestive gland. Mussels exposed to Fe or Cu showed no changes in AChE activity during the whole period. Mussels exposed to Cd for 72 h or to Pb for 12 hours showed higher AChE activity than the control group. Based on these results, we hypothesize that under acute exposure, metals might interact with acetylcholine receptors, thereby affecting their binding efficiency and leading to a response involving an initial increase in AChE synthesis.

  15. Modulation of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in the gills of Perna viridis (L.) exposed to water accomodate fraction of diesel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    chemicals were analar grade. Experimental animals and maintenance: Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis), with umbo of length 8-10 em were collected from Bambolim beach Goa, India. Animals were transported to the laboratory in the polythene bags, filled... and then aqueous phase was drained out. This preparation was used as 100 % stock solution. Experimental designs: The acclimatized animals were divided into three groups: Group I: Control mussels, untreated, Group II: Mussels treated with 0.5 % WAFO, Group III...

  16. Preliminary study on the bioaccumulation of saxitoxins in Perna viridis through the dissolved pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a common fear among shellfish consumers. Saxitoxins are the group of compounds that are responsible for PSP. These compounds are produced by Pyrodinium bahamense var compresssum (PbC) which accumulate in perna viridis as they feed on PbC. This study aims to determine the presence of an alternative pathway, called the dissolved pathway, through which saxitoxins accumulate in Perna viridis independent of PbC. Perna viridis were exposed to a certain concentration of saxitoxins for a period of 24 hours and saxitoxin levels were determined at certain times throughout the period. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) - Oshima method was used in the measurement of toxins levels. Results show that mussels accumulate saxitoxins even in the absence of PbC, which supported the hypothesis that an alternative dissolved pathway contributes to the accumulation of saxitoxins in Perna viridis. (author)

  17. Occurrence of chlorinated pesticides in mussels of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work investigates the contamination of some chlorinated pesticides in common mussels (Perna perna) from the Guanabara Bay. These mussels can be found in several points near the entrance of the Bay, where they either grow naturally or are cultivated by fishermen which make their living of this activity. Five collecting areas were studied and the concentrations of eight pesticides, namely HCB, γ-HCH, total DDT, DDD and DDE, Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin were determined

  18. Faecal bacteria in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia for biomonitoring coastal waters and seafood quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Igawa Martinez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban development in coastal areas is intense and leads to the increase of sewage outfall and other negative impacts as consequences. Thus, stringent regulations establishing limits to the microbiological contamination of water and seafood are needed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of Enterococci and Thermotolerant Coliform densities in the flesh of mussels Perna perna as an alternative tool for monitoring the microbiological quality of coastal waters. The study also considers allometric relations applied to clearance rates to understand rates of bacterial concentration. Bacterial loads obtained in mussels' flesh were from 50 to 4,300 times greater than in the water sampled in the vicinity of the mussels and some were considered inappropriate for consumption even when the water presented no restrictions. The mean clearance rate obtained for Enterococci retention was 317.7 ml h-1 and this rate (CR is related to the mussels' size (L by the equation CR = 28.3229L1.6421. The results showed that bacterial densities in the mussels' tissues may reflect chronic contamination of the environment and that clearance rates are important for taking the best decision in situations where, for example, it is desired to introduce mussels for aquaculture and the evaluation of the water concerned is required.O desenvolvimento urbano em áreas costeiras é intenso e o aumento das descargas de esgoto é uma das conseqüências. Assim, leis específicas que regulem limites para a contaminação microbiológica das águas e de alimentos de origem marinha são necessárias. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a utilização de Enterococos e coliformes termotolerantes na carne de mexilhões Perna perna como alternativa para o monitoramento da qualidade microbiológica de águas costeiras. O estudo também considera relações alométricas aplicadas às taxas de "clearance" para entender a concentração de bactérias pelo molusco. As densidades

  19. Composition and seasonal variation of brachyura and anomura (Crustacea, Decapoda associated with brown mussel farms at Praia da Cocanha, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Coletti Bernadochi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The composition and seasonal variation of brachyuran and anomuran species associated with mussel farms were evaluated at Praia da Cocanha, São Paulo between May 2007 and February 2008. Nine mussel ropes were sampled at random in each quarter, and 1,208 organisms were identified, comprising five families and 28 species. The most numerous species was the porcellanid Pachycheles laevidactylus (18.5%, followed by the xanthids Acantholobulus schmitti (16.6%, Hexapanopeus paulensis (11.3%, Panopeus americanus (10.2%, and Menippe nodifrons (8.4%. The exotic crab Charybdis hellerii was recorded throughout the study period. The ecological descriptors, except Pielou evenness index, varied significantly over the time. The highest abundance and diversity of the species were recorded during November and February. This pattern was reversed for Berger-Parker dominance, with the lowest values recorded in February. The development of epifauna was correlated with the different stages of the mussel farms, since the mean size of mussels and consequently the abundance of epibiotic organisms and the structural complexity on the mussel ropes increased from May (seeding until February (harvest. Despite this, the temporal population variations in recruitment patterns of the different epibionts should not be overlooked. The results indicated that the mussel farms provided favorable conditions for the development of these crustacean groups, which could be used in environmental monitoring programs and / or be exploited for the aquarium trade.

  20. Ciclo reprodutivo do mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus) (Molusca, Bivalvia) da Lagoa de Itaipu, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Reproductive cycle of Perna perna (Linnaeus) from Itaipu Lagoon, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita; Marta Guimarães de Abreu; Francisco Carlos de Lima

    2001-01-01

    The gametogenic aspects of mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) from Itaipu Lagoon, Niterói, were studied through November 1998 to October 1999. Microscopic analysis was carried out at low and high dry magnifications, as well as under oil immersion. The animals collected showed variation of size from 4.8 to 9.1 cm in total length and from 2.0 to 3.9 cm in total width. Most advanced gonadal stage was detected through May, August and October of 1999 for female specimens. Male advanced gonadal st...

  1. Putative bioindicator of 137Cs in Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green lipid mussels (Perna viridis L.) are utilized as bioindicators and bioconcentrators not only for marine radionuclide contamination but also for heavy metal bioaccumulation. Depurated P. viridis were incubated in 137Cs-spiked aquarium for 4 days. Soluble protein fractions of soft tissue obtained were electrophoresed (SDS-PAGE) to determine the exposure effects of 137Cs on P. viridis. Results showed the presence of a 154-kDa protein in 137Cs-spiked samples which could be a potential bioindicator of 137Cs in P. viridis. Other differences involving two more proteins (∼94-kDa and∼61 KDa) are reported. (Author)

  2. Genetic analysis of the marine mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) based on mitochondrial COI sequence and its phylogenetic relationship with other congeneric species%基于COI序列的翡翠股贻贝Perna viridis线粒体遗传特性分析及其近缘种间的系统关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    位正鹏; 孔晓瑜; 吴相云; 喻子牛

    2009-01-01

    应用通用引物COIL 1490和COtH 2198对翡翠股贻贝Perna viridis的性腺和体细胞线粒体DNA进行PCR扩增,获得661bp长度的COI基因片段,经过比对性腺与体细胞的COI片段,发现雄性性腺与体细胞COI基因均为一个单倍型,即体内只有一种线粒体DNA类型,没有发现双单性遗传现象,雌、雄性腺的COI基因片段变异率很低(0.31%).应用 PAUP构建NJ树、MP树以及贝叶斯法构建了贝叶斯树,对股贻吡属3种间的系统关系进行了分析,结果表明,翡翠股贻贝P.viridis、p.canaliculus和P.perna之间的分化与分歧年代的估算是相吻合的.

  3. Estimation of 210Po activity in mussel sample and its contribution in radiation dose to the public around Kanyakumari Coast, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonium-210 (210Po), a naturally occurring á-emitting radionuclide exists in the environment as a result of Uranium- 238 (238U) decay chain. It is therefore ubiquitously distributed in the rocks, soils, making up Earths crust, in the atmosphere and in natural waters. 210Po enters in marine organisms via adsorption, absorption and ingestion and is transferred through seafood consumption. The concentration of 210Po in the edible portions of marine organisms may be many folds higher than that in the seawater because of biological re-concentration processes. In the present study, sampling sites were chosen to determine the difference of 210Po concentration in bivalve mussel, an appropriate bio-indicator for radioactive contamination. The concentration of radionuclide Polonium-210 (210Po) in brown mussel (Perna perna), obtained from different locations of Kanyakumari coastal area were estimated, which ranged between 76.0 ± 5.1 Bq/kg and 310.20 ± 18.4 Bq/kg. The highest activity was observed at Kalluvilai. The daily and annual intake of 210Po from ingestion via mussel was estimated in these areas. To evaluate the internal exposure, annual committed effective dose to the adult population of this coastal area was determined and compared with the Indian and worldwide values to assess the risk status of the study area. It was observed that the average annual committed effective dose of 210Po through ingestion is higher than the recommended dose of ICRP, 1990 (1 mSv/year) for general public due to the contribution of seafood, mussel species (3.09 mSv/year) in daily diet. (author)

  4. Anatomia funcional de Perna perna (Linné) (bivalvia, Mytilidae) Functional anatomy of Perna perna (Linné) (bivalvia, Mytilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Narchi; Mario Sérgio Galvão-Bueno

    1997-01-01

    Perna perna (Linné, 1758) occurs on the Atlantic littoral from Venezuela to Uruguay. The main organ systems were studied in the living animais, particular attention being paid to the ciliary feeding and cleansing mechanisms in the mantle cavity. The anatomy, functioning of the stomach and the ciliary sorting mechanisms are described. The siphons belong to type A (Yongf. 1948b), the ctenidia to type B( 1) (Atkins 1936c) and the stomach is of type III (Purchon 1957) or Section I (Dinamani 1967)...

  5. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles mussel Perna perna, an important food resource, was used as bioindicator to investigate the presence of microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. PMID:26980138

  6. BIOMETRIC AND MORPHOMETRIC STUDIES OF Perna v iridis AND Pe rna i ndica ALONG THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF INDIA: A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmy KV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth indices of the Mussels, Perna viridis and Perna indica collected from the south west coast of India were examined using statistical methods. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA sepa rated 2 morphometric gradient groups (spat and adult, indicating the different phenotypic plasticity between them. The factor scores classified P. indica as a unimodal, positively skewed leptokurtic population and P. viridis as a unimodal, negatively skewed leptokurtic population. The allometry was not static, but simple and ontogenetic since their population was continuously varying. The present study shows that factor analysis is better than principal component analysis for delineating the morphometric characteristics of living organisms

  7. ESTIMATIVA DO TEMPO DE RECUPERAÇÃO DE UM BANCO NATURAL DO MEXILHÃO PERNA PERNA (LINNAEUS, 1758 NA BAÍA DE SANTOS, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Barrella

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mussel population Perna perna proceeding from Urubuqueçaba Island, anatural bed of Santos Bay, São Paulo State, Brazil, have been studied in order to determine: the growth curve and the condition index of the mussel population fixed in the exploitation areas and to estimate the restoration time of the mussel beds exploited by shellfish gatherers. The results showed that: According to the growth curve obtained, P. perna fixes itself on the coast at 1.96 months of life and reaches the length of 50mm in 14.05 months; 60mm in 18.43 months; 70mm in 23.48 months and 80mm in 29.44 months. The L¥ , i.e., the maximum average theoretical length that the animals may reach is 131.12mm. Maximum values of the condition index of mussels have been registered in October and November (0.32 and the minimum values in March and April (0.17. The recovery time estimated in the natural bed was 14.05 months, when the mussels reach 50mm and are ready to be extracted. These results permit to conclude that the economicalexploitation of the species P. perna in the region of Santos Bay must be optimized with the development of the mussel culture in commercial scale. = Estudou-se a população de mexilhões Perna perna provenientes da Ilha de Urubuqueçaba, um banco natural da Baía de Santos, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a curva de crescimento e o índice de condição de mexilhões fixados nas áreas de exploração e estimar o tempo de recuperação dos bancos de mexilhões explorados pelos extratores marisqueiros. Os resultados mostraram que, de acordo com a curva de crescimento obtida, P. perna fixa-se no costão com 1,96 meses de vida e atinge o comprimento de 50mm em 14,05 meses; 60mm em 18,43 meses; 70mm em 23,48 meses e 80mm em 29,44 meses. O L∞ , ou seja, o comprimento médio máximo teórico que os animais podem atingir foi de 131,12mm. Registraram-se valores máximosdo índice de condição dos mexilhões nos meses de outubro e

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in mussels collected from the southern coast of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs were determined in whole soft tissues (WST) and shells of groups of different size of marine mussel Perna viridis L. and estuarine mussel Modiolus striatulus H. and water samples which were collected from the southern coast of Bangladesh. Correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of radionuclides vary with mussel size. A positive correlation existed for 238U and 40K and a negative one for 232Th between the radionuclide concentration and mussel size; 232Th concentrations in WST and shells of the mussels showed an inverse relationship with those of 238U and 40K, while 238U showed positive correlation with 40K. The concentration factors (CF) for 226Ra, 232Th and 238U in both P. viridis and M. striatulus were higher than those for 40K. The contents of 137Cs in both mussels were below the detection limit

  9. Persistent Contamination of Octopuses and Mussels with Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins during Spring Dinophysis Blooms in a Subtropical Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz L. Mafra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs and their producing phytoplankton species in southern Brazil, as well as the potential for toxin accumulation in co-occurring mussels (Perna perna and octopuses (Octopus vulgaris. During the spring in 2012 and 2013, cells of Dinophysis acuminata complex were always present, sometimes at relatively high abundances (max. 1143 cells L−1, likely the main source of okadaic acid (OA in the plankton (max. 34 ng L−1. Dinophysis caudata occurred at lower cell densities in 2013 when the lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2 and PTX-2 seco acid were detected in plankton and mussel samples. Here, we report for the first time the accumulation of DSTs in octopuses, probably linked to the consumption of contaminated bivalves. Perna perna mussels were consistently contaminated with different DSTs (max. 42 µg kg−1, and all octopuses analyzed (n = 5 accumulated OA in different organs/tissues: digestive glands (DGs > arms > gills > kidneys > stomach + intestine. Additionally, similar concentrations of 7-O-palmytoyl OA and 7-O-palmytoly dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1 were frequently detected in the hepatopancreas of P. perna and DGs of O. vulgaris. Therefore, octopuses can be considered a potential vector of DSTs to both humans and top predators such as marine mammals.

  10. OXIDATIVE STRESS BIOMARKERS IN MUSSELS SAMPLED FROM FOUR SITES ALONG THE MOROCCAN ATLANTIC COAST (BIG CASABLANCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAILA EL JOURMI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalase (CAT activity and malondialdehyde (MDA level in whole bodies of the mussel perna perna, collected from four stations along the Moroccan Atlantic coast (Big Casablanca area, were monitored to evaluate stress effects on mussels collected from the selected sites. The oxidative stress biomarkers showed statistically significant differences at the polluted sites when compared to the control ones. In general, our data indicated that CAT activity and MDA concentration are a higher and significant (p < 0.05 in mussels collected at polluted site when compared to specimen sampled from control ones. In conclusion, the oxidative stress biomarkers response obtained for October 2010 and 2011, clearly demonstrate the potential presence of different contaminants in Site 4 and Site 3 reflecting the intensity of pollution in these areas.

  11. Application of short irradiation in the neutron activation analysis on mussel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the preliminary results of determination of elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na obtained in the samples of mussels Perna perna by using short irradiation wit neutron activation analysis (NAA). Powder of the samples and elements synthetic standards were irradiated at the IEA R1 nuclear reactor, under 10 min irradiation and 9.6 x 109 n cm-2 s-1 thermal neutron flux. Concentration of the elements Br and Mn were obtained at the levels of mg kg1 and the percentages of Cl, K, Mg and Na were determined on the mussels. The results presented a good agreement with the reference material NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue. (author)

  12. Heavy metal contamination along the China coastline: A comprehensive study using Artificial Mussels and native mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degger, Natalie; Chiu, Jill M Y; Po, Beverly H K; Tse, Anna C K; Zheng, Gene J; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xu, Di; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Wen-Hua; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2016-09-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out to assess metal contamination in five cities spanning from temperate to tropical environment along the coastal line of China with different hydrographical conditions. At each of the five cities, Artificial Mussels (AM) were deployed together with a native species of mussel at a control site and a polluted site. High levels of Cr, Cu and Hg were found in Qingdao, high level of Cd, Hg and Pb was found in Shanghai, and high level of Zn was found in Dalian. Furthermore, level of Cu contamination in all the five cities was consistently much higher than those reported in similar studies in other countries (e.g., Australia, Portugal, Scotland, Iceland, Korea, South Africa and Bangladesh). Levels of individual metal species in the AM showed a highly significant correlation with that in the native mussels (except for Zn in Mytilus edulis and Cd in Perna viridis), while no significant difference can be found between the regression relationships of metal in the AM and each of the two native mussel species. The results demonstrated that AM can provide a reliable time-integrated estimate of metal concentration in contrasting environments over large biogeographic areas and different hydrographic conditions, and overcome the shortcomings of monitoring metals in water, sediment and the use of biomonitors. PMID:27233049

  13. O mexilhão Perna perna no Brasil: nativo ou exótico?

    OpenAIRE

    B.S. Pierri; T.D. Fossari; A.R.M. Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    A mitilicultura no Brasil se baseia no mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758), que é encontrado em todo o litoral brasileiro, sendo especialmente abundante do Espírito Santo a Santa Catarina. Nos últimos anos, foi lançada a hipótese de que P. perna seja uma espécie exótica no litoral brasileiro. A hipótese se baseia na análise da malacofauna presente em sítios arqueológicos. Todas as contestações levantadas não remetem à uma conclusão, pois precisam de estudos específicos, com metodologias cla...

  14. Does cannibalism of larvae by adults affect settlement and connectivity of mussel populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porri, Francesca; Jordaan, Tembisa; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2008-09-01

    Intertidal population dynamics are driven by a complex series of processes, including larval supply and the possibility of larval predation by benthic animals such as filter-feeders. We hypothesised that cannibalism by adults could play a major role in the population connectivity of mussel populations by removing larvae as they attempt to settle in the adult habitat. Specifically, we tested hypotheses that consumption of mussel larvae by adults removes a significant proportion of potential settlers and is influenced by both settlement intensity and tidal state (flooding or ebbing). Predation of mussel larvae by adult mussels was investigated on incoming and ebbing tides during four spring tides by analysing the gut contents of adult Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from the low intertidal mussel zone between October 2005 and January 2006. Consumption rates were then compared with estimates of successful settler densities on natural beds. The results showed that mortality of competent mussel larvae through adult ingestion removes up to 77% a of potential settlers. Rates of larval consumption were highest during months of intense settlement, suggesting that mussels feed opportunistically, filtering a relatively fixed volume of water and removing particles, including larvae, in proportion to their densities in the water. Rates of larviphagy were also higher during receding than incoming tides. We suggest that this is due to changes in larval density or, more probably, in adult filtration efficiency that are related to the state of the tide. Despite significant effects of both tidal state and settlement intensity on rates of larval ingestion, neither had a significant effect on the proportion of potential settlers removed. During settlement more than half of all potential settlers are lost through cannibalism, with potentially serious consequences for population maintenance. The results highlight the paradoxical nature of the evolution of settlement

  15. Mussel watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of U.S. coastal areas may be decreasing as a result of environmental regulations that have banned or curtailed toxic chemicals, concludes a report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The report, “Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project,” presents results of analyzing chemical concentrations found in mussel and oyster tissues collected every year since 1986.These mollusks are collected once a year at more than 240 sites nationwide and analyzed for over 70 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, butyltins, and toxic trace elements such as copper, cadmium, and lead. The report states that from 1986 to 1993 there were many more decreases than increases in chemical concentrations in coastal regions. These decreasing trends were not unexpected; all of the monitored chlorinated hydrocarbons have been banned for use in the United States, and tributyltin has been banned as a biocide on recreational boats.

  16. O homem que amava as pernas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonellis, Raffaella de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A primazia do rosto na caracterização dos planos cinematográficos que retratam o corpo levou a uma limitação das definições da gramática do cinema, entre close-up (cabeça até o pescoço e plano americano (cabeça até o joelho. O plano que queremos analisar não foi padronizado, mas poderia ser considerado complementar ao plano americano: é o plano das pernas.

  17. Sistema inteligente para gerenciamento da colheita do mexilhão perna perna (Linné, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Anita Ma. da Rocha; Ramos, Cássio Veiga

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um sistema de informação on-line que auxilie na tomada de decisão quanto ás condições de colheita do Mexilhão Perna perna. O sistema parte de um projeto já desenvolvido, intitulado Sistema Especialista para Determinação do Índice de Condição de Colheita do Mexilhão Perna perna (Linné, 1758) – SEDICM. Este projeto teve como objetivo geral avaliar as condições ambientais e biológicas, para auxílio na tomada de decisão quanto á colheita do Mexilhão pa...

  18. The Mussels' Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, William

    1992-01-01

    Presents research findings about mussels, an indicator species for the health of U.S. rivers and streams. Provides mussel descriptions, a history of the decline of mussel populations and cooperative efforts to repair damaged ecosystems cited as the root of the problem. (MCO)

  19. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Chee Kong; Cheng, Wan Hee; Karami, Ali; Ismail, Ahmad

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002-2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. PMID:26925739

  20. Application of short irradiation in the neutron activation analysis on mussel samples; Aplicacao da irradiacao curta na analise por ativacao com neutrons de amostras de mexilhao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br; Saiki, Mitiko Saiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mitiko@ipen.br; mgcatharino@ipen.br; emoreira@ipen.br; mbvascon@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of determination of elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na obtained in the samples of mussels Perna perna by using short irradiation wit neutron activation analysis (NAA). Powder of the samples and elements synthetic standards were irradiated at the IEA R1 nuclear reactor, under 10 min irradiation and 9.6 x 10{sup 9} n cm{sub -2} s{sub -1} thermal neutron flux. Concentration of the elements Br and Mn were obtained at the levels of mg kg{sub 1} and the percentages of Cl, K, Mg and Na were determined on the mussels. The results presented a good agreement with the reference material NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue. (author)

  1. Trace element determination in a mussel reference material using short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The production of certified reference materials in Brazil, and the consequent availability to national end users, is an important task for the enhancement of Metrology in Chemistry status in the country, as these materials are used for method validation, equipment calibration and for establishing metrological traceability links. In this study, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was applied to the determination of magnesium, manganese and vanadium in a mussel reference material produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP. For the determination of these elements via the comparative INAA method, the respective analytical radionuclides, {sup 27}Mg, {sup 56}Mn, and {sup 52}V, are short lived and then, short irradiations are used. The main advantage over longer irradiation methods is the faster output of analytical results. Six subsamples from two bottles of the Perna perna mussel reference material were analyzed. Each subsample was simultaneously irradiated with elemental standards for 10 s at the IEA - R1 research nuclear reactor through a pneumatic transfer system. After suitable decay periods, gamma radioactivity measurements were carried out, using a hyperpure germanium detector. The accuracy of the method was checked by using the NIST SRM 1566b - 'Oyster Tissue' certified reference material. The comparison of the obtained results to the robust mean of the interlaboratorial collaborative trial used for the characterization of the mussel reference material showed that the short irradiation INAA method is suitable for the characterization of new reference materials. (author)

  2. Trace element determination in a mussel reference material using short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of certified reference materials in Brazil, and the consequent availability to national end users, is an important task for the enhancement of Metrology in Chemistry status in the country, as these materials are used for method validation, equipment calibration and for establishing metrological traceability links. In this study, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was applied to the determination of bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium and vanadium in a mussel reference material produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP. For the determination of these elements via the comparative INAA method, the respective analytical radionuclides, 80Br, 38Cl, 27Mg, 56Mn, 42K and 52V, are short lived and then, short irradiations are used. Six subsamples from two bottles of the Perna perna mussel reference material were analyzed. Each subsample was simultaneously irradiated with elemental standards for 10 s at the IEA-R1 research nuclear reactor through a pneumatic transfer system. After suitable decay periods, gamma radioactivity measurements were carried out, using a hyperpure germanium detector. The accuracy of the method was checked by using the NIST SRM 1566b-'Oyster Tissue' certified reference material. The comparison of the results obtained in this study to the robust mean of the interlaboratorial collaborative trial used for the characterization of the mussel reference material was performed via z-score tests. The comparison showed that the short irradiation INAA method is suitable for the characterization of new reference materials. (author)

  3. Genetic characterization of Perna viridis L. in peninsular Malaysia using microsatellite markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. C. Ong; K. Yusoff; C. K. Yap; S. G. Tan

    2009-08-01

    A total of 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to analyse levels of genetic variation for 10 populations of Perna viridis L. collected from all over peninsular Malaysia. The populations involved in this study included Pulau Aman in Penang, Tanjung Rhu in Kedah, Bagan Tiang in Perak, Pulau Ketam in Selangor, Muar, Parit Jawa, Pantai Lido and Kampung Pasir Puteh in Johore, and Kuala Pontian and Nenasi in Pahang state. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to seven, with an average of 3.1. Heterozygote deficiencies were observed across all the 10 populations. Characterization of the populations revealed that local populations of P. viridis in peninsular Malaysia were genetically similar enough to be used as a biomonitoring agent for heavy metal contamination in the Straits of Malacca. Cluster analysis grouped the P. viridis populations according to their geographical distributions with the exception of Parit Jawa. The analysis also revealed that P. viridis from the northern parts of peninsular Malaysia were found to be the most distant populations among the populations of mussels investigated and P. viridis from the eastern part of peninsular Malaysia were closer to the central and southern populations than to the northern populations.

  4. Development of a toxicity model for paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel: uptake and release of toxins in Green Bay mussel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the expressed need to study shellfish toxicity and elucidate the kinetics of saxitoxin in green mussels Perna viridis), uptake/depuration rates of saxitoxin were studied in Juag Lagoon, Sorsogon and Sorsogon Bay. Both areas experience recurring blooms of Pyrodinium bahamanse var compressum (PbC) making them excellent study sites. Two sampling stations were selected, to which, mussels were introduced. Algal cell density and mussel toxicity were measured by receptor binding assay (RBA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from May to December 2007. During this period, two bloom events occurred, wherein, a decrease in cell density by two orders of magnitude (30,000 to 600 cells·1+1) caused an order of magnitude decrease in toxicity (600 to 30 μg STX eq./100 g shellfish meat). A time lag between peaks of cell density and the corresponding toxicity was revealed. Vegetative cells were present throughout the sampling period, and a uniform horizontal and vertical distribution of cells was observed between the stations. Cell densities were significantly correlated with both RBA and HPLC estimates of STX content in mussels (Pearson r values of 0.7486 and 0.4325 for RBA and HPLC, respectively). In Sorsogon Bay, six sampling stations were also chosen, from which, water and mussels were being collected. Preliminary data showed that the cellular toxin content was primarily STX, making up to 90-100% of total toxin quantified. The average toxicity was estimated at 52.81fmol/cell. The effect of physiological factors to overall shellfish toxicity, though not directly characterized, may be deduced from these studies. (author)

  5. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  6. Understanding marine mussel adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Heather G; Roberto, Francisco F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  7. A Comparative Study of Condition Indices and Heavy Metals in Perna viridis Populations at Sebatu and Muar, Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared some allometric parameters (shell length, shell width, shell height, total dry weight of soft tissues, condition index and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the different soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Sebatu and Muar estuary. It was found that the total dry weight of soft tissues and condition index of mussels collected from Sebatu were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in Muar. The significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of Cu in most soft tissues and some of Cd indicated a higher bioavailability of Cu and Cd at Muar than Sebatu. In addition, the significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in surface sediments collected from Muar supported the observable anthropogenic impacts at Muar than Sebatu and hence, higher metal contamination at Muar than Sebatu. The higher condition index value in mussels recorded in Sebatu than in Muar was believed to be a result of higher metal contamination at Muar estuary. (author)

  8. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heavy metal concentrations were within levels allowed worldwide (FAO, BFL, FDA). • The highest concentration of heavy metals was found during the drought period. • Significant relationships amid size and metal concentration only found in drought. - Abstract: Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu > Ni > Mn > Co > Cd > Pb, and for drought: Cu > Mn > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes

  9. Removal of Selected Heavy Metals from Green Mussel via Catalytic Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna viridis or green mussel is a potentially an important aquaculture product along the South Coast of Peninsular Malaysia especially Johor Straits. As the coastal population increases at tremendous rate, there was significant effect of land use changes on marine communities especially green mussel, as the heavy metals input to the coastal area also increase because of anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals content in the green mussel exceeded the Malaysian Food Regulations (1985) and EU Food Regulations (EC No: 1881/ 2006). Sampling was done at Johor Straits from Danga to Pendas coastal area for green mussel samples. This research introduces a catalytic oxidative technique for demetallisation in green mussel using edible oxidants such as peracetic acid (PAA) enhanced with alumina beads supported CuO, Fe2O3, and ZnO catalysts. The lethal dose of LD50 to rats of PAA is 1540 mg kg-1 was verified by National Institute of Safety and Health, United State of America. The best calcination temperature for the catalysts was at 1000 degree Celsius as shown in the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Nitrogen Adsorption (BET surface area) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analyses. The demetallisation process in green mussel was done successfully using only 100 mgL-1 PAA and catalyzed with Fe2O3/ Al2O3 for up to 90 % mercury (Hg) removal. Using PAA with only 1 hour of reaction time, at room temperature (30-35 degree Celsius), pH 5-6 and salinity of 25-28 ppt, 90 % lead (Pb) was removed from life mussel without catalyst. These findings have a great prospect for developing an efficient and practical method for post-harvesting heavy metals removal in green mussel. (author)

  10. Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Zhan-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wereanalyzed in sediment and mussel( Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, SouthChina. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/glipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and< 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment,and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presentedsimilar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantlycorrelated ( p < 0.01 ) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several timeshigher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compoundsmeasured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, andtetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition.According to the present results, three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, LingdingYang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all musselsamples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 μg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group ofGuangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

  11. Contaminação por metais traço em mexilhões Perna perna da costa brasileira Trace metal contamination in mussel Perna perna from Brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Micheli da Silva Ferreira; Eliane Teixeira Mársico; Carlos Adam Conte Junior; Aguinaldo Nepomuceno Marques Júnior; Sergio Borges Mano; Sergio Carmona de São Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Os metais traço apresentam grande toxicidade quando presentes em teores elevados nos organismos humano e animal. No ambiente aquático, alguns elementos formam compostos orgânicos que bioacumulam nos tecidos de organismos vivos. Os moluscos bivalves se destacam, pois possuem grande participação na dinâmica de contaminantes metálicos no ambiente marinho devido à capacidade de concentrá-los em níveis mais elevados que na água. Os mexilhões são moluscos bivalves que constituem bons indicadores de...

