WorldWideScience

Sample records for brown fat protect

  1. Does Brown Fat Protect Against Diseases of Aging?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark P Mattson

    2009-01-01

    The most commonly studied laboratory rodents possess a specialized form of fat called brown adipose tissue (BAT) that generates heat to help maintain body temperature in cold environments. In humans, BAT is abundant during embryonic and early postnatal development, but is absent or present in relatively small amounts in adults where it is located in paracervical and supraclavicular regions. BAT cells can `burn' fatty acid energy substrates to generate heat because they possess large numbers o...

  2. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berbeé, J.F.P.; Boon, M.R.; Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Bartelt, A.; Schlein, C.; Worthmann, A.; Kooijman, S.; Hoeke, G.; Mol, I.M.; John, C.; Jung, C.; Vazirpanah, N.; Brouwers, L.P.J.; Gordts, P.L.S.M.; Esko, J.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Scheja, L.; Heeren, J.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by b3-adrenergic rece

  3. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  4. PRDM16 Controls a Brown Fat/Skeletal Muscle Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Bjork, Bryan; Yang, Wenli; Kajimura, Shingo; Kuang, Shihuan; Scime, Anthony; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chin, Sherry; Conroe, Heather M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Beier, David R; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Brown fat can increase energy expenditure and protect against obesity through a specialized program of uncoupled respiration. We show here by in vivo fate mapping that brown but not white fat cells arise from precursors that express myf5, a gene previously thought to be expressed only in the myogenic lineage. Notably, the transcriptional regulator, PRDM16 controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells. Loss of PRDM16 from brown fat precursors causes a...

  5. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the...... types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore...

  6. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  7. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were stron...

  8. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits Controlling Brown Fat Development and Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue is specialized for heat production and can be activated to reduce obesity and metabolic dysfunction in animals. Recent studies also have indicated that human brown fat activity levels correlate with leanness. This has revitalized interest in brown fat biology and has driven the discovery of many new regulators of brown fat development and function. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that control brown an...

  9. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation 1 . Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans 2-5 , BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome 1 . Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and...

  10. Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Ping; Huang, Tian Lian; Xue, Ruidan; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Townsend, Kristy L.; Cypess, Aaron M.; Mishina, Yuji; Gussoni, Emanuela; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Summary Maintenance of body temperature is essential for survival of homeotherms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that is dedicated to thermoregulation1. Due to its remarkable capacity to dissipate stored energy and its demonstrated presence in adult humans2-5, BAT holds great promise for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome1. Rodent data suggest the existence of two types of brown fat cells: the constitutive BAT (cBAT), which is of embryonic origin and anato...

  11. Transcriptional Control of Brown Fat Determination by PRDM16

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Kajimura, Shingo; Yang, Wenli; Chin, Sherry; Rohas, Lindsay; Uldry, Marc; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1α, UCP1 and type 2 deiodinase expression, and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgeni...

  12. Brown fat and vascular heat dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Amy; Mittag, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Current efforts to treat obesity and associated disorders focus on the stimulation of energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis, for instance through activating brown adipose tissue or more recently “beige” or “brite” fat, a relatively novel type of adipose tissue with putative thermogenic potential. In this commentary, we aim to provide an alternative perspective on the current trend of analyzing and manipulating thermogenesis, brought about by our recent publication, in which we invest...

  13. The brown fat secretome: metabolic functions beyond thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guo-Xiao; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2015-01-01

    Brown fat is highly active in fuel oxidation and dissipates chemical energy through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated heat production. Activation of brown fat leads to increased energy expenditure, reduced adiposity, and lower plasma glucose and lipid levels, thus contributing to better homeostasis. Uncoupled respiration and thermogenesis have been considered to be responsible for the metabolic benefits of brown adipose tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes also se...

  14. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  15. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Žgur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight from Simmental bulls was 167 kg vs 147 kg from Brown bulls at the same percentage of total carcass fat (10.5 %. Breed has no effect on percentage of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat tissue nor on percentage of subcutaneous fat from total carcass fat. Simmental bulls had higher (p<0.05 subcutaneous fat percentage (subcutaneous fat in the cut / total fat in the cut in brisket and flank and lower (p<0.05 in shoulder than Brown bulls.

  16. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  17. Severe Brown Fat Lipoatrophy Aggravates Atherosclerotic Process in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Óscar; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Benito, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of the adipose organ to vascular inflammation. Brown fat lipoatrophy induces visceral adiposity, mainly in gonadal depot (gonadal white adipose tissue [gWAT]), severe glucose intolerance, high postprandial glucose levels, and a severe defect in acute insulin secretion. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice showed greater hypertriglyceridemia than the obtained in ApoE(-/-) and hypercholesterolemia similar to ApoE(-/-) mice. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice, in addition to primary insulin resistance in BAT, also showed a significant decrease in insulin signaling in liver, gWAT, heart, aorta artery, and thoracic PVAT. More importantly, our results suggest that severe brown fat lipoatrophy aggravates the atherosclerotic process, characterized by a significant increase of lipid depots, atherosclerotic coverage, lesion size and complexity, increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory markers expression. Finally, an increase of TNF-α and leptin as well as a decrease of adiponectin by BAT, gWAT, and thoracic PVAT might also be responsible of vascular damage. Our results suggest that severe brown lipoatrophy aggravates atherosclerotic process. Thus, BAT activation might protect against obesity and its associated metabolic alterations. PMID:27414981

  18. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Žgur; Marko Čepon

    2007-01-01

    Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed) were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight ...

  19. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified “beige” or “brite” cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in br...

  20. Can Brown Fat Win the Battle Against White Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elattar, Sawsan; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2015-10-01

    A rapid growth in the overweight and obese population in the last few decades suggest that the current diet, exercise, awareness or drug strategies are still not effectively restraining the obesity epidemic. Obesity results from increased energy intake, and the body's energy balance shifts towards energy abundance. Therefore, current research is focused on developing new strategies aimed at increasing energy expenditure. As a result, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is receiving tremendous attention since the major function of BAT is to dissipate energy as heat. For example, mouse models that have increased BAT activity or increased numbers of brown-like adipocytes within the white adipose tissue (WAT) are lean and protected from obesity. Alternatively, mouse models that lack BAT activity are more susceptible to age and diet-induced obesity. However, a significant loss of BAT mass during the natural growth process in humans has created enormous challenges in effectively utilizing this tissue to increase energy expenditure. New strategies are primarily focused on expanding the BAT mass and/or activating the existing BAT. In this regard, recent finding that expression of early B cell factor-2 (Ebf2) reprograms the white pre-adipocytes into brown adipocytes is a significant break-through in developing BAT-mediated strategies to treat obesity. Here we review the major biological functions of WAT and BAT, which play critical but opposing roles in the energy spectrum, energy storage versus energy expenditure, and we evaluate whether activation and/or expansion of BAT is practically achievable to treat obesity in humans. PMID:25760392

  1. Ouabain-sensitive component of brown fat thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The study discussed was undertaken to quantify the amount of energy utilized by the ouabain-sensitive Na(+)-K(+) membrane pump during the norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue. The data obtained indicate that the observed inhibition of the catecholamine-induced increase in brown fat thermogenesis by ouabain does not reflect an inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis.

  2. Rictor/mTORC2 Loss in the Myf5 Lineage Reprograms Brown Fat Metabolism and Protects Mice against Obesity and Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Min Hung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo functions of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2 and the signaling mechanisms that control brown adipose tissue (BAT fuel utilization and activity are not well understood. Here, by conditionally deleting Rictor in the Myf5 lineage, we provide in vivo evidence that mTORC2 is dispensable for skeletal muscle development and regeneration but essential for BAT growth. Furthermore, deleting Rictor in Myf5 precursors shifts BAT metabolism to a more oxidative and less lipogenic state and protects mice from obesity and metabolic disease at thermoneutrality. We additionally find that Rictor is required for brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro and that the mechanism specifically requires AKT1 hydrophobic motif phosphorylation but is independent of pan-AKT signaling and is rescued with BMP7. Our findings provide insights into the signaling circuitry that regulates brown adipocytes and could have important implications for developing therapies aimed at increasing energy expenditure as a means to combat human obesity.

  3. Human brown fat and obesity: methodological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    WouterDavidVan Marken Lichtenbelt

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special atten...

  4. Human Brown Fat and Obesity: Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special...

  5. Human brown fat and obesity: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WouterDavidVan Marken Lichtenbelt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Much is known about brown adipose tissue in rodents. Its function is to generate heat in response to low environmental temperatures and to diet or overfeeding. The knowledge about BAT in humans is still rather limited despite the recent rediscovery of its functionality in adults. This review highlights the information available on the contribution of BAT in increasing human energy expenditure in relation to obesity. Besides that methodological aspects will be discussed that need special attention in order to unravel the heat producing capacity of human BAT, the recruitment of the tissue and its functionality.

  6. Role of energy metabolism in the brown fat gene program

    OpenAIRE

    Minwoo eNam; Marcus eCooper

    2015-01-01

    In murine and human brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondria are powerful generators of heat that safely metabolize fat, a feature that has great promise in the fight against obesity and diabetes. Recent studies suggest that the action of mitochondria extend beyond their conventional role as generators of heat. There is mounting evidence that impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity is accompanied by attenuated expression of Ucp1 and other BAT-selective genes, implying that mitochondria ex...

  7. Browning and graying: novel transcriptional regulators of brown and beige fat tissues and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMueller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery that brown and beige fat cells exist in adult humans and contribute to energy expenditure, increasing interest has been devoted to the understanding of the molecular switches turning on calorie utilization. It has been reported that the ability of thermogenic tissues to burn energy declines during aging, possibly contributing to the development of metabolic dysfunction late in life. This review will focus on the recently identified transcriptional modulators of brown and beige cells and will discuss the potential impact of some of these thermogenic factors on age-associated metabolic disorders.

  8. MicroRNA-378 controls classical brown fat expansion to counteract obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Dongning; Mao, Chunxiao; Quattrochi, Brian; Friedline, Randall H.; Zhu, Lihua J.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K.; Lewis, Brian; Wang, Yong-Xu

    2014-01-01

    Both classical brown adipocytes and brown-like beige adipocytes are considered as promising therapeutic targets for obesity; however, their development, relative importance, and functional coordination are not well understood. Here we show that a modest expression of miR-378/378* in adipose tissue specifically increases classical brown fat (BAT) mass, but not white fat (WAT) mass. Remarkably, BAT expansion, rather than miR-378 per se, suppresses formation of beige adipocytes in subcutaneous W...

  9. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  10. Characterization of a primary brown adipocyte culture system derived from human fetal interscapular fat

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Sarah E.; Xu, Dan; Ho, Jia-Pei; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Buehrer, Benjamin M; Ludlow, Y John W; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Sun, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Brown fat has gained widespread attention as a potential therapeutic target to treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Indeed, the anti-obesity potential of multiple targets to stimulate both brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment have been verified in rodent models. However, their therapeutic potential in humans is unknown due to the lack of a human primary brown adipocyte cell culture system. Likewise, the lack of a well-characterized human model has limited the discovery...

  11. Dynamic regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription during mouse brown fat cell differentiation and recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2009-01-01

    ) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well...... in brown adipocyte precursor cells promotes mitochondrial DNA replication, and that silencing of PRDM16 expression during brown fat cell differentiation blunts mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of brown fat cell markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using both in vitro and in vivo model systems of...

  12. A new era in brown adipose tissue biology: molecular control of brown fat development and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Shingo; Saito, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat as a defense against cold and excessive feeding. Interest in the field of BAT biology has exploded in the past few years because of the therapeutic potential of BAT to counteract obesity and obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance. Much progress has been made, particularly in the areas of BAT physiology in adult humans, developmental lineages of brown adipose cell fate, and hormonal control of BAT thermogenesis. As we enter into a new era of brown fat biology, the next challenge will be to develop strategies for activating BAT thermogenesis in adult humans to increase whole-body energy expenditure. This article reviews the recent major advances in this field and discusses emerging questions. PMID:24188710

  13. Duodenal Lipid Sensing Activates Vagal Afferents to Regulate Non-Shivering Brown Fat Thermogenesis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Blouet, Clémence; Schwartz, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous evidence indicates that duodenal lipid sensing engages gut-brain neurocircuits to determine food intake and hepatic glucose production, but a potential role for gut-brain communication in the control of energy expenditure remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that duodenal lipid sensing activates a gut–brain–brown adipose tissue neuraxis to regulate thermogenesis. We demonstrate that direct administration of lipids into the duodenum increases brown fat temperature....

  14. Systemic control of brown fat thermogenesis: integration of peripheral and central signals

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Tim J.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is of great scientific interest as a potential target to treat obesity. The development of novel strategies to quantify brown fat thermogenesis in adult humans now enables minimally invasive assessment of novel pharmacotherapeutics. Input from the central nervous system (CNS) via sympathetic efferents is widely regarded as the key controller of BAT-mediated thermogenesis in response to changes in body temperature or nutrient availability. More recently, however, it ...

  15. Intravitreally Injected Anti-VEGF Antibody Reduces Brown Fat in Neonatal Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Jo

    Full Text Available Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents are the mainstay treatment for various angiogenesis-related retinal diseases. Currently, bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-VEGF antibody, is trailed in retinopathy of prematurity, a vasoproliferative retinal disorder in premature infants. However, the risks of systemic complications after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody in infants are not well understood. In this study, we show that intravitreally injected anti-VEGF antibody is transported into the systemic circulation into the periphery where it reduces brown fat in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. A considerable amount of anti-VEGF antibody was detected in serum after intravitreal injection. Furthermore, in interscapular brown adipose tissue, we found lipid droplet accumulation, decreased VEGF levels, loss of vascular network, and decreased expression of mitochondria-related genes, Ppargc1a and Ucp1, all of which are characteristics of "whitening" of brown fat. With increasing age and body weight, brown fat restored its morphology and vascularity. Our results show that there is a transient, but significant impact of intravitreally administered anti-VEGF antibody on brown adipose tissue in neonatal mice. We suggest that more attention should be focused on the metabolic and developmental significance of brown adipose tissue in bevacizumab treated retinopathy of prematurity infants.

  16. Brown Fat and the Myth of Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Leslie P.

    2010-01-01

    The notion that brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice or humans maintains energy balance by burning off excess calories seems incompatible with evolutionary biology. Studies in obese rats and mice lacking UCP1 indicate that diet-induced thermogenesis by BAT is unlikely.

  17. Novel function of the retinoblastoma protein in fat: regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; te Riele, Hein; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    major energy store and brown adipocytes being potent energy-dissipaters through thermogenesis. Yet, little is known about factors differentially regulating the formation of white and brown fat cells. Members of the retinoblastoma protein family (pRB, p107, p130) have been implicated in the regulation of...... adipocyte differentiation, and expression and phosphorylation of the three retinoblastoma family proteins oscillate in a characteristic manner during differentiation of the white preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1. We have recently demonstrated a surprising function of the retinoblastoma protein in the...... regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro and possibly in vivo. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the retinoblastoma protein in fat cells, with particular emphasis on its potential role in adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation....

  18. Histochemical study of brown-fat cells in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors undertake the task of studying the synthesis of certain hormones by brown-fat cells. The authors used brown-fat cells from the golden hamster. The metabolism of brown-fat cells was studied on precultured cells, which made it possible to detect the synthesis of the studied substances rather than their accumulation in the organ. The authors conducted three experiments. First, fragments of brown fat were cultivated in diffusion chambers in vivo. Pieces of brown fat were cultivated in parallel in vitro on agar (organotypic cultures) and on plasma (histotypic cultures). During cultivation in diffusion chambers, the chambers were implanted in the abdominal cavity of young white rats. For in vitro cultivation, TCM 199 plus 15-20% calf serum was used. A total of 36 cultures with 12 cultures in each series of experiments were performed. The auto-radiographic studies of brown-fat cells were conducted on 24-hour cultures and on brown-fat fragments taken from the intact animal. The cultures were incubated with isotopes for 1 h. Either [3H]lysine (87.3 Ci/mM specific activity), [3H]arginine (16.7 Ci/mM), [3H]glycerol (43 Ci/mM), or [3H]cholesterol (43 Ci/mM) were added to the medium. After incubation, the cultures were washed three times in pure medium, fixed in Sierra fluid, and embedded in paraffin. The paraffin sections were covered with Ilford K2 emulsion, and the preparations were exposed for 20 days at 40C temperature. Radio-immunological methods were used to study the accumulation of estradiol-17-beta in the culture medium by the Dobson method and that of testerone. The culture medium was taken on cultivation days 2,4,6,8, and 10. The medium was changed during cultivation every third day, which made it possible to judge the rates of accumulation of material with increase in the cultivation times

  19. Assessment of oxidative metabolism in Brown Fat using PET imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Otto eMuzik; Mangner, Thomas J.; Granneman, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O) PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults during cold stress and to establish the relationship between BAT oxidative metabolism and FDG tracer uptake....

  20. Vascular rarefaction mediates whitening of brown fat in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ippei; Aprahamian, Tamar; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Shimizu, Ayako; Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N.; MacLauchlan, Susan; Maruyama, Sonomi; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a highly vascularized organ with abundant mitochondria that produce heat through uncoupled respiration. Obesity is associated with a reduction of BAT function; however, it is unknown how obesity promotes dysfunctional BAT. Here, using a murine model of diet-induced obesity, we determined that obesity causes capillary rarefaction and functional hypoxia in BAT, leading to a BAT “whitening” phenotype that is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid droplet ...

  1. Assessment of Oxidative Metabolism in Brown Fat Using PET Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Muzik, Otto; Mangner, Thomas J.; Granneman, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog 18F-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans, suggesting that most humans have some functional BAT. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O) PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults d...

  2. Role of Brown Fat in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, for which hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society, and new therapeutic strategies are highly warranted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is metabolically active in human adults. Although positron emission tomography-computed tomography using a glucose tracer is the golden standard to visualize and quantify the volume and activity of BAT, it has become clear that activated BAT combusts fatty acids rather than glucose. Here, we review the role of brown and beige adipocytes in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, with evidence derived from both animal and human studies. On the basis of mainly data from animal models, we propose a model in which activated brown adipocytes use their intracellular triglyceride stores to generate fatty acids for combustion. BAT rapidly replenishes these stores by internalizing primarily lipoprotein triglyceride-derived fatty acids, generated by lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides, rather than by holoparticle uptake. As a consequence, BAT activation leads to the generation of lipoprotein remnants that are subsequently cleared via the liver provided that an intact apoE-low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway is present. Through these mechanisms, BAT activation reduces plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and attenuates diet-induced atherosclerosis development. Initial studies suggest that BAT activation in humans may also reduce triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but potential antiatherogenic effects should be assessed in future studies. PMID:26837747

  3. LSD1 Interacts with Zfp516 to Promote UCP1 Transcription and Brown Fat Program

    OpenAIRE

    Audrey Sambeat; Olga Gulyaeva; Jon Dempersmier; Kevin M. Tharp; Andreas Stahl; Sarah M. Paul; Hei Sook Sul

    2016-01-01

    Zfp516, a brown fat (BAT)-enriched and cold-inducible transcription factor, promotes transcription of UCP1 and other BAT-enriched genes for non-shivering thermogenesis. Here, we identify lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) as a direct binding partner of Zfp516. We show that, through interaction with Zfp516, LSD1 is recruited to UCP1 and other BAT-enriched genes, such as PGC1α, to function as a coactivator by demethylating H3K9. We also show that LSD1 is induced during brown adipogenesis and ...

  4. A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Pontus; Wu, Jun; Jedrychowski, Mark P;

    2012-01-01

    FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a newly identified hormone, irisin. Irisin acts on white adipose cells in culture and in vivo to stimulate UCP1 expression and a broad program of brown-fat-like development. Irisin is induced with exercise in mice and humans, and mildly...... increased irisin levels in the blood cause an increase in energy expenditure in mice with no changes in movement or food intake. This results in improvements in obesity and glucose homeostasis. Irisin could be therapeutic for human metabolic disease and other disorders that are improved with exercise....

  5. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged. PMID:26041126

  6. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in rat brown fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catecholamines stimulate thermogenesis in rat brown fat through a mechanism which involves binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR), stimulation of adenylate cyclase (AC) and culminating with uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. The authors characterized BAR, AC and cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase in CDF (F-344) interscapular brown fat. Scatchard analysis of [125]Iodopindolol binding yields a straight line consistent with a single class of antagonist binding sites with 41.8 +/- 12.0 fmol BAR/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 118 +/- 15 pM. Binding was both specific and stereospecific. Competition with 1-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 6.7 nM) was 15 times more potent than d-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 103 nM). Competition with isoproterenol (K/sub d/ = 79 nM) was 10 times more potent than epinephrine (K/sub d/ = 820 nM) which was 35 times more potent than norepinephrine (K/sub d/ = 2.9 x 10-5 M) suggesting predominate beta2-type BAR. Cyt c oxidase activity was assessed in brown fat mitochrondrial preparations. The ratio of BAR to cyt c activity was 959 +/- 275 nmol BAR/mol cyc c/min. Isoproterenol (0.1 mM) stimulated AC activity was 24 times GTP (0.1 mM) stimulated AC (98.5 vs 40.7 pmol cAMP/min/mg). NaF-stimulated AC was nine times basal activity (90.5 vs 11.3 pmol cAMP/min/mg). These data demonstrate the presence of a beta-2-type BAR coupled to adenylate cyclase in rat brown fat

  7. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in rat brown fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.; Scarpace, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Catecholamines stimulate thermogenesis in rat brown fat through a mechanism which involves binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR), stimulation of adenylate cyclase (AC) and culminating with uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. The authors characterized BAR, AC and cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase in CDF (F-344) interscapular brown fat. Scatchard analysis of (/sup 125/)Iodopindolol binding yields a straight line consistent with a single class of antagonist binding sites with 41.8 +/- 12.0 fmol BAR/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 118 +/- 15 pM. Binding was both specific and stereospecific. Competition with 1-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 6.7 nM) was 15 times more potent than d-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 103 nM). Competition with isoproterenol (K/sub d/ = 79 nM) was 10 times more potent than epinephrine (K/sub d/ = 820 nM) which was 35 times more potent than norepinephrine (K/sub d/ = 2.9 x 10/sup -5/ M) suggesting predominate beta/sub 2/-type BAR. Cyt c oxidase activity was assessed in brown fat mitochrondrial preparations. The ratio of BAR to cyt c activity was 959 +/- 275 nmol BAR/mol cyc c/min. Isoproterenol (0.1 mM) stimulated AC activity was 24 times GTP (0.1 mM) stimulated AC (98.5 vs 40.7 pmol cAMP/min/mg). NaF-stimulated AC was nine times basal activity (90.5 vs 11.3 pmol cAMP/min/mg). These data demonstrate the presence of a beta-/sub 2/-type BAR coupled to adenylate cyclase in rat brown fat.

  8. Assessment of oxidative metabolism in Brown Fat using PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto eMuzik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults during cold stress and to establish the relationship between BAT oxidative metabolism and FDG tracer uptake.Methods: Fourteen adult normal subjects (9F/5M, 30+7 years underwent triple oxygen scans (H215O, C15O, 15O2 as well as indirect calorimetric measurements at rest and following exposure to mild cold (60F. Subjects were divided into two groups (BAT+ and BAT- based on the presence or absence of FDG tracer uptake (SUV > 2 in supraclavicular BAT. Blood flow (BF and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF was calculated from dynamic PET scans at the location of BAT, muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT. The metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2 in BAT was determined and used to calculate the contribution of activated BAT to daily energy expenditure (DEE.Results: The median mass of activated BAT in the BAT+ group (5F, 31+8yrs was 52.4 g (14-68g and was 1.7 g (0-6.3g in the BAT- group (5M/4F, 29+6yrs. SUV values were significantly higher in the BAT+ as compared to the BAT- group (7.4+3.7 vs 1.9+0.9; p=0.03. BF values in BAT were significantly higher in the BAT+ as compared to the BAT- group (13.1+4.4 vs 5.7+1.1 ml/100g/min, p=0.03, but were similar in WAT (4.1+1.6 vs 4.2+1.8 ml/100g/min and muscle (3.7+0.8 vs 3.3+1.2 ml/100g/min. Calculated MRO2 values in BAT increased from 0.95+0.74 to 1.62+0.82 ml/100g/min in the BAT+ group and were significantly higher than those determined in the BAT- group (0.43+0.27 vs 0.56+0.24; p=0.67. The DEE associated with BAT oxidative metabolism was highly variable in the BAT+ group, with an average of 5.5+6.4 kcal/day (range 0.57–15.3 kcal/day.

  9. Genetic Manipulation of Brown Fat Via Oral Administration of an Engineered Recombinant Adeno-associated Viral Serotype Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; McMurphy, Travis; Liu, Xianglan; Wang, Chuansong; Cao, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are attractive vehicles for gene therapy. Gene delivery to the adipose tissue using naturally occurring AAV serotypes is less successful compared to liver and muscle. Here, we demonstrate that oral administration of an engineered serotype Rec2 led to preferential transduction of brown fat with absence of transduction in the gastrointestinal track. Among the six natural and engineered serotypes being compared, Rec2 was the most efficient serotype achieving high level transduction at a dose 1~2 orders lower than reported doses for systemic administration. Overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brown fat via oral administration of Rec2-VEGF vector increased the brown fat mass and enhanced thermogenesis. In contrast, knockdown VEGF in brown fat of VEGF (loxP) mice via Rec2-Cre vector hampered cold response and decreased brown fat mass. Oral administration of Rec2 vector provides a novel tool to genetically manipulate brown fat for research and therapeutic applications. PMID:26857843

  10. Brown adipose tissue quantification in human neonates using water-fat separated MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerod M Rasmussen

    Full Text Available There is a major resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology, particularly regarding its determinants and consequences in newborns and infants. Reliable methods for non-invasive BAT measurement in human infants have yet to be demonstrated. The current study first validates methods for quantitative BAT imaging of rodents post mortem followed by BAT excision and re-imaging of excised tissues. Identical methods are then employed in a cohort of in vivo infants to establish the reliability of these measures and provide normative statistics for BAT depot volume and fat fraction. Using multi-echo water-fat MRI, fat- and water-based images of rodents and neonates were acquired and ratios of fat to the combined signal from fat and water (fat signal fraction were calculated. Neonatal scans (n = 22 were acquired during natural sleep to quantify BAT and WAT deposits for depot volume and fat fraction. Acquisition repeatability was assessed based on multiple scans from the same neonate. Intra- and inter-rater measures of reliability in regional BAT depot volume and fat fraction quantification were determined based on multiple segmentations by two raters. Rodent BAT was characterized as having significantly higher water content than WAT in both in situ as well as ex vivo imaging assessments. Human neonate deposits indicative of bilateral BAT in spinal, supraclavicular and axillary regions were observed. Pairwise, WAT fat fraction was significantly greater than BAT fat fraction throughout the sample (ΔWAT-BAT = 38 %, p<10(-4. Repeated scans demonstrated a high voxelwise correlation for fat fraction (Rall = 0.99. BAT depot volume and fat fraction measurements showed high intra-rater (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.93, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93 and inter-rater reliability (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.86, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93. This study demonstrates the reliability of using multi-echo water-fat MRI in human neonates for quantification throughout the torso of BAT depot volume and fat

  11. Ablation of NG2 proteoglycan leads to deficits in brown fat function and to adult onset obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchao Chang

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. We are studying the causes and effects of obesity in C57Bl/6 mice following genetic ablation of NG2, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan widely expressed in progenitor cells and also in adipocytes. Although global NG2 ablation delays early postnatal adipogenesis in mouse skin, adult NG2 null mice are paradoxically heavier than wild-type mice, exhibiting larger white fat deposits. This adult onset obesity is not due to NG2-dependent effects on CNS function, since specific ablation of NG2 in oligodendrocyte progenitors yields the opposite phenotype; i.e. abnormally lean mice. Metabolic analysis reveals that, while activity and food intake are unchanged in global NG2 null mice, O(2 consumption and CO(2 production are decreased, suggesting a decrease in energy expenditure. Since brown fat plays important roles in regulating energy expenditure, we have investigated brown fat function via cold challenge and high fat diet feeding, both of which induce the adaptive thermogenesis that normally occurs in brown fat. In both tests, body temperatures in NG2 null mice are reduced compared to wild-type mice, indicating a deficit in brown fat function in the absence of NG2. In addition, adipogenesis in NG2 null brown pre-adipocytes is dramatically impaired compared to wild-type counterparts. Moreover, mRNA levels for PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC1-α, proteins important for brown adipocyte differentiation, are decreased in NG2 null brown fat deposits in vivo and NG2 null brown pre-adipocytes in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate that brown fat dysfunction in NG2 null mice results from deficits in the recruitment and/or development of brown pre-adipocytes. As a consequence, obesity in NG2 null mice may occur due to disruptions in brown fat-dependent energy homeostasis, with resulting effects on lipid storage in white adipocytes.

