WorldWideScience

Sample records for brown midrib6 phenotype1woa

  1. Global Expression in Sorghum Brown Midrib Mutants to Improve Biomass for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (bmr) mutants are being investigated for their ability to increase the conversion efficiency of sorghum biomass for lignocellulosic bioenergy. Brown midrib 6 and 12 (bmr6 and 12) are impaired the last two steps of monolignol biosynthesis resulting in reduced lignin content and altered ...

  2. Alteration in Lignin Biosynthesis Restricts Growth of Fusarium Species in Brown Midrib Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve sorghum for bioenergy and forage uses, brown midrib6 (bmr) and 12 near-isogenic genotypes were developed in different sorghum backgrounds. bmr6 and bmr12 grain had significantly reduced colonization by members of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex as compared with wild-type. Fusariu...

  3. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  4. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  5. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  6. Dichoptic perception of brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLawyer, Tanner; Morimoto, Takuma; Buck, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments assessed mechanisms underlying brown induction by presenting a foveal target disk and concentric annular surround stimuli that varied in contrast relative to larger backgrounds. Stimuli were presented under monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing conditions. Observers adjusted the luminance of the target disk to a criterion brown level. We found evidence for at least two separate mechanisms for brown induction: one mechanism that is dependent on physically contiguous contrast and operates in monocular pathways and another mechanism that responds to high luminance contrast anywhere in the visual field and can operate after convergence of signals from the two eyes. PMID:26974916

  7. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  8. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for...

  9. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Aung; He, Hui Ling; Chua, Si Hui; Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Chen, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue expends energy in the form of heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Recent studies showed that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans and may be exploited for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetes actions. Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism. Here, we report that apelin-APJ signaling promotes brown adipocyte differentiation by increasing the expressions of brown adipogenic and thermogenic transcriptional factors via the PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. It is also found that apelin relieves the TNFα inhibition on brown adipogenesis. In addition, apelin increases the basal activity of brown adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased PGC1α and UCP1 expressions, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxygen consumption. Finally, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that apelin is able to increase the brown-like characteristics in white adipocytes. This study, for the first time, reveals the brown adipogenic and browning effects of apelin and suggests a potential therapeutic route to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25931124

  10. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...... unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  11. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  12. A Conversation with Larry Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence D. Brown was born on December 16, 1940 in Los Angeles, California. He obtained his Ph.D. in mathematics from Cornell University in 1964. He has been on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, Cornell University, Rutgers University and, most recently, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the Miers Busch Professorship of Statistics. Professor Brown was President of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1992–1993, Coeditor of The Anna...

  13. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  17. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the...... types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore...

  18. Photometric brown-dwarf classification

    CERN Document Server

    Skrzypek, N

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method "photo-type" to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs, onto the standard system, from photometry alone. We combine SDSS, UKIDSS and WISE data and classify point sources by comparing the izYJHKW1W2 colours against template colours for quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. In a sample of $6.5\\times10^6$ bright point sources, J$<$17.5, from 3150 deg$^2$, we identify and type 898 L and T dwarfs, making this the largest homogeneously selected sample of brown dwarfs to date. The sample includes 713 (125) new (previously known) L dwarfs and 21 (39) T dwarfs. For the previously-known sources, the scatter in the plot of photo-type vs spectral type indicates that our photo-types are accurate to 1.5 (1.0) sub-types rms for L (T) dwarfs. Peculiar objects and candidate unresolved binaries are identified.

  19. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  20. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  1. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  2. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  3. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  4. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  5. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  6. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  7. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  8. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  9. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  10. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  11. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  12. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  13. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were posit...... in these hares. This is the first report of antibodies to EBHSV, EBHSV-antigen, and electron microscopy findings in free-ranging European brown hares from South America....

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  5. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  6. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  7. Ezra Brown named Alumni Distinguished Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Board of Visitors conferred the title Alumni Distinguished Professor (ADP) to Ezra "Bud" Brown, professor of mathematics in the College of Science, in recognition of his extraordinary academic citizenship and distinguished service within the Virginia Tech community.

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  16. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  17. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  18. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  19. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  20. Candle power at Browns Ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the serious accident that occurred to the Browns Ferry nuclear power station in Alabama on March 22 1975, when a fire caused by an electrician searching for air leaks using a candle caused great damage to the reactor. The fire put several key safety systems out of action and caused problems in shutting down one of the plant's two reactors. The use of a candle for the purpose was regarded as a highly unofficial but time-honoured method. In this case the candle ignited polyurethane foam surrounding some electrical cables, and the fire spread back through the reactor walls. Some alarming features of the fire fighting effort are noted. The use of water finally quickly extinguished the fire. The unconventional means that had to be adopted to shut down the reactors are described. Implications of the accident for other plants are being considered and modifications are suggested. There were no adverse effects on public health and safety. (author)

  1. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.; Rønsholt, L.; Speck, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  2. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  3. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  4. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of...

  6. PRDM16 Controls a Brown Fat/Skeletal Muscle Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Bjork, Bryan; Yang, Wenli; Kajimura, Shingo; Kuang, Shihuan; Scime, Anthony; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chin, Sherry; Conroe, Heather M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Beier, David R; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. We show here by in vivo fate mapping that brown but not white fat cells arise from precursors that express myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. Notably, the transcriptional regulator, PRDM16 controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a...

  7. The brown fat secretome: metabolic functions beyond thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guo-Xiao; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2015-01-01

    Brown fat is highly active in fuel oxidation and dissipates chemical energy through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated heat production. Activation of brown fat leads to increased energy expenditure, reduced adiposity, and lower plasma glucose and lipid levels, thus contributing to better homeostasis. Uncoupled respiration and thermogenesis have been considered to be responsible for the metabolic benefits of brown adipose tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes also se...

  8. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  9. THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA2 REGULATES DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN ADIPOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown fat tissue is functionally different than the white fat, since brown fat burns lipid to generate heat for body temperature maintenance. However, brown fat cells share with white fat cells a similar molecular mechanism for fat cell formation. We have demonstrated previously that the GATA family...

  10. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear Ursus arctos from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  11. Black-Brown Relations: Are Alliances Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klor de Alva, J. Jorge; West, Cornel

    1997-01-01

    Dialogue between Cornel West and Jorge Klor de Alva explores the question of black-brown alliances, those between African Americans and Hispanic Americans. If minority groups can put aside the difference of skin color and join to combat economic and social racism, they can have far-reaching and meaningful impacts on society. (SLD)

  12. From a Brown to a Green Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    instruments such as taxes and subsidies. In this way, renewable energy sources and green industries become more competitive, thus enhancing the transition from brown to green economy. Not only can these economic incentives accelerate the so-called switch point in time from fossil fuel–based energy sources to...

  13. The White, the Brite and the Brown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lone Møller

    development, also termed adipocyte differentiation, and the role played by adipocytes in wholebody energy metabolism is therefore of utmost importance. Mammals harbour two general types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) that carry out essentially opposite functions...

  14. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  15. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  16. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation 1 . Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans 2-5 , BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome 1 . Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and...

  17. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation1. Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans2-5, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome1. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anato...

  18. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  19. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  20. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  1. Recommendations related to Browns Ferry Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its review of the events transpiring before, during and after the Browns Ferry fire, the Review Group concludes that the probability of disruptive fires of the magnitude of the Browns Ferry event is small, and that there is no need to restrict operation of nuclear power plants for public safety. However, it is clear that much can and should be done to reduce even further the likelihood of disabling fires and to improve assurance of rapid extinguishment of fires that occur. Consideration should be given also to features that would increase further the ability of nuclear facilities to withstand large fires without loss of important functions should such fires occur. The Review Group believes that improvements, especially in the areas of fire prevention and fire control, can and should be made in most existing facilities

  2. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  3. Psychological Approach to Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋仙

    2015-01-01

    <正>Compared with other literary approaches we have studied,I think the psychological approach is most suitable for analyzing Yong Goodman Brown written by American romanticism writer Hawthorne.Because psychoanalytical criticism,which is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis mode,aims at uncovering the working of the human mind--especially the expression of the unconsciousness.Professor Jiang point out in his article Hawthorne’s Aesthetic Modernity

  4. Human brown fat and obesity: methodological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    WouterDavidVan Marken Lichtenbelt

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special atten...

  5. Human Brown Fat and Obesity: Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special...

  6. Orexin modulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2012-01-01

    Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation. In addition, activations of BAT have important implications for energy homeostasis due to the metabolic consumption of energy reserves entailed in the production of heat in this tissue. In this conceptual overview we describe the role of orexins/hypocretins within the central nervous system in the modulation of thermogenesis in BAT under several physiological conditions. Within this framewor...

  7. Brown fat and vascular heat dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Amy; Mittag, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Current efforts to treat obesity and associated disorders focus on the stimulation of energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis, for instance through activating brown adipose tissue or more recently “beige” or “brite” fat, a relatively novel type of adipose tissue with putative thermogenic potential. In this commentary, we aim to provide an alternative perspective on the current trend of analyzing and manipulating thermogenesis, brought about by our recent publication, in which we invest...

  8. Central Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    ShaunF.Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the c...

  9. Hypothalamic Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Caron; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system, which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The charac...

  10. Hypothalamic control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Labbé, Sebastien M.; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Monge-Rofarello, Boris; Bartness, Timothy J.; Richard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system (CNS), which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The ...

  11. Cytoplasmic inheritance of organelles in brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Kimura, Kei

    2010-03-01

    Brown algae, together with diatoms and chrysophytes, are a member of the heterokonts. They have either a characteristic life cycle of diplohaplontic alternation of gametophytic and sporophytic generations that are isomorphic or heteromorphic, or a diplontic life cycle. Isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy have been recognized as the mode of sexual reproduction. Brown algae are the characteristic group having elaborated multicellular organization within the heterokonts. In this study, cytoplasmic inheritance of chloroplasts, mitochondria and centrioles was examined, with special focus on sexual reproduction and subsequent zygote development. In oogamy, chloroplasts and mitochondria are inherited maternally. In isogamy, chloroplasts in sporophyte cells are inherited biparentally (maternal or paternal); however, mitochondria (or mitochondrial DNA) derived from the female gamete only remained during zygote development after fertilization. Centrioles in zygotes are definitely derived from the male gamete, irrespective of the sexual reproduction pattern. Female centrioles in zygotes are selectively broken down within 1-2 h after fertilization. The remaining male centrioles play a crucial role as a part of the centrosome for microtubule organization, mitosis, determination of the cytokinetic plane and cytokinesis, as well as for maintaining multicellularity and regular morphogenesis in brown algae. PMID:20145971

  12. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Andrea D; Nahon, Kimberly J; Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Susan M; Kanhai, Anish A; Kikuchi, Takuya; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Lombès, Marc; van den Hoek, Anita M; de Winther, Menno P J; Lutgens, Esther; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2015-05-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. We found that salsalate attenuated and reversed high-fat diet-induced weight gain, in particular fat mass accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Mechanistically, salsalate selectively promoted the uptake of fatty acids from glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like emulsion particles by brown adipose tissue (BAT), decreased the intracellular lipid content in BAT, and increased rectal temperature, all pointing to more active BAT. The treatment of differentiated T37i brown adipocytes with salsalate increased uncoupled respiration. Moreover, salsalate upregulated Ucp1 expression and enhanced glycerol release, a dual effect that was abolished by the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In conclusion, salsalate activates BAT, presumably by directly activating brown adipocytes via the PKA pathway, suggesting a novel mechanism that may explain its beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25475439

  13. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  14. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity. PMID:27067870

  15. Generalised Brown Clustering and Roll-up Feature Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Brown clustering is an established technique, used in hundreds of computational linguistics papers each year, to group word types that have similar distributional information. It is unsupervised and can be used to create powerful word representations for machine learning. Despite its improbable...... success relative to more complex methods, few have investigated whether Brown clustering has really been applied optimally. In this paper, we present a subtle but profound generalisation of Brown clustering to improve the overall quality by decoupling the number of output classes from the computational...... active set size. Moreover, the generalisation permits a novel approach to feature selection from Brown clusters: We show that the standard approach of shearing the Brown clustering output tree at arbitrary bitlengths is lossy and that features should be chosen instead by rolling up Generalised Brown...

  16. Transcriptional Control of Brown Fat Determination by PRDM16

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Kajimura, Shingo; Yang, Wenli; Chin, Sherry; Rohas, Lindsay; Uldry, Marc; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1α, UCP1 and type 2 deiodinase expression, and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgeni...

  17. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified “beige” or “brite” cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in br...

  18. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical

  19. The luminosities of the coldest brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, NSW 2052 (Australia); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20005 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Mike [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: c.tinney@unsw.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    In recent years, brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500 K and masses in the range of 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own solar system (at around 130 K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures in the range of 1500-1000 K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T-dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric color. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these Y-dwarf absolute magnitudes. This is also the case for WISE0855-0714, the coldest and closest brown dwarf to the Sun, which shows evidence for water ice clouds. However, there are also some outstanding exceptions, which suggest either binarity or the presence of condensate clouds. The former is readily testable with current adaptive optics facilities. The latter would mean that the range of cloudiness in Y dwarfs is substantial with most hosting almost no clouds—while others have dense clouds, making them prime targets for future variability observations to study cloud dynamics.

  20. Categorical perception for red and brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the widely accepted evidence in support of categorical perception of color may be a confound of effects due to low-level sensory mechanisms that are unrelated to color categories. To reveal genuine category effects, we investigated the category boundary least prone to spurious effects of low-level mechanisms: the boundary between red and brown. We tested for low-level sensory and high-level cognitive effects of categories on color discrimination, while carefully controlling potential factors of color vision that are not related to color categories. First, we established the red-brown boundary through a naming task and measured just-noticeable differences (JNDs) for colors across the boundary. If low-level sensitivity to color differences was categorical, JNDs should decrease toward the boundary. However, this was not the case. Second, we measured performance in terms of response times and error rates in a speeded discrimination task with color pairs that were equalized in discriminability based on the empirical JNDs. There was a boost of performance (lower response times and error rates) for identifying color differences in equally discriminable color pairs, when the colors crossed the boundary. Given the particularity of the red-brown boundary, these results prove that the observed effects were due to color categories rather than low-level visual mechanisms. These findings support the idea that category effects are due to a shift of attention to the linguistic distinction between categories, rather than being a pure product of perception. These category effects do not depend on the hemispheric lateralization of language. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26569337

  1. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg...

  2. The fire at Browns Ferry station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cable fire broke out at Browns Ferry-1 and -2 power station when sealing material which had been used as a make-shift seal for a cable duct caught fire in the course of a leakage test with an open light. Both blocks of the power station were scrammed manually so that nobody was injured and no activity was released. On the basis of the information supplied by NRC and TVA (the operator), the IRS has attemped a tentative evaluation of the incident. The results are presented in a summarized version. Note: a detailed description of the incident as published by the operator is available at ZAED. (orig./AK)

  3. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  4. Human brown fat and obesity: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WouterDavidVan Marken Lichtenbelt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Much is known about brown adipose tissue in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special attention in order to unravel the heat producing capacity of human BAT, the recruitment of the tissue and its functionality.

  5. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  8. The Luminosities of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500K and masses in the range 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own Solar System (at around 130K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures of in the range 1500-1000K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very-late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric colour. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these ...

  9. Chandra Captures Flare From Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The first flare ever seen from a brown dwarf, or failed star, was detected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The bright X-ray flare has implications for understanding the explosive activity and origin of magnetic fields of extremely low mass stars. Chandra detected no X-rays at all from LP 944-20 for the first nine hours of a twelve hour observation, then the source flared dramatically before it faded away over the next two hours. "We were shocked," said Dr. Robert Rutledge of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, the lead author on the discovery paper to appear in the July 20 issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We didn't expect to see flaring from such a lightweight object. This is really the 'mouse that roared.'" Chandra LP 944-20 X-ray Image Press Image and Caption The energy emitted in the brown dwarf flare was comparable to a small solar flare, and was a billion times greater than observed X-ray flares from Jupiter. The flaring energy is believed to come from a twisted magnetic field. "This is the strongest evidence yet that brown dwarfs and possibly young giant planets have magnetic fields, and that a large amount of energy can be released in a flare," said Dr. Eduardo Martin, also of Caltech and a member of the team. Professor Gibor Basri of the University of California, Berkeley, the principal investigator for this observation, speculated that the flare "could have its origin in the turbulent magnetized hot material beneath the surface of the brown dwarf. A sub-surface flare could heat the atmosphere, allowing currents to flow and give rise to the X-ray flare -- like a stroke of lightning." LP 944-20 is about 500 million years old and has a mass that is about 60 times that of Jupiter, or 6 percent that of the Sun. Its diameter is about one-tenth that of the Sun and it has a rotation period of less than five hours. Located in the constellation Fornax in the southern skies, LP 944-20 is one of the best studied brown dwarfs because it is

  10. The role of lipids in nonenzymatic browning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora, Rosario

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of lipids in nonenzymatic browning is studied by reviewing oxidized lipid/protein reactions in comparison with other reactions where the production of browning is known: the Maillard reaction, the ascorbic acid browning, and the quinone/amine reactions. The mechanisms proposed in these reactions for production of color and fluorescence, as well as the formation of melanoidins, lipofuscins, and low molecular weight colored products are discussed comparatively, concluding that the role of lipids in these reactions does not seem to be very different to the role of carbohydrates in the Maillard reaction or the phenols in the enzymatic browning. These carbonyl-amine reactions seem to be a group of gradual, partially reversible, universal, and inevitable side reactions in both food and biological systems. However, most of these results were obtained in model systems and additional studies should be carried out in systems closer to real foods or living beings, which should provide a more complete understanding of nonenzymatic browning, and, therefore, to afford a much more comprehensive knowledge of food and human biochemistry.En este trabajo se hace una revisión del papel de los lípidos en el pardeamiento no enzimático de alimentos mediante el estudio de las reacciones proteína/lípido oxidado en comparación con otras reacciones donde ocurre también este oscurecimiento: la reacción de Maillard, el pardeamiento producido por el ácido ascórbico, y las reacciones de las quinonas con los grupos amino. Los mecanismos propuestos para estas reacciones de producción de color y fluorescencia, así como la formación de melanoidinas, lipofuscinas y productos coloreados de bajo peso molecular son discutidos de forma comparada, concluyendo que el papel de los lípidos en estas reacciones no parece ser muy diferente del papel de los carbohidratos en el Maillard o de los fenoles en el pardeamiento enzimático. Estas reacciones carbonil

  11. Danmark og Browns britiske værdier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Om Gordon Browns kampagne for britiske værdier sat i relation til dansk værdidebat. Udgivelsesdato: 15/10......Om Gordon Browns kampagne for britiske værdier sat i relation til dansk værdidebat. Udgivelsesdato: 15/10...

  12. The Troublesome Legacy of "Brown v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Gerardo R.; Burciaga, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article reflects on the 60th anniversary of the "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision while discussing the significant lessons learned from this and subsequent court decisions. Argument: In this article, we posit that a fundamentally different conversation surrounding the legacy of Brown is needed if we are…

  13. Race to the Top: Transiting Brown Dwarfs and Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas G.

    2015-12-01

    There are currently twelve known transiting brown dwarfs, nine of which orbit single main-sequence stars. These systems give us one of the only ways in which we may directly measure the masses and radii brown dwarfs, which in turn provides strong constraints on theoretical models of brown dwarf interiors and atmospheres. In addition, the transiting brown dwarfs allow us to forge a link between our understanding of transiting hot Jupiters, and our understanding of the field brown dwarf population. Comparing the two gives us a unique avenue to explore the role and interaction of surface gravity and stellar irradiation in the atmospheres of sub-stellar objects. It also allows us to leverage the detailed spectroscopic information we have for field brown dwarfs to interpret the broadband colors of hot Jupiters. This provides us with insight into the L/T transition in brown dwarfs, and the atmospheric chemistry changes that occur in hot Jupiter atmospheres as they cool. I will discuss recent observational results, with a particular focus on the transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b, and suggest how more of these important systems may be discovered in the future.

  14. Integrated Circuitry: Catharine Brown across Gender, Race, and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joshua B.

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about a Cherokee woman named Catharine Brown who was converted to Christianity by missionaries, as well as historical and theoretical contexts regarding the Cherokee. The author presents views from critics, such as Theda Perdue, Carolyn Ross Johnston, and Arnold Krupat, on Catharine Brown's experiences across spheres such as…

  15. Estrogenic effects of phytoestrogens in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Marie; Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul;

    2010-01-01

    , the potential effect of the waterborne phytoestrogens on endemic fish species is largely unknown. In the present investigation, the estrogenic effect of biochanin A was tested in brown trout through water exposure experiments. Juvenile brown trout of both sexes were exposed to different concentrations...

  16. Phytase activity in brown rice during steeping and sprouting

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Keqin; Cheng, Yongqiang; Xing, Ying; Lin, Li; Nout, Robert; Liang, Jianfen

    2010-01-01

    Phytase in brown rice will be activated and accumulated during seed germination. Changes of phytase activity in brown rice during two stages of germination (steeping and sprouting) affected by process conditions were studied. It was shown that steeping led to significant decrease of phytase activity (p 

  17. Ouabain-sensitive component of brown fat thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The study discussed was undertaken to quantify the amount of energy utilized by the ouabain-sensitive Na(+)-K(+) membrane pump during the norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue. The data obtained indicate that the observed inhibition of the catecholamine-induced increase in brown fat thermogenesis by ouabain does not reflect an inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis.

  18. Brown spider dermonecrotic toxin directly induces nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom can induce dermonecrotic lesions at the bite site and systemic manifestations including fever, vomiting, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. The venom is composed of a mixture of proteins with several molecules biochemically and biologically well characterized. The mechanism by which the venom induces renal damage is unknown. By using mice exposed to Loxosceles intermedia recombinant dermonecrotic toxin (LiRecDT), we showed direct induction of renal injuries. Microscopic analysis of renal biopsies from dermonecrotic toxin-treated mice showed histological alterations including glomerular edema and tubular necrosis. Hyalinization of tubules with deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubule lumen, tubule epithelial cell vacuoles, tubular edema and epithelial cell lysis was also observed. Leukocytic infiltration was neither observed in the glomerulus nor the tubules. Renal vessels showed no sign of inflammatory response. Additionally, biochemical analyses showed such toxin-induced changes in renal function as urine alkalinization, hematuria and azotemia with elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunofluorescence with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies and confocal microscopy analysis showed deposition and direct binding of this toxin to renal intrinsic structures. By immunoblotting with a hyperimmune dermonecrotic toxin antiserum on renal lysates from toxin-treated mice, we detected a positive signal at the region of 33-35 kDa, which strengthens the idea that renal failure is directly induced by dermonecrotic toxin. Immunofluorescence reaction with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies revealed deposition and binding of this toxin directly in MDCK epithelial cells in culture. Similarly, dermonecrotic toxin treatment caused morphological alterations of MDCK cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles, blebs, evoked impaired spreading and detached cells from each other and from

  19. Browning and graying: novel transcriptional regulators of brown and beige fat tissues and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMueller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery that brown and beige fat cells exist in adult humans and contribute to energy expenditure, increasing interest has been devoted to the understanding of the molecular switches turning on calorie utilization. It has been reported that the ability of thermogenic tissues to burn energy declines during aging, possibly contributing to the development of metabolic dysfunction late in life. This review will focus on the recently identified transcriptional modulators of brown and beige cells and will discuss the potential impact of some of these thermogenic factors on age-associated metabolic disorders.

  20. Brown-York energy and radial geodesics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Matthias; Rollier, Blaise [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel Rue Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2008-05-21

    We compare the Brown-York (BY) and the standard Misner-Sharp (MS) quasilocal energies for round spheres in spherically symmetric spacetimes from the point of view of radial geodesics. In particular, we show that the relation between the BY and MS energies is precisely analogous to that between the (relativistic) energy E of a geodesic and the effective (Newtonian) energy E{sub eff} appearing in the geodesic equation, thus shedding some light on the relation between the two. Moreover, for Schwarzschild-like metrics we establish a general relationship between the BY energy and the geodesic effective potential which explains and generalizes the recently observed connection between negative BY energy and the repulsive behaviour of geodesics in the Reissner-Nordstroem metric. We also comment on the extension of this connection between geodesics and the quasilocal BY energy to regions inside a horizon.

  1. Poisoning with brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonen, E; Tarssanen, L; Härkönen, M

    1979-01-01

    Three patients ate different amounts of a common northern mushroom, brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis. All of them believed they had eaten delicious parasol mushrooms, Macrolepiota procera. The symptoms of poisoning began 1--2 hours after ingestion of the mushrooms. All the patients had marked gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea and heavy vomiting. Two had central nervous system manifestations and cholinergic symptoms: hallucinations, confusion, or loss of consciousness as well as copious salivation, or sweating. All patients recovered within 4--24 hours without any damage to liver, kidneys or central nervous system. It seems that cooking the mushrooms does not completely neutralize the toxic agents of Amanita regalis. The analysis of fried mushrooms shows that it may be possible to identify mushrooms reliably from the remains of a meal. PMID:760400

  2. What John Browne actually said at Stanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1997, the Chief Executive of BP, John Browne, delivered a speech on global climate change at Stanford University, California. A shortened version of the speech is presented. BP have accepted the possibility of a link between greenhouse gas emissions and climate change and are basing their policies on that acceptance. The company is committed to a step-by-step process, involving both action to develop solutions and continuing research to improve knowledge, that will balance the requirements of economic development and environmental protection. Five specific steps are outlined. These are: the monitoring and controlling of carbon dioxide emissions in all aspects of the company's operations increasing the level of support given to continuing scientific work on climate change; technology transfer and joint implementation with other parties to limit and reduce net emission levels; the development of alternative energy sources, in particular, solar power; contributing to the public policy debate in search of wider global answers to the problem. (Author)

  3. Atmospheric Brown Clouds- from science towards policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherestha, S.; Iyngararasan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs) and its interaction with climate change is an emerging environmental issue. Studies demonstrate that ABCs and its interaction with build-up of greenhouse gases significantly affect the regional climate, glacial melting, hydrological cycle, agriculture and public health. For the next decades, the regional aerosol effects will continue to play a major role in environmental management as long as current strong sources of air pollution remain. An integrated multi-pollutant multi-sectoral approach for addressing atmospheric issues will result in optimum environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Regional intergovernmental networks have been established to address air pollution issues in different parts of the globe. These intergovernmental networks could be empowered to promote integrated approach for addressing the atmospheric environmental issues.

  4. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount

  5. Correlated spectral variability in brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bailer-Jones, C A L

    2007-01-01

    Models of brown dwarf atmospheres suggest they exhibit complex physical behaviour. Observations have shown that they are indeed dynamic, displaying small photometric variations over timescales of hours. Here I report results of infrared (0.95-1.64 micron) spectrophotometric monitoring of four field L and T dwarfs spanning timescales of 0.1-5.5 hrs, the goal being to learn more about the physical nature of this variability. Spectra are analysed differentially with respect to a simultaneously observed reference source in order to remove Earth-atmospheric variations. The variability amplitude detected is typically 2-10%, depending on the source and wavelength. I analyse the data for correlated variations between spectral indices. This approach is more robust than single band or chisq analyses, because it does not assume an amplitude for the (often uncertain) noise level (although the significance test still assumes a shape for the noise power spectrum). Three of the four targets show significant evidence for cor...

  6. Chemical Decontamination at Browns Ferry Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May, 2002, the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Board of Directors approved the recovery and restart of Unit 1 at Browns Ferry Nuclear Station. As an initial step in the site characterization and restart feasibility review, a majority of the primary reactor circuit was chemically decontaminated. Close cooperation between TVA and vendor personnel resulted in project completion ahead of schedule with outstanding results. The final average decontamination factors were excellent, and the final dose rates were very low, with contact readings on most points between one and three mRem/hr. In addition to allowing TVA to do a complete and thorough job of determining the feasibility of the Unit 1 restart, the decontamination effort will greatly reduce personnel exposure during plant recovery, both whole body exposure to gamma radiation and airborne exposure during pipe replacement efforts. The implementation of lessons learned from previous decontamination work performed at Browns Ferry, as well as decontamination efforts at other plants aided greatly in the success. Specific items of note are: (1) The initial leak check of the temporary decontamination system should include ancillary systems such as the spent resin system, as well as the main circulation loop. This could save time and dose exposure if leaks are discovered before the use of such systems is required. (2) Due to the quick turnaround time from the award of contract, a vendor representative was onsite early in the project to help with engineering efforts and procedures. This aided greatly in completing preparations for the decontamination. (3) The work was performed under a single maintenance activity. This resulted in great craft and plant support. (4) The constant coverage by the site's decontamination flush directors provided timely plant support and interface. (5) The FPC system isolation and back flushing to prevent residual chemicals from being left in the FPC system should have been addressed in more

  7. Cultivar affects browning susceptibility of freshly cut star fruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of freshly-cut horticultural products has increased in the last few years. The principal restraint to using freshly-cut carambola is its susceptibility to tissue-browning, due to polyphenol oxidase-mediated oxidation of phenolic compounds present in the tissue. The current study investigated the susceptibility to browning of star fruit slices (Averrhoa carambola L. of seven genotypes (Hart, Golden Star, Taen-ma, Nota-10, Malásia, Arkin, and Fwang Tung. Cultivar susceptibility to browning as measured by luminosity (L* varied significantly among genotypes. Without catechol 0.05 M, little changes occurred on cut surface of any cultivars during 6 hour at 25degreesC, 67% RH. Addition of catechol led to rapid browning, which was more intense in cvs. Taen-ma, Fwang Tung, and Golden Star, with reduction in L* value of 28.60%, 27.68%, and 23.29%, respectively. Browning was more intense in the center of the slices, particularly when treated with catechol, indicating highest polyphenol oxidase (PPO concentration. Epidermal browning, even in absence of catechol, is a limitation to visual acceptability and indicates a necessity for its control during carambola processing. Care must be given to appropriate selection of cultivars for fresh-cut processing, since cultivar varied in browning susceptibility in the presence of catechol.

  8. Seasonal movement of brown trout in a southern appalachian river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, K.H.; Isely, J.J.; Bunnell, D.B., Jr.; Van Lear, D. H.; Dolloff, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to evaluate the seasonal movement, activity level, and home range size of adult brown trout Salmo trutta in the Chattooga River watershed, one of the southernmost coldwater stream systems in the United States. In all, 27 adult brown trout (262-452 mm total length) were successfully monitored from 16 November 1995 to 15 December 1996. During the day, adult brown trout were consistently found in small, well-established home ranges of less than 270 m in stream length. However, 8 of a possible 18 study fish made spawning migrations during a 2-week period in November 1996. The daytime locations of individual fish were restricted to a single pool or riffle-pool combination, and fish were routinely found in the same location over multiple sampling periods. Maximum upstream movement during spawning was 7.65 km, indicating that brown trout in the Chattooga River have the ability to move long distances. Spawning brown trout returned to their prespawning locations within a few days after spawning. Brown trout maintained larger home ranges in winter than in other seasons. When spawning-related movement was deleted from the analysis, brown trout moved more on a weekly basis in fall than in summer. Brown trout were more active in fall and winter than in spring and summer. Apart from spawning migrations, displacement from established home ranges was not observed for any fish in the study. Although summer water temperatures reached and exceeded reported upper thermal-preference levels, brown trout did not move to thermal refuge areas in nearby tributaries during the stressful summer periods.