  12. A serine protease inhibitor from hemolymph of green mussel, Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.; Rojatkar, S.R.; Khan, M.I.

    of qua to respectively. that and innate immune mecha- memory following the first have is constituted perform ly, natural invertebrates, serine proteases and their inhibitors are also in- volved in parallel physiological processes, for example, the blood...- sin and are novel anticoagulants isolated from the marine animals. 5 In vertebrates, serine protease inhibitors have been studied extensively and they are known to be involved in phagocytosis, coagulation, complement activation, fibrinolysis, blood...

  13. Antifouling activity of Indian marine invertebrate against the green mussel Perna viridis L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Jayasree, V.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Raveendran, T.V.; Kamat, S.Y.

    : Prabha Devi. Fax: 91-(0)832-223340, 229102; e-mail: kprabha@csnio.ven.nic.in J Mar Biotechnol (1998) 6:229–232 Journal of Marine Biotechnology © Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1998 physically (Fig. 1a,b). After each test, the animal was placed in running... Haliclona sp. (1) (SP) b (Dendy) Karwar (14° 468N; 74° 068E) + Haliclona sp. (2) (SP) c Okha (22° 478N; 22° 508E) +++ Tedania anhelans (SP) (Lieberkuhn) Okha + Tedania sp. (SP) Okha + Coelenterata Sinularia granosa (SC) Tixier-Duriuault, 1970 c Kavratti (13...

  14. Increase of {sup 210}Po levels in human semen fluid after mussel ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.co [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Radiometry-LARARA-PLS, Universidade Federal Fluminense, P.O.Box 100.436, 24001-970 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Programs in Environmental Science and Marine Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos Santos [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Radiometry-LARARA-PLS, Universidade Federal Fluminense, P.O.Box 100.436, 24001-970 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) radioactive concentrations were determined in human semen fluid of vasectomized non-smoker volunteers. The {sup 210}Po levels ranged from 0.10 to 0.39 mBq g{sup -1} (mean: 0.23 {+-} 0.08 mBq g{sup -1}). This value decreased to 0.10 {+-} 0.02 mBq g{sup -1} (range from 0.07 to 0.13 mBq g{sup -1}) after two weeks of a controlled diet, excluding fish and seafood. Then, volunteers ate during a single meal 200 g of the cooked mussel Perna perna L., and {sup 210}Po levels were determined again, during ten days, in semen fluid samples collected every morning. Volunteers continued with the controlled diet and maintained sexual abstinence through the period of the experiment. A 300% increase of {sup 210}Po level was observed the day following mussel consumption, with a later reduction, such that the level returned to near baseline by day 4.

  15. An 'artificial mussel' for monitoring heavy metals in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new chemical sampling device, artificial mussel (AM), has been developed for monitoring metals in marine environments. This device consists of a polymer ligand suspended in artificial seawater within a Perspex tubing, and enclosed with semi-permeable gel at both ends. Laboratory and field experiments were carried out to examine the uptake of five metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) by the AM. Uptake of metals by AM was proportional to the exposure metal concentrations, and the AM was able to accumulate the ASV labile fractions of metals. Uptake and release of the metals of AM are similar to those of the mussel Perna viridis, but less affected by salinity and temperature. Field studies demonstrated that the AM can not only provide a time-integrated estimate of metals concentrations, but also allows comparisons of metal levels in different environments and geographical areas beyond the natural distribution limits of biomonitors. - A new monitoring device to provide a time-integrated estimate for monitoring metals in marine environments

  16. Assessment of a mussel as a metal bioindicator of coastal contamination: Relationships between metal bioaccumulation and multiple biomarker responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri, E-mail: rch118@uclive.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Marsden, Islay D., E-mail: islay.marsden@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Glover, Chris N., E-mail: chris.glover@canterbury.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gaw, Sally, E-mail: sally.gaw@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2015-04-01

    This is the first study to use a multiple biomarker approach on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus to test its feasibility as a bioindicator of coastal metal contamination in New Zealand (NZ). Mussels were collected from six low intertidal sites varying in terms of anthropogenic impacts, within two regions (West Coast and Nelson) of the South Island of NZ. Trace elements, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), were measured in the gills, digestive gland, foot and mantle, and in the surface sediments from where mussels were collected. Metal levels in the sediment were relatively low and there was only one site (Mapua, Nelson) where a metal (Ni) exceeded the Australian and New Zealand Interim Sediment Quality Guideline values. Metal levels in the digestive gland were generally higher than those from the other tissues. A variety of biomarkers were assessed to ascertain mussel health. Clearance rate, a physiological endpoint, correlated with metal level in the tissues, and along with scope for growth, was reduced in the most contaminated site. Metallothionein-like protein content and catalase activity in the digestive gland, and catalase activity and lipid peroxidation in the gill, were also correlated to metal accumulation. Although there were few regional differences, the sampling sites were clearly distinguishable based on the metal contamination profiles and biomarker responses. P. canaliculus appears to be a useful bioindicator species for coastal habitats subject to metal contamination. In this study tissue and whole organism responses provided insight into the biological stress responses of mussels to metal contaminants, indicating that such measurements could be a useful addition to biomonitoring programmes in NZ. - Highlights: • Multiple biomarker responses were measured in mussels from 6 sites. • Metal content of mussel tissues correlated with specific biomarker responses. • Clearance rate

  17. Assessment of a mussel as a metal bioindicator of coastal contamination: Relationships between metal bioaccumulation and multiple biomarker responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first study to use a multiple biomarker approach on the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus to test its feasibility as a bioindicator of coastal metal contamination in New Zealand (NZ). Mussels were collected from six low intertidal sites varying in terms of anthropogenic impacts, within two regions (West Coast and Nelson) of the South Island of NZ. Trace elements, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), were measured in the gills, digestive gland, foot and mantle, and in the surface sediments from where mussels were collected. Metal levels in the sediment were relatively low and there was only one site (Mapua, Nelson) where a metal (Ni) exceeded the Australian and New Zealand Interim Sediment Quality Guideline values. Metal levels in the digestive gland were generally higher than those from the other tissues. A variety of biomarkers were assessed to ascertain mussel health. Clearance rate, a physiological endpoint, correlated with metal level in the tissues, and along with scope for growth, was reduced in the most contaminated site. Metallothionein-like protein content and catalase activity in the digestive gland, and catalase activity and lipid peroxidation in the gill, were also correlated to metal accumulation. Although there were few regional differences, the sampling sites were clearly distinguishable based on the metal contamination profiles and biomarker responses. P. canaliculus appears to be a useful bioindicator species for coastal habitats subject to metal contamination. In this study tissue and whole organism responses provided insight into the biological stress responses of mussels to metal contaminants, indicating that such measurements could be a useful addition to biomonitoring programmes in NZ. - Highlights: • Multiple biomarker responses were measured in mussels from 6 sites. • Metal content of mussel tissues correlated with specific biomarker responses. • Clearance rate

  18. Zebra mussel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-01-01

    In less than a decade, zebra mussels have become the latest environmental scourge to plague the North American power industry. Infestations in the Great Lakes region have already reached natural disaster proportions. The invasion shows little sign of subsiding; Michigan's inland waters are the next most likely threatened area. In the southern United States, the mussles' migration has extended about 50 miles deeper than experts had originally predicted. By the year 2000, zebra mussel monitoring and control efforts will cost business and industry $5 billion, according to the federal Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990. Estimates of more than $1 million to control mussel fouling are projected for the Great Lakes area alone. While small independent hydropower stations are not as susceptible to zebra mussles as coal or nuclear facilities, there is cause for concern. Infestations can quickly foul hydropower plant components, hampering equipment operation and reducing facility efficiency. In extreme cases, leaving the mussels unchecked can result in stoplog gate flow blockage or false water level gauge readings. Advance prevention is often an effective first-line of defense against this troublesome, rapidly spreading and extremely prolific mollusk. Mussel monitoring efforts should begin a year in advance of when zebra mussels are expected to appear in a given location. Hydropower facility components that come into contact or rely exclusively on raw water are at greatest risk, as are other external components such as embayment walls, screens, trashracks and fish ladders.

  19. Dreissenid mussel research priorities workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytsma, Mark; Phillips, Stephen; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, dreissenid mussels have yet to be detected in the northwestern part of the United States and western Canada. Infestation of one of the jurisdictions within the mussel-free Pacific Northwest would likely have significant economic, societal and environmental implications for the entire region. Understanding the biology and environmental tolerances of dreissenid mussels, and effectiveness of various management strategies, is key to prevention.

  20. Bioaccumulation of Chromium by Perna Viridis from Jakarta Bay Base on Radiotracer 51Cr Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of bioaccumulation chromium of Perna viridis from Jakarta Bay using 51Cr radiotracer have been done. The experiment was carried out by 3 steps such as: uptake, depuration and modelling. The result of experiment shown that Perna viridis can be used as bioindicator of chromium because its capability to accumulate Cr. Its concentration factor, uptake rate and depuration rate were 148.36 to 414.5, 14.836 to 65.754 μg per days and 9.04 to 15.48 % per days respectively. The value of BCF was under 500 so Perna viridis can not be used for environmental risk assesment. The result of modeling was find the Concentration Factor were 106 to 367 and the its decreasing from Perna viridis tissue can be 90 % after 14 days of depuration. (author)

  1. Seasonal variation in antioxidative responses and acetylcholinesterase activity in Perna viridis in eastern oceanic and western estuarine waters of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. S.; Wong, H. L.; Garrigues, Ph.

    2004-10-01

    A year-round study was conducted to assess the seasonal variations and potential influence of the riverine discharge from the Pearl River on biomarker responses in Hong Kong waters. A suite of biomarkers including antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), a Phase II detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the neural transmitter enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the green mussel, Perna viridis, were monitored from three coastal sites, Port Shelter, Tung Chung and Tai O, stretching from the east to the west of Hong Kong. Despite of the seasonal variations, the total protein profiles suggested that mussels from the three sites had a growth cycle that was in phase with each other. This implied that intrinsic variation between sites due to a different phase of growth was minimal. Seasonal variations of the biomarker responses in the mussels were found to be significant (Tukey multiple comparison test, p<0.05) with a summer minimum and winter maximum. On top of seasonal variations, the western site, Tai O, was further subjected to the reduced salinity effect of the Pearl River discharge in the summer wet season. This was demonstrated by the significant July minimum in all the biomarker responses at Tai O in relation to the extreme low salinity of 8‰. Mussels from the western site also revealed a higher oxidative stress than those from the eastern side throughout the year (Tukey multiple comparison test, p<0.05), which could be caused by chemical pollutants from the Pearl River discharge. ANOVAs of the year-round dataset suggested that size was a minor factor in affecting the biomarker responses. Gill tissues of the mussels were more advantageous for biomarker studies or monitoring because their protein levels were less sensitive to seasonal variations and they yielded a higher protein normalized biomarker response than the whole body tissues. This increases their

  2. TOXINAS PARALISANTES EM MEXILHÃO Perna perna EM ÁREAS DE CULTIVO DA COSTA SUL DO BRASIL: ESTUDO DE CASO

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. SCHRAMM; M. S. TAMANAHA; L.H. Beirão; L. A. O. PROENÇA

    2009-01-01

    Santa Catarina é responsável por aproximadamente 93% da produção de mexilhões (Perna perna) e ostras (Crassostrea gigas) cultivados no país. Embora possuam grande valor nutricional, eventualmente podem representar risco para a saúde do consumidor quando contaminados por agentes tóxicos, como por exemplo, toxinas produzidas por algas, ou ficotoxinas. Algumas ficotoxinas nocivas aos seres humanos têm como vetores os moluscos filtradores que podem acumular essas substânc...

  3. Monitoramento histopatológico de mexilhão Perna perna da Lagoa de Itaipu, Niterói, RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Lima F.C.; Abreu M.G.; Mesquita E.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    Cortes histológicos de 120 mexilhões Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758), coletados na Lagoa de Itaipu, Niterói, RJ, por um período de 12 meses, foram examinados quanto a presença de parasitas e lesões. Noventa exemplares apresentaram cinco diferentes processos patológicos: bucefalose, presença de protozoários Nematopsis sp., inclusões basofílicas não específicas, encapsulamentos parasitários e cistos epiteliais branquiais. Cinquenta animais mostravam duas ou mais patologias concomitantes....

  4. International mussel watch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliberate and inadvertent discharges of chemical contaminants of environmental concern to the world's coastal ocean will continue for the foreseeable future, as human population increases and human habitation intensifies in the coastal zone worldwide. The goal of the International Mussel Watch Project is to provide an assessment of the status and trends of chemical contaminants in the world's coastal waters. These data are critical for protecting both the health of people who consume seafood and the health of coastal ecosystems. The International Mussel Watch Project is a global-scale monitoring program based on the concept of a sentinel organism capable of detecting trends in concentrations of several important marine contaminants. These included chlorinated pesticides, fossil-fuel hydrocarbons, and radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons testing fallout. Since the 1970's, scientists of several countries have been using common bivalve organisms, such as the blue mussels and oysters, to monitor chemical contaminants in coastal waters. Bivalve mollusks are good monitors for several reasons that include their ability to bioconcentrate the chemical contaminants of interest and their sedentary nature, which makes them representative of a specific place

  5. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  6. Freshwater Mussel Initial Survey Instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to effectively implement endangered species recovery and mussel restoration actions in the Ohio River, we need statistically valid and defensible data to...

  7. Risk Analysis of Mussels Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Wijsman, J.W.M.; Smaal, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    The risk that the transfer of mussels from the Irish and Celtic Sea to the Oosterschelde will lead to substantial ecological impact as a result of importing exotic nonindigenous species is small, but not totally absent

  8. Mussel Sites - 2009 [ds658

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Freshwater mussels are one of the most imperiled groups of organisms on the planet (Williams et al.1993, Strayer et al.2004, Strayer 2006, R´Egnier et al.2009)....

  9. Biomarkers and heavy metal bioaccumulation in mussels transplanted to coastal waters of the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Duarte, Claudia A; Amin, Oscar A

    2010-03-01

    Mussels coming from a mussel farm at Brown Bay (Beagle Channel) were transplanted to four sites inside Ushuaia Bay for 2 and 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of coastal waters of Ushuaia Bay by measuring catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, total lipid content, bioaccumulation of heavy metals and condition index in transplanted mussel Mytilus edulis chilensis. Biomarkers except condition index showed significant differences among exposure times as well as among tissues. Digestive gland presented the highest catalase activity, malondialdehyde level and total lipid content. Digestive gland also was the main target tissue of accumulation of iron and copper, while gill accumulated the highest levels of zinc. A principal component analyzes with the whole set of data allowed to separate stations based on physicochemical conditions and biochemical responses of each studied area. PMID:19913913

  10. A Study on the Potential of the Periostracum of Perna viridis as a Bio monitoring Material for Pb in Tropical Coastal Waters Based on Correlation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The periostracum is the outermost layer overlying the inner prismatic and nacreous layers of the shells of bivalves. In the present study, the distributions of Cd and Pb in the soft tissues (ST) and periostracum of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis sampled from 15 sampling sites in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The concentrations of Cd (0.21-10.87 mg/ g dry weight) and Pb (1.16-40.20 mg/ g dry weight) in the periostracum were generally higher than those in the ST (Cd: 0.10-5.55 mg/ g dry weight; Pb: 2.53-18.62 mg/ g dry weight). Based on correlation analysis from nine geographical populations, the higher correlation coefficients (R values) between the periostracum-geochemical fractions of the sediments than between the ST-geochemical fractions of the sediments indicated that the periostracum could be a potential bio monitoring material for Pb. Hence, the present results supported the use of the periostracum of P. viridis as a potential bio monitoring material for Pb but not for Cd. However, more studies are warranted to verify its usefulness for the bio monitoring of heavy metal pollution in tropical coastal waters. (author)

  11. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) and PAHs in Perna viridis collected from seaport and non-seaport waters in the Straits of Johore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C K; Shahbazi, A; Zakaria, M P

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the ranges of pollutants found in the soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Kg. Masai and Kg. Sg. Melayu, both located in the Straits of Johore, were 0.85-1.58 μg/g dry weight (dw) for Cd, 5.52-12.2 μg/g dw for Cu, 5.66-8.93 μg/g dw for Ni and 63.4-72.3 μg/g dw for Zn, and 36.4-244 ng/g dry weight for ∑PAHs. Significantly (p water of a seaport site at Kg. Masai than a non-seaport site at Kg. Sg. Melayu population. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (2.94-3.42) and fluoranthene/pyrene (0.43-0.45) in mussels from both sites indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using the soft tissues of P. viridis as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:23052577

  12. Spatial organisation and biomass development after relaying of mussel seed

    OpenAIRE

    Capelle, J.J.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Schellekens, T.; van Stralen, M.R.; Herman, P.M.J.; Smaal, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether and by what factors spatial heterogeneity in mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) affects mussel production in human-created mussel beds. In a field experiment, the same number of mussels was relayed on four different areas within plots of the same size, resulting in four treatments with different mussel densities. Density, individual weight and spatial structure of mussels were followed per treatment. The uniformly placed mussels on different areas redistributed into new patch...

  13. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    , 351-358. Paglia, D.E, Valentine, W.N., 1967. Studies on quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 70, 158- 169. Paoletti, F., Mocali, A., Aldinucci, D., 1990...., 1991.Chemistry and biochemistry of 4- hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11, 81-128. Filho, D. W., Tribess, T., Gaspari, C., Claudio, F.D., Torres, M.A., Magalhaes, A.R.M., 2001. Seasonal...

  14. Mussel-inspired chemistry and its application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Mussels can affix themselves to a variety of wet surfaces under harsh marine conditions by secreting liquid mussel foot proteins (mfps) as superglues. Inside the mussel, the superglues are fluid-like and are kept at low pH, i.e. pH 3. Upon secretion into seawater at pH 8, the superglues are cured ef

  15. MOOCs from the Viewpoint of the Learner: A Response to Perna et al. (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Eric; Thompson, Isaac; Behrend, Tara

    2015-01-01

    This response to Perna et al. provides an alternate approach to research on massive open online courses (MOOCs). We argue that a student-centered, theory-driven conceptualization and methodological approaches allow us to move beyond descriptive statistics and into a deeper understanding of MOOC learners. Examples using a teacher development MOOC…

  16. Spatial organisation and biomass development after relaying of mussel seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Schellekens, Tim; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether and by what factors spatial heterogeneity in mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) affects mussel production in human-created mussel beds. In a field experiment, the same number of mussels was relayed on four different areas within plots of the same size, resulting in four treatments with different mussel densities. Density, individual weight and spatial structure of mussels were followed per treatment. The uniformly placed mussels on different areas redistributed into new patches, but mussels did not spread out over a larger area. Initial mussel density affected redistribution and mussel survival. At high densities mussels redistributed into a uniform matrix or in a few larger patches, that showed larger losses than at low densities, where mussels redistributed into a high number of patches. Growth rate and condition index of the mussels did not differ between treatments and no relation was found between treatment and number of foraging shore crabs, which was the major predator of mussels in this experiment. We hypothesise that the relation between initial mussel density and mussel loss after relaying is associated with redistribution, with less competition for space when mussels are positioned at the edge of a mussel patch. The very high mussel losses that we observed in the experiment within four weeks after relaying were the major factor in biomass development. Mussel bed formation concerns mussel growers and managers involved in natural mussel bed restoration. Initial mussel survival determines the success of these activities. The present study shows the effects of mussel relaying on spatial redistribution for the first time under field conditions, and underlines the importance of edge effects in understanding mussel loss in redistribution. Mussel survival after relaying will be higher when the mussels are distributed homogeneously and in relatively low density.

  17. Heavy metals in sediments, mussels and oysters from Trinidad and Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gulf of Paria is bordered by both Trinidad and Venezuela, from which various metallic pollutants and other contaminants can originate. The Gulf is still a significant source of fish, crabs and shellfish for human consumption to both countries, where concerns over the quality of this marine environment have been long expressed but never properly addressed. In addition, the circulatory current patterns in the Gulf ensure that contaminants originating from either country are likely to affect both countries eventually. Heavy metals were determined in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. virginica), green mussels (Perna viridis) and sediments from the Gulf of Paria. Samples were obtained at four sites in Trinidad and three sites in Venezuela in the Gulf of Paria, in addition to comparative samples collected from three sites on the north coast of Venezuela. Edible tissues of twelve shellfish from each location were blended and aliquots digested with concentrated nitric acid, for extraction of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc. The solutions were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury was extracted with a mixture of nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids and determined by cold vapour atomic absorption. Sediments were oven-dried at 600C, before being similarly extracted. Results showed that mercury in sediments at all sites in Trinidad and Venezuela exceeded NOAA and Canadian sediment quality guidelines, while cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc also exceeded these guidelines at several sites. Heavy metal levels in oysters and green mussels varied widely with location. However, oysters from the Gulf of Paria contained significantly higher mean levels of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc than those from the north coast of Venezuela, but this difference was not apparent in mussels. Cadmium, mercury and zinc in sediments were significantly correlated with those of mussels, but not of oysters, in which copper and zinc at several

  18. Androgenic and estrogenic response of green mussel extracts from Singapore's coastal environment using a human cell-based bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Stéphane; Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lee, Hian Kee; Leong, Yong Eu; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2004-11-01

    In the last decade, evidence of endocrine disruption in biota exposed to environmental pollutants has raised serious concern. Human cell-based bioassays have been developed to evaluate induced androgenic and estrogenic activities of chemical compounds. However, bioassays have been sparsely applied to environmental samples. In this study we present data on sex hormone activities in the green mussel, Perna viridis, in Singapore's coastal waters. P.viridis is a common bioindicator of marine contamination, and this study is a follow-up to an earlier investigation that reported the presence of sex hormone activities in seawater samples from Singapore's coastal environment. Specimens were collected from eight locations around the Singapore coastline and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals. Tissue extracts were then screened for activities on androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) using a reporter gene bioassay based on a HeLa human cell line. Mussel extracts alone did not exhibit AR activity, but in the presence of the reference androgenic hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), activities were up to 340% higher than those observed for DHT alone. Peak activities were observed in locations adjacent to industrial and shipping activities. Estrogenic activities of the mussel extract both alone and in the presence of reference hormone were positive. Correlations were statistically investigated between sex hormone activities, levels of pollutants in the mussel tissues, and various biological parameters (specimen size, sex ratio, lipid and moisture content). Significant correlations exist between AR activities, in the presence of DHT, and total concentration of POPs (r= 0.725, p < 0.05). PMID:15531429

  19. Host - parasite interactions: : the relationship between encystment load of the freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) and genetic diversity of its host (Salmo trutta)

    OpenAIRE

    Winser, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater pearl mussel (FPM, Margaritifera margaritifera) is an endangered bivalve mollusc with an obligatory larval parasitic phase on brown trout (Salmo trutta). The FPM has declined throughout its entire range due to causes such as habitat degradation, eutrophication, acidification, changed hydrology and lack of host fish. This study aimed to investigate if heterozygosity, allelic richness, number of alleles, inbreeding and differentiation of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are related to ...

  20. TOXINAS PARALISANTES EM MEXILHÃO Perna perna EM ÁREAS DE CULTIVO DA COSTA SUL DO BRASIL: ESTUDO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. SCHRAMM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Santa Catarina é responsável por aproximadamente 93% da produção de mexilhões (Perna perna e ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivados no país. Embora possuam grande valor nutricional, eventualmente podem representar risco para a saúde do consumidor quando contaminados por agentes tóxicos, como por exemplo, toxinas produzidas por algas, ou ficotoxinas. Algumas ficotoxinas nocivas aos seres humanos têm como vetores os moluscos filtradores que podem acumular essas substâncias nos tecidos quando espécies de microalgas produtoras de toxinas estão presentes na água. A saxitoxina, produzida por alguns dinoflagelados, provoca a Síndrome do Envenenamento Paralisante pelo consumo de Moluscos, do inglês, Paralytic Shellfish Poison - PSP, que é um sério problema para a aqüicultura. Este estudo descreve a contaminação de mexilhões Perna perna por ficotoxinas da PSP com origem na ocorrência da microalga Gymnodinium catenatum em águas marinhas do litoral norte de Santa Catarina nos meses de abril e maio de 2006. Foram coletadas 22 amostras de água do mar e mexilhões em 10 pontos do litoral abrangendo 175Km da costa do Estado. As análises envolveram contagem de algas nocivas na água por microscopia óptica e a quantificação de ficotoxinas da PSP na carne de mexilhões através de bioensaios com camundongos e de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência - HPLC. Os resultados comprovam a ocorrência, em baixas concentrações, destas ficotoxinas na carne de mexilhões cultivados e mostram a necessidade da inclusão desses contaminantes como parâmetro para a certificação da qualidade de moluscos bivalves destinados ao consumo humano.

  1. The exhalant jet of mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Lundgreen, Kim;

    2011-01-01

    The exhalant jet flow of mussels in conjunction with currents and/or other mussels may strongly influence the mussels' grazing impact. Literature values of mussel exhalant jet velocity vary considerably and the detailed fluid mechanics of the near-mussel flow generated by the exhalant jet has...... shell lengths. Here, we present results of a detailed study of fully open mussels Mytilus edulis in terms of filtration rate, exhalant siphon aperture area, jet velocity, gill area and body dry weight, all as a function of shell length (mean +/- SD) over the range 16.0 +/- 0.4 to 82.6 +/- 2.9 mm......, with the corresponding scaling laws also presented. The exhalant jet velocity was determined by 3 methods: (1) measured clearance rate divided by exhalant aperture area, (2) manual particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) using video-microscope recordings, and (3) particle image velocimetry (PIV). The latter provides...

  2. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 85 - 90 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Identification of Lysozyme Activity from Two Edible Bivalves - Perna viridis... the lysozyme from the whole body extracts of two edible and commercially important marine PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor 86 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. Vol. 32(1) 2009 Sumita Sharma, Tanu...

  3. DiPerna-Lions Flow for Relativistic Particles in an Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabin, P.-E.; Masmoudi, N.

    2015-09-01

    We show the existence and uniqueness of a DiPerna-Lions flow for relativistic particles subject to a Lorentz force in an electromagnetic field. The electric and magnetic fields solve the linear Maxwell system in the vacuum but for singular initial conditions which are only in the physical energy space. As the corresponding force field is only in L 2, we have to perform a careful analysis of the cancellations over a trajectory.

  4. Prevalence and Molecular Genotyping of Noroviruses in Market Oysters, Mussels, and Cockles in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittigul, Leera; Thamjaroen, Anyarat; Chiawchan, Suwat; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Pombubpa, Kannika; Diraphat, Pornphan

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis associated with bivalve shellfish consumption. This study aimed to detect and characterize noroviruses in three bivalve shellfish species: oysters (Saccostrea forskali), cockles (Anadara nodifera), and mussels (Perna viridis). The virus concentration procedure (adsorption-twice elution-extraction) and a molecular method were employed to identify noroviruses in shellfish. RT-nested PCR was able to detect known norovirus GII.4 of 8.8 × 10(-2) genome copies/g of digestive tissues from oyster and cockle concentrates, whereas in mussel concentrates, the positive result was seen at 8.8 × 10(2) copies/g of digestive tissues. From August 2011 to July 2012, a total of 300 shellfish samples, including each of 100 samples from oysters, cockles, and mussels were collected and tested for noroviruses. Norovirus RNA was detected in 12.3 % of shellfish samples. Of the noroviruses, 7.7 % were of the genogroup (G) I, 2.6 % GII, and 2.0 % were mixed GI and GII. The detection rate of norovirus GI was 2.1 times higher than GII. With regards to the different shellfish species, 17 % of the oyster samples were positive, while 14.0 and 6.0 % were positive for noroviruses found in mussels and cockles, respectively. Norovirus contamination in the shellfish occurred throughout the year with the highest peak in September. Seventeen norovirus-positive PCR products were characterized upon a partial sequence analysis of the capsid gene. Based on phylogenetic analysis, five different genotypes of norovirus GI (GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, and GI.9) and four different genotypes of GII (GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, and GII.4) were identified. These findings indicate the prevalence and distribution of noroviruses in three shellfish species. The high prevalence of noroviruses in oysters contributes to the optimization of monitoring plans to improve the preventive strategies of acute gastroenteritis. PMID:26872638

  5. Studies on the Seasonal Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes Activity on Differently, Polluted Areas along the Bay of Bengal Employing Perna viridis as an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amutha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are the innate or acquired molecules capable of slowing down or preventing the oxidative damage (damage due to reactive oxygen species that caused by free radicals. The antioxidant enzyme activity in response to season as well as hydrocarbon pollution was attempted. Rayapuram fishing harbor of Chennai (Station-1 is highly oil contaminated with oil sleeks on the surface. The relatively moderate oil contaminated area (Station-2 is about 2 km away from the fishing harbor and the least contaminated Vellar estuary Parangipettai (Station-3 was considered as the reference site. The 2 year (2005-2007 observation was recorded seasonally; the antioxidant activity varied seasonally and organally (digestive gland, gill and mantle in the marine green mussel Perna viridis. The common antioxidant enzymes such as Catalase (CAT, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Glutathione Reductase (GR activity were evaluated. The CAT and SOD are responded well with seasons (i.e., monsoon, pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and summer seasons. During monsoon period, both CAT and SOD activity are very low in all the Stations, in both pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period their activity were moderate and higher enzyme activity was noted during summer season. On contrary, the GR activity was noted as very low during summer and very high during pre or post monsoon and the activity was moderate during monsoon period. In addition the GR activity respond to temperature also but the other antioxidants CAT and SOD yielded no detectable activity. Among the organs liver showed higher CAT and SOD activity when compared to gill and mantle but the GR exhibited the increased activity in gill but not in liver.

  6. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. - Highlights: • Invading quagga mussels often displace existing zebra mussels. • Interspecies difference in metal concentration may alter exposure of predators. • Zebra and quagga mussel soft tissue were analysed for metal concentrations. • Generally, quagga mussels contained lower concentrations of metals. • A dominance shift to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predators. - A shift in dominance from zebra mussels to invading quagga mussels may reduce the transfer of metals to predator species

  7. Dynamics of mussel plaque detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond, KW; Zacchia, NA; Waite, JH; Valentine, MT

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Mussels are well known for their ability to generate and maintain strong, long-lasting adhesive bonds under hostile conditions. Many prior studies attribute their adhesive strength to the strong chemical interactions between the holdfast and substrate. While chemical interactions are certainly important, adhesive performance is also determined by contact geometry, and understanding the coupling between chemical interactions and the plaque shape and mecha...

  8. Mussel meal in poultry diets

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Lotta

    2009-01-01

    The first limiting nutrients for poultry are the sulphur containing amino acids, particularly methionine. To fulfil the recommended requirement, conventional diets are supplemented with synthetic methionine. Since this is not allowed in organic production it becomes important to have access to alternative high quality protein feed ingredients. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether blue mussels (Mytilis edulis) could be used as a protein source in diets for organic poultry and dete...