  12. Leptin Production by Encapsulated Adipocytes Increases Brown Fat, Decreases Resistin, and Improves Glucose Intolerance in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, David J.; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Yasmeen, Rumana; Fadda, Paolo; Lee, L. James; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Gilor, Chen L.; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine effects of leptin on metabolism hold promise to be translated into a complementary therapy to traditional insulin therapy for diabetes and obesity. However, injections of leptin can provoke inflammation. We tested the effects of leptin, produced in the physiological adipocyte location, on metabolism in mouse models of genetic and dietary obesity. We generated 3T3-L1 adipocytes constitutively secreting leptin and encapsulated them in a poly-L-lysine membrane, which protects the cells from immune rejection. Ob/ob mice (OB) were injected with capsules containing no cells (empty, OB[Emp]), adipocytes (OB[3T3]), or adipocytes overexpressing leptin (OB[Lep]) into both visceral fat depots. Leptin was found in the plasma of OB[Lep], but not OB[Emp] and OB[3T3] mice at the end of treatment (72 days). The OB[Lep] and OB[3T3] mice have transiently suppressed appetite and weight loss compared to OB[Emp]. Only OB[Lep] mice have greater brown fat mass, metabolic rate, and reduced resistin plasma levels compared to OB[Emp]. Glucose tolerance was markedly better in OB[Lep] vs. OB[Emp] and OB[3T3] mice as well as in wild type mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance treated with encapsulated leptin-producing adipocytes. Our proof-of-principle study provides evidence of long-term improvement of glucose tolerance with encapsulated adipocytes producing leptin. PMID:27055280

  13. Leptin Production by Encapsulated Adipocytes Increases Brown Fat, Decreases Resistin, and Improves Glucose Intolerance in Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, David J; Melgar-Bermudez, Emiliano; Yasmeen, Rumana; Fadda, Paolo; Lee, L James; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Gilor, Chen L; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine effects of leptin on metabolism hold promise to be translated into a complementary therapy to traditional insulin therapy for diabetes and obesity. However, injections of leptin can provoke inflammation. We tested the effects of leptin, produced in the physiological adipocyte location, on metabolism in mouse models of genetic and dietary obesity. We generated 3T3-L1 adipocytes constitutively secreting leptin and encapsulated them in a poly-L-lysine membrane, which protects the cells from immune rejection. Ob/ob mice (OB) were injected with capsules containing no cells (empty, OB[Emp]), adipocytes (OB[3T3]), or adipocytes overexpressing leptin (OB[Lep]) into both visceral fat depots. Leptin was found in the plasma of OB[Lep], but not OB[Emp] and OB[3T3] mice at the end of treatment (72 days). The OB[Lep] and OB[3T3] mice have transiently suppressed appetite and weight loss compared to OB[Emp]. Only OB[Lep] mice have greater brown fat mass, metabolic rate, and reduced resistin plasma levels compared to OB[Emp]. Glucose tolerance was markedly better in OB[Lep] vs. OB[Emp] and OB[3T3] mice as well as in wild type mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance treated with encapsulated leptin-producing adipocytes. Our proof-of-principle study provides evidence of long-term improvement of glucose tolerance with encapsulated adipocytes producing leptin. PMID:27055280

  14. Fat deposition and flesh quality in seawater reared, triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta) as affected by dietary fat levels and starvation

    OpenAIRE

    Regost, Christelle; Arzel, Jacqueline; Cardinal, Mireille; Laroche, M; Kaushik, Sadasivam

    2001-01-01

    Three isoproteic (crude protein content: 56%) diets with different fat levels (11%, 20%, and 26%) were fed to triplicate groups of triploid brown trout (initial average body weight of 1.5 kg), reared in seawater. At the end of 3 months of feeding, fish fed the high-fat (HF) diet were split into two groups: a triplicate group of fish received the low-fat diet and another triplicate group was kept unfed for a further 2-month period. Fish initially fed the low-fat diet during the first period we...

  15. Fire protection maintenance at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two approaches to staffing and organizing a fire protection maintenance group. Both have been used at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. One takes traditional craft functions and relocates them from the plant maintenance department to the fire protection section. The other expands the role to include response to fire, medical, and hazardous material emergencies. Both approaches remove the fire protection supervisor from a purely staff role, and involve him/her in direct-line management functions. This results in improved technical direction to the craftsmen, improved quality of the work performed, and improved craft morale. It also assures the fire protection supervisor of much more detailed knowledge of the overall status of the fire protection systems

  16. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vibha; Maffazioli, Giovana D.; Ackerman, Kate E.; Lee, Hang; Elia, Elisa F.; Woolley, Ryan; Kolodny, Gerald; Cypess, Aaron M.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT. Purpose We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status. Methods The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes) between 18–25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8) or eumenorrheic (n = 8).We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition. Results Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002), higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01) and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09). BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively). We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02).BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02), and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones. Conclusions Our study

  17. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT.We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status.The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes between 18-25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8 or eumenorrheic (n = 8.We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition.Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002, higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01 and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09. BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively. We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02.BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02, and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones.Our study shows a trend for lower BAT in young female

  18. Regulation of brown fat adipogenesis by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Matsuo

    Full Text Available Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is a physiological regulator of insulin signaling and energy balance, but its role in brown fat adipogenesis requires additional investigation.To precisely determine the role of PTP1B in adipogenesis, we established preadipocyte cell lines from wild type and PTP1B knockout (KO mice. In addition, we reconstituted KO cells with wild type, substrate-trapping (D/A and sumoylation-resistant (K/R PTP1B mutants, then characterized differentiation and signaling in these cells. KO, D/A- and WT-reconstituted cells fully differentiated into mature adipocytes with KO and D/A cells exhibiting a trend for enhanced differentiation. In contrast, K/R cells exhibited marked attenuation in differentiation and lipid accumulation compared with WT cells. Expression of adipogenic markers PPARγ, C/EBPα, C/EBPδ, and PGC1α mirrored the differentiation pattern. In addition, the differentiation deficit in K/R cells could be reversed completely by the PPARγ activator troglitazone. PTP1B deficiency enhanced insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 tyrosyl phosphorylation, while K/R cells exhibited attenuated insulin-induced IR and IRS1 phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with WT cells. In addition, substrate-trapping studies revealed that IRS1 is a substrate for PTP1B in brown adipocytes. Moreover, KO, D/A and K/R cells exhibited elevated AMPK and ACC phosphorylation compared with WT cells.These data indicate that PTP1B is a modulator of brown fat adipogenesis and suggest that adipocyte differentiation requires regulated expression of PTP1B.

  19. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Chi H. L. Dinh; Alexander Szabo; Yinghua Yu; Danielle Camer; Qingsheng Zhang; Hongqin Wang; Xu-Feng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/B...

  20. Shc depletion stimulates brown fat activity in vivo and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tomilov, Alexey; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Kim, Kyoungmi; Sahdeo, Sunil; Tomilova, Natalia; Lam, Adam; Hagopian, Kevork; Connell, Michelle; Fong, Jennifer; Rowland, Douglas; Griffey, Stephen; Ramsey, Jon; Haj, Fawaz; Cortopassi, Gino

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an important metabolic organ that integrates a wide array of homeostatic processes and is crucial for whole-body insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a key thermogenic tissue with a well-established role in energy expenditure. BAT dissipates energy and protects against both hypothermia and obesity. Thus, BAT stimulation therapy is a rational strategy for the looming pandemic of obesity, whose consequences and comorbidities have a huge impa...

  1. Inherent Plasticity of Brown Adipogenesis in White Fat of Mice Allows for Recovery from Effects of Post-Natal Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Leslie P.; Koza, Robert A.; Anunciado-Koza, Rea; Mendoza, Tamra; Newman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) is formed during fetal development and stable for the life span of the mouse. In addition, brown adipocytes also appear in white fat depots (wBAT) between 10 and 21 days of age in mice maintained at a room temperature of 23°C. However, this expression is transient. By 60 days of age the brown adipocytes have disappeared, but they can re-emerge if the adult mouse is exposed to the cold (5°C) or treated with β3-adrenergic agonists. Since the number of b...

  2. Can brown fat uptake of 18F-FDG be reduced by beta-blockers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing application of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission imaging, there has been an evolving appreciation for the range of normal variants and the realization that false- positives can lead to serious consequences. One of the most common causes of a false-positive study is the uptake of FDG in areas of brown adipose tissue. BAT is generally present in deep cervical regions, including the supraclavicular areas, the interscapular and paravertebral regions, and areas near large vessels. Areas of involvement are often spatially closely related to important lymph node groups in the neck, axilla, and upper mediastinum, making critical differentiation difficult. The uptake of 18F FDG in brown adipose tissue (BAT) limits the ability of a PET scan to detect the sites of viable disease. Many studies have been done after premedication with Diazepam (benzodiazepines) to reduce the uptake of FDG by brown fat. But they are of limited value. Thus, it would be ideal if a drug could completely reverse the brown fat uptake and thus aid in proper management of the patient. The aim of this study is to see if by giving a single dose of a beta-blocker such as 'Ciplar' (Propranolol) 40 mg, 30 minutes prior to the FDG injection will help in reduction of brown fat uptake of 18F-FDG or not. Materials and Methods: Patients who were referred for a PET scan, either for a pretreatment or a post treatment evaluation and who showed FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were taken up for this study. The total number of patients was 14. A repeat PET scan was done after a gap of at least 48 hrs after the first study. The patients were advised to keep themselves warm with adequate warm clothing on the day of the second study. 40 mg of 'Ciplar' (propranolol) was given orally 30 minutes prior to the 18F-FDG injection. A whole body PET scan was performed on a dedicated whole body PET scanner (ADVANCE, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI.), using attenuation correction with 68

  3. LSD1 Interacts with Zfp516 to Promote UCP1 Transcription and Brown Fat Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Sambeat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zfp516, a brown fat (BAT-enriched and cold-inducible transcription factor, promotes transcription of UCP1 and other BAT-enriched genes for non-shivering thermogenesis. Here, we identify lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1 as a direct binding partner of Zfp516. We show that, through interaction with Zfp516, LSD1 is recruited to UCP1 and other BAT-enriched genes, such as PGC1α, to function as a coactivator by demethylating H3K9. We also show that LSD1 is induced during brown adipogenesis and that LSD1 and its demethylase activity is required for the BAT program. Furthermore, we show that LSD1 ablation in mice using Myf5-Cre alters embryonic BAT development. Moreover, BAT-specific deletion of LSD1 via the use of UCP1-Cre impairs the BAT program and BAT development, making BAT resemble WAT, reducing thermogenic activity and promoting obesity. Finally, we demonstrate an in vivo requirement of the Zfp516-LSD1 interaction for LSD1 function in BAT gene activation.

  4. LSD1 Interacts with Zfp516 to Promote UCP1 Transcription and Brown Fat Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambeat, Audrey; Gulyaeva, Olga; Dempersmier, Jon; Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas; Paul, Sarah M; Sul, Hei Sook

    2016-06-14

    Zfp516, a brown fat (BAT)-enriched and cold-inducible transcription factor, promotes transcription of UCP1 and other BAT-enriched genes for non-shivering thermogenesis. Here, we identify lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) as a direct binding partner of Zfp516. We show that, through interaction with Zfp516, LSD1 is recruited to UCP1 and other BAT-enriched genes, such as PGC1α, to function as a coactivator by demethylating H3K9. We also show that LSD1 is induced during brown adipogenesis and that LSD1 and its demethylase activity is required for the BAT program. Furthermore, we show that LSD1 ablation in mice using Myf5-Cre alters embryonic BAT development. Moreover, BAT-specific deletion of LSD1 via the use of UCP1-Cre impairs the BAT program and BAT development, making BAT resemble WAT, reducing thermogenic activity and promoting obesity. Finally, we demonstrate an in vivo requirement of the Zfp516-LSD1 interaction for LSD1 function in BAT gene activation. PMID:27264172

  5. Medium-Chain Triglyceride Activated Brown Adipose Tissue and Induced Reduction of Fat Mass in C57BL/6J Mice Fed High-fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; XUE Chang Yong; XU Qing; LIU Ying Hua; ZHANG Xin Sheng; WANG Jin; YU Xiao Ming; ZHANG Rong Xin; XUE Chao; YANG Xue Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) stimulated by medium-chain triglyceride (MCT). Methods 30 Male C57BL/6J obese mice induced by fed high fat diet (HFD) were divided into 2 groups, and fed another HFD with 2% MCT or long-chain triglyceride (LCT) respectively for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood biochemical variables, interscapular brown fat tissue (IBAT) mass, expressions of mRNA and protein of beta 3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR), uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), protein kinase A (PKA), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in IBAT were measured. Results Significant decrease in body weight and body fat mass was observed in MCT group as compared with LCT group (P<0.05) after 12 weeks. Greater increases in IBAT mass was observed in MCT group than in LCT group (P<0.05). Blood TG, TC, LDL-C in MCT group were decreased significantly, meanwhile blood HDL-C, ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C and norepinephrine were increased markedly. Expressions of mRNA and protein ofβ3-AR, UCP1, PKA, HSL, ATGL in BAT were greater in MCT group than in LCT group (P<0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that MCT stimulated the activation of BAT, possible via norepinephrine pathway, which might partially contribute to reduction of the body fat mass in obese mice fed high fat diet.

  6. Brown fat distribution in the chest wall of infants - normal appearance, distribution and evolution on CT scans of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While reviewing chest CT scans of infants, we repeatedly observed hyperdense enhancing tissue in the chest wall that is not well described in radiology literature. This study was undertaken to describe the imaging features of this tissue in chest walls of infants. CT scans of the chest conducted on all infants between April 2008 and October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. CT studies with any deviation from normal radiation or contrast dose or those with chest wall anatomical distortion were excluded. One hundred eighty-eight infants were scanned, with 202 MDCTs, of which 180 (89.1%) received contrast agent. Fifty-four of 180 (30%) cases revealed focal areas of hyperdensity in various locations. All positive cases ranged between 2 days and 9 months of age. The areas of distribution of hyperdensity had excellent correlation with known areas of brown fat in the chest wall, known from nuclear medicine studies, and hence we concluded these to represent the same. Brown fat in the chest wall can be seen as enhancing tissue on contrast CT scans done on infants. This is a normal morphological component with the brown fat converting to normal fat. It is important to recognize it in the chest wall of infants to avoid misinterpretation. (orig.)

  7. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  8. Brown fat distribution in the chest wall of infants - normal appearance, distribution and evolution on CT scans of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Priya; Babyn, Paul S.; Shammas, Amer; Miller, Stephen F. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    While reviewing chest CT scans of infants, we repeatedly observed hyperdense enhancing tissue in the chest wall that is not well described in radiology literature. This study was undertaken to describe the imaging features of this tissue in chest walls of infants. CT scans of the chest conducted on all infants between April 2008 and October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. CT studies with any deviation from normal radiation or contrast dose or those with chest wall anatomical distortion were excluded. One hundred eighty-eight infants were scanned, with 202 MDCTs, of which 180 (89.1%) received contrast agent. Fifty-four of 180 (30%) cases revealed focal areas of hyperdensity in various locations. All positive cases ranged between 2 days and 9 months of age. The areas of distribution of hyperdensity had excellent correlation with known areas of brown fat in the chest wall, known from nuclear medicine studies, and hence we concluded these to represent the same. Brown fat in the chest wall can be seen as enhancing tissue on contrast CT scans done on infants. This is a normal morphological component with the brown fat converting to normal fat. It is important to recognize it in the chest wall of infants to avoid misinterpretation. (orig.)

  9. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:26066016

  10. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi H. L. Dinh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7 of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD, a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD, or a low-fat diet (LFD for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM and dorsal vagal complex (DVC in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α. Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity.

  11. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H L; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-06-01

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:26066016

  12. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Shu-Wen; Tang, Yan; Li, Xi; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, You-you; Huang, Hai-yan; Xue, Rui-Dan; Yu, Hao-Yong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Hui-Di; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xia; Li, Yi-ming; Jia, Wei-Ping; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces “white adipocytes” with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP...

  13. Isoenergetic Feeding of Low Carbohydrate-High Fat Diets Does Not Increase Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Capacity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Matthias J.; Maximilian Bielohuby; Brigitte Mauracher; William Abplanalp; Hans-Helge Müller; Korbinian Pieper; Juliane Ramisch; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Felix Beuschlein; Martin Bidlingmaier; Marc Slawik

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4...

  14. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Matthias J.; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks...

  15. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  16. Adipose VEGF Links the White-to-Brown Fat Switch With Environmental, Genetic, and Pharmacological Stimuli in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, Matthew J; Liu, Xianglan; Huang, Wei; Magee, Daniel; Slater, Andrew; McMurphy, Travis; Wang, Chuansong; Cao, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Living in an enriched environment (EE) decreases adiposity, increases energy expenditure, causes resistance to diet induced obesity, and induces brown-like (beige) cells in white fat via activating a hypothalamic-adipocyte axis. Here we report that EE stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a fat depot-specific manner prior to the emergence of beige cells. The VEGF up-regulation was independent of hypoxia but required intact sympathetic tone to the adipose tissue. Targeted adipose overexpression of VEGF reproduced the browning effect of EE. Adipose-specific VEGF knockout or pharmacological VEGF blockade with antibodies abolished the induction of beige cell by EE. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulated by EE regulated the adipose VEGF expression, and VEGF signaling was essential to the hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced white adipose tissue browning. Furthermore, VEGF signaling was essential to the beige cells induction by exercise, a β3-adrenergic agonist, and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligand, suggesting a common downstream pathway integrating diverse upstream mechanisms. Exploiting this pathway may offer potential therapeutic interventions to obesity and metabolic diseases. PMID:25763639

  17. Direct evidence of brown adipocytes in different fat depots in children

    OpenAIRE

    Rockstroh, Denise; Landgraf, Kathrin; Wagner, Isabel Viola; Gesing, Julia; Tauscher, Roy; Lakowa, Nicole; Kiess, Wieland; Bühligen, Ulf; Wojan, Magdalena; Till, Holger; Blüher, Matthias; Körner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested the persistence of brown adipocytes in adult humans, as opposed to being exclusively present in infancy. In this study, we investigated the presence of brown-like adipocytes in adipose tissue (AT) samples of children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years and evaluated the association with age, location, and obesity. For this, we analysed AT samples from 131 children and 23 adults by histological, immunohistochemical and expression analyses. We detected brown-like and UCP...

  18. Effects of the Polysaccharide from the Sporophyll of Brown Alga Undaria Pinnatifida on Serum Lipid Profile and Fat Tissue Accumulation in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Mok; Park, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Young-Myung; Jun, Joon-Young; Jeong, In-Hak; Chi, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the polysaccharide from the sporophyll of a selected brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on serum lipid profile, fat tissue accumulation, and gastrointestinal transit time in rats fed a high-fat diet. The algal polysaccharide (AP) was prepared by the treatment of multiple cellulase-producing fungi Trichoderma reesei and obtained from the sporophyll with a yield of 38.7% (dry basis). The AP was mostly composed of alginate and fucoidan (up to 89%) in a ratio of 3.75:1. The AP was added to the high-fat diet in concentrations of 0.6% and 1.7% and was given to male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-wk-old) for 5 wk. The 1.7% AP addition notably reduced body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation, and it improved the serum lipid profile, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The effects were associated with increased feces weight and shortened gastrointestinal transit time. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the liver was decreased in both groups. PMID:27384013

  19. Central serotonergic neurons activate and recruit thermogenic brown and beige fat and regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGlashon, Jacob M; Gorecki, Michelle C; Kozlowski, Amanda E;

    2015-01-01

    diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) was selectively expressed in central 5-HT neurons. Treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) eliminated 5-HT neurons and caused loss of thermoregulation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) steatosis, and a >50% decrease in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression in BAT and inguinal white...... adipose tissue (WAT). In parallel, blood glucose increased 3.5-fold, free fatty acids 13.4-fold, and triglycerides 6.5-fold. Similar BAT and beige fat defects occurred in Lmx1b(f/f)ePet1(Cre) mice in which 5-HT neurons fail to develop in utero. We conclude 5-HT neurons play a major role in regulating...

  20. Non-Invasive Quantification of White and Brown Adipose Tissues and Liver Fat Content by Computed Tomography in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lubura, Marko; Hesse, Deike; Neumann, Nancy; Scherneck, Stephan; Wiedmer, Petra; Schürmann, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Obesity and its distribution pattern are important factors for the prediction of the onset of diabetes in humans. Since several mouse models are suitable to study the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes the aim was to validate a novel computed tomograph model (Aloka-Hitachi LCT-200) for the quantification of visceral, subcutaneous, brown and intrahepatic fat depots in mice. Methods Different lean and obese mouse models (C57BL/6, B6.V-Lepob, NZO) were used to determine the most adequ...

  1. Direct evidence of brown adipocytes in different fat depots in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rockstroh

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested the persistence of brown adipocytes in adult humans, as opposed to being exclusively present in infancy. In this study, we investigated the presence of brown-like adipocytes in adipose tissue (AT samples of children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years and evaluated the association with age, location, and obesity. For this, we analysed AT samples from 131 children and 23 adults by histological, immunohistochemical and expression analyses. We detected brown-like and UCP1 positive adipocytes in 10.3% of 87 lean children (aged 0.3 to 10.7 years and in one overweight infant, whereas we did not find brown adipocytes in obese children or adults. In our samples, the brown-like adipocytes were interspersed within white AT of perirenal, visceral and also subcutaneous depots. Samples with brown-like adipocytes showed an increased expression of UCP1 (>200fold, PRDM16 (2.8fold, PGC1α and CIDEA while other brown/beige selective markers, such as PAT2, P2RX5, ZIC1, LHX8, TMEM26, HOXC9 and TBX1 were not significantly different between UCP1 positive and negative samples. We identified a positive correlation between UCP1 and PRDM16 within UCP1 positive samples, but not with any other brown/beige marker. In addition, we observed significantly increased PRDM16 and PAT2 expression in subcutaneous and visceral AT samples with high UCP1 expression in adults. Our data indicate that brown-like adipocytes are present well beyond infancy in subcutaneous depots of non-obese children. The presence was not restricted to typical perirenal locations, but they were also interspersed within WAT of visceral and subcutaneous depots.

  2. Benefit of Protected Fat for Improving Production and Reproduction of Ruminant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat or free fatty acid is one of the energy sources which is high density and gives higher energy than any other nutrients. Indonesia has a huge potency for free fatty acid as alternative energy source for ruminant. However, in a certain amount, fat or fatty acid will cause negative effect on the rumen function. Therefore, several technologies to protect fat or fatty acid were developed. In early lactation, dairy cow requires additional energy from high density ingredient without causing any negative effect on rumen function. This paper describes fat metabolism in the rumen and post rumen, technology to protect fat or free fatty acid and the effect of protected fat or fatty acid on nutritional value, production and reproductive performances, carcass quality and milk quality. In conclusion, the utilization of protected fat or fatty acid gives positive effects on productive and reproductive performances.

  3. (11)C-meta-hydroxyephedrine PET/CT imaging allows in vivo study of adaptive thermogenesis and white-to-brown fat conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Quarta, C.; F. Lodi; Mazza, R; Giannone, F; Boschi, L.; Nanni, C; E. Nisoli; Boschi, S; Pasquali, R.; Fanti, S.; P. Iozzo; Pagotto, U.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that novel pharmacological approaches aimed at converting white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown adipose tissue (BAT) may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for obesity and related disorders. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is the only positron emission tomography (PET) tracer commonly used to study BAT function, and so far no functional tools have been described to investigate in vivo white-to-brown fat conversion. In this report, we show that the...

  4. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  5. Biodegradable polymeric microsphere-based drug delivery for inductive browning of fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown and beige adipocytes are potent therapeutic agents to increase energy expenditure and reduce risks of obesity and its affiliated metabolic symptoms. One strategy to increase beige adipocyte content is through inhibition of the evolutionarily conserved Notch signaling pathway. However, systemic delivery of Notch inhibitors is associated with off-target effects and multiple dosages of application further faces technical and translational challenges. Here, we report the development of a biodegradable polymeric microsphere-based drug delivery system for sustained, local release of a Notch inhibitor, DBZ. The microsphere-based delivery system was fabricated and optimized using an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique to encapsulate DBZ into poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA, a commonly used biodegradable polymer for controlled drug release. Release studies revealed the ability of PLGA microspheres to release DBZ in a sustained manner. Co-culture of white adipocytes with and without DBZ-loaded PLGA microspheres demonstrated that the released DBZ retained its bioactivity, and effectively inhibited Notch and promoted browning of white adipocytes. Injection of these DBZ-loaded PLGA microspheres into mouse inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT depots resulted in browning in vivo. Our results provide the encouraging proof-of-principle evidence for the application of biodegradable polymers as a controlled release platform for delivery of browning factors, and pave the way for development of new translational therapeutic strategies for treatment of obesity.

  6. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  7. A high-fat diet impairs cooling-evoked brown adipose tissue activation via a vagal afferent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Christopher J; Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-08-01

    In dramatic contrast to rats on a control diet, rats maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) failed to activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) during cooling despite robust increases in their BAT activity following direct activation of their BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the raphe pallidus. Cervical vagotomy or blockade of glutamate receptors in the nucleus of the tractus solitarii (NTS) reversed the HFD-induced inhibition of cold-evoked BAT activity. Thus, a HFD does not prevent rats from mounting a robust, centrally driven BAT thermogenesis; however, a HFD does alter a vagal afferent input to NTS neurons, thereby preventing the normal activation of BAT thermogenesis to cooling. These results, paralleling the absence of cooling-evoked glucose uptake in the BAT of obese humans, reveal a neural mechanism through which consumption of a HFD contributes to reduced energy expenditure and thus to weight gain. PMID:27354235

  8. Lithium and methylphenidate: opposite effects on perirenal brown fat Lítio e metilfenidato: efeitos opostos sobre a gordura perirrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Menna Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the administration of lithium to adult rats on brown (perirenal and white (inguinal adipose tissues and to assess whether methylphenidate modulates lithium effects. METHODS: Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were fed with either regular or lithium-containing chow for 30 days. Between days 15 to 30 of treatment, animals received daily intraperitoneal administrations of either methylphenidate or saline. RESULTS: Lithium significantly reduced perirenal fat, and this effect was minimized by the administration of methylphenidate. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the effects of lithium on inguinal fat. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that different effects on white and brown tissue distribution may be involved in lithium-induced weight gain.OBJETIVO: Avaliar como a administração de lítio afeta o tecido adiposo marrom (perirrenal e branco (inguinal e se o metilfenidato modula os efeitos do lítio. MÉTODOS: Vinte e cinco ratos Wistar adultos machos foram alimentados com ração normal ou contendo lítio por 30 dias. Entre os dias 15 e 30 de tratamento, os animais receberam doses intraperitoneais diárias de metilfenidato ou solução salina. RESULTADOS: A administração de lítio reduziu significativamente a gordura perirrenal. Esse efeito foi reduzido com a administração de metilfenidato. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos em relação à gordura inguinal. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que efeitos diferenciados sobre os tecidos adiposos marrom e branco podem estar envolvidos no ganho de peso induzido pelo tratamento com lítio.

  9. Hedgehog partial agonism drives Warburg-like metabolism in muscle and brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teperino, Raffaele; Amann, Sabine; Bayer, Martina;

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and cancer affect upward of 15% of the world's population. Interestingly, all three diseases juxtapose dysregulated intracellular signaling with altered metabolic state. Exactly which genetic factors define stable metabolic set points in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we......-independent glucose uptake in muscle and brown adipose tissue. These data identify multiple noncanonical endpoints that are pivotal for rational design of hedgehog modulators and provide a new therapeutic avenue for obesity and diabetes....

  10. Hypothalamic GLP-1: the control of BAT thermogenesis and browning of white fat

    OpenAIRE

    López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized organ responsible for thermogenesis, a process required for maintaining body temperature. Since the discovery that BAT and brite/beige cells are functional in adult humans, many studies have been focusing on the physiology and functionality of this organ. The brain is controlling the maintenance of body temperature through a complex neuronal network. One of the candidates to modulate thermogenesis at central level is glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1),...

  11. Stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase protects against obesity by recruiting brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Linda S; Etzrodt, Jennifer; Willkomm, Lena; Sanyal, Abhishek; Scheja, Ludger; Fischer, Alexander W C; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Friebe, Andreas; Heeren, Joerg; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 enhances lipid uptake into BAT and increases whole-body energy expenditure, whereas ablation of the haeme-containing β1-subunit of sGC severely impairs BAT function. Notably, the sGC stimulator enhances differentiation of human brown adipocytes as well as induces 'browning' of primary white adipocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that sGC is a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:26011238

  12. β-arrestin-1 contributes to brown fat function and directly interacts with PPARα and PPARγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congcong; Zeng, Xianglu; Zhou, Zhaocai; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family plays central roles in brown adipose tissue (BAT) adipogenesis and contributes to body temperature maintenance. The transcriptional activity of PPAR family has been shown to be tightly controlled by cellular signal networks. β-arrestins function as major secondary messengers of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) signaling by functional interactions with diverse proteins. Here, we report that β-arrestin-1 knock-out mice show enhanced cold tolerance. We found that β-arrestin-1 directly interacts with PPARα and PPARγ through a LXXXLXXXL motif, while D371 in PPARα and L311/N312/D380 in PPARγ are required for their interactions with β-arrestin-1. Further mechanistic studies showed that β-arrestin-1 promotes PPARα- but represses PPARγ-mediated transcriptional activities, providing potential regulatory pathway for BAT function. PMID:27301785

  13. Thermogenic capacity is antagonistically regulated in classical brown and white subcutaneous fat depots by high fat diet and endurance training in rats: impact on whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Michelle V; Bikopoulos, George; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the regulation of thermogenic capacity in classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) white adipose tissue (WAT) and how it affects whole-body energy expenditure in sedentary and endurance-trained rats fed ad libitum either low fat or high fat (HF) diets. Analysis of tissue mass, PGC-1α and UCP-1 content, the presence of multilocular adipocytes, and palmitate oxidation revealed that a HF diet increased the thermogenic capacity of the interscapular and aortic brown adipose tissues, whereas exercise markedly suppressed it. Conversely, exercise induced browning of the SC Ing WAT. This effect was attenuated by a HF diet. Endurance training neither affected skeletal muscle FNDC5 content nor circulating irisin, but it increased FNDC5 content in SC Ing WAT. This suggests that locally produced FNDC5 rather than circulating irisin mediated the exercise-induced browning effect on this fat tissue. Importantly, despite reducing the thermogenic capacity of classical BAT, exercise increased whole-body energy expenditure during the dark cycle. Therefore, browning of subcutaneous WAT likely exerted a compensatory effect and raised whole-body energy expenditure in endurance-trained rats. Based on these novel findings, we propose that exercise-induced browning of the subcutaneous WAT provides an alternative mechanism that reduces thermogenic capacity in core areas and increases it in peripheral body regions. This could allow the organism to adjust its metabolic rate to accommodate diet-induced thermogenesis while simultaneously coping with the stress of chronically increased heat production through exercise. PMID:25344623

  14. Activity of thyroxine 5' deiodinase in brown fat of lean and obese zucker rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.Y.; Fisher, D.A.; Stern, J.S.; Glick, Z.

    1986-03-01

    This study examines the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for conversion of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ in BAT, through activity of T/sub 4/ 5' deiodinase. Eighteen lean (Fa/.) and 18 age matched obese (fa/fa), about 16 weeks old, were each divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group). Group 1 and 2 were fed Purina Rat Chow and a cafeteria diet respectively for 21 days, and maintained at 22/sup 0/C+/-2. Group 3 was fed rat chow and maintained at 8/sup 0/C+/-1 for 7 days. Activity of T/sub 4/5'deiodinase was determined in vitro. T/sub 3/ was measured by a radioimmunoassay. The rate of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ conversion was similar in the lean and the obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet (about 40 to 50 pmol T/sub 3//scapular BAT depot, per hour). However, lean rats exposed to the cold displayed about a 5 fold increase in T/sub 4/5' deiodinase activity (p<0.0001), with only a small increase displayed by the cold exposed obese rats. Our data suggest that a reduced capacity of the brown rat to produce T/sub 3/ may account for the reduced tolerance of obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet induced BAT thermogenesis.

  15. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  16. Stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase protects against obesity by recruiting brown adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Linda S.; Etzrodt, Jennifer; Willkomm, Lena; Sanyal, Abhishek; Scheja, Ludger; Fischer, Alexander W.C.; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Friebe, Andreas; Heeren, Joerg; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimu...

  17. Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave radiometry monitoring of brown fat metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2013-02-01

    Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave radiometry. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.