  9. Brown Tumors: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özgür; Boynueğri, Başak; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Özdemir, Ebru; Ferhatoğlu, Ferhat; Canbakan, Mustafa; Şahin, Gülizar Manga; Titiz, Mesut İzzet; Apaydın, Süheyla

    2016-01-01

    Brown tumors are focal bone lesions, encountered in patients with uncontrolled hyperparathyroidism. They can be located in any part of the skeleton. Clinically significant lesions in the craniofacial bones are rare. Craniofacial involvement may cause facial disfiguration and compromise social ease of the patient and normal functions, such as chewing, talking, and breathing. In this case report, we present a patient with a brown tumor of the craniofacial bones provoked by secondary hyperparathyroidism and review the last 10 years of craniofacial brown tumors associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in the English literature. PMID:27066494

  10. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  11. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Bright Southern Star Epsilon Indi Has Cool, Substellar Companion [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] has discovered a Brown Dwarf object (a 'failed' star) less than 12 light-years from the Sun. It is the nearest yet known. Now designated Epsilon Indi B, it is a companion to a well-known bright star in the southern sky, Epsilon Indi (now "Epsilon Indi A"), previously thought to be single. The binary system is one of the twenty nearest stellar systems to the Sun. The brown dwarf was discovered from the comparatively rapid motion across the sky which it shares with its brighter companion : the pair move a full lunar diameter in less than 400 years. It was first identified using digitised archival photographic plates from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS) and confirmed using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Follow-up observations with the near-infrared sensitive SOFI instrument on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory confirmed its nature and has allowed measurements of its physical properties. Epsilon Indi B has a mass just 45 times that of Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, and a surface temperature of only 1000 °C. It belongs to the so-called 'T dwarf' category of objects which straddle the domain between stars and giant planets. Epsilon Indi B is the nearest and brightest T dwarf known. Future studies of the new object promise to provide astronomers with important new clues as to the formation and evolution of these exotic celestial bodies, at the same time yielding interesting insights into the border zone between planets and stars. TINY MOVING NEEDLES IN GIANT HAYSTACKS ESO PR Photo 03a/03 ESO PR Photo 03a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 605 pix - 92k [Normal - JPEG: 1200 x 1815 pix - 1.0M] Caption: PR Photo 03a/03 shows Epsilon Indi A (the bright star at far right) and its newly discovered brown dwarf companion Epsilon Indi B (circled). The upper image comes from one of the SuperCOSMOS Sky

  12. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.)

  13. Depletions at Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Estimated depletion associated with the operation of Spitzie Marsh in Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge. Attached are the methods used to estimate depletion....

  14. Regulatory circuits controlling white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ that exerts a profound influence on whole-body homoeostasis. Two types of adipose tissue exist in mammals: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT stores energy and is the largest energy reserve in mammals, whereas BAT, expressing UCP......1 (uncoupling protein 1), can dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. In rodents, ample evidence supports BAT as an organ counteracting obesity, whereas less is known about the presence and significance of BAT in humans. Despite the different functions of white and brown adipocytes......, knowledge of factors differentially influencing the formation of white and brown fat cells is sparse. Here we summarize recent progress in the molecular understanding of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation, including novel insights into transcriptional and signal transduction pathways. Since...

  15. Rüütel, Halonen ja Brown? / Eve Heinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinla, Eve, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    James Browni kontserdil 27. juulil Tallinna laulukaare all loodetakse kaasa tõmmata ka poliitikud. Ameerika soulmuusik James Brown esitas president Arnold Rüütlile kutse laulda koos temaga duetti. Lisa: Rüütlil siiani Annaniga laulmata

  16. Integrated Pest Management Plan Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Browns Park National...

  17. Brown Trout Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for BROWN TROUT contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  18. A Management Strategy for Kenai Peninsula Brown Bears

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Increasing human activity and land development on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska has brought about concern for the brown bear Ursus arctos population. The human...

  19. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  20. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  1. Reanimating Storywork: Indigenous Elders’ Reflections on Leadership by Lee Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Cherokee Elder Dr. Lee Brown explores leadership by discussing the suppression of Aboriginal emotions through colonialism, the importance of cultural values and ceremony, and the need for education reform.

  2. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  3. Narrative report: Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by...

  4. Kimberly S. Brown named director of academic advising

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Kimberly S. Brown, who had been serving as interim associate vice provost for academic support services at Virginia Tech, has been named the university's director of academic advising in the Division of Undergraduate Education.

  5. Exponential decay of eigenfunctions of Brown-Ravenhall operators

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    We prove the exponential decay of eigenfunctions of reductions of Brown-Ravenhall operators to arbitrary irreducible representations of rotation-reflection and permutation symmetry groups under the assumption that the corresponding eigenvalues are below the essential spectrum.

  6. Narrative report : Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  7. ASK1 signalling regulates brown and beige adipocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kazuki; Naguro, Isao; Okabe, Kohki; Funatsu, Takashi; Furutani, Shotaro; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that adult humans have active brown or beige adipocytes, the activation of which might be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diverse metabolic diseases. Here we show that the protein kinase ASK1 regulates brown and beige adipocytes function. In brown or white adipocytes, the PKA-ASK1-p38 axis is activated in response to cAMP signalling and contributes to the cell-autonomous induction of genes, including Ucp1. Global and fat-specific ASK1 deficiency leads to impaired metabolic responses, including thermogenesis and oxygen consumption, at the cell and whole-body levels, respectively. Our data thus indicate that the ASK1 signalling axis is a regulator of brown and beige adipocyte gene expression and function. PMID:27045525

  8. A USNO Search for Astrometric Companions to Brown Dwarfs IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Vrba, F. J.; Munn, J. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Tilleman, T.; Henden, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of ten brown dwarfs observed by the U.S. Naval Observatory infrared parallax program show no clear indication of astrometric perturbations due to low mass companions. The data were collected using ASTROCAM on the 1.55-m (61-in) Kaj Strand Astrometric Reflector from 2000 September through 2006 June over periods from 2.0 to 5.3 years. After our standard solution for parallax and proper motion, the residuals were subjected to a time-series analysis using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. The multiplicity fraction for brown dwarfs constrains theories of brown dwarf formation and evolution. Binary systems, especially those that straddle the transition between L and T spectral types, are also significant tests of atmospheric models. In addition, the identification of companions would have enabled the eventual measurement of the associated masses. This search for astrometric companions is an extension of the initial infrared parallax program. When finalized, the trigonometric parallaxes for these brown dwarfs will provide accurate distances for use in determining their luminosities and temperatures. The brown dwarfs in this subsample have spectral types that range from late M through mid-T. None of them are known binaries. Distance estimates place six of these objects within the 25-pc limit of the Solar Neighborhood, and preliminary parallaxes place another three between 25 and 35 pc. These substellar objects are located north of -15° Dec. The brown dwarfs evaluated are 2MASS J00325937+1410371, 2MASS J01514155+1244300 (BF Ari) 2MASS J02074284+0000564, 2MASS J03095345-0753156, SDSS J083717.21-000018.0, 2MASS J11101001+0116130, 2MASS J13262981-0038314 (2MUCD 11143), 2MASS J17502385+4222373, 2MASS J23391025+1352284, and 2MASS J23565477-1553111. Analyses of another 30 brown dwarfs were presented earlier and the analyses of 19 more brown dwarfs are planned.

  9. A USNO Search for Astrometric Companions to Brown Dwarfs III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Vrba, F. J.; Munn, J. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Tillman, T.; Henden, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of ten brown dwarfs observed by the U.S. Naval Observatory infrared parallax program show no clear indication of astrometric perturbations due to low mass companions. The data were collected using ASTROCAM on the 1.55-m Strand Astrometric Reflector from 2000 October through 2006 June over periods from 1.3 to 5.4 years. After our standard solution for parallax and proper motion, the residuals were subjected to a time-series analysis using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. The multiplicity fraction for brown dwarfs constrains theories of brown dwarf formation and evolution. Binary systems, especially those that straddle the transition between L and T spectral types, are also significant tests of atmospheric models. In addition, the identification of companions would have enabled the eventual measurement of the associated masses. This search for astrometric companions is an extension of the initial infrared parallax program. When finalized, the trigonometric parallaxes for these brown dwarfs will provide accurate distances for use in determining their luminosities and temperatures. The brown dwarfs in this subsample have spectral types that range from early L through mid-T. None are known binaries. Distance estimates place all but two within the 25-pc limit of the Solar Neighborhood; one outlier has a distance of approximately 62 pc based on its preliminary parallax. These substellar objects are located north of -25° Dec. and lie between 13h and 23h in R.A. The brown dwarfs evaluated are 2MASS J13464634-0031501, SDSS J144600.60+002452.0, 2MASS J16241436+0029158, 2MASS J17580545+4633099, 2MASS J19010601+4718136, 2MASS J21241387+0059599, 2MASS J22425317+2542573, 2MASS J22443167+2043433, 2MASS J22541892+3123498, and 2MASS J22552907-0034336. Analyses of another 20 brown dwarfs were presented earlier and the analyses of 19 more brown dwarfs are planned.

  10. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds*

    OpenAIRE

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-Xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-Chao

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contai...

  11. Metabolic interplay between white, beige, brown adipocytes and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian evolution, three types of adipocytes have developed, white, brown and beige adipocytes. White adipocytes are the major constituents of white adipose tissue (WAT), the predominant store for energy-dense triglycerides in the body that are released as fatty acids during catabolic conditions. The less abundant brown adipocytes, the defining parenchymal cells of brown adipose tissue (BAT), internalize triglycerides that are stored intracellularly in multilocular lipid droplets. Beige adipocytes (also known as brite or inducible brown adipocytes) are functionally very similar to brown adipocytes and emerge in specific WAT depots in response to various stimuli including sustained cold exposure. The activation of brown and beige adipocytes (together referred to as thermogenic adipocytes) causes both the hydrolysis of stored triglycerides as well as the uptake of lipids and glucose from the circulation. Together, these fuels are combusted for heat production to maintain body temperature in mammals including adult humans. Given that heating by brown and beige adipocytes is a very-well controlled and energy-demanding process which entails pronounced shifts in energy fluxes, it is not surprising that an intensive interplay exists between the various adipocyte types and parenchymal liver cells, and that this influences systemic metabolic fluxes and endocrine networks. In this review we will emphasize the role of hepatic factors that regulate the metabolic activity of white and thermogenic adipocytes. In addition, we will discuss the relevance of lipids and hormones that are secreted by white, brown and beige adipocytes regulating liver metabolism in order to maintain systemic energy metabolism in health and disease. PMID:26829204

  12. Spatial behaviour and survival of translocated wild brown hares

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, C.; TAGAND, R.

    2012-01-01

    The fragility of many populations of brown hares in Western Europe is a concern for managers, hunters and naturalists. We took advantage of a locally high density population to use wild individuals to restock areas where the species had disappeared or was close to disappearing. The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the spatial behaviour after release using radio–tracking. Over 150 wild brown hares were translocated, one third of which were fitted with radio collars. In additio...

  13. Brown trout redd superimposition in relation to spawning habitat availability

    OpenAIRE

    Gortázar Rubial, Javier; Alonso González, Carlos; García de Jalón Lastra, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between redd superimposition and spawning habitat availability was investigated in the brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) population inhabiting the river Castril (Granada, Spain). Redd surveys were conducted in 24 river sections to estimate the rate of redd superimposition. Used and available microhabitat was evaluated to compute the suitable spawning habitat (SSH) for brown trout. After analysing the microhabitat characteristics positively selected by females, SSH was defined as ...

  14. Norman O. Brown, Herbert Marcuse and the romantic tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Greenham, David

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents the work of Norman O. Brown and Herbert Marcuse as responses to romantic problematic obtained first and foremost from the legacy of Immanuel Kant’s critical philosophy, and, secondly, from the first significant American realisation of this inheritance in the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson. The importance of this romantic reading is that it escapes the usual interpretations of Marcuse and Brown in terms of Marxism and Psychoanalysis, instead tracing the significance of ...

  15. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identifie...

  16. Thermal fluctuations of magnetic nanoparticles: Fifty years after Brown

    OpenAIRE

    COFFEY, WILLIAM

    2012-01-01

    The reversal time (superparamagnetic relaxation time) of the magnetization of fine single domain ferromagnetic nanoparticles owing to thermal fluctuations plays a fundamental role in information storage, paleomagnetism, biotechnology, etc. Here a comprehensive tutorial-style review of the achievements of fifty years of development and generalizations of the seminal work of Brown [W.F. Brown, Jr., Phys. Rev., 130, 1677 (1963)] on thermal fluctuations of magnetic nanoparticles is presented. Ana...

  17. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Achyut Aryal; David Raubenheimer; Sambandam Sathyakumar; Buddi Sagar Poudel; Weihong Ji; Kamal Jung Kunwar; Jose Kok; Shiro Kohshima; Dianne Brunton

    2012-01-01

    The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus). However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear ...

  18. SIRE EFFECTS ON CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BROWN COW

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2005-01-01

    The present research aims to obtain more fundamental knowledge of genetic effect (sire effect) on carcass traits of Japanese Brown cow. This experiment was done at Kumamoto Prefecture Japan. The field data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits of 9468 head of Japanese Brown cow, which had born from January 3rd 1988 to December 25th 1993 and representing by 88 head of sires were collected. All data were included of pedigree status. Cows data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits wer...

  19. Apple phenolics and their contribution to enzymatic browning reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and C1 were isolated from apple skin. These compounds as well as quercetine and phloretine glycosides isolated from apples were studied individually and as mixtures for their participation in the enzymatic browning reactions. The importance of quercetine glycosides and the synergistic effect of phloridzin and phloretine xyloglucoside with chlorogenic acid and flavans in the browning reaction are reported.

  20. Entangled Hanbury Brown Twiss effects with edge states

    OpenAIRE

    Buttiker, Markus; Samuelsson, Martin Peter; Sukhorukov, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Electronic Hanbury Brown Twiss correlations are discussed for geometries in which transport is along adiabatically guided edge channels. We briefly discuss partition noise experiments and discuss the effect of inelastic scattering and dephasing on current correlations. We then consider a two-source Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment which demonstrates strikingly that even in geometries without an Aharonov-Bohm effect in the conductance matrix (second-order interference), correlation functions can...

  1. Seasonal movement of brown trout in the Clinch River, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinger, J.M.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to monitor the seasonal movements of trophy-size brown trout Salmo trutta in the Clinch River below Norris Dam, Tennessee, to determine whether establishing a special-regulation reach to reduce fishing mortality was a viable management option. Fifteen brown trout (size range, 430-573 mm total length) collected from the river were implanted with radio transmitters between November 1997 and May 1998. Forty-seven percent of these fish died or expelled their transmitters within 50 d postsurgery. The range of movement for surviving brown trout was significantly larger in fall (geometric mean range = 5,111 m) than in any other season. Four brown trout that were monitored for more than 1 year exhibited a limited range of movement (5 km) during the fall season, presumably to spawn. Brown trout also moved more during the fall than in any other season. Harvest restrictions applied to a specific reach of the Clinch River would reduce the exploitation of brown trout in that reach for most of the year but not during the fall, when many fish undertake extensive spawning migrations.

  2. Diel movement of brown trout in a southern Appalachian River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B., Jr.; Isely, J.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Van Lear, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to monitor the diel movement of 22 brown trout Salmo trutta (268-446 mm in total length, TL) in the Chattooga River watershed. Forty-seven diel tracks, locating individuals once per hour for 24 consecutive hours, were collected for four consecutive seasons. High variability in movement both within and among individual brown trout resulted in similar seasonal means in total distance moved, diel range, and displacement. The majority of fish moved a total distance of less than 80 m within a diel range of less than 80 m and had a displacement of less than 10 m. Brown trout were more likely to occur in pool habitat independent of season or period of the day. Hourly movement patterns differed among seasons. During the winter and fall, trout moved only around sunrise; during the spring, they moved around sunrise, sunset, and intermittently throughout the night. Large brown trout (>375 mm, TL) were found to move greater total distances and establish wider diel ranges than small brown trout. Overall, most brown trout exhibited restricted diel movement within a single riffle-pool or run-pool sequence.

  3. Eggshell color in brown-egg laying hens - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, S; Roberts, J R; Chousalkar, K

    2015-10-01

    The major pigment in eggshells of brown-egg laying hens is protoporphyrin IX, but traces of biliverdin and its zinc chelates are also present. The pigment appears to be synthesized in the shell gland. The protoporphyrin IX synthetic pathway is well defined, but precisely where and how it is synthesized in the shell gland of the brown-egg laying hen is still ambiguous. The pigment is deposited onto all shell layers including the shell membranes, but most of it is concentrated in the outermost layer of the calcareous shell and in the cuticle. Recently, the genes that are involved in pigment synthesis have been identified, but the genetic control of synthesis and deposition of brown pigment in the commercial laying hen is not fully understood. The brown coloration of the shell is an important shell quality parameter and has a positive influence on consumer preference. The extent of pigment deposition is influenced by the housing system, hen age, hen strain, diet, stressors, and certain diseases such as infectious bronchitis. In this article, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the brown pigment in commercial brown-egg layers are reviewed in relation to its various functions in the poultry industry. PMID:26240390

  4. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos compared to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särndahl Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.

  5. Contamination and browning in tissue culture of Platanus occidentalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Feng-jie; Zhang Zhi-yi; Zhou Jun; Yao Na; Wang Dong-mei

    2007-01-01

    Twigs of 2-3-year-old Platanus occidentalis L. were used as experimental material to find the causes for the contamination and browning in the initial stages of tissue cultures. To compare the degree of browning of explants picked off from different growing seasons,the experimental material was excised from trees on each of the first ten days in January, March,May and July,2006. The results indicated that the contamination and browning rates of the material cut off in January (14. 2% and 30. 6%. respectively)and March were somewhat lower than those in July. The pretreatment of soaking the explants in different anti-oxidants and absorbents at the same time could diminish some side effects. The pretreatment of using 10 g·L-1 vitamin C reduced the contamination and browning rate effectively. An orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal factor and level arrangement is 0. 5 mg·L-1 BA,2. 0 g·L-1 active carbon and 1. 5 g·L-1 PVP which resulted in a browning rate of only 16. 5%. In general,sampling period,physical properties and pretreatment of explants are the main factors responsible for the contamination and browning of material in the initial stages of P. occidentalis tissue cultures.

  6. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, O; Hubber, D A

    2016-01-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very-low-mass prestellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown-dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which Andre, Ward-Thompson and Greaves (2012) have identified as a prestellar core with mass between $\\sim 0.020\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ and $\\sim 0.030\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$. We reanalyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen burning limit at $\\sim 0.075\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$, is between 0.66 and 0.86. We conclude ...

  7. Multiple brown tumours from parathyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagang, Daryl Jade Tardo; Gutierrez, Jerico Baliton; Sandoval, Mark Anthony Santiago; Lantion-Ang, Frances Lina

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 29-year-old woman who suffered from severe bilateral inguinal pain and left mandibular mass. CT scan showed innumerable expansile osteolytic bone masses on the iliac wings, femur, ribs and vertebral bodies, diffuse skeletal osteopaenia, calyceal lithiasis on the right kidney and a left thyroid mass. Ionised calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were elevated. Parathyroid sestamibi scan showed a hyperfunctioning left inferior parathyroid gland. Biopsy of the left mandibular mass was consistent with brown tumour. The patient underwent parathyroidectomy of the enlarged parathyroid gland. Final histopathology, however, revealed parathyroid carcinoma, 4.7 cm in widest dimension, with capsular and vascular space invasion. The patient underwent repeat surgery, specifically, left thyroid lobectomy, isthmectomy and central node dissection. Intact PTH decreased from 681.3 to 74 pg/mL (normal range: 10-65) 24 hours postoperatively. Follow-up at 6 months showed normal serum calcium levels, size reduction of bone lesions and improvement of quality of life. PMID:27358103

  8. Relation between Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lauren Melissa Flor; Schröeder, Klauss-Peter; Caretta, César A; Jack, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the most debated subjects in Astronomy since the discovery of exoplanets is how can we distinguish the most massive of such objects from very-low mass stars like Brown Dwarfs (BDs)? We have been looking for evidences of a difference in physical characteristics that could be related to different formation processes. Using a new diagnostic diagram that compares the baryonic gravitational potential (BGP) with the distances from their host stars, we have classified a sample of 355 well-studied exoplanets according to their possible structures. We have then compared the exoplanets to a sample of 87 confirmed BDs, identifying a range in BGP that could be common to both objects. By analyzing the mass-radius relations (MRR) of the exoplanets and BDs in those different BGP ranges, we were able to distinguish different characteristic behaviors. By comparing with models in the literature, our results suggest that BDs and massive exoplanets might have similar structures dominated by liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH).

  9. Analysis on enzymatic browning in pine needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, K.H.; Park, H.J.; Choi, S.S.; Cho, S.H. [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Y.T. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Tyrosinases are related to the enzymatic browning of plants and attract the major scientific interest for the prevention of it. Three tyrosinase isozymes (P{sub 1}, P{sub 2} and P{sub 3}) from pine needles were purified to homogeneity and characterized the factors that affect their activities. The L-ascorbic acid and {beta}-mercaptoethanol notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of the three isozymes. The sodium diethyldithiocarbamate was a competitive inhibitor of isozymes with the K{sub i} values of P{sub 1}(0.30 mM), P{sub 2}(0.015 mM) and P{sub 3}(0.019 mM), respectively. Their enzyme activities were however, increased by the addition of most metal ions. The optimum pH for the three isozymes was 9.0{approx}9.5 and the optimum temperatures ranged from 55 to 60{sup o} C using L-DOPA as substrate. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  11. Factors influencing the distribution of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a mountain stream: Implications for brown trout invasion success

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Christy

    2012-01-01

    Brown trout (Salmo trutta), one of the world’s most successful introduced species, negatively impacts native aquatic communities through predation, competition, and ecosystemlevel effects. Thus, there is a need to understand factors controlling the distribution of exotic brown trout in river systems, in order to prioritize and develop conservation and management strategies. Within the context of invasion success, I investigated how the physical template of the Logan River influences the distr...

  12. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Yang, F.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS) or methylglyoxal (MGAS) are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  13. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. PMID:25775930

  14. Brown coal, power plants, briquetes. The north of the Rhenish brown coal district; Braunkohle, Kraftwerke, Briketts. Der Norden des Rheinischen Braunkohlenreviers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenker, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The depiction of the history of the brown coal mining industry in the north of the Rhenish brown coal district suggests a description of this section of German industrial history in two independent chapters in the book under consideration. In the first part, the brown coal mining industry in Neurath (Federal Republic of Germany) with its briquette factories is described. The second part describes the lignite mining in Frimmersdorf (Federal Republic of Germany) with its brown coal power stations. Of course, the author of this book also elaborates on the production of peat, because the peat was the only energy supplier prior to brown coal available in these regions.

  15. Arctic Browning: vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treharne, Rachael; Bjerke, Jarle; Emberson, Lisa; Tømmervik, Hans; Phoenix, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    'Arctic browning' is the loss of biomass and canopy in Arctic ecosystems. This process is often driven by climatic and biological extreme events - notably extreme winter warm periods, winter frost-drought and severe outbreaks of defoliating insects. Evidence suggests that browning is becoming increasingly frequent and severe at the pan-arctic scale, a view supported by observations from more intensely observed regions, with major and unprecedented vegetation damage reported at landscape (>1000km2) and regional (Nordic Arctic Region) scales in recent years. Critically, the damage caused by these extreme events is in direct opposition to 'Arctic greening', the well-established increase in productivity and shrub abundance observed at high latitudes in response to long-term warming. This opposition creates uncertainty as to future anticipated vegetation change in the Arctic, with implications for Arctic carbon balance. As high latitude ecosystems store around twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and vegetation impacts are key to determining rates of loss or gain of ecosystem carbon stocks, Arctic browning has the potential to influence the role of these ecosystems in global climate. There is therefore a clear need for a quantitative understanding of the impacts of browning events on key ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, field sites were chosen in central and northern Norway and in Svalbard, in areas known to have been affected by either climatic extremes or insect outbreak and subsequent browning in the past four years. Sites were chosen along a latitudinal gradient to capture both conditions already causing vegetation browning throughout the Norwegian Arctic, and conditions currently common at lower latitudes which are likely to become more damaging further North as climate change progresses. At each site the response of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange to light was measured using a LiCor LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis system and a custom vegetation chamber with

  16. Between brown and white: novel aspects of adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Saverio

    2011-03-01

    In all mammals including humans, most white and brown adipocytes are found together in visceral and subcutaneous depots (adipose organ) despite the well known difference in their function, respectively of storing energy and producing heat. A growing body of evidence suggests that the reason for such anatomical arrangement is their plasticity, which under appropriate stimulation allows direct conversion of one cell type into the other. In conditions of chronic cold exposure white-to-brown conversion meets the need for thermogenesis, whereas an obesogenic diet induces brown-to-white conversion to meet the need for storing energy. White-to-brown transdifferentiation is of medical interest, because the brown phenotype of the adipose organ is associated to obesity resistance, and drugs inducing this phenotype curb murine obesity and related disorders. Type 2 diabetes is the most common disorder associated to visceral obesity. Macrophages infiltrating the adipose organ are responsible for the low-grade chronic inflammation related to the removal of dead adipocytes, which leads to insulin resistance and T2 diabetes. Adipocyte death is closely related to their growth up to the critical death size. The critical death size of visceral adipocytes is smaller than that of subcutaneous adipocytes, likely accounting for the greater morbidity related to visceral fat. PMID:21254898

  17. Can brown dwarfs survive on close orbits around convective stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, Cilia

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs straddle the mass range transition from planetary to stellar objects. There is a relative paucity of brown dwarfs companions around FGKM stars compared to exoplanets for orbital periods less than a few years, but most of the short-period brown dwarf companions fully characterised by transits and radial velocities are found around F-type stars. We examine the hypothesis that brown dwarf companions could not survive on close orbit around stars with important convective envelopes because the tides and angular momentum loss through magnetic breaking should lead to a rapid orbital decay and quick engulfment of the companion. We use a classical Skumanich-type braking law, and constant time-lag tidal theory to assess the characteristic timescale for orbital decay for the brown dwarf mass range as a function of the host properties. We find that F-type stars may host massive companions for a significantly longer time than G-type stars for a given orbital period, which may explain the paucity of G-type hos...

  18. Breaking BAT: can browning create a better white?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Mittag, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities are a growing problem worldwide. In consequence, several new strategies have been proposed to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that certain populations of white adipocytes can be 'browned', i.e., recruited to a more brown-like adipocyte, capable of thermogenesis through increased expression of uncoupling protein 1. The list of browning agents that induce these so-called beige adipocytes is growing constantly. However, the underlying mechanisms are often poorly understood, with the possibility that some of these agents cause browning as a secondary effect. Moreover, it remains unclear whether beige adipocytes can contribute sufficiently to affect whole-body energy expenditure in a functionally significant manner. This review presents an overview of the different molecular pathways leading to the induction of beige fat, including direct stimulation and indirect actions on the CNS or the immune system. We discuss the available evidence on the capacity of beige adipocytes to influence whole-body energy expenditure in rodents, and lastly outline the potential problems of translating browning capacity into the potential treatment of human metabolic diseases. PMID:26450134

  19. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  20. Herschel survey of brown dwarf disks in Rho Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, C Alves; Marton, G; Pinte, C; Kiss, Cs; Kun, M; Kóspál, Á; André, Ph; Könyves, V

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of the Rho Ophiuchi cluster with the Herschel Space Observatory allow us to probe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the brown dwarf population in the far-IR, where the disk emission peaks. We performed aperture photometry at 70, 100, and 160 micron, and constructed SEDs for all previously known brown dwarfs detected. These were complemented with ancillary photometry at shorter wavelengths. We compared the observed SEDs to a grid of synthetic disks produced with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and used the relative figure of merit estimated from the Bayesian inference of each disk parameter to analyse the structural properties. We detected 12 Class II brown dwarfs with Herschel, which corresponds to one-third of all currently known brown dwarf members of Rho Ophiuchi. We do not detect any of the known Class III brown dwarfs. Comparison to models reveals that the disks are best described by an inner radius between 0.01 and 0.07 AU, and a flared disk geometry with a flaring index ...

  1. On the properties of discs around accreting brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    We present a grid of models of accreting brown dwarf systems with circumstellar discs. The calculations involve a self-consistent solution of both vertical hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium along with a sophisticated treatment of dust sublimation. We have simulated observations of the spectral energy distributions and several broadband photometric systems. Analysis of the disc structures and simulated observations reveal a natural dichotomy in accretion rates, with \\logmdot $>-$9 and $\\leq -$9 classed as extreme and typical accretors respectively. Derivation of ages and masses from our simulated photometry using isochrones is demonstrated to be unreliable even for typical accretors. Although current brown dwarf disc candidate selection criteria have been shown to be largely reliable when applied to our model grid we suggest improved selection criteria in several colour indices. We show that as accretion rates increase brown dwarf disc systems are less likely to be correctly identified. This suggests that,...

  2. A global cloud map of the nearest known brown dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Crossfield, I J M; Schlieder, J E; Deacon, N R; Bonnefoy, M; Homeier, D; Allard, F; Buenzli, E; Henning, Th; Brandner, W; Goldman, B; Kopytova, T

    2014-01-01

    Brown dwarfs -- substellar bodies more massive than planets but not massive enough to initiate the sustained hydrogen fusion that powers self-luminous stars -- are born hot and slowly cool as they age. As they cool below about 2,300 K, liquid or crystalline particles composed of calcium aluminates, silicates and iron condense into atmospheric 'dust', which disappears at still cooler temperatures (around 1,300 K). Models to explain this dust dispersal include both an abrupt sinking of the entire cloud deck into the deep, unob- servable atmosphere and breakup of the cloud into scattered patches (as seen on Jupiter and Saturn). Thus far, observations of brown dwarfs have been limited to globally integrated measurements, which can reveal surface inhomogeneities but cannot unambiguously resolve surface features. Here we report a two-dimensional map of a brown dwarf's surface that allows identification of large-scale bright and dark features, indicative of patchy clouds.

  3. Halo dark clusters of brown dwarfs and molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Jetzer, Ph; Roncadelli, M; 10.1086/305692

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) in microlensing experiments makes it compelling to understand their physical nature, as well as their formation mechanism. Within the present uncertainties, brown dwarfs are a viable candidate for MACHOs, and the present paper deals with this option. According to a recently proposed scenario, brown dwarfs are clumped along with cold molecular clouds into dark clusters -- in several respects similar to globular clusters -- which form in the outer part of the galactic halo. Here, we analyze the dynamics of these dark clusters and we address the possibility that a sizable fraction of MACHOs can be binary brown dwarfs. Moreover, we point out that Ly-$\\alpha$ absorption systems naturally fit within the present picture.