  9. Effects on egg quality traits of genotype and diets with mussel meal or wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, H; Jönsson, L; Johansson, L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects on exterior and interior egg quality and sensory characteristics of eggs from hens fed diets with admixtures of 3.5 or 7.0% of mussel meal or 20% wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The mussel meal diets followed organic standards, whereas the DDGS diet was formulated for hens in conventional production. Standard diets, one organic and one conventional from a Swedish feed manufacturer, were included for comparison. The study used 164 Hy-Line White W-98 and 164 Hy-Line Brown layers housed in small-group furnished cages. Egg flavor or odor was not affected by genotype. Egg flavor intensity was stronger in eggs from hens fed either of the mussel diets or the standard organic diet compared with the conventional diet. There were no differences between any of the diets in egg odor intensity, off-flavor, or off-odor. The mussel diets and the standard organic diet gave stronger yolk pigmentation than the conventional and DDGS diet, respectively. Manure DM was lower with the admixture of 7.0% mussel meal than 3.5%. There was a tendency (P < 0.10) toward a difference between diets in dirty eggs, and the percentage was highest with 7.0% mussel meal. Diet or genotype had no effect on egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, shell breaking strength, or proportion of cracked eggs. Genotype differences were found in weight percentage of albumen, yolk, and shell and in the presence of blood and meat spots and in percentage of dirty eggs. In conclusion, the majority of egg quality traits were unaffected by the diets studied. With the admixture of DDGS used in the present study, the characteristics of eggs were similar to those of eggs produced on the conventional standard diet. There was no indication of impaired egg odor or flavor with the used fractions of DDGS or mussel meal. PMID:20308407

  10. Research continues on zebra mussel control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers are working on many fronts to learn methods for controlling and combatting zebra mussels, a species of mussel that can attach to the inside of water intakes at hydroelectric and thermal power plants, and can reduce or block water flow. Biologists at the University of Toledo in Ohio report that compounds from the African soapberry plant called lemmatoxins are lethal to zebra mussels. In laboratory tests, researchers have determined 1 to 2 milligrams of purified lemmatoxins per liter will kill the mussels. In field tests, biologist Harold Lee flushed water through a mussel-infested pipe. He found that the berry extract killed mussels in four to eight hours, making continuous treatment of water intake pipes unnecessary, according to a report in New Scientists. The University of Toledo participated in another project, funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. That project team included the cities of Toledo and Cleveland, Ohio, Finkbeiner, Pettis ampersand Strout, Ltd. consulting engineers, and researchers from Ohio's Case Western Reserve University. The team identified a chemical oxidant, sodium hypochlorite, as a cost-effective agent for controlling zebra mussels at water treatment plant intakes. Toledo has used the sodium hypochlorite and reports the chemical has cleared colonies of zebra mussels that had attached to the intake of its water treatment plant

  11. An Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System for Mussels in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2012-01-01

    This study used monthly data on ex-farm prices and quantities of mussels from five major mussel-producing countries in Europe to estimate a nonlinear Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System (IAIDS). The model specification fits well with monthly data from 2002-2008. Uncompensated own-price flexibilities...... for farmed mussels from Spain, France, Italy, and the Netherlands are inflexible, while demand for Denmark's wild stock mussels is flexible. Dutch mussels are deemed a luxury food, while preferences for mussels from other countries appear independent of the level of total expenditure (i.e., homothetic...... preferences). The results also show weak substitution relationships between mussels from these countries....

  12. Mitochondrial DNA paradox: sex-specific genetic structure in a marine mussel – despite maternal inheritance and passive dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teske Peter R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When genetic structure is identified using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, but no structure is identified using biparentally-inherited nuclear DNA, the discordance is often attributed to differences in dispersal potential between the sexes. Results We sampled the intertidal rocky shore mussel Perna perna in a South African bay and along the nearby open coast, and sequenced maternally-inherited mtDNA (there is no evidence for paternally-inherited mtDNA in this species and a biparentally-inherited marker. By treating males and females as different populations, we identified significant genetic structure on the basis of mtDNA data in the females only. Conclusions This is the first study to report sex-specific differences in genetic structure based on matrilineally-inherited mtDNA in a passively dispersing species that lacks social structure or sexual dimorphism. The observed pattern most likely stems from females being more vulnerable to selection in habitats from which they did not originate, which also manifests itself in a male-biased sex ratio. Our results have three important implications for the interpretation of population genetic data. First, even when mtDNA is inherited exclusively in the female line, it also contains information about males. For that reason, using it to identify sex-specific differences in genetic structure by contrasting it with biparentally-inherited markers is problematic. Second, the fact that sex-specific differences were found in a passively dispersing species in which sex-biased dispersal is unlikely highlights the fact that significant genetic structure is not necessarily a function of low dispersal potential or physical barriers. Third, even though mtDNA is typically used to study historical demographic processes, it also contains information about contemporary processes. Higher survival rates of males in non-native habitats can erase the genetic structure present in their mothers within a single

  13. Treatment of restless legs syndrome Tratamento da síndrome das pernas inquietas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Spolador

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by a desire to move limbs, which is usually only present or worsens during rest or at night. The objective of this article was to review the available literature about pharmacological treatment for this disorder. METHOD: A search of recent literature was undertaken on online databases (Medline, Pubmed, Scielo and Lilacs. RESULTS: 502 articles were retrieved, of which 30 were selected. Dopaminergic agents, anticonvulsants, opioids, benzodiazepines, zolpidem, entacapone and ketamine were all effective on the restless legs syndrome treatment. One study showed that iron was not effective. CONCLUSIONS: Based on few double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, it seems that the best options to treat restless legs syndrome patients are gabapentin and L-dopa associated to its sustained release formulation.OBJETIVO: A síndrome das pernas inquietas é um transtorno neurológico caracterizado por um desejo incontrolável de mover os membros, que comumente está somente presente ou piora ao descanso ou à noite. O objetivo do trabalho foi a revisão da literatura disponível sobre o tratamento farmacológico para a síndrome das pernas inquietas. MÉTODO: Pesquisa da literatura recente realizada em bases de dados eletrônicas (Medline, Pubmed, Scielo e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Quinhentos e dois artigos foram encontrados, dos quais 30 foram selecionados. Os agentes dopaminérgicos, os anticonvulsantes, os opióides, os benzodiazepínicos, o zolpidem, o entacapone e a ketamina foram eficazes no tratamento da síndrome das pernas inquietas. Um estudo mostrou que o ferro não foi eficaz. CONCLUSÕES: Baseado nos poucos estudos duplo-cegos, randomizados e controlados, parece que as melhores opções para tratar os pacientes com síndrome das pernas inquietas são a gabapentina e L-dopa associada à sua formulação de liberação lenta.

  14. O autocuidado para o tratamento de úlcera de perna falciforme: orientações de enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Martins; Debora Galvão Moreira; Emilia Matos do Nascimento; Enedina Soares

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a eficácia do Programa do Autocuidado, pela progressão do processo cicatricial de úlcera da perna falciforme. Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal com abordagem quantitativa realizado com 40 clientes no setor de curativos de uma instituição de saúde pública, especializada no tratamento hematológico, situada no Rio de Janeiro. Para a coleta dos dados foi utilizado um instrumento aplicado no momento das consultas de enfermagem. Os dados foram analisados com o...

  15. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  16. Vibrio spp. isolados a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna) in natura e pré-cozidos de Estação Experimental de Cultivo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Vibrio spp. isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna) of an Experimental Station Culture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Soares Pereira; Cristina de Albuquerque Possas; Celio Mauro Viana; Dalia dos Prazeres Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    A análise microbiológica dos mexilhões reflete a qualidade do habitat aquático, pois estes animais podem reter em seus organismos diversos patógenos, dentre os quais aqueles pertencentes à família Vibrionaceae. No presente estudo foi avaliada a presença de Vibrio spp. em mexilhões (in natura e pré-cozidos), comercializados na Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões, situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram avaliadas 86 amostras, tomando como procedimento, o enriquecimento em Á...

  17. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  18. Oil pollution in the Black Sea marine organisms during 2003-2006: mussel, shellfish, and algaeKaradeniz deniz organizmalarında 2003-2006 yıllarında petrol kirliliği: midye, deniz salyangozu ve deniz algleri

    OpenAIRE

    Güven, Kasım Cemal; Nesimigil, Filiz; Cumalı, Selin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Oil pollution was investigated in mussel, shellfish and 3 green, 1 brown and 2 red algae collected different part of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The oil pollution was found in the samples collected from the east part of the Black Sea were found more polluted than west and middle part of the Black Sea coast of Turkey.The maximum oil pollution levels in the mussels samples collected in 2005-2006 are similar as 106.01-107.33 μg/L wet weight.Oil pollution found in mussel, Rapana venos...

  19. National Status and Trends: Mussel Watch Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mussel Watch represents the longest running continuous contaminant monitoring program in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters and was created in response to concerns...

  20. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  1. National Status and Trends: Mussel Watch Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mussel Watch is the longest running continuous chemical contaminant monitoring program in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters and was created in response to...

  2. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  3. Modulation of antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.), on mercury exposures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    seawater. Under laboratory condition, mussels were kept in fiber- glass tank capacity of 120 L. The animals were divided in two groups. Group I animals were exposed to sea water only and served as control for the Group II animals which were exposed to sub... and H 2 O 2 1980 X.N. Verlecar et al./Chemosphere Similarly PC showed elevated values throughout the experimental period in mercury treated groups (Fig. 2B, 3.3. Antioxidant enzymes Determination of antioxidant status of mussels exposed to metals...

  4. Is the body condition of the invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) enhanced through attachment to native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Francesca; Sousa, Ronaldo; Aldridge, David C

    2016-05-15

    The invasion of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, into Western Europe and North America has driven widespread ecological change. Attachment of zebra mussels to the shell of native unionoid mussels has resulted in reductions in unionoid abundance and, in extreme cases, their localised extirpations. While the impacts of zebra mussels on infested unionoids are well documented, the possible benefits of the association to the zebra mussel have been little considered. We collected zebra mussels attached to unionoids and to inanimate structures. Zebra mussels attached to unionoids had significantly larger shells, higher standardized body mass and glycogen content than those attached to inanimate substrates, suggesting that D. polymorpha benefits from settling upon unionoids. The body condition of individual zebra mussels was negatively correlated with the number of zebra mussels attached to the unionoid, indicating intraspecific competition. Therefore, zebra mussels seem positively affected through attachment to unionoid mussels, but that these benefits decrease at higher densities of fouling. This association may offer advantages to the spread of zebra mussels within unionoid-rich systems, especially at sites with soft substrates and at the early stages of the invasion process where intraspecific competition is likely to be lower and benefits to the zebra mussels are higher. PMID:26925735

  5. Recovery Plan for Twelve Vermont Freshwater Mussel Species 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery of Vermonts mussels requires monitoring, mapping the spread of the zebra mussel, management, research, and fundraising. The objectives of this plan are...

  6. Implicit price of mussel characteristics in the auction market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2012-01-01

    This study explores desired and undesired characteristics of mussels in wholesale market by applying hedonic price analysis. Transaction data in auction market in Yerseke, the Netherlands, was used to estimate linear and semi-log price models. Meat content and size count, which are measured as the...... ratio of the weight of cooked meat to the total weight and the number of mussel per kg of raw mussels, respectively, are the most important characteristics determining the price. At the sample mean, if the meat content increases by 1%, farmers can get a premium price of 5.5 eurocents kg−1 of raw mussel....... Mussel lots with size counts below 50 pieces kg−1 can command the highest implicit price of size. Processors prefer mussel lots in which the size of mussels is more or less heterogeneous. The impurity of mussel lots, which is measured by the percentage of tare, the amount of barnacles and limpets per kg...

  7. Bibliography of Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels) and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (QUAGGA mussels): 1989 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Don W.; Schmuckal, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels invaded and colonized waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes during the late 1980s. Their colonization and resulting impact have been characterized as one of the most important ecological changes in freshwater systems in North America. The need for information on dreissenid mussels has grown during the past 2 decades, which has prompted the compilation of this bibliography. Two previous bibliographies of dreissenid mussels indicate average publication rates were 6 publications/year between 1771 and 1964 (1,180 in 194 y) and 30 publications/year between 1964 and 1993 (885 in 30 y). In the current bibliography, the average rate of publication doubled during the past 23 y (1989 to 2011) to 66 publications/year based on a total of 1,502 publications. These rates may be biased by increased numbers of researchers and journals over time but, at a minimum, these rates indicate continued interest and concern by humans about the impact of dreissenid mussels on water availability and the expanding range of dreissenids throughout the world. The current bibliography has a 94% efficiency rate for subject and 100% efficiency for title search criteria when compared with references in published studies of dreissenid mussels in 2011. In addition to publications, we included 206 student theses and 225 chapters in 26 books including 6 books devoted solely to dreissenid mussels. A vast majority of student theses were about dreissenid mussels in North America, especially in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The 6 books devoted to dreissenid mussels contained a variety of chapters that described biology, impact, control, and ecology of dreissenid mussels in both Europe (published in 1992 and 2010) and North America (1993, 1994, 1997, and 2000). In addition, there is a 7th book devoted solely to dreissenid mussels that is near completion.

  8. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  9. Population structure and identification of two matrilinear and one patrilinear mitochondrial lineages in the mussel Mytella charruana

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Thainara Oliveira; Alves, Francisco Arimateia dos Santos; Beasley, Colin Robert; de Simone, Luiz Ricardo Lopes; Marques-Silva, Nelane do Socorro; Santos-Neto, Guilherme da Cruz; Tagliaro, Claudia Helena

    2015-04-01

    The mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced from Mytella charruana (N = 243) at 10 Brazilian coastal localities to search for cryptic species, doubly uniparental inheritance and investigate genetic population structure and demography. Three haplogroups were found: two matrilinear (A and B) in males and females, and one patrilinear (C) found only in males. The p-distances were 0.0624 (A and B), 0.2097 (A and C) and 0.2081 (B and C). Coalescence of M. charruana occurred around 12.5 Mya, and the origins of the lineages were 3.4 and 4 Mya (matrilinear A and B) and 51.2 Mya (patrilinear), which split before the separation of the genera Perna and Mytella. All individuals from the northern coast of Brazil belonged to haplogroup A, whereas haplogroup B predominated among individuals from the eastern and northeastern coasts, with one exception, Goiana. Haplogroup C was found in males from the northern to the eastern coast. GenBank sequences of M. charruana from Colombia, Ecuador and four populations introduced to the USA joined Brazilian haplogroup B. Nuclear gene 18S-ITS1 sequences confirmed that all specimens belong to the same species. Four populations from the northern coast of Brazil were homogenous with evidence of recent population expansion. All populations from the northeastern and eastern coasts of Brazil were significantly structured (pairwise FST and AMOVA). The heterogeneity among Brazilian populations requires that relocation for aquaculture be preceded by genetic identification of the haplogroups. Differences in salinity and temperature may have selected for distinct lineages of mussels and changing conditions in coasts and estuaries may allow only resistant lineages of mussel to persist with the loss of others. In the light of global climate change, more detailed data on temperature, pH, salinity and local currents could help explain the genetic structuring observed among populations of Brazilian M. charruana.

  10. Review of techniques to prevent introduction of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during native mussel (Unionoidea) conservation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Newton, T.J.; Gatenby, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the declines in diversity and abundance of native freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea), and the potential decimation of populations of native mussels resulting from the rapid spread of the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, management options to eliminate or reduce the threat of the zebra mussel are needed. Relocating native mussels to refugia (artificial and natural) has been proposed to mitigate the threat of zebra mussels to native species. Relocation of native mussels to refugia such as fish hatchery facilities or natural habitats within their historic range. Which are unlikely to be infested by zebra mussels, necessitates that protocols be developed to prevent the inadvertent introduction of zebra mussels. Several recent studies have developed Such protocols, and have assessed their effectiveness on the health and survival of native mussels during subsequent relocation to various refugia. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and evaluate the current protocols and to develop a set of procedures that resource managers and researchers should consider before conducting conservation activities in zebra mussel infested waters. We found that the existing protocols have many common points of concern, such as facility modification and suitability, zebra mussel risk assessment and management procedures, and health and disease management procedures. These conservation protocols may have broad applicability to other situations and locations. A summary and evaluation of the information in these main areas, along with recommended guidelines, are presented in this article.

  11. EPRI's zebra mussel monitoring and control guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guidelines is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices. The zebra mussel has infested all the Great Lakes and is positioned to spread to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on power plants is as a biofouler clogging water systems and heat exchangers. The EPRI guidelines discuss the distribution of the zebra mussel in the US, identification of the zebra mussel, potential threats to power plants, and methods to initiate the monitoring and control program. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It may also be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Table 1 shows a matrix of the monitoring methods. Table 2 presents a control matrix related to nuclear, fossil, and hydro raw water systems. Table 3 is a summary of the applicability of treatments to the various raw water systems. Appendixes are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the control technologies

  12. Dichoptic perception of brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLawyer, Tanner; Morimoto, Takuma; Buck, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments assessed mechanisms underlying brown induction by presenting a foveal target disk and concentric annular surround stimuli that varied in contrast relative to larger backgrounds. Stimuli were presented under monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing conditions. Observers adjusted the luminance of the target disk to a criterion brown level. We found evidence for at least two separate mechanisms for brown induction: one mechanism that is dependent on physically contiguous contrast and operates in monocular pathways and another mechanism that responds to high luminance contrast anywhere in the visual field and can operate after convergence of signals from the two eyes. PMID:26974916

  13. Mussel dredging: Impact on epifauna in Limfjorden, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2002-01-01

    Species composition and population density of epibenthos are described in two areas in Limfjorden, Denmark. Both areas covered both a mussel fishing ground and an area that has been permanently closed for mussel dredging since 1988. Furthermore, mussels were dredged in a part of the mussel fishing...... grounds in both areas four months before the investigations. The rest of the fishing grounds had not been exploited for at least four years. This study describes the short-term impact (4 mo) and long-term impact (>4 y) of mussel dredging using the permanently closed areas as controls. The data were...

  14. Payment for ecosystem services - paying mussel producers for nitrogen mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hasler, Berit; Hansen, Line Block;

    2015-01-01

    Mussel production is an alternative measure to reduce excess nutrients in fjords causing unwanted eutrophication, and mussel production and removal (harvest) can improve the utilisation of nutrients wasted to the sea. The basic principle of mussel farming as a mitigation tool is that by harvesting...... cultured mussels, the unidirectional flow of mineral nutrients from land to sea is returned by bringing back the nutrients bound in the mussels from sea to land. Mitigation mussel production can be carried out at lower costs compared to consumption mussel production, and a pilot study in Skive Fjord in...... transferable development right where farmers buy the right to continue current fertilizer practices by paying for N retention in another location (here in the water bodies). It is also possible to learn from the GHG policy where it is possible to pay for abatement elsewhere, where it’s more cost-effective. The...

  15. Establishment of blue mussel beds to enhance fish habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Louise Dahl; Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne; Poulsen, Louise K.; Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Landes, Anja; Røjbek, Maria; Thorsen, S.W.; Deurs, Mads Anker van; Grønkjær, Peter

    2015-01-01

    study aimed to establish blue mussel beds (Mytilus edulis) to increase structural complexity and increase the abundance of fish and epifauna in Nørrefjord. It was expected that the mussels would improve water transparency and increase the depth range and coverage of eelgrass (Zostera marina). New...... methods for mussel production and -bed construction were investigated in collaboration with local volunteer fishermen. The effect of the artificial mussel beds was most evident on a small scale. Video observations directly at the beds (Impact area) demonstrated increased biodiversity and a three times...... higher abundance of mesopredator fish compared to the Control area. Water clarity and eelgrass coverage were unchanged. Two methods for establishing mussel beds were tested. A total of 44 tons of blue mussels were produced and established in beds over an area of 121,000 m2. Production of blue mussels...

  16. A holistic approach to taxonomic evaluation of two closely related endangered freshwater mussel species, the oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis and tan riffleshell Epioblasma florentina walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Hallerman, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Species in the genus Epioblasma have specialized life history requirements and represent the most endangered genus of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the world. A genetic characterization of extant populations of the oyster mussel E. capsaeformis and tan riffleshell E. florentina walkeri sensu late was conducted to assess taxonomic validity and to resolve conservation issues for recovery planning. These mussel species exhibit pronounced phenotypic variation, but were difficult to characterize phylogenetically using DNA sequences. Monophyletic lineages, congruent with phenotypic variation among species, were obtained only after extensive analysis of combined mitochondrial (1396 bp of 16S, cytochrome-b, and ND1) and nuclear (515 bp of ITS-1) DNA sequences. In contrast, analysis of variation at 10 hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci showed moderately to highly diverged populations based on FST and R ST values, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.39 and 0.15 to 0.71, respectively. Quantitative variation between species was observed in fish-host specificity, with transformation success of glochidia of E. capsaeformis significantly greater (P<0.05) on greenside darter Etheostoma blennioides, and that of E. f. walkeri significantly greater (P<0.05) on fantail darter Etheostoma flabellare. Lengths of glochidia differed significantly (P<0.001) among species and populations, with mean sizes ranging from 241 to 272 ??m. The texture and colour of the mantle-pad of E. capsaeformis sensu stricto is smooth and bluish-white, whereas that of E. f. walkeri is pustuled and brown, with tan mottling. Based on extensive molecular, morphological and life history data, the population of E. capsaeformis from the Duck River, Tennessee, USA is proposed as a separate species, and the population of E. f. walkeri from Indian Creek, upper Clinch River, Virginia, USA is proposed as a distinct subspecies.

  17. Scope of problem assessed at IVO. The zebra mussel`s campaign of world conquest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvonen, J.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The migrating shell - or `zebra mussel` as it is called on account of its black and white stripes - was originally a fresh-water mussel, but has since also adapted to brackish waters. As a result of human activity the species has spread quickly and widely from its native habitat. Operators of power plants and water treatment plants in particular have not been very happy about this. During its larval stage the zebra mussel can enter the cooling water systems; fasten itself to the pipes and - in the worst case - clog the system. The Environmental Protection Division of IVO has been assessing the spread of the zebra mussel and the resulting problems with the aid of reference literature and the assistance of Finnish researchers

  18. Evaluation of several chemical disinfectants for removing zebra mussels from unionid mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of chemical treatments for killing veliger and juvenile stages of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha attached to unionid mussels. Static toxicity tests were conducted on eight unionid mussel species with common aquaculture chemicals (benzalkonium chloride, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride). The concentration and duration of each chemical treatment tested had previously been found to kill zebra mussel veligers and juveniles. Several species (e.g., Elliptio dilatata, Lampsilis cardium, and Lasmigona complanata) incurred less than 10% mortality in chloride salt treatments, while in other species (e.g., Obliquaria reflexa and Leptodea fragilis) mortality varied greatly among treatment regimes. Treatments with benzalkonium chloride, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide were less than 90% effective on juvenile stages of zebra mussels and, therefore, were ruled out after preliminary trials. Limited application of specific chemical treatments may be feasible for more tolerant species; however, effective disinfection of unionid shells will require the use of chemical treatment followed by a quarantine period to completely remove zebra mussel larvae and juveniles.

  19. The zebra mussel: US utility implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreissena polymorpha, the freshwater macrofouling zebra mussel, was introduced to Lake St. Clair, near Detroit, Michigan, in 1985. It has since spread throughout Lake Erie. Its planktonic veliger larval stage disperses on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, making it likely to spread throughout most of the United States and southern Canada except for the southwestern and southern United State, where summer water temperatures are above tolerated levels. Veligers enter raw water systems on intake currents to settle and grow to adults attached by secreted byssal threads to hard surfaces. Accumulations of adults impede flow, aggravate sedimentation and corrosion, and foul small-diameter components. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5--2.0 m/sec. Mussels can reduce effective pipe diameters and foul intake structures, steam condensers, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Establishment of mussels in raw water systems should be prevented because subsequent removal is difficult and expensive. Mitigation procedures include manual removal, robotic cleaning, thermal backwashing, water jetting, application of molluscicides, and possibly line pigging and acidic chemical cleaning. Control technologies include oxidizing and non-oxidizing molluscicides, robotic cleaning, shell strainers, exposure of veligers to high voltage electrical fields, thermal backwashing and sand-filtration. The United States power industry can utilize extensive European experience with this species and domestic experience with the Asian clam in its development of effective controls for zebra mussel fouling

  20. Heart Rate Sensor for Freshwater Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, C. L.; Vial, D. P.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Lee, H. W.; Schroer, H. W.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested the cardiac activity of mollusks. First, it is important as a basic measure of the animal's metabolism. Further, activities such as feeding and burrowing affect heart rate, as do environmental factors such as water salinity, water temperature, exposure, and predation. We have developed a small, noninvasive sensor for measuring freshwater mussel heart rate. Its working principle is as follows. An infrared (IR) light-emitting diode is placed in contact with the mussel shell. Some of the IR penetrates through the shell, reflects off internal organs, and traverses back. A photodetector detects this IR, and electronics condition the signal. The heartbeat of the animal modulates the IR, allowing one to measure the heart rate. The technique is widely-used in finger heart-rate monitors in humans. The sensors do not have to be positioned above the heart and several locations on the mussel shell work well. The sensor is small (8 mm × 10 mm) and consumes less than 1 mA, and has a simple one-wire interface that allows for easy integration into data acquisition hardware. We present heart rate measurements for the common pocketbook (lampsilis cardium) freshwater mussel.

  1. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  2. Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar, P.K.; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G. S.; Asokan, D.P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Biomarker: sister chromatid exchange (SCE); chromosomal aberration; micronucleus (MN); hemic neoplasia (HN), mutagenic activity; comet cells. Exposure/effect represented: exposure to trace metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn) / DNA damage. Analytical technique: Toxic and essential elements in tissues were determined using AAS; metaphase chromosomes were viewed using light microscope (Olympus BX50) with image analysis facility; hemolymph was stained using the Schiff Feulgen-picromethyl blu...

  3. Seasonal variation of major elements (Ca, Mg) and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) and cultured mussel Perna viridis L. and seawater in the Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The major elements and trace metals were analysed from nussel tissue and the seawater taken from three depths (0, 5 and 9 meters) from the culture site. Range of variation in Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were 226-399; 708-1329; 0.005-0.084; BDL-0...

  4. Crustacean fauna of a mussel cultivated raft system in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sezgin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to make a faunistic analysis of the crustaceans associated with cultivated mussels grown on ropes. Mussel samples from 30 cm ropes were collected from rope-grown mussel beds by hand. The crustacean fauna associated with mussel population were quantified. The density of crustacean fauna associated with mussels was significantly greater within rope-grown mussel assemblages than on other biotopes around.

  5. Establishing mussel behavior as a biomarker in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jason T; Beggel, Sebastian; Auerswald, Karl; Stoeckle, Bernhard C; Geist, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Most freshwater mussel species of the Unionoida are endangered, presenting a conservation issue as they are keystone species providing essential services for aquatic ecosystems. As filter feeders with limited mobility, mussels are highly susceptible to water pollution. Despite their exposure risk, mussels are underrepresented in standard ecotoxicological methods. This study aimed to demonstrate that mussel behavioral response to a chemical stressor is a suitable biomarker for the advancement of ecotoxicology methods that aids mussel conservation. Modern software and Hall sensor technology enabled mussel filtration behavior to be monitored real-time at very high resolution. With this technology, we present our method using Anodonta anatina and record their response to de-icing salt pollution. The experiment involved an environmentally relevant 'pulse-exposure' design simulating three subsequent inflow events. Three sublethal endpoints were investigated, Filtration Activity, Transition Frequency (number of changes from opened to closed, or vice versa) and Avoidance Behavior. The mussels presented a high variation in filtration behavior, behaving asynchronously. At environmentally relevant de-icing salt exposure scenarios, A. anatina behavior patterns were significantly affected. Treated mussels' Filtration Activity decreased during periods of very high and long de-icing salt exposure (p<0.001), however, increased during short de-icing salt exposure. Treated mussels' Transition Frequency increased during periods of very high and long de-icing salt exposure (p<0.001), which mirrored the Avoidance Behavior endpoint observed only by mussels under chemical stress. Characteristics of Avoidance Behavior were tighter shell closures with repeated and irregular shell movements which was significantly different to their undisturbed resting behavior (p<0.001). Additionally, we found that mussels were sensitive to a chemical stressor even when the mussel's valves were closed. Due

  6. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  7. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for...

  8. O autocuidado para o tratamento de úlcera de perna falciforme: orientações de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a eficácia do Programa do Autocuidado, pela progressão do processo cicatricial de úlcera da perna falciforme. Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal com abordagem quantitativa realizado com 40 clientes no setor de curativos de uma instituição de saúde pública, especializada no tratamento hematológico, situada no Rio de Janeiro. Para a coleta dos dados foi utilizado um instrumento aplicado no momento das consultas de enfermagem. Os dados foram analisados com o auxílio dos modelos de Cox, regressão logística e árvores de classificação. Verificou-se a eficácia do Programa do Autocuidado em função da cicatrização total das ulcerações de 23 clientes, e observou-se que úlceras agudas com um tempo de manifestação até 60 meses têm a probabilidade de cura de 95%. A partir da adesão dos clientes e dos resultados alcançados, o programa firmou-se como modalidade terapêutica, sendo incorporado como programa institucional.

  9. SEASONAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN PERNA VIRIDIS FROM GUAYACAN, ARAYA PENINSULA, SUCRE STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemus, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Biomonitoring is a tool to assess the presence of environmental pollutants, particularly heavy metals, due to their persistence and toxicity to the biotic component. The concentrations of the heavy metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni were determined in males and females of Perna viridis (μg·g-1dry weight, with the purpose of evaluating the environmental quality in Guayacán, state Sucre, Venezuela, during the months of November (2006, May and August (2007, and February (2008. November and August are both in the rainy season, with May and February part of the dry season. The metals in the samples were determined using AAS (Atomic Absortion Spectophotometric and the precision of the method was verified using the reference standard NIST Oyster Tissue 1566ª. The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni showed significant differences in the months studied except for Ni in males that did not exhibit variation. The highest values in Zn and Ni occurred in the rainy season, while Cu and Cr were highest during the month of February, and Cd and Pb during the month of May, both months in the dry season. The females presented levels of Cu, Cd and Ni significantly higher than the males. The metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni presented values below the limits pointed out by FAO (Food and Agricultura Organization of the United Nations, FDA (Food and Drugs Administration and BZL (Federal Brazilian Legislation.