  18. Activity of thyroxine 5' deiodinase in brown fat of lean and obese zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for conversion of T4 to T3 in BAT, through activity of T4 5' deiodinase. Eighteen lean (Fa/.) and 18 age matched obese (fa/fa), about 16 weeks old, were each divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group). Group 1 and 2 were fed Purina Rat Chow and a cafeteria diet respectively for 21 days, and maintained at 220C+/-2. Group 3 was fed rat chow and maintained at 80C+/-1 for 7 days. Activity of T45'deiodinase was determined in vitro. T3 was measured by a radioimmunoassay. The rate of T4 to T3 conversion was similar in the lean and the obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet (about 40 to 50 pmol T3/scapular BAT depot, per hour). However, lean rats exposed to the cold displayed about a 5 fold increase in T45' deiodinase activity (p3 may account for the reduced tolerance of obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet induced BAT thermogenesis

  19. Thermogenin amount and activity in hamster brown fat mitochondria: effect of cold acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundin, U.; Moore, G.; Nedergaard, J.; Cannon, B.

    1987-05-01

    To investigate the acclimation process in a hibernator, four different parameters of thermogenin amount and activity were investigated in brown adipose tissue mitochondria from cold-exposed and cold-acclimated Syrian hamsters. Hamsters, which are hibernators, have been considered to be primed for thermogenesis and thus not to show cold-acclimation effects, but here a significant increase in (/sup 3/H)GDP-binding capacity was observed, and this increase was paralleled by an increase in thermogenin antigen amount, as measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The transient nature of the effect of cold exposure on (/sup 3/H)GDP binding, characteristically observed with rat mitochondria, was not observed with hamster mitochondria, and the increase in (/sup 3/H)GDP binding occurred without a change in the dissociation constant. The increase in thermogenin amount was paralleled by an increase both in GDP-sensitive Cl/sup -/ permeability of the mitochondria and in GDP-sensitive respiration. It was established that it is the maximal activity of thermogenin that is rate limiting for thermogenesis in isolated mitochondria, provided that an optimal substrate is used (such as palmitoyl carnitine). Cold acclimation also increased the total amount of mitochondria in the tissue, leading totally to a sixfold increase in thermogenin content of the hamster. It is concluded that hamsters show the expected physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical signs of cold acclimation.

  20. Thermogenin amount and activity in hamster brown fat mitochondria: effect of cold acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the acclimation process in a hibernator, four different parameters of thermogenin amount and activity were investigated in brown adipose tissue mitochondria from cold-exposed and cold-acclimated Syrian hamsters. Hamsters, which are hibernators, have been considered to be primed for thermogenesis and thus not to show cold-acclimation effects, but here a significant increase in [3H]GDP-binding capacity was observed, and this increase was paralleled by an increase in thermogenin antigen amount, as measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The transient nature of the effect of cold exposure on [3H]GDP binding, characteristically observed with rat mitochondria, was not observed with hamster mitochondria, and the increase in [3H]GDP binding occurred without a change in the dissociation constant. The increase in thermogenin amount was paralleled by an increase both in GDP-sensitive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria and in GDP-sensitive respiration. It was established that it is the maximal activity of thermogenin that is rate limiting for thermogenesis in isolated mitochondria, provided that an optimal substrate is used (such as palmitoyl carnitine). Cold acclimation also increased the total amount of mitochondria in the tissue, leading totally to a sixfold increase in thermogenin content of the hamster. It is concluded that hamsters show the expected physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical signs of cold acclimation

  1. Leucine Deprivation Decreases Fat Mass by Stimulation of Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue and Upregulation of Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) in Brown Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Ying CHENG; Meng, Qingshu; Wang, Chunxia; Li, Houkai; Huang, Zhiying; Chen, Shanghai; Xiao, Fei; Guo, Feifan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) play distinct roles in adaptation to changes in nutrient availability, with WAT serving as an energy store and BAT regulating thermogenesis. We previously showed that mice maintained on a leucine-deficient diet unexpectedly experienced a dramatic reduction in abdominal fat mass. The cellular mechanisms responsible for this loss, however, are unclear. The goal of current study is to investigate possible mechanisms. RESEARCH DE...

  2. Cold-increase in brown fat thyroxine 5'-monodeiodinase is attenuated in Zucker obese rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the authors examined the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for enzymic conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in BAT. A total of 34 lean and obese rats, ∼4 mo old were divided into three treatment groups: group 1 (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow for 21 days, and group two (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed a cafeteria diet for 21 days, and groups 3 (6 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow and maintained in the cold (8 +/- 10C) for 7 days. Activity of T4 5'-deiodinase was determined as the rate of T3 production from added T4 under controlled in vitro conditions. Serum T4 and T3 were determined by radioimmunoassay. The rate of T4-to-T3 conversion in BAT was similar in the lean and obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet. However, expressed per scapular BAT depot, lean rats exposed to cold displayed about a fivefold increase in BAT T3 production whereas only a small increase was observed in the cold-exposed obese rats. Serum T3 levels tended to be reduced in the Zucker obese rats. The data indicate a reduced capacity for T3 production of Zucker rat BAT exposed to cold. This defect may account for the reduced tolerance of the obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet-induced BAT thermogenesis

  3. Reduction of the 18FDG uptake by the brown fat with the help of propranolol in a difficult case of lymphoma with residual disease suspicion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oncology group of the French Society of nuclear medicine implemented evaluation criteria of the lymphomas therapy response. The problem often encountered is this one of identification of minimum residual fixations in PET-F.D.G., considered as the residual disease in the non Hodgkin lymphomas. we report the case of a thirty four years old patient treated for diffuse at big B cells non Hodgkin lymphoma, in failure after the first line of treatment and with persistence of a hyper-metabolism in pre and post graft at the level of a para-cardiac residual mass. The post auto graft PET examination showed an important activation of the brown fat, able to question the origin of the residual para-cardiac hyper-metabolism in this dramatic situation, for a young patient and potentially still in therapy failure. In order to reduce the F.D.G. captation by the brown fat, it was proposed a new PET evaluation with propranolol administration (beta blocking) before the tracer injection. The intake of propranolol allowed to reduce in an important way, the F.D.G. captation by the brown fat, without modifying the residual hyper-metabolism. This result is going to lead to the realisation of a surgical biopsy. (N.C.)

  4. Stimulation of S14 mRNA and lipogenesis in brown fat by hypothyroidism, cold exposure, and cafeteria feeding: evidence supporting a general role for S14 in lipogenesis and lipogenesis in the maintenance of thermogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freake, H.C.; Oppenheimer, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    In liver, thyroid hormone rapidly induces S14 mRNA, which encodes a small acidic protein. This sequence is abundantly expressed only in lipogenic tissues and is thought to have some function in fat metabolism. In the euthyroid rat, we measured 20-fold higher levels of S14 mRNA in interscapular brown adipose tissue than liver. Furthermore, whereas in liver or epididymal fat, hypothyroidism resulted in an 80% fall in S14 mRNA, in brown fat the level of this sequence increased a further 3-fold. In all three tissues, the expression of S14 mRNA correlated well with lipogenesis, as assessed by /sup 3/H/sub 2/O incorporation. Physiological activation of brown fat by chronic cold exposure or cafeteria feeding increased the concentration of S14 mRNA in this tissue and again this was accompanied by a greater rate of fatty acid synthesis. Overall, in liver and white and brown adipose tissue, S14 mRNA and lipogenesis were well correlated and strongly suggest a function of the S14 protein related to fat synthesis. These studies suggest that the S14 protein and lipogenesis may be important for thyroid hormone-induced and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and that stimulation of these functions in hypothyroid brown fat is a consequence of decreased thyroid hormone-induced thermogenesis elsewhere.

  5. Stimulation of S14 mRNA and lipogenesis in brown fat by hypothyroidism, cold exposure, and cafeteria feeding: evidence supporting a general role for S14 in lipogenesis and lipogenesis in the maintenance of thermogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In liver, thyroid hormone rapidly induces S14 mRNA, which encodes a small acidic protein. This sequence is abundantly expressed only in lipogenic tissues and is thought to have some function in fat metabolism. In the euthyroid rat, we measured 20-fold higher levels of S14 mRNA in interscapular brown adipose tissue than liver. Furthermore, whereas in liver or epididymal fat, hypothyroidism resulted in an 80% fall in S14 mRNA, in brown fat the level of this sequence increased a further 3-fold. In all three tissues, the expression of S14 mRNA correlated well with lipogenesis, as assessed by 3H2O incorporation. Physiological activation of brown fat by chronic cold exposure or cafeteria feeding increased the concentration of S14 mRNA in this tissue and again this was accompanied by a greater rate of fatty acid synthesis. Overall, in liver and white and brown adipose tissue, S14 mRNA and lipogenesis were well correlated and strongly suggest a function of the S14 protein related to fat synthesis. These studies suggest that the S14 protein and lipogenesis may be important for thyroid hormone-induced and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and that stimulation of these functions in hypothyroid brown fat is a consequence of decreased thyroid hormone-induced thermogenesis elsewhere

  6. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise;

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...... for C/EBP (an antimitotic protein), whereas Ccna1 expression (related to cell proliferation) was unchanged. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the cold-induced emergence of brown adipocytes in WAT predominantly reflects ß3-adrenoceptor-mediated transdifferentiation....

  7. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This...

  8. Rhein Protects against Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders through Liver X Receptor-Mediated Uncoupling Protein 1 Upregulation in Brown Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Sheng, Xuehua Zhu, Yuebo Zhang, Guoliang Cui, Linling Peng, Xiong Lu, Ying Qin Zang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver X receptors (LXRs play important roles in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, and lipid and energy metabolism. Therefore, LXR ligands could be used for the management of metabolic disorders. We evaluated rhein, a natural compound from Rheum palmatum L., as an antagonist for LXRs and investigated its anti-obesity mechanism in high-fat diet-fed mice. Surface plasmon resonance assays were performed to examine the direct binding of rhein to LXRs. LXR target gene expression was assessed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatic cells in vitro. C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet were orally administered with rhein for 4 weeks, and then the expression levels of LXR-related genes were analyzed. Rhein bound directly to LXRs. The expression levels of LXR target genes were suppressed by rhein in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells. In white adipose tissue, muscle and liver, rhein reprogrammed the expression of LXR target genes related to adipogenesis and cholesterol metabolism. Rhein activated uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT in wild-type mice, but did not affect UCP1 expression in LXR knockout mice. In HIB-1B brown adipocytes, rhein activated the UCP1 gene by antagonizing the repressive effect of LXR on UCP1 expression. This study suggests that rhein may protect against obesity and related metabolic disorders through LXR antagonism and regulation of UCP1 expression in BAT.

  9. THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR GATA2 REGULATES DIFFERENTIATION OF BROWN ADIPOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown fat tissue is functionally different than the white fat, since brown fat burns lipid to generate heat for body temperature maintenance. However, brown fat cells share with white fat cells a similar molecular mechanism for fat cell formation. We have demonstrated previously that the GATA family...

  10. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin A and E composition, and trans fats in eggs from brown and white egg strains that were molted or nonmolted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    The impact of egg color, hen strain, and molting on the nutritional composition of eggs is limited. Therefore, this study compared nutritional composition and component percentages of cage-produced shell eggs with respect to egg color, hen strain, and molt. Four strains were selected from the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test: Hy-Line Brown (HB) and Bovans Brown (BB), and Hy-Line W-36 (HW) and Bovans White (BovW) were selected. Two groups from each strain were selected and 2 groups of molted HW and BovW were selected and compared with their nonmolted counterparts to examine the molt's impact. Two sets of eggs from each replicate were collected simultaneously at 101 wk of age. One sample of eggs was broken into a 12-egg pool stomached for 3 min (n = 12 samples), then divided into six 50-mL tubes, sealed, and frozen to be sent for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E analyses. The other set of 12 eggs was then assessed for component percentages. The HW eggs had a greater (P hens had a greater (P hens reduced (P laying hens. PMID:24235237

  11. Effect of maize, rumen-protected fat and whey permeate on energy utilisation and milk fat composition in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Battelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of utilisation of diets with different proportions of energy sources (starch, fat, lactose was studied with three pairs of lactating Saanen goats; the animals were fed, in a Latin square design, 3 silage-based diets containing (on DM basis the following energy sources: 32% maize meal (diet M; 4.7% rumen-protected fat (Megalac® and 23.5% maize meal (diet F; 9.8% milk whey permeate powder and 22.3% maize meal (diet W. During each of the three experimental periods, 8 days of total collection balance trials were conducted during which goats were allocated for 72 h (three 24 h cycles in open circuit respiration chambers to determine methane and heat production and, hence, the energy balance. Diet F, in comparison with diets M and W, significantly increased the milk fat content (4.13 vs 3.11 and 3.14%, P<0.001 and the 4%-FCM yield (3367 vs 2927 and 3055 g/d, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, while no relevant changes were observed for milk protein content and yield. Energy digestibility was equal in diets F and W. Megalac® did not decrease fibre digestibility. The partition of the gross energy intake (EI differed significantly between diets: diet M had lower DE (72.4 vs 74.3 and 74.3%; P<0.01 and ME (62.1 vs 64.7 and 63.5%; P<0.05 in comparison with diets F and W, respectively. Energy lost as methane was not significantly decreased by the inclusion of rumen- protected fat in the diet, although a trend for a reduction of methanogenesis was observed. Heat production deter- mined by treatment F was lower in comparison with the other treatments. This difference was almost significant (P=0.056 when expressed as a percentage of the ME. Milk energy output increased significantly (+12%, P<0.001 by including fat in the diet, as compared with treatments M and W: 21.4 vs 19.1 and 19.0% of the EI. The net ener- gy content of the protected fat was 27.94 MJ NEl/kg DM (+340% vs maize meal; its kl value resulted 0.77. The corresponding values for whey

  12. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    infective salmon lice larvae in the laboratory immediately before release in the inner part of the fjord to simulate a naturally high infection pressure. Groups of infected Atlantic salmon (n = 20) and brown trout (n = 12) were also retained in the hatchery to control the infection intensity and lice...... fjord system and had, thus, entered the ocean when the more pathogenic pre-adult and adult lice stages developed. The brown trout, in comparison to Atlantic salmon, remained to a larger extent than Atlantic salmon in the inner part of the fjord system. No effect of salmon lice infection, or protection......, was found in brown trout during the first weeks of their fjord migration. Brown trout will, to a larger extent than Atlantic salmon, stay in the fjord areas when salmon lice infections reach the more pathogenic pre-adult and adult stages. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, they will thereby possess the...

  13. GQ-16, a TZD-Derived Partial PPARγ Agonist, Induces the Expression of Thermogenesis-Related Genes in Brown Fat and Visceral White Fat and Decreases Visceral Adiposity in Obese and Hyperglycemic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Michella S.; de Lima, Caroline L.; Royer, Carine; Silva, Janaina B.; Oliveira, Fernanda C. B.; Christ, Camila G.; Pereira, Sidney A.; Bao, Sonia N.; Lima, Maria C. A.; Pitta, Marina G. R.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Amato, Angélica A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Beige adipocytes comprise a unique thermogenic cell type in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of rodents and humans, and play a critical role in energy homeostasis. In this scenario, recruitment of beige cells has been an important focus of interest for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat obesity. PPARγ activation by full agonists (thiazolidinediones, TZDs) drives the appearance of beige cells, a process so-called browning of WAT. However, this does not translate into increased energy expenditure, and TZDs are associated with weight gain. Partial PPARγ agonists, on the other hand, do not induce weight gain, but have not been shown to drive WAT browning. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of GQ-16 on BAT and on browning of WAT in obese mice. Methods Male Swiss mice with obesity and hyperglycemia induced by high fat diet were treated with vehicle, rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg/d) or the TZD-derived partial PPARγ agonist GQ-16 (40 mg/kg/d) for 14 days. Fasting blood glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lipid profile were measured. WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots were excised for determination of adiposity, relative expression of Ucp-1, Cidea, Prdm16, Cd40 and Tmem26 by RT-qPCR, histological analysis, and UCP-1 protein expression analysis by immunohistochemistry. Liver samples were also removed for histological analysis and determination of hepatic triglyceride content. Results GQ-16 treatment reduced high fat diet-induced weight gain in mice despite increasing energy intake. This was accompanied by reduced epididymal fat mass, reduced liver triglyceride content, morphological signs of increased BAT activity, increased expression of thermogenesis-related genes in interscapular BAT and epididymal WAT, and increased UCP-1 protein expression in interscapular BAT and in epididymal and inguinal WAT. Conclusion This study suggests for the first time that a partial PPARγ agonist may

  14. Exosomal microRNA miR-92a concentration in serum reflects human brown fat activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Buyel, Joschka J.; Hanssen, Mark J. W.; Siegel, Franziska; Pan, Ruping; Naumann, Jennifer; Schell, Michael; van der Lans, Anouk; Schlein, Christian; Froehlich, Holger; Heeren, Joerg; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy and its activity correlates with leanness in human adults. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography coupled with computer tomography (PET/CT) is still the standard for measuring BAT activity, but exposes subjects to ionizing radiation. To study BAT function in large human cohorts, novel diagnostic tools are needed. Here we show that brown adipocytes release exosomes and that BAT activation increases exosome release. Profiling m...

  15. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis. PMID:21913675

  16. Raspberry Ketone Protects Rats Fed High-Fat Diets Against Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lili; Meng, Xianjun; Zhang, Fengqing

    2012-01-01

    The protective effect of raspberry ketone against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was tested by using a high-fat diet-induced NASH model, and its mechanism was explored. Forty Sprague–Dawley rats with a 1:1 male to female ratio were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control (NC) group (n=8) fed normal diet for 8 weeks, the model control (MC) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet (82% standard diet, 8.3% yolk powder, 9.0% lard, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.2% sodium taurocholate), and the r...

  17. The Protection of Polysaccharide from the Brown Seaweed Sargassum graminifolium against Ethylene Glycol-Induced Mitochondrial Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Hui Wu; Min-Bo Lan; Ting Kong; Chao-Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of polysaccharide from the Brown Seaweed Sargassum graminifolium (SGP) on ethylene glycol-induced kidney damage and the mechanism of SGP-mediated protection. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial swelling, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), ATPases and mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes was observed in hyperoxaluric rats. Administration of SGP (25, 100 and 400 mg·kg−1, intragastrically) increased the activi...

  18. Potential effects of the fire protection system sprays at Browns Ferry on fission product transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire protection system (FPS) sprays within any nuclear plant are not intended to mitigate radioactive releases to the environment resulting from severe core-damage accidents. However, it has been shown here that during certain postulated severe accident scenarios at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, the functioning of FPS sprays could have a significant impact on the radioactive releases. Thus the effects of those sprays need to be taken into account for realistic estimation of source terms for some accident scenarios. The effects would include direct ones such as cooling of the reactor building atmosphere and scrubbing of radioactivity from it, as well as indirect effects such as an altered likelihood of hydrogen burning and flooding of various safety-related pumps in the reactor building basement. Thus some of the impacts of the sprays would be beneficial with respect to mitigating releases to the environment but some others might not be. The effects of the FPS would be very scenario dependent with a wide range of potential effects often existing for a given accident sequence. Any generalization of the specific results presented here for Browns Ferry to other nuclear plants must be done cautiously, as it appears from a preliminary investigation that the relevant physical and operational characteristics of FPS spray systems differ widely among even otherwise apparently similar plants. Likewise the standby gas treatment systems, which substantially impact the effects of the FPS, differ significantly among plants. More work for both Mark I plants and other plants, BWRs and PWRs alike, is indicated so the potential effects of FPS spray systems during severe accidents can be at least ball-parked for more realistic accident analyses

  19. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Methods Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacy...

  20. Deletion of PPARγ in adipose tissues of mice protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Julie R.; Barrick, Cordelia; Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Lindner, Jill; Blondeau, Bertrand; FUJIMOTO, Yuka; Shiota, Masakazu; Kesterson, Robert A.; Kahn, Barbara B.; Magnuson, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a crucial role in adipocyte differentiation, glucose metabolism, and other physiological processes. To further explore the role of PPARγ in adipose tissues, we used a Cre/loxP strategy to generate adipose-specific PPARγ knockout mice. These animals exhibited marked abnormalities in the formation and function of both brown and white adipose tissues. When fed a high-fat diet, adipose-specific PPARγ knockout mice displayed diminished wei...

  1. Anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracing reveals central sensory circuits from brown fat and sensory denervation alters its thermogenic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Cheryl H.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and growth are controlled by its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation, but nerve fibers containing sensory-associated neuropeptides [substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)] also suggest sensory innervation. The central nervous system (CNS) projections of BAT afferents are unknown. Therefore, we used the H129 strain of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), an anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracer used to delineate sensor...

  2. Patterns of brown fat uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has become the common imaging modality in oncological practice. FDG uptake is seen in brown adipose tissue in a significant number of patients. Recognizing the uptake patterns is important for optimal FDG PET interpretation. The introduction of PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) revolutionized PET imaging, bringing much-needed anatomical information. Careful review and correlation of FDG PET images with anatomical imaging should be per...

  3. Lithium and methylphenidate: opposite effects on perirenal brown fat Lítio e metilfenidato: efeitos opostos sobre a gordura perirrenal

    OpenAIRE

    José Menna Oliveira; Leonardo Machado Crema; Luísa Amália Diehl; Letícia Ferreira Pettenuzzo; Liane Tavares Bertinette; Carla Dalmaz; Elizabete Rocha da Rocha

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the administration of lithium to adult rats on brown (perirenal) and white (inguinal) adipose tissues and to assess whether methylphenidate modulates lithium effects. METHODS: Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were fed with either regular or lithium-containing chow for 30 days. Between days 15 to 30 of treatment, animals received daily intraperitoneal administrations of either methylphenidate or saline. RESULTS: Lithium significantly reduced perirenal fa...

  4. Patterns of brown fat uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has become the common imaging modality in oncological practice. FDG uptake is seen in brown adipose tissue in a significant number of patients. Recognizing the uptake patterns is important for optimal FDG PET interpretation. The introduction of PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) revolutionized PET imaging, bringing much-needed anatomical information. Careful review and correlation of FDG PET images with anatomical imaging should be performed to characterize accurately any lesion having high FDG uptake

  5. MicroRNA Functions in Brite/Brown Fat — Novel Perspectives towards Anti-Obesity Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karbiener

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Current anti-obesity strategies are aiming at restricting energy uptake, but still, obesity treatment is far from being satisfactory. The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT in adult humans currently opens new avenues to combat obesity and follow-up complications as it tackles the other site of the energy balance: energy expenditure via non-shivering thermogenesis. This process of energy dissipation in the adipose tissue is tightly controlled, and the elucidation of its regulatory network is a key plank for therapeutic applications. MicroRNAs (miRNAs belong to a novel class of regulatory determinants which are small non-coding RNAs with vital roles in regulating gene expression that also play a role in many human diseases. In this review we summarize miRNAs which have been shown to govern thermogenic, i.e. brite or brown, adipocyte recruitment and physiology. Notably, most miRNAs in this context have so far been characterized solely in mice, revealing a great demand for more human studies. As in the context of other diseases, RNA-based therapeutics have meanwhile entered clinical trials, further exploring the functions of miRNAs in brown and white adipose tissues could result in novel therapeutic approaches to treat obesity and its follow-up complications.

  6. Protective effect of lycopene on high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Jin; Wang, Jian; Li, Yuxia; Xiao, Li; Duan, Dan; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-08-01

    A Western diet, high in saturated fats, has been linked to the development of cognitive impairment. Lycopene has recently received considerable attention for its potent protective properties demonstrated in several models of nervous system dysfunction. However, it remains unclear whether lycopene exerts protective effects on cognition. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lycopene on learning and memory impairment and the potential underlying mechanism in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). One-month-old male rats were fed different diets for 16 weeks (n=12 per group), including a standard chow diet (CD), a HFD, or a HFD plus lycopene (4mg/kg, oral gavage in the last three weeks). Behavioral testing, including the Morris water maze (MWM), object recognition task (ORT), and anxiety-like behavior in an open field (OF), were assessed at week 16. The dendritic spine density and neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 subfield were subsequently measured. The results indicate that HFD consumption for 16 weeks significantly impaired spatial memory (Pobject recognition memory (Plearning and memory impairments and prevented the reduction in dendritic spine density (P<0.001). Thus, this study indicated that lycopene helps to protect HFD induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27177726

  7. Browning of white adipose tissue: role of hypothalamic signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through non-shivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Specifically, recent obse...

  8. Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkel, Steven D.; Elmore, Christopher J.; Bongers, Kale S.; Ebert, Scott M.; Fox, Daniel K.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, urs...

  9. Hypothesis: Cryptochromes and brown fat are essential for adaptation and affect mood and mood-related behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo ePartonen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation and ambient temperature have acted as selective physical forces among populations and thereby guided species distributions in the globe. Circadian clocks are universal and evolve when subjected to selection, and their properties contribute to variations in fitness within specific environments. Concerning humans, as compared to the remaining, the evening owls have a greater deviation from the 24-hour cycle, are under a greater pressure to circadian desynchrony and more prone to a cluster of health hazards with the increased mortality. Because of their position in the hierarchy and repressive actions, cryptochromes are the key components of the feedback loops on which circadian clocks are built. Based on the evidence a new hypothesis is formulated in which brown adipocytes with their cryptochromes are responsive to a broad range of physical stimuli from the habitat and through their activity ensure adaptation of the individual. The over-activated brown adipose tissue with deficient cryptochromes might induce disrupted thermoregulation and circadian desynchrony, and thereby contribute to lowered mood and pronounced depressive behaviors.

  10. The Protection of Polysaccharide from the Brown Seaweed Sargassum graminifolium against Ethylene Glycol-Induced Mitochondrial Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hui Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of polysaccharide from the Brown Seaweed Sargassum graminifolium (SGP on ethylene glycol-induced kidney damage and the mechanism of SGP-mediated protection. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial swelling, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, ATPases and mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes was observed in hyperoxaluric rats. Administration of SGP (25, 100 and 400 mg·kg−1, intragastrically increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, SDH and Na+/K+-ATPases, Ca2+-ATPases, Mg2+-ATPases, also decreased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial swelling. SGP exhibited a protective effect by improving antioxidant enzymes and restoring mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidney of hyperoxaluric rats. It may be used as a promising therapeutic agent to provide superior renal protection.

  11. Transcriptional Activity of PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α Is Differentially Regulated by Twist-1 in Brown Fat Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jin Jun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat expresses two PGC-1α isoforms (PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α and both play a central role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism and adaptive thermogenesis by interacting with a wide range of transcription factors including PPARγ, PPARα, ERRα, and NRF1. PGC-1α consists of 797 amino acids, whereas alternative splicing of the PGC-1α gene produces a shorter protein called NT-PGC-1α (aa 1–270. We report in this paper that transcriptional activity of PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α is differently affected by the transcriptional regulator, Twist-1. Twist-1 suppresses PGC-1α but not NT-PGC-1α. The inhibition of PGC-1α activity by Twist-1 is mediated by direct interaction through the C-terminal region of PGC-1α (aa 353–797. Thus, the absence of the corresponding C-terminal domain in NT-PGC-1α allows NT-PGC-1α to be free from Twist-1-mediated inhibition. Overexpression of Twist-1 in brown adipocytes suppresses transcription of a subset of PGC-1α-target genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling (CPT1β, UCP1, and ERRα. In contrast, NT-PGC-1α-mediated induction of these genes is unaffected by Twist-1. These findings show that differences in inhibitory protein-protein interactions of PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α with Twist-1 lead to differential regulation of their function by Twist-1.

  12. Use of Poultry Collagen Coating and Antioxidants as Flavor Protection for Cat Foods Made with Rendered Poultry Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Donna Mechelle

    2003-01-01

    Poultry skins and rendered poultry fat are by-products produced in excess at rendering plants. The use of low value by-products such as poultry collagen, from poultry skins, and fat to improve flavor and quality in dry pet food could be economically attractive. This study examined a poultry collagen coating as a protective barrier against oxidation in dry cat food made with rendered poultry fat. Collagen was extracted from chicken skins, dissolved in an acidic solution, applied to dry cat foo...

  13. Lipid profile in eggs of Araucana hens compared with Lohmann Selected Leghorn and ISA Brown hens given diets with different fat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, S; De Ceulaer, K; Van Paemel, M; Raes, K; De Smet, S; Janssens, G P J

    2006-06-01

    1. In a cross-over trial, the egg cholesterol and fatty acid composition of Araucana hens was compared with those of two commercial breeds (Lohmann Selected Leghorn and ISA Brown) under two feeding regimes, either high (Hn-3) or low (Ln-3) in long-chain n-3 fatty acids. 2. The Hn-3 diet was formed by isocaloric substitution of animal fat in the control diet (Ln-3) by a dry product containing stabilised fish oil with standardised concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). 3. Both breed and diet had influences on egg composition, without interactions. 4. The Araucana breed showed lower feed intake and lower egg weights than the other two breeds. The yolk weight was similar, leading to a much higher yolk:albumen ratio in the Araucana eggs. 5. In comparison to commercial breeds, Araucanas produced eggs with higher cholesterol content per g of yolk, which was even more pronounced when expressed per g of egg, due to the high yolk content of the eggs. The cholesterol content of an egg remained unchanged by the diet, irrespective of the dietary fat source. 6. Changing to the Hn-3 diet led to greater concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) contents in the yolk, without a change in the ratio of saturated (SFA) to unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). 7. Within the PUFA, the n-3 fatty acids increased at the expense of the n-6 fatty acids, indicating a competition between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for incorporation in the yolk. PMID:16787853

  14. β-Aminoisobutyric Acid Induces Browning of White Fat and Hepatic β-oxidation and is Inversely Correlated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lee D.; Boström, Pontus; O’Sullivan, John F.; Schinzel, Robert T.; Lewis, Gregory D.; Dejam, Andre; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Palma, Melinda J.; Calhoun, Sondra; Georgiadi, Anastasia; Chen, Ming-Huei; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Larson, Martin G.; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Souza, Amanda L.; Clish, Clary B.; Wang, Thomas J.; Estall, Jennifer L.; Soukas, Alexander A.; Cowan, Chad A.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1 α (PGC-1α) regulates metabolic genes in skeletal muscle, and contributes substantially to the response of muscle to exercise. Muscle specific PGC-1α transgenic expression and exercise both increase the expression of thermogenic genes within white adipose. How the PGC-1α mediated response to exercise in muscle conveys signals to other tissues remains incompletely defined. We employed a metabolic profiling approach to examine metabolites secreted from myocytes with forced expression of PGC-1α, and identified β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) as a novel small molecule myokine. BAIBA increases the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes in white adipose tissue and fatty acid β-oxidation in hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo through a PPARα mediated mechanism, induces a brown adipose-like phenotype in human pluripotent stem cells, and improves glucose homeostasis in mice. In humans, plasma BAIBA concentrations are increased with exercise and inversely associated with metabolic risk factors. BAIBA may thus contribute to exercise-induced protection from metabolic diseases. PMID:24411942

  15. Cold-increase in brown fat thyroxine 5'-monodeiodinase is attenuated in Zucker obese rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.Y.; Stern, J.S.; Fisher, D.A.; Glick, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for enzymic conversion of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) to triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) in BAT. A total of 34 lean and obese rats, approx.4 mo old were divided into three treatment groups: group 1 (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow for 21 days, and group two (5 lean and 6 obese) was fed a cafeteria diet for 21 days, and groups 3 (6 lean and 6 obese) was fed Purina rat chow and maintained in the cold (8 +/- 1/sup 0/C) for 7 days. Activity of T/sub 4/ 5'-deiodinase was determined as the rate of T/sub 3/ production from added T/sub 4/ under controlled in vitro conditions. Serum T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ were determined by radioimmunoassay. The rate of T/sub 4/-to-T/sub 3/ conversion in BAT was similar in the lean and obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet. However, expressed per scapular BAT depot, lean rats exposed to cold displayed about a fivefold increase in BAT T/sub 3/ production whereas only a small increase was observed in the cold-exposed obese rats. Serum T/sub 3/ levels tended to be reduced in the Zucker obese rats. The data indicate a reduced capacity for T/sub 3/ production of Zucker rat BAT exposed to cold. This defect may account for the reduced tolerance of the obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet-induced BAT thermogenesis.