  4. Organic contaminants in thermal plume resident brown trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study was conducted to identify possible contaminants accumulated by thermal plume-resident fish in Lake Michigan. Brown trout were maintained in tanks receiving intake and discharge (less than or equal to 210C) water from a power plant and were fed a diet of frozen alewife. Fish were sampled over a period of 127 days in order to estimate uptake rates and equilibrium levels for toxic organic and inorganic materials occurring in Lake Michigan fish and water. Experimental fish and natural samples were analyzed to determine the distribution of contaminants in various tissues and the corresponding pollutant levels in similar size brown trout from Lake Michigan. The quantitative analyses for the major organic contaminants are summarized. Without exception, the pyloric caecum of brown trout contained the highest concentration of lipids, PCB's, and chlorinated pesticides. Gill and kidney samples contained lower concentrations of contaminants than the caecum, while liver and muscle values were lowest

  5. Adaptive Optics Observations of Exoplanets, Brown Dwarfs, & Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkley, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    The current direct observations of brown dwarfs and exoplanets have been obtained using instruments not specifically designed for overcoming the large contrast ratio between the host star and any wide-separation faint companions. However, we are about to witness the birth of several new dedicated observing platforms specifically geared towards high contrast imaging of these objects. The Gemini Planet Imager, VLT-SPHERE, Subaru HiCIAO, and Project 1640 at the Palomar 5m telescope will return images of numerous exoplanets and brown dwarfs over hundreds of observing nights in the next five years. Along with diffraction-limited coronagraphs and high-order adaptive optics, these instruments also will return spectral and polarimetric information on any discovered targets, giving clues to their atmospheric compositions and characteristics. Such spectral characterization will be key to forming a detailed theory of comparative exoplanetary science which will be widely applicable to both exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Fu...

  6. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  7. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented. PMID:26333689

  8. Refined exposure assessment of Brown HT (E 155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA carried out an exposure assessment of Brown HT (E 155 taking into account additional information on its use in foods as consumed. In 2010, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS adopted a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of Brown HT and concluded that dietary exposure in both adults and 1-10 year old children at the high level may exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI for Brown HT of 1.5 mg/kg body weight (bw/day at the upper end of the range. Following this conclusion, the European Commission requested EFSA to perform a refined exposure assessment for this food colour. Data on the presence of Brown HT in foods were requested from relevant stakeholders through a call for usage and concentration data. Usage levels were provided to EFSA for six out of 37 food categories in which Brown HT is authorised. A limited number of analytical results were also reported to EFSA, all below the limit of detection (LOD or limit of quantification (LOQ. Exposure assessment was performed using the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. Three different scenarios were considered, including i exposure estimates based on Maximum Permitted Levels (MPLs, ii a combination of MPLs and reported maximum use levels and iii reported maximum use levels only. Considering the first two scenarios, high exposure levels (95th percentile exceeded the ADI for all age groups, with exception for the elderly. In comparison to the previous assessment, for both children and adults, the current mean exposure estimates are of the same order of magnitude, while the 95th percentile exposure is lower, particularly in adults. The mean and high level exposure estimates of Brown HT are below the ADI for all population groups when considering the reported use levels only.

  9. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  10. Regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by myostatin/follistatin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan eSingh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops from perturbations of cellular bioenergetics, when energy uptake exceeds energy expenditure, and represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT has long been known to dissipate energy as heat and contribute to energy expenditure, but its presence and physiological role in adult human physiology has been questioned for years. Recent demonstrations of metabolically active brown fat depots in adult humans have revolutionized current therapeutic approaches for obesity-related diseases. The balance between white adipose tissue (WAT and BAT affects the systemic energy balance and is widely believed to be the key determinant in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily play an important role in regulating overall energy homeostasis by modulation of brown adipocyte characteristics. Inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3/myostatin (Mst signaling promotes browning of white adipocytes, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and protects mice from diet-induced obesity, suggesting the need for development of a novel class of TGF-β/Mst antagonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. We recently described an important role of follistatin (Fst, a soluble glycoprotein that is known to bind and antagonize Mst actions, during brown fat differentiation and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here we highlight various investigations performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to support the contention that targeting TGF-β/Mst signaling enhances brown adipocyte functions and regulates energy balance, reducing insulin resistance and curbing the development of obesity and diabetes.

  11. On the Symbolism in Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The symbolism in Hawthorne’s short stories is very typical. This paper mainly discusses the use of symbolism in his Young Goodman Brown with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the whole story. Its title, the protagonist ’s name, color of brown, pink, and black, some images such as characters, surroundings and the plot of the whole story have abundant sym-bolic implication. By analyzing the story and the writing methods of symbolism, we can see the theme of Hawthorne ’s stories clearly. Hawthorne reveals that“Evil is the nature of mankind”by the use of these images.

  12. Can brown dwarfs survive on close orbits around convective stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, C.; Díaz, R. F.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The mass range of brown dwarfs extends across the planetary domain to stellar objects. There is a relative paucity of brown dwarfs companions around FGKM-type stars compared to exoplanets for orbital periods of less than a few years, but most of the short-period brown dwarf companions that are fully characterised by transits and radial velocities are found around F-type stars. Aims: We examine the hypothesis that brown dwarf companions could not survive on close orbit around stars with important convective envelopes because the tides and angular momentum loss, the result of magnetic braking, would lead to a rapid orbital decay with the companion being quickly engulfed. Methods: We use a classical Skumanich-type braking law and constant time-lag tidal theory to assess the characteristic timescale for orbital decay for the brown dwarf mass range as a function of the host properties. Results: We find that F-type stars may host massive companions for a significantly longer time than G-type stars for a given orbital period, which may explain the paucity of G-type hosts for brown dwarfs with an orbital period less than five days. On the other hand, we show that the small radius of early M-type stars contributes to orbital decay timescales that are only half those of F-type stars, despite their more efficient tidal dissipation and magnetic braking. For fully convective later type M-dwarfs, orbital decay timescales could be orders of magnitude greater than for F-type stars. Moreover, we find that, for a wide range of values of tidal dissipation efficiency and magnetic braking, it is safe to assume that orbital decay for massive companions can be neglected for orbital periods greater than ten days. Conclusions: For orbital periods greater than ten days, brown dwarf occurrence should largely be unaffected by tidal decay, whatever the mass of the host. On closer orbital periods, the rapid engulfment of massive companions could explain the lack of G and K-type hosts

  13. Study On Extrusion Technological Parameters Of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongyi; Zhou Xianqing; Ling Lizhong

    2001-01-01

    Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-s of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusion parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water soluble index and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factor and response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimal parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisture nrice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  14. Non-equilibrium chemistry in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Saumon, D S; Freedman, R S; Lodders, K

    2002-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and ammonia have been detected in the spectrum of Gl 229B at abundances that differ substantially from those obtained from chemical equilibrium. Vertical mixing in the atmosphere is a mechanism that can drive slowly reacting species out of chemical equilibrium. We explore the effects of vertical mixing as a function of mixing efficiency and effective temperature on the chemical abundances in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and on their spectra. The models compare favorably with the observational evidence and indicate that vertical mixing plays an important role in brown dwarf atmospheres.

  15. Antiviral polysaccharides isolated from Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Hui; OOI; Engchoon; Vincent; ANG; Put; O; Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Two relatively pure polysaccharides H3-a1 and H3-b1 had been isolated from the brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus. They were characterized by HPLC, ultraviolet scanning, gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and shown to be two different sulfated polysaccharides with different monosaccharide content, but both with high relative molecular mass. They contained some proteins and uronic acid respectively. The sulfate content and bioactivity of these polysaccharides varied during purification. The fractions derived from the hot water extract also exhibited low anticoagulant effect. This is the first time that the antiherpetic and anticoagulant activities were evaluated for the polysaccharides from the Hong Kong brown seaweed Hydroclathrus clathratus.

  16. Have we entered the brown adipose tissue renaissance?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravussin, E.; Kozak, L P

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, it was observed that rodents could offset excess calories ingested when they were fed a human-like `cafeteria diet'. Although it was erroneously concluded that this so-called diet-induced thermogenesis was because of brown adipose tissue (BAT), it led to efforts to test whether variations in brown fat in humans may explain the susceptibility to obesity. However, from evidence on the inability of ephedrine or beta-3 adrenergic agonists to induce BAT thermogenesis, it wa...

  17. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    OpenAIRE

    Emiel Beijer; Janna Schoenmakers; Guy Vijgen; Fons Kessels; Anne-Marie Dingemans; Patrick Schrauwen; Miel Wouters; Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt; Jaap Teule; Boudewijn Brans

    2012-01-01

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activ...

  18. A new era in brown adipose tissue biology: molecular control of brown fat development and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Shingo; Saito, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat as a defense against cold and excessive feeding. Interest in the field of BAT biology has exploded in the past few years because of the therapeutic potential of BAT to counteract obesity and obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance. Much progress has been made, particularly in the areas of BAT physiology in adult humans, developmental lineages of brown adipose cell fate, and hormonal control of BAT thermogenesis. As we enter into a new era of brown fat biology, the next challenge will be to develop strategies for activating BAT thermogenesis in adult humans to increase whole-body energy expenditure. This article reviews the recent major advances in this field and discusses emerging questions. PMID:24188710

  19. DNA DAMAGE AND EXTERNAL LESIONS IN BROWN BULLHEAD FROM CONTAMINATED HABITATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The single cell gel electrophoresis ("Comet") assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River, Ashtabula River, and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod), with brown bullheads collected...

  20. Cellular origins of cold-induced brown adipocytes in adult mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Petkova, Anelia P.; Konkar, Anish A.; Granneman, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated how cold stress induces the appearance of brown adipocytes (BAs) in brown and white adipose tissues (WATs) of adult mice. In interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), cold exposure increased proliferation of endothelial cells and interstitial cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor, α polypeptide (PDGFRα) by 3- to 4-fold. Surprisingly, brown adipogenesis and angiogenesis were largely restricted to the dorsal edge of iBAT. Although cold stress did not i...

  1. Kinetics of Nonenzymatic Browning Reaction in Citrus Juice Concentrates during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    KOCA, Nuray; BURDURLU, Hande Selen; KARADENİZ, Feryal

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of nonenzymatic browning in citrus juice concentrates (orange, lemon, grapefruit and tangerine) during 8 weeks of storage at 28, 37 and 45 ºC were investigated. Browning development was followed by measuring absorbance at 420 nm (A420) and using CIE-Lab color system. Analysis of kinetic data from A420 values suggested a zero-order reaction for nonenzymatic browning, while changes in L* and b* parameters followed a first-order reaction. Activation energy for nonenzymatic browning...

  2. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, J.; Stirling, I.; Kistler, L.; Salamzade, R.; Ersmark, E.; Fulton, T.; Stiller, M.; Green, R.; Shapiro, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear...

  3. File list: Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX800014,SRX978690,SRX978689,SRX978688,SRX800019 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  4. File list: InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown preadipocyte...058,SRX341056,SRX478161 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...es SRX341031,SRX341032,SRX341029,SRX341030 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X185879,SRX978689,SRX978688,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown preadipocyte...782,SRX341056,SRX478161 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX978689,SRX800015,SRX800014,SRX800018,SRX800019 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...341766,SRX341418,SRX341023,SRX341419,SRX341767 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...es SRX341031,SRX341032,SRX341029,SRX341030 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...es SRX341031,SRX341032,SRX341029,SRX341030 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X978688,SRX800019,SRX478163,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes...RX341419,SRX341767,SRX341421,SRX478161,SRX341039,SRX341040 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  15. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes...RX341420,SRX478161,SRX478160,SRX341040,SRX341041,SRX341039 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...RX800019,SRX978691,SRX978690,SRX978689,SRX978688 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Input control Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX4...78163,SRX143805,SRX185879 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  19. File list: DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes...RX341044,SRX341420,SRX341421,SRX341046,SRX478161,SRX341027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 TFs and others Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...341028,SRX341760,SRX341767,SRX341763,SRX341027 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 No description Adipocyte Brown preadipocyt...es http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 DNase-seq Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  6. File list: NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 No description Adipocyte Brown adipocytes htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX80...X800018,SRX800019,SRX185797,SRX478162 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 All antigens Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes...RX341420,SRX341421,SRX341046,SRX478161,SRX341027,SRX478160 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Histone Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes SRX3...RX341420,SRX341421,SRX341046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 RNA polymerase Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX...800010,SRX800016,SRX800017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 No description Adipocyte Brown adipocytes htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 Unclassified Adipocyte Brown adipocytes SRX97...8685,SRX800022 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Adp.20.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes mm9 Histone Adipocyte Brown preadipocytes SRX3...RX341421,SRX341039,SRX341040 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Adp.05.AllAg.Brown_preadipocytes.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes mm9 No description Adipocyte Brown adipocytes htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Adp.10.AllAg.Brown_adipocytes.bed ...

  15. Distribution of Brown Blotch Bacteria in Wild and Cultivated Species of Basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bessette, Alan E.

    1984-01-01

    Wild and cultivated Basidiomycetes species were cultured to determine the distribution of bacteria causing brown blotch disease of Agaricus bisporus. Colonies from each basidiocarp were screened for brown blotch organisms by the white line and host pathogenicity tests. Isolates causing brown blotch were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasi and an Arthrobacter species.

  16. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidt, A.; Hagenah, N.; Randrianambinina, B.; Radespiel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Our study provides the first data on the social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur, a nocturnal primate discovered in northwestern Madagascar in 1994. The study was carried out in two 6-month field periods during the dry season, covering time before and during the mating season. The spatia

  17. Brown Planthopper Resistance Genes in Rice: from Germplasm to Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C. He

    2007-01-01

    @@ The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive and widespread insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa) that can be found throughout the rice-growing areas in Asia, causing significant yield loss in susceptible cultivars every year.

  18. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

  19. Copy Number Variation in Brown Swiss Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolezal, Marlies A; Bagnato, Alessandro; Schiavini, F;

    . The objective of this study was to perform a high resolution genome scan for CNV, in a sample of 20 Brown Swiss dairy cattle bulls based on ~20x Illumina whole genome sesequencing data. Employing CNVnator for variant discovery, we present descriptive statistics for the CNVs detected and define...

  20. Factors influencing the spawning migration of female anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Koed, Anders; Aarestrup, Kim

    2004-01-01

    Radio telemetry was employed to study movements of adult female anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta (sea trout) during upstream spawning migration and following spawning in a stream with tributaries. Sea trout were monitored by manual tracking and by automatic listening stations. The latter...

  1. Brown adipocyte differentiation is regulated by hedgehog signaling during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    During development, brown fat tissue arises from mesenchymal precursor cells under the control of signaling networks that are not yet well understood. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the major signaling pathways that regulate mesenchymal cell fate. However, whether the Hh pathway contr...

  2. EVIDENCE FOR CLEAVAGE OF LIGNIN BY A BROWN ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradation by brown-rot fungi is quantitatively one of the most important fates of lignocellulose in nature. It has long been thought that these fungi do not degrade lignin significantly, and that their activities on this abundant aromatic biopolymer are limited to minor oxidative modifications....

  3. William Faulkner: No Friend of Brown v. Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, Carol

    2001-01-01

    In the years following the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision to integrate America's public schools, William Faulkner, Norman Mailer, Hannah Arendt, Robert Penn Warren, and, to a lesser extent, C. Vann Woodward, provided intellectual sustenance to southern efforts to resist racial integration. Focuses on Faulkner's political…

  4. Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...

  5. Public School Administration and "Brown v. Board of Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews educational initiatives of state and federal government that were designed to remedy the effects of racial segregation on Black public school students in the United States after the famous "Brown v. Board of Education" decisions. Several policy and legal initiatives are reviewed, including school desegregation, compensatory…

  6. Beyond brown: polyphenol oxidases as enzymes of plant specialized metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most cloned and/or characterized plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have catecholase activity (i.e., they oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones) and are localized or predicted to be localized to plastids. As a class, they have broad substrate specificity and are associated with browning of produce and oth...

  7. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  8. A Stock Pricing Model Based on Arithmetic Brown Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yong-xin; HAN Wen-xiu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new stock pricing model based on arithmetic Brown motion. The model overcomes the shortcomings of Gordon model completely. With the model investors can estimate the stock value of surplus companies, deficit companies, zero increase companies and bankrupt companies in long term investment or in short term investment.

  9. A Vignette of an American Sporting Sculptor: Joseph D. Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, David A.

    In this lecture, about sixty of the more important small and large sports sculptures and medals of Professor Joseph D. Brown are discussed and illustrated through the use of 35mm color slides. A brief description of the sculptor's life, interests, and philosophy of sport is also given. (MB)

  10. User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

  11. Good Guys Finish Last: "Tom Brown's School Days" and "Flashman."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Frank P.

    Instructors and students of literature should look to George McDonald Fraser's "Flashman: From the Flashman Papers, 1839-1842" for a clever critique of 19th-century notions of character, virtue, and moral teleology. Written to criticize Thomas Hughes's famous 19th-century novel, "Tom Brown's School Days," Fraser's 20th-century novel turns on end…

  12. Browne's Capgas Delusion: The Destruction of the Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holligan, Chris; Chiang, Kuang-Hsu

    2011-01-01

    The recent publication of the UK government's Browne Review 2010 on university and student funding signifies a massive step towards embedding capitalist free-market consumerist values and practices into UK higher education. This paper critically examines that paradigm shift away from public sector provision from the perspective of French Theory,…

  13. "Brown" at 62: School Segregation by Race, Poverty and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary; Ee, Jongyeon; Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    As the anniversary of "Brown v. Board of Education" decision arrives again without any major initiatives to mitigate spreading and deepening segregation in the nation's schools, the Civil Rights Project adds to a growing national discussion with a research brief drawn from a much broader study of school segregation to be published in…

  14. Using Clustering Algorithms to Identify Brown Dwarf Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choban, Caleb

    2016-06-01

    Brown dwarfs are stars that are not massive enough to sustain core hydrogen fusion, and thus fade and cool over time. The molecular composition of brown dwarf atmospheres can be determined by observing absorption features in their infrared spectrum, which can be quantified using spectral indices. Comparing these indices to one another, we can determine what kind of brown dwarf it is, and if it is young or metal-poor. We explored a new method for identifying these subgroups through the expectation-maximization machine learning clustering algorithm, which provides a quantitative and statistical way of identifying index pairs which separate rare populations. We specifically quantified two statistics, completeness and concentration, to identify the best index pairs. Starting with a training set, we defined selection regions for young, metal-poor and binary brown dwarfs, and tested these on a large sample of L dwarfs. We present the results of this analysis, and demonstrate that new objects in these classes can be found through these methods.

  15. Proteomics analysis of heterogeneous flagella in brown algae (stramenopiles).

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Gang; Nagasato, Chikako; Oka, Seiko; Cock, J. Mark; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    International audience Flagella are conserved organelles among eukaryotes and they are composed of many proteins, which are necessary for flagellar assembly, maintenance and function. Stramenopiles, which include brown algae, diatoms and oomycetes, possess two laterally inserted flagella. The anterior flagellum (AF) extends forward and bears tripartite mastigonemes, whilst the smooth posterior flagellum (PF) often has a paraflagellar body structure. These heterogeneous flagella have served...

  16. Primary hyperparathyroidism with rare presentation as multiple brown tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Doshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism with an uncommon presentation as multiple brown tumours, which may easily be mistaken for a primary bone neoplasm. A brief literature review and its clinical and surgical management are also discussed here.

  17. Some Direct Gillnet Selectivity Tests for Brown Trout Populations

    OpenAIRE

    O Grady, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Direct gillnet selectivity tests for introduced brown trout populations in three Irish lakes are outlined. The net gangs and netting procedure utilised are described. Data indicates that the gear used was capable of capturing a random cross section of a trout stock in the length frequency range 19.8 to 47.7 centimetres.

  18. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Hofstede, ter R.; Winter, H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher

  19. Environmental impacts of brown coal surface mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 9 contributions, out of which 2 have been inputted in INIS. These are concerned with the impacts of mining in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Mining District on the air quality and public health, and with the effect of mined-out land reclamation on the environment. (M.D.). 8 tabs., 5 figs., 6 refs

  20. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbeé, J.F.P.; Boon, M.R.; Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Bartelt, A.; Schlein, C.; Worthmann, A.; Kooijman, S.; Hoeke, G.; Mol, I.M.; John, C.; Jung, C.; Vazirpanah, N.; Brouwers, L.P.J.; Gordts, P.L.S.M.; Esko, J.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Scheja, L.; Heeren, J.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by b3-adrenergic rece

  1. Brown Fat and the Myth of Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Leslie P.

    2010-01-01

    The notion that brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice or humans maintains energy balance by burning off excess calories seems incompatible with evolutionary biology. Studies in obese rats and mice lacking UCP1 indicate that diet-induced thermogenesis by BAT is unlikely.

  2. Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

  3. Development trends in the Lusatian brown coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusatia has lived on and with brown coal for over 200 years. Brown coal changed what was once a region in which forestry and agriculture predominated into an industrial region. Thanks to its good combustion properties and high energy yield brown coal very soon became known and popular. It was always the driving force for a rapid development which resulted in an economically sound and technically up-to-date industry in Lusatia. This powerful status of brown coal was however soon exploited for aims which were bound to lead to the downfall of two social structures (during the years from 1933 to 1990) by reason of a regime of unconditional autarchy. The economic and technical development thus initiated certainly brought many advantages, but it also had serious diadvantages. Constant increases in production, as a result of which planned rated outputs were intentionally disregarded, were the rule because production targets had to be met or exceeded. Economic inefficiency led to a scarcity of labour and a shortage of finances. Environmental aims had no priority since production was the absolute, primary objective. Consequently, this regime of economic autarchy ended in an one-way street as far as industry was concerned, a situation which was accompanied by an unexampled destruction of the natural basic living conditions and direct, threatening health hazards to man and nature. The year 1990 saw the beginning of the transition from planned controlled economy to free market economy. The reorganization of the former large combines as corporations was not however merely a formal change, but internally also represented a transformation. The brown coal mining industry manifested its new intention and determination to be economically competitive and unsubsidized in future, to operate in such a way as to be compatible with the environment and to exploit reserves carefully, as well as to render its activities socially compatible. (orig.)

  4. Severe Brown Fat Lipoatrophy Aggravates Atherosclerotic Process in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Óscar; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Benito, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of the adipose organ to vascular inflammation. Brown fat lipoatrophy induces visceral adiposity, mainly in gonadal depot (gonadal white adipose tissue [gWAT]), severe glucose intolerance, high postprandial glucose levels, and a severe defect in acute insulin secretion. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice showed greater hypertriglyceridemia than the obtained in ApoE(-/-) and hypercholesterolemia similar to ApoE(-/-) mice. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice, in addition to primary insulin resistance in BAT, also showed a significant decrease in insulin signaling in liver, gWAT, heart, aorta artery, and thoracic PVAT. More importantly, our results suggest that severe brown fat lipoatrophy aggravates the atherosclerotic process, characterized by a significant increase of lipid depots, atherosclerotic coverage, lesion size and complexity, increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory markers expression. Finally, an increase of TNF-α and leptin as well as a decrease of adiponectin by BAT, gWAT, and thoracic PVAT might also be responsible of vascular damage. Our results suggest that severe brown lipoatrophy aggravates atherosclerotic process. Thus, BAT activation might protect against obesity and its associated metabolic alterations. PMID:27414981

  5. Brown trout and food web interactions in a Minnesota stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.

    2007-01-01

    1. We examined indirect, community-level interactions in a stream that contained non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus), native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) and native slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus Richardson). Our objectives were to examine benthic invertebrate composition and prey selection of fishes (measured by total invertebrate dry mass, dry mass of individual invertebrate taxa and relative proportion of invertebrate taxa in the benthos and diet) among treatments (no fish, juvenile brook trout alone, juvenile brown trout alone, sculpin with brook trout and sculpin with brown trout). 2. We assigned treatments to 1 m2 enclosures/exclosures placed in riffles in Valley Creek, Minnesota, and conducted six experimental trials. We used three designs of fish densities (addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with unequal numbers of trout and sculpin; addition of trout to a constant number of sculpin with equal numbers of trout and sculpin; and replacement of half the sculpin with an equal number of trout) to investigate the relative strength of interspecific versus intraspecific interactions. 3. Presence of fish (all three species, alone or in combined-species treatments) was not associated with changes in total dry mass of benthic invertebrates or shifts in relative abundance of benthic invertebrate taxa, regardless of fish density design. 4. Brook trout and sculpin diets did not change when each species was alone compared with treatments of both species together. Likewise, we did not find evidence for shifts in brown trout or sculpin diets when each species was alone or together. 5. We suggest that native brook trout and non-native brown trout fill similar niches in Valley Creek. We did not find evidence that either species had an effect on stream communities, potentially due to high invertebrate productivity in Valley Creek. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Prevention of enzymatic browning of yacon flour by the combined use of anti-browning agents and the study of its chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Romero Lopes Rodrigues; Eduardo Ramirez Asquieri; Daniela Castilho Orsi

    2014-01-01

    Yacon roots present functional properties because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are considered as prebiotic fibers. In addition, yacon roots are rich in phenolic compounds. During the processing of yacon, the freshly cut surface undergoes rapid enzymatic browning. Control of enzymatic browning during processing is very important to preserve the appearance of yacon flour. In this study, it was evaluated the combined effect of anti-browning agents (ascorbic acid, cit...

  7. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  8. The role of various amino acids in enzymatic browning process in potato tubers, and identifying the browning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of five structurally variant amino acids, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine and cysteine were examined as inhibitors and/or stimulators of fresh-cut potato browning. The first four amino acids showed conflict effects; high concentrations (⩾ 100mM for glycine and ⩾ 1.0M for the other three amino acids) induced potato browning while lower concentrations reduced the browning process. Alternatively, increasing cysteine concentration consistently reduced the browning process due to reaction with quinone to give colorless adduct. In PPO assay, high concentrations (⩾ 1.11 mM) of the four amino acids developed more color than that of control samples. Visible spectra indicated a continuous condensation of quinone and glycine to give colored adducts absorbed at 610-630 nm which were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS as catechol-diglycine adduct that undergoes polymerization with other glycine molecules to form peptide side chains. In lower concentrations, the less concentration the less developed color was observed. PMID:26304424

  9. Brown's transport up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effect by artificial intelligence, outputting automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  10. Flash ionisation signature in coherent cyclotron emission from Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Vorgul, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in form of lightning resulting in a substantial sudden increase of local ionisation. Brown dwarfs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionisation events (flash ionisation) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionisation events will open investigations into the ionisation state and atmospheric dynamics. Such ionisation events can also result from explosion shock waves, bursts or eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionisation events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the loca...

  11. Fixation of radiocaesium in an acid brown forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of clay minerals and organic matter on the sorption and desorption of radiocaesium in an acid brown forest soil is investigated. A highly selective adsorption of radiocaesium is often reported in the surface horizons of acid forest soils. For this reason, soil humus is often considered as a key parameter in modelling the behaviour of Cs in these soils. The Ca2+-clay fractions, extracted from the surface hemi-organic horizon and the deeper mineral horizons of an acid brown soil, exhibit similarly high Cs+ sorption properties. Desorption yields are much lower in the surface layers, resulting in higher net retention of radiocaesium. Organic matter dynamics in the soil containing Hydroxy Interlayered Vermiculite minerals has an indirect effect on radiocaesium retention properties through Al complexation by organic acids. Acidocomplexolysis of Hydroxy Interlayered Vermiculitic clays results in the formation of degraded vermiculite in the topsoil layers, inducing a larger amount of high charged interlayer sites for Cs+ specific adsorption

  12. Multiple brown tumors of the jaws in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentisity, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Brown tumor is usually diagnosed at the terminal stage of hyperparathyroidism. Diagnosis of this tumor is confirmed by endocrinologic investigations along with clinical and radiographic examination. Radiographical differential diagnosis of this tumor includes central giant cell granuloma, aneurysmal bone cyst, metastatic tumor, multiple myeloma, and Paget disease. This report presents a rare case of multiple brown tumors occurring at the maxilla and mandible, which was initially misdiagnosed as central giant cell granuloma. Plain radiographs demonstrated multiple well-defined multilocular radiolucency. CT images showed soft tissue mass with low attenuated lesions, perforation of the lingual cortical plate, and a heterogeneous mass at the right thyroid lobe. These findings were consistent with parathyroid adenoma. The patient had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and elevated alkaline phosphatase level. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed. No recurrence was observed during a 28-month follow-up.

  13. Atmospheric Circulation of Brown Dwarfs: Jets, Vortices, and Time Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprising east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by isotropic turbulence and vortices instead. Based on the location of the transition, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit at...

  14. An analysis of the Brown-Biefeld effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ianconescu, Reuven; Mudrik, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    When a voltage higher than 20 kv is applied on an asymmetric capacitor, the capacitor experiences a net force acting toward its thinner electrode. This effect is called Brown-Biefeld (BB) effect, in honor of its discoverers Thomas Townsend Brown and Paul Alfred Biefeld. A lot of theories have been proposed to explain the BB effect, and many speculations can be found on the net suggesting the BB effect to be an antigravitation effect that works in vacuum too. Other sources say the BB effect warps the space. However, in the recent years, more an more researchers attribute the BB effect to a unicharge ion wind . This work calculates the levitation force due to the ion wind and also presents experimental results which confirm the theoretical results. Our calculations make use of Deutsch assumption, and have a very low computing cost. Also, a deep insight into the Deutsch assumption is presented.

  15. The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Skemer, Andrew; Allers, Katelyn; Geballe, Thomas; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline; Bjoraker, Gordon; Lupu, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents our first opportunity to directly study an object outside the Solar System that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs---near infrared spectroscopy---is not currently feasible as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 $\\mu$m spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter's deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter. The spectrum is high enough quality to allow the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter's atmosphere, but now on an extrasolar world.

  16. The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Lupu, Roxana

    2016-08-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents the first opportunity to directly study an object outside the solar system that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However, the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs—near-infrared spectroscopy—is not currently feasible, as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5–5.2 μm spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter’s deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter’s. The spectrum quality is high enough to allow for the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter’s atmosphere, but now on an extrasolar world.

  17. Cervical disc herniation manifesting as a Brown-Sequard syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yokoyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Sequard syndrome is commonly seen in the setting of spinal trauma or an extramedullary spinal neoplasm. The clinical picture reflects hemisection of the spinal cord. We report a rare case of Brown-Sequard syndrome caused by a large cervical herniated disc. A 63-year-old man presented with progressive right hemiparesis and disruption of pain and temperature sensation on the left side of the body. Magnetic resonance imaging showed large C3-C4 disc herniation compressing the spinal cord at that level, with severe canal stenosis from C4 through C7. Decompressive cervical laminoplasty was performed. After surgery, complete sensory function was restored and a marked improvement in motor power was obtained.