  10. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, K B; Verlecar, X N; Chainy, G B N

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress indices were measured in gills and digestive glands of Perna viridis collected from three coastal locations in Goa i.e., Bambolim, Marmugao Harbour and Malim. In addition to lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase and two non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) were investigated in order to understand their variation with respect to pollution status of the sampling locations. We observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of both the tissues at Mormugao Harbour and Malim, suggesting that the animals at these two locations are at higher level of oxidative stress as compared to those at Bambolim. Conversely, low levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione, observed at Mormugao Harbour and Malim indicate that the animals may use these compounds to counteract stress in the tissues. This study shows that changes in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione in tissues of P. viridis can be used as molecular biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs. PMID:18849055

  11. Boom in production of organic line mussels in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Jokumsen, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming of line mussels makes a significant foot print in the development of the Danish Aquaculture sector targeting 10 % of the production being organic by 2018. Currently 9 production units have been approved for a total production of some 3,500 tons/year. In particular the Danish production of line mussels is taken place in the ”Limfjorden” (North West Jutland), where the main producer currently is Seafood Limfjord in cooperation with the mussel processing company Vildsund Blue in ...

  12. Mussels (Mytilus sp.) as an indicator of lead pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lead contents of two species of mussels (Mytilus californianus and M. edulis) collected along the Pacific coast from Piedras Blancas, California to Punta Bnada, Baja California were determined by isotope dilution method. The whole soft parts of the mussels, on a dry weight basis, contained from 0.27 to 42 ppm of lead which can be related to their local habitats. The gill tissues of the mussels showed the highest lead concentration

  13. Mussel dredging: Impact on epifauna in Limfjorden, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2002-01-01

    Species composition and population density of epibenthos are described in two areas in Limfjorden, Denmark. Both areas covered both a mussel fishing ground and an area that has been permanently closed for mussel dredging since 1988. Furthermore, mussels were dredged in a part of the mussel fishin...... fished and control areas. Significant reductions in the amount of shell debris and gravel were observed in the dredged areas. The impact of the loss of these benthic structural components on ecosystem processes and functions is discussed....

  14. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  15. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  16. A sampling method for conducting relocation studies with freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Rach, J.J.; Cope, W.G.; Luoma, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Low recovery of transplanted mussels often prevents accurate estimates of survival. We developed a method that provided a high recovery of transplanted mussels and allowed for a reliable assessment of mortality. A 3 x 3 m polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe grid was secured to the sediment with iron reinforcing bars. The grid was divided into nine 1-m super(2) segments and each treatment segment, was stocked with 100 marked mussels. The recovery of mussels after six months exceeded 80% in all but one treatment group.

  17. Vitamina D e cicatrização de pele: estudo prospectivo, duplo-cego, placebo controlado na cicatrização de úlceras de perna

    OpenAIRE

    Claudine Juliana Cristina Caznoch Burkiewicz; Fernanda Ampesaan Guadagnin; Thelma Laroka Skare; Marcelo Mazza do Nascimento; Santiago Cirilo Nogueira Servin; Gleim Dias de Souza

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar a relação entre deficiência de vitamina D e cicatrização de pele em pacientes com úlceras de perna, relacionar esta deficiência com características da úlcera e avaliar se a reposição de vitamina D nos indivíduos deficientes acelera a cicatrização da úlcera. MÉTODOS: Foram escolhidos aleatoriamente 26 pacientes com úlceras venosas de perna e 26 sem úlcera pareados para sexo, idade, HAS e tabagismo. Os grupos foram comparados com relação à dosagem sérica de vitamina D. O grupo...

  18. Accumulation of radionuclides by common mussel mytilus edulis and purplish bifurcate mussel septifer virgatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of 60Co, 59Fe, 54Mn and 65Zn by common mussed Mytilus edulis and purplish bifurcate mussel Septifer virgatus from seawater was investigated. High accumulation of 59Fe in Mytilus and 54Mn in Septifer was observed in the uptake experiments. Differences in biological half-lives between the two species was observed for 54Mn and 59Fe. The organ-specific concentration of radionuclides observed in the mussels was high accumulation of 60Co in kidney and viscera, 59Fe in kidney and viscera, 65Zn in kidney but was not observed for 54Mn although the accumulation of 54Mn in mantle was different between the species. Autoradiography was applied to examine the details of the distribution of 59Fe in the soft parts of the mussels. (author)

  19. Obtainment of calcium carbonate from mussels shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mussels and oyster shell are discarded at environment, and this accumulation is causing negative consequences to ecosystem. Calcium carbonate is main constituent of the shell chemical composition. Aiming to reduce environmental aggression and generate income to shellfish producer, there was the possibility of using these shells as an alternative to commercial calcium carbonate. For this physics, chemicals and thermal properties were evaluated, using X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis, size distribution, abrasiveness and scanning electronic microscopy. The results indicate that mussels shells have an initial degradation temperature higher than commercial calcium carbonate e same lost weight behavior and 95% of shell chemical composition is calcium carbonate. The sample size distribution was influenced by grinding condition and time as well as its abrasiveness. (author)

  20. Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels' freshness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-08-15

    In this work a NMR metabolomics approach was applied to analyze changes in the metabolic profile of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis upon storage at 0°C and 4°C for 10 and 6 days, respectively. The most significant microbial groups involved in spoilage of mussels were also investigated. The time-related metabolic signature of mussels was analysed by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) which revealed a clear discrimination between the fresh samples and those stored at 0°C and 4°C. The results evidenced a noticeable increase in acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, branched chain amino acids, trimethylamine and a progressive decline of osmolytes like betaine, homarine and taurine during storage. Exploration of the correlations of these metabolites with microbial counts suggested their use as potential biomarkers of spoilage. The results support the use of NMR metabolomics as a valuable tool to provide information on seafood freshness. PMID:27006214

  1. Geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of phosphates from Jandia, Cansa Perna, Itacupim (Para) and Pirocaua and Trauira (Maranhao)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate occurrences of Northeastern Para and Northwestern Maranhao were formed by strong lateritic weathering of phosphorus-rich Precambrian rocks. The rock formation affected by those processes were phyllites and schists of the Gurupi Group in Cansa Perna and Pirocaua, a complex of felsic to mafic and ultramafic rocks metamorphosed in the greenschist facies in Itacupim and Trauira and probably phosphoritic sandstone in Jandia. The geology, the mineralogy of phosphates, oxides, hydroxides and silicates, the geochemistry of element distribution (aluminium, silicon, iron, calcium, etc) and trace elements distribution (strontium, rubidium, barium, rare earths, zirconium, niobium uranium, thorium, etc) and the phosphates origin are studied. (C.G.C.)

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Mussel Adhesive Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh Manjeet Vinayakrao

    2005-01-01

    Mussels, marine organisms, attach to underwater surfaces by making a byssus, which is an extra-corporeal bundle of tiny tendons attached distally to a foreign surface and proximally by insertion of the root into the byssal retractor muscles. The interaction exterior of byssus and marine surface is an adhesive plaque that contains different proportion of five mytilus edulis adhesive proteins (mefp-1 to 5). Relatively high contains ...

  3. Progress Toward Sustainable Mussel Aquaculture in Mar Piccolo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sawyer. Hopkins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mar Piccolo of Taranto is an estuarine basin heavily exploited for commercial mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis L. farming. The historical renown of the Taranto mussels has suffered over the last decade following policy decisions to expand the mussel farms and to relocate a portion of the urban sewage to an outfall outside of Mar Piccolo. The resulting decline in mussel quality and the quandary of how to restore stability to Taranto mussel production became the focal issue for our application of the systems approach framework (SAF. We simulated the ecological, economic, and social interactions that affect mussel production. Stakeholders and mussel farmers contributed by participating in meetings during the entire exercise. Our simulation analysis provided them with a means for understanding the effects of policy scenarios on the system. We present three aspects from our initial results that demonstrate the value of the SAF, as: (1 an operational model to monitor and better research the status of the ecosystem, (2 a management tool to evaluate sustainable mussel farming strategies, and (3 an opportunity for improved communication with and engagement of stakeholders, policy, and the public. The application has also raised important questions about how the food chain is controlled, what could be changed to stabilize the ecosystem to a higher level of productivity, and what role the public and policy could play in promoting sustainable development.

  4. 78 FR 5481 - Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... planning an FY13 strategy to minimize the spread of quagga mussels from the Colorado River and a...

  5. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics

  6. Prevalência de deficiência de vitamina D em pacientes com úlceras de perna de etiologia venosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Juliana C Burkievcz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar se a prevalência da deficiência de vitamina D em indivíduos com úlcera de perna de causa venosa é maior do que em população controle. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se os níveis séricos de 25-OH-vitamina D por quimioluminescência em 27 portadores de úlcera venosa crônica e 58 controles do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de 25-OH-vitamina D3 eram inferiores a 8 ng/dl em 11,1% dos pacientes com úlcera e 3,4% dos controles; entre 8 e 20 ng/dl em 46,1% dos pacientes com úlcera e 25,8% dos controles; entre 21 e 30 ng/dl em 22.2% dos pacientes com úlcera e 27,5% dos controles e acima de 30 ng/dl em 43,1% dos controles e 18,5% dos pacientes com úlcera (p=0,04. CONCLUSÃO: Existe aumento de prevalência de deficiência de vitamina D em pacientes com úlceras venosas crônicas de pernas.

  7. Fate of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in experimentally challenged blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    OpenAIRE

    Skår, Cecilie Kristin; Mortensen, Stein H.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the potential role of blue mussels Mytilus edulis as a vector of the fish pathogenic infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), we developed an experimental bioaccumulation system in which mussels can accumulate virus during normal filtration. Detection of virus in mussels was performed by means of real-time RT-PCR. ISAV-RNA was detected in the mussels until 72 h post-challenge. Hepatopancreas homogenate from experimentally challenged mussels was injected into salmon. All...

  8. Dispersal and Differentiation of Deep-Sea Mussels of the Genus Bathymodiolus (Mytilidae, Bathymodiolinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Kyuno; Mifue Shintaku; Yuko Fujita; Hiroto Matsumoto; Motoo Utsumi; Hiromi Watanabe; Yoshihiro Fujiwara; Jun-Ichi Miyazaki

    2009-01-01

    We sequenced the mitochondrial ND4 gene to elucidate the evolutionary processes of Bathymodiolus mussels and mytilid relatives. Mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps belonged to 3 groups and mytilid relatives from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup positions to bathymodioline mussels. Shallow water mytilid mussels were positioned more distantly relative to the vent/seep mussels, indicating an evolutionary transition from shallow to deep sea via sunken...

  9. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Aung; He, Hui Ling; Chua, Si Hui; Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Chen, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue expends energy in the form of heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Recent studies showed that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans and may be exploited for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetes actions. Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism. Here, we report that apelin-APJ signaling promotes brown adipocyte differentiation by increasing the expressions of brown adipogenic and thermogenic transcriptional factors via the PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. It is also found that apelin relieves the TNFα inhibition on brown adipogenesis. In addition, apelin increases the basal activity of brown adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased PGC1α and UCP1 expressions, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxygen consumption. Finally, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that apelin is able to increase the brown-like characteristics in white adipocytes. This study, for the first time, reveals the brown adipogenic and browning effects of apelin and suggests a potential therapeutic route to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25931124

  10. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte

    2012-03-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels exposed to the predatory shore crab ( Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended mussels had an active response in relation to the predator by developing a significantly firmer attachment to the substrate and a closer aggregated structure. Bottom mussels had a passive strategy by having a thicker shell and larger relative size of the adductor muscle. In a field experiment mussels originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels has to be tested further in large-scale field experiments.

  11. Restless legs syndrome in institutionalized elderly Síndrome de pernas inquietas em idosos institucionalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Galvão Dantas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is characterized by disturbing leg sensations associated to sleep complaints and excessive daytime somnolence. In the elderly, it affects 10 to 35%. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of RLS in institutionalized elderly, analyzing its relationship with clinical, laboratorial and neurophysiological features. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all the subjects under treatment on a chronic-care geriatric service by using face-to-face interviews, which include sleep complaints, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and standardized questions addressing the four minimal criteria for RLS. The patients with RLS diagnosis received neurological examination, laboratorial tests and three of them, neurophysiological evaluation. The prevalence of RLS was 15.6%. Women were more affected and sleep complaints were frequent. There was no significance on other clinical, laboratorial or neurophysiological findings. We conclude that RLS is a prevalent condition in elderly, may lead to sleep complaints and is often underdiagnosed.Síndrome de pernas inquietas (SPI é um distúrbio caracterizado por sensações parestésicas nos membros, aliviadas à sua movimentação ativa. A patologia se associa freqüentemente a distúrbios do sono, sendo especialmente prevalente em idosos (10 a 35%, e pode estar associada a outras condições clínicas. Nosso objetivo foi determinar a prevalência da SPI em idosos institucionalizados, analisando queixas do sono e outras condições clínicas, bioquímicas e neurofisiológicas. Nós entrevistamos os idosos em regime de internato no Instituto São Vicente de Paula (Campina Grande, PB, utilizando questionários específicos para o sono, escala de sonolência de Epworth e um questionário para critérios mínimos para o diagnóstico de SPI. Os pacientes com o diagnóstico de SPI submeteram-se a exame neurológico, laboratoriais, e três deles, a exame neurofisiológico. A prevalência de SPI foi 15

  12. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

  13. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  14. Aggregation and attachment responses of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis—impact of substrate composition, time scale and source of mussel seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Hansen, Benni Winding; Holmer, Marianne; Kristensen, Louise; Poulsen, Louise K.; Stenberg, Claus; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Støttrup, Josianne

    2015-01-01

    Survival after transplantation of mussel seeds is crucial for the production output of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in bottom cultures. Hence, an understanding of the interactions between bed formation, habitat structure and performance of mussel seed of different origins can contribute to an...

  15. Use of the freshwater mussel, Velesunio angasi, in the monitoring and assessment of mining impact in top and streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ) into the phosphate crystal structure. At the physiological pH of mussel body fluid (approximative, 7.8; Brown et al., 1996), the fraction of U present as UO22+ is around 0.3% (calculated from Moulin et al., 1995). The low percentage of the metal readily fixed in the granules, coupled with (in most cases) a low ambient concentration of total soluble U, may provide a high kinetic barrier to retention in the granules

  16. Mussel as biomonitor of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B.; Nascimento, Rizia Keila do, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakelia@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Jessica V. de, E-mail: jessica_clorofila@hotmail [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The presence of agricultural input, domestic and industrial discharges, can result in a contaminant impact in aquatic ecosystems and in elevated concentrations of trace metals that may exert direct toxic effects and maybe accumulated in organisms consumed by man. The objective of the present study was to investigate some metal concentrations in Mytilidae falcate collected from Channel of Santa Cruz, Brazil. There are some industries located along the Channel of Santa Cruz that manufacture aluminum, paper and cellulose, pesticides, and caustic soda. Mussels collected at this area were carefully opened, dried and 0.5g of samples were heating with a mixture of acids; the final solution was filtered and made up to 50 mL. Metals concentrations were measured at aICP-MS (FINNIGAN) and AAS (VARIAN). The results demonstrated that there is more Fe and Mn in the mussels than any other studied metals (Fe >Mn >Cd >Pb >Cu >Th >U).The results for Fe and Mn concentrations are similar to those reported in the literature for invertebrates and fishes collected in regions contaminated by domestic and industrial sewage. Lead and Cd values, on the other hand, are beyond the limiting values for human consumption. Only the levels of copper are within to the Brazilian legislation. Uranium concentration was lower than results showed in literature. (author)

  17. Mussel as biomonitor of environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of agricultural input, domestic and industrial discharges, can result in a contaminant impact in aquatic ecosystems and in elevated concentrations of trace metals that may exert direct toxic effects and maybe accumulated in organisms consumed by man. The objective of the present study was to investigate some metal concentrations in Mytilidae falcate collected from Channel of Santa Cruz, Brazil. There are some industries located along the Channel of Santa Cruz that manufacture aluminum, paper and cellulose, pesticides, and caustic soda. Mussels collected at this area were carefully opened, dried and 0.5g of samples were heating with a mixture of acids; the final solution was filtered and made up to 50 mL. Metals concentrations were measured at aICP-MS (FINNIGAN) and AAS (VARIAN). The results demonstrated that there is more Fe and Mn in the mussels than any other studied metals (Fe >Mn >Cd >Pb >Cu >Th >U).The results for Fe and Mn concentrations are similar to those reported in the literature for invertebrates and fishes collected in regions contaminated by domestic and industrial sewage. Lead and Cd values, on the other hand, are beyond the limiting values for human consumption. Only the levels of copper are within to the Brazilian legislation. Uranium concentration was lower than results showed in literature. (author)

  18. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...... unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  19. Parasitic freshwater pearl mussel larvae (Margaritifera margaritifera L.) reduce the drift-feeding rate of juvenilebrown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Österling, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often cause decline and extinction of threatened species. The present study investigated how gravid freshwater mussels, Margaritifera margaritifera, were affected by turbidity and water temperature, and by mussel density. At an early date of mussel spawning, there were lower proportions of gravid mussels in streams with evidence of mussel recruitment than in streams without mussel recruitment. At a late spawning date, this pattern was reversed. Higher water temperat...

  20. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, M.S.; Kelly, K.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations.

  1. Prevalência de deficiência de vitamina D em pacientes com úlceras de perna de etiologia venosa

    OpenAIRE

    Claudine Juliana C Burkievcz; Thelma Larocca Skare; Osvaldo Malafaia; Paulo Afonso Nunes Nassif; Claudia Stein Gomes Ribas; Lorena Reis Pereira Santos

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar se a prevalência da deficiência de vitamina D em indivíduos com úlcera de perna de causa venosa é maior do que em população controle. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se os níveis séricos de 25-OH-vitamina D por quimioluminescência em 27 portadores de úlcera venosa crônica e 58 controles do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de 25-OH-vitamina D3 eram inferiores a 8 ng/dl em 11,1% dos pacientes com úlcera e 3,4% dos controles; entre 8 e 20 ng/dl em 46,1% d...

  2. Quagga mussel monitoring plan : NDOW Eastern region 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective detailed in this plan is to intensively monitor Wildhorse Reservoir, South Fork Reservoir and the Ruby Lake NWR for the presence of quagga mussels....

  3. Mussel-inspired dendritic polymers as universal multifunctional coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Achazi, Katharina; Liebe, Hendrik; Schulz, Andrea; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Grunwald, Ingo; Haag, Rainer

    2014-10-20

    A rapid and universal approach for multifunctional material coatings was developed based on a mussel-inspired dendritic polymer. This new kind of polymer mimics not only the functional groups of mussel foot proteins (mfps) but also their molecular weight and molecular structure. The large number of catechol and amine groups set the basis for heteromultivalent anchoring and crosslinking. The molecular weight reaches 10 kDa, which is similar to the most adhesive mussel foot protein mfp-5. Also, the dendritic structure exposes its functional groups on the surface like the folded proteins. As a result, a very stable coating can be prepared on virtually any type of material surface within 10 min by a simple dip-coating method, which is as fast as the formation of mussel byssal threads in nature. PMID:25200129

  4. Impact tolerance in mussel thread networks by heterogeneous material distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-01-01

    The Mytilidae, generally known as marine mussels, are known to attach to most substrates including stone, wood, concrete and iron by using a network of byssus threads. Mussels are subjected to severe mechanical impacts caused by waves. However, how the network of byssus threads keeps the mussel attached in this challenging mechanical environment is puzzling, as the dynamical forces far exceed the measured strength of byssus threads and their attachment to the environment. Here we combine experiment and simulation, and show that the heterogeneous material distribution in byssus threads has a critical role in decreasing the effect of impact loading. We find that a combination of stiff and soft materials at an 80:20 ratio enables mussels to rapidly and effectively dissipate impact energy. Notably, this facilitates a significantly enhanced strength under dynamical loading over 900% that of the strength under static loading. PMID:23880603

  5. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic...

  6. Zebra and Quagga Mussel Distribution in North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The concern caused by the explosive spread of the zebra mussel, (Dreissena polymorpha), within the United States resulted in passage of the Nonindigenous Aquatic...

  7. Freshwater mussels of North Mississippi National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A literature search of the distribution of freshwater mussels anticipated to be found on refuges assoicated with the North Mississippi Refuges Cjomplex and museum...

  8. Prevention of zebra mussel infestation and dispersal during aquaculture operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowska, H.

    1996-01-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an exotic invasive species, poses a major threat to North American fish management programs and the aquaculture industry. Fish hatcheries may become infected with zebra mussels from a variety of sources, including the water supply, fish shipments, boats, and equipment. The hatcheries could then serve as agents for the overland dispersal of zebra mussels into stocked waters and to other fish hatcheries. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aquaculture chemicals for use in controlling zebra mussels in fish hatcheries and preventing dispersal of veligers during fish transport. Chemicals were evaluated for use in fish transport and as disinfectants for ponds and equipment. Standardized static toxicity tests were conducted with representative species of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes and with larval (3-d-old veligers), early juvenile (settling larvae), and adult zebra mussels. Chemical concentrations and exposure durations were based on recommended treatment levels for fish, eggs, and ponds. Recommended treatment levels were also exceeded, if necessary, to establish lethal levels for zebra mussels of different developmental stages. Our results indicate that some chemicals currently in use in hatcheries may be effective for controlling zebra mussels in various operations. Chloride salts were the safest and most effective therapeutants tested for use in fish transport. The toxicity of chloride salts to fish varied among species and with temperature; only one treatment regime (sodium chloride at 10,000 mg/L) was safe to all fish species that we tested, but it was only effective on veliger and settler stages of the zebra mussel. Effective disinfectants were benzalkonium chloride for use on equipment and rotenone for use in ponds after fish are harvested. The regulatory status of the identified chemicals is discussed as well as several nonchemical control alternatives.

  9. Development of a diet for rearing juvenile freshwater mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Gatenby, Catherine M.

    1994-01-01

    Over 100 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) are endangered or threatened in the United States, and another dozen species support a declining commercial harvest of shells for the cultured pearl industry in Asia. Because of these Significant declines in abundance, a study was undertaken to develop a diet for rearing juvenile mussels, with the goal of long-term propagation of rare species. Three trials were conducted to test various tri-algal and commercial diets and to ...

  10. Sealed-Bid Auction of Dutch Mussels : Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Schaik, F.D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an econometric analysis of the many data on the sealed-bid auction that sells mussels in Yerseke town, the Netherlands. The goals of this analy- sis are obtaining insight into the important factors that determine the price of these mussels, and quantifying the performance of an individual purchase manager. Be- sides a case-study, the article is a general study on the role of auctions in supply chains and hedonic price factors.

  11. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Miyazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of

  12. Effect of diet quality on mussel biomarker responses to pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Lacroix, Camille; Paul-Pont, Ika; Le Grand, Fabienne; Albentosa, Marina; Bellas, Juan; Viñas, Lucía; Campillo, Juan A; Hegaret, Helene; Soudant, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the quality of two microalgal species on select biological and biochemical responses used as indicators of pollution were assessed. Mussels were conditioned for 6 weeks with the diatom Chaetoceros neogracile and the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra, chosen for being two clearly different types of primary production quality that differ in both biometric and biochemical characteristics. After dietary conditioning, the mussels were exposed to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (FLU), for 1 week followed by 1 week of depuration. Results showed higher FLU accumulation in mussels fed on C. neogracile compared to those fed on H. triquetra. Concomitantly, a greater impact of this toxicant was observed in the biomarker responses of mussels fed on C. neogracile. These mussels showed an increase in the percentage of dead hemocytes, an activation of phagocytosis and ROS production of hemocytes after exposure. Some enzymatic activities also increased upon FLU exposure (superoxide dismutase -SOD-, catalase -CAT-, and glutathione reductases -GR-) and after depuration (glutathione-s-transferase -GST-). Results suggest that FLU exposure as well as food quality influence biomarker responses, with higher values of SOD, CAT and GR in non-exposed mussels fed on C. neogracile. In addition, upon exposure to the same FLU concentration, GR response varied according to dietary conditioning, suggesting that diet could act as a confounding factor in biomarker responses to pollution. Consequently, trophic conditions should be considered in marine pollution monitoring programs for a better interpretation of biomarker responses. PMID:27300503

  13. How does tidal flow affect pattern formation in mussel beds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Jonathan A; Mackenzie, Julia J

    2016-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea, mussel beds self-organise into spatial patterns consisting of bands parallel to the shore. A leading explanation for this phenomenon is that mussel aggregation reduces losses from dislodgement and predation, because of the adherence of mussels to one another. Previous mathematical modelling has shown that this can lead to spatial patterning when it is coupled to the advection from the open sea of algae-the main food source for mussels in the Wadden Sea. A complicating factor in this process is that the advection of algae will actually oscillate with the tidal flow. This has been excluded from previous modelling studies, and the present paper concerns the implications of this oscillation for pattern formation. The authors initially consider piecewise constant ("square-tooth") oscillations in advection, which enables analytical investigation of the conditions for pattern formation. They then build on this to study the more realistic case of sinusoidal oscillations. Their analysis shows that future research on the details of pattern formation in mussel beds will require an in-depth understanding of how the tides affect long-range inhibition among mussels. PMID:27343625

  14. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to native unionid mussels within field enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a commercially prepared spray dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A) was evaluated for removing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) adhering to a population of unionid mussels in Lake Darling (Alexandria, Minnesota). Two groups of unionid mussels were used in the study. Unionid mussels were collected near the test area, weighed, photographed, individually tagged, and randomly allocated to one of nine test enclosures in equal proportions and then divided into two groups. The first group of unionid mussels (Group 1, n = 5 per test enclosure) were indiscriminately selected from each test enclosure and used to estimate the number of zebra mussels adhering to unionid mussels prior to exposure. The second group of unionid mussels (Group 2, n = 22 per test enclosure) were used to evaluate the efficacy of SDP for removal of adhering zebra mussels. Both Group 1 and Group 2 mussels were used to evaluate the effects of SDP exposure on unionid mussel survival.

  15. Assessing the Exposure and Relative Sensitivity of Native Freshwater Mussels to Environmental Stressors and Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Expands the database for pesticide toxicity on native freshwater mussels. 2. Aids in determining any potential differences in toxic sensitivity of gravid female mussel attributed to age and laboratory holding times. 3. Aids in determining potential differences in juvenile ...

  16. Evaluation of the Danish mussel fishery: suggestions for an ecosystem management approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Frandsen, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    , and is important for the transport of material and energy from the pelagic to benthic systems and the control of phytoplankton biomass. In order to evaluate the impact on clearance capacity of a reduction in mussel densities due to mussel dredging, mussel filtration activity measured in situ has been......In Limfjorden, Denmark, an extensive mussel fishery exploits the wild stocks of Mytilus edulis with annual landings of 80,000-100,000 t of mussels. During the last 10 years the impact of mussel dredging on the ecosystem has been studied, including the effect of resuspension of sediment and...... nutrients and the impoverishment of in- and epi-fauna assemblages. Furthermore, dredging changes the physical structure and complexity of the seabed which affects mussel growth and interactions among zoobenthic species. The blue mussel constitutes the dominant fraction of the zoobenthic suspension feeders...

  17. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  18. A Conversation with Larry Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence D. Brown was born on December 16, 1940 in Los Angeles, California. He obtained his Ph.D. in mathematics from Cornell University in 1964. He has been on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, Cornell University, Rutgers University and, most recently, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the Miers Busch Professorship of Statistics. Professor Brown was President of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1992–1993, Coeditor of The Anna...

  19. Effects of flow restoration on mussel growth in a Wild and Scenic North American River

    OpenAIRE

    Sansom, Brandon J; Hornbach, Daniel J; Hove, Mark C; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Freshwater mussels remain among the most imperiled species in North America due primarily to habitat loss or degradation. Understanding how mussels respond to habitat changes can improve conservation efforts. Mussels deposit rings in their shell in which age and growth information can be read, and thus used to evaluate how mussels respond to changes in habitat. However, discrepancies between methodological approaches to obtain life history information from growth rings has led to c...

  20. Determination of the Amino Acid and Chemical Composition of Canned Smoked Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Şengör, Gülgün F.; Gün, Hüseyin; Kalafatoğlu, Hanife

    2008-01-01

    In this research smoking and canning techniques were applied to cultured mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, L.) from the Çanakkkale Strait in Eceabat, Turkey. Mussels that were smoked by liquid and traditional methods were canned in different sauces. The chemical composition and amino acid composition of the canned smoked mussels were determined by the results of laboratory analyses. As a result of smoking and canning mussels, a food with high nutritional value was obtained. It was determine...

  1. Distribution of oyster Ostrea edulis, mussel Mytilus edulis and Anomiid larvae in Bertraghboy Bay, Co. Galway

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J H

    1988-01-01

    Concentrations and shell lengths of Mytilus edulis, Ostrea edulis and Anomiid larvae were recorded from April to October 1985 in Bertaghboy Bay, Co. Galway. The gamete volume fraction off eggs in female mussels was recorded in an introduced cultivated population of mussels in the inner bay during 1985. Oyster larvae were commonest in July and September, but were concentrated in the upper bay. Mussel and Anomiid distributions were more variable. While the commercial stocks of mussels in the ba...

  2. Sea Otters Homogenize Mussel Beds and Reduce Habitat Provisioning in a Rocky Intertidal Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gerald G.; Markel, Russell W.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Salomon, Anne K.; Harley, Christopher D. G.; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass) and a...

  3. Numerical modelling of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) bacterial contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Tomasz; Doré, William J.; Lyons, Kieran; Nolan, Glenn D.

    2014-05-01

    Bivalve shellfish such as oysters and mussels can concentrate human pathogens when grown in areas impacted by municipal wastewater. Under EU regulation this risk to consumers is controlled by determining the sanitary quality of bivalve shellfish production areas based on the concentration of Escherichia coli present in shellfish flesh. The authors present a modelling approach to simulate an uptake of E. coli from seawater and subsequent depuration by Mytilus edulis. The model that dynamically predicts E. coli concentration in the mussel tissue is embedded within a 3-D numerical modelling system comprising hydrodynamic, biogeochemical, shellfish ecophysiological and the newly proposed microbial modules. The microbial module has two state variables, namely, the concentrations of E. coli in water and in the mussel tissue. Novel formulations to calculate the filtration rates by mussels and the resulting uptake of bacteria are proposed; these rates are updated at every computational time step. Concentrations of E. coli in seawater are also updated accordingly taking into account the amounts ingested by mussels. The model has been applied to Bantry Bay in the south-west of Ireland. The results indicate that the model is capable of reproducing the official classification of shellfish waters in the bay based on monthly sampling at several stations. The predicted filtration rates and ratios of E. coli in water and mussels also compare well with the literature. The model thus forms a tool that may be used to assist in the classification of shellfish waters at much greater spatial and temporal detail than that offered by a field monitoring programme. Moreover, it can also aid in designing an efficient monitoring programme. The model can also be utilised to determine the contribution of individual point sources of pollution on the microbial loading in mussels and, when incorporated into an operational framework, it can provide a short-term forecasting of microbial

  4. European mussel cultivation along the Atlantic coast: production status, problems and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaal, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Mussel culture in Europe produces about 50 f the annual world-wide harvest of mussels. The main yields of atlantic mussels are from Spain, The Netherlands and Denmark, while the Mediterranean production predominantly comes from Italy. Production in these traditional areas have been stabilised since

  5. Ingestion and potential risks to wildlife from Exxon Valdez oil residues in mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels are important bioaccumulators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a toxicologically important fraction of crude oils. In some dense mussel beds in Prince William Sound, oil and PAH residues derived from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) have persisted. The potential risks to wildlife from the consumption of these mussels are related to the degree of contamination of the mussels, the dietary intake of mussels, and the toxicity of the oils. Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus), and American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmanil) were identified as species that consumed significant quantities of mussels. The consumption of mussels was estimated from the percentage of mussels in the diet and the caloric requirements of each species. Caloric requirements were taken either from direct observations or calculated from allometric equations adjusted for nonbasal energy expenditures. Daily intakes of oils were estimated from the percentage of PAHs in oils, PAH levels in mussels from contaminated beds, and mussel consumption by these species. The highest estimated daily oil intake occurred in Black Oystercatchers at 22 mg/kg bodyweight, assuming that these birds consumed mussels at the 95th percentile of oil contamination and that 75% of the caloric requirements are obtained from mussels. These levels of estimated oil ingestion are considerably lower than levels which have been found to produce toxicological effects in extended feeding studies in surrogate species

  6. The production of relaid blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Per Sand; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) smaller than the commercial size caught in Limfjorden, as in other areas, are typically discarded. However, during the period 1990 to 1993 these small mussels were returned, after sorting to mussel beds for later harvest; a process defined as ''relay''. This paper...