  16. Unilateral brown fat on [{sup 18}F]-F.D.G. PET/CT in the follow-up of a pleural mesothelioma; Detection unilaterale de graisse brune en [{sup 18}F]-FDG TEP/TDM dans le suivi d'un mesotheliome pleural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waele, A. de; Deroose, C.M. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Hopitaux Universitaires de Leuven, UZ Leuven, Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire, Leuven (Belgium); Nafteux, P. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Hopitaux Universitaires de Leuven, Dept. de Chirurgie Thoracique, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, K. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Hopitaux Universitaires de Leuven, Dept. de Pneumologie, Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-10-15

    The fixation of the fluorodeoxyglucose (F.D.G.) in the brown fat is generally characterized by a strongly symmetric setting in some areas of predilection.Is reported here the case of a patient that after having undergone a multi modal treatment for a pleural mesothelioma presents a unilateral F.D.G. fixation in the brown fat, this fixation can be inhibited by the administering of a beta adrenergic blocking agent. (N.C.)

  17. Frequent extreme cold exposure and brown fat and cold-induced thermogenesis: a study in a monozygotic twin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J Vosselman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as 'the Iceman', who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a 'normal' sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. METHODS: The Iceman (subject A and his brother (subject B were studied during mild cold (13°C and thermoneutral conditions (31°C. Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. RESULTS: Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal, within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G. CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%, but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. CONCLUSION: No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the

  18. Brown algae overproduce cell wall polysaccharides as a protection mechanism against the heavy metal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown algae are often used as heavy metal biomonitors and biosorbents because they can accumulate high concentrations of metals. Cation-exchange performed by cell wall polysaccharides is pointed out as the main chemical mechanism for the metal sequestration. Here, we biochemically investigated if the brown alga Padina gymnospora living in a heavy metal contaminated area would modify their polysaccharidic content. We exposed non-living biomass to Cd and Pb and studied the metals adsorption and localization. We found that raw dried polysaccharides, sulfate groups, uronic acids, fucose, mannose, and galactose were significantly higher in contaminated algae compared with the control ones. Metal concentrations adsorbed by non-living biomass were rising comparatively to the tested concentrations. Electron microscopy showed numerous granules in the cell walls and X-ray microanalysis revealed Cd as the main element. We concluded that P. gymnospora overproduces cell wall polysaccharides when exposed to high metal concentrations as a defense mechanism.

  19. FGF21 regulates PGC-1α and browning of white adipose tissues in adaptive thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, ffolliott M.; Kleiner, Sandra; Douris, Nicholas; Fox, Elliott C.; Mepani, Rina J.; Verdeguer, Francisco; Wu, Jun; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can protect against hypothermia and obesity by using lipids to produce heat. In this study, Spiegelman and colleagues studied FGF21 control of thermogenesis in mice. The authors used gain- and loss-of-function experiments to demonstrate that FGF21 induces a brown fat phenotype in white adipose tissues. In addition, they found that FGF21 is required for the adaptive thermogenic response of mice by increasing PGC-1α protein levels, independent of its transcription. Th...

  20. 吡格列酮对小鼠皮下、内脏脂肪棕色化的差异作用%The different roles of Pioglitazone in fat browning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉洁; 刘娟; 毕建华; 丁国宪

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨吡格列酮对小鼠皮下、内脏脂肪棕色化不同作用及其机制.方法:取C57BL/5J小鼠皮下及内脏前脂肪细胞原代培养,诱导分化同时加吡格列酮刺激直至分化成熟后,RT-PCR检测棕色脂肪相关功能基因的mRNA表达水平.结果:在皮下脂肪中吡格列酮组较对照组棕色脂肪功能基因均明显表达上调(P< 0.05),而内脏脂肪对照组和吡格列酮组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:吡格列酮可促进小鼠皮下脂肪棕色化改变,但对内脏脂肪无作用.%Objective:To explore the role of Pioglitazone in the browning of both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue.Methods:Primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes were isolated from C57BL/5J mice and induced for differentiation.The primary cells were stimulated with 2.5 μmol/L Pioglitazone or vehicle throughout the whole induction period.Then the expression of either white fat or brown fat relative genes were observed by RT-PCR.Results:Pioglitazone could cause a significant increase of brown fat marker genes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue instead of the visceral adipose.Conclusion:Pioglitazone can promote a "white to brown" change in the subcutaneous adipose tissue instead of the visceral adipose.

  1. Process monitoring and quality control for dietary fats and bio fuels. Necessary for the consumer protection; Prozessueberwachung und Qualitaetskontrolle fuer Nahrungsfette und Biokraftstoffe. Unerlaesslich fuer den Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, Michael; Fritzsche, Joerg; Tkatsch, Helena [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany); Kuepper, Lukas [Infrared Fiber Sensors, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    The quality control of food-grade oils, fats and fatty acid containing products is expensive, but essential for the manufacturers of such products and for the consumer protection. The analysis has the task not only to analyze the purity of fats and oils, but also to analyze the content and composition of fats. Dietary fats contain long chain, often multi-unsaturated fatty acids. An insufficient supply of so-called essential fatty acids may result in deficiency symptoms by the human species. A similar composition of fatty acids also is observed in biodiesel which is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats.

  2. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  3. A protective lipidomic biosignature associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in fat-1 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Astarita

    Full Text Available A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 lack appropriate control diets and carry many other confounding factors derived from genetic and environmental variability. In our study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model as a proxy for long-term omega-3 supplementation to determine, in a well-controlled manner, the molecular phenotype associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The fat-1 mouse can convert omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs, which protect against a wide variety of diseases including chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Both wild-type (WT and fat-1 mice were subjected to an identical diet containing 10% corn oil, which has a high omega-6 content similar to that of the Western diet, for a six-month duration. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to compare the plasma lipidome between fat-1 and WT mice. In fat-1 mice, an unbiased profiling showed a significant increase in the levels of unesterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, EPA-containing cholesteryl ester, and omega-3 lysophosphospholipids. The increase in omega-3 lipids is accompanied by a significant reduction in omega-6 unesterified docosapentaenoic acid (omega-6 DPA and DPA-containing cholesteryl ester as well as omega-6 phospholipids and triacylglycerides. Targeted lipidomics profiling highlighted a remarkable increase in EPA-derived diols and epoxides formed via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450 pathway in the plasma of fat-1 mice compared with WT mice. Integration of the results of untargeted and targeted analyses has identified a lipidomic biosignature that may underlie the healthful phenotype associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio, and can potentially be used as a circulating biomarker for monitoring the health status and the efficacy of omega-3 intervention in humans.

  4. IGFBP-2 is a negative predictor of cold-induced brown fat and bone mineral density in young non-obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown a positive correlation between brown adipose tissue (BAT) and bone mineral density (BMD). However, mechanisms underlying this relationship are unknown. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an important regulator of stem cell differentiation promoting bone formation. IGF binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) binds IGF-1 in the circulation and has been reported to inhibit bone formation in humans. IGF-1 is also a crucial regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation. We hypoth...

  5. Protective effects of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn against fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Qiuxian [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhang, Qin; Xiao, Wei; Shao, Meng; Fan, Qin; Zhang, Hongwei [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Zou, Yukai [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, Xin [Cancer Research Institute of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Wenxue; Mo, Zhixian [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Cai, Hongbing, E-mail: chbing2008@163.com [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • AESM is able to prevent the elevation of ALT and AST, and to decreased LDL-C level. • AESM demonstrates the effects of down-regulating blood fat level and protecting liver. • AESM consistent with the efficacy of simvastatin in NAFLD. - Abstract: Objectives: Study the effects of alcohol extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (AESM) on the metabolism of blood fat, morphology of fenestrated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), and the ultrastructure of liver cells of the rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Divide SD rats into control group, model group, simvastatin (7.2 mg/kg) group, and S.mukorossi Gaertn group with high dosage (0.5 g/kg), moderate dosage (0.1 g/kg), and low dosage (0.05 g/kg). After feeding with fat-rich nutrients for 3 weeks and establishing the model of hepatic adipose, conduct intragastric administration and provide the rats with fat-rich nutrients at the same time. At the 43rd day, take blood sample and measure aminotransferase and different indexes of blood fat; take hepatic tissue for pathological section, and observe the hepatic morphological patterns under light microscope; obtain and fix the hepatic tissue after injecting perfusate into the body, and observe the changes of fenestrated LSEC under scanning electron microscope; observe the ultrastructure of liver cells under transmission electron microscope. Results: High-dosage alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can alleviate the AST, ALT, TC, TG, LDL, γ-GT, and ALP level, as well as raise the HDL and APN level in the serum of NAFLD-rat model. In addition, through the observation from light microscope and electron microscopes, the morphology of the hepatic tissue and liver cells as well as the recovery of the fenestrated LSEC in the treatment group has become normal. Conclusions: Alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can regulate the level of blood fat and improve the pathological changes of the hepatic tissues in NAFLD-rat model, which

  6. Protective effects of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn against fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • AESM is able to prevent the elevation of ALT and AST, and to decreased LDL-C level. • AESM demonstrates the effects of down-regulating blood fat level and protecting liver. • AESM consistent with the efficacy of simvastatin in NAFLD. - Abstract: Objectives: Study the effects of alcohol extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (AESM) on the metabolism of blood fat, morphology of fenestrated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), and the ultrastructure of liver cells of the rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Divide SD rats into control group, model group, simvastatin (7.2 mg/kg) group, and S.mukorossi Gaertn group with high dosage (0.5 g/kg), moderate dosage (0.1 g/kg), and low dosage (0.05 g/kg). After feeding with fat-rich nutrients for 3 weeks and establishing the model of hepatic adipose, conduct intragastric administration and provide the rats with fat-rich nutrients at the same time. At the 43rd day, take blood sample and measure aminotransferase and different indexes of blood fat; take hepatic tissue for pathological section, and observe the hepatic morphological patterns under light microscope; obtain and fix the hepatic tissue after injecting perfusate into the body, and observe the changes of fenestrated LSEC under scanning electron microscope; observe the ultrastructure of liver cells under transmission electron microscope. Results: High-dosage alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can alleviate the AST, ALT, TC, TG, LDL, γ-GT, and ALP level, as well as raise the HDL and APN level in the serum of NAFLD-rat model. In addition, through the observation from light microscope and electron microscopes, the morphology of the hepatic tissue and liver cells as well as the recovery of the fenestrated LSEC in the treatment group has become normal. Conclusions: Alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can regulate the level of blood fat and improve the pathological changes of the hepatic tissues in NAFLD-rat model, which

  7. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  8. Moderate exercise training provides modest protection against adipose tissue inflammatory gene expression in response to high-fat feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Pincu, Yair; Martin, Stephen A; Woods, Jeffrey A; Baynard, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    As white adipose tissue (WAT) expands under obesogenic conditions, local WAT hypoxia may contribute to the chronic low-grade inflammation observed in obesity. Aerobic exercise training is beneficial in treating WAT inflammation after obesity is established, but it remains unknown whether exercise training, while on a concomitant high-fat (HF) diet, influences WAT inflammation during the development of obesity. We sought to determine the effects of 4, 8, and 12 weeks of HF feeding and/or moderate intensity treadmill exercise training (EX) on the relationship between inflammatory and hypoxic gene expression within mouse WAT. Male C57Bl6/J mice (n = 113) were randomized into low-fat (LF)/sedentary (SED), LF/EX, HF/SED, or HF/EX groups. The low-fat and high-fat diets contained 10% and 60% energy from fat, respectively. Exercise training consisted of treadmill running 5 days/week at 12 m/min, 8% incline, 40 min/day. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess gene expression. HF diet impaired glucose regulation, and upregulated WAT gene expression of inflammation (IL-1β, IL-1ra, TNFα), macrophage recruitment and infiltration (F4/80 and monocyte chemoattractant protein), and M1 (CD11c) and M2 (CD206 and Arginase-1) macrophage polarization markers. Treadmill training resulted in a modest reduction of WAT macrophage and inflammatory gene expression. HF diet had little effect on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor, suggesting that WAT inflammatory gene expression may not be driven by hypoxia within the adipocytes. Treadmill training may provide protection by preventing WAT expansion and macrophage recruitment. PMID:25347855

  9. Brown Adipose YY1 Deficiency Activates Expression of Secreted Proteins Linked to Energy Expenditure and Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeguer, Francisco; Soustek, Meghan S; Hatting, Maximilian; Blättler, Sharon M; McDonald, Devin; Barrow, Joeva J; Puigserver, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative and thermogenic functions in brown and beige adipose tissues modulate rates of energy expenditure. It is unclear, however, how beige or white adipose tissue contributes to brown fat thermogenic function or compensates for partial deficiencies in this tissue and protects against obesity. Here, we show that the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) in brown adipose tissue activates the canonical thermogenic and uncoupling gene expression program. In contrast, YY1 represses a series of secreted proteins, including fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), bone morphogenetic protein 8b (BMP8b), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), angiopoietin-like 6 (Angptl6), neuromedin B, and nesfatin, linked to energy expenditure. Despite substantial decreases in mitochondrial thermogenic proteins in brown fat, mice lacking YY1 in this tissue are strongly protected against diet-induced obesity and exhibit increased energy expenditure and oxygen consumption in beige and white fat depots. The increased expression of secreted proteins correlates with elevation of energy expenditure and promotion of beige and white fat activation. These results indicate that YY1 in brown adipose tissue controls antagonistic gene expression programs associated with energy balance and maintenance of body weight. PMID:26503783

  10. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  11. Effects of opioid antagonists naloxone and naltrexone on neuropeptide Y-induced feeding and brown fat thermogenesis in the rat. Neural site of action.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotz, C.M.; Grace, M.K.; Briggs, J.; Levine, A S; Billington, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y administered intracerebroventricularly and into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus stimulates feeding and decreases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Although specific neuropeptide Y antagonists are not yet available, previous studies had shown that the opioid antagonist naloxone blocked neuropeptide Y-induced feeding when both drugs were injected intracerebroventricularly. We wanted to find out if naloxone injected into specific brain sites would block neuropept...

  12. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  13. Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase Isoform-4 (GPAT4) Limits Oxidation of Exogenous Fatty Acids in Brown Adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Daniel E; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2015-01-01

    loss, because both cold tolerance and response to a β3-adrenergic agonist were similar in both genotypes. Because GPAT4 comprises 65% of the total GPAT activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), we characterized BAT function. A 45% fat diet increased the Gpat4(-/-) BAT expression of peroxisome......Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-4 (GPAT4) null pups grew poorly during the suckling period and, as adults, were protected from high fat diet-induced obesity. To determine why Gpat4(-/-) mice failed to gain weight during these two periods of high fat feeding, we examined energy metabolism....... Compared with controls, the metabolic rate of Gpat4(-/-) mice fed a 45% fat diet was 12% higher. Core body temperature was 1 ºC higher after high fat feeding. Food intake, fat absorption, and activity were similar in both genotypes. Impaired weight gain in Gpat4(-/-) mice did not result from increased heat...

  14. Protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against dyslipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bobae; Park, Kun-Young; Ji, Yosep; Park, Soyoung; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2016-04-29

    Recent reports suggest that gut microbiota can be a major determinant of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its modulation by treating probiotics is a valid strategy to exert a protective effect. In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were orally administrated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for 13 weeks. Significant reductions in the weights of the liver, mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissues were observed in LGG-treated HFD-fed mice compared to LGG-non-treated controls. The serum levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were also significantly reduced in LGG-treated mice. Gut microbial composition analysis showed that shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria were caused by HFD and restored by LGG treatment. A remarkable decrease of hepatic fat content was also observed in LGG-treated mice, accompanied by downregulated expressions of lipogenic and pro-inflammatory genes in the liver. LGG-treated mice had lower expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, but conversely, higher expression levels of cholesterol efflux-related genes compared to LGG-non-treated controls. The cholesterol-lowering effect of LGG was also found to be mediated by suppression of FXR and FGF15 signaling, resulting in the upregulation of hepatic CYP7A1. Our findings confirm a therapeutic potential of probiotics for ameliorating dyslipidemia and NAFLD. PMID:27018382

  15. IGFBP-2 is a negative predictor of cold-induced brown fat and bone mineral density in young non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have shown a positive correlation between brown adipose tissue (BAT) and bone mineral density (BMD). However, mechanisms underlying this relationship are unknown. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an important regulator of stem cell differentiation promoting bone formation. IGF binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) binds IGF-1 in the circulation and has been reported to inhibit bone formation in humans. IGF-1 is also a crucial regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized that IGFBP-2 is a negative and IGF-1 a positive regulator of BAT-mediated osteoblastogenesis. We therefore investigated a cohort of 15 women (mean age 27.7±5.7years): 5 with anorexia nervosa (AN) in whom IGF-1 levels were low due to starvation, 5 recovered AN (AN-R), and 5 women of normal weight. All subjects underwent assessment of cold-activated BAT by PET/CT, BMD of the spine, hip, femoral neck, and total body by DXA, thigh muscle area by MRI, IGF-1 and IGFBP-2. There was a positive correlation between BAT and BMD and an inverse association between IGFBP-2 and both BAT and BMD. There was no association between IGF-1 and BAT. We show for the first time that IGFBP-2 is a negative predictor of cold-induced BAT and BMD in young non-obese women, suggesting that IGFBP-2 may serve as a regulator of BAT-mediated osteoblastogenesis. PMID:23291564

  16. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/βKlotho Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Kolumam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR 1/βKlotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/βKlotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/βKlotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin.

  17. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/βKlotho Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Chen, Mark Z.; Tong, Raymond; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Kates, Lance; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Ross, Jed; Wyatt, Shelby K.; Gandham, Vineela D.; Carano, Richard A.D.; Dunshee, Diana Ronai; Wu, Ai-Luen; Haley, Benjamin; Anderson, Keith; Warming, Søren; Rairdan, Xin Y.; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Zhang, Yingnan; Gutierrez, Johnny; Baruch, Amos; Gelzleichter, Thomas R.; Stevens, Dale; Rajan, Sharmila; Bainbridge, Travis W.; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y. Gloria; Ziai, James; Soriano, Robert H.; Brauer, Matthew J.; Chen, Yongmei; Stawicki, Scott; Kim, Hok Seon; Comps-Agrar, Laëtitia; Luis, Elizabeth; Spiess, Christoph; Wu, Yan; Ernst, James A.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Peterson, Andrew S.; Sonoda, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT) has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1/βKlotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/βKlotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/βKlotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin. PMID:26288846

  18. Regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by myostatin/follistatin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan eSingh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops from perturbations of cellular bioenergetics, when energy uptake exceeds energy expenditure, and represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT has long been known to dissipate energy as heat and contribute to energy expenditure, but its presence and physiological role in adult human physiology has been questioned for years. Recent demonstrations of metabolically active brown fat depots in adult humans have revolutionized current therapeutic approaches for obesity-related diseases. The balance between white adipose tissue (WAT and BAT affects the systemic energy balance and is widely believed to be the key determinant in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily play an important role in regulating overall energy homeostasis by modulation of brown adipocyte characteristics. Inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3/myostatin (Mst signaling promotes browning of white adipocytes, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and protects mice from diet-induced obesity, suggesting the need for development of a novel class of TGF-β/Mst antagonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. We recently described an important role of follistatin (Fst, a soluble glycoprotein that is known to bind and antagonize Mst actions, during brown fat differentiation and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here we highlight various investigations performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to support the contention that targeting TGF-β/Mst signaling enhances brown adipocyte functions and regulates energy balance, reducing insulin resistance and curbing the development of obesity and diabetes.

  19. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Aleksunes, Lauren M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy and Environmental and Occupational Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Guo, Grace L., E-mail: lguo@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  20. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  1. Beige Adipocytes are a Distinct Type of Thermogenic Fat Cell in Mouse and Human

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jun; Boström, Pontus; Sparks, Lauren M; Ye, Li; Choi, Jang Hyun; Giang, An-Hoa; Khandekar, Melin; Nuutila, Pirjo; Schaart, Gert; Huang, Kexin; Tu, Hua; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Hoeks, Joris; Enerbäck, Sven; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Brown fat defends against hypothermia and obesity through thermogenesis mediated by mitochondrial UCP1. Recent data suggest that there are two distinct types of brown fat: classical brown fat derived from a myf-5 cellular lineage and UCP1-positive cells that emerge in white fat from a non-myf-5 lineage. Here we report the cloning of “beige” cells from murine white fat depots. Beige cells resemble white fat cells in having extremely low basal expression of UCP1, but like classical brown fat, t...

  2. Transgenic UCP1 in white fat protects against lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of mice fed a high-fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeleník, Tomáš; Jílková, Zuzana; Slámová, Kristýna; Rossmeisl, Martin; Kopecký, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 50, Suppl.1 (2007), S321-S321. ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /43./. 18.09.2007-21.09.2007, Amsterdam] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD303/03/H065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * respiratory uncoupling * white fat * lipid metabolism Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  3. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were not...... of 50 ppm EDTA to samples with 6% fat was ineffective, but 750 ppm GTE (alone or in combination with EDTA) strongly reduced levels of hexanal and heptanal. Accumulation of primary lipid hydroperoxides was not affected by GTE, hence antioxidative activity was ascribed to scavenging of hexanal and...

  4. Effects of treatment of whole fat soybeans or soy flour with formaldehyde to protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, B A; Johnson, R R; Hendrickson, R L

    1976-10-01

    Full-fat, ground soy flour (GSF) was treated with 37% formaldehyde (HCHO) and evaluated by in vitro and in vivo criteria to determine the protection afforded linoleic acid against ruminal biohydrogenation when the materials described above were fed as a protein supplement to rations for growing lambs. The supplements compared were soybean meal (SBM), uked for 2 hours. Organoleptic evaluations were conducted to determine if any flavor differences in meat from lambs fed these supplements could be detected. Excellent protection of linoleic acid, the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in soybeans, was noted both in vitro and in vivo. Rump, shoulder, kidney knob and omental fat depots of lambs fed the HCHO treated GSF ration had significantly more linoleic acid than lambs fed untreated GSF while lambs fed untreated GSF had significantly, more linoleic acid in their fat depots than lambs fed SBM. Linoleic acid content of intramuscular (loin) fat from lambs fed HCHO treated GSF was not significantly different from lambs fed untreated GSF, but lambs fed untreated GSF had significantly more loin linoleic acid than lambs fed SBM. No significant differences were noted in daily feed intake, feed efficiency or average daily gain for lambs fed growing-finishing rations containing any of the products tested as the protein supplement. A taste panel could not detect any differences in flavor of ground loin among any of the treatments. PMID:987164

  5. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained 230 g fatty acids (FA), whereas the three other fats were fed at about 550, 850 and 1150 g FA/day. The feed-ileùm true digestibility of total FA was 95, 47 and 86% for vegetable, saturated and fish fat, respectively. The true digestibility...... of FA was for all fat sources independent of fat level. The FA digestibility of C16:0 was higher than that of C18:0. The experiment supports the theory that unsaturated FA has a synergistic effect on the digestibility of saturated FA. Bile acid secretion was estimated to be 282–550 g/day, with the...

  6. Protective effect of pioglitazone on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in low-dose streptozotocin & high-fat diet-induced type-2 diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Bhandari; Vinay Kumar; Parveen Kumar; Tripathi, C.D.; Geetika Khanna

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one of the pathologic phenomena associated with diabetes and related conditions including obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the protective effects of pioglitazone on cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated in experimental diabetes induced by low dose of streptozoticin (STZ) combined with high fat diet (HFD) in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were injected with low-dose STZ (45 mg/kg, i.v., ...

  7. Protective effect of pioglitazone on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in low-dose streptozotocin & high-fat diet-induced type-2 diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Uma; Kumar, Vinay; Kumar, Parveen; Tripathi, C.D.; KHANNA, Geetika

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one of the pathologic phenomena associated with diabetes and related conditions including obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the protective effects of pioglitazone on cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated in experimental diabetes induced by low dose of streptozoticin (STZ) combined with high fat diet (HFD) in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were injected with low-dose STZ (45 mg/kg, i.v., singl...

  8. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Thomas R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4 signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Results Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005, epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005, fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P Conclusion Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice.

  9. Adipose Tissue-Specific Deletion of 12/15-Lipoxygenase Protects Mice from the Consequences of a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banumathi K. Cole

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adipose tissue. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LO generates proinflammatory lipid mediators, which induce inflammation in adipose tissue. Therefore we investigated the role of 12/15-LO activity in mouse white adipose tissue in promoting obesity-induced local and systemic inflammatory consequences. We generated a mouse model for fat-specific deletion of 12/15-LO, aP2-Cre; 12/15-LOloxP/loxP, which we call ad-12/15-LO mice, and placed wild-type controls and ad-12/15-LO mice on a high-fat diet for 16 weeks and examined obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. High-fat diet-fed ad-12/15-LO exhibited improved fasting glucose levels and glucose metabolism, and epididymal adipose tissue from these mice exhibited reduced inflammation and macrophage infiltration compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, fat-specific deletion of 12/15-LO led to decreased peripheral pancreatic islet inflammation with enlarged pancreatic islets when mice were fed the high-fat diet compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest an interesting crosstalk between 12/15-LO expression in adipose tissue and inflammation in pancreatic islets. Therefore, deletion of 12/15-LO in adipose tissue can offer local and systemic protection from obesity-induced consequences, and blocking 12/15-LO activity in adipose tissue may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  10. High fat diet enhances cardiac abnormalities in SHR rats: Protective role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction including obesity, cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Methods The present study was designed to examine effect of high fat (HF diet on cardio-vascular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, fed HF diet for 15 weeks, a phenotype designed to mimic metabolic syndrome. Results Development of metabolic syndrome like phenotype was confirmed using parameters, including body weight, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels. High fat diet impaired vascular relaxation by acetylcholine and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in SHRs as evidenced by lower left ventricular function, and higher coronary resistance (CR as compared to controls (p 2- levels in SHR fed a HF diet (p Conclusion In conclusion, this novel study demonstrates that up-regulation of HO-1 improves cardiac and vascular dysfunction by blunting oxidative stress, COX-2 levels and increasing adiponectin levels in hypertensive rats on HF diet.

  11. Protective effect of Spirulina platensis against cell damage and apoptosis in hepatic tissue caused by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, F; Gurel-Gurevin, E; Isbilen-Basok, B; Esener, O B B; Bilal, T; Keser, O; Altiner, A; Yilmazer, N; Ikitimur-Armutak, E I

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a microalga that may be a source of antioxidants that can reduce body fat deposition. Consumption of a high fat diet produces elevated blood lipid levels, inflammation and apoptosis. We investigated the possible effects of S. platensis on the blood lipid profile, and liver inflammation and apoptosis in rats fed a high fat diet. Sixty-four young male rats were divided into eight equal groups. The control group was fed a basic diet. The experimental groups were fed a diet for 60 days that was prepared by mixing variable amounts of 43% vegetable oil and 10% cholesterol with or without 3% S. platensis mixed with the basal diet. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected from each animal. Serum samples were used to analyze lipid parameters, total antioxidant status and total oxidant status. iNOS and eNOS were determined by immunohistochemistry. TUNEL staining was used to detect apoptosis to investigate a possible connection between inflammation and apoptosis in the liver tissue. The relations between fat deposition and liver degeneration were assessed by Sirius red staining and alpha-smooth muscle actin immunostaining. S. platensis reduced serum HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride, increased HDL-C levels in rats fed a high fat diet to near control levels, and reduced iNOS levels and increased eNOS levels in the liver tissue compared to vegetable oil and cholesterol treated groups. The apoptotic index was reduced in the groups that were fed a high fat or a basic diet when supplemented with S. platensis. PMID:26820259

  12. Protective effect of gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on high fat diet-induced obese diabetic wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate, serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose, cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na + /K + ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o. for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na + /K + ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ′s weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. SOCS2 deletion protects against hepatic steatosis but worsens insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Santana-Farre, Ruyman; Vesterlund, Mattias;

    2012-01-01

    in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. SOCS2-knockout (SOCS2(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were fed for 4 mo with control or high-fat diet, followed by assessment of insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid content, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. SOCS2(-/-) mice...