  18. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  19. Excitation Energy-Transfer Dynamics of Brown Algal Photosynthetic Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, D; Kita, M; Fujii, R; Sugisaki, M; Oka, N; Takaesu, Y; Taira, T; Iha, M; Hashimoto, H

    2012-09-20

    Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll-a/c protein (FCP) complexes from brown algae Cladosiphon okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku in Japanese) contain the only species of carbonyl carotenoid, fucoxanthin, which exhibits spectral characteristics attributed to an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) property that arises in polar environments due to the presence of the carbonyl group in its polyene backbone. Here, we investigated the role of the ICT property of fucoxanthin in ultrafast energy transfer to chlorophyll-a/c in brown algal photosynthesis using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopic measurements. The observed excited-state dynamics show that the ICT character of fucoxanthin in FCP extends its absorption band to longer wavelengths and enhances its electronic interaction with chlorophyll-a molecules, leading to efficient energy transfer from fucoxanthin to chlorophyll-a. PMID:26295888

  20. Brown's TRANSPORT up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, etc., including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effects by artificial intelligence, outputing automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  1. A search for rocky planets transiting brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Selsis, Franck; Winn, Joshua N; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Artigau, Etienne; Laughlin, Gregory P; Seager, Sara; Helling, Christiane; Mayor, Michel; Albert, Loic; Anderson, Richard I; Bolmont, Emeline; Doyon, Rene; Forveille, Thierry; Hagelberg, Janis; Leconte, Jeremy; Lendl, Monika; Littlefair, Stuart; Raymond, Sean; Sahlmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanetary science has reached a historic moment. The James Webb Space Telescope will be capable of probing the atmospheres of rocky planets, and perhaps even search for biologically produced gases. However this is contingent on identifying suitable targets before the end of the mission. A race therefore, is on, to find transiting planets with the most favorable properties, in time for the launch. Here, we describe a realistic opportunity to discover extremely favorable targets - rocky planets transiting nearby brown dwarfs - using the Spitzer Space Telescope as a survey instrument. Harnessing the continuous time coverage and the exquisite precision of Spitzer in a 5,400 hour campaign monitoring nearby brown dwarfs, we will detect a handful of planetary systems with planets as small as Mars. The survey we envision is a logical extension of the immense progress that has been realized in the field of exoplanets and a natural outcome of the exploration of the solar neighborhood to map where the nearest habitab...

  2. Temperature Fluctuations as a Source of Brown Dwarf Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Tyler D

    2014-01-01

    A number of brown dwarfs are now known to be variable with observed amplitudes as large as 10-30% at some wavelengths. While spatial inhomogeneities in cloud coverage and thickness are likely responsible for much of the observed variability, it is possible that some of the variations arise from atmospheric temperature fluctuations instead of, or in addition to, clouds. To better understand the role that thermal variability might play we present a case study of brown dwarf variability using a newly-developed one-dimensional, time-stepping model of atmospheric thermal structure. We focus on the effects of thermal perturbations, intentionally simplifying the problem through omission of clouds and atmospheric circulation. Model results demonstrate that thermal perturbations occurring deep in the atmosphere (at pressures greater than 10 bar) of a model T-dwarf can be communicated to the upper atmosphere through radiative heating via the windows in near-infrared water opacity. The response time depends on where in ...

  3. Peaches tree genetic divergence for brown rot reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Américo Wagner Júnior; Keli Cristina Fabiane; Jéssica Scarlet Marth Alves de Oliveira; Juliano Zanela; Idemir Citadin

    2011-01-01

    It was evaluated the genetic divergence in peach genotypes for brown rot reaction. It was evaluated 26 and 29 peach genotypes in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 production cycle, respectively. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitossanidade, da UTFPR - Campus Dois Vizinhos. The experimental design was entirely randomized, considering each peach genotype a treatment, and it was use three replication of nine fruits. The treatment control use three replication of three peach. The ...

  4. Fluorescence Imaging of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue in Living Mice†

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Douglas R.; White, Alexander G.; Leevy, W. Matthew; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in energy expenditure and heat generation and is a promising target for diagnosing and treating obesity, diabetes and related metabolism disorders. While several nuclear and magnetic resonance imaging methods are established for detecting human BAT, there are no convenient protocols for high throughput imaging of BAT in small animal models. Here we disclose a simple but effective method for non-invasive optical imaging of interscapular BAT in mice u...

  5. Finding Murphy Brown: How Accessible are Historic Television Broadcasts?

    OpenAIRE

    Ubois, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a project completed in May, 2005 at the University of California, Berkeley to measure the accessibility of historic television broadcasts. The first section describes a model of the accessibility of news and entertainment broadcasts, and the second section applies this model in an attempted reconstruction of the interaction on television between then-Vice President Dan Quayle and the fictional character Murphy Brown. The final section compares the results ...

  6. Brown trout population dynamics versus long term habitat history

    OpenAIRE

    Capra, H.; Souchon, Y.; Lamouroux, N.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of stream discharge and habitat suitability history was investigated over 12 years on three natural brown trout (Salmo trutta) population dynamics. Discharge and habitat (described by Weighted Usable Area, WUA) variability during three "bottleneck" periods of population dynamics (spawning, fry, and summer) were used to explain variability of trout age-class densities (young of the year, juveniles, and adults). Discharge and WUA variability for each period was described with mean...

  7. DISCOVERY OF A WIDE BINARY BROWN DWARF BORN IN ISOLATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a survey for stars with disks in the Taurus star-forming region using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have discovered a pair of young brown dwarfs, FU Tau A and B, in the Barnard 215 dark cloud. They have a projected angular separation of 5.''7, corresponding to 800 AU at the distance of Taurus. To assess the nature of these two objects, we have obtained spectra of them and constructed spectral energy distributions. Both sources are young (∼1 Myr) according to their Hα emission, gravity-sensitive spectral features, and mid-infrared excess emission. The proper motion of FU Tau A provides additional evidence of its membership in Taurus. We measure spectral types of M7.25 and M9.25 for FU Tau A and B, respectively, which correspond to masses of ∼0.05 and ∼0.015 Msun according to the evolutionary models of Chabrier and Baraffe. FU Tau A is significantly overluminous relative to an isochrone passing through FU Tau B and relative to other members of Taurus near its spectral type, which may indicate that it is an unresolved binary. FU Tau A and B are likely to be components of a binary system based on the low probability (∼3 x 10-4) that Taurus would produce two unrelated brown dwarfs with a projected separation of a ≤ 6''. Barnard 215 contains only one other young star and is in a remote area of Taurus, making FU Tau A and B the first spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs discovered forming in isolation rather than in a stellar cluster or aggregate. Because they were born in isolation and comprise a weakly bound binary, dynamical interactions with stars could not have played a role in their formation, and thus are not essential for the birth of brown dwarfs.

  8. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting as Brown Lichenoid Patches

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Hyuk; Lee, Jang Hyun; Kim, Sung Keun; Park, Young Lip; Lee, Jong Suk; Cho, Moon Kyun

    2009-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is related diseases characterized by proliferation of Langerhans cell with involvement of bone, skin, lung and other organs. LCH usually occurs in childhood and are presented as multiple small papules or eczematoid lesion mostly. We report a 50-year-old man with 3 brown lichenoid patches on left dorsal foot. He was diagnosed pulmonary LCH 5 years ago. Typical LC cells on skin lesion and CD1 complex positive staining confirm the diagnosis of LCH. We consider...

  9. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    OpenAIRE

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi; Gopalswamy Sathiya Balan; Kasiviswanathan Periyanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii. Methods: The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and ha...

  10. Brown Adipose Tissue: A New Target for Antiobesity Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human fat consist of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT). Though most fat is energy-storing WAT, the thermogenic capacity of even small amounts of BAT makes it an attractive therapeutic target for inducing weight loss through energy expenditure. CONTENT: Over the past year, several independent research teams used a combination of positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging, immunohistochemistry and gene and protein expression assays to prove conc...

  11. Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging of Interscapular Brown Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xueli; Kuo, Chaincy; Moore, Anna; Ran, Chongzhao

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), widely known as a “good fat” plays pivotal roles for thermogenesis in mammals. This special tissue is closely related to metabolism and energy expenditure, and its dysfunction is one important contributor for obesity and diabetes. Contrary to previous belief, recent PET/CT imaging studies indicated the BAT depots are still present in human adults. PET imaging clearly shows that BAT has considerably high uptake of 18F-FDG under certain conditions. In this video repo...

  12. Planetesimals to brown dwarfs: What is a planet?

    OpenAIRE

    Basri, Gibor; Brown, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The past 15 years have brought about a revolution in our understanding of our Solar System and other planetary systems. During this time, discoveries include the first Kuiper Belt Objects, the first brown dwarfs, and the first extra-solar planets. Although discoveries continue apace, they have called into question our previous perspectives on planets, both here and elsewhere. The result has been a debate about the meaning of the word ''planet'' itself. It became clear that scientists do not h...

  13. Removal of humic substances from water by brown coal sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.V. Veprikova; A.V. Rudkovskii; M.L. Shchipko [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch

    2007-12-15

    Brown coal sorption materials with high activity toward humic substances were prepared using a larger scale laboratory unit with a spouted-bed system. The effect of thermal treatment conditions on the sorption properties of these materials was studied. It was found that the sorption activity of the resulting samples toward humates was closely related to the limiting sorption volume of the materials with respect to benzene.

  14. Eclipse Observations of a Temperate Transiting Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas; Curtis, Jason; Montet, Benjamin; Vanderberg, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    We wish to use 15.7 hours of Spitzer time to observe two eclipses, one each at 3.6 um and 4.5 um of a newly discovered transiting brown dwarf, which we refer to as R147-BD. R147-BD is a 36 MJ object on a 5.3 day orbit about a K=10.666, 5800K solar analog. Uniquely, R147-BD and its host star are both members of the 3.0 Gyr old open cluster Ruprecht 147. R147-BD is thus one of the only transiting brown dwarfs for which we have a robust isochronal age that is not dependent upon brown dwarf evolutionary models. These models predict that a field object with the mass and age of R147-BD should have an effective temperature of about 800K due to internal heat. The zero-albedo blackbody equilibrium temperature for R147-BD, based only on its host star's insolation, is 1125K. This makes R147-BD the first observationally accessible sub-stellar object for which the internal and external energy fluxes are approximately equal, and it can serve as a unique laboratory to test the effect of stellar irradiation on the vertical pressure-temperature structure and clouds of giant planets. Specifically, we wish to investigate three different questions with these observations. First, how does the measured mass, radius, age and emission of R147-BD compare to brown dwarf evolution models, and how have these been altered by stellar irradiation? Second, does R147-BD's dayside atmosphere resemble its isolated field equivalent, or is it closer to hot Jupiters at similar temperatures? Third, can we constrain the cloud properties of R147-BD's dayside? Besides these particular science questions, observations of R147-BD allow us to scout-out future JWST observations of temperate giant planets, which also will have roughly equal amounts of stellar irradiation and internal heat.

  15. Brown coal coke in biological waste water cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological sewage plants working by the activated sludge process are often confronted by the following problems: the formation of expanded bubbles, lack of decomposition performance, unstable operation and insufficient excess sludge dewatering. In the former East Germany, there is also the problem of too little nitrificaion/denitrification, caused by obsolete plant. The use of brown coal coke guarantees efficient cleaning of waste water. (orig.)

  16. Role of energy metabolism in the brown fat gene program

    OpenAIRE

    Minwoo eNam; Marcus eCooper

    2015-01-01

    In murine and human brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondria are powerful generators of heat that safely metabolize fat, a feature that has great promise in the fight against obesity and diabetes. Recent studies suggest that the action of mitochondria extend beyond their conventional role as generators of heat. There is mounting evidence that impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity is accompanied by attenuated expression of Ucp1 and other BAT-selective genes, implying that mitochondria ex...

  17. Resistance of transgenic rice pure lines to brown planthopper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) is one of the most damaging rice insect pests. Recent studies showed that lectin (GNA), coded by the gna gene from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) was toxic to BPH in artificial diet assay (Powell et al, 1993, 1995). Here we report the development of homozygous transgenic rice lines contained the gna gene and the BPH bioassay test of the homozygous lines.

  18. Recent advance in brown adipose physiology and its therapeutic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Jung, Young-Suk; Choi, Dalwoong

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized thermoregulatory organ that has a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Specifically, energy expenditure can be enhanced by the activation of BAT function and the induction of a BAT-like catabolic phenotype in white adipose tissue (WAT). Since the recent recognition of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, BAT has been extensively studied as one of the most promising targets identified for treating obesity and its related disorde...

  19. Assessment of oxidative metabolism in Brown Fat using PET imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Otto eMuzik; Mangner, Thomas J.; Granneman, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O) PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults during cold stress and to establish the relationship between BAT oxidative metabolism and FDG tracer uptake....

  20. Sympathetic and sensory innervation of brown adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Bartness, TJ; Vaughan, CH; Song, CK

    2010-01-01

    The innervation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is incontrovertible and, with its activation, functions as the principal, if not exclusive, stimulator of BAT thermogenesis. The parasympathetic innervation of BAT only appears in two minor BAT depots, but not in the major interscapular BAT (IBAT) depot. BAT thermogenesis is triggered by the release of norepinephrine from its sympathetic nerve terminals, stimulating β3-adrenoceptors that turns on a cascade o...

  1. Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Middelbeek, Roeland J.W.; Townsend, Kristy L.; An, Ding; Nygaard, Eva B.; Hitchcox, Kristen M.; Markan, Kathleen R.; Nakano, Kazuhiro; Hirshman, Michael F.; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, and also has the capacity to modulate energy balance. To test the hypothesis that BAT is fundamental to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, we transplanted BAT from male donor mice into the visceral cavity of age- and sex-matched recipient mice. By 8–12 weeks following transplantation, recipient mice had improved glucose tolerance, increased insulin sensitivity, lowe...

  2. Does Brown Fat Protect Against Diseases of Aging?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark P Mattson

    2009-01-01

    The most commonly studied laboratory rodents possess a specialized form of fat called brown adipose tissue (BAT) that generates heat to help maintain body temperature in cold environments. In humans, BAT is abundant during embryonic and early postnatal development, but is absent or present in relatively small amounts in adults where it is located in paracervical and supraclavicular regions. BAT cells can `burn' fatty acid energy substrates to generate heat because they possess large numbers o...

  3. Vascular rarefaction mediates whitening of brown fat in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ippei; Aprahamian, Tamar; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Ayako; Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N.; MacLauchlan, Susan; Maruyama, Sonomi; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a highly vascularized organ with abundant mitochondria that produce heat through uncoupled respiration. Obesity is associated with a reduction of BAT function; however, it is unknown how obesity promotes dysfunctional BAT. Here, using a murine model of diet-induced obesity, we determined that obesity causes capillary rarefaction and functional hypoxia in BAT, leading to a BAT “whitening” phenotype that is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid droplet ...

  4. Assessment of Oxidative Metabolism in Brown Fat Using PET Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Muzik, Otto; Mangner, Thomas J.; Granneman, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog 18F-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans, suggesting that most humans have some functional BAT. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O) PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults d...

  5. Cytotoxic sterols from the formosan brown alga Turbinaria ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, J H; Wang, G H; Sung, P J; Chiu, Y H; Duh, C Y

    1997-12-01

    Two hydroperoxysterols 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (1) and 29-hydroperoxystigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol (2), and fucosterol (3) were isolated from the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Sargassaceae). Hydroperoxide 2 is a new natural compound and was converted into 29-hydroxystigmasta-5,24 (28)-dien-3beta-ol (4) by reaction with LAH. Sterols 1, 2, and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:17252381

  6. Browning of white adipose tissue: role of hypothalamic signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through non-shivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Specifically, recent obse...

  7. Hypothalamic Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Bi, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, but the strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for cold protection by producing heat using lipids and glucose as metabolic fuels. This thermogenic action causes increased energy expenditure and significant lipid/glucose disposal. In addition, BAT in white adipose tissue (WAT) or beige cells have been found and they also exhibit the thermogenic a...

  8. Estradiol Regulates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis via Hypothalamic AMPK

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B.; González-García, Ismael; Martins, Luís; Lage, Ricardo; Fernández-Mallo, Diana; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Ruíz-Pino, Francisco; Liu, Ji; Morgan, Donald A.; Pinilla, Leonor; Gallego, Rosalía; Saha, Asish K.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estrogens play a major role in the modulation of energy balance through central and peripheral actions. Here, we demonstrate that central action of estradiol (E2) inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) selectively in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), leading to activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in a feeding-independent manner. Genetic activation of AMPK in...

  9. Negative Regulators of Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT)-Mediated Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Patil, Mallikarjun; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, a process called adaptive thermogenesis. PET-CT scans recently demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, which revitalized our interest in BAT. Increasing the amount and/or activity of BAT holds tremendous promise for the treatment of obesity and its associated diseases. PGC1α is the master regulator of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in BAT. A number of proteins have been identified to influence therm...

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jian; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Li, Bao-ling; Cheng, Yan-Bing; Peng, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Hang; Xu, Hai-jun; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Lou, Yong-Gen; Cheng, Jia-An; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2010-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is one of the most serious insect pests of rice in Asia. However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the development, wing dimorphism and sex difference in this species. Genomic information for BPH is currently unavailable, and, therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are needed as an important resource to better understand the biological mechanisms of BPH. Methodology/Principal ...

  11. Benchmark Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C: Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations Yield Brightness Temperature and Mid-T Spectral Class

    OpenAIRE

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    There are no field brown dwarf analogs with measured masses, radii, and luminosities, precluding our ability to connect the population of transiting brown dwarfs with measurable masses and radii and field brown dwarfs with measurable luminosities and atmospheric properties. LHS 6343 C, a weakly irradiated brown dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field, provides the first opportunity to probe the atmosphere of a non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass and radius. ...

  12. Eradicant and curative treatments of hexanal against peach brown rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silveira Baggio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp. , is one of the most important peach (Prunuspersica (L. Batsch diseases and the main cause of postharvest losses. Currently, alternative methods for postharvest disease control, such as the use of volatiles, are under investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hexanal on the in vitro development of Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa and on monocyclic components of brown rot on peaches. To evaluate the effect on pathogen development in vitro, a single dose of 215 µL of liquid hexanal was placed on glass jars in closed plastic containers (4.3 L at the moment of fungi transfer, 24 or 48 h after transferring to Petri dishes. After hexanal application, the Petri dishes were kept inside the containers that were closed for 24 h at 20 ºC. Mycelial growth was measured seven days after hexanal removal. For in vivo assays, inoculated fruits were kept in closed plastic containers, and hexanal was applied at the moment of fruit inoculation or 24 hours thereafter. The monocyclic components infection frequency, expressed as brown rot incidence, lesion diameter and lesion sporulation, were assessed daily for seven days. Overall, hexanal was more effective in inhibiting mycelial growth when applied at the moment of pathogen transfer. Hexanal did not prevent pathogen infection, but reduced lesion diameter and completely inhibited spore production on the fruit for both treatments. Hexanal provides a promising alternative for chemical control and can be used in postharvest handling systems.

  13. Production and degradation of oxalic acid by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results show that all of the brown rot fungi tested produce oxalic acid in liquid as well as in semisolid cultures. Gloeophyllum trabeum, which accumulates the lowest amount of oxalic acid during decay of pine holocellulose, showed the highest polysaccharide-depolymerizing activity. Semisolid cultures inoculated with this fungus rapidly converted 14C-labeled oxalic acid to CO2 during cellulose depolymerization. The other brown rot fungi also oxidized 14C-labeled oxalic acid, although less rapidly. In contrast, semisolid cultures inoculated with the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor did not significantly catabolize the acid and did not depolymerize the holocellulose during decay. Semisolid cultures of G. trabeum amended with desferrioxamine, a specific iron-chelating agent, were unable to lower the degree of polymerization of cellulose or to oxidize 14C-labeled oxalic acid to the extent or at the rate that control cultures did. These results suggest that both iron and oxalic acid are involved in cellulose depolymerization by brown rot fungi

  14. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GenevieveSpanjerWright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  15. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  16. CLOUDS search for variability in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, B; Marley, M S; Artigau, É; Baliyan, K S; Béjar, V J S; Caballero, J A; Chanover, N; Connelley, M; Doyon, R; Forveille, T; Ganesh, S; Gelino, C R; Hammel, H B; Holtzman, J; Joshi, S; Joshi, U C; Leggett, S K; Liu, M C; Martín, E L; Mohan, V; Nadeau, D; Sagar, R; Stephens, D

    2008-01-01

    Context: L-type ultra-cool dwarfs and brown dwarfs have cloudy atmospheres that could host weather-like phenomena. The detection of photometric or spectral variability would provide insight into unresolved atmospheric heterogeneities, such as holes in a global cloud deck. Aims: It has been proposed that growth of heterogeneities in the global cloud deck may account for the L- to T-type transition as brown dwarf photospheres evolve from cloudy to clear conditions. Such a mechanism is compatible with variability. We searched for variability in the spectra of five L6 to T6 brown dwarfs in order to test this hypothesis. Methods: We obtained spectroscopic time series using VLT/ISAAC, over 0.99-1.13um, and IRTF/SpeX for two of our targets, in J, H and K bands. We search for statistically variable lines and correlation between those. Results: High spectral-frequency variations are seen in some objects, but these detections are marginal and need to be confirmed. We find no evidence for large amplitude variations in s...

  17. Hanbury Brown and Twiss interferometry with twisted light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Cross, Robert M; Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    The rich physics exhibited by random optical wave fields permitted Hanbury Brown and Twiss to unveil fundamental aspects of light. Furthermore, it has been recognized that optical vortices are ubiquitous in random light and that the phase distribution around these optical singularities imprints a spectrum of orbital angular momentum onto a light field. We demonstrate that random fluctuations of intensity give rise to the formation of correlations in the orbital angular momentum components and angular positions of pseudothermal light. The presence of these correlations is manifested through distinct interference structures in the orbital angular momentum-mode distribution of random light. These novel forms of interference correspond to the azimuthal analog of the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect. This family of effects can be of fundamental importance in applications where entanglement is not required and where correlations in angular position and orbital angular momentum suffice. We also suggest that the azimuthal Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect can be useful in the exploration of novel phenomena in other branches of physics and astrophysics. PMID:27152334

  18. Role of Brown Fat in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, for which hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society, and new therapeutic strategies are highly warranted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is metabolically active in human adults. Although positron emission tomography-computed tomography using a glucose tracer is the golden standard to visualize and quantify the volume and activity of BAT, it has become clear that activated BAT combusts fatty acids rather than glucose. Here, we review the role of brown and beige adipocytes in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, with evidence derived from both animal and human studies. On the basis of mainly data from animal models, we propose a model in which activated brown adipocytes use their intracellular triglyceride stores to generate fatty acids for combustion. BAT rapidly replenishes these stores by internalizing primarily lipoprotein triglyceride-derived fatty acids, generated by lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides, rather than by holoparticle uptake. As a consequence, BAT activation leads to the generation of lipoprotein remnants that are subsequently cleared via the liver provided that an intact apoE-low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway is present. Through these mechanisms, BAT activation reduces plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and attenuates diet-induced atherosclerosis development. Initial studies suggest that BAT activation in humans may also reduce triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but potential antiatherogenic effects should be assessed in future studies. PMID:26837747

  19. Regional prediction of basin-scale brown trout habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study we propose a novel method for the estimation of ecological indices describing the habitat suitability of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Traditional hydrological tools are coupled with an innovative regional geostatistical technique, aiming at the prediction of the brown trout habitat suitability index where partial or totally ungauged conditions occur. Several methods for the assessment of ecological indices are already proposed in the scientific literature, but the possibility of exploiting a geostatistical prediction model, such as Topological Kriging, has never been investigated before. In order to develop a regional habitat suitability model we use the habitat suitability curve, obtained from measured data of brown trout adult individuals collected in several river basins across the USA. The Top-kriging prediction model is then employed to assess the spatial correlation between upstream and downstream habitat suitability indices. The study area is the Metauro River basin, located in the central part of Italy (Marche region), for which both water depth and streamflow data were collected. The present analysis focuses on discharge values corresponding to the 0.1-, 0.5-, 0.9-empirical quantiles derived from flow-duration curves available for seven gauging stations located within the study area, for which three different suitability indices (i.e. ψ10, ψ50 and ψ90) are evaluated. The results of this preliminary analysis are encouraging showing Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies equal to 0.52, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively.

  20. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26344967

  1. Using Narrow Band Photometry to Classify Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A K; Sievers, J L; Young, E T; Lean, Ian S. Mc

    2004-01-01

    We present a new system of narrow band filters in the near infrared that can be used to classify stars and brown dwarfs. This set of four filters, spanning the H band, can be used to identify molecular features unique to brown dwarfs, such as H2O and CH4. The four filters are centered at 1.495 um (H2O), 1.595 um (continuum), 1.66 um (CH4), and 1.75 um (H2O). Using two H2O filters allows us to solve for individual objects' reddenings. This can be accomplished by constructing a color-color-color cube and rotating it until the reddening vector disappears. We created a model of predicted color-color-color values for different spectral types by integrating filter bandpass data with spectra of known stars and brown dwarfs. We validated this model by making photometric measurements of seven known L and T dwarfs, ranging from L1 - T7.5. The photometric measurements agree with the model to within +/-0.1 mag, allowing us to create spectral indices for different spectral types. We can classify A through early M stars to...

  2. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY RED L-TYPE BROWN DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of an unusually red brown dwarf found in a search for high proper motion objects using WISE and 2MASS data. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 is moving at 0.''44 yr–1 and lies relatively close to the Galactic plane (b = 5.02). Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy reveals that this is one of the reddest (2MASS J – Ks 2.55 ± 0.08 mag) field L dwarfs yet detected, making this object an important member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We discuss evidence for thick condensate clouds and speculate on the age of the object. Although models by different research groups agree that thick clouds can explain the red spectrum, they predict dramatically different effective temperatures, ranging from 1100 K to 1600 K. This brown dwarf is well suited for additional studies of extremely dusty substellar atmospheres because it is relatively bright (Ks = 13.05 ± 0.03 mag), which should also contribute to an improved understanding of young gas-giant planets and the transition between L and T brown dwarfs.

  3. The disk around the brown dwarf KPNO Tau 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda; Di Francesco, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Duchêne, Gaspard [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex, B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Scholz, Aleks [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Chrysostomou, Antonio [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North Aóhoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Jayawardhana, Ray [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2014-07-10

    We present submillimeter observations of the young brown dwarfs KPNO Tau 1, KPNO Tau 3, and KPNO Tau 6 at 450 μm and 850 μm taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. KPNO Tau 3 and KPNO Tau 6 have been previously identified as Class II objects hosting accretion disks, whereas KPNO Tau 1 has been identified as a Class III object and shows no evidence of circumsubstellar material. Our 3σ detection of cold dust around KPNO Tau 3 implies a total disk mass of (4.0 ± 1.1) × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} (assuming a gas to dust ratio of 100:1). We place tight constraints on any disks around KPNO Tau 1 or KPNO Tau 6 of <2.1 × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} and <2.7 × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉}, respectively. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of KPNO Tau 3 and its disk suggests the disk properties (geometry, dust mass, and grain size distribution) are consistent with observations of other brown dwarf disks and low-mass T-Tauri stars. In particular, the disk-to-host mass ratio for KPNO Tau 3 is congruent with the scenario that at least some brown dwarfs form via the same mechanism as low-mass stars.

  4. Extraction, Purification, and NMR Analysis of Terpenes from Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysinski, Marc; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Algal terpenes constitute a wide and well-documented group of marine natural products with structures differing from their terrestrial plant biosynthetic analogues. Amongst macroalgae, brown seaweeds are considered as one of the richest source of biologically and ecologically relevant terpenoids. These metabolites, mostly encountered in algae of the class Phaeophyceae, are mainly diterpenes and meroditerpenes (metabolites of mixed biogenesis characterized by a toluquinol or a toluquinone nucleus linked to a diterpene moiety).In this chapter, we describe analytical processes commonly employed for the isolation and structural characterization of the main terpenoid constituents obtained from organic extracts of brown algae. The successive steps include (1) extraction of lipidic content from algal samples; (2) purification of terpenes by column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; and (3) structure elucidation of the isolated terpenes by means of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More precisely, we propose a representative methodology which allows the isolation and structural determination of the monocyclic meroditerpene methoxybifurcarenone (MBFC) from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. This methodology has a large field of applications and can then be extended to terpenes isolated from other species of the family Sargassaceae. PMID:26108508

  5. A non-uniform distribution of the nearest brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bihain, G

    2016-01-01

    The census of solar neighbours is still complemented by new discoveries, mainly of very low-mass, faint dwarfs, close to or within the substellar domain. These discoveries contribute to a better understanding of the field population; its origin in terms of Galactic dynamics and (sub)stellar formation and evolution. Also, the nearest stars and brown dwarfs at any given age allow the most precise direct characterization, including the search for planetary companions. We aim to further assess the substellar census on the Galactic plane. We projected the 136 stars and 26 brown dwarfs known at <6.5 pc on the Galactic plane and evaluated their distributions. Stars present a uniform- and brown dwarfs a non-uniform distribution, with 21 objects behind the Sun and only five ahead relative to the direction of rotation of the Galaxy. This substellar configuration has a probability of 0.098$^{+10.878}_{-0.098}$% relative to uniformity. The helio- and geocentric nature of the distribution suggests it might result in pa...

  6. Bilateral Brown's syndrome in a mother and her son: case report Síndrome de Brown bilateral em mãe e filho: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Maria Simões Antunes-Foschini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes clinical data from mother and son with bilateral Brown's syndrome and highlights possible genetically determined predispositions.Este relato de caso descreve achados clínicos de mãe e filho com síndrome de Brown bilateral e discute a possibilidade de predisposição genética.

  7. PPAR{alpha} does not suppress muscle-associated gene expression in brown adipocytes but does influence expression of factors that fingerprint the brown adipocyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, Tomas B.; Petrovic, Natasa [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nedergaard, Jan, E-mail: jan@metabol.su.se [The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-06-25

    Brown adipocytes and myocytes develop from a common adipomyocyte precursor. PPAR{alpha} is a nuclear receptor important for lipid and glucose metabolism. It has been suggested that in brown adipose tissue, PPAR{alpha} represses the expression of muscle-associated genes, in this way potentially acting to determine cell fate in brown adipocytes. To further understand the possible role of PPAR{alpha} in these processes, we measured expression of muscle-associated genes in brown adipose tissue and brown adipocytes from PPAR{alpha}-ablated mice, including structural genes (Mylpf, Tpm2, Myl3 and MyHC), regulatory genes (myogenin, Myf5 and MyoD) and a myomir (miR-206). However, in our hands, the expression of these genes was not influenced by the presence or absence of PPAR{alpha}, nor by the PPAR{alpha} activator Wy-14,643. Similarly, the expression of genes common for mature brown adipocyte and myocytes (Tbx15, Meox2) were not affected. However, the brown adipocyte-specific regulatory genes Zic1, Lhx8 and Prdm16 were affected by PPAR{alpha}. Thus, it would not seem that PPAR{alpha} represses muscle-associated genes, but PPAR{alpha} may still play a role in the regulation of the bifurcation of the adipomyocyte precursor into a brown adipocyte or myocyte phenotype.