  7. Short-term impact of blue mussel dredging ( Mytilus edulis L.) on a benthic community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, T.; Christiansen, M.L.; Petersen, M.F.; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    to the boundary area. This indicates that the disturbance of the mussel bed structure reduced growth and that the lowering of intraspecific food competition caused by a reduced density of mussels did not increase the accumulation of biomass in the mussels which remained in the dredged area....

  8. Counting of live mussels on a HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.; Akber, R.A.; Marten, R. [Office of the Supervising Scientist, Jabiru, NT (Australia). Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute

    1994-12-31

    Four mussels collected from Mudginberri billabong were counted live on a HPGe detector. Count time was from 2 to 3 days. Radionuclides detectable by this method included {sup 226}Ra {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 210}Pb from the uranium series and {sup 228}Ac and {sup 212}Pb from the thorium series. The measured {sup 222}Rn retention varied from 7% to 17%. The {sup 228}Ac/{sup 226}Ra and {sup 212}Pb/{sup 228}Ac ratios were used to give an estimate of the mussel age based upon the known {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra - age and {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra - age relations for mussels from Mudginberri billabong. Two mussels were recounted after living for several months in a 50:50 mix of water from Ranger Uranium Mines retention pond no. 2 with Magela Creek water. The {sup 234}Th peak at 63 keV was then measurable, probably due to uptake of the parent {sup 238}U. This means that live counting cannot be used for detection of {sup 226}Ra releases from uranium mine pond waters, as {sup 235}U interferes with the {sup 226}Ra peak at 186 keV. The method does show promise for studies of the kinetics of uptake of uranium in mussels. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. 210Po activity concentrations in mussels at Aegean Turkish Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Turkey mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) are consumed in relatively large quantities. Therefore, analyses of mussel samples from different sampling sites in Aegean Sea were performed in order to evaluate the ingestion of 210Po and 210Pb by the Turkey population. Polonium analyses were performed with a complete dissolution of the sample in mineral acids. Polonium isotopes were plated onto a copper discs in 0.5 M HCl solution in the presence of ascorbic acid using a technique modified from Flynn (1968). The alpha activity measurements of polonium isotopes plated on copper discs were performed with ZnS(Ag) detector. The highest concentrations was found in Karaburun mussels as 254 Bq.kg-1 and the lowest one was at Inciralti as 18 Bq.kg-1. Based on these 210Po activity concentrations, annual dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in mussels would vary widely, from 136 to 10 mSv.y-1. It is concluded that in mussels living in the Aegean Sea a wide range of internal radiation dose exists and it is essentially sustained by 210Po food-chain transfer. (author)

  10. Influence of mussel biological variability on pollution biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Campillo, Juan A; Viñas, Lucía; Fumega, José; Franco, Angeles; Besada, Victoria; González-Quijano, Amelia; Bellas, Juan

    2015-02-01

    This study deals with the identification and characterization of biological variables that may affect some of the biological responses used as pollution biomarkers. With this aim, during the 2012 mussel survey of the Spanish Marine Pollution monitoring program (SMP), at the North-Atlantic coast, several quantitative and qualitative biological variables were measured (corporal and shell indices, gonadal development and reserves composition). Studied biomarkers were antioxidant enzymatic activities (CAT, GST, GR), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the physiological rates integrated in the SFG biomarker (CR, AE, RR). Site pollution was considered as the chemical concentration in the whole tissues of mussels. A great geographical variability was observed for the biological variables, which was mainly linked to the differences in food availability along the studied region. An inverse relationship between antioxidant enzymes and the nutritional status of the organism was evidenced, whereas LPO was positively related to nutritional status and, therefore, with higher metabolic costs, with their associated ROS generation. Mussel condition was also inversely related to CR, and therefore to SFG, suggesting that mussels keep an "ecological memory" from the habitat where they have been collected. No overall relationship was observed between pollution and biomarkers, but a significant overall effect of biological variables on both biochemical and physiological biomarkers was evidenced. It was concluded that when a wide range of certain environmental factors, as food availability, coexist in the same monitoring program, it determines a great variability in mussel populations which mask the effect of contaminants on biomarkers. PMID:25483414

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of live freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Holliman F.; Davis, D.; Bogan, A.E.; Kwak, T.J.; Gregory, Cope W.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the soft tissues of live freshwater mussels, Eastern elliptio Elliptio complanata, via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), acquiring data with a widely available human whole-body MRI system. Anatomical features depicted in the profile images included the foot, stomach, intestine, anterior and posterior adductor muscles, and pericardial cavity. Noteworthy observations on soft tissue morphology included a concentration of lipids at the most posterior aspect of the foot, the presence of hemolymph-filled fissures in the posterior adductor muscle, the presence of a relatively large hemolymph-filled sinus adjacent to the posterior adductor muscle (at the ventral-anterior aspect), and segmentation of the intestine (a diagnostic description not reported previously in Unionidae). Relatively little is known about the basic biology and ecological physiology of freshwater mussels. Traditional approaches for studying anatomy and tissue processes, and for measuring sub-lethal physiological stress, are destructive or invasive. Our study, the first to evaluate freshwater mussel soft tissues by MRI, clarifies the body plan of unionid mussels and demonstrates the efficacy of this technology for in vivo evaluation of the structure, function, and integrity of mussel soft tissues. ?? 2008, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

  12. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment. PMID:27086073

  13. Mussels as a tool for mitigation of nutrients in the marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Hasler, Berit; Timmermann, Karen;

    2014-01-01

    Long-line mussel farming has been proposed as a mitigation tool for removal of excess nutrients in eutrophic coastal waters. A full-scale mussel farm optimized for cost efficient nutrient removal was established in the eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark where biological and economic parameters related...... establishment, maintenance and harvest revealed that mussel production optimized for mitigation can be carried out at a lower cost compared to mussel production for (human) consumption. The costs for nutrient removal was 14.8€kg−1N making mitigation mussel production a cost-efficient measure compared to the...

  14. The mussel filter–pump – present understanding, with a re-examination of gill preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Funch, Peter; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2015-01-01

    Filter feeding in mussels is a secondary adaptation where the gills have become W-shaped and greatly enlarged, acting as the mussel filter–pump. Water pumping and particle capture in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, have been studied over many years. Here, we give a short status of the present...... understanding of ciliary structure and function of the mussel filter–pump, supplemented with new photo-microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of gill preparations. Pumping rate (filtration) and pressure to maintain flow have been extensively studied so the power delivered by the mussel pump...

  15. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement is...... the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom...... mussels exposed to the predatory shore crab (Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments...

  16. Dredging of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish sound: stock sizes and fishery-effects on mussel population dynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    1999-01-01

    dredge efficiency was 17%. The fishing area in Limfjorden (700 km(2)) is divided into 22 fishery zones and mussel stock size was calculated for each zone. From April 1993 to April 1994 the total stock size declined from 771 000 to 616 000 t. In the same period, the exploitation rate in the fishery was 14......In April 1993, 1994 and 1995 the abundance of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis L., was estimated in Limfjorden, Denmark. The stocks were assessed by using a down-scaled model of a commercial mussel dredge which efficiency was analysed by comparing its samples with others collected by diver. The mean......% of the 1993 stock, and the size of mussel landings from each zone significantly correlated with their change in stock. In April 1995, the total mussel stock was reduced to 494 000 t. The mean exploitation rate in 1994-1995 was 15%. No correlation was observed between the size of mussel landings and...

  17. Are Predators Limiting Zebra Mussel Colonization of Unionid Mussels in Great Lake Coastal Wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Szalay, F. A.; Bowers, R.

    2005-05-01

    Although many native mollusc populations have been eliminated in the Laurentian Great Lakes by the exotic zebra mussel, recent surveys have found abundant unionid (Bivalvia: Unionidae) populations in some coastal wetlands. Unionid burrowing in soft sediments and predation by fish have been shown to reduce numbers of attached zebra mussels, and we tested these factors in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. In 2002, we held live unionids (Leptodea fragilis, Quadrula quadrula) and Pyganodon grandis shells in exclosures with wire mesh bottoms that were buried to sediment depths of either 5, 10, or 20 cm. After 2 months, numbers of attached dreissenids on unionids were significantly higher inside all exclosure treatments than outside exclosures. This indicated that either unionid burrowing was prevented in all sediment depth treatments or molluscivores were excluded by exclosures. In 2004, we measured dreissenid colonization on Q. quadrula and PVC plates in bottomless exclosures with different mesh sizes. After 6 months, dreissenid numbers on PVC plates and on Q. quadrula in 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm and 5 cm X 10 cm mesh exclosures were significantly higher than in open exclosures. These data suggest that molluscivores are important in limiting dreissenids in Great Lake coastal wetlands.

  18. Purification by mussels of petroleum-containing seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, O.G.; Shchekaturina, T.L.; Stepanets, L.G.; Yanov, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    A solution to the problem of thorough purification of petroleum-containing ballast waters, taking place during the emptying of tankers in bulk oil ports is presented. The fact of removal by mussels of petroleum pollution components from sea water points to the possibility and advisability of using them in a system for hydrobiological purification of petroleum-containing sea water. The optimal number of mussel specimens necessary for water purification will depend on the sizes of the organisms and the flow rate of the channel of petroleum-containing water. Under certain conditions a decrease in the deaths of hydrobionts can be gotten, for example by reducing the time of their being found in the affecting volume of waste water. In this case a removable-cell arrangement of the mussels which facilitates also the task of removal of dead organisms shows promise.

  19. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  20. Mutagenicity test using Vibrio harveyi in the assessment of water quality from mussel farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Yolanda; Suárez, Pilar; Alonso, Ana; Longo, Elisa; San Juan, Fuencisla

    2013-05-15

    This work analyses the mutagenicity of seawater from mussel farms using the Vibrio harveyi mutagenicity test and its relationship with the accumulated pollutants and the development of gonadal neoplasia in mussels. Histological disorders identified as germinoma were observed in the gonad of Mytilus galloprovincialis during the period of study. The prevalence of this pathology is significantly correlated with certain levels of pollutants accumulated in mussels, mainly of PAHs and PCBs, whose toxic equivalents were calculated as EROD induction equivalency. The mutagenicity and toxicity of the water surrounding mussel's farms is clearly correlated with the pollutants accumulated and with the neoplasia prevalence in mussels. Such correlations are corroborated by a multivariate analysis. Our results conclude with the utility of V. harveyi test as an optimal and rapid method in the monitoring of the quality of the water from mussel farms and as a tool to control the risks of pollution on mussel production and its safety for human food. PMID:23510693

  1. Review of toxic episodes and management strategies in the Danish mussel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Andersen, Per; Thorbjørnsen, Bjarne Ring

    Denmark has in many years been one of the world’s main producers of blue mussels caught from natural banks. The Danish mussel aquaculture sector is now growing. The Danish production areas have been regarded as “low risk” areas with respect to toxic algae and occurrence of marine biotoxins. The...... change to more production of cultured mussel results in higher risk for occurrence of marine biotoxins because of the closer interaction between toxic algae and mussels. Results showing the difference between content of marine biotoxins in bottom mussel and cultured mussel from the same production areas...... includes use of heat treated mussels as matrix for marine biotoxin testing and consequently a reduction of the maximum limit for lipophilic toxins by a factor of approximately two, use of chemical methods for verification and extra precaution measurements during risk periods, and use of measurement of...

  2. Enemies with benefits: parasitic endoliths protect mussels against heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardi, G. I.; Nicastro, K. R.; McQuaid, C. D.; Ng, T. P. T.; Lathlean, J.; Seuront, L.

    2016-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of species interactions can be context dependant and strongly affected by environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that, during periods of intense heat stress, parasitic phototrophic endoliths that fatally degrade mollusc shells can benefit their mussel hosts. Endolithic infestation significantly reduced body temperatures of sun-exposed mussels and, during unusually extreme heat stress, parasitised individuals suffered lower mortality rates than non-parasitised hosts. This beneficial effect was related to the white discolouration caused by the excavation activity of endoliths. Under climate warming, species relationships may be drastically realigned and conditional benefits of phototrophic endolithic parasites may become more important than the costs of infestation. PMID:27506855

  3. Processing of chopped mussel meat in retort pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino TRIBUZI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chopped mussel meat packaged in retort pouches was processed in a laboratory-scale water immersion retort, adapted for processing under overpressure conditions. Retort temperature effects on product yield and on cook value were evaluated by setting the F0 at 7 min. The effects of different pre-treatments (salting and marination on the characteristics of mussels were evaluated after processing at retort temperature of 118 °C and during a whole year of storage at 25 °C. The salted samples showed better yield during storage, while no differences were found for the other physicochemical parameters.

  4. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  8. Perturbation induced changes in substrate use by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in sedimentary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    wa Kangeri, Arno K.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Barkman, Barbara R.; Donker, Jasper J. A.; Joppe, Daniel J.; Dankers, Norbert M. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    For sessile benthic marine organisms adhesion to a stable substrate is important for survival. Sedimentary systems, however, generally lack stable surfaces. How sessile species like the mussel, Mytilus edulis, are able to achieve stability in unstable sediments is not fully understood. An intertidal mussel bed in the tidal flats in the Western portion of the Dutch Wadden Sea was selected to investigate adhesion behavior of M. edulis. Sampling was conducted along a hydrodynamic gradient along the Front-edge, Center and Back-edge of a mussel bed. Mussels along the bed edges were characterized by adhesion to fine shell debris and high numbers of byssus threads. Mussels in the center of the bed were characterized by adhesion to shells of living conspecifics and relatively low numbers of byssus threads. An experimental investigation to isolate the role of perturbation on adhesion strategies was carried out under laboratory conditions. Experimental results show that under perturbed conditions mussels developed increased numbers of byssus threads relative to mussels left unperturbed. Additionally, mussels subjected to perturbation preferentially adhered more frequently to fine shell debris while unperturbed mussels adhered more frequently to conspecifics. Results show that differentiation in adhesion strategy is driven by physical perturbation and mediated by bed density. The results also suggest that adhesion by mussels in a sedimentary environment is a selective process in which larger shell fragments and shells of conspecifics are the preferred substrate.

  9. DNA adducts in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generally applicable 32-P post-labelling assay was used to examine for the presence of DNA adducts in mussels experimentally exposed to known carcinogens and in mussels collected from sites impacted by wastewaters. Mussels exposed to seawater artificially polluted with 2-aminofluorene showed exclusively an adduct which was identified as dG-C8-2-aminofluorene. Under the same experimental conditions, Diesel-2 oil did not induce any detectable adducts. When mussel digestive gland DNA was collected and analyzed from one unpolluted site, two moderately impacted sites, and one site heavily impacted by cannery wastewaters, mussel DNA from the unpolluted and only one moderately polluted site showed the presence of 6 to 10 adducts. This indicates they were not related to the pollution. This was further supported by the absence of dose-related adducts. Clear evidence for the presence of pollution-related DNA adducts was, however, found in juvenile mussels collected from an oil refinery site. One major and three minor adducts were detected in these mussels with no adducts detected in juvenile mussels from an unpolluted site. Results indicate that while mussels are capable of metabolizing 2-aminofluorene to a DNA binding species, the environmental pollutants may be metabolized only selectively. Further, the mussel digestive gland DNA also contained DNA modifications which are unrelated to pollutants and their presence appeared to be sex and season dependent

  10. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  11. INVASIVE MUSSEL SPECIES AND THE INTEGRITY OF LARGE RIVERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation is a summary of patterns of invasion and ecological risk associated with invasive mussel species in Great Rivers. Data from EMAP-GRE are included. Findings of this study can inform expectations about where and what invasive species may colonize North American River...

  12. 75 FR 17758 - Approved Recovery Plan for the Scaleshell Mussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... and solicited comments from August 6, 2004, through September 7, 2004 (69 FR 47949). We considered... plan. We listed the scaleshell as endangered on October 9, 2001 (66 FR 51322). The current distribution... Fish and Wildlife Service Approved Recovery Plan for the Scaleshell Mussel AGENCY: Fish and...

  13. Zebra mussels mitigation at Ontario Hydro's hydroelectric generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Great Lakes and their connecting channels have recently been invaded by a tiny freshwater mollusc that has already cost Ontario Hydro millions of dollars. Dreissena polymorpha, commonly known as the zebra mussel, entered the great lakes in ballast water carried by a ship from Europe in 1985. These mussels threaten to reduce or totally block the flow of water in auxiliary systems of any generating station, water treatment plant or municipal water facility that uses raw lake water and to cause accelerated corrosion of the metallic substrate to which they attach themselves. To satisfy the immediate need for control, chlorination was identified as the most effective interim measure to prevent the biofouling of the raw water systems. Detection and monitoring of mussels and the installation, operation, environmental constraints, benefits and deficiencies of the chemical treatment system are presented. Long term objectives for control of the mussels are to develop alternatives to chlorination (ozone, hydrogen peroxide, protective coatings, thermal shock, mechanical filtration, etc.) for application at existing facilities and for incorporation into the design of new facilities and rehabilitation programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

  14. Differential cold-shock resistance among acclimated European mussel populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.; Hummel, H.

    2007-01-01

    To study differential cold-shock resistance of marine mussel populations (Mytilus spp.) from different climatic regions in Europe, we sampled 12 populations, ranging from 43 to 58 degrees N. Minimum critical temperatures for aerobic metabolism (CTmin) were determined before and after 3 months of com

  15. Differential cold-shock resistance among acclimated European mussel populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Hummel, H.

    2007-01-01

    To study differential cold-shock resistance of marine mussel populations (Mytilus spp.) from different climatic regions in Europe, we sampled 12 populations, ranging from 43 to 58°N. Minimum critical temperatures for aerobic metabolism (CTmin) were determined before and after 3 months of common accl

  16. Differential cold-shock resistance among acclimated European mussel populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Hummel, H.

    2007-01-01

    To study differential cold-shock resistance of marine mussel populations (Mytilus spp.) from different climatic regions in Europe, we sampled 12 populations, ranging from 43 to 58_N. Minimum critical temperatures for aerobic metabolism (CTmin) were determined before and after 3 months of common accl

  17. Mercury concentrations in the coastal marine food web along the Senegalese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of seasonal (wet and dry seasons) and spatial (five sites) variation of mercury concentration in seven marine organisms representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters and including species of commercial importance. Total mercury levels were recorded in the green algae (Ulva lactuca); the brown mussel (Perna perna); the Caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus); and in the liver and muscles of the following fish: Solea senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron, and Sardinella aurita. The total selenium (Se) contents were determined only in the edible part of Perna perna, Penaeus kerathurus and in the muscles of Sardinella aurita and Solea senegalensis. Hg concentration in fish species was higher in liver compared to the muscle. Between species differences in Hg, concentrations were recorded with the highest concentration found in fish and the lowest in algae. The spatiotemporal study showed that there was no clear seasonal pattern in Hg concentrations in biota, but spatial differences existed with highest concentrations in sites located near important anthropogenic pressure. For shrimp, mussel, and the muscles of sardine and sole, Hg concentrations were below the health safety limits for human consumption as defined by the European Union. The Se/Hg molar ratio was always higher than one whatever the species or location suggesting a protection of Se against Hg potential adverse effect. PMID:26961529

  18. Dredging of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish sound: stock sizes and fishery-effects on mussel population dynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    1999-01-01

    In April 1993, 1994 and 1995 the abundance of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis L., was estimated in Limfjorden, Denmark. The stocks were assessed by using a down-scaled model of a commercial mussel dredge which efficiency was analysed by comparing its samples with others collected by diver. The mean...

  19. COMPARISON OF PCB AND TRACE METAL BIOACCUMULATION IN THE BLUE MUSSEL, MYTILUS EDULIS, AND THE RIBBED MUSSEL, MODIOLUS DEMISSUS, IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accumulation of PCBs and trace metals was compared at 14-d intervals between two filter-feeding bivalves, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the ribbed mussel, Modiolus demissus, after deployment in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, for up to 56 d. Contaminant uptake in de...

  20. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the...... types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore...

  1. Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs and ribbed mussels living in clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junda

    1991-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus) and ribbed mussels ( Geukensia demissa) were studied by manipulating different components of mussel clump structure in the laboratory to test their effects on the mussels' susceptibility to crab predation. Mussels with stronger attachment strength or those buried deeper in the sediment suffered lower mortality. Blue crabs showed no significant size selectivity when two size classes of mussles (30-40 and 50-60 mm in shell heights) were offered. When juvenile mussels were attached to adult conspecifics and completely buried in the centres of clumps as in the field, blue crabs did not actively search for them. The crabs, however, did consume juveniles as by-products when they preyed upon the adult mussels to which the juveniles were attached.

  2. The production of relaid blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Per Sand; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) smaller than the commercial size caught in Limfjorden, as in other areas, are typically discarded. However, during the period 1990 to 1993 these small mussels were returned, after sorting to mussel beds for later harvest; a process defined as ''relay''. This paper...... presents data from two commercial culture beds and from two smaller experimental beds established to study growth and mortality of these small mussel discards. The data were analysed by a yield- per-recruit model to calculate yields from such relays. This model was also used to predict the optimal time of...... harvest. The parameters utilized in the model were: (1) initial mortality due to harvesting, unshipping and sorting; (2) growth and mortality between relay and harvest; and, (3) the drained wet weight of a mussel of a given shell length. The initial mortality was estimated from observations of mussels...

  3. Area-intensive bottom culture production of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp

    therefore necessary to focus on area-intensive production methods for mussel exploitation. For that purpose bottom culture production of blue mussels is relevant. Despite a long tradition for bottom culturing in Europe the method is still de-pendent on natural conditions, such as recruitment, food...... transplantation tracks. Production of blue mussels in bottom culture beds may impact a smaller area compared to fishery on full-grown mussels from natural mussel beds, and can support an area-intensive production if the bio- mass/production ratio is higher than 0.5...... availability and predation. The major constrains for development of the production method is lack of recruitment to sustain the seed mussel source, and conflicts with nature conservation interests due to negative effects of dredging. The aim of the present PhD project was, therefore, to study how thorough...

  4. Photometric brown-dwarf classification

    CERN Document Server

    Skrzypek, N

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method "photo-type" to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs, onto the standard system, from photometry alone. We combine SDSS, UKIDSS and WISE data and classify point sources by comparing the izYJHKW1W2 colours against template colours for quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. In a sample of $6.5\\times10^6$ bright point sources, J$<$17.5, from 3150 deg$^2$, we identify and type 898 L and T dwarfs, making this the largest homogeneously selected sample of brown dwarfs to date. The sample includes 713 (125) new (previously known) L dwarfs and 21 (39) T dwarfs. For the previously-known sources, the scatter in the plot of photo-type vs spectral type indicates that our photo-types are accurate to 1.5 (1.0) sub-types rms for L (T) dwarfs. Peculiar objects and candidate unresolved binaries are identified.

  5. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  6. Mussel meal diets to growing/finishing pigs: influence on performance and carcass quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wallenbeck, A.; M Neil; lundeheim, N.; Andersson, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel meal has potential as an alternative protein source for pig since it has high portein content and a balanced Amino acid pattern. Mussels are good filterers of Water and an effective Tool to clean Waters from nitrogen and phosphorus. Using mussel meal as feedstuff in animal production could close the aro-aqua nutrient cycle, bringing nutrients back from the Water to the agro-ecosystem. Session 26 - Theatre 7.

  7. Tissue distribution of a coliphage and Escherichia coli in mussels after contamination and depuration.

    OpenAIRE

    Power, U.F.; Collins, J K

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the tissue distribution of Escherichia coli and a coliphage after contamination of the common mussel (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were contaminated with high levels of feces-associated E. coli and a 22-nm icosahedral coliphage over a 2-day period in a flowing-seawater facility. After contamination, individual tissues were carefully dissected and assayed for E. coli and the coliphage. Contaminated mussels were also analyzed to determine the tissue distribu...

  8. Estimation of Mussel Population Response to Hydrologic Alteration in a Southeastern U.S. Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Wisniewski, Jason M.; Shea, Colin P.; Rhett Jackson, C.

    2011-07-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels ( Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  9. Sea otters homogenize mussel beds and reduce habitat provisioning in a rocky intertidal ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G Singh

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities.

  10. Haemocytic neoplasia in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in the Slovene Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Gombac, Mitja; Sitar, Rosvita; Pogacnik, Milan; Arzul, Isabelle; Jencic, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    The health status of cultured and wild Mediterranean mussels in the Slovene Sea has so far been unexplored. Initially, 1280 adult Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), 960 from a shellfish farm and 320 from natural beds, were collected over a one-year period. Water temperature, oxygenation and salinity were measured at each sampling. Mussels were measured and weighted to calculate the condition index and microscopically examined for the presence of haemocytic neoplasia. Haemocyti...

  11. Tracing of Norovirus Outbreak Strains in Mussels Collected near Sewage Effluents▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nenonen, Nancy P.; Hannoun, Charles; Horal, Peter; Hernroth, Bodil; Bergström, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Noroviruses from mussels collected near sewage effluents were compared with local patient outbreak strains. Sequence analyses of RNA polymerase-capsid-poly(A)-3′ (3.1-kilobase) regions confirmed the 99.9% similarity between genotype I.1 strains from mussels and patient strains from recreational-bathing outbreaks, indicating the potential usefulness of sentinel norovirus mussel studies in tracing human norovirus contamination of coastal waters.

  12. Effects of suspended sediments on food uptake for zebra mussels in Lake Markermeer, The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Penning, W.E.; L Pozzato; Vijverberg, T.; Noordhuis, R.; bij de Vaate, A.; Van Donk, E.; Dionisio Pires, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Until 1992, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were an important food source for diving ducks in Lake Markermeer (The Netherlands). After 1993, the mussel biomass sharply declined, and the current population is in poor condition (maximum shell length 0.5 g L-1. The NS concentrations used in this study are high, but analyses of the near-bottom TSM concentrationsshow that these values occur frequently and may be partly responsible for the poor mussel status in Lake Markermeer.

  13. Area-intensive bottom culture production of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per

    2012-01-01

    The conflict between blue mussel, Mytlius edulis (Linnaeus, 1758), exploitation and other interest groups due to ecological effects of the fishery, was described ten years ago, and still exists today. To reduce the ecological effects and the conflicts between conservation and exploitation it is therefore necessary to focus on area-intensive production methods for mussel exploitation. For that purpose bottom culture production of blue mussels is relevant. Despite a long tradition for bottom cu...

  14. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate cou...

  15. Quality of live packaged mussels during storage as a function of size and oxygen concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Bernárdez Costas, Marta; Pastoriza, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The commercialization of live mussels is limited by their capacity to resist the adverse conditions associated with their removal from the natural environment. Packaging under modified atmospheres has been proposed as an alternative method for the stabilization of mussels and prolong shelf life. This study investigates how different concentrations of oxygen (20, 75 and 85%) influence the percentage mortality and quality of packaged Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus gallopro...

  16. A First Insight into the Genome of the Filter-Feeder Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Murgarella; Daniela Puiu; Beatriz Novoa; Antonio Figueras; David Posada; Carlos Canchaya

    2016-01-01

    Mussels belong to the phylum Mollusca, one of the largest and most diverse taxa in the animal kingdom. Despite their importance in aquaculture and in biology in general, genomic resources from mussels are still scarce. To broaden and increase the genomic knowledge in this family, we carried out a whole-genome sequencing study of the cosmopolitan Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). We sequenced its genome (32X depth of coverage) on the Illumina platform using three pair-end libra...

  17. GROWTH OF MUSSELS (Mytilus galloprovincialis) ON THE EAST COAST OF ISTRIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nives Marušić; Sanja Vidaček; Helga Medić; Tomislav Petrak

    2010-01-01

    Growth rate of mussels depends on ecological factors but largely on the amount of food. Food must be of adequate composition and amount. Other responsible factors are temperature and salinity. Growth of mussels is increased if there is inflow of fresh water. Very low values of salinity have negative influence on growth. The growth of mussels in Budava and Raša Bay is increase with an increase in sea temperature. The slowest growth was at the very lowest salinity values.

  18. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  19. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, Maeve D.

    2014-01-01

    seaweed with regard to the amount of nitrogen assimilated. Furthermore, in optimized systems, areal requirement for mussels is similar to the cultivation of the same tonnage (1,000 t) of seaweed (approximately 8 ha). The cost-effectiveness of a mussel biofilter is €11–30 kg−1 nitrogen (N) removed based on......This paper compares the biofilter capacity and cost-effectiveness of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and seaweed for use in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) based on experiences in Ireland and Denmark. This comparison shows that weight for weight, mussels are a better biofilter than...

  20. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, M. D.

    seaweed with regard to the amount of nitrogen assimilated. Furthermore, in optimised systems, areal requirement for mussels is similar to the cultivation of the same tonnage (1,000 t) of seaweed (approx. 8 ha). The cost-effectiveness of a mussel biofilter is €11.4-19.2 kg-1 N removed based on modeled......This paper compares the biofilter capacity and cost-effectiveness of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and seaweed for use in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) based on experiences in Ireland and Denmark. This comparison shows that weight for weight, mussels are a better biofilter than...