  14. Controlling access time to a high-fat diet during the inactive period protects against obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Atsushi; Aoki, Natsumi; Ohtsu, Teiji; Ikeda, Yuko; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-10-01

    Free feeding (FF) with a high fat diet (HFD) causes excessive body weight gain, whereas restricted feeding (RF) with a HFD attenuates body weight gain. The effects of timing of feeding with a HFD (day vs. night) and feeding duration on energy homeostasis have not yet been investigated. In this study, we fed mice a HFD or a normal diet (ND) twice a day, during their active and inactive periods, on a schedule. The amount of food was regulated by feeding duration (2, 4 or 8 h). First, we investigated the effects of 4-h RF during active-inactive periods (ND-ND, HFD-HFD, ND-HFD or HFD-ND). Among all the 4-h RF groups, mice consumed almost the same amount of calories as those in the FF[ND] group, even those fed a HFD. Body weight and visceral fat in these three groups were lower than that in the FF[HFD] group. Second, we investigated the effects of RF duration. Body weight and visceral fat were higher in the 8-h groups than in the 4-h groups. Body weight and visceral fat were higher in the 2-h groups than in the 4-h groups even though the 2-h groups had less food. Third, we investigated the effects of eating a HFD during the inactive period, when RF duration was extended (2, 6 or 12 h). Mice were fed with a HFD during the inactive period for 2 h and fed with a ND during the active period for 2, 6 or 12 h. Body weight and visceral fat in these mice were comparable to those in the FF[ND] mice. The results of our first set of experiments suggest that 4-h RF was an adequate feeding duration to control the effect of a HFD on obesity. The results of our second set of experiments suggest 2-h RF (such as speed-eating) and 8-h RF, representative of eating disorders, are unhealthy feeding patterns related to obesity. The results of our third set of experiments suggest that eating a HFD for a short period during the night does not affect body weight and visceral fat. Taken together, these results indicate that consideration to feeding with a HFD during the inactive period and

  15. Targeted Overexpression of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase in Adipose Tissue Increases Fat Deposition but Protects against Diet-induced Insulin Resistance and Inflammatory Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Xu, Hang; Halim, Vera; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Huan; Fan, Yang-Yi; Ong, Kuok Teong; Woo, Shih-Lung; Chapkin, Robert S.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Chen, Yanming; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer; Wei, Lai; Wu, Chaodong

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the dissociation of fat deposition, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. As a regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK2, encoded by PFKFB3) protects against diet-induced adipose tissue inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance independently of adiposity. Using aP2-PFKFB3 transgenic (Tg) mice, we explored the ability of targeted adipocyte PFKFB3/iPFK2 overexpression to modulate diet-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance arising from fat deposition in both adipose and liver tissues. Compared with wild-type littermates (controls) on a high fat diet (HFD), Tg mice exhibited increased adiposity, decreased adipose inflammatory response, and improved insulin sensitivity. In a parallel pattern, HFD-fed Tg mice showed increased hepatic steatosis, decreased liver inflammatory response, and improved liver insulin sensitivity compared with controls. In both adipose and liver tissues, increased fat deposition was associated with lipid profile alterations characterized by an increase in palmitoleate. Additionally, plasma lipid profiles also displayed an increase in palmitoleate in HFD-Tg mice compared with controls. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, overexpression of PFKFB3/iPFK2 recapitulated metabolic and inflammatory changes observed in adipose tissue of Tg mice. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from iPFK2-overexpressing adipocytes, mouse primary hepatocytes displayed metabolic and inflammatory responses that were similar to those observed in livers of Tg mice. Together, these data demonstrate a unique role for PFKFB3/iPFK2 in adipocytes with regard to diet-induced inflammatory responses in both adipose and liver tissues. PMID:22556414

  16. Brown Adipose Tissue: A New Target for Antiobesity Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human fat consist of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT. Though most fat is energy-storing WAT, the thermogenic capacity of even small amounts of BAT makes it an attractive therapeutic target for inducing weight loss through energy expenditure. CONTENT: Over the past year, several independent research teams used a combination of positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT imaging, immunohistochemistry and gene and protein expression assays to prove conclusively that adult humans have functional BAT. BAT is important for thermogenesis and energy balance in small mammals and its induction in mice promotes energy expenditure, reduces adiposity and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. The thermogenic capacity of BAT is impressive. In humans, it has been estimated that as little as 50g of BAT could utilize up to 20% of basal caloric needs if maximally stimulated. SUMMARY: The obesity pandemic requires new and novel treatments. The past few years have witnessed multiple studies conclusively showing that adult humans have functional BAT, a tissue that has a tremendous capacity for obesity-reducing thermogenesis. Novel therapies targeting BAT thermogenesis may be available in the near future as therapeutic options for obesity and diabetes. Thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity. KEYWORDS: brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, energy expenditure, antiobesity therapy.

  17. Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Eltawab Mohamed A; Kamel Hamdy H; Amin Kamal A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered renal function Methods Rats were fed a standard control diet for 12 week (wk) or a diet containing 65% high su...

  18. A Protective Lipidomic Biosignature Associated with a Balanced Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio in fat-1 Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Astarita; McKenzie, Jennifer H.; Bin Wang; Katrin Strassburg; Angela Doneanu; Jay Johnson; Andrew Baker; Thomas Hankemeier; James Murphy; Vreeken, Rob J.; James Langridge; Kang, Jing X.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) lack appropriate control diets and carry many other confounding factors derived from genetic and environmental variability. In our study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model as a proxy for long-term omega-3 supplementation to determine, in a well-contr...

  19. Antioxidant and cardio protective effect of palm oil leaves extract (standardized ethanolic fraction) in rats' model of saturated fats induced metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Zaid O; Satar, Munnavar; Abdullah, Nor A; Rathore, Hassaan; Tan, Young Chia; Uldin, Faiz; Basri, Rusliza; Abdullah, Mohammad H; John, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is suggested to use POLE (palm oil leaf extract) as a nutraceutical health product in food industry due to its newly discovered content of polyphenols and antioxidant vitamins. In the experiment, the antioxidant and anti-lipid-peroxidation activities of the extract were confirmed using; DPPH (1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radical scavenging activity, ferric ion induced lipid peroxidation inhibition, reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity assays. The cardio-protective activity was studied in vivo using a model of metabolic syndrome induced by high fat diet. Lipid profile, obesity indices, renal tubular handling of water and electrolytes, blood pressure and arterial stiffness were measured at the end of the treatment period. Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into six groups, viz; group C; was treated as a negative control and fed with standard rodents chow, group H; was treated as a positive control and fed with an experimental diet enriched with saturated free fatty acids for 8 weeks, groups HP0.5, HP1 and HP2 which were fed with 0.5,1 and 2 g/kg (body weight) /day of POLE orally during the last 24 days of the high fat diet feeding period and group P; fed with highest dose of POLE. Results revealed that POLE possesses a cardio-protective effect which is ascribed to its content of polyphenols. PMID:24374430

  20. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic PPAR-γ expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Simon Musyoka; Peng, Sophia; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Thorn, Natalie; Farris, Alton B; Jain, Sanjay; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Anania, Frank; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2016-01-15

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice, however, the mechanisms involved are not known. In this study we investigated the effects of GDNF overexpression and nanoparticle delivery of GDNF in mice on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and the expression of genes involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Transgenic overexpression of GDNF in liver and other metabolically active tissues was protective against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Mice overexpressing GDNF had significantly reduced P62/sequestosome 1 protein levels suggestive of accelerated autophagic clearance. They also had significantly reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CD36 gene expression and protein levels, and lower expression of mRNA coding for enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis. GDNF-loaded nanoparticles were protective against short-term HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and attenuated liver fibrosis in mice with long-standing HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. They also suppressed the liver expression of steatosis-associated genes. In vitro, GDNF suppressed triglyceride accumulation in Hep G2 cells through enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling and inhibition of PPAR-γ gene promoter activity. These results show that GDNF acts directly in the liver to protect against HFD-induced cellular stress and that GDNF may have a role in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:26564715

  1. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity. PMID:27067870

  2. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase-deficient mice are protected from high-fat/high-cholesterol diet-induced metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Jessica M; Boehme, Shannon; Li, Feng; Chiang, John Y L

    2016-07-01

    Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver. In addition to absorption and digestion of nutrients, bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis. We have backcrossed Cyp7a1(-/-) mice in a mixed B6/129Sv genetic background to C57BL/6J mice to generate Cyp7a1(-/-) mice in a near-pure C57BL/6J background. These mice survive well and have normal growth and a bile acid pool size ∼60% of WT mice. The expression of the genes in the alternative bile acid synthesis pathway are upregulated, resulting in a more hydrophilic bile acid composition with reduced cholic acid (CA). Surprisingly, Cyp7a1(-/-) mice have improved glucose sensitivity with reduced liver triglycerides and fecal bile acid excretion, but increased fecal fatty acid excretion and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) when fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Supplementing chow and Western diets with CA restored bile acid composition, reversed the glucose tolerant phenotype, and reduced the RER. Our current study points to a critical role of bile acid composition, rather than bile acid pool size, in regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism to improve glucose and insulin tolerance, maintain metabolic homeostasis, and prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders. PMID:27146480

  3. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  4. Reduced dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and 12/15-lipoxygenase deficiency are protective against chronic high fat diet-induced steatohepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Lazic

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6 promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3 reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ω6/ω3 ratio (11∶1, HFH, similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ω6/ω3 ratio of 2.7∶1 (HFL. Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in HF diet

  5. SREBP and MDT-15 protect C. elegans from glucose-induced accelerated aging by preventing accumulation of saturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongyeop; Jeong, Dae-Eun; Son, Heehwa G; Yamaoka, Yasuyo; Kim, Hyunmin; Seo, Keunhee; Khan, Abdul Aziz; Roh, Tae-Young; Moon, Dae Won; Lee, Youngsook; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-rich diets shorten the life spans of various organisms. However, the metabolic processes involved in this phenomenon remain unknown. Here, we show that sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and mediator-15 (MDT-15) prevent the life-shortening effects of a glucose-rich diet by regulating fat-converting processes in Caenorhabditis elegans. Up-regulation of the SREBP/MDT-15 transcription factor complex was necessary and sufficient for alleviating the life-shortening effect of a glucose-rich diet. Glucose feeding induced key enzymes that convert saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), which are regulated by SREBP and MDT-15. Furthermore, SREBP/MDT-15 reduced the levels of SFAs and moderated glucose toxicity on life span. Our study may help to develop strategies against elevated blood glucose and free fatty acids, which cause glucolipotoxicity in diabetic patients. PMID:26637528

  6. Solanum nigrum Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis via Suppression of Hyperglycemia in High-Fat/Ethanol Diet-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jeng Tai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs signal through the receptor for AGE (RAGE, which can lead to hepatic fibrosis in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. We investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts from Solanum nigrum (AESN on AGEs-induced RAGE signaling and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet with ethanol. Methods: An animal model was used to evaluate the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of AESN in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 30% with ethanol (10%. Male Wistar rats (4 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6: (1 control (basal diet; (2 HFD (30% + ethanol (10% (HFD/ethanol; (3 HFD/ethanol + AESN (100 mg/kg, oral administration; and (4 HFD/ethanol + pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, oral administration and treated with HFD for 6 months in the presence or absence of 10% ethanol in dietary water. Results: We found that AESN improved insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and downregulated lipogenesis via regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, PPARγ co-activator (PGC-1α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and fatty acid synthase (FAS mRNA levels in the liver of HFD/ethanol-treated rats. In turn, AESN may delay and inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA inhibition and MMP-2 production. Conclusions: These results suggest that AESN may be further explored as a novel anti-fibrotic strategy for the prevention of liver disease.

  7. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  8. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  9. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. → PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. → PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of

  10. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) Protects against High Fat Diet Induced Inflammation and Islet Hyperplasia in Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Garima; Fisher, ffolliott Martin; Chee, Melissa J.; Tan, Tze Guan; El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Adams, Andrew C.; Najarian, Robert; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Benoist, Christophe; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important endocrine metabolic regulator expressed in multiple tissues including liver and adipose tissue. Although highest levels of expression are in pancreas, little is known about the function of FGF21 in this tissue. In order to understand the physiology of FGF21 in the pancreas, we analyzed its expression and regulation in both acinar and islet tissues. We found that acinar tissue express 20-fold higher levels than that observed in islets. We also observed that pancreatic FGF21 is nutritionally regulated; a marked reduction in FGF21 expression was noted with fasting while obesity is associated with 3–4 fold higher expression. Acinar and islet cells are targets of FGF21, which when systemically administered, leads to phosphorylation of the downstream target ERK 1/2 in about half of acinar cells and a small subset of islet cells. Chronic, systemic FGF21 infusion down-regulates its own expression in the pancreas. Mice lacking FGF21 develop significant islet hyperplasia and periductal lymphocytic inflammation when fed with a high fat obesogenic diet. Inflammatory infiltrates consist of TCRb+ Thy1+ T lymphocytes with increased levels of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Increased levels of inflammatory cells were coupled with elevated expression of cytokines such as TNFα, IFNγ and IL1β. We conclude that FGF21 acts to limit islet hyperplasia and may also prevent pancreatic inflammation. PMID:26872145

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21 Protects against High Fat Diet Induced Inflammation and Islet Hyperplasia in Pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Singhal

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an important endocrine metabolic regulator expressed in multiple tissues including liver and adipose tissue. Although highest levels of expression are in pancreas, little is known about the function of FGF21 in this tissue. In order to understand the physiology of FGF21 in the pancreas, we analyzed its expression and regulation in both acinar and islet tissues. We found that acinar tissue express 20-fold higher levels than that observed in islets. We also observed that pancreatic FGF21 is nutritionally regulated; a marked reduction in FGF21 expression was noted with fasting while obesity is associated with 3-4 fold higher expression. Acinar and islet cells are targets of FGF21, which when systemically administered, leads to phosphorylation of the downstream target ERK 1/2 in about half of acinar cells and a small subset of islet cells. Chronic, systemic FGF21 infusion down-regulates its own expression in the pancreas. Mice lacking FGF21 develop significant islet hyperplasia and periductal lymphocytic inflammation when fed with a high fat obesogenic diet. Inflammatory infiltrates consist of TCRb+ Thy1+ T lymphocytes with increased levels of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Increased levels of inflammatory cells were coupled with elevated expression of cytokines such as TNFα, IFNγ and IL1β. We conclude that FGF21 acts to limit islet hyperplasia and may also prevent pancreatic inflammation.

  12. Targeted Expression of Catalase to Mitochondria Protects Against Ischemic Myopathy in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Terence E; Schmidt, Cameron A; Green, Thomas D; Spangenburg, Espen E; Neufer, P Darrell; McClung, Joseph M

    2016-09-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes respond poorly to treatments for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and are more likely to present with the most severe manifestation of the disease, critical limb ischemia. The underlying mechanisms linking type 2 diabetes and the severity of PAD manifestation are not well understood. We sought to test whether diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress would increase the susceptibility of the peripheral limb to hindlimb ischemia (HLI). Six weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6 mice was insufficient to alter skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and respiratory function or the size of ischemic lesion after HLI, despite reducing blood flow. However, 16 weeks of HFD similarly decreased ischemic limb blood flow, but also exacerbated limb tissue necrosis, increased the myopathic lesion size, reduced muscle regeneration, attenuated muscle function, and exacerbated ischemic mitochondrial dysfunction. Mechanistically, mitochondrial-targeted overexpression of catalase prevented the HFD-induced ischemic limb necrosis, myopathy, and mitochondrial dysfunction, despite no improvement in limb blood flow. These findings demonstrate that skeletal muscle mitochondria are a critical pathological link between type 2 diabetes and PAD. Furthermore, therapeutically targeting mitochondria and oxidant burden is an effective strategy to alleviate tissue loss and ischemic myopathy during PAD. PMID:27284110

  13. Targeting arginase-II protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis through suppression of macrophage inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Rajapakse, Angana G; Riedo, Erwin; Fellay, Benoit; Bernhard, Marie-Claire; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associates with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Hypoactive AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and macrophage-mediated inflammation are mechanistically linked to NAFLD. Studies investigating roles of arginase particularly the extrahepatic isoform arginase-II (Arg-II) in obesity-associated NAFLD showed contradictory results. Here we demonstrate that Arg-II(-/-) mice reveal decreased hepatic steatosis, macrophage infiltration, TNF-α and IL-6 as compared to the wild type (WT) littermates fed high fat diet (HFD). A higher AMPK activation (no difference in mTOR signaling), lower levels of lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1c and activity/expression of lipogenic enzymes were observed in the Arg-II(-/-) mice liver. Moreover, release of TNF-α and IL-6 from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) of Arg-II(-/-) mice is decreased as compared to WT-BMM. Conditioned medium from Arg-II(-/-)-BMM exhibits weaker activity to facilitate triglyceride synthesis paralleled with lower expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1 and higher AMPK activation in hepatocytes as compared to that from WT-BMM. These effects of BMM conditioned medium can be neutralized by neutralizing antibodies against TNF-α and IL-6. Thus, Arg-II-expressing macrophages facilitate diet-induced NAFLD through TNF-α and IL-6 in obesity. PMID:26846206

  14. Endogenous interleukin-10 protects against hepatic steatosis but does not improve insulin sensitivity during high-fat feeding in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, Marion A. M.; Voshol, Peter J.; Schroder-van der Elst, Janny P.; Korsheninnikova, Elena; Ouwens, D. Margriet; Kuipers, Folkert; Havekes, Louis M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association in humans between plasma levels or production capacity of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 and insulin sensitivity. The aim of our study was to investigate the protective role of endogenous IL-10 availability in the development of diet-induced insu

  15. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  16. Intermittent cold exposure induces fat deposition in mice /

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Hyung sun

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the most essential thermogenic organ in homeotherms. In mice, brown adipocytes like cells (beige adipocytes) appear in subcutaneous fat depot after prolonged cold exposure. Fully-functioning BAT and beige adipocytes in subcutaneous fat depot drive a sharp increase in energy expenditure. In fact, cold-elicited BAT activation and beige cell recruitment in subcutaneous adipose tissue have shown anti -obesity effect, making them a promising target for obesity treatme...

  17. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders. PMID:26742324

  18. Effect of Brown Rice Protein and Its Hydrolysates on Lipid Metabolism in High-fat Diet on Syrian hamsters%糙米蛋白及其酶解产物对喂食高脂饲料叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧娟; Wally Yokoyama; 张晖

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of brown rice protein(BRP) and BRP hydrolysates(BRPH)on lipoprotein metabolism in Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets compared to casein.The supplements of brown rice protein and its hydrolysates reduced hepatic total lipid,total cholesterol and free cholesterol content of hamster.Meanwhile,the BRP and BRPH diet increased the fecal total lipid,total cholesterol and free cholesterol content.Moreover,BRPH significantly reduced the hamster body weight compared to control.%以动物性蛋白酪蛋白为对照,研究了糙米蛋白及其酶解产物对叙利亚金仓鼠脂质代谢的影响。糙米蛋白及其酶解产物降低了仓鼠肝脏中总脂肪、总胆固醇和游离胆固醇含量,同时增加了粪便中脂肪及胆固醇的排出量。糙米蛋白酶解产物还可以显著降低仓鼠的体重。

  19. Piperidine alkaloids from Piper retrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-07-22

    The fruits of Piper retrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300mg/kg/day for 8weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver by decreasing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Consistent with the in vitro results, PRPA activated AMPK signaling and altered the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in liver and skeletal muscle. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. PMID:21741367

  20. Allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells promote survival of fat grafts in immunocompetent diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Bai, Xiaozhi; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yunchuan; Su, Linlin; Chang, Peng; Wang, Xujie; Han, Shichao; Gao, Jianxin; Hu, Xiaolong; Hu, Dahai; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-05-01

    Autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can protect fat grafts in cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL). However, diabetes alters the intrinsic properties of ADSCs and impairs their function so that they lack these protective effects. We investigate whether allogeneic ADSCs from healthy donors could protect fat grafts in immunocompetent diabetic rats. Syngeniec adipose tissues and ADSCs were derived from diabetic Lewis (LEW) rats, whereas allogeneic ADSCs were from healthy brown-Norway rats. A grafted mixture containing 0.7 ml granule fat and 0.3 ml 6 × 10(6) allogeneic/syngeneic ADSCs was injected subcutaneously on the skulls of diabetic LEW rats. Fat samples were harvested to evaluate the levels of injury and vascularization as shown by perilipin A, CD34 and VEGF at 14 days. The immune response was evaluated with a lymphocytotoxicity test and the CD4/CD8 ratio in peripheral blood at 14 days. The volume retention of fat grafts was measured at 3 months. Healthy allogeneic ADSCs increased the expression levels of perilipin A, CD34 and VEGF at 14 days. The volume retention of fat grafts was improved by allogeneic ADSCs at 3 months. ADSCs were demonstrated to have low immunogenicity by the lymphocyte proliferation test and immunophenotype including MHC and co-stimulatory markers. The lymphocytotoxicity test and CD4/CD8 ratio indicated no obvious immune response elicited by allogeneic ADSCs. Thus, healthy allogeneic ADSCs can promote the survival of fat grafts in this immunocompetent diabetic rat model, with little or no obvious immune rejection. PMID:26662284

  1. Aspectos produtivos da raça Pardo-Suíça no Brasil: Fatores de ajustamento, produção de leite e de gordura, e parâmetros genéticos Productive aspects of the brown Swiss Breed in Brazil: Adjustment factors, milk and fat yields, and genetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sobre o desempenho produtivo da raça Pardo-Suíça com o objetivo de estimar fatores de ajustamento, avaliar fatores de ambiente e genéticos que influenciam a produção de leite, de gordura e a porcentagem de gordura, e estimar parâmetros genéticos para estas características produtivas. Foram avaliadas 11189 lactações de 5382 vacas Pardo-Suíças, de 1980 a 1999, oriundas de 201 rebanhos, sendo os registros de produção do serviço de controle leiteiro realizado pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Gado Pardo-Suíço. As lactações foram ajustadas por meio de fatores multiplicativos de ajustamento para duas ordenhas, períodos de lactação de 305 dias e produção a idade adulta. As médias estimadas, os respectivos desvios-padrão e os coeficientes de variação da produção de leite, produção de gordura e percentagem de gordura foram 5791,50 ± 1211,58 kg e 20,92%; 217,25 ± 47,36 kg e 21,80% e 3,78 ± 0,34 e 9,16%, respectivamente. Os efeitos de ano e época de partos, interação ano-época de partos, rebanho e grupo genético influenciaram as características estudadas, com exceção da época de partos sobre a percentagem de gordura. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade e repetibilidade estimados para a produção de leite e gordura foram 0,37e 0,40, e 0,36 e 0,37, respectivamente. A correlação genética entre a produção de leite e de gordura encontrada neste estudo foi de 0,96. Os resultados obtidos revelam a necessidade do ajustamento das produções de leite e gordura para os efeitos avaliados. As médias de produção de leite, de gordura e à percentagem de gordura apresentada demonstram o elevado desempenho produtivo da raça Pardo-Suíça nos rebanhos brasileiros.A study was carried on performance of the Brown Swiss cattle with the objective of estimating adjustment factors, evaluate some environment and genetics factors that affect milk and fat yields and fat percentage, and estimate

  2. Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase Isoform-4 (GPAT4) Limits Oxidation of Exogenous Fatty Acids in Brown Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel E; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2015-06-12

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-4 (GPAT4) null pups grew poorly during the suckling period and, as adults, were protected from high fat diet-induced obesity. To determine why Gpat4(-/-) mice failed to gain weight during these two periods of high fat feeding, we examined energy metabolism. Compared with controls, the metabolic rate of Gpat4(-/-) mice fed a 45% fat diet was 12% higher. Core body temperature was 1 ºC higher after high fat feeding. Food intake, fat absorption, and activity were similar in both genotypes. Impaired weight gain in Gpat4(-/-) mice did not result from increased heat loss, because both cold tolerance and response to a β3-adrenergic agonist were similar in both genotypes. Because GPAT4 comprises 65% of the total GPAT activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), we characterized BAT function. A 45% fat diet increased the Gpat4(-/-) BAT expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR) target genes, Cpt1α, Pgc1α, and Ucp1, and BAT mitochondria oxidized oleate and pyruvate at higher rates than controls, suggesting that fatty acid signaling and flux through the TCA cycle were enhanced. To assess the role of GPAT4 directly, neonatal BAT preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes. Compared with controls, Gpat4(-/-) brown adipocytes incorporated 33% less fatty acid into triacylglycerol and 46% more into the pathway of β-oxidation. The increased oxidation rate was due solely to an increase in the oxidation of exogenous fatty acids. These data suggest that in the absence of cold exposure, GPAT4 limits excessive fatty acid oxidation and the detrimental induction of a hypermetabolic state. PMID:25918168

  3. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Creis

    Full Text Available A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70, which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast, which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo, which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of

  4. Effect of rumen-protected fat on performance and serum concentration of T3 hormone of Holstein young bulls during hot, humid weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Toufighi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3 of 15 Holstein young bulls with an initial mean live weight of 200±25 kg was studied in response to a dietary rumen-protected fat (RPF supplementation [3 or 5% of dry matter (DM] during hot, humid climate (in Guilan, Iran, during summer season in four sequential 21-d periods. The growth performance and serum T3 concentration were measured at the end of each period. Results showed that there were no differences in the daily DM intake among the treatments in all experimental periods. During all 21-d periods and overall, the bulls fed RPF-containing diet gained significantly more weight than those receiving control diet. The young bulls fed diets containing 5% RPF gained more weight than those receiving 3% RPF-containing diets. The lowest weight gain was observed for young bulls fed the control diet. The highest (P<0.05 feed to gain (f:g ratios were observed for young bulls fed control diet and the lowest f:g ratios were observed for those fed 5% RPF-containing diet. Serum T3 concentration in the young bulls fed 5% RPF-containing diet was significantly higher than those fed 3% RPF or control diet in all experimental periods and overall. The variations in response to dietary RPF supplements among treatments could be related to lower metabolic heat production of RPFs rather than proteins and carbohydrates, especially in hot, humid conditions.

  5. Mice deficient in the respiratory chain gene Cox6a2 are protected against high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel Quintens

    Full Text Available Oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria is responsible for 90% of ATP synthesis in most cells. This essential housekeeping function is mediated by nuclear and mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of complex I to V of the respiratory chain. Although complex IV is the best studied of these complexes, the exact function of the striated muscle-specific subunit COX6A2 is still poorly understood. In this study, we show that Cox6a2-deficient mice are protected against high-fat diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. This phenotype results from elevated energy expenditure and a skeletal muscle fiber type switch towards more oxidative fibers. At the molecular level we observe increased formation of reactive oxygen species, constitutive activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, and enhanced expression of uncoupling proteins. Our data indicate that COX6A2 is a regulator of respiratory uncoupling in muscle and we demonstrate that a novel and direct link exists between muscle respiratory chain activity and diet-induced obesity/insulin resistance.

  6. Reduction of FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue in clinical patients by a single dose of propranolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake in brown adipose tissue (hibernating fat) is sometimes seen at FDG-PET examinations. Despite a characteristic appearance, this may hide clinically relevant uptake. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system increases glucose uptake of brown fat. We now re-examine patients with brown fat activity that could disguise tumour uptake after pre-treatment with propranolol (a non-selective β-blocker) in order to reduce the uptake. Our first examinations of this kind are reported. Eleven patients with strong brown fat uptake were studied. There was a mean of 5 days (range 2-8) between the examinations. At the second examination, 80 mg of propranolol was given orally 2 h before FDG administration. In addition to visual evaluation of the brown fat uptake, SUV assessments of the uptake in brown fat, lung, heart, liver, spleen and bone marrow were made. All patients showed complete or almost complete disappearance of the brown fat activity at the second examination (p < 0.001) both upon visual evaluation and when comparing SUVs. In seven patients there was also uptake in a known or strongly suspected malignancy, which remained unchanged between the examinations. Beyond an insignificant decrease in the myocardial uptake, there was no redistribution to the various examined organs at the second examination. Pre-treatment with a single dose of propranolol blocks the FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue, thereby increasing the specificity of the examination. The tumour uptake seems not to be impaired. (orig.)

  7. Rhein Protects against Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders through Liver X Receptor-Mediated Uncoupling Protein 1 Upregulation in Brown Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Sheng, Xuehua Zhu, Yuebo Zhang, Guoliang Cui, Linling Peng, Xiong Lu, Ying Qin Zang

    2012-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) play important roles in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, and lipid and energy metabolism. Therefore, LXR ligands could be used for the management of metabolic disorders. We evaluated rhein, a natural compound from Rheum palmatum L., as an antagonist for LXRs and investigated its anti-obesity mechanism in high-fat diet-fed mice. Surface plasmon resonance assays were performed to examine the direct binding of rhein to LXRs. LXR target gene expression was assessed in ...

  8. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Andrea D; Nahon, Kimberly J; Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Susan M; Kanhai, Anish A; Kikuchi, Takuya; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Lombès, Marc; van den Hoek, Anita M; de Winther, Menno P J; Lutgens, Esther; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2015-05-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. We found that salsalate attenuated and reversed high-fat diet-induced weight gain, in particular fat mass accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Mechanistically, salsalate selectively promoted the uptake of fatty acids from glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like emulsion particles by brown adipose tissue (BAT), decreased the intracellular lipid content in BAT, and increased rectal temperature, all pointing to more active BAT. The treatment of differentiated T37i brown adipocytes with salsalate increased uncoupled respiration. Moreover, salsalate upregulated Ucp1 expression and enhanced glycerol release, a dual effect that was abolished by the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In conclusion, salsalate activates BAT, presumably by directly activating brown adipocytes via the PKA pathway, suggesting a novel mechanism that may explain its beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25475439

  9. Loss of function mutation in toll-like receptor-4 does not offer protection against obesity and insulin resistance induced by a diet high in trans fat in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewirtz Andrew T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4 triggers inflammatory signaling in response to microbial lipoploysaccharide. It has been reported that loss of TLR4 protected against saturated fat-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. It is not known whether loss of TLR4 function offers protection against trans fat (TF induced obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. We investigated whether mice with loss of function mutation in TLR4 were resistant to TF-induced pathologies such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Methods C57BL/6j and C57BL/10 mice were cross bred to generate TLR4 mutant and wild type (WT. TLR4 mutant (n = 12 and WT (n = 12 mice were fed either low fat (LF (13.5% fat energy or high TF diets (60% fat energy for 12 weeks. In vitro experiments were conducted on mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 to investigate whether elaidic (trans 18:1 or oleic acid (cis 18:1 would upregulate inflammatory markers. Results TLR4 mutant mice were ~26.4% heavier than WT mice. In both genotypes, mice that received TF diet were significantly heavier than those mice that received LF diet (P Conclusions Loss of function mutation in TLR4 not only did not protect mice from TF-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia but also exacerbated the above pathologies suggesting that functional TLR4 is necessary in attenuating TF-induced deleterious effects. It is likely that TF induces pathologies through pathways independent of TLR4.

  10. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    OpenAIRE

    Emiel Beijer; Janna Schoenmakers; Guy Vijgen; Fons Kessels; Anne-Marie Dingemans; Patrick Schrauwen; Miel Wouters; Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt; Jaap Teule; Boudewijn Brans

    2012-01-01

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activ...

  11. Age and Sex Mediated Changes in Epicardial Fat Adipokines

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Jia; Cook, Carla; BLOUGH, ERIC; Santanam, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    Aging, which is an independent risk factor for heart disease, alters body fat mass and its function. Epicardial fat plays an important physiological and pathophysiological role on cardiac structure and function. This study investigated if aging altered the abundance of epicardial (EF) and abdominal fat (AF) derived mediators in a sex dependent manner in female and male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway hybrid (FBN) rats. EF and AF were obtained from 48 female and male, young (6 months), aged (26/30 ...