  8. An siRNA-based method for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidor, Marie S; Winther, Sally; Basse, Astrid L; Petersen, M Christine H; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Hansen, Jacob B

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target for opposing obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The ability to modulate gene expression in mature brown adipocytes is important to understand brown adipocyte function and delineate novel regulatory mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis. The aim of this study was to optimize a lipofection-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection protocol for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We determined that a critical parameter was to deliver the siRNA to mature adipocytes by reverse transfection, i.e. transfection of non-adherent cells. Using this protocol, we effectively knocked down both high- and low-abundance transcripts in a model of mature brown adipocytes (WT-1) as well as in primary mature mouse brown adipocytes. A functional consequence of the knockdown was confirmed by an attenuated increase in uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in response to β-adrenergic stimulation of mature WT-1 brown adipocytes transfected with uncoupling protein 1 siRNA. Efficient gene silencing was also obtained in various mouse and human white adipocyte models (3T3-L1, primary mouse white adipocytes, hMADS) with the ability to undergo "browning." In summary, we report an easy and versatile reverse siRNA transfection protocol to achieve specific silencing of gene expression in various models of mature brown and browning-competent white adipocytes, including primary cells. PMID:27386153

  9. Radiocaesium turnover in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a Norwegian lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) was monitored in a Norwegian lake from 1986 to 1989. A distinct difference was observed between brown trout and Arctic charr in the accumulation of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout, and the study focused on the understanding of this difference. Brown trout had a large food consumption and a corresponding high intake of radiocaesium. Excretion was 20% faster in brown trout than Arctic charr as brown trout lived at high temperatures in epilimnic water. Arctic charr had a lower food consumption (less than one-third of trout) and lived in colder meta-and hypolimnic water. Arctic charr therefore had a lower intake and slower excretion of radiocaesium. Brown trout an Arctic charr had different diets. For brown trout zoobenthos was the dominant food item, whereas Artic charr mainly fed on zooplankton. The radioactivity in the stomach contents of the two species was different in 1986, but similar for the rest of the period. Higher levels of radiocaesium in brown trout than Arctic charr in 1986 were due to a higher food consumption and more radioactive food items in its diet. The parallel development in accumulated radiocaesium through summer 1987 was probably formed by brown trout balancing a higher intake with a faster excretion. The ecological half-lives of radiocaesium in brown trout (357 days) and Arctic charr (550 days) from Lake Hoeysjoeen indicated a slow removal of the isotopes from the food webs. (author)

  10. How Dry is the Brown Dwarf Desert?: Quantifying the Relative Number of Planets, Brown Dwarfs and Stellar Companions around Nearby Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Grether, D; Grether, Daniel; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Sun-like stars have stellar, brown dwarf and planetary companions. To help constrain their formation and migration scenarios, we analyse the close companions (orbital period 2 M_Solar respectively. However, we find no evidence that companion mass scales with host mass in general. Approximately 16% of Sun-like stars have close (P < 5 years) companions more massive than Jupiter: 11% are stellar, 1% are brown dwarf and 4% are giant planets. The companion mass function in the brown dwarf and stellar mass range, has a different shape than the initial mass function of individual stars and free-floating brown dwarfs. This suggests either a different spectrum of gravitational fragmentation in the formation environment or post-formation migratory processes disinclined to leave brown dwarfs in close orbits.

  11. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Discovery of KELU-1 Promises New Insights into Strange Objects Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are too small to become real stars, yet too large to be real planets. Their mass is too small to ignite those nuclear processes which are responsible for the large energies and high temperatures of stars, but it is much larger than that of the planets we know in our solar system. Until now, very few Brown Dwarfs have been securely identified as such. Two are members of double-star systems, and a few more are located deep within the Pleiades star cluster. Now, however, Maria Teresa Ruiz of the Astronomy Department at Universidad de Chile (Santiago de Chile), using telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory, has just discovered one that is all alone and apparently quite near to us. Contrary to the others which are influenced by other objects in their immediate surroundings, this new Brown Dwarf is unaffected and will thus be a perfect object for further investigations that may finally allow us to better understand these very interesting celestial bodies. It has been suggested that Brown Dwarfs may constitute a substantial part of the unseen dark matter in our Galaxy. This discovery may therefore also have important implications for this highly relevant research area. Searching for nearby faint stars The story of this discovery goes back to 1987 when Maria Teresa Ruiz decided to embark upon a long-term search (known as the Calan-ESO proper-motion survey ) for another type of unusual object, the so-called White Dwarfs , i.e. highly evolved, small and rather faint stars. Although they have masses similar to that of the Sun, such stars are no larger than the Earth and are therefore extremely compact. They are particularly interesting, because they most probably represent the future end point of evolution of our Sun, some billions of years from now. For this project, the Chilean astronomer obtained large-field photographic exposures with the 1-m ESO Schmidt telescope at

  12. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  13. A KECK LGS AO SEARCH FOR BROWN DWARF AND PLANETARY MASS COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We searched for binary companions to 20 young brown dwarfs in the Upper Scorpius association (145 pc, 5 Myr, nearest OB association) with the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics system and the facility infrared camera NIRC2 on the 10 m Keck II telescope. We discovered a 0.''14 companion (20.9 ± 0.4 AU) to the sun object SCH J16091837-20073523. From spectral deconvolution of integrated-light near-IR spectroscopy of SCH1609 using the SpeX spectrograph (Rayner et al. 2003), we estimate primary and secondary spectral types of M6 ± 0.5 and M7 ± 1.0, corresponding to masses of 79 ± 17 MJup and 55 ± 25 MJup at an age of 5 Myr and masses of 84 ± 15 MJup and 60 ± 25 MJup at an age of 10 Myr. For our survey objects with spectral types later than M8, we find an upper limit on the binary fraction of Jup) brown dwarfs in Upper Sco is similar to that for T dwarfs in the field; for higher mass brown dwarfs and very low mass stars, there is an excess of medium-separation (10-50 AU projected separation) young binaries with respect to the field. These medium-separation binaries will likely survive to late ages.

  14. A Brown Dwarf Joins the Jet-Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Jets of matter have been discovered around a very low mass 'failed star', mimicking a process seen in young stars. This suggests that these 'brown dwarfs' form in a similar manner to normal stars but also that outflows are driven out by objects as massive as hundreds of millions of solar masses down to Jupiter-sized objects. The brown dwarf with the name 2MASS1207-3932 is full of surprises [1]. Its companion, a 5 Jupiter-mass giant, was the first confirmed exoplanet for which astronomers could obtain an image (see ESO 23/04 and 12/05), thereby opening a new field of research - the direct detection of alien worlds. It was then later found (see ESO 19/06) that the brown dwarf has a disc surrounding it, not unlike very young stars. ESO PR Photo 24/07 ESO PR Photo 24/07 Jets from a Brown Dwarf (Artist's Impression) Now, astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have found that the young brown dwarf is also spewing jets, a behaviour again quite similar to young stars. The mass of the brown dwarf is only 24 Jupiter-masses. Hence, it is by far the smallest object known to drive an outflow. "This leads us to the tantalizing prospect that young giant planets could also be associated with outflows," says Emma Whelan, the lead-author of the paper reporting the results. The outflows were discovered using an amazing technique known as spectro-astrometry, based on high resolution spectra taken with UVES on the VLT. Such a technique was required due to the difficulty of the task. While in normal young stars - known as T-Tauri stars for the prototype of their class - the jets are large and bright enough to be seen directly, this is not the case around brown dwarfs: the length scale of the jets, recovered with spectro-astrometry is only about 0.1 arcsecond long, that is, the size of a two Euro coin seen from 40 km away. The jets stretch about 1 billion kilometres and the material is rushing away from the brown dwarf with a speed of a few kilometres per second. The

  15. Silica nanoparticles inhibit brown adipocyte differentiation via regulation of p38 phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Kwak, Minjeong; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Chang, Won Seok; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Sang Chul; Song, Nam Woong; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are of great interest due to their wide variety of biomedical and bioengineering applications. However, they affect cellular differentiation and/or intracellular signaling when applied and exposed to target organisms or cells. The brown adipocyte is a cell type important in energy homeostasis and thus closely related to obesity. In this study, we assessed the effects of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) on brown adipocyte differentiation. The results clearly showed that brown adipocyte differentiation was significantly repressed by exposure to SNPs. The brown adipocyte-specific genes as well as mitochondrial content were also markedly reduced. Additionally, SNPs led to suppressed p38 phosphorylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. These effects depend on the size of SNPs. Taken together, these results lead us to suggest that SNP has anti-brown adipogenic effect in a size-dependent manner via regulation of p38 phosphorylation.

  16. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO, while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with glutathione showed no browning during hot air drying. These results indicate that application of glutathione is a promising method of Anti-browning of mushroom by glutathione during hot air drying.

  17. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice. PMID:26868582

  18. BIO-DIAGNOSTICS OF STABILITY OF BROWN CALCAREOUS SOIL OF UTRISH NATURAL RESERVE TO CHEMICAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov S. I.; Vernigorova N. A.; Kuzina A. A.; Laptinova A. S.; Kazeev K. S.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we have presented a number of modeling experiments to investigate the chemical pollution of brown calcareous soil. It assesses the stability of brown calcareous soil of a nature reserve called Utrish to contamination with heavy metals in biological parameters. Pollution of brown calcareous soil with Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and oil causes a significant reduction in biological parameters. The degree of reduction depends on the nature of the contaminant and its concentration in the soil....

  19. Turning WAT into BAT: a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Sun; Kinyui Alice Lo

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue has a central role in the regulation of energy balance and homoeostasis. There are two main types of adipose tissue: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT from certain depots, in response to appropriate stimuli, can undergo a process known as browning where it takes on characteristics of BAT, notably the induction of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) expression and the presence of multilocular lipid droplets and multiple mitochondria. How browning is r...

  20. Characterization of a primary brown adipocyte culture system derived from human fetal interscapular fat

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Sarah E.; Xu, Dan; Ho, Jia-Pei; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Buehrer, Benjamin M; Ludlow, Y John W; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Sun, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Brown fat has gained widespread attention as a potential therapeutic target to treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Indeed, the anti-obesity potential of multiple targets to stimulate both brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment have been verified in rodent models. However, their therapeutic potential in humans is unknown due to the lack of a human primary brown adipocyte cell culture system. Likewise, the lack of a well-characterized human model has limited the discovery...

  1. Osteomyelitis of the Mandibular Symphysis Caused by Brown Recluse Spider Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Deepak K.; Ghurani, Rami; Salas, R. Emerick; Mannari, Rudolph J.; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Brown recluse spider bites cause significant trauma via their tissue toxic venom. Diagnosis of these injuries and envenomation is difficult and many times presumptive. Treatment is varied and dependent upon presentation and course of injury. Materials and Methods: We present a case of a previously unreported incidence of osteomyelitis of the mandible as a result of a brown recluse spider bite. A review of the literature and discussion of diagnosis and treatment of brown recluse sp...

  2. Control and Physiological Determinants of Sympathetically Mediated Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    DenisRichard; ÉricTurcotte

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) represents a remarkable heat-producing tissue. The thermogenic potential of BAT is conferred by uncoupling protein 1, a protein found uniquely in the brown adipocytes. The physiological control of BAT activity and capacity is ensured by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which densely innervates brown fat depots. SNS-mediated BAT thermogenesis is essentially governed by hypothalamic and brainstem neurons. BAT is not only controlled by the brain thermoregulatory c...

  3. Studies on the effect of brown rice and maize flour on the quality of bread

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z. Islam; M Shams

    2011-01-01

    Breads were prepared with various combinations of maize, brown rice and wheat flours in the basic formulation of bread. The baking properties and chemical composition of bread were evaluated and analysed, respectively. The bread volume decreased, where as bread weight and moisture content increased with the increasing level of maize and brown rice flour. The crumb and crust colour of breads were improved with addition of 8% maize and 8% brown rice flour in bread formulation. The protein conte...

  4. The taxonomic status of the Yucatan brown brocket, Mazama pandora (Mammalia: Cervidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin, R.A.; Gardner, A.L.; Aranda, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Yucatan brown brocket deer, described as Mazama pandora, is now treated as a subspecies of either the common brown brocket, Mazama gouazoubira, or of the red brocket, M. americana. Analysis of brocket deer from Mexico and Central and South America, reveals that the Yucatan brown brocket is sympatric with the red brocket in Mexico and, while similar to M. gouazoubira, warrents recognition as a separate species.

  5. Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling in Brown Adipocyte Survival, Proliferation and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Mandrita

    2012-01-01

    Both white and brown adipose tissues exhibit extensive vascularity. Increased angiogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is crucial for brown fat activation and thermogenesis in animals during cold acclimation. BAT can be similarly activated by food intake to generate heat through cellular respiration, in a process known as diet induced thermogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor that regulates both pathological and physiological angiogenesis and can...

  6. MicroRNA-378 controls classical brown fat expansion to counteract obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Dongning; Mao, Chunxiao; Quattrochi, Brian; Friedline, Randall H.; Zhu, Lihua J.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K.; Lewis, Brian; Wang, Yong-Xu

    2014-01-01

    Both classical brown adipocytes and brown-like beige adipocytes are considered as promising therapeutic targets for obesity; however, their development, relative importance, and functional coordination are not well understood. Here we show that a modest expression of miR-378/378* in adipose tissue specifically increases classical brown fat (BAT) mass, but not white fat (WAT) mass. Remarkably, BAT expansion, rather than miR-378 per se, suppresses formation of beige adipocytes in subcutaneous W...

  7. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos)

    OpenAIRE

    Esteruelas, Núria Fandos; Malmsten, Jonas; Bröjer, Caroline; Grandi, Giulio; Lindström, Anders; Brown, Paul; Swenson, Jon E; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M

    2016-01-01

    In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest) and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos) captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation. Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and prese...

  8. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Snoj Aleš; Simonović Predrag; Sušnik Simona; Marić Saša

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one ...

  9. Functional composition of humates of brown coal and their stimulating activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to functional composition of humates of brown coal and their stimulating activity. The results of researches of functional composition of brown and weathered coals and their activity as a growth-promoting factor for agricultural crops were considered. The composition of coals was studied. It was found that application of humates of brown coal is a very important factor for complex rehabilitation of soils and for application in agriculture.

  10. Direct evidence of brown adipocytes in different fat depots in children

    OpenAIRE

    Rockstroh, Denise; Landgraf, Kathrin; Wagner, Isabel Viola; Gesing, Julia; Tauscher, Roy; Lakowa, Nicole; Kiess, Wieland; Bühligen, Ulf; Wojan, Magdalena; Till, Holger; Blüher, Matthias; Körner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested the persistence of brown adipocytes in adult humans, as opposed to being exclusively present in infancy. In this study, we investigated the presence of brown-like adipocytes in adipose tissue (AT) samples of children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years and evaluated the association with age, location, and obesity. For this, we analysed AT samples from 131 children and 23 adults by histological, immunohistochemical and expression analyses. We detected brown-like and UCP...

  11. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Ions to Brown Algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to ...

  12. Direct bioconversion of brown algae into ethanol by thermophilic bacterium Defluviitalea phaphyphila

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shi-Qi; Wang, Bing; Lu, Ming; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Brown algae are promising feedstocks for biofuel production with inherent advantages of no structural lignin, high growth rate, and no competition for land and fresh water. However, it is difficult for one microorganism to convert all components of brown algae with different oxidoreduction potentials to ethanol. Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 is the first characterized thermophilic bacterium capable of direct utilization of brown algae. Results Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 can si...

  13. Brown tumor mimicking maxillary sinus mucocele as the first manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldfred, Liviu-Adelin; Daugaard, Søren; von Buchwald, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We describe the first case of brown tumor mimicking a maxillary sinus mucocele as the first manifestation of the patient's primary hyperparathyroidism. A 34-year old woman presented with a 14 days history of elevation of the right orbit, retrobulbar pain and cheek anesthesia. The CT and MR...... either giant cell granuloma or brown tumor. The finding of hyperparathyroidism confirmed the diagnosis of brown tumor. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cystic brown tumor mimicking a mucocele of the maxillary sinus....

  14. Exploration of the brown dwarf regime around solar-like stars by CoRoT

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Szilárd

    2016-01-01

    Aims. A summary of the CoRoT brown dwarf investigations are presented. Methods. Transiting brown dwarfs around solar like stars were studied by using the photometric time-series of CoRoT, and ground based radial velocity measurements. Results. CoRoT detected three transiting brown dwarfs around F and G dwarf stars. The occurence rate of brown dwarfs was found to be 0.20 +/- 0.15% around solar-like stars which is compatible with the value obtained by Kepler-data.

  15. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Gerald F.; Adams, Deborah; Garner, Gerald; Labelle, Martine; Pietsch, Jacy; Ramsay, Malcolm; Schwartz, Charles; Titus, Kimberly; Williamson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples.

  16. Regulation of an unexploited brown trout population in Spruce Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the annual variations in the density of an unexploited population of lotic brown trout Salmo trutta that has been censused annually for 19 years and to explore the importance of density-independent and density-dependent processes in regulating population size. Brown trout density and indices of stream discharge and water temperature were related to annual variations in natural mortality, recruitment, and growth. Annual mortality of age-1 and older (age-1+) brown trout ranged from 0.30 to 0.75 and was best explained by discharge during spring and by brown trout density. Recruitment to age 1 varied fivefold. Density of age-1 brown trout was inversely related to spawner density and positively related to discharge during the fall spawning period. The median length of age-1 brown trout was positively related to discharge during summer and fall. Relative weight was inversely related to the density of age-2+ brown trout. The interactive effects of discharge and brown trout density accounted for most of the annual variation in mortality, recruitment, and growth during the first year of life. Annual trends in the abundance of age-1+ brown trout were largely dictated by natural mortality. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  17. Interspecific interactions between brown trout and slimy sculpin in stream enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetz, C. R., III; Hurford, A.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a 30-d manipulative experiment in Valley Creek, Minnesota, to examine interspecific interactions between juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta and adult slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. We measured the instantaneous growth of each species in the presence and absence of the other in 1-m2 enclosures. We tested single-species (three slimy sculpins/m2 or three brown trout/m2) and combined-species (three sculpins/m2 and three trout/m2) combinations in each of six riffles. We placed a clay tile in each enclosure to evaluate the effects of fish combinations on benthic macroinvertebrates. Growth of brown trout was unaffected by the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.647, power [to detect 50% increase in growth] = 0.92), whereas slimy sculpin growth was less in the presence of brown trout (P = 0.038). Densities of total benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Trichoptera, and Physa did not differ among fish combinations (P > 0.3). However, densities of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus were significantly less in the presence of brown trout irrespective of the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.024), which could be a causal factor underlying the interaction between brown trout and slimy sculpins. We found asymmetrical competition between brown trout and slimy sculpins in stream enclosures, with brown trout being the superior competitor. Nevertheless, the size of enclosures may have biased our results, making it more likely to detect an effect of brown trout on slimy sculpins than vice versa.

  18. Statistical Properties of Brown Dwarf Companions: Implications for Different Formation Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The mass domain where massive extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs overlap is still poorly understood due to the paucity of brown dwarfs orbiting close to solar-type stars, the so-called brown dwarf desert. In this paper we collect all of available data about close brown dwarfs around solar type stars and their host stars from literature and study the demographics of the brown dwarf desert. The data clearly show a short period and a medium mass gap in the brown dwarf period-mass distribution diagram ($ 35brown dwarf desert. Observation biases are highly unlikely to cause this gap due to its short period and medium mass, of which brown dwarfs can be easily detected by previous RV surveys. Brown dwarfs above and below this gap have significantly different eccentricity distribution, which not only confirms that this gap is real, but also implies that they may have different origins. Our further statistical study indicates t...

  19. ADD1/SREBP1c activates the PGC1-alpha promoter in brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Hansen, Jacob B; Petersen, Rasmus K;

    2010-01-01

    Cold adaptation elicits a paradoxical simultaneous induction of fatty acid synthesis and beta-oxidation in brown adipose tissue. We show here that cold exposure coordinately induced liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha), adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1)/sterol...... regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) in brown and inguinal white adipose tissues, but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. Using in vitro models of white and brown adipocytes we demonstrate that beta...... regulator of PGC1alpha expression in brown adipose tissue....

  20. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  1. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  2. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the 18F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  3. Mannitol metabolism in brown algae involves a new phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisillier, Agnès; Shao, Zhanru; Michel, Gurvan; Goulitquer, Sophie; Bonin, Patricia; Krahulec, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd; Duan, Delin; Boyen, Catherine; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to green plants and animals, and are found predominantly in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment. Because of their unique evolutionary history and of their habitat, brown algae feature several peculiarities in their metabolism. One of these is the mannitol cycle, which plays a central role in their physiology, as mannitol acts as carbon storage, osmoprotectant, and antioxidant. This polyol is derived directly from the photoassimilate fructose-6-phosphate via the action of a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and a mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase). Genome analysis of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus allowed identification of genes potentially involved in the mannitol cycle. Among these, two genes coding for haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes were suggested to correspond to M1Pase activity, and thus were named EsM1Pase1 and EsM1Pase2, respectively. To test this hypothesis, both genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant EsM1Pase2 was shown to hydrolyse the phosphate group from mannitol-1-phosphate to produce mannitol but was not active on the hexose monophosphates tested. Gene expression analysis showed that transcription of both E. siliculosus genes was under the influence of the diurnal cycle. Sequence analysis and three-dimensional homology modelling indicated that EsM1Pases, and their orthologues in Prasinophytes, should be seen as founding members of a new family of phosphatase with original substrate specificity within the HAD superfamily of proteins. This is the first report describing the characterization of a gene encoding M1Pase activity in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24323504

  4. Can Brown Fat Win the Battle Against White Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elattar, Sawsan; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2015-10-01

    A rapid growth in the overweight and obese population in the last few decades suggest that the current diet, exercise, awareness or drug strategies are still not effectively restraining the obesity epidemic. Obesity results from increased energy intake, and the body's energy balance shifts towards energy abundance. Therefore, current research is focused on developing new strategies aimed at increasing energy expenditure. As a result, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is receiving tremendous attention since the major function of BAT is to dissipate energy as heat. For example, mouse models that have increased BAT activity or increased numbers of brown-like adipocytes within the white adipose tissue (WAT) are lean and protected from obesity. Alternatively, mouse models that lack BAT activity are more susceptible to age and diet-induced obesity. However, a significant loss of BAT mass during the natural growth process in humans has created enormous challenges in effectively utilizing this tissue to increase energy expenditure. New strategies are primarily focused on expanding the BAT mass and/or activating the existing BAT. In this regard, recent finding that expression of early B cell factor-2 (Ebf2) reprograms the white pre-adipocytes into brown adipocytes is a significant break-through in developing BAT-mediated strategies to treat obesity. Here we review the major biological functions of WAT and BAT, which play critical but opposing roles in the energy spectrum, energy storage versus energy expenditure, and we evaluate whether activation and/or expansion of BAT is practically achievable to treat obesity in humans. PMID:25760392

  5. Characterization of Brown Streak Virus-Resistant Cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Maruthi, M N; Kanju, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has become a major constraint to cassava production in East and Central Africa. The identification of new sources of CBSD resistance is essential to deploy CBSD mitigation strategies, as the disease is progressing westwards to new geographical areas. A stringent infection method based on top cleft-grafting combined with precise virus titer quantitation was utilized to screen 14 cassava cultivars and elite breeding lines. When inoculated with mixed infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26 remained symptom-free during a 16-week period of virus graft inoculation, while susceptible varieties displayed typical CBSD infection symptoms at 4 weeks after grafting. The identified CBSD resistance was stable under the coinoculation of CBSV and UCBSV with cassava geminiviruses. Double-grafting experiments revealed that transmission of CBSV and UCBSV to CBSD-susceptible top scions was delayed when using intermediate scions of elite breeding lines KBH 2006/18 and KBH 2006/26. Nonetheless, comparison of virus systemic movement using scions from KBH2006/18 and a transgenic CBSD resistant 60444 line (60444-Hp9 line) showed that both CBSV and UCBSV move at undetectable levels through the stems. Further, protoplast-based assays of virus titers showed that the replication of CBSV is inhibited in the resistant line KBH2006/18, suggesting that the identified CBSD resistance is at least partially based on inhibition of virus replication. Our molecular characterization of CBSD resistance in cassava offers a robust virus-host system to further investigate the molecular determinants of CBSD resistance. PMID:27070326

  6. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...... for C/EBP (an antimitotic protein), whereas Ccna1 expression (related to cell proliferation) was unchanged. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the cold-induced emergence of brown adipocytes in WAT predominantly reflects ß3-adrenoceptor-mediated transdifferentiation....

  7. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation

    OpenAIRE

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this re...

  8. Animal welfare in brown trout farming: hematological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forneris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of stress resulting from fish farming has received considerable attention in this last period and fish welfare in aquaculture is a relevant topic, very important for the future of aquaculture (Watson et al., 2004; Klinger et al., 1996; Peres et al., 2004; Ron et al., 1995;Wagner et al., 1995;Watson et al., 1998. Brown trout farming is less developed then rainbow trout farming, but this kind of fish farming is increasing, mainly for fish conservation and restocking aquaculture.

  9. Beyond brown: Polyphenol oxidases as enzymes of plant specialized metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Most cloned and/or characterized plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have catechol oxidase activity (i.e. they oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones) and are localized or predicted to be localized to plastids. As a class, they have broad substrate specificity and are associated with browning of produce and other plant materials. Because PPOs are often induced by wounding or pathogen attack, they are most generally believed to play important roles in plant defense responses. However, a few well-chara...

  10. Direct effects of leptin on brown and white adipose tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Siegrist-Kaiser, C A; Pauli, V; Juge-Aubry, C E; Boss, O; Pernin, A; Chin, W W; Cusin, I; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Burger, A G; Zapf, J; Meier, C A

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is thought to exert its actions on energy homeostasis through the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), which is present in the hypothalamus and in certain peripheral organs, including adipose tissue. In this study, we examined whether leptin has direct effects on the function of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) at the metabolic and molecular levels. The chronic peripheral intravenous administration of leptin in vivo for 4 d resulted in a 1.6-fold increase...

  11. Study on sterols from brown algae (Sargassum muticum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peirong; XU Guanjun; BIAN Lizeng; ZHANG Shuichang; SONG Fuqing

    2006-01-01

    Various △5-3β-sterenols, whose carbon numbers range from C19-C23 to C26-C30and some compounds have many stereomers maximal up to six,have been detected out from the extract of brown algae (Sargassum muticum), which means that steranes with lower carbon numbers are likely different in the origin, and some corresponding sterol stereoisomers may have already existed in their precursor organisms. This provides some experimental evidence for supplementing and amending the traditional interpretation of the sterol stereoisomer transformation during the deposition and diagenesis of organic matter.

  12. Fucoidan from Marine Brown Algae Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Changhyun Roh; Min-Kyoung Park; Uhee Jung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan from marine brown algae on the lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism. The treatment of fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner was examined on lipid inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells by using Oil Red O staining. Fucoidan showed high lipid inhibition activity at 200 µg/mL concentration (P < 0.001). Lipolytic activity in adipocytes is highly dependent on hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which is one of the ...

  13. Sea growth of anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, J. J.; ter Hofstede, R.; Winter, H. V.

    2007-08-01

    Sea growth rates were studied in anadromous brown trout caught in Lake IJsselmeer, The Netherlands. Growth in the first year at sea was estimated at 26 cm from length-frequency distributions, and at 21 cm from back-calculated growth rates from scale readings. These estimates are considerably higher than sea growth rates observed in populations at higher latitudes (Norway, Sweden), but compare well with the limited information on sea growth rates estimated for anadromous trout in the River Rhine and rivers in Normandy (France).

  14. Unequivocal Identification of Brown Adipose Tissue in a Human Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Houchun H.; Tovar, Jason; Pavlova, Zdena; Smith, Michelle L; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    We report the unique depiction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by MRI and computed tomography (CT) in a human three month-old infant. Based on cellular differences between BAT and more lipid-rich white adipose tissue (WAT), chemical-shift MRI and CT were both capable of generating distinct signal contrasts between the two tissues and against surrounding anatomy, utilizing fat-signal fraction metrics in the former and X-ray attenuation values in the latter. While numerous BAT imaging experiments...

  15. Grey, brown and blue coloring sol-gel electrochromic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Heusing, Sabine; Sun, Donglan L.; Otero-Anaya, J.; Michel A. Aegerter

    2006-01-01

    Pure and doped niobium oxide (Nb2O5) layers are electrochromic (EC) materials which change their colour by insertion of Li+ ions from transparent to brown, grey or blue depending on the crystallinity of the layer. EC-devices with the configuration K-glass / EC-layer / composite electrolyte / Ion-storage (IS) layer / K-glass, were produced using different Nb2O5 EC-layers, a (CeO2)x(TiO2)1-x (x=0.45) IS-layer and an inorganic-organic composite electrolyte to which a small amount of water (up to...

  16. Beyond brown: polyphenol oxidases as enzymes of plant specialized metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Most cloned and/or characterized plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have catechol oxidase activity (i.e., they oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones) and are localized or predicted to be localized to plastids. As a class, they have broad substrate specificity and are associated with browning of produce and other plant materials. Because PPOs are often induced by wounding or pathogen attack, they are most generally believed to play important roles in plant defense responses. However, a few well-char...