  1. Evaluation of caged freshwater mussels as an alternative method for environmental effects monitoring (EEM) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from caged mussel experiments agreed with benthic invertebrate surveys, but not with trends observed for fish. - On three occasions between 1998 and 2000, freshwater mussels were collected by divers in Lake Memphremagog during the spring and transplanted to various locations in the St-Francois River (Quebec, Canada). Mussel growth was monitored by comparing total weight and length at the beginning and end of the exposure period. In 1998, mussels were caged for 60 days at 10 stations, including locations receiving treated effluents from three pulp and paper mills. Overall, there was an apparent trend of increased mussel growth from upstream to downstream along the river. However, mussels caged downstream from the effluent discharge of a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill grew more slowly than those caged immediately upstream in the river. In 1999 and 2000, we further investigated the situation in the vicinity of this bleached kraft mill. The measurements again indicated that growth of mussels in the effluent plume from this mill was reduced in comparison to sites upstream. Overall, in terms of growth, the caged mussels responded both positively and negatively to different environmental conditions. Compared with other monitoring approaches used at these sites during the same period, the caged mussel experiment results were consistent with the trends observed with the benthic invertebrate survey but not with the trends observed for fish

  2. Allometric relationships of 210Po and 210Pb in mussels and their application to environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels from the Portuguese coast collected during several seasons of the year have shown 210Po and 210Pb body burdens (Bq mussel-1) that increased with mussels' body size but displayed significant decrease in radionuclide concentrations (Bq kg-1). For example, the increase of mussel size from 2.5 cm to 5.0 cm maximum shell length corresponded in average to a 50% decrease of 210Po activity concentration in soft tissues from 1065 Bq kg-1 (dw) to 540 Bq kg-1 (dw). A similar reduction in concentration was observed for 210Pb. The physiological condition of mussels, relating to fat and glycogen storage, had an effect on radionuclide concentrations, although the total body burden of radionuclide in mussels remained nearly constant throughout the year. These factors may play an important role in data interpretation for environmental monitoring programmes. Besides the mussel size and condition index, due to the inter-individual variation even inside narrow mussel size classes, the sample size, i.e., the number of specimens in one mussel sample is another key factor to be considered when obtaining environmentally representative radionuclide concentrations.

  3. The certification of the mass fractions of elements in mussel tissue: ERM®-CE278k

    OpenAIRE

    Snell, James; E. Vos; EMTEBORG Per; Schimmel, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the production of ERM®-CE278k, a mussel tissue material certified for the mass fractions of 13 elements. The material was produced following ISO Guide 34:2009. The starting material was wild mussels (mytulis edulis) harvested off the coast of the Netherlands. The mussels were collected in late spring, steam-cooked, shelled and frozen. About 150 kg of mussel flesh was freeze-dried, frozen in liquid nitrogen and milled before sieving to obtain a fine powder. Between...

  4. Clearance rate of Mytilus edulis (L.) as a function of current velocity and mussel aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Vismann, Bent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of water current velocities on the clearance rate of Mytilus edulis when different numbers of mussels were used in the experiments. An automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continually, was used to measure...... the effect of increasing current velocity (0.05-1.4 m/sec) on the M. edulis clearance rate. Clearance rate measurements were performed under constant food concentrations of 3,000 cells/mL of Rhodomonas salina on either 3 mussels or 20 mussels. We found that the clearance rate of 20 mussels was...

  5. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández-Reiriz

    Full Text Available Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F and slow (S growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h(-1 than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h(-1. The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals.

  6. Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

    2013-04-01

    Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects

  7. California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for marine contamination with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Lauren; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a terrestrial parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in the endangered Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). To date, neither risk factors associated with marine contamination nor the route of S. neurona infection to marine mammals has been described. This study evaluated coastal S. neurona contamination using California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for pathogen pollution. A field investigation was designed to test the hypotheses that (1) mussels can serve as sentinels for S. neurona contamination, and (2) S. neurona contamination in mussels would be highest during the rainy season and in mussels collected near freshwater. Initial validation of molecular assays through sporocyst spiking experiments revealed the ITS-1500 assay to be most sensitive for detection of S. neurona, consistently yielding parasite amplification at concentrations ⩾5 sporocysts/1 mL mussel haemolymph. Assays were then applied on 959 wild-caught mussels, with detection of S. neurona confirmed using sequence analysis in three mussels. Validated molecular assays for S. neurona detection in mussels provide a novel toolset for investigating marine contamination with this parasite, while confirmation of S. neurona in wild mussels suggests that uptake by invertebrates may serve as a route of transmission to susceptible marine animals. PMID:27003262

  8. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 μg g-1 dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 μg g-1 dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/108 nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 μg g-1 dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 μg g-1 dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/108 nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor PAH

  9. Removal of algae by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in western Lake Erie: a bioenergetics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for growth of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) individual was verified with observations on zebra mussel growth in western Lake Erie. The bioenergetics model was then applied to the zebra mussel population in the western basin of Lake Erie to estimate the removal of phytoplankton by mussels. According to the modeling results, the zebra mussel population consumed 5.0 million tonnes of phytoplankton, while 1.4 million tonnes of phytoplankton was deposited in pseudofeces from the mussels. Thus, a total of 6.4 ± 2.4 million tonnes of phytoplankton was removed from the water column by zebra mussel in western Lake Erie during 1990. Primary production was estimated to be 24.8 million tonnes; therefore, zebra mussel removed the equivalent of 26 ± 10% of the primary production for western Lake Erie.

  10. An Evaluation of Adult Freshwater Mussels Held in Captivity at the White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery, West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Boyles, Julie L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing need to provide refugia for freshwater mussels impacted by anthropogenic activities and exotic species, facilities should be identified and protocols developed for holding mussels in captivity. White Sulphur Springs National Fish Hatchery (WSSNFH), White Sulphur Springs, WV, has held freshwater mussels for nearly eight years, and has the potential to become an important refugium and propagation facility for conservation of mussels in the Ohio River Basin and elsewhere. ...

  11. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  12. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  13. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  14. Hydrological Controls on Water Chemistry that Supports Freshwater Mussel Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestegaard, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Native freshwater mussel species ranges and population sizes have been declining throughout N. America. Due to their sedentary nature, adult mussels are vulnerable to both local habitat changes (often associated with land-use changes, contaminants, and biological invaders) and to climate changes that can alter river flow regimes, bed stability, and water chemistry. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between water chemistry and hydrological events in rivers that support native mussel populations. USGS ion concentration and water quality (pH, temperature, conductivity) data were used to calculate saturation indices for aragonite. For some sites, electrical conductivity was highly correlated with calcium and bicarbonate concentrations and could be used to estimate concentrations when ion chemistry was not measured. Continuous water quality data from datasondes could thus be used to evaluate saturation indices for aragonite on a daily basis for 10-15 year periods. For the Delaware River, which has relatively few carbonate rocks in its watershed, tributary aragonite saturation tended to reflect local geological conditions. The lower main stem of the river integrates the water chemistry of the basin and also responds to climatic conditions. The lower Delaware supports aragonite precipitation approximately 50 days per year, with considerable inter-annual variability. During most years, aragonite precipitation could occur during both the spring and late summer periods, but years with heavy spring rains rather than snowmelt shifts aragonite precipitation to late summer periods. In 2011 when several major tropical storms hit the Delaware basin, streamflow was too dilute for aragonite precipitation for most of the summer period. These data suggest that hydrological changes associated with climatic changes may influence the water chemistry and affect the suitability of some rivers as mussel habitat.

  15. Fungal and mussel protein sources in fish feed

    OpenAIRE

    Vidaković, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Fungal and mussel protein sources in the diet of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and their effect on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, intestinal barrier function and post-prandial profiles of plasma amino acids and whole blood parameters were evaluated in this thesis. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, sum of amino acids and gross energy in experiment with Arctic charr decreased with dietary inclusio...

  16. The Mussel Adhesive Protein (Mefp-1) : A GREEN Corrosion Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion of metallic materials is a natural process, and our study shows that even in an alkaline environment severe corrosion may occur on a carbon steel surface. While corrosion cannot be stopped it can be retarded. Many of the traditional anti-corrosion approaches such as the chromate process are effective but hazardous to the environment and human health. Mefp-1, a protein derived from blue mussel byssus, is well known for its extraordinary adhesion and film forming properties. Moreover,...

  17. Mussel-Inspired Surface Chemistry for Multifunctional Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Haeshin; Dellatore, Shara M.; Miller, William M.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2007-01-01

    We report a method to form multifunctional polymer coatings through simple dip-coating of objects in an aqueous solution of dopamine. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we used dopamine self-polymerization to form thin, surface-adherent polydopamine films onto a wide range of inorganic and organic materials, including noble metals, oxides, polymers, semiconductors, and ceramics. Secondary reactions can be used to create a variety of ad-layers, including self-assemble...

  18. Mussel meal in poultry diets - with focus on organic production

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Lotta

    2009-01-01

    The first limiting nutrients for poultry are the sulphur containing amino acids, particularly methionine. To fulfil the recommended requirement, conventional diets are supplemented with synthetic methionine. Since this is not allowed in organic production it becomes important to have access to alternative high quality protein feed ingredients. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether blue mussels (Mytilis edulis) could be used as a protein source in diets for organic poultry and dete...

  19. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding. PMID:27489216

  20. Mechanically Robust, Negative-Swelling, Mussel-Inspired Tissue Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Devin G.; Grace G. Bushnell; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    Most synthetic polymer hydrogel tissue adhesives and sealants swell considerably in physiologic conditions, which can result in mechanical weakening and adverse medical complications. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of mechanically tough zero- or negative-swelling mussel-inspired surgical adhesives based on catechol-modified amphiphilic poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers. The formation, swelling, bulk mechanical, and tissue adhesive properties o...

  1. Modelling growth variability in longline mussel farms as a function of stocking density and farm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, Rune; Bacher, Cédric; Strand, Øivind; Aure, Jan; Strohmeier, Tore

    2011-11-01

    Mussels ( Mytilus edulis) are commonly cultivated on artificial structures like rafts, poles or longlines to facilitate farming operations. Farm structures and dense mussel populations may result in water flow reduction and seston depletion and thus reduced individual mussel growth and spatial growth variability inside a farm. One of the challenges in mussel farming is thus to scale and configure farms in order to optimise total mussel production and individual mussel quality under different environmental regimes. Here we present a spatially resolved model for simulation of flow reduction, seston depletion and individual mussel growth inside a longline farm based on information about farm configuration (spacing between longlines, farm length and stocking density) and background environmental conditions (current speed, seston concentration and temperature). The model simulations are forced by environmental data from two fjords in south-western Norway and the farm configurations are defined within operational ranges. The simulations demonstrate spatial growth patterns at longlines under environmental settings and farm configurations where flow reduction and seston depletion have significant impacts on individual mussel growth. Longline spacing has a strong impact on the spatial distribution of individual growth, and the spacing is characterised by a threshold value. Below the threshold growth reduction and spatial growth variability increase rapidly as a consequence of reduced water flow and seston supply rate, but increased filtration due to higher mussel densities also contributes to the growth reduction. The spacing threshold is moderated by other farm configuration factors and environmental conditions. Comparisons with seston depletion reported from other farm sites show that the model simulations are within observed ranges. A demonstration is provided on how the model can guide farm configuration with the aim of optimising total farm biomass and individual

  2. The use of waste mussel shells for the adsorption of dyes and heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Chrysi A.; Krey, Grigorios; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Kallaniotis, Argyris

    2016-04-01

    Mussel culture is very important sector of the Greek agricultural economy. The majority of mussel culture activities take place in the area of Central Macedonia, Greece, 60% of total mussel production in Greece producing almost 12 tons of waste mussels shells on a daily basis. Currently there is no legislation concerning the disposal of mussel shells. In the present study the waste shells were used for the removal of dyes and heavy metals from aqueous solutions while powdered mussel shells were added in activated sludge processes for the removal of hexavalent chromium. Mussel shells were cleaned, dried and then crushed in order to form a powder. Powdered mussels shells were used in standard adsorption experiments for the removal of methylene blue and methyl red as well as for the removal of Cr (VI), Cd and Cu. Moreover the powdered mussel shells were added in laboratory scale activated sludge reactors treating synthetic wastewater with hexavalent chromium, in order investigate the effects in activated sludge processes and their potential attribution to the removal of hexavalent chromium. Adsorption experiments indicated almost 100% color removal, while adsorption was directly proportional to the amount of powdered mussel shells added in each case. The isotherms calculated for the case of methylene blue indicated similar adsorption capacity and properties to those of the commercially available activated carbon SAE 2, Norit. High removal efficiencies were observed for the metals, especially in the case of chromium and copper. The addition of powdered mussel shells in the activated sludge processes enhanced the removal of chromium and phosphorus, while enabled the formation of heavier activated sludge flocs and thus enhanced the settling properties of the activated sludge.

  3. Mussel-mimetic protein-based adhesive hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jin; Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Han, Dong Keun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2014-05-12

    Hydrogel systems based on cross-linked polymeric materials which could provide both adhesion and cohesion in wet environment have been considered as a promising formulation of tissue adhesives. Inspired by marine mussel adhesion, many researchers have tried to exploit the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) molecule as a cross-linking mediator of synthetic polymer-based hydrogels which is known to be able to achieve cohesive hardening as well as adhesive bonding with diverse surfaces. Beside DOPA residue, composition of other amino acid residues and structure of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) have also been considered important elements for mussel adhesion. Herein, we represent a novel protein-based hydrogel system using DOPA-containing recombinant MAP. Gelation can be achieved using both oxdiation-induced DOPA quinone-mediated covalent and Fe(3+)-mediated coordinative noncovalent cross-linking. Fe(3+)-mediated hydrogels show deformable and self-healing viscoelastic behavior in rheological analysis, which is also well-reflected in bulk adhesion strength measurement. Quinone-mediated hydrogel has higher cohesive strength and can provide sufficient gelation time for easier handling. Collectively, our newly developed MAP hydrogel can potentially be used as tissue adhesive and sealant for future applications. PMID:24650082

  4. Laser processing of natural mussel adhesive protein thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doraiswamy, A. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7575 (United States); Narayan, R.J. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7575 (United States)]. E-mail: roger_narayan@unc.edu; Cristescu, R. [Plasma and Radiation Physics, National Institute for Lasers, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N. [Plasma and Radiation Physics, National Institute for Lasers, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [United States Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-04-15

    A novel laser processing technique is presented for depositing mussel adhesive protein thin films. Synthetic adhesives (e.g., acrylics, cyanoacrylates, epoxies, phenolics, polyurethanes, and silicones) have largely displaced natural adhesives in the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, electronic, and marine equipment industries over the past century. However, rising concerns over the environmental and health effects of solvents, monomers, and additives used in synthetic adhesives have led the adhesives community to seek natural alternatives. Marine mussel adhesive protein is a formaldehyde-free natural adhesive that demonstrates excellent adhesion to several classes of materials, including pure metals, metal oxides, polymers, and glasses. We have demonstrated the deposition of Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 thin films using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum data suggest that the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation process does not cause significant damage to the chemical structure of M. edulis foot protein-1. In addition, matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation appears to provide a better control over film thickness and film roughness than conventional solvent-based thin film processing techniques. MAPLE-deposited mussel adhesive protein thin films have numerous potential electronic, medical, and marine applications.

  5. Laser processing of natural mussel adhesive protein thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel laser processing technique is presented for depositing mussel adhesive protein thin films. Synthetic adhesives (e.g., acrylics, cyanoacrylates, epoxies, phenolics, polyurethanes, and silicones) have largely displaced natural adhesives in the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, electronic, and marine equipment industries over the past century. However, rising concerns over the environmental and health effects of solvents, monomers, and additives used in synthetic adhesives have led the adhesives community to seek natural alternatives. Marine mussel adhesive protein is a formaldehyde-free natural adhesive that demonstrates excellent adhesion to several classes of materials, including pure metals, metal oxides, polymers, and glasses. We have demonstrated the deposition of Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 thin films using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum data suggest that the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation process does not cause significant damage to the chemical structure of M. edulis foot protein-1. In addition, matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation appears to provide a better control over film thickness and film roughness than conventional solvent-based thin film processing techniques. MAPLE-deposited mussel adhesive protein thin films have numerous potential electronic, medical, and marine applications

  6. Modelling mussel growth in ecosystems with low suspended matter loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, P.; Fernández-Reiriz, M. J.; Filgueira, R.; Labarta, U.

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decades a large number of bivalve growth models were described in the literature with most emphasis on cultivated species with important economic value. These models describe the rates of energy absorption and utilization as a function of environmental conditions. Some of the most important issues in bivalve modelling are water pumping, filtration, pre-ingestive rejection/pseudofaeces production and ingestion of living and non-living organic and inorganic matter. According to some authors, bivalve suspension-feeders may selectively ingest and/or digest different food items whilst making adjustments to maximize the utilization of chlorophyll rich particles. In clear water ecosystems such as the Galician Rias (total particulate matter ( TPM) < 3 mg l - 1 ), where most of the available seston is phytoplankton, selective processes may be less important than in turbid waters with high TPM loads. The main objectives of this work were to develop, implement and calibrate an Individual Based Model of mussel growth, configured and parameterized for the environmental conditions of ecosystems with low suspended matter loads such as the Galician Rias. Model runs were made for a large number of individual mussels, each with a random parameter set, selected among possible parameter ranges reported in the literature, allowing a quick model calibration and an evaluation of those parameters explaining most of the variance in predicted mussel growth. Obtained results provide a useful feedback for upcoming experimental work where efforts should be concentrated on accurate estimates of these more influential parameters to improve model results.

  7. Pollutants bioavailability and toxicological risk from microplastics to marine mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microplastics represent a growing environmental concern for the oceans due to their potential of adsorbing chemical pollutants, thus representing a still unexplored source of exposure for aquatic organisms. In this study polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) microplastics were shown to adsorb pyrene with a time and dose-dependent relationship. Results also indicated a marked capability of contaminated microplastics to transfer this model PAH to exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis; tissue localization of microplastics occurred in haemolymph, gills and especially digestive tissues where a marked accumulation of pyrene was also observed. Cellular effects included alterations of immunological responses, lysosomal compartment, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant system, neurotoxic effects, onset of genotoxicity; changes in gene expression profile was also demonstrated through a new DNA microarray platform. The study provided the evidence that microplastics adsorb PAHs, emphasizing an elevated bioavailability of these chemicals after the ingestion, and the toxicological implications due to responsiveness of several molecular and cellular pathways to microplastics. - Highlights: • Polyethylene and polystyrene microplastics efficiently adsorbed pyrene. • Pyrene adsorbed on microplastics was readily bioavailable for mussels. • Microplastics affected several molecular and cellular pathways. • Potential toxicological risk can arise from virgin and contaminated microplastics. - Pyrene adsorbed on microplastics is accumulated in tissues of marine mussels. Transcriptional and cellular responses highlight the potential risk of virgin and contaminated polymers

  8. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  9. Magnitude, spatial scale and optimization of ecosystem services from a nutrient extraction mussel farm in the eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Cranford, P. J.; Maar, M.;

    2016-01-01

    phytoplankton. The model employed mussel clearance rate estimates derived from the observed magnitude of food depletion within the farm. Model results indicate that the mussel population filtration rate could be increased by 80 to 120% without any negative feedback on mussel growth. This could be accomplished...

  10. On the dynamics of the stocks of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Sten; Kristensen, Per Sand

    As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis for the...

  11. Cobertura do terço distal da perna com retalhos de perfurantes pediculados Covering the distal third of the leg with pedicled perforating vessels patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosa de Rezende

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os retalhos de vasos perfurantes representam um avanço no tratamento das perdas cutâneas. No terço distal da perna as opções para a cobertura cutânea são poucas e muitas vezes devemos recorrer a microcirurgia. Neste trabalho realizou-se uma avaliação prospectiva de 20 pacientes submetidos ao tratamento de áreas cruentas no terço distal da perna através de retalhos pediculados em artéria perfurante. A localização das artéria perfurantes foi feita , no pré-operatório , através do exame de eco-doppler. Os retalhos foram planejados de forma a permitir sua rotação junto à área cruenta em até 180 graus. Em 6 casos os vasos perfurantes tinham como origem a artéria fibular, em 10 a artéria tibial posterior e 4 a artéria tibial anterior. O índice de acerto do eco-doppler foi de 88,2%. Em pacientes jovens com lesões traumáticas houve 15,4% de falha do procedimento e 33,3% em pacientes com morbidades associadas. Baseado em nossos resultados concluímos ser o retalho de perfurante uma boa opção de tratamento das perdas cutâneas no segmento distal da perna.Perforating vessels patches represent an advancement in terms of skin failures treatment. On the distal third of the leg, the alternatives for skin covering are scarce, often requiring microsurgery. In this study, we aimed to make a prospective assessment of 20 patients submitted to treatment of bloody areas of leg's distal third by means of pedicled patches in perforating arteries. The location of the perforating arteries was preoperatively found using the ecodoppler test. The patches were planned to allow up to 180-degree rotation in the bloody area. In 6 cases, perforating vessels had the fibular artery as source; in 10, the posterior tibial artery, and; in 4, the anterior tibial artery. The accuracy rate of the ecodoppler was 88.2%. For young patients presenting injuries caused by trauma, procedure failures were found in 15.4%, and for those with associated

  12. ZEBRA MUSSEL COLONIZATION OF RUSTY CRAYFISH IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 1995 six rusty crayfish colonized with zebra mussels were captured in small-meshed fyke-nets sets set apart as of a fish sampling effort at Peter's Marsh and Long-Tail Point Wetland in lower Green Bay. Mussels colonized virtually all areas of the crayfish bodies, but ...

  13. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices of...

  14. Modelling the effects of diving ducks on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van E.H.; Noordhuis, R.; Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Portielje, R.; Reeze, B.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    An individual-based model describing the growth of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) is presented. The model is spatially explicit and predicts length¿frequency distributions of zebra mussels. The parameters and model inputs with the strongest effect on the model outcomes were identified using a

  15. Identities, Communities, and Practices in the Transition Towards Sustainable Mussel Fishery in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente Rodriguez, D.; Swart, J.A.A.; Middag, M.; Windt, v.d. H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch mussel fishery in the Wadden Sea, a World Natural Heritage Site, is currently involved in a step-by-step transition from the traditional but controversial method of dredging mussel seed from natural beds using trawl nets to alternative sustainable practices. The main objectives of the tran

  16. Integrated coastal monitoring of a gas processing plant using native and caged mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Steven, E-mail: sbr@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Harman, Christopher [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Soto, Manu; Cancio, Ibon [CBET Res Grp, R and D Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), Univ Basque Country, Areatza Z/G, Plentzia-Bizkaia, E-48620 Basque Country (Spain); Glette, Tormod [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Veritasveien 1, 1363 Hovik (Norway); Marigomez, Ionan [CBET Res Grp, R and D Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), Univ Basque Country, Areatza Z/G, Plentzia-Bizkaia, E-48620 Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    The biological effects of a coastal process water (PW) discharge on native and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) were assessed. Chemical analyses of mussel tissues and semi permeable membrane devices, along with a suite of biomarkers of different levels of biological complexity were measured. These were lysosomal membrane stability in haemocytes and digestive cells; micronuclei formation in haemocytes; changes in cell-type composition in the digestive gland epithelium; integrity of digestive gland tissue; peroxisome proliferation; and oxidative stress. Additionally the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index was calculated. This integrative biomarker approach distinguished mussels, both native and caged, exhibiting different stress conditions not identified from the contaminant exposure. Mussels exhibiting higher stress responses were found with increased proximity to the PW discharge outlet. However, the biological effects reported could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge based on the chemicals measured, but were likely due to either other chemicals in the discharge that were not measured, the general impact of the processing plant and or other activities in the local vicinity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between biomarkers for the different mussel groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IBR/n was able to differentiate between exposed and reference mussels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mussels closest to the PW outlet were in poorest health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical concentrations were low or undetected in all SPMD and mussel samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biomarker responses could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge.

  17. Review of toxic episodes and management strategies in the Danish mussel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Andersen, Per; Thorbjørnsen, Bjarne Ring

    will be presented. The presentation will be based on results from toxic episodes in recent years and will cover different aspects and changes made in the Danish mussel monitoring system in the last years to improve both the food safety and the commercial conditions for the mussel producers. This...

  18. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as indicators of freshwater contamination with lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebra mussels are common freshwater mollusks in many European lakes and rivers. Their abundance, wide distribution, and filtering activity make them good candidates to evaluate the contamination of fresh waters with environmental contaminants. The purpose of this work was to determine the kinetics of lindane in zebra mussels and compare laboratory results with in situ measurements. Exposure was conducted in small tanks, under controlled experimental conditions. Our results indicated that mussels accumulated lindane with a bioconcentration factor around 10. They generally reached equilibrium within 4 days. Elimination was rapid but biphasic and the terminal elimination half-life was long (>168 h). Age of the mussels and temperature also affected the kinetics of lindane in mussels. In the Lake of eneva, zebra mussels were sampled and showed that mussels accumulated it to significant values (up to 900 ng/g fresh weight) depending on the site and period of sampling. The in situ results, together with the laboratory exposures, showed that freshwater mussels could be used to monitor point sources of pollutants such as lindane over short periods of time (<1 week)

  19. Effects of elevated water temperature on physiological responses in adult freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganser, Alissa M.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unionoida) face multiple environmental stressors, which pose serious conservation challenges to this diverse assemblage of aquatic invertebrates. Of these stressors, elevated water temperature from global climate change and other anthropogenic sources may be the most ubiquitous and could be placing many mussel populations dangerously close to their thermal maxima.

  20. Toxicokinetics and tissue distribution of cadmium-based Quantum Dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental health hazards of Quantum Dots (QDs) are of emergent concern, but limited data is available about their toxicokinetics (TK) and tissue distribution in marine bivalves. This study investigated the QDs behavior in seawater, their TK and tissue distribution in Mytilus galloprovincialis, in comparison with soluble Cd. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and soluble Cd for 21 days at 10 μgCd L−1 followed by a 50 days depuration. TK of QDs in mussels is related to the homo-aggregate uptake, surface charge, aggregation and precipitation as key factors. There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the TK of both Cd forms, and soluble Cd is the most bioavailable form. Digestive gland is a preferential site for QDs storage and both Cd forms are not eliminated by mussels (t1/2>50 days). Results indicate that the TK model of CdTe QDs in marine mussels is distinct from their soluble counterparts. - Highlights: • Toxicokinetics of CdTe QDs and soluble Cd in mussels are mediated by different mechanisms. • Digestive gland is a preferential site for both Cd forms storage. • CdTe QDs and soluble Cd are not eliminated by mussels (t1/2 > 50 days). • Toxicokinetics models were compared between CdTe QDs and soluble Cd in marine mussels. - Toxicokinetic model of CdTe QDs in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is distinct from their soluble counterparts

  1. Integrated coastal monitoring of a gas processing plant using native and caged mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of a coastal process water (PW) discharge on native and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) were assessed. Chemical analyses of mussel tissues and semi permeable membrane devices, along with a suite of biomarkers of different levels of biological complexity were measured. These were lysosomal membrane stability in haemocytes and digestive cells; micronuclei formation in haemocytes; changes in cell-type composition in the digestive gland epithelium; integrity of digestive gland tissue; peroxisome proliferation; and oxidative stress. Additionally the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index was calculated. This integrative biomarker approach distinguished mussels, both native and caged, exhibiting different stress conditions not identified from the contaminant exposure. Mussels exhibiting higher stress responses were found with increased proximity to the PW discharge outlet. However, the biological effects reported could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge based on the chemicals measured, but were likely due to either other chemicals in the discharge that were not measured, the general impact of the processing plant and or other activities in the local vicinity. - Highlights: ► Good agreement between biomarkers for the different mussel groups. ► IBR/n was able to differentiate between exposed and reference mussels. ► Mussels closest to the PW outlet were in poorest health. ► Chemical concentrations were low or undetected in all SPMD and mussel samples. ► Biomarker responses could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge.

  2. Effects of handling and aerial exposure on the survival of unionid mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Rach, J.J.; Cope, W.G.; Miller, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a relocation study of unionid mussels in Navigation Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River (river mile 713.2) to evaluate survival after handling and aerial exposure. Two separate studies were conducted to compare seasonal differences in mussel survival; the first was initiated in June and the second in October. Amblema plicata plicata (subfamily Ambleminae) and Obliquaria reflexa (subfamily Lampsilinae) were studied. Mussels were marked, held out of water for either 0, 1, 4, or 8 h, and then placed into a 3 x 3 m grid (divided into nine 1-m super(2) units). The mussels were re-examined after four-five months to measure mortality in the control and treatment groups. Mussels of both species had >90% survival after aerial exposure up to 4 h in both studies. However, survival (number recaptured live / number recaptured live and dead) of mussels showed a decreasing trend with duration of exposure in the first study, but not in the second study. The overall recovery of marked mussels (number recaptured/number marked) was 91% in the first study and 87% in the second study. However, only 37% of O. reflexa mussels in the 8-h treatment were recovered in the first study; the adjusted survival (number live recaptured/number marked) of this treatment group was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (35%) than all other treatments.

  3. Newspaper Coverage of Zebra Mussels in North America : A Case of "Afghanistanism"?

    OpenAIRE

    Roush, Donny; Fortner, Rosanne

    1996-01-01

    Few environmental issues have arisen so abruptly, spread so rapidly, and been so clearly linked to human activity as has the introduction of nonindigenous zebra mussels to the surface freshwater of North America. This research examines communication patterns in information about zebra mussels as an example of how the mass media deal with threats to the environment.

  4. Seasonal and intertidal impact on DNA adduct levels in gills of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to elucidate possible seasonal variation in DNA adduct levels in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), and to investigate the impact of intertidal exposure on the DNA adduct levels, i.e. to explore if DNA adduct levels in mussels in the intertidal zone differ from those in the subtidal zone. Blue mussels were deployed separately in the intertidal and subtidal zone at a contaminated and a reference site in Iceland, and sampled regularly during one year. Gill DNA adduct levels were found to be higher in mussels in the intertidal zone compared to the subtidal zone at the contaminated site, the difference being largest in winter. Total PAH tissue levels were also higher in mussels in the intertidal zone. Seasonal variation was observed in both DNA adduct and PAH tissue levels in mussels at the contaminated site, with lower levels from the time of transplantation in summer to autumn, maximum levels in winter, which decreased to lower levels again in spring and summer the following year. DNA adducts and PAH levels were low or below the detection limits in mussels at the reference site at all times, both in the intertidal and subtidal zone. - Gill DNA adduct and total PAH tissue levels were higher in mussels in the intertidal than subtidal zone, and higher in winter than summer

  5. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding; Vismann, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels, and...