  12. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  13. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Syun Hu; Wei-Jen Ting; Wen-Dee Chiang; Peiying Pai; Yu-Lan Yeh; Chung-Ho Chang; Wan-Teng Lin; Chih-Yang Huang

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH), a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day) and probucol (500 mg/kg/day). APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low densi...

  14. AHNAK deficiency promotes browning and lipolysis in mice via increased responsiveness to β-adrenergic signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Hoon Shin; Seo Hyun Lee; Yo Na Kim; Il Yong Kim; Youn Ju Kim; Dong Soo Kyeong; Hee Jung Lim; Soo Young Cho; Junhee Choi; Young Jin Wi; Jae-Hoon Choi; Yeo Sung Yoon; Yun Soo Bae; Je Kyung Seong

    2016-01-01

    In adipose tissue, agonists of the β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) regulate lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and thermogenesis. The deficiency in the thermogenesis induced by neuroblast differentiation-associated protein AHNAK in white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that AHNAK may stimulate energy expenditure via development of beige fat. Here, we report that AHNAK deficiency promoted browning and thermogenic gene expression in WAT but not in brown adipose tissue of mice ...

  15. Brown Adipose Tissue: A New Target for Antiobesity Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human fat consist of white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT). Though most fat is energy-storing WAT, the thermogenic capacity of even small amounts of BAT makes it an attractive therapeutic target for inducing weight loss through energy expenditure. CONTENT: Over the past year, several independent research teams used a combination of positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging, immunohistochemistry and gene and protein expression assays to prove conc...

  16. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chang Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The results show that vanillic acid (VA demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight at weeks 13–16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05, indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  17. Protective effect of pioglitazone on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in low-dose streptozotocin & high-fat diet-induced type-2 diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one of the pathologic phenomena associated with diabetes and related conditions including obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the protective effects of pioglitazone on cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated in experimental diabetes induced by low dose of streptozoticin (STZ combined with high fat diet (HFD in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (150-200 g were injected with low-dose STZ (45 mg/kg, i.v., single dose and orally fed with a HFD (20 g/day/rat for a period of 28 days and simultaneously treated with pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/p.o. for a period of 21 days (from 8 th day to 28 th day. On 29 th day blood was collected, serum separated and used for biochemical parameters. Heart tissue was used for cardiomyocyte apoptosis measurement and also for histopathological examination. Results: Pioglitazone treatment resulted in a decrease in cardiomyocyte apoptosis as revealed by a decrease in cardiac caspase-3, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels and DNA fragmentation, and an increase in Na+K+ATPase levels in diabetic rats. Cardiac histology of diabetic control rats showed dense focal fatty infiltration in the myocardial cells whereas normal architecture with regular morphology and well preserved cytoplasm was observed with pioglitazone treatment. Pioglitazone treatment significantly reduced the heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, body mass index (BMI and levels of serum glucose, leptin, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TGs, apoliproprotein-B glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels and atherogenic index, and increased the levels of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and cardiac antioxidant enzymes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study results suggest that pioglitazone possesses cardiac anti-apoptotic potential in diabetic rat model and can be further explored for its use for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  18. Turning up the heat : role of brown adipose tissue in metabolic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mariëtte Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In 1551, the Swiss naturalist Konrad Gessner first described brown adipose tissue (BAT) as being “neither fat, nor flesh (nec pinguitudo, nec caro), but something in between”. Now, some 460 years later, we know that Gessner had guessed the origin of brown adipocytes correctly. A unique property of t

  19. Control and Physiological Determinants of Sympathetically Mediated Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    DenisRichard; ÉricTurcotte

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) represents a remarkable heat-producing tissue. The thermogenic potential of BAT is conferred by uncoupling protein 1, a protein found uniquely in the brown adipocytes. The physiological control of BAT activity and capacity is ensured by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which densely innervates brown fat depots. SNS-mediated BAT thermogenesis is essentially governed by hypothalamic and brainstem neurons. BAT is not only controlled by the brain thermoregulatory c...

  20. Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling in Brown Adipocyte Survival, Proliferation and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Mandrita

    2012-01-01

    Both white and brown adipose tissues exhibit extensive vascularity. Increased angiogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is crucial for brown fat activation and thermogenesis in animals during cold acclimation. BAT can be similarly activated by food intake to generate heat through cellular respiration, in a process known as diet induced thermogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor that regulates both pathological and physiological angiogenesis and can...

  1. Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 regulates adipocyte lipolysis, browning, and energy balance in adult animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyi; Lei, Xinnuo; Benson, Tyler; Mintz, James; Xu, Xiaojing; Harris, Ruth B; Weintraub, Neal L; Wang, Xiaoling; Chen, Weiqin

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in BSCL2/SEIPIN cause Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2), but the mechanisms whereby Bscl2 regulates adipose tissue function are unclear. Here, we generated adipose tissue (mature) Bscl2 knockout (Ad-mKO) mice, in which Bscl2 was specifically ablated in adipocytes of adult animals, to investigate the impact of acquired Bscl2 deletion on adipose tissue function and energy balance. Ad-mKO mice displayed reduced adiposity and were protected against high fat diet-induced obesity, but not insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis. Gene expression profiling and biochemical assays revealed increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue , as well as browning of WAT, owing to induction of cAMP/protein kinase A signaling upon Bscl2 deletion. Interestingly, Bscl2 deletion reduced food intake and downregulated adipose β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) expression. Impaired ADRB3 signaling partially offsets upregulated browning-induced energy expenditure and thermogenesis in Ad-mKO mice housed at ambient temperature. However, this counter-regulatory response was abrogated under thermoneutral conditions, resulting in even greater body mass loss in Ad-mKO mice. These findings suggest that Bscl2 regulates adipocyte lipolysis and β-adrenergic signaling to produce complex effects on adipose tissues and whole-body energy balance. PMID:26269358

  2. Adipose Tissue Overexpression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Protects Against Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Ivet; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Ferré, Tura; Vilà, Laia; Tafuro, Sabrina; Muñoz, Sergio; Roca, Carles; Ramos, David; Pujol, Anna; Riu, Efren; Ruberte, Jesús; Bosch, Fatima

    2012-01-01

    During the expansion of fat mass in obesity, vascularization of adipose tissue is insufficient to maintain tissue normoxia. Local hypoxia develops and may result in altered adipokine expression, proinflammatory macrophage recruitment, and insulin resistance. We investigated whether an increase in adipose tissue angiogenesis could protect against obesity-induced hypoxia and, consequently, insulin resistance. Transgenic mice overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brown adip...

  3. Brown adipocyte differentiation is regulated by hedgehog signaling during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    During development, brown fat tissue arises from mesenchymal precursor cells under the control of signaling networks that are not yet well understood. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is one of the major signaling pathways that regulate mesenchymal cell fate. However, whether the Hh pathway contr...

  4. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  5. The Korean Mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum Extract Has an Antiobesity Effect and Protects against Hepatic Steatosis in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoe-Yune Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the inhibitory effects of Korean mistletoe extract (KME on adipogenic factors in 3T3-L1 cells and obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57Bl/6 mice fed a high-fat diet were treated with KME (3 g/kg/day for 15 weeks for the antiobesity and NAFLD experiments. Body weight and daily food intake were measured regularly during the experimental period. The epididymal pad was measured and liver histology was observed. The effects of KME on thermogenesis and endurance capacity were measured. The effects of KME on adipogenic factors were examined in 3T3-L1 cells. Body and epididymal fat pad weights were reduced in KME-treated mice, and histological examination showed an amelioration of fatty liver in KME-treated mice, without an effect on food consumption. KME potently induces mitochondrial activity by activating thermogenesis and improving endurance capacity. KME also inhibited adipogenic factors in vitro. These results demonstrate the inhibitory effects of KME on obesity and NAFLD in mice fed a high-fat diet. The effects appear to be mediated through an enhanced mitochondrial activity. Therefore, KME may be an effective therapeutic candidate for treating obesity and fatty liver caused by a high-fat diet.

  6. Microbiota depletion promotes browning of white adipose tissue and reduces obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Zamorano, Nicolas; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Chevalier, Claire; Stojanović, Ozren; Colin, Didier J; Stevanović, Ana; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Tarallo, Valentina; Rigo, Dorothée; Germain, Stéphane; Ilievska, Miroslava; Montet, Xavier; Seimbille, Yann; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes a lean and healthy phenotype and improves insulin sensitivity. In response to cold or exercise, brown fat cells also emerge in the white adipose tissue (WAT; also known as beige cells), a process known as browning. Here we show that the development of functional beige fat in the inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ingSAT) and perigonadal visceral adipose tissue (pgVAT) is promoted by the depletion of microbiota either by means of antibiotic treatment or in germ-free mice. This leads to improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean mice, obese leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Such metabolic improvements are mediated by eosinophil infiltration, enhanced type 2 cytokine signaling and M2 macrophage polarization in the subcutaneous white fat depots of microbiota-depleted animals. The metabolic phenotype and the browning of the subcutaneous fat are impaired by the suppression of type 2 cytokine signaling, and they are reversed by recolonization of the antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice with microbes. These results provide insight into the microbiota-fat signaling axis and beige-fat development in health and metabolic disease. PMID:26569380

  7. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grefhorst (Aldo); J.C. van den Beukel (Johanna); A.F. van Houten (A.); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed

  8. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ...

  9. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  10. Effect of the slow (K or rapid (k+ feathering gene on body and feather growth and fatness according to ambient temperature in a Leghorn × brown egg type cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordas André

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chicks of both sexes issued from the cross of heterozygous K/k+ cocks for the slow-feathering sex linked K allele with k+ (rapid feathering hens, were compared from the age of 4 to 10 weeks at two ambient temperatures. In individual cages, 30 male chicks of each genotype (K/k+ and k+/k+ were raised at 21°C, and 60 others, distributed in the same way, were raised at 31°C. 71 K/W females and 69 k+/W females were raised in a floor pen at 31°C till 10 weeks of age. In the males, the body weight, feed consumption and feed efficiency at different ages were influenced only by temperature (lower growth rate and feed intake at 31°C; no significant effects of the genotype at locus K nor genotype × temperature interaction were observed. In females, all at 31°C, the genotype (K/W or k+/W had no significant effect on growth rate. Plumage weight and weight of abdominal fat (absolute or related to body weight were measured on half of the males of each group in individual cages, at 10 weeks of age. Moreover, on 36 males and 48 females of the two genotypes, in a group battery at 31°C, the absolute and relative weight of plumage were measured on a sample every two weeks between 4 and 10 weeks. In the first case, no significant effect of genotype appeared. In the second case, an interaction between age and genotype was suggested from plumage weight: its growth, especially in male chicks, appears to be temporarily and unexpectedly faster from 4 to 6 weeks of age for the K/k+ and K/W genotypes.

  11. STUDY ON BODY FAT DENSITY PREDICTION BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanth Reddy Ainala,; Nawaf Aljohani; Kaushik Roy; Xiaohong Yuan; Huiming A. Yu

    2015-01-01

    For a human body to function properly it is essential to have a certain amount of body fat. Fat serves to manage body temperature, pads and protects the organs. Fat is the fundamental type of the body's vitality stockpiling. It is important to have a healthy amount of body fat. Overabundance of fat quotient can build danger of genuine wellbeing issues. Anthropometry is a broadly accessible and basic strategy for the appraisal of body composition. Anthropometry measures are weight,...

  12. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back...

  13. Regulatory circuits controlling white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ that exerts a profound influence on whole-body homoeostasis. Two types of adipose tissue exist in mammals: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT stores energy and is the largest energy reserve in mammals, whereas BAT, expressing UCP......1 (uncoupling protein 1), can dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. In rodents, ample evidence supports BAT as an organ counteracting obesity, whereas less is known about the presence and significance of BAT in humans. Despite the different functions of white and brown adipocytes......, knowledge of factors differentially influencing the formation of white and brown fat cells is sparse. Here we summarize recent progress in the molecular understanding of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation, including novel insights into transcriptional and signal transduction pathways. Since...

  14. ASK1 signalling regulates brown and beige adipocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kazuki; Naguro, Isao; Okabe, Kohki; Funatsu, Takashi; Furutani, Shotaro; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that adult humans have active brown or beige adipocytes, the activation of which might be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diverse metabolic diseases. Here we show that the protein kinase ASK1 regulates brown and beige adipocytes function. In brown or white adipocytes, the PKA-ASK1-p38 axis is activated in response to cAMP signalling and contributes to the cell-autonomous induction of genes, including Ucp1. Global and fat-specific ASK1 deficiency leads to impaired metabolic responses, including thermogenesis and oxygen consumption, at the cell and whole-body levels, respectively. Our data thus indicate that the ASK1 signalling axis is a regulator of brown and beige adipocyte gene expression and function. PMID:27045525

  15. The brown adipocyte differentiation pathway in birds: An evolutionary road not taken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaratilake Jaliya S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermogenic brown adipose tissue has never been described in birds or other non-mammalian vertebrates. Brown adipocytes in mammals are distinguished from the more common white fat adipocytes by having numerous small lipid droplets rather than a single large one, elevated numbers of mitochondria, and mitochondrial expression of the nuclear gene UCP1, the uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis. Results We have identified in vitro inductive conditions in which mesenchymal cells isolated from the embryonic chicken limb bud differentiate into avian brown adipocyte-like cells (ABALCs with the morphological and many of the biochemical properties of terminally differentiated brown adipocytes. Avian, and as we show here, lizard species lack the gene for UCP1, although it is present in amphibian and fish species. While ABALCs are therefore not functional brown adipocytes, they are generated by a developmental pathway virtually identical to brown fat differentiation in mammals: both the common adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ, and a coactivator of that factor specific to brown fat differentiation in mammals, PGC1α, are elevated in expression, as are mitochondrial volume and DNA. Furthermore, ABALCs induction resulted in strong transcription from a transfected mouse UCP1 promoter. Conclusion These findings strongly suggest that the brown fat differentiation pathway evolved in a common ancestor of birds and mammals and its thermogenicity was lost in the avian lineage, with the degradation of UCP1, after it separated from the mammalian lineage. Since this event occurred no later than the saurian ancestor of birds and lizards, an implication of this is that dinosaurs had neither UCP1 nor canonically thermogenic brown fat.

  16. A weekly alternating diet between caloric restriction and medium-fat protects the liver from fatty liver development in middle-aged C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusli, F.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Zubia, A.A.; Lute, C.; Müller, M.R.; Steegenga, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Scope : We aimed to investigate whether a novel dietary intervention consisting of an every-other-week calorie restricted diet could prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development induced by a medium-fat diet. Methods and results : Nine week-old male C57BL/6J mice received either a 1)

  17. Dichoptic perception of brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLawyer, Tanner; Morimoto, Takuma; Buck, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments assessed mechanisms underlying brown induction by presenting a foveal target disk and concentric annular surround stimuli that varied in contrast relative to larger backgrounds. Stimuli were presented under monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing conditions. Observers adjusted the luminance of the target disk to a criterion brown level. We found evidence for at least two separate mechanisms for brown induction: one mechanism that is dependent on physically contiguous contrast and operates in monocular pathways and another mechanism that responds to high luminance contrast anywhere in the visual field and can operate after convergence of signals from the two eyes. PMID:26974916

  18. Mammary fat of breast cancer: gene expression profiling and functional characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengliang Wang

    Full Text Available Mammary fat is the main composition of breast, and is the most probable candidate to affect tumor behavior because the fat produces hormones, growth factors and adipokines, a heterogeneous group of signaling molecules. Gene expression profiling and functional characterization of mammary fat in Chinese women has not been reported. Thus, we collected the mammary fat tissues adjacent to breast tumors from 60 subjects, among which 30 subjects had breast cancer and 30 had benign lesions. We isolated and cultured the stromal vascular cell fraction from mammary fat. The expression of genes related to adipose function (including adipogenesis and secretion was detected at both the tissue and the cellular level. We also studied mammary fat browning. The results indicated that fat tissue close to malignant and benign lesions exhibited distinctive gene expression profiles and functional characteristics. Although the mammary fat of breast tumors atrophied, it secreted tumor growth stimulatory factors. Browning of mammary fat was observed and browning activity of fat close to malignant breast tumors was greater than that close to benign lesions. Understanding the diversity between these two fat depots may possibly help us improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and find the key to unlock new anticancer therapies.

  19. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. → NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. → Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, PPARγ coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  20. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  1. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chang Chang; James Swi-Bea Wu; Chen-Wen Chen; Po-Ling Kuo; Hsu-Min Chien; Yuh-Tai Wang; Szu-Chuan Shen

    2015-01-01

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highes...

  2. Effect of Instant Cooked Giant Embryonic Rice on Body Fat Weight and Plasma Lipid Profile in High Fat-Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Im Chung; Tae Hyeong Kim; Rico, Catherine W.; Mi Young Kang

    2014-01-01

    The comparative effects of instant cooked rice made from giant embryo mutant or ordinary normal rice on body weight and lipid profile in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The animals were given experimental diets for seven weeks: normal control (NC), high fat (HF), and HF supplemented with instant normal white (HF-NW), normal brown (HF-NB), giant embryonic white (HF-GW), or giant embryonic brown (HF-GB) rice. The HF group showed markedly higher body weight, body fat, plasma and hepatic tri...

  3. Have we entered the brown adipose tissue renaissance?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravussin, E.; Kozak, L P

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, it was observed that rodents could offset excess calories ingested when they were fed a human-like `cafeteria diet'. Although it was erroneously concluded that this so-called diet-induced thermogenesis was because of brown adipose tissue (BAT), it led to efforts to test whether variations in brown fat in humans may explain the susceptibility to obesity. However, from evidence on the inability of ephedrine or beta-3 adrenergic agonists to induce BAT thermogenesis, it wa...

  4. Reduced Dietary Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio and 12/15-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Are Protective against Chronic High Fat Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Milos Lazic; Maria Eugenia Inzaugarat; Davide Povero; Iris C Zhao; Mark Chen; Madlena Nalbandian; Yury I Miller; Cherñavsky, Alejandra C.; Ariel E Feldstein; Sears, Dorothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6) promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3) reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF) diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO ...

  5. Female Mice are Protected against High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Syndrome and Increase the Regulatory T Cell Population in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Ulrika; Waldén, Tomas; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Jansson, Leif; Phillipson, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in obesity-induced complications such as type 2 diabetes have been reported. The aim of the study was to pinpoint the mechanisms resulting in different outcome of female and male mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice fed control or HFD were monitored for weight, blood glucose, and insulin for 14 weeks. Circulating chemokines, islet endocrine function and blood flow, as well as adipose tissue populations of macrophages and regulatory T-lymphocytes (T-reg) were thereafter assessed...

  6. Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Eugene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO, olive oil (OO, and beef tallow (BT on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  7. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey;

    2015-01-01

    The adipose cell-size distribution is a quantitative characterization of adipose tissue morphology. At a population level, the adipose cell-size distribution is insulin-sensitivity dependent, and the observed correlation between obesity and insulin resistance is believed to play a key role in the...... individuals, separated into 4 subgroups according to gender and insulin sensitivity/resistance. Adipose cell-size distribution changes in each individual are simulated with a dynamic model and parameters corresponding to lipid turnover and cell growth rates are determined for each subgroup to match the...... relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive...

  8. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  9. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for...

  10. IEX-1 deficiency induces browning of white adipose tissue and resists diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Mohd; Javed, Ammar A; Chandra, David; Ramsey, Haley E; Shah, Dilip; Khan, Mohammed F; Zhao, Liping; Wu, Mei X

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. However, the primary mediators that affect energy homeostasis remain ill defined. Here, we report an unexpected role for immediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1), a downstream target of NF-κB, in energy metabolism. We found that IEX-1 expression was highly induced in white adipose tissue (WAT) in both epidydmal and subcutaneous depots but not in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Null mutation of IEX-1 protected mice against HFD-induced adipose and hepatic inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. Unexpectedly, IEX-1 knockout (IEX-1(-/-)) mice gained markedly less weight on HFD for 20 weeks as compared to wild-type (WT) littermates (37 ± 3 versus 48 ± 2 gm) due to increased energy expenditure. Mechanistically, we showed that IEX-1 deficiency induced browning and activated thermogenic genes program in WAT but not in BAT by promoting alternative activation of adipose macrophages. Consequently, IEX-1(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced thermogenesis (24 ± 0.1 versus 22 ± 0.1 kcal/hour/kg in WT mice) explaining increased energy expenditure and lean phenotype in these mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that IEX-1 is a novel physiological regulator of energy homeostasis via its action in WAT. PMID:27063893

  11. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  12. Enhancement of brown fat thermogenesis using chenodeoxycholic acid in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teodoro, J.S.; Zouhar, Petr; Flachs, Pavel; Bardová, Kristina; Janovská, Petra; Gomes, A.P.; Duarte, F.V.; Varela, A.T.; Rolo, A.P.; Palmeira, C.M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 8 (2014), s. 1027-1034. ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E12073; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : white adipose tissue * uncoupling protein 1 * energy expenditure * bile acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.004, year: 2014

  13. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  14. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO] on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals’ diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  15. A New Role for Browning as a Redox and Stress Adaptive Mechanism?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanson, Yannick; Carrière, Audrey; Casteilla, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders is focusing the attention of the scientific community on white adipose tissue (WAT) and its biology. This tissue is characterized not only by its capability to change in size and shape but also by its heterogeneity and versatility. WAT can be converted into brown fat-like tissue according to different physiological and pathophysiological situations. The expression of uncoupling protein-1 in brown-like adipocytes changes their function ...

  16. Both liver-X receptor (LXR) isoforms control energy expenditure by regulating Brown Adipose Tissue activity

    OpenAIRE

    Korach-André, Marion; Archer, Amena; Barros, Rodrigo P.; Parini, Paolo; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2010-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are multilocular lipid storage cells that play a crucial role in nonshivering thermogenesis. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a unique feature of brown fat cells that allows heat generation on sympathetic nervous system stimulation. As conventional transcriptional factors that are activated in various signaling pathways, liver-X receptors (LXRs) play important roles in many physiological processes. The role of LXRs in the regulation of energy homeostasis remains unclear, howeve...

  17. Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, André Nathan; Mendes, Daniel Melo; Toufen, Carlos; Arrunátegui, Gino; Caruso, Pedro; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common causes of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures. PMID:18797748

  18. Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat Is Positively Associated With Visceral Fat and Inversely Associated With IGF-1 in Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Brick, Danielle J.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Clifford J Rosen; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an important physiologic link between bone and fat. Bone and fat cells arise from the same mesenchymal precursor cell within bone marrow, capable of differentiation into adipocytes or osteoblasts. Increased BMI appears to protect against osteoporosis. However, recent studies have suggested detrimental effects of visceral fat on bone health. Increased visceral fat may also be associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)...

  19. Cold–inducible Zfp516 Activates UCP1 Transcription to Promote Browning of White Fat and Development of Brown Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Dempersmier, Jon; Sambeat, Audrey; Gulyaeva, Olga; Paul, Sarah M.; Hudak, Carolyn S. S.; Raposo, Helena F.; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Kang, Chulho; Wong, Roger H. F.; Sul, Hei Sook

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediates non-shivering thermogenesis and, upon cold exposure, is induced in BAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (iWAT). Here, by high-throughput screening using the UCP1 promoter, we identify Zfp516 as a novel transcriptional activator of UCP1 as well as PGC1α thereby promoting a BAT program. Zfp516 itself is induced by cold and sympathetic stimulation through the cAMP-CREB/ATF2 pathway. Zfp516 directly binds to the proximal region of the UCP1 promoter, not t...

  20. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat. PMID:26761836

  1. Retinoblastoma protein functions as a molecular switch determining white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Jørgensen, Claus; Petersen, Rasmus K;

    2004-01-01

    Adipocyte precursor cells give raise to two major cell populations with different physiological roles: white and brown adipocytes. Here we demonstrate that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) regulates white vs. brown adipocyte differentiation. Functional inactivation of pRB in wild-type mouse embryo...... fibroblasts (MEFs) and white preadipocytes by expression of simian virus 40 large T antigen results in the expression of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in the adipose state. Retinoblastoma gene-deficient (Rb-/-) MEFs and stem cells, but not the corresponding wild-type cells, differentiate...

  2. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  3. Analysis of the liver lipidome reveals insights into the protective effect of exercise on high fat diet induced hepatosteatosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting; Kraakman, Michael J; Gardner, Tim;

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of lipid at ectopic sites including the skeletal muscle and liver is a common consequence of obesity and is associated with tissue-specific and whole-body insulin resistance. Exercise is well known to improve insulin resistance by mechanisms not completely understood. We performe...... in fatty acid entry into hepatocytes. Given the important role of the liver in the regulation of whole body glucose homeostasis, hepatic lipid regression may be a key component by which exercise can improve metabolism.......The accumulation of lipid at ectopic sites including the skeletal muscle and liver is a common consequence of obesity and is associated with tissue-specific and whole-body insulin resistance. Exercise is well known to improve insulin resistance by mechanisms not completely understood. We performed...... lipidomic profiling via mass spectrometry in liver and skeletal muscle samples from exercise trained mice, to decipher the lipid changes associated with exercise-induced improvements in whole body glucose metabolism. Obesity and insulin resistance was induced in C57BL/6J mice by high fat feeding for four...

  4. Protective effect of cinnamon polyphenols against STZ-diabetic mice fed high-sugar, high-fat diet and its underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Liang, Tao; Xu, Lingyuan; Li, Yongwen; Zhang, Shijun; Duan, Xiaoqun

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of 14days' intragastrically given of cinnamon polyphenols (CPS) in treating diabetic mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (150mgkg(-1)) and fed high-sugar, high-fat diet. The diabetic mice model was successfully established through determining on fasting blood-glucose (FBG) test. As revealed by glucose oxidase (GOD) and radioimmunoassay (RIA), both dimethyldiguanide (DC, 0.6gkg(-1)d(-1)) and CPS (0.3, 0.6, 1.2gkg(-1)d(-1)) treatments significantly resulted in down-regulation of blood glucose and insulin levels in serum, while the levels of oxidative stress markers were markedly lowered through ELISA assay. Meanwhile, the pathological damage in islet with pancreatic beta cells was ameliorated by treatment of CPS at different doses, as shown in HE stain. At the same time, the treatments also caused notable reduction of iNOS, NF-κB expressions showing in Western blot analysis. These findings demonstrate that cinnamon polyphenols can exert the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects through the mechanisms that may be associated with repairing pancreatic beta cells in diabetic mice and improving its anti-oxidative capacity, as well as attenuating cytotoxicity via inhibition of iNOS, NF-κB activation. PMID:23127600

  5. Protective Effect of Dietary Lily Bulb on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yukako; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Lily bulb is traditionally consumed in East Asia and contains high amounts of glucomannan. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% beef tallow with or without 7% steamed lily bulb powder for 17 d. Experimental colitis was induced by replacing drinking water with DSS during the last 7 d. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly lower in the lily bulb+DSS group than in the DSS group on day 17. The fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in the DSS group compared with that in the control group, but it was recovered by lily bulb intake. Cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly higher in the DSS group than in the control group. Dietary lily bulb potentiated the increase in cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and the ALP activity caused by DSS treatment. These results indicate that lily bulb attenuates DSS-induced colitis by modulating colonic microflora, organic acids, mucins, and ALP activity in HF diet-fed rats. PMID:27465728

  6. Genetic Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue, Obesity and Growth in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Saxton, A. M.; Eisen, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis developed from single-gene mutant obese rodents that brown adipose tissue (BAT), through its thermogenic ability, is an important factor in the development of obesity, was tested in a randombred population of mice in which degree of adiposity is polygenically determined. Additive direct genetic parameters for measures of body size, lean, fatness and BAT at 6 wk of age were estimated under control and high-fat postweaning dietary regimens. Heritabilities were generally similar f...

  7. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Grefhorst, Aldo; van den Beukel, Johanna C; van Houten, E Leonie AF; Steenbergen, Jacobie; Visser, Jenny A.; Themmen, Axel PN

    2015-01-01

    Background In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed in BAT and are involved in BAT activity. We hypothesized that differential expression of BMPs and FGFs might contribute to sex differences in BAT activity. Methods We investigated the expression of BMPs and FG...

  8. Between brown and white: novel aspects of adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Saverio

    2011-03-01

    In all mammals including humans, most white and brown adipocytes are found together in visceral and subcutaneous depots (adipose organ) despite the well known difference in their function, respectively of storing energy and producing heat. A growing body of evidence suggests that the reason for such anatomical arrangement is their plasticity, which under appropriate stimulation allows direct conversion of one cell type into the other. In conditions of chronic cold exposure white-to-brown conversion meets the need for thermogenesis, whereas an obesogenic diet induces brown-to-white conversion to meet the need for storing energy. White-to-brown transdifferentiation is of medical interest, because the brown phenotype of the adipose organ is associated to obesity resistance, and drugs inducing this phenotype curb murine obesity and related disorders. Type 2 diabetes is the most common disorder associated to visceral obesity. Macrophages infiltrating the adipose organ are responsible for the low-grade chronic inflammation related to the removal of dead adipocytes, which leads to insulin resistance and T2 diabetes. Adipocyte death is closely related to their growth up to the critical death size. The critical death size of visceral adipocytes is smaller than that of subcutaneous adipocytes, likely accounting for the greater morbidity related to visceral fat. PMID:21254898

  9. Breaking BAT: can browning create a better white?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Mittag, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities are a growing problem worldwide. In consequence, several new strategies have been proposed to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that certain populations of white adipocytes can be 'browned', i.e., recruited to a more brown-like adipocyte, capable of thermogenesis through increased expression of uncoupling protein 1. The list of browning agents that induce these so-called beige adipocytes is growing constantly. However, the underlying mechanisms are often poorly understood, with the possibility that some of these agents cause browning as a secondary effect. Moreover, it remains unclear whether beige adipocytes can contribute sufficiently to affect whole-body energy expenditure in a functionally significant manner. This review presents an overview of the different molecular pathways leading to the induction of beige fat, including direct stimulation and indirect actions on the CNS or the immune system. We discuss the available evidence on the capacity of beige adipocytes to influence whole-body energy expenditure in rodents, and lastly outline the potential problems of translating browning capacity into the potential treatment of human metabolic diseases. PMID:26450134

  10. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13-16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM. PMID:26633482

  11. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH), a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day) and probucol (500 mg/kg/day). APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain) induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day) in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day) rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day) treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway. PMID:25950762

  12. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Syun Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH, a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day and probucol (500 mg/kg/day. APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway.

  13. Increased Mitochondrial Activity in BMP7-Treated Brown Adipocytes, Due to Increased CPT1- and CD36-Mediated Fatty Acid Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Kristy L.; An, Ding; Lynes, Matthew D.; Huang, Tian Lian; Zhang, Hongbin; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Brown adipose tissue dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat and regulates triglyceride and glucose metabolism in the body. Factors that regulate fatty acid uptake and oxidation in brown adipocytes have not yet been fully elucidated. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) is a growth factor capable of inducing brown fat mitochondrial biogenesis during differentiation from adipocyte progenitors. Administration of BMP7 to mice also results in increased energy expenditure. To determine...