  17. Effects of ethyl acetate extract of Kaempferia parviflora on brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroko; Horiguchi-Babamoto, Emi; Suzuki, Mio; Makihara, Hiroko; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Tsubata, Masahito; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi; Aburada, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported the effects of Kaempferia parviflora (KP), including anti-obesity, preventing various metabolic diseases, and regulating differentiation of white adipose cells. In this study we used Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice--an animal model of spontaneous obese type II diabetes--and primary brown preadipocytes to examine the effects of the ethyl acetate extract of KP (KPE) on brown adipose tissue, which is one of the energy expenditure organs. TSOD mice were fed with MF mixed with either KPE 0.3 or 1% for 8 weeks. Computed tomography images showed that whitening of brown adipocytes was suppressed in the interscapular tissue of the KPE group. We also examined mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) and β3-adrenalin receptor (β3AR) in brown adipose tissue. As a result, mRNA expression of UCP-1 significantly increased in the KPE 1% treatment group, indicating that KPE activated brown adipose tissue. We then evaluated the direct effects of KPE on brown adipocytes using primary brown preadipocytes isolated from interscapular brown adipocytes in ICR mice. Triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation in primary brown preadipocytes was increased by KPE in a dose-dependent manner. Each mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), UCP-1, and β3AR exhibited an upward trend compared with the control group. Moreover, some polymethoxyflavonoids (PMFs), the main compound in KP, also increased TG accumulation. This study therefore showed that KPE enhanced the thermogenesis effect of brown adipocytes as well as promoted the differentiation of brown adipocyte cells. PMID:26386971

  18. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna Jr, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  19. Safety Evaluation Report on Tennessee Valley Authority: Browns Ferry Nuclear Performance Plan: Browns Ferry Unit 2 restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation report (SER) on the information submitted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in its Nuclear Performance Plan, through Revision 2, for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station and in supporting documents has been prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff. The plan addresses the plant-specific concerns requiring resolution before startup of Unit 2. The staff will inspect implementation of those programs. Where systems are common to Units 1 and 2 or to Units 2 and 3, the staff safety evaluations of those systems are included herein. 3 refs

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana de Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae) Antimicrobial activity of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Jaciana S.; Maria C. C. D. Costa; Nascimento, Silene C.; Kêsia X. F. R. Sena

    2008-01-01

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae), amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro, é conhecida popularmente como erva cidreira e utilizada na medicina popular como analgésica, febrífuga, antiinflamatória, antigripal e nas afecções hepáticas. Extratos brutos foram preparados a partir de plantas cultivadas, de modo padronizado, em horta medicinal do Laboratório de Fitoterapia da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA) para a verificação da atividade antimicrobian...

  1. The Hanbury Brown ant Twiss effect for cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the measurement of the quantum intensity correlations in gases of metastable Helium. The measurement has been performed on thermal gases of bosonic He4 and fermionic He3, as well as on Bose-Einstein condensates. In 1956, Robert Hanbury Brown et Richard Twiss measured the correlation between photons emitted from a single thermal source. The consequently demonstrated that the photons emitted by such a source tend to arrive grouped on a detector (Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect). This bunching characterizes bosons from a non-coherent source. Fermions show an anti-bunching behaviour in the same conditions. By using metastable Helium atoms, that can be detected individually through the use of micro-channel plates, we have been able to show a similar bunching of bosons He4 from thermal sources around the micro-kelvin. As expected, the coherence of the Bose-Einstein condensates did not produce a particular correlation. The measurement on thermal gases of fermionic He3 has demonstrated the anti-bunching. Particular effort has been employed in describing the micro-channel plate based delay-line detector, the key to the experiment. (author)

  2. Analytic Models of Brown Dwarfs and The Substellar Mass Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Auddy, Sayantan; Valluri, S R

    2016-01-01

    We present the current status of the analytic theory of brown dwarf evolution and the lower mass limit of the hydrogen burning main sequence stars. In the spirit of a simplified analytic theory we also introduce some modifications to the existing models. We give an exact expression for the pressure of an ideal non-relativistic Fermi gas at a finite temperature, therefore allowing for non-zero values of the degeneracy parameter ($\\psi = \\frac{kT}{\\mu_{F}}$, where $\\mu_{F}$ is the Fermi energy). We review the derivation of surface luminosity using an entropy matching condition and the first-order phase transition between the molecular hydrogen in the outer envelope and the partially-ionized hydrogen in the inner region. We also discuss the results of modern simulations of the plasma phase transition, which illustrate the uncertainties in determining its critical temperature. Based on the existing models and with some simple modification we find the maximum mass for a brown dwarf to be in the range $0.064M_\\odot...

  3. Monilinia species causing brown rot of peach in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jun Hu

    Full Text Available In this study, 145 peaches and nectarines displaying typical brown rot symptoms were collected from multiple provinces in China. A subsample of 26 single-spore isolates were characterized phylogenetically and morphologically to ascertain species. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions 1 and 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH, β-tubulin (TUB2 revealed the presence of three distinct Monilinia species. These species included Monilinia fructicola, Monilia mumecola, and a previously undescribed species designated Monilia yunnanensis sp. nov. While M. fructicola is a well-documented pathogen of Prunus persica in China, M. mumecola had primarily only been isolated from mume fruit in Japan. Koch's postulates for M. mumecola and M. yunnanensis were fulfilled confirming pathogenicity of the two species on peach. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS, G3PDH, and TUB2 sequences indicated that M. yunnanensis is most closely related to M. fructigena, a species widely prevalent in Europe. Interestingly, there were considerable differences in the exon/intron structure of the cytochrome b (Cyt b gene between the two species. Morphological characteristics, including spore size, colony morphology, lesion growth rate, and sporulation, support the phylogenetic evidence suggesting the designation of M. yunnanensis as a new species. A new multiplex PCR method was developed to facilitate the detection of M. yunnanensis and differentiation of Monilinia spp. causing brown rot of peach in China.

  4. Biomethanation of white rotted and brown rotted rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A.; Bhattacharyya, B.C. [Chemical Engineeringg Dept., Biotechnology Unit, IIT Kharagpur, (India)

    1999-04-01

    Biomethanation of white rotted and brown rotted rice straw was taken for the present investigation and their efficiency on biomethanation has been tested. Rice straw was treated with white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P{sub C}) and brown rot fungus Polyporus ostreiformis (P{sub O}). Biogas and methane production was increased by about 34.73% and 46.19% in P{sub C}-treated straw and 21.12% and 31.94% in P{sub O}-treated straw respectively. VFA production has also been increased in P{sub C} and P{sub O} treated straw compared to control straw which were 76.73% and 30.69% respectively. Reduction of COD has also been found during biomethanation. The rate of reduction of COD during the initial period of digestion was 59.01%, 55.55% and 26.00% in P{sub C}-treated, P{sub O}-treated and control straw respectively after 21 days of digestion. (orig.) With 12 figs., 3 tabs., 14 refs.

  5. Molecular clock integration of brown adipose tissue formation and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Deokhwa; Yechoor, Vijay K.; Ma, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The circadian clock is an essential time-keeping mechanism that entrains internal physiology to environmental cues. Despite the well-established link between the molecular clock and metabolic homeostasis, an intimate interplay between the clock machinery and the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) is only emerging. Recently, we came to appreciate that the formation and metabolic functions of BAT, a key organ for body temperature maintenance, are under an orchestrated circadian clock regulation. Two complementary studies from our group uncover that the cell-intrinsic clock machinery exerts concerted control of brown adipogenesis with consequent impacts on adaptive thermogenesis, which adds a previously unappreciated temporal dimension to the regulatory mechanisms governing BAT development and function. The essential clock transcriptional activator, Bmal1, suppresses adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation, whereas the clock repressor, Rev-erbα, promotes these processes. This newly discovered temporal mechanism in fine-tuning BAT thermogenic capacity may enable energy utilization and body temperature regulation in accordance with external timing signals during development and functional recruitment. Given the important role of BAT in whole-body metabolic homeostasis, pharmacological interventions targeting the BAT-modulatory activities of the clock circuit may offer new avenues for the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders, particularly those associated with circadian dysregulation.

  6. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau Sang Chan; Jack Ho Wong; Evandro Fei Fang; Wen Liang Pan; Tzi Bun Ng

    2012-01-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide,with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC5o=3 μM),Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis,was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv.brown kidney bean.The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75.The antifungal activity of the peptide against M.arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0℃ to 80℃.There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13,and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0,1,and 14.The activity at 90℃ and 100℃ was slightly diminished.Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M.arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth.The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells,in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides,indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  7. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  8. Clostridium sordellii in a brown bear (Ursus arctos) from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro, Ana; Oleaga, Álvaro; Polledo, Laura; Aduriz, Gorka; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Kortabarria, Nekane; Marín, Juan F García

    2013-10-01

    Clostridium sordellii is found in the environment and occasionally in animal (including human) intestines and may cause myonecrosis and large outbreaks of enterotoxemia. A few cases of fatal clostridial infection in bears (Ursus spp.) have been described worldwide but none attributed to C. sordellii. We describe a fatal case of septicemia caused by C. sordellii in an illegally trapped brown bear (Ursus arctos). At necropsy, acute gangrenous myositis was the primary lesion. Serohemorrhagic edema was observed in the abdominal cavity, thorax, pericardium, and skeletal muscle, mostly affecting femoral, humeral, and scapular muscles. Hemorrhage was observed in the heart, skeletal muscles, stomach, and intestine. Liver, spleen, and kidney appeared with loss of consistency, hemorrhages, and edema. Microscopically, primary lesions were in skeletal muscle, stomach, and small intestine, with gram-positive, clostridial-like bacilli. Biochemical and molecular tests identified C. sordellii in cultures from liver, muscle, and intestine. Sequences showed a homology of >99% with the 16S rRNA gene sequence of C. sordellii. The severity of effects of the C. sordellii infection reveal the importance of this pathogen as a wildlife health risk with conservation concerns, as well as the need to consider possible infection with this pathogen in management actions involving immobilization, stress, or severe muscular activity of wild brown bears. PMID:24502739

  9. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haider SAMEE; Zhen-xing LI; Hong LIN; Jamil KHALID; Yong-chao GUO

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities.They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan,and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG),Sargassum thunbergii (STH),and Laminariajaponica (LJ) from China.The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin,an inhibitor against hyaluronidase.Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG),0.74% (STH),0.97% (LJ),3.30% (SC),and 5.06% (ST).The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 μg/ml,respectively,lower than those of Chinese SG,STH,and LJ (134,269,and 148 μg/ml,respectively).An antiallergic drug,disodium cromoglycate (DSCG),had an IC50=39 μg/ml,and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase,catechin,had an IC50=20 μg/ml.The IC50 of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 μg/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 μg/ml).This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase,indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods.

  10. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-chao

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG), 0.74% (STH), 0.97% (LJ), 3.30% (SC), and 5.06% (ST). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 μg/ml, respectively, lower than those of Chinese SG, STH, and LJ (134, 269, and 148 μg/ml, respectively). An antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), had an IC50=39 μg/ml, and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase, catechin, had an IC50=20 μg/ml. The IC50 of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 μg/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 μg/ml). This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase, indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods. PMID:19235274

  11. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-chao

    2009-02-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG), 0.74% (STH), 0.97% (LJ), 3.30% (SC), and 5.06% (ST). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 microg/ml, respectively, lower than those of Chinese SG, STH, and LJ (134, 269, and 148 microg/ml, respectively). An antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), had an IC(50)=39 microg/ml, and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase, catechin, had an IC(50)=20 microg/ml. The IC(50) of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 microg/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 microg/ml). This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase, indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods. PMID:19235274

  12. Peaches tree genetic divergence for brown rot reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the genetic divergence in peach genotypes for brown rot reaction. It was evaluated 26 and 29 peach genotypes in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 production cycle, respectively. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitossanidade, da UTFPR - Campus Dois Vizinhos. The experimental design was entirely randomized, considering each peach genotype a treatment, and it was use three replication of nine fruits. The treatment control use three replication of three peach. The fruit epidermis were inoculated individually with 0.15 mL of M. fructicola conidial suspension (1.0 x 10(5 spores mL-1. In the control treatment was sprayed with 0.15 mL of distilled water. The fruits were examined 72 and 120 hours after inoculation, and the incidence and severity disease were evaluated. These results allowed realized study for genetic divergence, used as dissimilarity measure the Generalized Mahalanobis distance. Cluster analysis using Tocher´s optimization method and distances in the plan were applied. There was smallest genetic divergence among peach trees evaluated for brown rot, what can difficult to obtain resistance in the genotypes.

  13. Efficient xylose fermentation by the brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Kanawaku, Ryuichi; Masumoto, Masaru; Yanase, Hideshi

    2012-02-10

    The efficient production of bioethanol on an industrial scale requires the use of renewable lignocellulosic biomass as a starting material. A limiting factor in developing efficient processes is identifying microorganisms that are able to effectively ferment xylose, the major pentose sugar found in hemicellulose, and break down carbohydrate polymers without pre-treatment steps. Here, a basidiomycete brown rot fungus was isolated as a new biocatalyst with unprecedented fermentability, as it was capable of converting not only the 6-carbon sugars constituting cellulose, but also the major 5-carbon sugar xylose in hemicelluloses, to ethanol. The fungus was identified as Neolentinus lepideus and was capable of assimilating and fermenting xylose to ethanol in yields of 0.30, 0.33, and 0.34 g of ethanol per g of xylose consumed under aerobic, oxygen-limited, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. A small amount of xylitol was detected as the major by-product of xylose metabolism. N. lepideus produced ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, cellobiose, maltose, and lactose with yields ranging from 0.34 to 0.38 g ethanol per g sugar consumed, and also exhibited relatively favorable conversion of non-pretreated starch, xylan, and wheat bran. These results suggest that N. lepideus is a promising candidate for cost-effective and environmentally friendly ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report on efficient ethanol fermentation from various carbohydrates, including xylose, by a naturally occurring brown rot fungus. PMID:22226194

  14. MOA-2007-BLG-197: Exploring the brown dwarf desert

    CERN Document Server

    Ranc, C; Albrow, M D; Kubas, D; Bond, I A; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Bennett, D P; Dominik, M; Dong, Subo; Fouqué, P; Gould, A; Greenhill, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kains, N; Menzies, J; Sumi, T; Bachelet, E; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Gaudi, B S; Han, C; Hundertmark, M; Horne, K; Kane, S R; Lee, C -U; Marquette, J -B; Park, B -G; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Street, R; Tsapras, Y; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Zub, M; Abe, F; Fukui, A; Itow, Y; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Tristram, P J; Yock, P C M; Yonehara, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of MOA-2007-BLG-197Lb, the first brown dwarf companion to a Sun-like star detected through gravitational microlensing. The event was alerted and followed-up photometrically by a network of telescopes from the PLANET, MOA, and uFUN collaborations, and observed at high angular resolution using the NaCo instrument at the VLT. From the modelling of the microlensing light curve, we derived the binary lens separation in Einstein radius units (s~1.13) and a mass ratio of (4.732+/-0.020)x10^{-2}. Annual parallax, lens orbital motion and finite source effects were included in the models. To recover the lens system's physical parameters, we combined the resulting light curve best-fit parameters with (J,H,Ks) magnitudes obtained with VLT NaCo and calibrated using IRSF and 2MASS data. We derived a lens total mass of 0.86+/-0.04 Msun and a lens distance of 4.2+/-0.3 kpc. We find that the companion of MOA-2007-BLG-197L is a brown dwarf of 41+/-2 Mjup observed at a projected separation of 4.3+/-0.1 A...

  15. INDICATIONS OF WATER CLOUDS IN THE COLDEST KNOWN BROWN DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Skemer, Andrew [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Monson, Andrew J., E-mail: jfaherty@ciw.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We present a deep near-infrared image of the newly discovered brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (W0855) using the FourStar imager at Las Campanas Observatory. Our detection of J3 = 24.8{sub −0.35}{sup +0.53} (J {sub MKO} = 25.0{sub −0.35}{sup +0.53}) at 2.6σ—or equivalently an upper limit of J3 > 23.8 (J {sub MKO} > 24.0) at 5σ makes W0855 the reddest brown dwarf ever categorized (J {sub MKO} – W2 = 10.984{sub −0.35}{sup +0.53} at 2.6σ—or equivalently an upper limit of J {sub MKO} – W2 > 9.984 at 5σ) and refines its position on color-magnitude diagrams. Comparing the new photometry with chemical equilibrium model atmosphere predictions, we demonstrate that W0855 is 2.7σ from models using a cloudless atmosphere and well reproduced by partly cloudy models (50%) containing sulfide and water ice clouds. Non-equilibrium chemistry or non-solar metallicity may change predictions, however using currently available model approaches, this is the first candidate outside our own solar system to have direct evidence for water clouds.

  16. Epsilon Indi Ba/Bb: the nearest binary brown dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    McCaughrean, M J; Scholz, R D; Lenzen, R; Biller, B; Brandner, W; Hartung, M; Lodieu, N

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out high angular resolution near-infrared imaging and low-resolution (R~1000) spectroscopy of the nearest known brown dwarf, Eps Indi B, using the ESO VLT NAOS/CONICA adaptive optics system. We find it to be a close binary with an angular separation of 0.732 arcsec, corresponding to 2.65AU at the 3.626pc distance of the Eps Indi system, as also noted by Volk et al. (2003). In our discovery paper (Scholz et al. 2003), we concluded that Eps Indi B was a ~50Mjup T2.5 dwarf: our revised finding is that the two system components (Eps Indi Ba and Eps Indi Bb) have spectral types of T1 and T6, respectively, and estimated masses of 44 and 28Mjup, respectively, assuming an age of 1.3Gyr. Errors in the masses are +/-10 and +/-7Mjup, respectively, dominated by the uncertainty in the age determination (0.8-2Gyr range). This uniquely well-characterised T dwarf binary system should prove important in the study of low-mass, cool brown dwarfs. The two components are bright and relatively well-resolved: it is ...

  17. Fossil rubber in brown coal deposits: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlberg, P.G.; Stoerr, M. (Indiana University, Bloomington (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Fossil rubber strands of middle Eocene from Geiseltal and Harpke brown coal deposits in the GDR are angiospermous remains of the branched nonarticulated laticifer cell. The cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber was cribriform in appearance indicating possibly that it polymerized around protoplasmic components during fossilization. Cell morphology and thermal analyses of rubber hydrocarbons indicate that the deposits were not subjected to high pressure or temperatures during fossilization. The similarity of profiles for hydrocarbons extractable only from the rubber indicates their presence in the original living cell and identifies the samples to be derived from the same species. Sulfur accumulated nearly all as organic sulfur to higher levels in the rubber than in the gel. Morphological and chemical data show the laticifer to be a highly specialized cell already in the Eocene and provide new insight for interpreting the age of Angiosperms. Presence of predominantly organic sulfur with greater deposition in rubber than gel indicates the unique environmental condition related to sulfur deposition and provides the basis for a better understanding of sulfur fixation in brown coal. 23 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2016-01-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855-0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf (~250 K) and the fourth closest known system to the Sun (2.2 pc). It has been previously detected only in the J band and two mid-IR bands. To better measure its spectral energy distribution (SED), we have performed deep imaging of WISE 0855-0714 in six optical and near-IR bands with Gemini Observatory, the Very Large Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Five of the bands show detections, although one detection is marginal (S/N~3). We also have obtained two epochs of images with the Spitzer Space Telescope for use in refining the parallax of the brown dwarf. By combining astrometry from this work and previous studies, we have derived a parallax of 0.449+/-0.008" (2.23+/-0.04 pc). We have compared our photometry for WISE 0855-0714 to data for known Y dwarfs and to the predictions of three suites of models by Saumon et al. (2012) and Morley et al. (2012, 2014) that are defined by the presence or absence of clouds and non-e...

  19. Brown Adipose Tissue: A New Target for Antiobesity Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human fat consist of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT. Though most fat is energy-storing WAT, the thermogenic capacity of even small amounts of BAT makes it an attractive therapeutic target for inducing weight loss through energy expenditure. CONTENT: Over the past year, several independent research teams used a combination of positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT imaging, immunohistochemistry and gene and protein expression assays to prove conclusively that adult humans have functional BAT. BAT is important for thermogenesis and energy balance in small mammals and its induction in mice promotes energy expenditure, reduces adiposity and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. The thermogenic capacity of BAT is impressive. In humans, it has been estimated that as little as 50g of BAT could utilize up to 20% of basal caloric needs if maximally stimulated. SUMMARY: The obesity pandemic requires new and novel treatments. The past few years have witnessed multiple studies conclusively showing that adult humans have functional BAT, a tissue that has a tremendous capacity for obesity-reducing thermogenesis. Novel therapies targeting BAT thermogenesis may be available in the near future as therapeutic options for obesity and diabetes. Thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity. KEYWORDS: brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, energy expenditure, antiobesity therapy.

  20. Efficient Isolation of Cardiac Stem Cells from Brown Adipose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac stem cells represent a logical cell type to exploit in cardiac regeneration. The efficient harvest of cardiac stem cells from a suitable source would turn promising in cardiac stem cell therapy. Brown adipose was recently found to be a new source of cardiac stem cells, instrumental to myocardial regeneration. Unfortunately, an efficient method for the cell isolation is unavailable so far. In our study we have developed a new method for the efficient isolation of cardiac stem cells from brown adipose by combining different enzymes. Results showed that the total cell yield dramatically increased (more than 10 times, P<.01 compared with that by previous method. The content of CD133-positive cells (reported to differentiate into cardiomyocytes with a high frequency was much higher than that in the previous report (22.43% versus 3.5%. Moreover, the isolated cells could be the efficiently differentiated into functional cardiomyocytes in optimized conditions. Thus, the new method we established would be of great use in further exploring cardiac stem cell therapy.

  1. Spitzer Observations of two TW Hydrae Association Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Riaz, B; Hmiel, A; Riaz, Basmah; Gizis, John E.; Hmiel, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope observations of two TW Hydrae Association brown dwarfs, 2MASSW J1207334-393254 and 2MASSW J1139511-315921, in the IRAC and MIPS 24 micron bands. Based on their IRAC colors, we have classified them as Classical and Weak-line T Tauri stars, respectively. For 2MASSW J1207334-393254, we have found that a flat disk model fits the data very well. This brown dwarf shows the presence of warm (T > 100 K) circumstellar dust close (R < 0.2 AU) to it, and does not display any signs of cleansing of dust within several AU of the star. In comparison with other TWA members that show excess in IR, we suggest that there exists a different disk evolution/dust processing mechanism for stellar and sub-stellar objects. 2MASSW J1139511-315921 does not show any significant excess in any of the IRAC bands, but a small one at 24 micron, which is not significant enough to suggest the presence of warm dust around this star. It shows signs of dust cleansing in the inner several AU, similar to most of...

  2. New Brown Dwarf Disks in the TW Hydrae Association

    CERN Document Server

    Riaz, B

    2008-01-01

    In our analysis of {\\it Spitzer}/IRS archival data on the stellar and sub-stellar members of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA), we have discovered two new brown dwarf disks: a flat optically thick disk around SSSPM J1102-3431 (SSSPM 1102), and a transition disk around 2MASS J1139511-315921 (2M1139). The disk structure for SSSPM 1102 is found to be very similar to the known brown dwarf disk 2MASSW J1207334-393254 (2M1207), with excess emission observed at wavelengths as short as 5 $\\micron$. 2M1139 shows no excess emission shortward of $\\sim$20 $\\micron$, but flares up at longer wavelengths, and is the first transition disk detected among the sub-stellar members of TWA. We also report on the {\\it Spitzer}/70 $\\micron$ observations, and the presence of a weak {\\it absorption} 10 $\\micron$ silicate feature for 2M1207. The absorption can be attributed to a close to edge-on disk at a 75$\\degr$ inclination. The 10 $\\micron$ spectrum for 2M1207 shows crystalline forsterite features, with a peak in absorption near 11.3...

  3. Search for exoplanets and brown dwarfs with VLBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyński, K.; Gawroński, M.; Goździewski, K.

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to estimate possible radio GHz emission of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs and to check if such radiation can be detected by Very Large Baseline Interferometers (VLBI). In the estimation we assume that the emission may originate in processes similar to those observed in the Jupiter system. The frequency of the radio emission that is produced in this system depends mostly on the magnetic field strength. Jupiter's magnetic field (˜9 G on average) allows for radiation from kHz frequencies up to 40 MHz. This is is well below the frequency range of VLBI. However, it was demonstrated that the magnetic field strength in massive and young object may be up to two orders of magnitude higher than for Jupiter, which is especially relevant for planets around short-lived A type stars. This should extend the range of the emission up to GHz frequencies. We calculated expected flux densities of radio emission for a variety of hypothetical young planetary systems. We analysed two different emission scenarios, and found that the radiation induced by moons (process similar to Jupiter-Io interactions) appears to be less efficient than the emission generated by a stellar wind on a planetary magnetosphere. We also estimated hypothetical emission of planets and brown dwarfs located around relatively young and massive main sequence A-type stars. Our results show that the emission produced by stellar winds could be detected by currently operating VLBI networks.

  4. Search for exoplanets and brown dwarfs with VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyński, K.; Gawroński, M.; Goździewski, K.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to estimate possible radio GHz emission of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs and to check if such radiation can be detected by Very Large Baseline Interferometers (VLBI). In the estimation we assume that the emission may originate in processes similar to those observed in the Jupiter system. The frequency of the radio emission that is produced in this system depends mostly on the magnetic field strength. Jupiter's magnetic field (˜9 G on average) allows for radiation from kHz frequencies up to 40 MHz. This is well below the frequency range of VLBI. However, it was demonstrated that the magnetic field strength in massive and young object may be up to two orders of magnitude higher than for Jupiter, which is especially relevant for planets around short-lived A type stars. This should extend the range of the emission up to GHz frequencies. We calculated expected flux densities of radio emission for a variety of hypothetical young planetary systems. We analysed two different emission scenarios, and found that the radiation induced by moons (process similar to Jupiter-Io interactions) appears to be less efficient than the emission generated by a stellar wind on a planetary magnetosphere. We also estimated hypothetical emission of planets and brown dwarfs located around relatively young and massive main-sequence A-type stars. Our results show that the emission produced by stellar winds could be detected by currently operating VLBI networks.

  5. Large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-01-01

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100-200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1-2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness. PMID:25019942

  6. The disk around the brown dwarf KPNO Tau 3

    CERN Document Server

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Duchene, Gaspard; Di Francesco, James; Scholz, Aleks; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-01-01

    We present submillimeter observations of the young brown dwarfs KPNO Tau 1, KPNO Tau 3, and KPNO Tau 6 at 450 micron and 850 micron taken with the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerke Maxwell Telescope. KPNO Tau 3 and KPNO Tau 6 have been previously identified as Class II objects hosting accretion disks, whereas KPNO Tau 1 has been identified as a Class III object and shows no evidence of circumsubstellar material. Our 3 sigma detection of cold dust around KPNO Tau 3 implies a total disk mass of (4.0 +/- 1.1) x 10^{-4} Msolar (assuming a gas to dust ratio of 100:1). We place tight constraints on any disks around KPNO Tau 1 or KPNO Tau 6 of <2.1 x 10^{-4} Msolar and <2.7 x 10^{-4} Msolar, respectively. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of KPNO Tau 3 and its disk suggests the disk properties (geometry, dust mass, and grain size distribution) are consistent with observations of other brown dwarf disks and low-mass T-Tauri stars. In particular, the disk-to-host mass ratio fo...

  7. Brown tumor of the maxilla in patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nebojša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor or parathyroid osteopathy is a kind of bony lesion caused by hyperparathyroidism. It appears as an expansive osteolytic lesion mostly in mandible, ribs, pelvis and femur, but rarely in the upper jaw. Bone resorption is the result of osteoclastic activity due to an increased activity of parathyroid hormone. A 25-years-old male patient was operated on due to clinicaly and radiographicaly obvious maxillary tumor and increased values of parathyroid hormon (PTH - 1 050 ng/l. The level of calcium in blood was normal (Ca 2.34 mEq/L. The patient was dialyzed for years because of the chronic renal failure. Histopathologic analysis confirmed brown tumor, that appeared as bony lesion of secondary hyperparathyroidism due to the chronic renal failure. The operation of the upper jaw had been performed before parathyroidectomy, due to an excessive growth of tumor followed by heavy epistaxes. The subsequent parathyroidectomy was followed by the regression of remaining bony lesions.

  8. The Coolest Isolated Brown Dwarf Candidate Member of TWA

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Cruz, Kelle; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne

    2014-01-01

    We present two new late-type brown dwarf candidate members of the TW Hydrae association (TWA) : 2MASS J12074836-3900043 and 2MASS J12474428-3816464, which were found as part of the BANYAN all-sky survey (BASS) for brown dwarf members to nearby young associations. We obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for both objects (NIR spectral types are respectively L1 and M9), as well as optical spectroscopy for J1207-3900 (optical spectral type is L0{\\gamma}), and show that both display clear signs of low-gravity, and thus youth. We use the BANYAN II Bayesian inference tool to show that both objects are candidate members to TWA with a very low probability of being field contaminants, although the kinematics of J1247-3816 seem slightly at odds with that of other TWA members. J1207-3900 is currently the latest-type and the only isolated L-type candidate member of TWA. Measuring the distance and radial velocity of both objects is still required to claim them as bona fide members. Such late-type objects are predicted...

  9. Optimisation potential of sucker rod pumping systems for the oil production of brown fields; Optimierungspotenzial von Gestaengetiefpumpensystemen bei der Erdoelfoerderung von Brown Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, G.; Kass, M.; Rice, D. [Rohoel-Aufsuchungs AG, Gampern (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    The optimized operation of sucker rod pumping systems is an important criterion for the economic production of brown fields. Different viewpoints of system optimization like modern software, optimisation methods, material questions and corrosion fighting methods are considered. (orig.)

  10. Arsenic content in certain marine brown algae and mangroves from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Chinnaraj, S.; Inamdar, S.N.; Untawale, A.G.

    Arsenic has been estimated in 7 species each of brown algae and mangroves, including different parts of Sargassum cinereum. Arsenic is more concentrated in brown algae [concentration /factor(CF) range 1.5 - 7 x 10 super(3)] as compared to mangroves...

  11. Activation of TRPV2 negatively regulates the differentiation of mouse brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wuping; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Iwata, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) acts as a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel that has been reported to be sensitive to temperature, mechanical force, and some chemicals. We recently showed that TRPV2 is critical for maintenance of the thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue in mice. However, the involvement of TRPV2 in the differentiation of brown adipocytes remains unexplored. We found that the expression of TRPV2 was dramatically increased during the differentiation of brown adipocytes. Non-selective TRPV2 agonists (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and lysophosphatidylcholine) inhibited the differentiation of brown adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner during the early stage of differentiation of brown adipocytes. The inhibition was rescued by a TRPV2-selective antagonist, SKF96365 (SKF). Mechanical force, which activates TRPV2, also inhibited the differentiation of brown adipocytes in a strength-dependent manner, and the effect was reversed by SKF. In addition, the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by either TRPV2 ligand or mechanical stimulation was significantly smaller in the cells from TRPV2KO mice. Moreover, calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and FK506, partially reversed TRPV2 activation-induced inhibition of brown adipocyte differentiation. Thus, we conclude that TRPV2 might be involved in the modulation of brown adipocyte differentiation partially via a calcineurin pathway. PMID:27318696

  12. DNA DAMAGE AND EXTERNAL LESIONS IN BROWN BULLHEADS FROM CONTAMINATED HABITATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Comet assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River, Ashtabula River, and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod), with brown bullheads collected from three paired reference sites, ...

  13. Glyphosate Control of Orange and Brown Rusts in Glyphosate-Sensitive Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract: Brown and orange rust diseases cause substantial yield reductions on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida and other regions where sugarcane is grown. Brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd has been present in Florida since 1978 and orange rust caused by Pucci...