  6. Seasonal and intertidal impact on DNA adduct levels in gills of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarpheoinsdottir, Halldora [Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Laboratory for Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: halldora@itm.su.se; Ericson, Gunilla [Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Laboratory for Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Halldorsson, Halldor P. [Institute of Biology, University of Iceland, Askja, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland); University of Iceland, Sandgeroei Marine Centre, Garoevegur 1, 245 Sandgeroei (Iceland); Svavarsson, Joerundur [Institute of Biology, University of Iceland, Askja, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland); University of Iceland, Sandgeroei Marine Centre, Garoevegur 1, 245 Sandgeroei (Iceland)

    2005-07-15

    The aim of this study was to elucidate possible seasonal variation in DNA adduct levels in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), and to investigate the impact of intertidal exposure on the DNA adduct levels, i.e. to explore if DNA adduct levels in mussels in the intertidal zone differ from those in the subtidal zone. Blue mussels were deployed separately in the intertidal and subtidal zone at a contaminated and a reference site in Iceland, and sampled regularly during one year. Gill DNA adduct levels were found to be higher in mussels in the intertidal zone compared to the subtidal zone at the contaminated site, the difference being largest in winter. Total PAH tissue levels were also higher in mussels in the intertidal zone. Seasonal variation was observed in both DNA adduct and PAH tissue levels in mussels at the contaminated site, with lower levels from the time of transplantation in summer to autumn, maximum levels in winter, which decreased to lower levels again in spring and summer the following year. DNA adducts and PAH levels were low or below the detection limits in mussels at the reference site at all times, both in the intertidal and subtidal zone. - Gill DNA adduct and total PAH tissue levels were higher in mussels in the intertidal than subtidal zone, and higher in winter than summer.

  7. Variability in biochemical components of the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) cultured after Prestige oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteiro, Laura G; Labarta, Uxío; Fernández-Reiriz, María José

    2007-05-01

    The biochemical composition (proteins, carbohydrates, glycogen, total lipids and lipid classes) of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated during an experimental culture using mussel seed from areas with different degree of exposure to the Prestige oil spill. The aim of the study was to identify alterations in the biochemical composition of mussel seed from natural populations commonly used in Galicia for mussel raft culture that might be linked to previous oil exposure. We have selected three mussel seed populations from Pindo, Miranda and Redes, that were characterised in a previous study according to the oil exposure three months after the spill. These populations were transplanted to a raft culture system in the Ría de Ares-Betanzos where our experimental culture followed standard commercial techniques from March 2003 to February 2004. Mussels from Pindo (characterised as the most affected area by the oil spill) showed marked differences in lipid composition with regard to other populations in the content of triacylglycerols, (PRedes (designed as reference area) which may reflect that Miranda mussels were not affected or only hardly affected by the spill. With the exception of the onset of the culture, biochemical composition showed similar patterns in all mussel populations. Then, the fact of being cultured in a common environment seemed to be more responsible for the long-term variability in the energetic reserve than the origin of the populations or their previous biochemical status. PMID:17360242

  8. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  9. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  10. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  11. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  12. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  13. The complete F-type mitochondrial genome of Chinese freshwater mussel Anodonta euscaphys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Chen, Meiling; Wang, Guiling; Han, Zhenyong; Li, Jiale

    2016-07-01

    Anodonta euscaphys is the endemic species of freshwater mussel in China. The complete F-type mitochondrial genome of the A. euscaphys is amplified and analyzed in this study. It is 15,741 bp in length. The base composition of the genome with A + T bias is 64.78%. There are 24 noncoding regions found throughout the mitogenome of A. euscaphys, ranging in size from 3 to 302 bp, the largest of which was between ND2 and tRNA(Glu). The phylogenetic tree based on 22 mitogenome, including 16 F-type freshwater mussels, 2 M-type freshwater mussels and 4 marine mussels were analyzed in our study, the results showed that the F-type and the M-type of the freshwater mussels were clustered respectively, the A. euscaphys was clustered with Anodonta family species firstly, and it was the closest to the Anodonta arcaeformis in our analysis. PMID:26000937

  14. Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this work is to determine the effects of pollution of copper, lead and zinc mines on the Eastern Black Sea. Metal and heavy metal concentrations in the Eastern Black Sea mussels were measured using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The analytical results showed that the tissue of mussel in Eastern Black Sea contains K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Sr elements, and the shell of mussel contains Ca, Cu, Sr, and Ba elements. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, the mussels were analyzed with FAAS for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb elements. An ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The results showed although that the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn for the tissue of the mussels were markedly above the permissible levels of the Turkish regulations, Zn concentration is in the limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  15. Síndrome das pernas inquietas com herança autossômica dominante piorada pelo uso de mirtazapina: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teive Hélio A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 78 anos, com diagnóstico estabelecido de síndrome das pernas inquietas (SPI, de etiologia primária com herança autossômica dominante. A paciente apresentava quadro depressivo associado. Enfatiza-se a piora do quadro clínico da SPI após o uso de anti-depressivo com ação inibidora seletiva da recaptação de serotonina (mirtazapina, com atenuação dos sintomas após a retirada da droga, e a excelente resposta terapêutica com o uso de agonista dopaminérgico (pramipexol em baixa dose.

  16. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive. PMID:17530329

  17. Accumulation and Toxicity of Copper Oxide Engineered Nanoparticles in a Marine Mussel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K. Hanna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cu is an essential trace element but can be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at elevated concentrations. Greater use of CuO engineered nanoparticles (ENPs may lead to increased concentrations of CuO ENPs in aquatic environments causing potential ecological injury. We examined the toxicity of CuO ENPs to marine mussels and the influence of mussels on the fate and transport of CuO ENPs. We exposed marine mussels to 1, 2, or 3 mg L−1 CuO ENPs for four weeks, and measured clearance rate, rejection, excretion and accumulation of Cu, and mussel shell growth. Mussel clearance rate was 48% less, and growth was 68% less, in mussels exposed to 3 mg L−1 than in control animals. Previous studies show 100% mortality at 1 mg Cu L−1, suggesting that CuO ENPs are much less toxic than ionic Cu, probably due to the slow dissolution rate of the ENPs. Mussels rejected and excreted CuO ENPs in biodeposits containing as much as 110 mg Cu g−1, suggesting the potential for magnification in sediments. Mussels exposed to 3 mg L−1 CuO ENPs accumulated 79.14 ± 12.46 µg Cu g−1 dry weight, which was 60 times more Cu than in control animals. Our results suggest that mussels have the potential to influence the fate and transport of CuO ENPs and potentially cause magnification of CuO ENPs in mussel bed communities, creating a significant source of Cu to marine benthos.

  18. Effect of salinity on filtration rates of mussels Mytilus edulis with special emphasis on dwarfed mussels from the low-saline Central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Lüskow, F.; Pleissner, D.; Lundgreen, K.; López, M. Á. P.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of salinity on the filtration rate of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, from the brackish Great Belt (Denmark) and the low-saline Central Baltic Sea, respectively, was studied. First, we measured the effect of long-term (weeks) constant ambient salinities between 5 and 30 psu on the filtration rate of M. edulis collected in the Great Belt where the mean salinity is 17 psu. At salinities between 10 and 30 psu, the filtration rates did not vary much, but at 5 psu the filtration rates were significantly lower. Next, we studied dwarfed M. edulis (10 psu. When Baltic Sea mussels acclimatized to 20 psu in the laboratory were exposed to 6.5 psu this caused a drastic reduction in the filtration rate, but after about 2 days the previous high filtration rate was regained at 6.5 psu, and further, a similar pattern was observed when the 6.5 psu exposed mussels were finally re-exposed to 20 psu. The observed lack of Great Belt mussels to completely adjust to 5 psu, in contrast to the ease of Baltic Sea mussels to adjust back and forth between 6.5 and 20 psu, is remarkable and may perhaps be explained by different genotypes of Great Belt and Baltic Sea mussels.

  19. Assessing accumulation and sublethal effects of lead in a unionid mussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Shea, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination of the environment remains a global problem. Previous studies have demonstrated that Pb deposited onto roadside sediments from the past use of leaded gasoline in vehicles may be mobilized into rivers and streams, thereby resulting in exposure to aquatic biota. The aims of this study were to conduct a 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata; family Unionidae) mussels to determine uptake kinetics and to assess several potential non-lethal biomarkers of Pb exposure. Mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a control and eight concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 251 µg/L, as a static renewal test. There were five replicates per treatment with one mussel per replicate. The hemolymph of mussels from four of the replicates was repeatedly sampled (days 7, 14, 21, and 28) for analysis of Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations. The mussels in the fifth replicate per treatment were only sampled on day 28 and served as a comparison to the repeatedly sampled mussels. The accumulation of Pb in mussel tissue was also evaluated during the study. No mussels died during the test. We found that measured concentrations of Pb in mussel hemolymph suggested regulation of the heavy metal up to 66 μg/L by day 14, whereas concentrations in tissue proved to be strongly correlated (R2 = 0.98; p mussel hemolymph, which can be sampled and measured non-lethally, is a suitable marker of recent Pb exposure in mussels. In contrast, none of the ion concentrations measured in the hemolymph from the repeatedly sampled mussels was significantly changed with increasing concentrations of Pb, whereas the mussels from the fifth replicate sampled only on day 28 showed altered calcium concentrations. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), a demonstrated Pb-specific biomarker in vertebrates and some invertebrates, which was also evaluated as a

  20. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of 210Po and 210Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759 ± 277 Bq kg-1 for 210Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg-1 dry weight), and 45 ± 19 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg-1 dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that 210Po and 210Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210 ± 75 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) for 210Po and 10 ± 4 Bq kg-1 (dry weight) for 210Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of 210Po and man

  1. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  2. Mussel-inspired surface chemistry for multifunctional coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeshin; Dellatore, Shara M; Miller, William M; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2007-10-19

    We report a method to form multifunctional polymer coatings through simple dip-coating of objects in an aqueous solution of dopamine. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we used dopamine self-polymerization to form thin, surface-adherent polydopamine films onto a wide range of inorganic and organic materials, including noble metals, oxides, polymers, semiconductors, and ceramics. Secondary reactions can be used to create a variety of ad-layers, including self-assembled monolayers through deposition of long-chain molecular building blocks, metal films by electroless metallization, and bioinert and bioactive surfaces via grafting of macromolecules. PMID:17947576

  3. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  4. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  5. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  6. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  7. Effects of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on metal cycling in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research demonstrated the impact of high densities of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on the cycling of copper, nickel, and zinc in a lake environment. Experiments with mussels on sedimentation traps in western Lake Erie and with mussels in flow-through tanks receiving Lake Erie water showed that zebra mussels remove metals from the water column, incorporate metals in their tissues, and deposit metals on the lake bottom. Removal of metals from the water column was estimated at 10-17%·day-1 of the amounts present. This material was largely deposited on the lake bottom; zebra mussels more than doubled the rate at which metals were being added to the lake bottom. Metal biodeposition rates were extremely high (e.g., 50 mg Zn·m-2·day-1) in high-turbidity areas with elevated metal levels. Two factors contributed to metal biodeposition by zebra mussels. First, their production of feces and pseudofeces increased the rate at which suspended matter was being added to the sediment (accounting for 92% of the increased metal biodeposition). Second, the material coming out of suspension had higher metal concentrations when zebra mussels were present (constituting 8% of the increased biodeposition). (author)

  8. Specificity of the peroxisome proliferation response in mussels exposed to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peroxisome proliferation has been proposed as novel biomarker of exposure to organic pollutants in aquatic organisms. Peroxisome proliferator compounds comprise a heterogeneous group of substances known for their ability to cause massive proliferation of peroxisomes and liver carcinogenesis in sensitive species such as rodents. Recently, several marine organisms (mussels and fish) have been shown as target species of peroxisome proliferators. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the peroxisome proliferation response in mussels. For this purpose, mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed for three weeks to North Sea crude oil (NSO), a mixture of NSO, alkylphenols and extra PAHs (MIX), diallylphthalate (DAP), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromodiphenylether (TBDE), or transplanted for three weeks to four stations showing different copper concentrations in a copper mine. Peroxisome proliferation was assessed by measuring the activity of the peroxisomal β-oxidation enzyme acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) and the volume density occupied by peroxisomes (V VP) in the digestive gland. Mussels exposed to NSO and MIX showed significantly increased AOX activities and V VP compared to control animals. Significantly higher V VP was also found in DAP and TBDE exposed mussels. V VP did not vary in mussels transplanted into a copper concentration gradient. Our results confirm the usefulness and specificity of peroxisome proliferation as a suitable biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants such as oil derived hydrocarbons, phthalate plasticizers and polybrominated flame retardants in mussels

  9. Warm season chloride concentrations in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warm season (May–October) chloride concentrations were assessed in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk in southern Ontario, Canada. Significant increases in concentrations were observed at 96% of 24 long-term (1975–2009) monitoring sites. Concentrations were described as a function of road density indicating an anthropogenic source of chloride. Linear regression showed that 36% of the variation of concentrations was explained by road salt use by the provincial transportation ministry. Results suggest that long-term road salt use and retention is contributing to a gradual increase in baseline chloride concentrations in at risk mussel habitats. Exposure of sensitive mussel larvae (glochidia) to increasing chloride concentrations may affect recruitment to at risk mussel populations. - Highlights: ► Warm season chloride concentrations were assessed in habitats of mussel species at risk. ► Concentrations increased significantly at 96% of 24 long-term monitoring sites. ► Concentrations increased with increases in road density and road salt use. ► Retention of road salt likely contributed to elevated warm season concentrations. ► Glochidia exposure to increasing concentrations may affect mussel reproduction. - Warm season chloride concentrations increased in southern Ontario streams with road salt use, such that reproduction of freshwater mussel species at risk may be affected.

  10. Specificity of the peroxisome proliferation response in mussels exposed to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajaraville, Miren P. [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, UPV/EHU, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, UPV/EHU, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferation has been proposed as novel biomarker of exposure to organic pollutants in aquatic organisms. Peroxisome proliferator compounds comprise a heterogeneous group of substances known for their ability to cause massive proliferation of peroxisomes and liver carcinogenesis in sensitive species such as rodents. Recently, several marine organisms (mussels and fish) have been shown as target species of peroxisome proliferators. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the peroxisome proliferation response in mussels. For this purpose, mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed for three weeks to North Sea crude oil (NSO), a mixture of NSO, alkylphenols and extra PAHs (MIX), diallylphthalate (DAP), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromodiphenylether (TBDE), or transplanted for three weeks to four stations showing different copper concentrations in a copper mine. Peroxisome proliferation was assessed by measuring the activity of the peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation enzyme acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) and the volume density occupied by peroxisomes (V {sub VP}) in the digestive gland. Mussels exposed to NSO and MIX showed significantly increased AOX activities and V {sub VP} compared to control animals. Significantly higher V {sub VP} was also found in DAP and TBDE exposed mussels. V {sub VP} did not vary in mussels transplanted into a copper concentration gradient. Our results confirm the usefulness and specificity of peroxisome proliferation as a suitable biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants such as oil derived hydrocarbons, phthalate plasticizers and polybrominated flame retardants in mussels.

  11. Molecular characteristics and expression of calmodulin cDNA from the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis schlegelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L-G; Wang, J-H; Li, Y-J; Sheng, J-Q; Gu, Q; Hong, Y-J

    2012-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a multifunctional intracellular calcium ion receptor protein that participates in a range of cellular processes, including calcium metabolism in mussels. To investigate the role of CaM in freshwater mollusk shell calcium metabolism, the full-length CaM cDNA was isolated from the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis schlegelii (referred to as hsCaM) using SMART RACE technology. The full-length hsCaM was 855 bp in size, containing a 70-bp 5'-untranslated sequence, a 447-bp open reading frame, a 309-bp 3'-untranslated sequence, and a 26-nucleotide long poly(A) tail. The hsCaM mRNA expression in different mussel tissues was examined using real-time PCR. The hsCaM mRNA was found to be ubiquitously expressed, but far more abundant in the gill, foot, and mantle than in the posterior adductor muscle. Real-time PCR was also used to determine hsCaM mRNA expression levels in mantle tissues of H. schlegelii at different ages. No significant differences between one-, two-, and three-year-old mussels were detected, but expression increased in four-year-old mussels and then decreased in five-year-old mussels. CaM appears to be involved in calcium regulation of the mantle in four-year-old mussels, which may secrete more mother of pearl during pearl culture. PMID:22290464

  12. Phytoplankton Communities in Green Bay, Lake Michigan after Invasion by Dreissenid Mussels: Increased Dominance by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart T. De Stasio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions of aquatic systems disrupt ecological communities, and cause major changes in diversity and ecosystem function. The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been dramatically altered by such invasions, especially zebra (Dreissena polymorpha and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis mussels. Responses to mussel invasions have included increased water clarity, and decreased chlorophyll and phytoplankton abundance. Although not all systems have responded similarly, in general, mussels have changed nutrient dynamics and physical habitat conditions. Therefore examination of different impacts can help us further understand mechanisms that underlie ecosystem responses to biological invasions. To aid our understanding of ecosystem impacts, we sampled established locations along a well-studied trophic gradient in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, after the 1993 zebra mussel invasion. A strong trophic gradient remained during the period sampled after the mussel invasion (2000–2012. However, mean summer chlorophyll increased and other measures of phytoplankton biomass (microscope and electronic cell counting did not change significantly. Multivariate analyses of phytoplankton community structure demonstrate a significant community shift after the invasion. Cyanobacteria increased in dominance, with Microcystis becoming the major summer taxon in lower Green Bay. Diatom diversity and abundance also increased and Chlorophyta became rare. Phytoplankton responses along the trophic gradient of Green Bay to zebra mussel invasion highlight the importance of mussel effects on nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton diversity and function.

  13. Short-term effects of small dam removal on freshwater mussel assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Ryan J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.; Eads, Chris B.

    2013-01-01

    Dam removal is increasingly used to restore lotic habitat and biota, but its effects on freshwater mussels (family Unionidae) are not well known. We conducted a four-year study to assess short-term effects on mussels after removal of a small hydropower dam on the Deep River (Cape Fear River drainage), North Carolina, USA, in 2006. We conducted annual pre- and post-removal monitoring of mussel density, richness, and survival (post removal only) with transect surveys and quadrat excavation, and assessed changes in substrate composition at two impact sites (tailrace and impoundment) and two reference sites. Before-after-control-impact (BACI) analyses of variance did not detect a significant change in mussel density (total or individually for the three most abundant species), species richness, Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata) mean length, or substrate composition in the tailrace or drained impoundment following dam removal. Apparent annual survival estimates of Eastern Elliptio at the tailrace site did not differ among sampling periods and were similar to control sites. We observed minimal mussel mortality from stranding in the dewatered reservoir. These results demonstrate that adverse short-term impacts of dam removal on downstream mussel assemblages can be minimized with appropriate planning, timing, and removal techniques, but additional monitoring is warranted to determine long-term effects on mussels within the restored river reach.

  14. Food habits of diving ducks in the Great Lakes after the zebra mussel invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  15. Evaluation of coatings to control zebra mussel colonization: Year two interim report, 1990-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, E.G.

    1992-05-25

    A study was carried out to identify coatings which are effective in protecting structures from zebra mussel fouling. Plates coated with antifouling paints were tested at Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke thermal generating station in 1990 and 1991 and were rated for their ability to resist mussel fouling or provide easily cleaned surfaces. Of the paints evaluated in 1990, only two silicones demonstrated good resistance to fouling, with the few mussels which did attach easily dislodged. Silicon-coated trash racks, after a year in use, were found to be in good condition and virtually free of mussels. All other coatings failed to prevent strong mussel attachment and were excluded from the 1991 trials. In addition to the two successful 1990 coatings, four silicones, a zinc silicate and a polyurethane were tested. The two silicones that were successful in 1990 continued to be in 1991. Three of the four 1991 silicones and the zinc silicate showed excellent resistance to mussel attachment, however mussels attached to the remaining silicone and the polyurethane with maximum percentage covers of 45% and 40%, respectively. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Trace element concentrations in wild mussels from the coastal area of the southeastern Adriatic, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and total Hg in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.. Based on their levels, the quality of Montenegro seawater for future mussel farming was estimated. The mussel M. galloprovincialis (L. was collected from four sites in the Montenegrin costal area in the period of two years to determine trace element concentrations and to classify the quality of the coastal water and possible health risks from its consumption. The mean metal concentrations in the mussels ranged from 133.5-205.9 for Zn, 7.50-14.5 for Cu, 4.42-13.3 for As, 4.70-12.9 for Pb, 1.73-2.41 for Cd and 0.07-0.59 for total Hg in mg/kg dry weight. The levels of toxic metals (except for Pb in the mussels were within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the laws of Montenegro, the EU and the USFDA. In addition, the trace metal concentrations found in the mussels in this study were similar to regional data using this mussel as a biomonitoring agent of seawater quality.

  17. Síndrome compartimental em perna após reconstrução de ligamento cruzado anterior: relato de caso Leg's compartment syndrome after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Sayum Filho; Leonardo Adeo Ramos; Jorge Sayum; Rogério Teixeira de Carvalho; Benno Ejnisman; Marcelo Mitsuro Matsuda; Alexandre Nicolini; Moisés Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Os autores apresentam o relato de caso de um paciente que foi submetido à cirurgia de reconstrução de ligamento cruzado anterior e reparo de ligamento colateral medial de joelho esquerdo e que evoluiu com síndrome de compartimento de perna.The authors report a case of a patient that was submitted to a surgery of reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and collateral medial ligament repair of the left knee that complicated to a compartment syndrome.

  18. Studies of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in mussels: comparison between a polluted and a nonpolluted site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Laura; Giannaccini, Gino; Nigro, Marco; Dianda, Sabina; Gremigni, Vittorio; Lucacchini, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in soft tissue membranes of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from both polluted and nonpolluted seawater populations, using a radioligand specific for this receptor, [3H]PK11195. Mussels were dissected into four body parts--mantle, gills, digestive gland, and muscles-to determine the distribution of tissue-specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs). The specific binding was saturable and reversible. A statistically significant increase (muscle, 537% and mantle, 201%, as absolute percentages) in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) was found in mussels from the polluted site, compared with mussels from the nonpolluted site. By contrast, the value of the dissociation constant (K(d)) at equilibrium does not show a statistically significant variation between the two groups. In competitive experiments of the compounds clonazepam, flumazenil, flunitrazepam, Ro5-4864, PK11195, and protoporphyrin IX, only PK11195 and protoporphyrin IX displaced [3H]PK11195 specifically bound to soft tissue membranes, revealing that the binding sites of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors of mussels have pharmacological properties comparable to those of low vertebrates such as trout. M. galloprovincialis was also tested as an indicator of heavy metal exposure, and metal accumulation in the digestive gland was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The contents of Pb, Mn, and Zn in mussels collected off the polluted site were higher than those in mussels from the nonpolluted site. These data suggest that PBRs are present in the soft tissues of the mussel M. galloprovincialis. Here we report preliminary evidence of biochemical alterations in mussels from the polluted site. PMID:12547633

  19. Effect of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2016-04-01

    Effects of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture are investigated by detailed monitoring of culture practice in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands. The seeds originate from different sources. The seeds differ in size and farmers apply seeding techniques dependent on the seed size resulting in different seed densities on the culture plots. We hypothesise growth to be density dependent and that biomass production is primarily determined by survival and is therefore a function of seed density which is related to the activities of the farmers. Data was collected from 42 different culture plots over a three year period (June 2009-June 2012). During this period, 66 sub-populations were followed from seeding until harvest. Seeding at the start of the culture resulted in an instantaneous drop in biomass production, caused by large losses in mussel number. These losses were on average 42% of the mussels seeded. This seeding loss decreased with mussel size and increased with seeding density. A subsequent density dependent loss of 1.8 mussels per day was found for smaller mussels ( 30 mm) during grow out. Overall loss from seeding to harvest was high, from 92% for the smallest seeds collected from spat collectors, to 54% for half-grown mussels fished from natural beds in the spring. No indication was found that growth or mussel condition was affected by culture plot scale density. Growth was dependent on mussel size and age, and this largely determined the differences in biomass production between seed sources. The density dependent seeding loss associated with seeding activities largely determined survival, and hence overall biomass production.

  20. Growth of juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) on suspended collectors in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P.; Beauchemin, C.; Riegman, R.

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, fishing for juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) on wild beds is gradually replaced by harvesting of seeds from suspended collectors. Both the relaxation of fishing as well as the up-scaling of the number of seed collectors are expected to result in an increase in the number of mussels in the Wadden Sea. Consequently, an enhanced mussel population will cause an additional filtration impact on the system. The question is raised to what extent collectors can be used without negatively affecting the carrying capacity of an ecosystem. Therefore, a monitoring programme was initiated to study the growth of juvenile mussels on suspended collectors. This growth was related to food availability, measured as chlorophyll-a, and temperature both before and after settlement. Findings will serve as input for mathematical models predicting the carrying capacity for mussel seed collectors in this area. The results for 2010 and 2011 are presented. In 2011 settled mussels achieved a higher growth rate, while phytoplankton concentrations after settlement were lower. This contradicts the general agreement that higher phytoplankton concentrations result in higher growth rates. A positive relation between chlorophyll-a concentrations during the larval period and the growth rate of settled mussels was found. The number of settled larvae was higher in 2011. Results from existing studies on settlement and recruitment on tidal flats combined with estimated settlement date in the current study led to the hypothesis that the number of settled mussels on rope collectors is inversely related to the duration of the larval period (determined by water temperature). Our results indicated that in the Wadden Sea, the intra-annual differences in chlorophyll-a and temperature did not have an impact on the juvenile growth rate, while the interannual differences did. This is an indication that the larval stage is strongly discriminative in terms of juvenile growth rates. Modelling

  1. Gender-specific metabolic responses in hepatopancreas of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis challenged by Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Ma, Mengwen; Zhang, Yuemei

    2014-10-01

    Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish and frequently studied in shellfish immunology. In this work, the gender-specific metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from M. galloprovincialis were characterized using NMR-based metabolomics. In details, V. harveyi challenge increased the levels of amino acids including (valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, alanine, arginine and tyrosine) and ATP, and decreased the level of glucose in male mussel hepatopancreas. In V. harveyi-challenged female mussel hepatopancreas, both threonine and AMP were significantly elevated, and choline, phoshphocholine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, taurine, betaine and ATP were depleted. Obviously, only threonine was similarly altered to that in V. harveyi-challenged male mussel hepatopancreas. These findings confirmed the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussels challenged by V. harveyi. Overall, V. harveyi induced an enhanced energy demand through activated glycolysis and immune response indicated by increased BCAAs in male mussel hepatopancreas. In female mussel hepatopancreas, V. harveyi basically caused disturbances in both osmotic regulation and energy metabolism through the metabolic pathways of conversions of phosphocholine and ADP to choline and ATP, and sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and H2O into choline and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (Cu/Zn-SOD, HSP90, lysozyme and defensin) suggested that V. harveyi induced obvious oxidative and immune stresses in both male and female mussel hepatopancreas. This work demonstrated that V. harveyi could induce gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis hepatopancreas using NMR-based metabolomics. PMID:25123832

  2. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were posit...... in these hares. This is the first report of antibodies to EBHSV, EBHSV-antigen, and electron microscopy findings in free-ranging European brown hares from South America....

  3. The effects of subtidal mussel seed fisheries in the Dutch Wadden Sea on sediment composition

    OpenAIRE

    Bemmelen, van, R.S.A.; Brinkman, A.G.; Holthuyzen, S.; Jansen, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the effect of seed mussel fishery activities on sediment composition is analysed. The hypothesis is that dredging for mussels brings fine silt in suspension. Tidal currents move silt away from the fishing site and a more course sediment is left behind. For PRODUS experimental plots of each 400 x 200 m have been marked out on sites were natural mussel seed occurred: on one half of the plots fishing was prohibited and on the other half fishing was allowed. Per plot 12 boxcorer s...

  4. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Stenalt, Ea

    2010-01-01

    The choice of a mussel bed as a settling locality by conspecific mussel larvae is a trade-off between reduced fitness due to an increased risk of larval predation and post-settling food competition with the filtering adults and the benefit from a reduced post-settling mortality. This reduced post......-settling mortality may be due to a reduced benthic predation in habitats with high complexity. In a field experiment, the larval settling of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, was recorded on an artificial substrate 0.25, 1 and 2 m above the bottom during six periods in spring 1999. The experiment was conducted at four...

  5. Uptake of Iodine-131 in mussel (Mytilus smaragdinns) and algae (caulerpa racemosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Banzon, R.B.; de la Mines, A.S.; Bautista, E.Rb. (Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, Diliman, Quezon City)

    The behavior of radionuclides in the environment has been the subject of research. Iodine-131, a beta emitter as one of the radionuclides has been studied. This study describes Iodine-131 uptake in mussel and algae. The bioaccumulation factor C was determined which gave the relationship between the concentration of radioactivity in biota relative to the water environment. Results of the experiments showed that the mussels steadily accumulated I-131 from radioactive medium. Much higher bioaccumulation factor was obtained in algae than in mussel. No attempt was made to measure activity in the soft parts.

  6. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein MEFP-2 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-02-07

    The present invention includes a Mytilus edulis cDNA having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-2 (Mefp-2), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-2 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-2 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-2 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-2 gene sequences will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  7. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein Mefp-1 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-01-17

    The present invention comprises a Mytilus edulis cDNA sequenc having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (Mefp-1), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-1 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-1 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-1 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-1 gene sequence will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  8. Farmers risk perception and risk management strategies in an emerging mussel aquaculture industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Roth, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to provide empirical insight into how the mussel farmers perceive and manage risks. The results show that future price and demand of mussel are the high ranked perceived risk. Bad weather, oxygen depletion, harmful algal blooms, E-coli, change in governmental...... important risk management strategies. When developing and changing policies for farmers’ reliability and for the long-term sustainability of mussel aquaculture, policy-makers should consider those risks and risk management strategies which have been emphasized by the farmers....

  9. The first record of the Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834, Chinese pond mussel (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Unionidae is one of the most invasive aquatic macroinvertebrate species found in Europe. We report the Chinese pond mussel for the first time in Montenegro, in August 2012, in Lake Šasko (Adriatic part of the Central Mediterranean subarea. One specimen of the Chinese pond mussel was observed in a habitat with a predominantly silt-clay substrate. The main pathway of species introduction was evaluated to be via fish stocking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002 i br. ON 173025

  10. Accumulation and Toxicity of Copper Oxide Engineered Nanoparticles in a Marine Mussel

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Shannon K.; Miller, Robert J.; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2014-01-01

    Cu is an essential trace element but can be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at elevated concentrations. Greater use of CuO engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) may lead to increased concentrations of CuO ENPs in aquatic environments causing potential ecological injury. We examined the toxicity of CuO ENPs to marine mussels and the influence of mussels on the fate and transport of CuO ENPs. We exposed marine mussels to 1, 2, or 3 mg L−1 CuO ENPs for four weeks, and measured clearance rate, reject...

  11. GROWTH OF MUSSELS (Mytilus galloprovincialis ON THE EAST COAST OF ISTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Marušić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate of mussels depends on ecological factors but largely on the amount of food. Food must be of adequate composition and amount. Other responsible factors are temperature and salinity. Growth of mussels is increased if there is inflow of fresh water. Very low values of salinity have negative influence on growth. The growth of mussels in Budava and Raša Bay is increase with an increase in sea temperature. The slowest growth was at the very lowest salinity values.