  14. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Aung; He, Hui Ling; Chua, Si Hui; Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Chen, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue expends energy in the form of heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Recent studies showed that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans and may be exploited for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetes actions. Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism. Here, we report that apelin-APJ signaling promotes brown adipocyte differentiation by increasing the expressions of brown adipogenic and thermogenic transcriptional factors via the PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. It is also found that apelin relieves the TNFα inhibition on brown adipogenesis. In addition, apelin increases the basal activity of brown adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased PGC1α and UCP1 expressions, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxygen consumption. Finally, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that apelin is able to increase the brown-like characteristics in white adipocytes. This study, for the first time, reveals the brown adipogenic and browning effects of apelin and suggests a potential therapeutic route to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25931124

  15. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  16. Lipocytes (fat cells) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person ...

  17. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of servings you eat in one sitting. Many fast food restaurants use solid oils with trans fat for ... frozen yogurt, milk shakes, and pudding Snack foods Fast food Solid fats, such as shortening and margarine Nondairy ...

  18. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wrong” kinds of fats can trigger additional health hazards. “Some fats are better for our bodies than ... ingredients. “Low-fat and fat-free yogurt and milk still contain the important proteins and minerals found ...

  19. Simulations of spawning habitats for brown trout in an Alpine river reach using a two-stage multivariate fuzzy-logical approach. eco.mont (Journal on Protected Mountain Areas Research)|eco.mont Vol. 7 No. 2 7 2|

    OpenAIRE

    Ortlepp, Johannes; Noack, Markus; Wieprecht, Silke

    2015-01-01

    The availability of suitable spawning habitats for gravel-spawning fish is an important indicator for Alpine river reaches regarding hydro- and morphodynamic components of fluvial ecosystems. This paper presents advances in habitat modelling techniques of suitable spawning habitat conditions for brown trout (Salmo trutta) by applying multivariate fuzzy-logical habitat modelling in combination with a three-dimensional numerical sediment-transport model. The fuzzy-logical approach considers mul...

  20. The Protective Effect of Beraprost Sodium on Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Inflammation and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li; Li, Jie; Xu, Yixing; Wang, Yangtian; Du, Hong; Shao, Jiaqing; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Background. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a crucial role in regulating signaling pathways implicated in inflammatory processes leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study aimed to examine p38 MAPK activation in DN and determine whether beraprost sodium (BPS) ameliorates DN by inhibiting inflammation and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in diabetic rats. Methods. Forty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, type 2 diabetic group, and BPS treatment group. At the end of the 8-week experiment, we measured renal pathological changes and the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and inflammation. Result. After BPS treatment, renal function, 24-hour urine protein, lipid profiles, and blood glucose level were improved significantly; meanwhile, inflammation and the expression of p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the diabetic kidney were attenuated. Conclusions. BPS significantly prevented type 2 diabetes induced kidney injury characterized by renal dysfunction and pathological changes. The protective mechanisms are complicated but may be mainly attributed to the inhibition of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and inflammation in the diabetic kidney.

  1. Lack of TRPV2 impairs thermogenesis in mouse brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wuping; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Zhou, Yiming; Kim, Minji; Takayama, Yasunori; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Kawada, Teruo; Iwata, Yuko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a major site for mammalian non-shivering thermogenesis, could be a target for prevention and treatment of human obesity. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, plays vital roles in the regulation of various cellular functions. Here, we show that TRPV2 is expressed in brown adipocytes and that mRNA levels of thermogenic genes are reduced in both cultured brown adipocytes and BAT from TRPV2 knockout (TRPV2KO) mice. The induction of thermogenic genes in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation is also decreased in TRPV2KO brown adipocytes and suppressed by reduced intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in wild-type brown adipocytes. In addition, TRPV2KO mice have more white adipose tissue and larger brown adipocytes and show cold intolerance, and lower BAT temperature increases in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Furthermore, TRPV2KO mice have increased body weight and fat upon high-fat-diet treatment. Based on these findings, we conclude that TRPV2 has a role in BAT thermogenesis and could be a target for human obesity therapy. PMID:26882545

  2. Alternate-day fasting protects the livers of mice against high-fat diet-induced inflammation associated with the suppression of Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanwei; Cao, Meng; Mao, Xiaodong; Wei, Xiao; Li, Xingjia; Chen, Guofang; Zhang, Jiaming; Wang, Zhiguo; Shi, Jianfeng; Huang, HouCai; Yao, Xiaoming; Liu, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Because of unhealthy lifestyles, a large number of people are suffering from hepatic lipid accumulation and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Energy restriction (ER) is an effective nutritional intervention for preventing chronic disease. However, poor compliance with continuous ER limits its effectiveness. As an alternative to daily ER, alternate-day fasting (ADF) may be more effective. We hypothesized that ADF would improve obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance and protect the liver against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced steatosis and inflammation. In this study, we used C57BL/6 mice to test the beneficial effects of ADF. Thirty male 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups (10 per group, total N = 30): 1 group was fed chow diet, the second was fed HFD ad libitum, and the third group was submitted to ADF. The mice in the third group were fed the HFD ad libitum every other day and fasted the following day. After 12 months, the mice submitted to ADF exhibited reduced body weights and fasting glucose levels and improved insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis compared with continuous HFD-fed mice. In addition, the serum transaminase levels in the mice of the ADF group were lower than those of the HFD group. Moreover, the ADF regimen suppressed the expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4 and nuclear factor κB protein in the liver and suppressed the inflammatory pathway genes interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and serum amyloid A. These finding indicate that long-term ADF protects mouse livers against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and hepatocellular damage associated with the suppression of Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB signaling. PMID:27188904

  3. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos compared to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särndahl Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.

  4. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...... unexplored. Accordingly, we present information for practitioners on the behaviour of Brown clustering in order to assist hyper-parametre tuning, in the form of a theoretical model of Brown clustering utility. This model is then evaluated empirically in two sequence labelling tasks over two text types. We...... explore the dynamic between the input corpus size, chosen number of classes, and quality of the resulting clusters, which has an impact for any approach using Brown clustering. In every scenario that we examine, our results reveal that the values most commonly used for the clustering are sub-optimal....

  5. Effect of overexpression of uncoupling protein 1 on brown adipose tissue in aP2-Ucp mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was assess the function of mitochondria in brown fat of the transgenic animals in order to explain the functional involution of brown adipose tissue (BAT). This study was based on measurements of transmembrane electrochemical potential (Δψ) and estimation of [3H]GDP binding to isolated brown fat mitochondria, as well as on immunochemical analysis of trans-gene expression. Fluorescent cationic dye Rhodamine 123 was used to follow the changes in Δψ of isolated brown fat mitochondria. The fluorescence is quenched as the dye is accumulated in mitochondria in response to membrane energization. Titration by the inhibitory ligand of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), GDP (in presence of substrate), indicated a 3-fold lower sensitivity to GDP in mitochondria from transgenic compared with non-transgenic animals. Binding of [3H]GDP to both types of brown fat mitochondria was measured. Maximum number of specific GDP-binding sites was estimated from Scatchard plots. In accordance with the activity measurements, number of GDP-binding sites was approximately 3- to 5-fold higher in mitochondria isolated from the transgenic animals. (authors)

  6. Perception of fatness

    OpenAIRE

    Jałkiewicz, Małgorzata

    1997-01-01

    The study’s objective was to find out whether there is a relationship between bodily fatness traits described with anthropometric measurements and the assessment of the physical attractiveness of people with different degree of fat deposition. Furthermore, an attempt was made to answer the question whether we perceive the physique of another man as a whole or if we pay more attention to certain parts of the body and whether there is a stereotype of desirable fat deposition.

  7. Protect Your Health as You Grow Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Grow Older Print This Topic En español Protect Your Health As You Grow Older Browse Sections ... from trans fats, saturated fats, and added sugars. Limit the amount of salt you eat. Use this ...

  8. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  9. Unequivocal Identification of Brown Adipose Tissue in a Human Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Houchun H.; Tovar, Jason; Pavlova, Zdena; Smith, Michelle L; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    We report the unique depiction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by MRI and computed tomography (CT) in a human three month-old infant. Based on cellular differences between BAT and more lipid-rich white adipose tissue (WAT), chemical-shift MRI and CT were both capable of generating distinct signal contrasts between the two tissues and against surrounding anatomy, utilizing fat-signal fraction metrics in the former and X-ray attenuation values in the latter. While numerous BAT imaging experiments...

  10. Protect Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and deficiency of body fat can lead to infertility. To protect your chances of conceiving, maintain a healthy weight through proper nutrition and exercise. For more information about nutrition, visit ...

  11. 糖皮质激素对高脂饮食肥胖大鼠棕色脂肪和骨骼肌PGC-1αmRNA表达的影响%Effect of glucocorticoid on the expression of PGC-1α mRNA in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of obese rats fed with high-fat diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小磊; 石建华; 项平; 范艳萍; 苗艳君; 黄咏齐

    2009-01-01

    实时荧光定量PCR方法检测大鼠棕色脂肪和骨骼肌中PPARγ辅激活因子1α(PGC-1α)mRNA的表达.肥胖大鼠棕色脂肪和骨骼肌中PGC-1α mRNA表达水平低于普通大鼠(均P<0.01);应用高剂量糖皮质激素后普通大鼠和肥胖大鼠棕色脂肪和骨骼肌中PGC-1α mRNA表达水平降低.%Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to examine PGC-1α mRNA expression in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of rats. The results showed that the expression levels of PGC-1α mRNA in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of obese rats were lower than those of the normal ones (all P<0.01). After high dose glucocorticoid treatment, the levels of PGC-1α mRNA expression in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, both in normal and obese rats, were decreased significantly.

  12. Thermoneutrality decreases thermogenic program and promotes adiposity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Cao, Qiang; Li, Fenfen; Zha, Lin; Bartness, Timothy; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Brown/beige adipocytes are therapeutic targets to combat obesity due to their abilities to dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. Most studies investigating induction of brown/beige adipocytes were conducted in cold condition (e.g., 4°C); much is unknown about how the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes is regulated in thermoneutral condition (e.g., 30°C), which is within the thermal comfort zone of human dwellings in daily life. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes in mice housed under ambient (22°C) versus thermoneutral condition (30°C). Male mice raised at 22°C or 30°C were fed either chow diet or high-fat (HF) diet for 20 weeks. Despite less food intake, chow-fed mice housed at 30°C remained the same body weight compared to mice at 22°C. However, these thermoneutrally housed mice displayed a decrease in the expression of thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots with larger adipocytes. When pair-fed with chow diet, thermoneutrally housed mice showed an increase in body weight. Moreover, thermoneutrality increased body weight of mice fed with HF diet. This was associated with decreased expression of the thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots of the thermoneutrally housed mice. The downregulation of the thermogenic program might have resulted from decreased sympathetic drive in the thermoneutrally housed mice evident by decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase expression and norepinephrine turnover in both brown and white fat depots. Our data demonstrate that thermoneutrality may negatively regulate the thermogenic program and sympathetic drive, leading to increased adiposity in mice. PMID:27230905

  13. Knockdown of NPY expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus promotes development of brown adipocytes and prevents diet-induced obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Pei-Ting; Liang YANG; Aja, Susan; Moran, Timothy H.; Bi, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in control of energy balance, but the physiological importance of NPY in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) remains unclear. Here we report that knockdown of NPY expression in the DMH by adeno-associated virus-mediated RNAi reduced fat depots in rats fed regular chow and ameliorated high-fat diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity. DMH NPY knockdown resulted in development of brown adipocytes in inguinal white adipose tissue through the sympa...

  14. Brown coal and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The undisputed aims of a sensible energy policy are safety, reasonable prices, environmental compatibility and saving resources. Each energy source and every form of energy conversion and use has specific advantages and disadvantages which must be weighed up. It is in favour of brown coal that it can succeed in international competition and therefore offers security of supply, economy, productivity and employment. The mining and use of brown coal comply with the highest environmental standards, in international comparison. Against this, mining brown coal by strip mining inevitably involves intervention in the environment and the social structure of the coalfield. Burning brown coal to generate electricity in powerstations is specifically connected with high CO2 emission. (orig.)

  15. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with higher amounts of polyunsaturated fats include: Walnuts Sunflower seeds Flax seeds or flax oil Fish, such as salmon, mackerel, herring, albacore tuna, and trout Corn oil Soybean oil Safflower oil To get the health benefits, you need to replace unhealthy fats with healthy ...

  16. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  17. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat a mix of foods — some with higher percentages of fat and some with lower percentages — so that you ... and they insulate nervous system tissue in the body. So fat is not the enemy, but you'll want ...

  18. Proteomic analysis of aorta and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 in db/db mice reveal a critical role of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 in diabetic arterial damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM, leading to morbidity and mortality. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2 has demonstrated protective effect against atherosclerosis, which is believed to be, at least in part, a result of its antioxidative effects. The aim of this study is to identify the target protein of GSPB2 responsible for the protective effect against atherosclerosis in patients with DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: GSPB2 (30 mg/kg body weight/day were administrated to db/db mice for 10 weeks. Proteomics of the aorta extracts by iTRAQ analysis was obtained from db/db mice. The results showed that expression of 557 proteins were either up- or down-regulated in the aorta of diabetic mice. Among those proteins, 139 proteins were normalized by GSPB2 to the levels comparable to those in control mice. Among the proteins regulated by GSPB2, the milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 (MFG-E8 was found to be increased in serum level in T2DM patients; the serum level of MFG-E8 was positively correlated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV. Inhibition of MFG-E8 by RNA interference significantly suppressed whereas exogenous recombinant MFG-E8 administration exacerbated atherogenesis the db/db mice. To gain more insights into the mechanism of action of MFG-E8, we investigated the effects of MFG-E8 on the signal pathway involving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. Treatment with recombinant MFG-E8 led to increased whereas inhibition of MFG-E8 to decreased expression of MCP-1 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that MFG-E8 plays an important role in atherogenesis in diabetes through both ERK and MCP-1 signaling pathways. GSPB2, a well-studied antioxidant, significantly inhibited the arterial wall changes favoring atherogenesis in db/db mice by down-regulating MFG-E8 expression in aorta and its serum level

  19. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Education Education Recognition Program ADA Journals Membership Books for Professionals Continuing Education Prevention Resources ConnecT2Day Research & Grants Funding Opportunities Award Administration DiabetesPro Quarterly ADA Journals Membership ADA-Funded Research ...

  20. A Conversation with Larry Brown

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence D. Brown was born on December 16, 1940 in Los Angeles, California. He obtained his Ph.D. in mathematics from Cornell University in 1964. He has been on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, Cornell University, Rutgers University and, most recently, the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the Miers Busch Professorship of Statistics. Professor Brown was President of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1992–1993, Coeditor of The Anna...

  1. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Granular cell tumors Fat necrosis and oil cysts Mastitis Duct ectasia Other non-cancerous breast conditions Summary ... References Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens ...

  2. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  3. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal...... newborn fat masses, but not to fat-free mass. Interventions targeting maternal postprandial glucose levels may induce more appropriate birth weight, thereby reducing the risk of subsequent morbidity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells differentiate into functional brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elabd, Christian; Chiellini, Chiara; Carmona, Mamen;

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the earlier contention, adult humans have been shown recently to possess active brown adipose tissue with a potential of being of metabolic significance. Up to now, brown fat precursor cells have not been available for human studies. We have shown previously that human multipotent...... adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells exhibit a normal karyotype and high self-renewal ability; they are known to differentiate into cells that exhibit the key properties of human white adipocytes, that is, uncoupling protein two expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, lipolysis in response to beta...

  5. Tyk2 and Stat3 regulate brown adipose tissue differentiation and obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Derecka, Marta; Gornicka, Agnieszka; Koralov, Sergei B.; Szczepanek, Karol; Morgan, Magdalena; Raje, Vidisha; Sisler, Jennifer; Zhang, Qifang; Otero, Dennis; Cichy, Joanna; Rajewsky, Klaus; Shimoda, Kazuya; Poli, Valeria; Strobl, Birgit; Pellegrini, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking the Jak tyrosine kinase member Tyk2 become progressively obese due to aberrant development of Myf5+ brown adipose tissue (BAT). Tyk2 RNA levels in BAT and skeletal muscle, which shares a common progenitor with BAT, are dramatically decreased in mice placed on a high fat diet and in obese humans. Expression of Tyk2 or the constitutively active form of the transcription factor Stat3 (CAStat3) restores differentiation in Tyk2−/− brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, Tyk2−/− mice express...

  6. Chronic hyperinsulinemia reduces insulin sensitivity and metabolic functions of brown adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sujith; Shankar, Kripa; Beg, Muheeb; Varshney, Salil; Gupta, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ankita; Kumar, Durgesh; Mishra, Raj K; Hussain, Zakir; Gayen, Jiaur R; Gaikwad, Anil N

    2016-09-01

    The growing pandemics of diabetes have become a real threat to world economy. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are closely associated with the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In pretext of brown adipocytes being considered as the therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance, we have tried to understand the effect of hyperinsulinemia on brown adipocyte function. We here with for the first time report that hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance in brown adipocyte is also accompanied with reduced insulin sensitivity and brown adipocyte characteristics. CI treatment decreased expression of brown adipocyte-specific markers (such as PRDM16, PGC1α, and UCP1) and mitochondrial content as well as activity. CI-treated brown adipocytes showed drastic decrease in oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and spare respiratory capacity. Morphological study indicates increased accumulation of lipid droplets in CI-treated brown adipocytes. We have further validated these findings in vivo in C57BL/6 mice implanted with mini-osmotic insulin pump for 8weeks. CI treatment in mice leads to increased body weight gain, fat mass and impaired glucose intolerance with reduced energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity. CI-treated mice showed decreased BAT characteristics and function. We also observed increased inflammation and ER stress markers in BAT of CI-treated animals. The above results conclude that hyperinsulinemia has deleterious effect on brown adipocyte function, making it susceptible to insulin resistance. Thus, the above findings have greater implication in designing approaches for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes via recruitment of brown adipocytes. PMID:27340034

  7. Detection of prion infectivity in fat tissues of scrapie-infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Race

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of prion infectivity in organs and tissues is important in understanding prion disease pathogenesis and designing strategies to prevent prion infection in animals and humans. Transmission of prion disease from cattle to humans resulted in banning human consumption of ruminant nervous system and certain other tissues. In the present study, we surveyed tissue distribution of prion infectivity in mice with prion disease. We show for the first time detection of infectivity in white and brown fat. Since high amounts of ruminant fat are consumed by humans and also incorporated into animal feed, fat-containing tissues may pose a previously unappreciated hazard for spread of prion infection.

  8. Terpenes and fatty acid profiles of milk fat and "Bitto" cheese as affected by transhumance of cows on different mountain pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni, Ivano De; Battelli, Giovanna

    2008-07-15

    The evolution of fatty acid (FA) and terpenoid profiles was studied in milk (n=20) and "Bitto" (n=3), a protected designation of origin cheese produced in a restricted Italian alpine area. Milk came from 25 Italian Brown cows successively grazing pastures at 1400, 2100 and 2200m during transhumance in June-September 2006. The fat matter was analyzed for FAs and terpenes by means of gas chromatography and purge & trap/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. FA composition of milk fat varied significantly (p<0.0001) in relation to contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), stearic, linoleic and trans-vaccenic acids. Similar monoterpene profiles characterized milk fat from cows grazing the different pastures and the highest amount of terpenes was measured in milk coming from cows grazing at 1400m. High levels of δ3-carene in milk fat were likely related to the important presence of Ligusticum mutellina in the pasture. Only negligible amounts of sesquiterpenes were detected in milk fat whereas they were the most abundant class in fodder. Both FA and terpene profiles of ripened (70 days) cheeses resembled those of the original milks. Overall, results confirm the influence of the botanical composition of mountain pastures both in enhancing the ruminal synthesis of CLA and in modifying the FA and terpenoid profiles of milk and "Bitto" cheese. Nevertheless, neither the FA nor the terpenoid profiles revealed here can be considered as "unique" to "Bitto" cheese and, for this reason, they can hardly be assumed to be biomarkers for defining a specific relationship among grazing area, milk and "Bitto" cheese. They better represent the chemical fingerprint of the cow feeding, adopted in mountain areas. PMID:26003351

  9. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  10. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up. PMID:26811412

  11. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/24723079 . Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard, JD, Hubbard VS, de Jesus JM, Lee IM, ... modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2012;5:CD002137. PMID: 22592684 ...

  12. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advisors Press Releases Annual Reports Donations Privacy Policy Advertising Site Map Adults Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing Childhood Obesity Pediatric BMI Assessment Overweight Assessment: A Parent's Guide ...

  13. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fat Include: Canola Oil Sardines Corn Oil Sesame Seeds Cottonseed Oil Soybeans Flaxseeds Soybean Oil Herring Sunflower Oil Mackerel ... facts label) Palm or Palm Kernal Oil Canola oil Poultry Skin Poultry without the skin Red Meat White meat ...

  14. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body plans for times when food might be scarce. Fat gives food flavor and texture, but it's ... Eating Well While Eating Out Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend Reprint Guidelines Share this ...

  15. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific nutritional deficiencies in, for example, iron or vitamin B12 . A qualitative fecal fat may be ordered as ... Chronic pancreatitis Pancreatic cancer Cystic fibrosis (affects the function of the pancreas) Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Diseases and ...

  16. Edible oils and fats

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Memeti, Shaban; Bauer, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Edible oils and fats are biological mixtures of plant origin consisting of ester mixtures derived from glycerol with chain of fatty acids. The rate of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in edible oils and fats is very important for human nutrition. While high levels of saturated fatty acids is desirable to increase oil stability, on the other hand nutritionally they become undesirable, because high levels of saturated fatty acids are frequently considered to have influence in increasing...

  17. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  18. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1999. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2000. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of and the...

  20. M1-M2 balancing act in white adipose tissue browning - a new role for RIP140.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu-Ste; Lin, Yi-Wei; Burton, Frank H; Wei, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    A "Holy Grail" sought in medical treatment of obesity is to be able to biologically reprogram their adipose tissues to burn fat rather than store it. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores fuel and its expansion underlines insulin resistance (IR) whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fuel and stimulates insulin sensitivity. These two types of fats seesaw within our bodies via a regulatory mechanism that involves intricate communication between adipocytes and blood cells, particularly macrophages that migrate into adipose deposits. The coregulator, Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140), plays a key role in regulating this communication. In mice on a high-fat diet, the level of RIP140 in macrophages is dramatically elevated to activate their inflammatory M1 polarization and enhance their recruitment into WAT, facilitating IR. Conversely, lowering the level of RIP140 in macrophages not only reduces M1 macrophages but also expands alternatively polarized, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, triggering white adipose tissue browning, fat burning, and restoration of insulin sensitivity. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for reversing IR, obesity, and atherosclerotic or even cosmetic fat deposits: therapeutic browning of white adipose deposits by diminishing RIP140 levels in macrophages. PMID:26167418

  1. Inhibition of Sam68 triggers adipose tissue browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junlan; Cheng, Min; Boriboun, Chan; Ardehali, Mariam M; Jiang, Changfei; Liu, Qinghua; Han, Shuling; Goukassian, David A; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C; Zhao, Ming; Cai, Lu; Richard, Stéphane; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; molecular mechanisms that promote energy expenditure can be utilized for effective therapy. Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) is potentially significant, because knockout (KO) of Sam68 leads to markedly reduced adiposity. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which Sam68 regulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. We first found that Sam68 KO mice have a significantly reduced body weight as compared to controls, and the difference is explained entirely by decreased adiposity. Interestingly, these effects were not mediated by a difference in food intake; rather, they were associated with enhanced physical activity. When they were fed a high-fat diet, Sam68 KO mice gained much less body weight and fat mass than their WT littermates did, and they displayed an improved glucose and insulin tolerance. In Sam68 KO mice, the brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal, and epididymal depots were smaller, and their adipocytes were less hypertrophied as compared to their WT littermates. The BAT of Sam68 KO mice exhibited reduced lipid stores and expressed higher levels of Ucp1 and key thermogenic and fatty acid oxidation genes. Similarly, depots of inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) in Sam68 KO mice appeared browner, their multilocular Ucp1-positive cells were much more abundant, and the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppargc1a genes was greater as compared to WT controls, which suggests that the loss of Sam68 also promotes WAT browning. Furthermore, in all of the fat depots of the Sam68 KO mice, the expression of M2 macrophage markers was up-regulated, and that of M1 markers was down-regulated. Thus, Sam68 plays a crucial role in controlling thermogenesis and may be targeted to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:25934704

  2. What John Browne actually said at Stanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1997, the Chief Executive of BP, John Browne, delivered a speech on global climate change at Stanford University, California. A shortened version of the speech is presented. BP have accepted the possibility of a link between greenhouse gas emissions and climate change and are basing their policies on that acceptance. The company is committed to a step-by-step process, involving both action to develop solutions and continuing research to improve knowledge, that will balance the requirements of economic development and environmental protection. Five specific steps are outlined. These are: the monitoring and controlling of carbon dioxide emissions in all aspects of the company's operations increasing the level of support given to continuing scientific work on climate change; technology transfer and joint implementation with other parties to limit and reduce net emission levels; the development of alternative energy sources, in particular, solar power; contributing to the public policy debate in search of wider global answers to the problem. (Author)

  3. Nutrient Regulation: Conjugated Linoleic Acid's Inflammatory and Browning Properties in Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wan; McIntosh, Michael K

    2016-07-17

    Obesity is the most widespread nutritional disease in the United States. Developing effective and safe strategies to manage excess body weight is therefore of paramount importance. One potential strategy to reduce obesity is to consume conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements containing isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, or trans-10, cis-12 alone. Proposed antiobesity mechanisms of CLA include regulation of (a) adipogenesis, (b) lipid metabolism, (c) inflammation, (d) adipocyte apoptosis, (e) browning or beiging of adipose tissue, and (f) energy metabolism. However, causality of CLA-mediated responses to body fat loss, particularly the linkage between inflammation, thermogenesis, and energy metabolism, is unclear. This review examines whether CLA's antiobesity properties are due to inflammatory signaling and considers CLA's linkage with lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, and browning of white and brown adipose tissue. We propose a series of questions and studies to interrogate the role of the sympathetic nervous system in mediating CLA's antiobesity properties. PMID:27431366

  4. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine Activates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis in Hypothyroid Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained a...

  5. Hypothalamic Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Bi, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, but the strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for cold protection by producing heat using lipids and glucose as metabolic fuels. This thermogenic action causes increased energy expenditure and significant lipid/glucose disposal. In addition, BAT in white adipose tissue (WAT) or beige cells have been found and they also exhibit the thermogenic a...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  7. The Effect of Body fat Mass and Fat Free Mass on Migraine Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity seems to be associated to migraine headache. Increase in body fat, especially in gluteofemoral region, elevates adiponectin and leptin secretion which in turn impair inflammatory processes that could be contributing to migraine risk. This study was designed to assess the relationship between body composition and risk of migraine for the first time.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1510 middle-aged women who were visited in a weight reduction clinicof university were recruited. Migraine was diagnosedwith HIS criteria. Body composition parameters including total fat mass (FATM, total fat free mass (FFM, truncal fat mass (TFATM, and truncal fat free mass (TFFM was assessed using bioelectric impedance. We further assessed cardiovascular risk factors and smoking as confounding factors. To determine the real association between different variables and risk of migraine, the associations were adjusted by multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results: Elevation in fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, FFM, TFFM, and waist-to-hip ratio increased the risk of migraine. When the associations were adjusted for other factors, only the association between migraine and FFM remained statistically significant.Conclusion: Lower FFM increased the risk of migraine in overweight and obese individuals. In the other words, higher fat free mass could be a protective factor for migraine.

  8. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg-1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  9. Grãos de girassol ou gordura protegida em dietas com alto concentrado e ganho compensatório de cordeiros em confinamento Sunflower grains or protected fat in high concentrate diets and compensatory gain for feedlot lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Homem Junior

    2010-03-01

    three diets and two feeding managements were assessed on feedlot lamb performance and carcass. Thirty six lambs with initial 18.7 ± 2.4 kg weight were distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement and were fed a free-lipid diet, and a sunflower grains-added diet or a protected fat-added diet. Six lambs on each diet were submitted to feeding restriction management and later compensatory gain, while the other half was fed ad libitum throughout the feedlot period. Dry matter intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio, urea and blood cholesterol, carcass characteristics and slaughter by-products were evaluated. During realimentation period the intake of lambs that underwent feeding restriction did not differ from the freely-fed animals. It was not affected by the diet but at the end of this period, the accumulated intake was 11.8% smaller for those lambs previously submitted to feeding restriction. Feed intake to slaughter weight was not influenced by the feeding management. In the restriction period, the blood cholesterol levels were 24% higher than those without restriction, but there was no difference during the realimentation period. The lipids in the diets increased the cholesterol blood levels in both the restriction and realimentation periods and reduced urea blood levels during the realimentation period. The performance, evaluated at slaughter weight, was damaged by the restriction management. There were no effects of feeding management or diet on the carcass parameters. Lipid sources increased the total fat proportion and decreased the gastrointestinal tract content. The feeding management with restriction damages weight gain and feed conversion ratio in lambs up to slaughter.

  10. Fat Embolism Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdullin М.М.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fat embolism syndrome (FES, and the complications occurring in fractures of long bones or pelvic bones are considered. Clinical picture classically develops after “lucid space“, then appear pulmonary and neurological manifestations combined with petechial hemorrhage. Basic theories of FES pathophysiology are analyzed. Early signs are likely to be caused by mechanic vascular occlusion by fat globules. Vascular occlusions in FES are frequently temporary or partial as fat globules block capillary blood flow incompletely due to their flowability and deformity. The diagnosis is made based on clinical presentations using A.R. Gurd’s criteria (1970. Laboratory and instrumental methods are used for clinical diagnosis confirmation or therapy monitoring. The treatment is aimed mainly at supporting respiratory function and hemodynamics stabilization. Prevention, early diagnosis and adequate symptomatic treatment are of primary importance.

  11. Improved properties of lipstick formulation with engkabang fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Husin Norazlin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engkabang fats are known as an excellent cocoa butter equivalent. It is selected to be aimed as potential softening ingredient in waxy base of lipstick formulation that promotes moisturising protection for the lips. The formulation was prepared by mixing homogenously the base and colour intermediate at 70-80°C, moulded in casing, followed by cooling at-20°C.The optimum ratio of lipstick formulation containing engkabang fats and other waxes was (10:20 in percentage. The other ingredients used were oils (60% and colour agent (10%. The physico-chemical properties of formulations were determined including texture analysis, pH, melting point, colour intensity, stability and moisture content. From the results, engkabang fats exhibited a good softening and moisturising properties. Engkabang fats lipstick formulations showed better application on the lips compared lipstick without engkabang fats.