  14. First report of brown rot on apple fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey, is the most devastating disease of stone fruits in North America resulting in significant economic losses. The fungus has been recently reported to cause pre and postharvest brown rot on apple fruit in Germany, Italy, and Serbia. However, M...

  15. Temporal changes in wood crystalline cellulose during degradation by brown rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, Caitlin; Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Goodell, Barry;

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of wood by brown rot fungi has been studied intensely for many years in order to facilitate the preservation of in-service wood. In this work we used X-ray diffraction to examine changes in wood cellulose crystallinity caused by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora...

  16. Transcriptional Analysis of the Relationship of Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis to the Brown Pigmentation in Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yue-hua; LUO Ming; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; YIN Meng-hui; DONG Jing

    2008-01-01

    @@ With increased concern to environment and health in the modern society,naturally colored cotton becomes more and more attractive to textile industry and cotton production.Brown is the most common fiber color in naturally colored cottons.Traditional genetic analyses revealed that brown fiber was controlled by 6 loci (Lc1-6) in cotton.

  17. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  18. The adipocyte clock controls brown adipogenesis through the TGF-Beta and BMP signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular clock is intimately linked to metabolic regulation, and brown adipose tissue plays a key role in energy homeostasis. However, whether the cell-intrinsic clock machinery participates in brown adipocyte development is unknown. Here, we show that Bmal1 (also known as ARNTL), the essential...

  19. Inhibition of tyrosinase-mediated enzymatic browning by sulfite and natural alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Vincken, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Although sulfite is widely used to counteract enzymatic browning, its mechanism has remained largely unknown. We describe a double inhibitory mechanism of sulfite on enzymatic browning, affecting both the enzymatic oxidation of phenols into o‑quinones, as well as the non‑enzymatic reactions of these

  20. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-03-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. PMID:25490862

  1. Schooling Poor Minority Children: New Segregation in the Post-"Brown" Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireda, Martha R.

    2011-01-01

    "Schooling Poor Minority Children: New Segregation in the Post-Brown Era" explores the "redesign of school segregation" and explains why resegregation of schools in the post-"Brown" era is so destructive for poor minority students. The book provides an answer to why schools that serve predominately poor minority students remain "low performing" or…

  2. Insights in the Fruit Flesh Browning Mechanisms in Solanum melongena Genetic Lines with Opposite Postcut Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docimo, T; Francese, G; De Palma, M; Mennella, D; Toppino, L; Lo Scalzo, R; Mennella, G; Tucci, M

    2016-06-01

    Color, taste, flavor, nutritional value, and shelf life are important factors determining quality and healthiness of food and vegetables. These factors are strongly affected by browning processes, occurring after fruit or vegetable cutting. Characterization of ten eggplant genotypes for chlorogenic acid (CGA) content, total phenols (TP), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity, and browning tendency corroborated a lack of significant correlations between biochemical factors and fruit flesh browning. Further in-depth molecular and biochemical analyses of two divergent eggplant genetic lines, AM199 (high browning) and AM086 (low browning), within 30 min from cutting, highlighted differences in the physiological mechanisms underlying the browning process. qRT-PCR analysis revealed distinct activation mechanisms of CGA biosynthetic and PPO genes in the two genetic lines. Metabolic data on CGA, sugars, and ascorbic acid contents confirmed that their different browning tendency matched with different metabolic responses to cutting. Our findings suggest that the complex mechanism of flesh browning in the two eggplant genetic lines might be mediated by multiple specific factors. PMID:27198496

  3. Biochemical composition of some brown algae from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe present study aimed to determine total protein, total carbohydrate, total phenolic substances and pigment contents of brown algae collected in Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Totally eight brown algae samples (Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira corniculata, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyota dichotoma, Padina pavonia, Sargassum vulgare, Stypocaulon scoparium, Stypopodium schimperii) were analyzed. The highest protein content was obtained from S. schimperii ...

  4. The Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L. at the Northeastern Border of the Species Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhrov Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The level of ecological and morphological plasticity as well as genetic diversity of brown trout at the northeastern border of its species area are about as high as in the central part, and the population structure is equally complex. Apparently, abiotic factors (competition with other salmonids rather than biotic ones prevent the brown trout area from expanding.

  5. Daytime habitat selection for juvenile parr brown trout (Salmo trutta) in small lowland streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Boegh, E.; Olsen, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat is important in determining the carrying capacity of juvenile brown trout, and within freshwater management. Summer daytime physical habitat selection for the parr lifestage (7-20 cm) juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) was assessed in 6 small lowland streams. Habitat preference...

  6. The Brown Trout (Salmo trutta L.) at the Northeastern Border of the Species Area

    OpenAIRE

    Makhrov Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The level of ecological and morphological plasticity as well as genetic diversity of brown trout at the northeastern border of its species area are about as high as in the central part, and the population structure is equally complex. Apparently, abiotic factors (competition with other salmonids) rather than biotic ones prevent the brown trout area from expanding.

  7. Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolites in Edible Brown Algae Cultivated in Deep Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Mori

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Three metabolites of fucoxanthin were isolated from a brown alga, Scytosiphon lomentaria, and the structure of a new compound was determined by NMR. The content of fucoxanthin, a biologically active carotenoid, in four edible brown algae, cultivated in deep seawater, was studied.

  8. Brown adipose tissue. III. Effect of ethanol, nicotine and caffeine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidlo, J; Zaviacic, M; Trutzová, H

    1996-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue is known to be the most important organ for generating heat in non-shivering thermogenesis. Process of thermogenesis and thermoregulation may be affected by many drugs. The paper deals with actual literary data of effect of ethanol, nicotine and caffeine on brown adipose tissue, heat production and its regulation in experimental animals and in human. PMID:9560910

  9. Polarisation of Major Histocompatibility Complex II Host Genotype with Pathogenesis of European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacovakis, Christos; Mamuris, Zissis; Moutou, Katerina A;

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of European Brown Hare Syndrome virus (EBHSV) in Denmark and possible relation between disease pathogenesis and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) host genotype. Liver samples were examined from 170 brown hares (hunted, found sick or...

  10. Transcriptional Analysis of the Relationship of Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis to the Brown Pigmentation in Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With increased concern to environment and health in the modern society,naturally colored cotton becomes more and more attractive to textile industry and cotton production.Brown is the most common fiber color in naturally colored cottons.Traditional genetic analyses revealed that brown fiber

  11. Turning up the heat : role of brown adipose tissue in metabolic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mariëtte Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In 1551, the Swiss naturalist Konrad Gessner first described brown adipose tissue (BAT) as being “neither fat, nor flesh (nec pinguitudo, nec caro), but something in between”. Now, some 460 years later, we know that Gessner had guessed the origin of brown adipocytes correctly. A unique property of t

  12. A novel crosstalk between Alk7 and cGMP signaling differentially regulates brown adipocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Balkow

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: We found a so far unknown crosstalk between cGMP and Alk7 signaling pathways. Tight regulation of Alk7 is required for efficient differentiation of brown adipocytes. Alk7 has differential effects on adipogenic differentiation and the development of the thermogenic program in brown adipocytes.

  13. 75 FR 69152 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Brown County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Brown County, WI Wisconsin...., and ending at milepost 5.8, on the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Reservation, in Brown County...: Michael J. Barron, Jr., Fletcher & Sippel LLC, 29 N. Wacker Drive, Suite 920, Chicago, IL 60606-2832....

  14. Current status of brown bears in the Manasalu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Achyut; Sathyakumar, S.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2010-01-01

    Although brown bears (Ursus arctos) are rare in the Himalayan region, populations have been documented in alpine habitats of Pakistan and India. Brown bears were once known to exist in both Nepal and Bhutan, but current information on their numbers and distributions was lacking. We document the presence of brown bears in the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA) in Nepal using field surveys and interviews with local people. We were able to confirm the existence of a remnant population based on finding bear scat and locations where bears excavated for Himalayan marmots (Marmota himalayana). Based on interviews with local people, it appeared that the presence of brown bears in the area is relatively recent and likely a result of immigration of bears from the Tibetan Autonomous Region. Interviews with local herders also indicated that livestock losses from brown bear predation amounted to approximately 318,000 Nepali rupees (US $4,240) from February 2006 through July 2008.

  15. Influence of small hydropower plants on brown trout (Salmo trutta L. population in Mislinja River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Cokan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown trout (Salmo trutta L. in the Mislinja River has been endangered for years because of small hydroelectric power plants. To find out how they are affecting the population of the brown trout in the Mislinja River, we conducted a sampling of the brown trout, using a generating set. We measured the length and weight of all caught specimens and analysed the obtained data. The results are presented in this paper, e.g., biomass, estimations of abundance, average weight, average length and number of captured brown trout. We discovered that the population of the brown trout has decreased in all the sections where water has been taken away for small hydroelectric power plants.

  16. Akari Observations of Brown Dwarfs. II CO2 as Probe of Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuji, Takashi; Sorahana, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations with the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI have shown that the CO2 bands at 4.2 micron in three brown dwarfs are much stronger than expected from the unified cloudy model (UCM) based on recent solar C & O abundances. This result has been a puzzle, but we now find that this is simply an abundance effect: We show that these strong CO2 bands can be explained with the UCMs based on the classical C & O abundances (log Ac and log Ao), which are about 0.2 dex larger compared to the recent values. Since three other brown dwarfs could be well interpreted with the recent solar C & O abundances, we require at least two model sequences based on the different chemical compositions to interpret all the AKARI spectra. The reason for this is that the CO2 band is especially sensitive to C & O abundances, since the CO2 abundance depends approximately on AcAo^2 --- the cube of C & O abundances. For this reason, even low resolution spectra of very cool dwarfs, especially of CO2 cannot ...

  17. The Brown-dwarf Atmosphere Monitoring (BAM) Project II: Multi-epoch monitoring of extremely cool brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, A; Wilson, P A; Bulger, J; De Rosa, R J; Ward-Duong, K; Morley, C; Pont, F; Windhorst, R

    2015-01-01

    With the discovery of Y dwarfs by the WISE mission, the population of field brown dwarfs now extends to objects with temperatures comparable to those of Solar System planets. To investigate the atmospheres of these newly identified brown dwarfs, we have conducted a pilot study monitoring an initial sample of three late T-dwarfs (T6.5, T8 and T8.5) and one Y-dwarf (Y0) for infrared photometric variability at multiple epochs. With J-band imaging, each target was observed for a period of 1.0h to 4.5h per epoch, which covers a significant fraction of the expected rotational period. These measurements represent the first photometric monitoring for these targets. For three of the four targets (2M1047, Ross 458C and WISE0458), multi-epoch monitoring was performed, with the time span between epochs ranging from a few hours to ~2 years. During the first epoch, the T8.5 target WISE0458 exhibited variations with a remarkable min-to-max amplitude of 13%, while the second epoch light curve taken ~2 years later did not not...

  18. Molecular analysis of proanthocyanidins related to pigmentation in brown cotton fibre (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hongjie; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Shaofang; Zhang, Liangliang; Liu, Yongchuang; Xue, Fei; Sun, Yuqiang; Wang, Yongmei; Sun, Jie

    2014-11-01

    The structural characteristics and component differences of proanthocyanidins in brown and white cotton fibres were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses. Proanthocyanidins in brown and white cotton fibres were found to contain mainly procyanidin (PC) and prodelphidin (PD) units with 2, 3-cis form (epigallocatechin and epicatechin). However, part of the proanthocyanidins in the white cotton fibres were modified by acylation and were constitutively different from the proanthocyanidins in brown cotton fibres. The relative amount of PD was similar to that of PC in white cotton fibres, while proanthocyanidins in brown cotton fibres consisted mainly of PD units with a relative ratio of 9:1. In brown cotton fibres, the proanthocyanidin monomeric composition was consistent with the expression profiles of proanthocyanidin synthase genes, suggesting that anthocyanidin reductase represented the major flow of the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway. In addition, the structural characteristics and component differences of proanthocanidins in brown and white cotton fibres suggested that quinones, the oxidation products of proanthocyanidins, were the direct contributors to colour development in brown cotton fibre. This was demonstrated by vanillin-HCl staining and Borntrager's test. Collectively, these data demonstrated that the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins is a crucial pigmentation process in brown cotton fibre, and that quinones may represent the main pigments contributing to formation of the the brown colour. This study revealed the molecular basis of pigmentation in brown cotton fibres, and provided important insights for genetic manipulation of pigment production in cotton fibres. PMID:25086591

  19. Brown carbon: a significant atmospheric absorber of solar radiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several recent observational studies have shown organic carbon aerosols to be a significant source of absorption of solar radiation. The absorbing part of organic aerosols is referred to as brown carbon. Comparisons with observations indicate that model-simulated aerosol absorption is under-estimated in global models, one of the reasons being the neglect of brown carbon. Using a global chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model, we estimate for the first time the enhanced absorption of solar radiation due to "brown" carbon (BrC in a global model. When BrC is included, the simulated wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption, as measured by the Angstrom exponent increases from 0.9 to 1.2 and thus agrees better with AERONET spectral observations at 440–870 nm. The resulting absorbing aerosol optical depth increases by 3–18% at 550 nm and up to 56% at 350 nm. The global simulations suggest that BrC contributes up to +0.25 W m−2 or 19% of the absorption by anthropogenic aerosols, of which 72% is attributed to black carbon, and 9% is due to sulfate and non-absorbing organic aerosols coated on black carbon. Like black carbon, the overall forcing of BrC at the top of the atmosphere (TOA is a warming effect (+0.11 W m−2, while the effect at the surface is a reduction or dimming (−0.14 W m−2. Because of the inclusion of BrC in our model, the direct radiative effect of organic carbonaceous aerosols changes from cooling (−0.08 W m−2 to warming (+0.025 W m−2 at the TOA, on a global mean basis. Over source regions and above clouds, the absorption of BrC is more significant and thus can play an important role in photochemistry and the hydrologic cycle.

  20. Direct effects of leptin on brown and white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist-Kaiser, C A; Pauli, V; Juge-Aubry, C E; Boss, O; Pernin, A; Chin, W W; Cusin, I; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Burger, A G; Zapf, J; Meier, C A

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is thought to exert its actions on energy homeostasis through the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), which is present in the hypothalamus and in certain peripheral organs, including adipose tissue. In this study, we examined whether leptin has direct effects on the function of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) at the metabolic and molecular levels. The chronic peripheral intravenous administration of leptin in vivo for 4 d resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the in vivo glucose utilization index of BAT, whereas no significant change was found after intracerebroventricular administration compared with pair-fed control rats, compatible with a direct effect of leptin on BAT. The effect of leptin on WAT fat pads from lean Zucker Fa/ fa rats was assessed ex vivo, where a 9- and 16-fold increase in the rate of lipolysis was observed after 2 h of exposure to 0.1 and 10 nM leptin, respectively. In contrast, no increase in lipolysis was observed in the fat pads from obese fa/fa rats, which harbor an inactivating mutation in the OB-Rb. At the level of gene expression, leptin treatment for 24 h increased malic enzyme and lipoprotein lipase RNA 1.8+/-0.17 and 1.9+/-0.14-fold, respectively, while aP2 mRNA levels were unaltered in primary cultures of brown adipocytes from lean Fa/fa rats. Importantly, however, no significant effect of leptin was observed on these genes in brown adipocytes from obese fa/fa animals. The presence of OB-Rb receptors in adipose tissue was substantiated by the detection of its transcripts by RT-PCR, and leptin treatment in vivo and in vitro activated the specific STATs implicated in the signaling pathway of the OB-Rb. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that leptin has direct effects on BAT and WAT, resulting in the activation of the Jak/STAT pathway and the increased expression of certain target genes, which may partially account for the observed increase in glucose utilization and lipolysis in leptin

  1. Brown adipose tissue development and metabolism in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B; Carstens, G E; Randel, R D; Mersmann, H J; Lunt, D K

    2004-03-01

    We conducted several experiments to better understand the relationship between brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism and thermogenesis. In Exp. 1, we examined perirenal (brown) and sternum s.c. adipose tissue in 14 Wagyu x Angus neonates infused with norepinephrine (NE). Perirenal adipocytes contained numerous large mitochondria with well-differentiated cristae; sternum s.c. adipocytes contained a few, small mitochondria, with poorly developed cristae. Lipogenesis from acetate was high in BAT but barely detectable in sternum s.c. adipose tissue. In Exp. 2, we compared perirenal and tailhead adipose tissues between NE-infused Angus (n = 6) and Brahman (n = 7) newborn calves. Brahman BAT contained two-to-three times as many total beta-receptors as Angus BAT. The mitochondrial UCP1:28S rRNA ratio was greater in Brahman BAT than in BAT from Angus calves. Lipogenesis from acetate and glucose again was high, but lipogenesis from palmitate was barely detectable. Tail-head s.c. adipose tissue from both breed types contained adipocytes with distinct brown adipocyte morphology. In Exp. 3, three fetuses of each breed type were taken at 96, 48, 24, 14, and 6 d before expected parturition, and at parturition. Lipogenesis from acetate and glucose in vitro decreased 97% during the last 96 d of gestation in both breed types, whereas the UCP1 gene expression tripled during gestation in both breed types. At birth, palmitate esterification was twice as high in Angus than in Brahman BAT and was at least 100-fold higher than in BAT from NE-infused calves from Exp. 2. Uncoupling protein-1 mRNA was readily detectable in tailhead s.c. adipose tissue in all fetal samples. In Exp. 4, male Brahman and Angus calves (n = 5 to 7 per group) were assigned to 1) newborn treatment (15 h of age), 2) 48 h of warm exposure (22 degrees C) starting at 15 h of age, or 3) 48 h of cold exposure (4 degrees C) starting at 15 h of age. Brahman BAT adipocytes shrank with cold exposure, whereas Angus BAT

  2. Chemical composition of asphaltenes from thermal dissociation of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evstaf' ev, S.N.; Denisova, T.I.; Tuturina, V.V.

    1987-07-01

    Investigates chemical composition of asphaltenes and preasphaltenes separated from liquid products of thermal dissociation of Azeisk deposit brown coal in tetralin. Asphaltenes and preasphaltenes represent a mixture of mainly aromatic compounds containing bi- and tri-cyclic aromatic fractions differing by length of aliphatic substituents and by distribution of oxygen-containing functional groups. Describes tests carried out at 300-420 C in autoclaves using 0.1-0.3 mm coal particles and tetralin containing decalin (2.8%) and naphthalene (5.2%). Establishes that asphaltenes soluble in acetone are represented by low-molecular saturated compounds; about 60% of oxygen in asphaltenes and preasphaltenes is attached to ethereal and heterocyclic structure groups. 10 refs.

  3. Bok Prize Lecture (shared) The Brown Dwarf Radial Velocity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Dave

    2004-03-01

    The swarm of nearby brown dwarfs and very low mass stars is an attractive sample for radial velocity monitoring. Such work is best conducted with an echelle spectrograph operating at infrared wavelengths where these objects(i) are most luminous, (ii) have a forest of molecular features, providing an excellent velocity metric, and {iii) are superimposed on the telluric spectrum, which yields the requisite wavelength calibration. I will present first results from such a survey, with a precision sufficient to detect Jupiter-mass planets with orbital periods of less than a year. Should such systems be uncovered, the planets would be amenable to direct study, due to system proximity, and the favorable contrast ratio between the planet and parent object.

  4. A Hanburry-Brown and Twiss experiment with metastable helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is only in the 1970's that quantum optics emerged as the domain where it is not sufficient to describe light as a classical electromagnetic wave to render an account of phenomena. The famous Hanburry-Brown and Twiss experiment had played a crucial role in the clarification of the subject, by drawing attention onto the importance of the intensity correlation function, whose measurement became possible only after the development of single photon counting techniques. In our cold metastable helium experiment, we have implemented a detector resolved in time and position, able to detect single atoms. This system allows us to study the two-body correlation function of an ensemble of such atoms. We will present our recent results, and discuss their significance. (author)

  5. Fire protection maintenance at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two approaches to staffing and organizing a fire protection maintenance group. Both have been used at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. One takes traditional craft functions and relocates them from the plant maintenance department to the fire protection section. The other expands the role to include response to fire, medical, and hazardous material emergencies. Both approaches remove the fire protection supervisor from a purely staff role, and involve him/her in direct-line management functions. This results in improved technical direction to the craftsmen, improved quality of the work performed, and improved craft morale. It also assures the fire protection supervisor of much more detailed knowledge of the overall status of the fire protection systems

  6. CONFIRMATION OF ONE OF THE COLDEST KNOWN BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using two epochs of 4.5 μm images from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we recently identified a common proper motion companion to the white dwarf WD 0806-661 that is a candidate for the coldest known brown dwarf. To verify its cool nature, we have obtained images of this object at 3.6 μm with IRAC, at J with the High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) on the Very Large Telescope, and in a filter covering the red half of J with FourStar on Magellan. WD 0806-661 B is detected by IRAC but not HAWK-I or FourStar. From these data we measure colors of [3.6] – [4.5] = 2.77 ± 0.16 and J – [4.5] > 7.0 (S/N eff = 300-345 K.

  7. IR-stimulated visible fluorescence in pink and brown diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of natural pink and brown diamond by middle-ultraviolet light (photon energy ϵ ≥ 4.1 eV ) is seen to induce anomalous fluorescence phenomena at N3 defect centres (structure N3−V). When diamonds primed in this fashion are subsequently exposed to infrared light (even with a delay of many hours), a transient burst of blue N3 fluorescence is observed. The dependence of this IR-triggered fluorescence on pump wavelength and intensity suggest that this fluorescence phenomena is intrinsically related to pink diamond photochromism. An energy transfer process between N3 defects and other defect species can account for both the UV-induced fluorescence intensity changes, and the apparent optical upconversion of IR light. From this standpoint, we consider the implications of this N3 fluorescence behaviour for the current understanding of pink diamond photochromism kinetics. (paper)

  8. Browns Ferry turbine team-it's all in the planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article illustrates a good example of how a project was creatively completed ahead of schedule and under budget. When the Brown's Ferry turbine maintenance team took on the task of servicing unit 2's turbine, the work was like building a ship in a bottle. open-quotes We had no room in which to work and only standard tools for the maintenanceclose quotes, said Jim Roche, turbine manager. The big problem on the turbine floor is that there is only one single overhead crane for lifting the turbine components. All the major turbine components and support equipment are on the same floor. Each one requires a crane, and there is only one crane. There is limited laydown space. To do the maintenance properly, the team had to have a maintenance schedule it felt comfortable with, industry experience, tools yet to be invented, and money. The design method for this schedule is presented

  9. Spatial association of nest construction by brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngson, A F; Piertney, S B; Thorley, J L; Malcolm, I A; Soulsby, C

    2011-03-01

    Spawning patterns in female brown trout Salmo trutta were examined by documenting the construction of nests in a small stream and later excavating them to recover progeny. The maternal provenance of nests was determined by genetic typing of embryos using microsatellite markers. Seventy-two nests, for which position and date of construction were known, were made by 59 individuals. Position and date of construction were known for a further 35 nests, comprising 11 Atlantic salmon Salmo salar nests and 24 nests which contained few or no progeny. Salmo trutta showed a behavioural preference for spawning near (≤ 1 m) prior nests; nests made by different individuals tended to accumulate in a spatial sequence that progressed upstream. The directionality of the association between prior and new nests suggests that later spawners use the residual depressions created by previous spawners as the first element of their own nests. PMID:21366568

  10. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii. Methods: The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and having the entire, serrate margin. Microscopic evaluation of the transverse section of the leaf, stem, air bladder, receptacles showed the presence of epidermis layer followed by thick cuticle, conducting strand, mesophyll and possessed antheridia or oogonia at the swollen terminal portions. The different extracts of Sargassum wightii showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins and flavonoids with varied degree. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostical parameters evaluated in this study help in the identification and standardization of the of the seaweed Sargassum wightii

  11. Beyond brown: Polyphenol oxidases as enzymes of plant specialized metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cloned and/or characterized plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs have catechol oxidase activity (i.e. they oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones and are localized or predicted to be localized to plastids. As a class, they have broad substrate specificity and are associated with browning of produce and other plant materials. Because PPOs are often induced by wounding or pathogen attack, they are most generally believed to play important roles in plant defense responses. However, a few well-characterized PPOs appear to have very specific roles in the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites via both tyrosinase (monophenol oxidase and catechol oxidase activities. Here we detail a few examples of these and explore the possibility that there may be many more biosynthetic PPOs.

  12. Possibility of the Nonenzymatic Browning (Maillard) Reaction in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Shipar, M. Abul Haider

    2008-04-01

    The possibility of the occurrence of the nonenzymatic browning reaction in the gaseous phase in the interstellar medium has been investigated by using Density Functional Theory computations. Mechanisms for the reactions between formaldehyde ( Fald) + glycine ( Gly), Fald + NH 3 and Fald + methylamine ( MeAm) have been proposed, and the possibility of the formation of different compounds in the proposed mechanisms has been evaluated through calculating the Gibb's free energy changes for different steps of the reaction, by following the total mass balance. The Fald + Gly reaction under basic conditions is found as the most favorable for producing 1-methyl-amino methene or 1-methyl-amino methelene ( MAM). The reaction under acidic conditions is found to be the least favorable for producing MAM. The Fald + NH 3 reaction is found to be plausible for the production of MeAm, which can participate by reaction with Fald, resulting in the formation of MAM.

  13. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. Small amounts of Co-60 and Cs-134 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public

  14. A Case of Brown-McLean Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen Gökçe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 89-year-old man with a history of cataract surgery ten years ago presented to our ophthalmology department with blurred vision. On ophthalmic examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/32 in the left. Slit lamp examination revealed bilateral symmetrical peripheral corneal oedema, advanced at the inferior part of the cornea in both eyes. Considering clinical and confocal microscopy findings, a diagnosis of Brown-McLean Syndrome (BMS was made. BMS is a rare condition that may developed after cataract surgery, and it can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. Our report points to this rare syndrome and we tried to emphasis the importance of BMS considering it in the differential diagnosis of refractory peripheral corneal oedema developed in pseudophakic patients. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 365-7

  15. Postconflict behaviour in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Cruz, Mónica G

    2009-01-01

    Postconflict affiliation has been mostly studied in Old World primates, and we still lack comparative research to understand completely the functional value of reconciliation. Cebus species display great variability in social characteristics, thereby providing a great opportunity for comparative studies. We recorded 190 agonistic interactions and subsequent postconflict behaviour in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Only 26.8% of these conflicts were reconciled. Reconciliation was more likely to occur between opponents that supported each other more frequently and that spent more time together. Postconflict anxiety was mostly determined by conflict intensity, and none of the variables thought to measure relationship quality had a significant effect on postconflict stress. PMID:19923844

  16. The Twiss-Hanbury Brown controversy : A 40-years perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, P.; Langer, W.S.; Brumby, S.P.

    1997-12-31

    Some key points in the debate over the visible light {sup i}ntensity interferometer{sup ,} initiated by Hanbury Brown and Twiss`s 1956 observation of a positive correlation between two photomultiplier signals from a split-beam optical source, are re-examined. This was a preliminary to their first measurement of a stellar diameter by this means, made in the same year, in the face of great experimental difficulties and criticism of their method, which produced a value for the angular diameter of {alpha}-Sirius which is not only in agreement with present-day measurements, but which provided one of the first tests of quantum electrodynamical theory, and considerably stimulated its further development. We also examine the role which could still be played by {sup i}ntensity interferometry{sup ,} which would be complementary to the programs currently employing Michelson interferometry, by analogy with present-day high-resolution electron microscopy. (authors).

  17. The Twiss-Hanbury Brown controversy : A 40-years perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some key points in the debate over the visible light intensity interferometer, initiated by Hanbury Brown and Twiss's 1956 observation of a positive correlation between two photomultiplier signals from a split-beam optical source, are re-examined. This was a preliminary to their first measurement of a stellar diameter by this means, made in the same year, in the face of great experimental difficulties and criticism of their method, which produced a value for the angular diameter of α-Sirius which is not only in agreement with present-day measurements, but which provided one of the first tests of quantum electrodynamical theory, and considerably stimulated its further development. We also examine the role which could still be played by intensity interferometry, which would be complementary to the programs currently employing Michelson interferometry, by analogy with present-day high-resolution electron microscopy. (authors)

  18. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi; Gopalswamy Sathiya Balan; Kasiviswanathan Periyanayagam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii.Methods:and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and having the entire, serrate margin. Microscopic evaluation of the transverse section of the leaf, stem, air bladder, receptacles showed the presence of epidermis layer followed by thick cuticle, conducting strand, mesophyll and possessed antheridia or oogonia at the swollen terminal portions. The different extracts of Sargassum wightii showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins and flavonoids with varied degree.Conclusions:Various pharmacognostical parameters evaluated in this study help in the identification and standardization of the of the seaweed Sargassum wightii.

  19. Browns project: an opportunity for the Finniss River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compass Resources NL is evaluating The Brown Project that contains large undeveloped mineral resources with 82 million tonnes of identified resources containing 1.9 million tonnes of lead, 98,000 tonnes of cobalt, 614,000 tonnes of copper, along with nickel, silver and zinc. A table outlines the resources quoted in the Compass Resources' 2000 Annual Report. The project is immediately along strike from the former Rum Jungle operations. The company is committed to apply waste management strategies for acid rock drainage from day one. Alternatives being considered include encapsulate and seal, treatment and control, blend acid generating rock with acid consuming rock, and a combination of these. Indicative water balance considerations include a surplus during the wet season and a requirement for water during the dry season

  20. Hanbury Brown and Twiss interferometry with interacting photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Y.; Lahini, Y.; Small, E.; Silberberg, Y.

    2010-10-01

    Five decades ago, Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) demonstrated that the angular size of stars can be measured by correlating the intensity fluctuations measured by two detectors at two different locations. Since then, non-local correlation measurements have become ubiquitous in many areas of physics and have also been applied, beyond photons, to electrons, matter waves and subatomic particles. An important assumption in HBT interferometry is that the particles do not interact on their way from the source to the detectors. However, this assumption is not always valid. Here, we study the effects of interactions on HBT interferometry by considering the propagation of light fields in a nonlinear medium that induces interactions between the photons. We show that interactions affect multipath interference, limiting the ability to extract information on the source. Nevertheless, we find that proper analysis of the intensity fluctuations can recover the size of the source, even in the presence of interactions.

  1. Planetesimals To Brown Dwarfs: What is a Planet?

    CERN Document Server

    Basri, G; Basri, Gibor; Brown, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The past 15 years have brought about a revolution in our understanding of our Solar System and other planetary systems. During this time, discoveries include the first Kuiper Belt Objects, the first brown dwarfs, and the first extra-solar planets. Although discoveries continue apace, they have called into question our previous perspectives on planets, both here and elsewhere. The result has been a debate about the meaning of the word ''planet'' itself. It became clear that scientists do not have a widely accepted or clear definition of what a planet is, and both scientists and the public are confused (and sometimes annoyed) by its use in various contexts. Because ''planet'' is a very widely used term, it seems worth the attempt to resolve this problem. In this essay, we try to cover all the issues that have come to the fore, and bring clarity (if not resolution) to the debate.