  12. Freshwater Mussels as Biological Sensors and Cyclers of Aquatic Nitrogen Constituents: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, A.; Just, C. L.; Mudumbai, R.; Dasgupta, S.; Newton, T. J.; Durst, J.; Boddicker, M. D.; Diken, M. B.; Bril, J.; Baidoo-Williams, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most extensive manifestations of anthropogenic mismanagement of nitrogen is eutrophication of the Gulf of Mexico. Leaching and runoff transport nitrate compounds-excess agricultural fertilizer and animal waste-via the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Phytoplankton then multiplies exponentially, and consumes most of the dissolved oxygen. This hypoxia kills fish and other organisms, leading to so-called dead zones in the Gulf that can cover 6,000-7,000 square miles. Dead zone mitigation plans call for coupling management actions with enhanced monitoring, modeling, and research on nitrogen delivery to, as well as processing within, the Mississippi River. Our vision is to create a biosensor network of native freshwater mussels in a major river to monitor, comprehend, and ultimately model key components of the nitrogen cycle. Native freshwater mussels are a guild of long-lived, suspension feeding bivalves that perform important ecological functions in aquatic systems. Mussels can influence nutrient cycling by transferring nutrients from the water column to the riverbed. A major problem for environmental scientists is that relatively little is known about the diurnal behaviors of freshwater mussels or the impacts these behaviors may have on the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Our multidisciplinary team is performing a series of laboratory experiments exploring the feasibility of using freshwater mussels as sensors of and capacitors for nitrates. For sensing, we place Hall-effect sensors on mussels to monitor the rhythmic opening and closing of their valves (gape). One shortcoming of previous work is that mussels were monitored in artificial conditions: glued fast in laboratory flumes, or tethered in constrained settings. To overcome this shortcoming, our team has built a mussel microhabitat with a constant river water feed stock, solar simulator, and a variety of water chemistry sensor. A main thrust of our work is to develop the technology to monitor mussel

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  4. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  5. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  6. Ezra Brown named Alumni Distinguished Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Board of Visitors conferred the title Alumni Distinguished Professor (ADP) to Ezra "Bud" Brown, professor of mathematics in the College of Science, in recognition of his extraordinary academic citizenship and distinguished service within the Virginia Tech community.

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  16. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  17. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  18. Perna canaliculus Lipid Complex PCSO-524™ Demonstrated Pain Relief for Osteoarthritis Patients Benchmarked against Fish Oil, a Randomized Trial, without Placebo Control

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Szechinski; Claudia Janosch; Marek Zawadzki

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) typically generates pain, reduced mobility and reduced quality of life. Most conventional treatments for osteoarthritis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and simple analgesics, have side effects. PCSO-524™, a non polar lipid extract from the New Zealand Green Lipped Mussel, is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and has been shown to reduce inflammation in both animal studies and patient trials. This OA trial examined pain relief changes in relation to qualit...

  19. PBDEs in freshwater mussels and fish from Flanders, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Toxicological Center; Bervoets, L.; Hoff, P.; Voets, J.; Campenhout, K. van; Blust, R. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials for more than 30 years. Due to their massive use, PBDEs have become ubiquitously present in aquatic organisms and it was recently evidenced that their levels seem to increase rapidly. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in biota from freshwater compared to similar marine species. This is probably due to a higher pollution load found near point pollution sources that are almost exclusively inland located. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) fulfil the requirements of a good biomonitoring organism for freshwater ecosystems: they are easy to collect and to handle, are available in sufficient numbers, have a relative long lifespan, are sedentary and resistant to various types of pollution without suffering a too high mortality and have a high filtration rate which favours the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants. Fish species are another suitable tool for the biomonitoring of organic contaminants. The occurrence of PBDEs in fish species from Europe has already received some attention, but the amount of data is still limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of PBDEs in zebra mussels and several representative freshwater fish species (eel, carp and gibel carp) at different sites in Flanders, Belgium. In parallel, other organohalogenated contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were also measured and their relationship with PBDEs was investigated.

  20. Toxic effects of cisplatin cytostatic drug in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini, Chiara; Garcia da Fonseca, Taina; Morais, Matilde; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Blasco, Julián; Bebianno, Maria João

    2016-08-01

    Antineoplastic drugs used in chemotherapy were detected in aquatic environment: despite the very low concentrations (ng L(-1) to ug L(-1)), due to their potent mechanism of action they could have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms particularly under chronic exposure. Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective anticancer drug currently in use but information on its ecotoxicological effects is very limited. In this study, Mytilus galloprovincialis was used to investigate the toxic effects related to CDDP exposure. Mussels were exposed to cisplatin (100 ng L(-1)) for 14 days: antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase) enzymes activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation), genotoxicity (DNA damage) and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase) was evaluated. Results indicate that CDDP at tested concentration induce changes in the antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress in target organs (digestive gland and gills) as well as DNA damage in mussel hemocytes and neurotoxicity representing a risk for non-target organisms. PMID:27183200

  1. Nucleus Pearl Coating Process of Freshwater Mussel Anodonta woodiana (Unionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WASMEN MANALU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The limiting factor which is a weakness of sea water pearl production are high costs, the risk of major business failures and a long coating time. From the issue of freshwater pearls appear to have prospects of alternative substitution for sea water pearl. This present study aimed to evaluate effect of loads (the number and diameter nucleus on freshwater pearl coating process and the number and size of the appropriate nucleus diameter, to produce the optimum coating thickness of half-round pearls. The research consists of experimental implantation of 2, 4, and 6 nucleus number per individual mussel was maintained by the method stocked in hapa in bottom waters. Observation method and factorial randomized block design used in the study of the influence of the load to the successfulness of pearl coating and the pearl layer thickness. The results showed that A. woodiana can be utilized as a producer of freshwater pearls. In addition, the number of optimum nucleus that can be attached to the mussel A. woodiana was 2 grains/individuals with a diameter of 10 mm. Shells implanted with the optimum nucleus diameter and number of pearls produced the highest layer thickness of 17 m after 9 months cultivation. This result was good enough compared with the layer thickness of sea water pearl production after the same cultivation time.

  2. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in mussels (Mytilus galloprovinciallis), Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, João R; Oliveira, Danielle; Rivadulla, Enrique; Abreu-Silva, Joana; Varela, Miguel F; Romalde, Jesús L; Nascimento, Maria S J

    2016-09-01

    Coastal waters can become contaminated with both human waste from sewage treatment plants and runoff following manure application. Thus, shellfish produced close to land can bioaccumulate enteric viruses of human and animal origin, including zoonotic hepatitis E virus that infect both human and swine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in shellfish from Galicia (NW Spain), a densely populated region with a strong tradition of swine farming, and one of the most important regions in the world for mussel production. We tested 81 mussel batches by RT-qPCR followed by conventional broad-spectrum nested RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis. We have obtained 12 positive samples by RT-qPCR (14.81%) with HEV contamination levels ranging from 6.7 × 10(1) to 8.6 × 10(4) RNA copies/g digestive tissue. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 330 nt region of the ORF 1 showed that all sequenced isolates belonged to the zoonotic genotype 3 subgenotype e, being closely related to strains of human and swine origin. Results show that shellfish may be a potential route for HEV transmission to humans. PMID:27217353

  3. Complete male mitochondrial genomes of European Mytilus edulis mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietanka, Beata; Wenne, Roman; Burzyński, Artur

    2016-05-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) results in the existence of two gender-specific, divergent mtDNA lineages within a single species. Under DUI, the female genome (F) is transmitted from mothers to the whole offspring, and the male genome (M) is transmitted exclusively from fathers to sons. This system was first described in a marine mussels Mytilus edulis inhabiting European coastal waters, over a decade ago. Despite that, the complete sequence of the M genome from the European M. edulis mussels remained unknown. Here we announce it for the first time. The announcement is based on the two haplotypes isolated from heteroplasmic males of European M. edulis sampled at two moderately distant locations: southern North Sea and western Baltic. The two M genomes are quite similar both in length (16,631 and 16,632 bp) and in sequence (98.3%). Furthermore, both newly sequenced genomes are closely related to the genomes described from Baltic M. trossulus. PMID:25208162

  4. Distribution of radionuclides in mussels, winkles and prawns: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under laboratory conditions mussels, winkles and prawns have exhibited the ability to accumulate 237Np, 239Pu and 241Am from both sea water and food. In general, the soft tissues involved in feeding and digestion accumulated radionuclides most effectively. In digestive glands/hepatopancreas, the site of nuclide uptake was the digestive tubules. Other active tissues were the gill and heart of the Dublin Bay prawn and the pallial complex and operculum of the winkle. The prawn's gill was the only tissue to exhibit a clear preference between food and sea water labelling media -higher accumulation occurring via sea water. Heart tissue contained enhanced levels of 239Pu relative to 237Np and 241Am. The various glandular and secretory functions of the winkle's pallial complex may account for the comparable magnitude of nuclide activities in this tissue and the digestive gland. Other mucous secretions, on the external layers of the winkle's head and foot, have been observed to accumulate radionuclides but not as efficiently as the pallial complex. The most intense α-track distributions encountered were found in the winkle's operculum, these being attributable to its chitinous nature. Despite the relatively low activities present in Ravenglass mussels and winkles, their α-autoradiographs exhibited tissue activity trends in general accordance with those obtained experimentally. This finding provides some further support for the validity of laboratory-derived information and its extrapolation to environmental conditions. (Author)

  5. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  6. Candle power at Browns Ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the serious accident that occurred to the Browns Ferry nuclear power station in Alabama on March 22 1975, when a fire caused by an electrician searching for air leaks using a candle caused great damage to the reactor. The fire put several key safety systems out of action and caused problems in shutting down one of the plant's two reactors. The use of a candle for the purpose was regarded as a highly unofficial but time-honoured method. In this case the candle ignited polyurethane foam surrounding some electrical cables, and the fire spread back through the reactor walls. Some alarming features of the fire fighting effort are noted. The use of water finally quickly extinguished the fire. The unconventional means that had to be adopted to shut down the reactors are described. Implications of the accident for other plants are being considered and modifications are suggested. There were no adverse effects on public health and safety. (author)

  7. Co-existence of zebra mussels and freshwater unionids: Population dynamics of Leptodea fragilis in a coastal wetland infested with zebra mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Amberg, Jon

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, thousands of live Leptodea fragilis were collected from a marsh located in the western basin of Lake Erie that was infested with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Despite the presence of zebra mussels at this site for a number of years, this L. fragilis population showed no signs of competition-induced changes in population dynamics. Biofouling was limited: fewer than 1% of the L. fragilis showed evidence of recent or past zebra mussel colonization. Successful recruitment occurred yearly, with multiple year classes collected that ranged in age from 1 to 12 years. However, age and shell length were not well correlated. Seventy-one percent of the individuals collected were 51-80 mm long, but ranged in age from 2 to 4.5 years. Three different patterns of growth or shell deposition were found. Some individuals grew rapidly, reaching 105 mm in 3.5 years, while others grew only 4.5 mm over the same time period. A few grew poorly during some years but very rapidly in others. Individuals with a shell length of 41 mm or more were sexually mature and females were more common than males. The strong recruitment and steady growth of this population showed no change between the years before and after the zebra mussel invasion, indicating that this marsh is functioning as a natural refugium from potential problems caused by zebra mussels.

  8. Lessons learned in over 100 zebra mussel control applications at industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGough, C.M.; Gilland, P.H.; Muia, R.A. [Calgon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Since their introduction into US waterways, Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorphae) have spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes and Mississippi regions. These mussels have continued to colonize the intake pipes of industrial water supplies and water distribution systems throughout the affected areas. Their colonization has compromised plant safety and production efficiency, and steadily increased costs to water users. The design of each industrial plant water distribution system is unique. A comprehensive zebra mussel control strategy using the best available options must be considered in each specific situation. This paper discusses the successful use of one strategy (a quaternary ammonia-based molluscicide) in the battle against zebra mussels. The commercial life cycle of an industrial molluscicide began with initial toxicity screening in the laboratory. The evaluation continued at plant sites through field trials and applications. Lessons learned from these experiences helped direct the efforts toward the development of a second generation program.

  9. Refining Mussel Conservation Techniques through the Operation of a Streamside Rearing Trailer

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of the Genoa National Fish Hatchery Native Freshwater Mussel Restoration Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service researchers utilized advanced technology in...

  10. Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Quetel, C. R.; Munoz, R.; FialaMedioni, A.; Donard, O. F. X.

    Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted by the...... hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary producing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, contained arsenic at 13 mu g g(-1) almost exclusively as arsenobetaine (AsB). Arsenic was present in the soft:issues of the mussel at 40 mu g g(-1) and the major...... of arsenic species found in the shrimp and mussel species in the deep-sea is similar to that found in their counterparts from the ocean surface. It is concluded that the autotrophic bacteria of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem and the symbiotic bacteria harboured in the mussel species are responsible...

  11. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-06-01

    One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C) on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the (1)H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled "Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels' freshness" (Aru et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27081673

  12. Developing water quality standards for recovery of imperiled freshwater mussels (family Unionidae)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many factors are cited in the decline of freshwater mussel (Family Unionidae) populations in North America and for the listing of greater than 70% of native unionid...

  13. Annual Report: Cooperative Recovery Initiative Big River Mussel Project FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents the progress made in FY13 on the establishment of 2-4 new populations of four federally listed mussel species (clubshell, orange-foot...

  14. Annual Report: Cooperative Recovery Initiative Big River Mussel Project FY2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents the progress made in FY14 on the establishment of 2-4 new populations of four federally listed mussel species (clubshell, orange-foot...

  15. Relationship between seawater pollution and qualitative changes in the extracted proteins from mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to find a reliable biomarker of seawater pollution. For this purpose the contents of Zn and Cu, proteins and antioxidant activity in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from polluted and non-polluted sites of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast were compared. To determine the above-mentioned indices atomic spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and two antioxidant tests were used. It was found that the amounts of Zn and Cu were significantly higher in the mussel proteins from the polluted than from the non-polluted sites (P ·+) was significantly higher in mussel samples from polluted than from non-polluted sites. Therefore, the changes in Zn and Cu concentration, in protein's secondary and tertiary structures and antioxidant activity in mussels M. galloprovincialis from polluted sites can be a reliable biomarker of the level of the seawater pollution

  16. UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY BLUE MUSSELS (MYTILUS EDULIS) EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTALLY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed to expose blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) to contaminated sediment collected from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in 1982. Measurements were taken to allow comparisons of the uptake and depuration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlo...

  17. [BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF BLUE MUSSELS MYTILUS EDULIS L. FROM THE WHITE SEA TO RAPID TEMPERATURE CHANGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokina, N N; Lysenko, L A; Sukhovskaya, I V; Vdovichenko, E A; Borvinskaya, E V; Kantserova, N P; Krupnova, M Yu; Ruokolainen, T R; Smirnov, L P; Vysotskaya, R U; Bakhmet, I N; Nemova, N N

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a rapid temperature change on the biochemical status of blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea was studied under conditions of aquarium experiment. It is shown that modifications of the composition of reserve and structural lipids and their fatty acids, of the activity of lysosomal enzymes (β-glucosidases, cathepsins B and D), of calcium-dependent proteases of cytocol (calpains) and of the enzyme of the second phase of biotransformation of xenobiotics - glutathione-S-transferase, reflect an unspecific compensatory reaction of bivalves to stress action of environmental factors and indicate reconstruction of blue mussel metabolism as early as within first hours of temperature change. The initial high level of glutathione-S-transferase activity in control blue mussels as well as an increase of glutathione concentration in the course of experiment may facilitate successful exit of mussels from the state of reduced metabolism. PMID:26856072

  18. Tippecanoe River, Indiana: Defining point source threats to rare endangered mussels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tippecanoe River is one of the nation's most biologically diverse rivers. It remains one of the last strongholds for the federally endangered clubshell mussel...

  19. Sex-limited mitochondrial DNA transmission in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibinski, D O; Gallagher, C; Beynon, C M

    1994-11-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was thought to be inherited maternally in animals, although paternal leakage has been reported in mice and Drosophila. Recently, direct evidence of extensive paternal inheritance of mtDNA has been found in the marine mussel Mytilus. We give evidence that whereas female mussels are homoplasmic for a genome that is transmitted to eggs, male mussels are heteroplasmic for this genome and for a second genome that is transmitted preferentially to sperm. The results provide support for the existence of separate male and female routes of mtDNA inheritance in mussels. The two genomes show a base sequence divergence exceeding 20% at three protein coding genes, consistent with long term maintenance of the heteroplasmic state. We propose that the two genomes differ in fitness in males and females, possibly as a result of interaction with nuclear genes. PMID:7851776

  20. Cholinesterase activity as a device for biomonitoring pesticide exposure in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A die-off of freshwater mussels in 1990, attributed to anticholinesterase pesticide contamination of a North Carolina stream, has led the National Biological...

  1. Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Quetel, C. R.; Munoz, R.;

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted by the...... hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary producing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, contained arsenic at 13 mu g g(-1) almost exclusively as arsenobetaine (AsB). Arsenic was present in the soft:issues of the mussel at 40 mu g g(-1) and the major...... of arsenic species found in the shrimp and mussel species in the deep-sea is similar to that found in their counterparts from the ocean surface. It is concluded that the autotrophic bacteria of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem and the symbiotic bacteria harboured in the mussel species are responsible...

  2. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  3. Assessment of the non-protein amino acid BMAA in Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after feeding with estuarine cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Mafalda S; Vasconcelos, Rita G W; Ferreira, Paula C; Almeida, C Marisa R; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether 2-amino-3-methylaminopropanoic acid (BMAA) could be taken up by marine organisms from seawater or their diet mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the North Atlantic Portuguese shore, were exposed to seawater doped with BMAA standard (for up to 48 h) or fed with cyanobacteria (for up to 15 days). Mussels were able to uptake BMAA when exposed to seawater. Mussels fed with cyanobacteria Synechocystis salina showed a rise in BMAA concentration during feeding and a decline in concentration during the subsequent depuration period. Cells from the gills and hepatopancreas of mussels fed with S. salina showed lessened metabolic activity in mussels fed for longer periods of time. A hot acidic digestion (considered to account for total BMAA) was compared with a proteolytic digestion, using pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. The latter was able to extract from mussels approximately 30% of total BMAA. Implications for BMAA trophic transfers in marine ecosystems are discussed. PMID:25903181

  4. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.; Rønsholt, L.; Speck, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  5. Análise das arteriografias de diabéticos e não diabéticos com isquemia crítica da perna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Prado dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO OBJETIVO: Comparar características angiográficas de pacientes diabéticos e não diabéticos com isquemia crítica. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 161 membros inferiores de pacientes com isquemia crítica infrainguinal. Avaliaram-se as características clínicas e arteriográficas (número e presença de opacificação das artérias da perna dos dois grupos de pacientes. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo EPI-INFO RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes era categoria 5da Classificação de Rutherford e apresentava doença do território fêmoro-poplíteo. Opacificação da artéria fibular foi encontrada em 72% dos não diabéticos e em 67% dos diabéticos (p = 0,25, sendo esta a artéria mais presente em ambos os grupos. Os diabéticos apresentaram menor índice de opacificação da artéria tibial posterior na análise univariada (29% vs. 47%; p = 0,008. Na regressão logística, apenas o sexo feminino se mostrou significante para a ausência da artéria tibial posterior (OR = 2,6; p = 0,01 CONCLUSÃO: A artéria fibular foi a mais encontrada nas angiografias de diabéticos e não diabéticos com isquemia crítica. Diabéticos e não diabéticos não diferiram em relação ao padrão angiográfico da perna.

  6. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  7. The use of chlorine dioxide for zebra mussel control - A perspective of treatment histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolik, N.; Rusznak, L.; Anderson, J.; Hale, L. [Ashland Chemical Coman, Drew Division, Booton, NJ (United States)

    1995-06-01

    It is of utmost importance to provide updated performance results of various chemical treatments presently being utilized for zebra mussel control. Zebra mussels have a distinctive ability to endure environmental changes by reproducing effectively and attaching to various hard surfaces. These traits are cause for concern and have resulted in some operating difficulties for industries bordering infested waterways. Various methods are being employed by industries to deal with the problems associated with these species. One of the options is control via chemical treatment. Prior field test studies showed that chlorine dioxide was determined to be an effective molluscicidal agent for adult zebra mussel eradication. Continuous feed of chlorine dioxide at treatment levels ranging from 0.25 - 5.0 ppm above the oxidant demand provided 100% adult zebra mussel mortality which required between 2.9 - 8.8 days of treatment. Previous studies also showed that water temperature was an essential parameter in determining the time required to achieve 100% mortality of adult zebra mussels. Further field applications were undertaken at three electric utility sites located in the midwest. These facilities were concerned with the potential for zebra mussels to reduce efficiency and availability by blocking water flow or plugging equipment. Treatment applications at these facilities consisted of a continuous feed of chlorine dioxide ranging from 0.15 - 0.5 ppm above the oxidant demand. Significant mortality was achieved in monitored mussels tested at each utility in a period ranging from two to four days. This time period was directly related to a number of parameters, with the predominant one being water temperature. Data from these field applications is presented in this paper and confirms that chlorine dioxide is an effective molluscicide for adult zebra mussel control.

  8. A multibiomarker approach to explore interactive effects of propranolol and fluoxetine in marine mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-biomarker approach, including several lysosomal parameters, activity and mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, and DNA damage, was employed to investigate the nominal effects of 0.3 ng/L fluoxetine (FX) and 0.3 ng/L propranolol (PROP) alone or in combination (0.3 ng/L FX + 0.3 ng/L PROP) on Mediterranean mussels after a 7 day treatment. FX co-exposure appears to facilitate PROP bioaccumulation because PROP only accumulated in digestive gland of FX + PROP treated mussels. Lysosomal parameters were significantly impaired by FX + PROP treatment, while no clear antioxidant responses at the catalytic and transcriptional levels were observed. Biomarker responses led to a “medium stress level” diagnosis in FX + PROP treated mussels, according to the Expert System, whereas 0.3 ng/L PROP or FX alone did not induce consistent stress conditions. These findings suggest vulnerability of coastal marine mussels to FX and PROP contamination at environmentally relevant levels. - Highlights: • FX and PROP combined effects were assessed in marine mussels using biomarkers. • PROP bioaccumulation was observed in digestive gland of FX + PROP treated mussels. • Lysosomal parameters were significantly impaired by FX + PROP treatment. • No clear antioxidant responses at the catalytic and mRNA levels were observed. • FX + PROP treatment increased stress levels of mussels compared with the single chemicals. - Fluoxetine and propranolol induce interactive effects on marine mussels biomarker responses and pharmaceutical bioaccumulation

  9. Protozoan parasites in cultured mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis in the Thermaikos Gulf (north Aegean Sea, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayyan, Abdalnasser; Damianidis, Panagiotis; Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Chintiroglou, Chariton C

    2006-06-23

    The protozoans Ancistrum mytili (Oligohymenophorea: Ancistridae) and Marteilia refringens/maurini (Marteiliidea: Marteiliidae) were found parasitizing cultured mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis L. in the Thermaikos Gulf (north Aegean Sea, Greece). The former did not affect the condition index of infected mussels, in contrast to the latter, which did so and which also induced hemocyte infiltration in the affected digestive epithelium. The prevalence of both parasites was relatively high in a polluted area. PMID:16903237

  10. Identification of methanotrophic lipid biomarkers in cold-seep mussel gills: chemical and isotopic analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnke, L L; Summons, R E; Dowling, L M; Zahiralis, K D

    1995-01-01

    A lipid analysis of the tissues of a cold-seep mytilid mussel collected from the Louisiana slope of the Gulf of Mexico was used in conjunction with a compound-specific isotope analysis to demonstrate the presence of methanotrophic symbionts in the mussel gill tissue and to demonstrate the host's dependence on bacterially synthesized metabolic intermediates. The gill tissue contained large amounts of group-specific methanotrophic biomarkers, bacteriohopanoids, 4-methylsterols, lipopolysacchar...

  11. Site Selection Criteria for Off-Shore Mussel Cultivation Use: A Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Brigolin, D.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, the Mediterranean mussel production in Italy has been steadily increasing, reaching in 2002 the 7% of the worldwide production. This trend is mainly due to the increase in landings from aquaculture, which in 2002 accounted for about 70% of the country annual production. Despite this growth, the development of off-shore mussel culture activities still encounters a number of constraints concerned with sustainability and environmental impacts. This work presents the developem...

  12. Endoglucanase and Mannanase from Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: Purification, Characterization, Gene and Three Dimensional Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bingze

    2002-01-01

    Two polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (endo-1,4-D-glucanase and β-mannanase) from blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, have been purified to homogeneity using a combination of several chromatographic steps. Each enzyme has been characterized with regard to its molecular weight, isoelectric point, pH and temperature stability, pH and temperature optimum and substrate specificity. The amino acid sequence of the endoglucanase has been determined at the protein level. The two enzymes are true blue mussel ...

  13. The effect of temperature on cercariae production of two Rhipidocotyle trematodes parasitizing freshwater mussel, Anodonta anatina.

    OpenAIRE

    Alabi, Waidi

    2013-01-01

    Two bucephalid trematodes, Rhipidocotyle campanula and R. fennica are known to infect the duck mussel, Anodonta anatina. The infection will lead to decrease growth, reproduction and survival of A. anatina. Given the important role of temperature on cercariae production, a vital component of the parasite’s transmission and life cycle success, the effect of temperature on cercariae production of two Rhipidocotyle sp. in their molluscan host, Anodonta anatina, was investigated. Mussels were coll...

  14. Optimal Management of a Potential Invader: The Case of Zebra Mussels in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Donna J.; Damian C. Adams; Rossi, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Dominant users of Lake Okeechobee water resources are agricultural producers and recreational anglers. These uses will be directly affected, should the lake become infested with zebra mussels. We employ a probabilistic bioeconomic simulation model to estimate the potential impact of zebra mussels on consumptive water uses, recreational angling, and wetland ecosystem services under alternative public management scenarios. Without public management, the expected net economic impact from zebra m...

  15. Survival, Growth and Condition of Freshwater Mussels: Effects of Municipal Wastewater Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Nobles, Trey; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas strea...

  16. Experimental study on copper uptake capacity in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, H; Dalgic, G; Bayrak, E Y; Sirin, M; Cevik, U; Apaydin, G

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of different sizes, sex, and exposure time on Cu uptake capacity, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis of different shell sizes were exposed to different Cu concentrations in different aquariums. In another experiment, mussels were exposed to stable dissolved Cu for 6 days in the laboratory. All mussels tissue concentrations were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. At the end of uptake, the rate of increase of Cu level in the soft tissues of mussels in different aquariums was 3.84-7.92 times higher than before exposure. While the results of Cu concentrations were negatively correlated with the shell sizes in the control and second groups (r control = -0.862, r second = -0.851 p  0.05). Also, results showed no significant difference between male and female (p > 0.05). On the other hand, Cu concentration values in soft tissue were monitored daily and observed to be increasing up to the third day but afterwards to be descending, thus indicating a significant effect of the exposure time-related Cu uptake by mussels. Therefore, the exposure time to Cu metal of the mussel should be taken into account in the marine pollution investigations. In addition, by using the obtained Cu heavy metal concentration results, the heavy metal intake by the human population was calculated by taking into account daily mussel consumption. The results were examined for potential human health risks and discussed. These results would be helpful to understand factors controlling Cu accumulation in mussels. PMID:26898936

  17. Dissolved azaspiracids are absorbed and metabolized by blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Jauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Sechet, Veronique; Miles, Christopher O.; Hess, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between azaspiracid shellfish poisoning and a small dinoflagellate, Azadinium spinosum, has been shown recently. The organism produces AZA1 and -2, while AZA3 and other analogues are metabolic products formed in shellfish. We evaluated whether mussels were capable of accumulating dissolved AZA1 and -2, and compared the toxin profiles of these mussels at 24 h with profiles of those exposed to live or lysed A. spinosum. We also assessed the possibility of preparative production...

  18. Indirect Effects of Epibiosis on Host Mortality: Seastar Predation on Differently Fouled Mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Laudien, Jürgen; M. Wahl

    1999-01-01

    In situ experiments were run with the seastar Asterias rubens to investigate the influence of epibiosis on predation preferences. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) monospecifically fouled by different epibiont species (the barnacle Balanus improvisus, the red filamentous alga Ceramium strictum, the sponge Halichondria panicea and the hydrozoan Laomedea flexuosa) and macroscopically clean mussels were exposed and seastar predation was monitored by SCUBA. Asterias rubens preferred macroscopical unfouled...

  19. Genetic variation underlying protein expression in eggs of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, Angel P; Dudley, Edward; MacDonald, Barry W; Piña, Benjamin; Kenchington, Ellen L R; Zouros, Eleftherios; Skibinski, David O F

    2009-01-01

    Study of the genetic basis of gene expression variation is central to attempts to understand the causes of evolutionary change. Although there are many transcriptomics studies estimating genetic variance and heritability in model organisms such as humans there is a lack of equivalent proteomics studies. In the present study, the heritability underlying egg protein expression was estimated in the marine mussel Mytilus. We believe this to be the first such measurement of genetic variation for gene expression in eggs of any organism. The study of eggs is important in evolutionary theory and life history analysis because maternal effects might have profound effects on the rate of evolution of offspring traits. Evidence is presented that the egg proteome varies significantly between individual females and that heritability of protein expression in mussel eggs is moderate to high suggesting abundant genetic variation on which natural selection might act. The study of the mussel egg proteome is also important because of the unusual system of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in mussels whereby different mitochondrial genomes are transmitted independently through female and male lineages (doubly uniparental inheritance). It is likely that the mechanism underlying this system involves the interaction of specific egg factors with sperm mitochondria following fertilization, and its elucidation might be advanced by study of the proteome in females having different progeny sex ratios. Putative identifications are presented here for egg proteins using MS/MS in Mytilus lines differing in sex ratio. Ontology terms relating to stress response and protein folding occur more frequently for proteins showing large expression differences between the lines. The distribution of ontology terms in mussel eggs was compared with those for previous mussel proteomics studies (using other tissues) and with mammal eggs. Significant differences were observed between mussel eggs and mussel tissues but

  20. Genomic reticulation indicates mixed ancestry in Southern-Hemisphere #Mytilus$ spp. mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Borsa, Philippe; Daguin, Claire; Bierne, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Previous surveys of allozyme variation in smooth-shell Mytilus spp. mussels have reported the presence in the Southern Hemisphere of both Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels. In the present study, nuclear DNA markers mac-1 and Glu-5'/Glu-3', both diagnostic for Northern-Hemisphere M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis, were used to further characterize the nuclear genomes of M. edulis from Kerguelen and M. galloprovincialis from Tasmania. Genomic reticulation was observed, with ...