  2. High efficiency Lifter based on the Biefeld-Brown effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Einat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biefeld-Brown is a fascinating effect with which levitation can be reached without moving or rotating elements. Static voltage is applied between asymmetric electrodes and a force towards the small electrode is generated. This effect is studied experimentally in this paper. Using this effect a set of experiments is conducted trying to clarify the relation of the model geometry to the induced force. The results show clear relations of the generated force to the model structure and dimensions. As the asymmetry is stronger, the force is stronger. According to the experimental results, a set of preferred parameters is given to strength the effect. Choosing the geometrical properties properly led to improvement of factor ∼9 in the generated force and efficiency. Nevertheless, some results provides contradictions to earlier models of electrohydrodynamicmic (EHD describing the effect and reveal unresolved questions regarding this effect.

  3. Atmospheric aerosol brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Elena; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, M. Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol can reach very high concentrations in the planetary boundary layer in South-East Asia ("brown clouds"), affecting atmospheric transparency and generating spatial gradients of temperature over land with a possible impact on atmospheric dynamics and monsoon circulation. Besides black carbon (BC), an important light-absorbing component of anthropogenic aerosols is the organic carbon component known as 'brown carbon' (BrC). In this research, we provided first measurements of atmospheric aerosol BrC in the high Himalayas during different seasons. Aerosol sampling was conducted at the GAW-WMO Global station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) located in the high Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. in the foothills of Mt. Everest. PM10 aerosol samples were collected from July 2013 to November 2014. The sampling strategy was set up in order to discriminate the daytime valley breeze bringing polluted air masses up to the observatory and free tropospheric air during nighttime. Water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble BrC (MeS-BrC) were extracted and analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer equipped with a 50 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell. In the polluted air masses, the highest levels of the BrC light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (babs365) were observed during the pre-monsoon season (1.83±1.46 Mm‑1 for WS-BrC and 2.86±2.49 Mm‑1 for MeS-BrC) and the lowest during the monsoon season (0.21±0.22 Mm‑1 for WS-BrC and 0.32±0.29 Mm‑1 for MeS-BrC). The pre-monsoon season is the most frequently influenced by a strong atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) transport to NCO-P due to increased convection and mixing layer height over South Asia combined with the highest up-valley wind speed and the increase of the emissions from open fires due to the agricultural practice along the Himalayas foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In contrast, the monsoon season is characterized by a weakened valley wind regime and an

  4. Activation of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial GDP binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. This ability is attributed to the existence of a unique inner mitochondrial membrane protein termed the uncoupling protein or thermogenin. This protein is permeable to H+ and thus allows respiration (and therefore thermogenesis) to proceed at a rapid rate, independent of ADP phosphorylation. Proton conductance can be inhibited by the binding of purine nucleotides to the uncoupling protein. The binding of [3H]-GDP to BAT mitochondria is frequently used as a measure of BAT thermogenic activity. Rats fed a diet that was low but adequate in protein exhibited a decrease in feed efficiency. In addition, BAT thermogenesis was activated as indicated by an elevation in the level of GDP binding to BAT mitochondria. This phenomena occurred in older rats and persisted over time

  5. Activation of brown adipose tissue mitochondrial GDP binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swick, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The primary function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is heat production. This ability is attributed to the existence of a unique inner mitochondrial membrane protein termed the uncoupling protein or thermogenin. This protein is permeable to H+ and thus allows respiration (and therefore thermogenesis) to proceed at a rapid rate, independent of ADP phosphorylation. Proton conductance can be inhibited by the binding of purine nucleotides to the uncoupling protein. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-GDP to BAT mitochondria is frequently used as a measure of BAT thermogenic activity. Rats fed a diet that was low but adequate in protein exhibited a decrease in feed efficiency. In addition, BAT thermogenesis was activated as indicated by an elevation in the level of GDP binding to BAT mitochondria. This phenomena occurred in older rats and persisted over time.

  6. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. PMID:21426342

  7. Browning in Desert Boundaries in Asia in Recent Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Brown, Molly E.; Kug, Jong-Seong; Piao, Shilong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the changes in desert boundaries in Asia (Gobi, Karakum, Lut, Taklimakan, and Thar deserts) during the growing season (April October) in the years 1982 2008 were investigated by analyzing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), precipitation, and temperature. In the desert boundary regions, the domain mean NDVI values increased by 7.2% per decade in 1982 1998 but decreased by 6.8% per decade thereafter. Accordingly, the bare soil areas (or nonvegetated areas) of the inside of the desert boundaries contracted by 9.8% per decade in the 1990s and expanded by 8.7% per decade in the 2000s. It is noted that the five deserts experience nearly simultaneous NDVI changes although they cover a very diverse area of Asia. In contrast, changes in temperature and precipitation in the deserts show rather diverse results. In desert boundaries located along 40 N (Gobi, Taklimakan, and Karakum), the decadal changes in vegetation greenness were mainly related to regional climate during the entire analysis period. Precipitation increased in the 1990s, providing favorable conditions for vegetation growth (i.e., greening), but precipitation reduced (19 mm per decade) and warming intensified (0.7 C per decade) in the 2000s, causing less moisture to be available for vegetation growth (i.e., browning). In desert boundaries below 40 N (Lut and Thar), although an increase in precipitation (8 mm per decade) led to greening in the 1990s, local changes in precipitation and temperature did not necessarily cause browning in the 2000s. Observed multidecadal changes in vegetation greenness in the present study suggest that under significant global and/or regional warming, changes in moisture availability for vegetation growth in desert boundaries are an important factor when understanding decadal changes in areas vulnerable to desertification over Asia.

  8. Inhibition of Sam68 triggers adipose tissue browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junlan; Cheng, Min; Boriboun, Chan; Ardehali, Mariam M; Jiang, Changfei; Liu, Qinghua; Han, Shuling; Goukassian, David A; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C; Zhao, Ming; Cai, Lu; Richard, Stéphane; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; molecular mechanisms that promote energy expenditure can be utilized for effective therapy. Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) is potentially significant, because knockout (KO) of Sam68 leads to markedly reduced adiposity. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which Sam68 regulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. We first found that Sam68 KO mice have a significantly reduced body weight as compared to controls, and the difference is explained entirely by decreased adiposity. Interestingly, these effects were not mediated by a difference in food intake; rather, they were associated with enhanced physical activity. When they were fed a high-fat diet, Sam68 KO mice gained much less body weight and fat mass than their WT littermates did, and they displayed an improved glucose and insulin tolerance. In Sam68 KO mice, the brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal, and epididymal depots were smaller, and their adipocytes were less hypertrophied as compared to their WT littermates. The BAT of Sam68 KO mice exhibited reduced lipid stores and expressed higher levels of Ucp1 and key thermogenic and fatty acid oxidation genes. Similarly, depots of inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) in Sam68 KO mice appeared browner, their multilocular Ucp1-positive cells were much more abundant, and the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppargc1a genes was greater as compared to WT controls, which suggests that the loss of Sam68 also promotes WAT browning. Furthermore, in all of the fat depots of the Sam68 KO mice, the expression of M2 macrophage markers was up-regulated, and that of M1 markers was down-regulated. Thus, Sam68 plays a crucial role in controlling thermogenesis and may be targeted to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:25934704

  9. Intercohort density dependence drives brown trout habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Daniel; Nicola, Graciela G.; Parra, Irene; Elvira, Benigno; Almodóvar, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Habitat selection can be viewed as an emergent property of the quality and availability of habitat but also of the number of individuals and the way they compete for its use. Consequently, habitat selection can change across years due to fluctuating resources or to changes in population numbers. However, habitat selection predictive models often do not account for ecological dynamics, especially density dependent processes. In stage-structured population, the strength of density dependent interactions between individuals of different age classes can exert a profound influence on population trajectories and evolutionary processes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of fluctuating densities of both older and younger competing life stages on the habitat selection patterns (described as univariate and multivariate resource selection functions) of young-of-the-year, juvenile and adult brown trout Salmo trutta. We observed all age classes were selective in habitat choice but changed their selection patterns across years consistently with variations in the densities of older but not of younger age classes. Trout of an age increased selectivity for positions highly selected by older individuals when their density decreased, but this pattern did not hold when the density of younger age classes varied. It suggests that younger individuals are dominated by older ones but can expand their range of selected habitats when density of competitors decreases, while older trout do not seem to consider the density of younger individuals when distributing themselves even though they can negatively affect their final performance. Since these results may entail critical implications for conservation and management practices based on habitat selection models, further research should involve a wider range of river typologies and/or longer time frames to fully understand the patterns of and the mechanisms underlying the operation of density dependence on brown trout habitat

  10. Transcriptome and biochemical analyses revealed a detailed proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hua Xiao

    Full Text Available Brown cotton fiber is the major raw material for colored cotton industry. Previous studies have showed that the brown pigments in cotton fiber belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs. To clarify the details of PA biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber, gene expression profiles in developing brown and white fibers were compared via digital gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR. Compared to white cotton fiber, all steps from phenylalanine to PA monomers (flavan-3-ols were significantly up-regulated in brown fiber. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses showed that most of free flavan-3-ols in brown fiber were in 2, 3-trans form (gallocatechin and catechin, and the main units of polymeric PAs were trihydroxylated on B ring. Consistent with monomeric composition, the transcript levels of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase in cotton fiber were much higher than their competing enzymes acting on the same substrates (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, respectively. Taken together, our data revealed a detailed PA biosynthesis pathway wholly activated in brown cotton fiber, and demonstrated that flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase represented the primary flow of PA biosynthesis in cotton fiber.

  11. Phylogeography of brown bears (Ursus arctos) of Alaska and paraphyly within the Ursidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, S L; Shields, G F

    1996-06-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b, tRNA(prolime), and tRNA(threonine) genes were described for 166 brown bears (Ursus arctos) from 10 geographic regions of Alaska to describe natural genetic variation, construct a molecular phylogeny, and evaluate classical taxonomies. DNA sequences of brown bears were compared to homologous sequences of the polar bear (maritimus) and of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), which was used as an outgroup. Parsimony and neighbor-joining methods each produced essentially identical phylogenetic trees that suggest two distinct clades of mtDNA for brown bears in Alaska: one composed only of bears that now reside on some of the islands of southeastern Alaska and the other which includes bears from all other regions of Alaska. The very close relationship of the polar bear to brown bears of the islands of southeastern Alaska as previously reported by us and the paraphyletic association of polar bears to brown bears reported by others have been reaffirmed with this much larger data set. A weak correlation is suggested between types of mtDNA and habitat preference by brown bears in Alaska. Our mtDNA data support some, but not all, of the currently designated subspecies of brown bears whose descriptions have been based essentially on morphology. PMID:8744762

  12. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  13. Dynamic regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription during mouse brown fat cell differentiation and recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2009-01-01

    ) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well...... in brown adipocyte precursor cells promotes mitochondrial DNA replication, and that silencing of PRDM16 expression during brown fat cell differentiation blunts mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of brown fat cell markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using both in vitro and in vivo model systems of...

  14. The Effect of Irradiation Treatment on the Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Legume Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation treatment, at room temperature, on the non-enzymatic browning reaction (Millerd reaction products, MRPs) generated in soybeans, broad beans and dried peas seeds at dose levels of 10, 30 and 60 kGy and their effects on the chemical constituents, soluble protein, available lysine and in vitro protein digestibility. The formation of MRPs in the studied legumes was assayed by monitoring the formation of brown pigments (browning intensity) by spectrophotometric method. The results revealed that the chemical composition of irradiated legumes showed non-significant differences relative to the raw one. A dose dependent decrease in soluble proteins and available lysine in the three legumes were observed. The non-enzymatic browning reaction was significantly increased with increasing the radiation dose, which was proved by changes in browning index tests. At the same time, the in vitro protein digestibility was increased after irradiation up to 60 kGy. Irradiation of dried peas with 60 kGy produced higher browning index than the other legumes. A positive correlation was observed between the radiation dose and the browning index for soybeans (R2= 0.96), broad beans (R2 = 0.81) and dried peas (R2 = 0.97) which means that 96%, 81% and 97 of the variation in the incidence of non-enzymatic browning reaction in soybean, broad bean and dried peas, respectively, are due to the effect of irradiation treatments. The present study suggests that the formation of non-enzymatic browning reaction did not impair the nutritional quality of legumes, therefore, the process of irradiation was helpful in increasing the in vitro protein digestibility of studied legumes. These results clearly indicated that gamma irradiation processing at the studied doses can add valuable effects to the studied legumes

  15. The brown adipocyte differentiation pathway in birds: An evolutionary road not taken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaratilake Jaliya S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermogenic brown adipose tissue has never been described in birds or other non-mammalian vertebrates. Brown adipocytes in mammals are distinguished from the more common white fat adipocytes by having numerous small lipid droplets rather than a single large one, elevated numbers of mitochondria, and mitochondrial expression of the nuclear gene UCP1, the uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis. Results We have identified in vitro inductive conditions in which mesenchymal cells isolated from the embryonic chicken limb bud differentiate into avian brown adipocyte-like cells (ABALCs with the morphological and many of the biochemical properties of terminally differentiated brown adipocytes. Avian, and as we show here, lizard species lack the gene for UCP1, although it is present in amphibian and fish species. While ABALCs are therefore not functional brown adipocytes, they are generated by a developmental pathway virtually identical to brown fat differentiation in mammals: both the common adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ, and a coactivator of that factor specific to brown fat differentiation in mammals, PGC1α, are elevated in expression, as are mitochondrial volume and DNA. Furthermore, ABALCs induction resulted in strong transcription from a transfected mouse UCP1 promoter. Conclusion These findings strongly suggest that the brown fat differentiation pathway evolved in a common ancestor of birds and mammals and its thermogenicity was lost in the avian lineage, with the degradation of UCP1, after it separated from the mammalian lineage. Since this event occurred no later than the saurian ancestor of birds and lizards, an implication of this is that dinosaurs had neither UCP1 nor canonically thermogenic brown fat.

  16. Chronic hyperinsulinemia reduces insulin sensitivity and metabolic functions of brown adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sujith; Shankar, Kripa; Beg, Muheeb; Varshney, Salil; Gupta, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ankita; Kumar, Durgesh; Mishra, Raj K; Hussain, Zakir; Gayen, Jiaur R; Gaikwad, Anil N

    2016-09-01

    The growing pandemics of diabetes have become a real threat to world economy. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are closely associated with the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In pretext of brown adipocytes being considered as the therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance, we have tried to understand the effect of hyperinsulinemia on brown adipocyte function. We here with for the first time report that hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance in brown adipocyte is also accompanied with reduced insulin sensitivity and brown adipocyte characteristics. CI treatment decreased expression of brown adipocyte-specific markers (such as PRDM16, PGC1α, and UCP1) and mitochondrial content as well as activity. CI-treated brown adipocytes showed drastic decrease in oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and spare respiratory capacity. Morphological study indicates increased accumulation of lipid droplets in CI-treated brown adipocytes. We have further validated these findings in vivo in C57BL/6 mice implanted with mini-osmotic insulin pump for 8weeks. CI treatment in mice leads to increased body weight gain, fat mass and impaired glucose intolerance with reduced energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity. CI-treated mice showed decreased BAT characteristics and function. We also observed increased inflammation and ER stress markers in BAT of CI-treated animals. The above results conclude that hyperinsulinemia has deleterious effect on brown adipocyte function, making it susceptible to insulin resistance. Thus, the above findings have greater implication in designing approaches for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes via recruitment of brown adipocytes. PMID:27340034

  17. Direct evidence of brown adipocytes in different fat depots in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rockstroh

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested the persistence of brown adipocytes in adult humans, as opposed to being exclusively present in infancy. In this study, we investigated the presence of brown-like adipocytes in adipose tissue (AT samples of children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years and evaluated the association with age, location, and obesity. For this, we analysed AT samples from 131 children and 23 adults by histological, immunohistochemical and expression analyses. We detected brown-like and UCP1 positive adipocytes in 10.3% of 87 lean children (aged 0.3 to 10.7 years and in one overweight infant, whereas we did not find brown adipocytes in obese children or adults. In our samples, the brown-like adipocytes were interspersed within white AT of perirenal, visceral and also subcutaneous depots. Samples with brown-like adipocytes showed an increased expression of UCP1 (>200fold, PRDM16 (2.8fold, PGC1α and CIDEA while other brown/beige selective markers, such as PAT2, P2RX5, ZIC1, LHX8, TMEM26, HOXC9 and TBX1 were not significantly different between UCP1 positive and negative samples. We identified a positive correlation between UCP1 and PRDM16 within UCP1 positive samples, but not with any other brown/beige marker. In addition, we observed significantly increased PRDM16 and PAT2 expression in subcutaneous and visceral AT samples with high UCP1 expression in adults. Our data indicate that brown-like adipocytes are present well beyond infancy in subcutaneous depots of non-obese children. The presence was not restricted to typical perirenal locations, but they were also interspersed within WAT of visceral and subcutaneous depots.

  18. Control of Ralstonia Solanacearum The Causal Agent of Brown Rot in Potato Using Essential Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five essential oils, namely peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), caraway (Carium carvum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Staph.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris), were used separately against Ralstonia solanacearum; the causal agent of brown rot in potato. The most two effective oils (peppermint and thyme) were used in vitro and in vivo after testing their effects on potato tubers buds germination. Peppermint inhibited buds germination but thyme have no effects on buds germination. In vivo, the control of brown rot using thyme oil in glass house experiment reduced the percentage of brown rot infection to 30.6% and reduced the severity of disease from 5 to 3.

  19. A SWOT ANALYSIS OF NEW INVESTMENTS IN BROWN COAL DEPOSITS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Ziętera, Anna, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present factors determining the effectiveness of new investments in brown coal deposits. It discusses the weak and strong points of brown coal mining in Poland, as well as opportunities and risks in its development. The strong point is that Poland has abundant resources of lignite and the opportunity lies in the rising demand for energy. The weak point is that brown coal emits large amounts of CO2 and risk is perceived in that the EU tightens up its policy on...

  20. The formation of brown dwarfs in discs: Physics, numerics, and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars may form by gravitational fragmentation of relatively massive (a few 0.1 Msun), extended (a few hundred AU) discs around Sun-like stars. We present an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations that examine the conditions for disc fragmentation. We demonstrate that this model can explain the low-mass IMF, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary properties of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Observing discs that are undergoing fragmentation is possible but very improbable, as the process of disc fragmentation is short lived (discs fragment within a few thousand years).

  1. Maxillary brown tumor associated with chronic kidney failure: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stênio Medeiros Queiroz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown tumor is a bone lesion that may affect the entire skeleton, including the maxillary bones. These tumors are characterized as focal giant cell lesions that may be associated with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT. Brown tumors are invasive in some cases and an association with chronic renal failure (CRF has been reported. With the aim to facilitate the differential diagnosis of bone lesions that may affect dialysis patients, this paper describes a case of brown tumor in a 36- year old patient with CRF, secondary HPT carrier, who had a lesion on the right maxilla for approximately five months.

  2. Retinoblastoma protein functions as a molecular switch determining white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Jørgensen, Claus; Petersen, Rasmus K;

    2004-01-01

    Adipocyte precursor cells give raise to two major cell populations with different physiological roles: white and brown adipocytes. Here we demonstrate that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) regulates white vs. brown adipocyte differentiation. Functional inactivation of pRB in wild-type mouse embryo...... fibroblasts (MEFs) and white preadipocytes by expression of simian virus 40 large T antigen results in the expression of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in the adipose state. Retinoblastoma gene-deficient (Rb-/-) MEFs and stem cells, but not the corresponding wild-type cells, differentiate...

  3. Direct measurement of oxygen in brown coals and carbochemical products by means of fast neutron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of elemental oxygen by means of fast neutron activation permit high-accuracy measurements of oxygen concentrations in East German brown coal; this applies to run-of-mine brown coal as well as to demineralized brown coal. The relative error was 4% in the first case and 2% in the latter case. Pre-washing with 1n ammonium acetate solution permits direct analyses of the oxygen bonded to the coal minerals. The method is applicable to other carbonaceous materials, e.g. coal ashes, solid hydrogenation residues, cokes, coal extracts, asphaltenes, oils, etc., at oxygen concentrations of 1-50%. (orig.)

  4. The physiological basis of the migration continuum in brown trout ( Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration is common in many animal taxa; however, the physiological variation underpinning migration strategies remains poorly understood. Among salmonid fishes, brown trout (Salmo trutta) is one of the species that exhibits the most complex variation in sympatric migration strategies......, expressed as a migration continuum, ranging from residency to anadromy. In looking at brown trout, our objective with this study was to test the hypothesis that variation in migration strategies is underpinned by physiological variation. Prior to migration, physiological samples were taken from fish in the...... continuum in brown trout....

  5. Influence of small hydropower plants on brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) population in Mislinja River

    OpenAIRE

    Blaž Cokan; Blaž Repe

    2013-01-01

    The brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the Mislinja River has been endangered for years because of small hydroelectric power plants. To find out how they are affecting the population of the brown trout in the Mislinja River, we conducted a sampling of the brown trout, using a generating set. We measured the length and weight of all caught specimens and analysed the obtained data. The results are presented in this paper, e.g., biomass, estimations of abundance, average weight, average length and...

  6. PECULIARITIES OF THE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF THE BROWN ALGAE IN THE WHITE AND BARENTS SEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Григорьевич Боголицын

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The contents of macro (Mg, Na, Ca, K, Cl, S and trace elements (I, Br, Fe, Cr, Ti, P, Si, Sr, Zn, Cu, Al, as well as toxic heavy metals (Pb, Hg was analyzed in 25 samples of four brown algae (Laminaria saccharina (Linnaeus J.V.Lamouroux, Laminaria digitata (Hudson J.V.Lamouroux, Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus, Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus Le Jolis, harvested during the complex research expedition "The Arctic Floating University 2012", in the White and Barents Seas. Conclusions are drawn on the patterns in the accumulation of elements in brown algae depending on family and growth conditions, and also regarding the nutritional value of brown algae.

  7. An investigation of the recaptures rates for tagged brown trout stocked into the River Ribble

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton-Dey , D.; Walsingham, M.

    1996-01-01

    The angling season for non-migratory brown trout, in the Environment Agency (EA) North West Region, runs from March 15th to September 30th. Each year, large numbers of farm reared brown trout are stocked into the rivers of the North West Region's Central Area. In 1994, approximately 20,000 brown trout were introduced into the River systems of the Lune, Wyre and Ribble by local angling clubs and fishery owners. Most of these fish were stocked at a length greater than that defined by local byel...

  8. HD 91669B: A NEW BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE FROM THE MCDONALD OBSERVATORY PLANET SEARCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the detection of a brown dwarf candidate orbiting the metal-rich K dwarf HD 91669, based on radial-velocity data from the McDonald Observatory Planet Search. HD 91669b is a substellar object in an eccentric orbit (e = 0.45) at a separation of 1.2 AU. The minimum mass of 30.6M Jup places this object firmly within the brown dwarf desert for inclinations i ∼> 230. This is the second rare close-in brown dwarf candidate discovered by the McDonald planet search program.

  9. Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) in Early Stage of Browning of Phalaenopsis Leaf Explants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiwei Ru; Yanyan Lai; Chuangjun Xu; Ling Li

    2013-01-01

    Explant browning is one of the most common problems during the early stage of tissue culture. The aim of this study was to explore the roles of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.3.2) in the browning process of leaf explants of Phalaenopsis (Doritaenopsis Queen Bee “Red Sky”) under a routine culture condition. Along with the observation of the time course of browning and PPO distribution, PPO gene expression in leaf explants were investigated. In addition, the expression and activity of PPO wer...

  10. Prevention of enzymatic browning of yacon flour by the combined use of anti-browning agents and the study of its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Romero Lopes Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yacon roots present functional properties because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides (FOS, which are considered as prebiotic fibers. In addition, yacon roots are rich in phenolic compounds. During the processing of yacon, the freshly cut surface undergoes rapid enzymatic browning. Control of enzymatic browning during processing is very important to preserve the appearance of yacon flour. In this study, it was evaluated the combined effect of anti-browning agents (ascorbic acid, citric acid and L-cysteine on the inhibition of enzymatic browning of yacon, using Response Surface Methodology. The yacon pre-treated with anti-browning agents in concentrations of 15.0 mM for ascorbic acid, 7.5 mM for citric acid and 10.0 mM for L-cysteine was used for the processing of flour. Yacon flour presented an attractive color and good sensory properties, without residual aroma. The contents of FOS and phenolic compounds obtained in yacon flour were 28.60 g.100 g- 1 and 1.35 g.100 g- 1. Yacon flour can be considered as a potential functional food, especially due to high levels of FOS, which allows for its use in formulation of various foods.

  11. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ndunguru

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production.

  12. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production. PMID:26439260

  13. Neural Computations for Biosonar Imaging in the Big Brown Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saillant, Prestor Augusto

    1995-11-01

    The study of the intimate relationship between space and time has taken many forms, ranging from the Theory of Relativity down to the problem of avoiding traffic jams. However, nowhere has this relationship been more fully developed and exploited than in dolphins and bats, which have the ability to utilize biosonar. This thesis describes research on the behavioral and computational basis of echolocation carried out in order to explore the neural mechanisms which may account for the space-time constructs which are of psychological importance to the big brown bat. The SCAT (Spectrogram Correlation and Transformation) computational model was developed to provide a framework for understanding the computational requirements of FM echolocation as determined from psychophysical experiments (i.e., high resolution imaging) and neurobiological constraints (Saillant et al., 1993). The second part of the thesis consisted in developing a new behavioral paradigm for simultaneously studying acoustic behavior and flight behavior of big brown bats in pursuit of stationary or moving targets. In the third part of the thesis a complete acoustic "artificial bat" was constructed, making use of the SCAT process. The development of the artificial bat allowed us to begin experimentation with real world echoes from various targets, in order to gain a better appreciation for the additional complexities and sources of information encountered by bats in flight. Finally, the continued development of the SCAT model has allowed a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of "time expansion" and of the phenomenon of phase sensitivity in the ultrasonic range. Time expansion, first predicted through the use of the SCAT model, and later found in auditory local evoked potential recordings, opens up a new realm of information processing and representation in the brain which as of yet has not been considered. It seems possible, from the work in the auditory system, that time expansion may provide a novel

  14. Variability of Two Young L/T Transition Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Katelyn; Biller, Beth; Gallimore, Jack; Crossfield, Ian

    2015-10-01

    We propose for photometric monitoring observations of WISEP J004701.06+680352 (hereinafter W0047) and 2MASSWJ2244316+204343 (hereinafter 2M2244) using Spitzer/IRAC. Both objects are kinematically confirmed L7 members of the 150 Myr old AB Doradus moving group and show remarkable spectral similarity in both the near-IR and optical. The WoW survey found that L/T transition brown dwarfs having detected mid-IR variability are redder than the typical J - K color for their spectral type. A Cycle 11 exploration program (P.I. Metchev) is investigating the geometrical dependence of color and variability by expanding the original WoW sample. If inclination and J - K color are correlated (as predicted by Metchev et al.), then the spectral and photometric diversity seen across the L/T transition could be explained by geometry rather than diversity in atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. This would have wide ranging implications for the way we model cloud dissipation for brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets. Our proposed observations will provide an important test of the Metchev et al. prediction complementary to their Cycle 11 program. W0047 and 2M2244 are the same age, and have remarkably similar colors (J - K = 2.55 and 2.46 mags, respectively) and underlying spectra. Thus, if Metchev's prediction about the correlation of inclination and spectral morphology holds true, we would expect that W0047 and 2M2244 should have similar inclinations. However, the measured v sin(i) values for W0047 and 2M2244 are quite different. This difference in v sin(i) could be due to spin-axis inclination (with W0047 having a smaller i) or orbital period (with W0047 having a longer period), both of which we will determine from our proposed observations. This test is a unique opportunity, as there are no other free-floating L/T transition dwarfs known to be both coeval and spectrally similar. Our proposed observations will also extend the spectral type range for young objects surveyed for variability

  15. Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: July 1, 1975 - December 31, 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments between July and December of 1975. The report begins by...

  16. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Žgur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight from Simmental bulls was 167 kg vs 147 kg from Brown bulls at the same percentage of total carcass fat (10.5 %. Breed has no effect on percentage of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat tissue nor on percentage of subcutaneous fat from total carcass fat. Simmental bulls had higher (p<0.05 subcutaneous fat percentage (subcutaneous fat in the cut / total fat in the cut in brisket and flank and lower (p<0.05 in shoulder than Brown bulls.

  17. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Fandos Esteruelas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation. Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and preserved in ethanol for identification. Based on morphological characteristics, the lice were identified as Trichodectes spp. and Trichodectes pinguis pinguis. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of chewing lice in free-ranging brown bears in Scandinavia.

  18. Combinatorial approaches for controlling pericarp browning in Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Pal, Ajay; Narwal, Rajesh; Meena, Vijay Singh; Sharma, Pritam Chand; Singh, Jitendra

    2015-09-01

    The availability of fruit like litchi has been limited by variability in yield, alternate bearing, seasonal differences and most commonly post harvest problems. The litchi fruit has a very short shelf-life during which red color turns brown which greatly affects the appeal to consumer although not the unique flavor. This review article focuses on the post harvest problems especially browning of litchi. The pericarp of litchi is also sensitive to desiccation and turns brown and brittle once moisture is reduced to half. A large number of approaches have been tried to solve this problem starting from hydro-cooling to gamma irradiation but single approach could not suffice for all. In modern era, the logical base of controlling browning is either to control the responsible enzyme or remove the undesirable product of enzyme catalyzed reaction. Thus enzyme technology with good postharvest practice can definitely solve this problem. PMID:26344958

  19. AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS BLOOD PROGRAM AWARD GROUP - LEFT TO RIGHT - SEATED - JOHN S BROWN - MISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS BLOOD PROGRAM AWARD GROUP - LEFT TO RIGHT - SEATED - JOHN S BROWN - MISS ELEANOR KIPLINGER - DR SHARP - JESSIE SHEWARD - DR VICTORY - FIRST ROW - GORDON ROMIG - ROBERT BRIGADOI - MIKE VACCARO - ALFRED VALERINO -

  20. Reproductive Rate of Rice Brown Planthopper Population of Super Rice Yongyou 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senfu Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the cost-effective control of occurrence and damage of rice brown planthopper, Study of super indica japonica hybrid rice Yongyou 6 of brown planthopper population reproduction rate density effect. The reproductive rate and variation dynamics of rice brown planthopper in super rice was also investigated and analyzed. Field test results showed that the population amount of rice brown planthopper in super rice during tillering stage and booting stage gradually increased with the increasing amount of released pest and its growth amount gradually increased with the advancement of growth stage. However, as the density reached a certain limit during gain filling stage (>250 head/cluster, the population amount during maturity stage showed decline trend with the increasing density.