  12. Study on Crisp-protection and Browning Preventing Technology of Fresh-cut Yacon%鲜切雪莲果护色保脆效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 邓洁红; 敬小波; 刘永红

    2014-01-01

    Taking fresh yacon as material ,the optimized temperature and time on blanching ,most effective color fixative and hardner were studied .The results showed that ascorbic acid,cysteine and NaCl were all browning inhibitors ,while the ascorbic acid had the best effect on inhibiting the PPO activity .The optimal technology parameters were as follows:The temperature and time on blanching sliced yacon were 70℃and 1min.After washed and drained off,the sliced yacon was soaked in 1% ascorbic acid solution and 0.1%calcium chloride solution successively for 10 min respectively,with the ratio of solid to solution 1∶1.5g/mL.After dried in air,the sliced yacon was packed and stored in 4℃to have ideal color,hardness and fructo-oligose content.%以雪莲果为试材,研究鲜切雪莲片护色保脆工艺,筛选出鲜切雪莲果的最佳热烫温度及时间、最佳护色剂以及硬化剂。结果表明:抗坏血酸、半胱氨酸和氯化钠都有抑制褐变的效果,但抗坏血酸的护色效果最好。最优工艺参数为:雪莲果片经热烫处理(70℃,1min)后,用冷水冲洗沥干,依次浸泡于1%抗坏血酸溶液,0.1%氯化钙溶液各10min,料液比为1∶1.5 g/mL,晾干后将雪莲果片放入保鲜袋中密封,4℃低温贮藏,获得颜色、硬度、低聚果糖含量等指标均理想的雪莲果片。

  13. Overexpression of ω-3 Fatty Acid Dehydrogenase Gene Protects MouseEmbryonic Fibrocytes from ω-6 PUFAs-induced Apoptosis%过表达ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸脱氢酶基因fat-1保护小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞避免凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳芳; 葛银林; 薛美兰; 张金玉; 李泉; 单虎

    2011-01-01

    ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs ) are important for the normal function of mammals. However, it is difficult to gain ω-3 PUFAs in human body and there is no ω-3 PUFAs dehydrogenase in vivo to catalyze ω-6PUFAs into ω-3PUFAs. But the expressed product of fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegan is ω-3 PUFAs dehydrogenase. Hence, to express fat-l gene in mouse embryonic fibrocyte is the aim of this study. First, the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFPC1-fat-l , containing fat-l gene cDNA was constructed and transfected into mouse embryonic fibrocyte. Then the expression level was detected by RT-PCR and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope, the change of cellular ω-6PUFAs /ω-3PUFAs ratio was examined by gas chromatography, the inhibiting rate of cells proliferation was observed by MTT method, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Results showed that the cells proliferation rate was higher and cells apoptosis magnitude was lower than those in the control cells. In conclusion, fat-l gene could significantly decrease the ratio of cellular ω-3PUFAs / w-3PUFAs and inhibit apoptosis of the 3T3 cell. It shows strong cell-protective effects on mouse embryonic fibrocyte.%由于膳食原因,人体摄入ω-6PUFAs/ω-3 PUFAs比例过高,脂类代谢严重失衡.鉴于ω-3PUFAs获取困难而且人体无催化ω-6PUFAs向ω-3PUFAs转化的ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸脱氢酶,本研究体外扩增来源于秀丽线虫(Caenorhabditis elegans)的ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸脱氢酶基因(fat-I)cDNA,构建了真核表达载体pEGFPCl-fat-1,将该基因转染入小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞;激发荧光与RT-PCR方法检测转染pEGFPC1-fat-1细胞表达该基因,气相色谱分析显示该转染细胞中ω-6PUFAs/ω-3PUFAs的比例降低;细胞抑制率实验显示转染细胞的MTT吸光值升高(P<0.05);双染法流式细胞仪分析转染细胞凋亡降低,结果表明fat-1基因即使在高浓度ω-6PUFAs的细胞毒作用下,

  14. α/β-Hydrolase Domain 6 Deletion Induces Adipose Browning and Prevents Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shangang; Mugabo, Yves; Ballentine, Gwynne; Attane, Camille; Iglesias, Jose; Poursharifi, Pegah; Zhang, Dongwei; Nguyen, Thuy Anne; Erb, Heidi; Prentki, Raphael; Peyot, Marie-Line; Joly, Erik; Tobin, Stephanie; Fulton, Stephanie; Brown, J Mark; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2016-03-29

    Suppression of α/β-domain hydrolase-6 (ABHD6), a monoacylglycerol (MAG) hydrolase, promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells. We report here that high-fat-diet-fed ABHD6-KO mice show modestly reduced food intake, decreased body weight gain and glycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and enhanced locomotor activity. ABHD6-KO mice also show increased energy expenditure, cold-induced thermogenesis, brown adipose UCP1 expression, fatty acid oxidation, and white adipose browning. Adipose browning and cold-induced thermogenesis are replicated by the ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 and by antisense oligonucleotides targeting ABHD6. Our evidence suggests that one mechanism by which the lipolysis derived 1-MAG signals intrinsic and cell-autonomous adipose browning is via PPARα and PPARγ activation, and that ABHD6 regulates adipose browning by controlling signal competent 1-MAG levels. Thus, ABHD6 regulates energy homeostasis, brown adipose function, and white adipose browning and is a potential therapeutic target for obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26997277

  15. Ajustamento para heterogeneidade de variâncias para produção de leite e gordura entre rebanhos da raça Pardo-Suíça no Brasil Adjustment for heterogeneity of variance for milk and fat yield among herds of Brown Swiss in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Bueno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o efeito da inclusão das interações reprodutor x rebanho e reprodutor x rebanho-ano como fator de ajustamento da heterogeneidade de variância, registros de produção de leite e gordura foram estratificados, com base no desvio-padrão fenotípico da produção de leite ajustada, em duas classes: baixo (1.280kg desvio-padrão. Três modelos foram utilizados, sem e com interação reprodutor x rebanho e reprodutor x rebanho-ano, em análises de característica única, geral e em cada classe de desvio-padrão. Médias e componentes de variâncias foram maiores na classe de alto desvio-padrão. Na classe de baixo desvio-padrão, a herdabilidade não se alterou com a inclusão dos efeitos de interação no modelo, sendo de 0,34 para produção de leite e de 0,32 para produção de gordura. Na classe de alto desvio-padrão, as herdabilidades foram: 0,37, 0,35 e 0,36, e de 0,35, 0,32 e 0,35, para produção de leite e gordura, nos modelos sem, com interação reprodutor x rebanho e com interação reprodutor x rebanho-ano, respectivamente. A inclusão do efeito de interação reprodutor x rebanho nos modelos foi significativa (PIn order to verify the effect of including the interactions of sire x herd and the sire x herd-year, as a adjust factor of the variance heterogeneity, registers of milk and fat yields were classified into two classes of standard deviation: low (1.280kg, based on phenotypic standard deviation of the milk production adjusted. Three models, without and with interaction of sire x herd and sire x herd-year, were used in the general univariate analyses and in each standard deviation class. Averages and variance components were higher in the high standard deviation. In the class of low standard deviation, heritability didn't alter with the inclusion of the interaction effects in the model, being of 0.34 for milk yield and 0.32 for fat yield. In the class of high standard deviation, heritabilities were: 0.37, 0.35 and

  16. A Healthy Heart May Protect an Aging Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_157798.html A Healthy Heart May Protect an Aging Brain Study found seniors who met ... of nutritious foods from all the food groups. Limit salt, sugar, saturated fat and trans fat. Lose ...

  17. The Protective Effect of Fasudil on the Structure and Function of Cardiac Mitochondria from Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin with a High-Fat Diet Is Mediated by the Attenuation of Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Rong; Liu, Baoxin; Zhou, Shunping; ZHANG, BUCHUN; XU, YAWEI

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction of cardiac mitochondria appears to play a substantial role in cardiomyopathy or myocardial dysfunction and is a promising therapeutic target for many cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the effect of the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor fasudil on cardiac mitochondria from rats in which diabetes was induced by a combination of streptozotocin (STZ) and a sustained high-fat diet. Eight weeks after diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 5...

  18. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  19. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  20. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    OpenAIRE

    Katan, M B

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  1. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  2. Chronologic changes of free fat graft in rabbit using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free fat grafts are now used for preventing osteal readhesion, filling dead space, and protecting grafted nerves and vessels. However, it is reported that grafted fat tissue is unstable resulting in high risk of cicatrization and infection. We grafted free fat to a rabbit's back and observed the chronologic change using CT. Ten adult male Japanese white rabbits (3.5 kg) were used. In five rabbits, fat tissue was obtained from the back under general anaesthesia, and transplanted into the back about 50 mm posterior from the donor site. CT was taken in the fixed scan condition five times (preoperation, immediate postoperation, postoperative 1-month, 2-month, and 3-month). In the remaining five rabbits, only CT scan was taken three times as a control. It was observed that we compared preoperative fat volume with the postoperative volume using RealINTAGE. Grafted fat tissue decreased postoperatively at 1-month and completely disappeared at 3-months. We were able to prove that CT scan is effective to observe the chronologic change of grafted fat tissue. Techniques of tissue engineering are necessary for survival of grafted fat tissue. (author)

  3. A Matter of Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Philip C

    2015-09-01

    Acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) is a common complication of critical illness, associated with significant morbidity, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, and increased mortality. Inflammation plays a central role in ARDS, with inflammatory eicosanoid mediators produced from the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, such as leukotriene B4, being involved. The ω-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, including decreasing production of inflammatory eicosanoids from arachidonic acid. The ω-3 fatty acids are effective in models relevant to ARDS. Several randomized controlled trials of enteral formulas rich in ω-3 fatty acids, often in combination with other bioactive substances, have been conducted in patients with ARDS. Four of these trials reported marked clinical benefits, 2 reported no effect, and 1 reported a negative impact. A systematic review and meta-analysis of these 7 trials identified no overall effect on ventilator-free days or on ICU-free days. There was a small reduction in ICU length of stay and no overall effect on mortality. However, the authors formally identified that trials that used high fat in both treatment and control groups showed a significant reduction in mortality, while trials that used a high, or higher, fat treatment and a low-fat control group showed a trend toward an increase in mortality. It is concluded that differences in outcome reported among these studies largely relate to the relative fat contents of the treatment and control formulas. Further, it is concluded that high-fat enteral formulas should not be used in this patient group. PMID:25533963

  4. Photometric brown-dwarf classification

    CERN Document Server

    Skrzypek, N

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method "photo-type" to identify and accurately classify L and T dwarfs, onto the standard system, from photometry alone. We combine SDSS, UKIDSS and WISE data and classify point sources by comparing the izYJHKW1W2 colours against template colours for quasars, stars, and brown dwarfs. In a sample of $6.5\\times10^6$ bright point sources, J$<$17.5, from 3150 deg$^2$, we identify and type 898 L and T dwarfs, making this the largest homogeneously selected sample of brown dwarfs to date. The sample includes 713 (125) new (previously known) L dwarfs and 21 (39) T dwarfs. For the previously-known sources, the scatter in the plot of photo-type vs spectral type indicates that our photo-types are accurate to 1.5 (1.0) sub-types rms for L (T) dwarfs. Peculiar objects and candidate unresolved binaries are identified.

  5. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  6. High-fat diet leads to tissue-specific changes reflecting risk factors for diseases in DBA/2J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hageman, Rachael S.; Wagener, Asja; Hantschel, Claudia; Svenson, Karen L.; Churchill, Gary A; Brockmann, Gudrun A., 1958-

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the responses of individual tissues to high-fat feeding as a function of mass, fat composition, and transcript abundance. We examined a panel of eight tissues [5 white adipose tissues (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), liver, muscle] obtained from DBA/2J mice on either a standard breeding diet (SBD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD led to weight gain, decreased insulin sensitivity, and tissue-specific responses, including inflammation, in these mice. The...

  7. The trochanteric fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Panettiere

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments based on the use of autologous white adipose tissue (WAT attracted attention to minor fat depots as possible sources of adipose tissue. In plastic surgery, the trochanteric fatty pad is one of the most used WAT depots for its location and organoleptic characteristics that make it particularly suitable for reconstructive procedures. Despite its wide use in clinic, the structure of this depot has never been studied in detail and it is not known if structural differences exist among trochanteric fat and other subcutaneous WAT depots. The present study was performed on trochanteric fat pad with the aim to clarify the morphology of its adipocytes, stroma and microcirculation, with particular reference to the stem niches. Histological and ultrastructural studies showed that the main peculiar feature of the trochanteric fat concerns its stromal component, which appears less dense than in the other subcutaneous WATs studied. The intra-parenchymal collagen stroma is poor and the extracellular compartment shows large spaces, filled with electron-light material, in which isolated collagen bundles are present. The adipocytes are wrapped in weak and easily detachable collagen baskets. These connective sheaths are very thin compared to the sheaths in other subcutaneous WAT depots. The capillaries are covered by large, long and thin elements surrounded by an external lamina; these perivascular cells are poor in organelles and mainly contain poly-ribosomes. In conclusion, when compared to other WAT deposits, the trochanteric fatty pad shows structural peculiarities in its stroma and microcirculation suggesting a high regenerative potential. Resistance, dissociability, microvascular weft and high regenerative potential make the trochanteric fatty pad a privileged source for harvesting in autologous WAT-based regenerative procedures.

  8. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  9. Get the fat out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatenko, Natalia A; Gerner, Eugene W

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of a number of cancers in humans, but the mechanism(s) responsible for these associations have not been established. It is estimated that 68% of adults are overweight or obese and that obesity may be causative in 4% to 7% of cancers in the United States. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the association between obesity and cancer including adipose-directed signaling (e.g., mTOR, AMPK), production of factors (e.g., insulin growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 1, and/or chronic inflammation associated with obesity. Huffman and colleagues used surgical methods to determine if visceral fat was causally related to intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(1638/N+) mouse in a manner independent of confounding factors such as caloric restriction. They found that caloric restriction could extend survival in both male and female Apc(1638/N+) mice but found that surgical removal of visceral fat was only effective in reducing macroadenomas in females. The results of this study do not identify the specific mechanism of association between visceral fat and intestinal carcinogenesis in female mice but do support the rationale for future cancer prevention trials that evaluate pharmacologic and behavioral strategies to reduce abdominal obesity in humans. Cancer Prev Res; 6(3); 161-4. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23466814

  10. [Spuriously healthy plant fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-10-01

    Since long plant fats are considered by nutritionists, dieticians and doctors, as main source of essential unsaturated fatty acids) n-6 and n-3 in human diet. On the market there is plenty of oils that can be consumed directly or used to frying. Last four decades consumption of oils increased several times due to stimulated by advertisement popularization of their pro-health activity. Plant oils supply mostly multi unsaturated fatty acids n-6 excess of which disadvantageously influence human health. Determinations of changes of oxidative stability of plant fats (during processing and storage) proved that consumption of oxidation products of fatty acids and sterols may be a reason of various diseases. Both epidemiologic and clinic studies indicated that if plant fats (both oils except this from olives and margarines) have possessed pro-health properties, their several times increased consumption would liquidate the problem of arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (heart attack, stroke). For the present, every second death in the industrial countries results from the cardiovascular disease. Morbidity of cancer is also increasing and of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is growing up vigorously. PMID:22097183

  11. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  12. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the 18F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  13. The Possible Potentiating Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Inhibitors in Trans-Differentiation of white to Brown Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown adipose tissue (BAT is an organ with the specialised function of intracellular fat oxidation; in other words, brown fat points to a potential natural tool by which energy expenditure is being stimulated. Obesity is a serious illness which can lead to many medical complications such as cardiovascular disorders. The BAT production, therefore, could be a promising therapeutic strategy for managing obesity. While different approaches have been examined to generate brown adipocytes from various precursor cells, no study has proposed an efficient procedure for direct trans-differentiation of white to brown adipocytes. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP-7 is a possible potential agent by which most of the main factors involved in induction of brown adipocytogenesis such as early regulators of brown fat fate, positive regulatory domain containing 16 (PRDM16 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α are stimulated, but the rate of success was not so promising. It has been documented that mature white adipocytes exert endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ESR and consequently unfolded protein response (UPR becomes activated for the purpose of ESR recovery since the ESR exceeds the capacity of UPR to overcome the imposed stress, and in turn disables the cell to manage the protein synthesis cascade including those required for BMP-7 induction of brown adipogenesis. This was performed using three main ESR sensors: PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK, inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1 and activating transcription factor 6 alpha (ATF-6α resulting in attenuation of protein translation by blocking the activation of transcriptional machinery of UPR genes and the cell behaviour would also be changed towards apoptosis.It may suggest and propose the hypothesis that pretreatment of the white adipocyte with an ESR inhibitor such as salubrinal by reducing ESR and turning on the protein synthesis machinery

  14. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  15. BROWN TUMOR OF THE FACIAL BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Trandafir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Brown tumor arises as a direct result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. The lesion localizes in areas of intense bone resorbtion, and the bone defect becomes filled with fibroblastic tissue that can deform the bone and simulate a neoplastic process. Brown tumors can affect the mandible, maxilla, clavicle, ribs and pelvic bones. Most patients with hyperparathyroidism are asymptomatic. Skeletal changes may represent the first manifestations of the disease. Radiologically, brown tumor in the jaws presents as a well-defined radiolucent osteolytic lesion, making it hard to differentiate it from other maxillary expansive lesions that can present with a similar imaging. Brown tumors exhibit no pathognomonic histologic changes. Differentiating between a brown tumor and other giant-cell tumors may be very difficult, even with histology. A final diagnosis can be defined only by evaluating the radiological findings with histopathological, laboratory and clinical data. At present, brown tumor is considered as a reparative cellular process rather than a real neoplasia. This phenomenon is considered as pathognomonic of hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, especially in patients on long-term hemodialysis. The initial treatment of brown tumor involves control of hyperparathyroidism, regardless of whether it is primary or secondary. The clinical management of brown tumor aims primarily to reduce the elevated parathyroid hormone levels by pharmacological treatment. Surgical treatment is reserved to nonresponders or to patients with painful symptomatology or alteration of normal function. Brown tumor can recur if hyperparathyroidism persists or recurs.

  16. The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a thermogenic organ, brown adipose tissue (BAT has received a great attention in treating obesity and related diseases. It has been reported that brown adipocyte was derived from engrailed-1 (EN1 positive central dermomyotome. However, functions of EN1 in brown adipogenesis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that EN1 overexpression increased while EN1 knockdown decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of key adipogenic genes including PPARγ2 and C/EBPα and mitochondrial OXPHOS as well as BAT specific marker UCP1. Taken together, our findings clearly indicate that EN1 is a positive regulator of brown adipogenesis.

  17. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2012-01-01

    measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure......Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were...

  18. Adipocytes in both brown and white adipose tissue of adult mice are functionally connected via gap junctions: implications for Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Shoshana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Thi, Mia M; Hanani, Menachem; Scherer, Philipp E; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Spray, David C

    2014-11-01

    Adipose tissue serves as a host reservoir for the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative organism in Chagas disease. Gap junctions interconnect cells of most tissues, serving to synchronize cell activities including secretion in glandular tissue, and we have previously demonstrated that gap junctions are altered in various tissues and cells infected with T. cruzi. Herein, we examined the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in infected adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ of the body and is also involved in other physiological functions. In mammals, it is primarily composed of white adipocytes. Although gap junctions are a prominent feature of brown adipocytes, they have not been explored extensively in white adipocytes, especially in the setting of infection. Thus, we examined functional coupling in both white and brown adipocytes in mice. Injection of electrical current or the dye Lucifer Yellow into adipocytes within fat tissue spread to adjacent cells, which was reduced by treatment with agents known to block gap junctions. Moreover, Cx43 was detected in both brown and white fat tissue. At thirty and ninety days post-infection, Cx43 was downregulated in brown adipocytes and upregulated in white adipocytes. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication likely contributes to hormone secretion and other functions in white adipose tissue and to nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat, and modulation of the coupling by T. cruzi infection is expected to impact these functions. PMID:25150689

  19. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  20. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2011-01-01

    percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute......Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population......-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated as a...

  1. Thioesterase superfamily member 1 suppresses cold thermogenesis by limiting the oxidation of lipid droplet-derived fatty acids in brown adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okada

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: These results show that Them1 may act as a break on uncontrolled heat production and limit the extent of energy expenditure. Pharmacologic inhibition of Them1 could provide a targeted strategy for the management of metabolic disorders via activation of brown fat.

  2. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo de Lima e Souza; Bruno Tavares Apgaua; João Daniel Milhomens; Francisco Tadeu Motta Albuquerque; Luiz Antônio Carneiro; Márcio Henrique Mendes; Tiago Carvalho Garcia; Clerisson Paiva; Felipe Ladeia; Deiler Célio Jeunon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures) or plastic surgery (liposuction), compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. CASE REPORT: SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to b...

  3. Facial Fat Necrosis Following Autologous Fat Transfer and its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta Rai; Marsland, Alexander M; Vishal Madan

    2014-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the...

  4. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Increases Lipolysis, UCP1 Protein Expression and Mitochondrial Activity in Brown Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Dominguez, María; Sebastián, David; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Mir, Joan F.; García-Casarrubios, Ester; Obregón, María Jesús; Zorzano, Antonio; Valverde, Ángela M.; Serra, Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection. We found that CPT1AM-expressing rBA have increased FAO, lipolysis, UCP1 protein levels and mitochondrial activity. Additionally, enhanced FAO reduced the palmitate-induced increase in triglyceride content and the expression of obese and inflammatory markers. Thus, CPT1AM-expressing rBA had enhanced fat-burning capacity and improved lipid-induced derangements. This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced disorders. PMID:27438137

  5. Control and physiological determinants of sympathetically-mediated brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eRichard

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT represents a remarkable heat-producing tissue. The thermogenic potential of BAT is conferred by uncoupling protein 1, a protein found uniquely in the brown adipocytes. The physiological control of BAT activity and capacity is ensured by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS, which densely innervates brown fat depots. SNS-mediated BAT thermogenesis is essentially governed by hypothalamic and brainstem neurons. BAT is not only controlled by the brain thermoregulatory circuits but also by brain energy balance pathways including the very significant brain melanocortin system, which speaks in favor of the genuine involvement of SNS-mediated BAT thermogenesis in energy homeostasis. The use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT scanning has further revealed the presence of well-defined BAT depots in the cervical, clavicular, and paraspinal areas in adult humans. The prevalence of these depots was reported to be higher in subjects exposed to low temperature and was also higher in women than men. Moreover, the prevalence of BAT was shown to decrease with age and body fat mass, which suggests that BAT could not only be involved in cold-induced non shivering thermogenesis but also in the energy balance regulation and obesity in humans. This short review summarizes recent progress made in our understanding of the control of SNS-mediated BAT thermogenesis and of the determinants of BAT prevalence or detection in humans.

  6. AHNAK deficiency promotes browning and lipolysis in mice via increased responsiveness to β-adrenergic signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Seo Hyun; Kim, Yo Na; Kim, Il Yong; Kim, Youn Ju; Kyeong, Dong Soo; Lim, Hee Jung; Cho, Soo Young; Choi, Junhee; Wi, Young Jin; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Bae, Yun Soo; Seong, Je Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In adipose tissue, agonists of the β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) regulate lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and thermogenesis. The deficiency in the thermogenesis induced by neuroblast differentiation-associated protein AHNAK in white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that AHNAK may stimulate energy expenditure via development of beige fat. Here, we report that AHNAK deficiency promoted browning and thermogenic gene expression in WAT but not in brown adipose tissue of mice stimulated with the ADRB3 agonist CL-316243. Consistent with the increased thermogenesis, Ahnak(-/-) mice exhibited an increase in energy expenditure, accompanied by elevated mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT depots in response to CL-316243. Additionally, AHNAK-deficient WAT contained more eosinophils and higher levels of type 2 cytokines (IL-4/IL-13) to promote browning of WAT in response to CL-316243. This was associated with enhanced sympathetic tone in the WAT via upregulation of adrb3 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in response to β-adrenergic activation. CL-316243 activated PKA signalling and enhanced lipolysis, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and release of free glycerol in Ahnak(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. Overall, these findings suggest an important role of AHNAK in the regulation of thermogenesis and lipolysis in WAT via β-adrenergic signalling. PMID:26987950

  7. Direct effects of leptin on brown and white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist-Kaiser, C A; Pauli, V; Juge-Aubry, C E; Boss, O; Pernin, A; Chin, W W; Cusin, I; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Burger, A G; Zapf, J; Meier, C A

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is thought to exert its actions on energy homeostasis through the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), which is present in the hypothalamus and in certain peripheral organs, including adipose tissue. In this study, we examined whether leptin has direct effects on the function of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) at the metabolic and molecular levels. The chronic peripheral intravenous administration of leptin in vivo for 4 d resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the in vivo glucose utilization index of BAT, whereas no significant change was found after intracerebroventricular administration compared with pair-fed control rats, compatible with a direct effect of leptin on BAT. The effect of leptin on WAT fat pads from lean Zucker Fa/ fa rats was assessed ex vivo, where a 9- and 16-fold increase in the rate of lipolysis was observed after 2 h of exposure to 0.1 and 10 nM leptin, respectively. In contrast, no increase in lipolysis was observed in the fat pads from obese fa/fa rats, which harbor an inactivating mutation in the OB-Rb. At the level of gene expression, leptin treatment for 24 h increased malic enzyme and lipoprotein lipase RNA 1.8+/-0.17 and 1.9+/-0.14-fold, respectively, while aP2 mRNA levels were unaltered in primary cultures of brown adipocytes from lean Fa/fa rats. Importantly, however, no significant effect of leptin was observed on these genes in brown adipocytes from obese fa/fa animals. The presence of OB-Rb receptors in adipose tissue was substantiated by the detection of its transcripts by RT-PCR, and leptin treatment in vivo and in vitro activated the specific STATs implicated in the signaling pathway of the OB-Rb. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that leptin has direct effects on BAT and WAT, resulting in the activation of the Jak/STAT pathway and the increased expression of certain target genes, which may partially account for the observed increase in glucose utilization and lipolysis in leptin

  8. Goat Milk Fat Naturally Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Increased Lipoproteins and Reduced Triacylglycerol in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaela Rodrigues; Juliana Soares; Hugo Garcia; Claudenice Nascimento; Maria Medeiros; Marco Bomfim; Maria Carmo Medeiros; Rita Queiroga

    2014-01-01

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters ...

  9. Inflammatory and metabolic alterations of Kager's fat pad in chronic achilles tendinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Pingel; M Christine H Petersen; Ulrich Fredberg; Søren G Kjær; Bjørn Quistorff; Henning Langberg; Hansen, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achilles tendinopathy is a painful inflammatory condition characterized by swelling, stiffness and reduced function of the Achilles tendon. Kager's fat pad is an adipose tissue located in the area anterior to the Achilles tendon. Observations reveal a close physical interplay between Kager's fat pad and its surrounding structures during movement of the ankle, suggesting that Kager's fat pad may stabilize and protect the mechanical function of the ankle joint.AIM: The aim of this s...

  10. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  11. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  12. Serotonin attenuates biotic stress and leads to lesion browning caused by a hypersensitive response to Magnaporthe oryzae penetration in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiko; Fujita, Yoshikatsu; Ashizawa, Taketo; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Hayano-Saito, Yuriko

    2016-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) of plants is one of the earliest responses to prevent pathogen invasion. A brown dot lesion on a leaf is visual evidence of the HR against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in rice, but tracking the browning process has been difficult. In this study, we induced the HR in rice cultivars harboring the blast resistance gene Pit by inoculation of an incompatible M. oryzae strain, which generated a unique resistance lesion with a brown ring (halo) around the brown fungal penetration site. Inoculation analysis using a plant harboring Pit but lacking an enzyme that catalyzes tryptamine to serotonin showed that high accumulation of the oxidized form of serotonin was the cause of the browning at the halo and penetration site. Our analysis of the halo browning process in the rice leaf revealed that abscisic acid enhanced biosynthesis of serotonin under light conditions, and serotonin changed to the oxidized form via hydrogen peroxide produced by light. The dramatic increase in serotonin, which has a high antioxidant activity, suppressed leaf damage outside the halo, blocked expansion of the browning area and attenuated inhibition of plant growth. These results suggest that serotonin helps to reduce biotic stress in the plant by acting as a scavenger of oxygen radicals to protect uninfected tissues from oxidative damage caused by the HR. The deposition of its oxide at the HR lesion is observed as lesion browning. PMID:26603141

  13. Dietary Fats and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Ristic-Medic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantity and quality of fats consumed in the diet can have important effects on prevention and/or improvement clustering metabolic abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Fatty acids as food ingredients regulate cholesterol homeostasis and concentrations of blood lipoproteins, and affect the levels of other cardiometabolic risk factors, such as blood pressure, haemostasis, and body weight, through various mechanisms. There is convincing evidence that exchanging dietary saturated fat with monounsaturated fat produces beneficial effects on metabolic control, i.a. it lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations, improves the postprandial lipid profile and lowers the blood pressure. Serum fatty acid composition mainly reflects dietary fat intake, but also endogenous fatty acid synthesis catalyzed by desaturases. Furthermore, high fat intake and serum fatty acid profile may influence the progression of obesity and insulin sensitivity. This review highlights current dietary guidance of fats quality recommendation in health and cardio metabolic risk.

  14. Fat embolism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A G; Mettler, F A; Christie, J H; Gordon, R E

    1986-07-01

    The fat embolism syndrome is clinically evident in approximately 0.5-2.0% of patients with long bone fractures. The clinical signs and symptoms are evident in 60% of patients within 24 hours and 85% of patients within 48 hours after trauma. A patient is reported who complained of dyspnea and hemoptysis approximately 72 hours after sustaining a fracture to the distal tibia and fibula. Radionuclide ventilation/perfusion imaging was obtained to rule out pulmonary thromboemboli. Perfusion imaging demonstrated the characteristic diffuse, subsegmental ("mottled") appearance of fatty emboli to the lung. PMID:3731649

  15. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  16. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  17. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  18. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  19. Influence of the Brown Marine Algae on the Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristcs of the Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Dan Sălăgean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this study was to asses the influence of the brown algae on the quality in manufacturing of a certain halfsmoked sausages assortment.  Exploiting the natural plant resources as well as reducing the animal fat in the finished product by replacing it with proteins, fibers and minerals (provided by the brown marine algae were also intended. Two technological variants with different ratios of algae (V1-10% respectively V2-15% from those 25% of fat (the remaining of 75% beeing represented, in each case, by beef were experienced and compared with the control sample (VM, without algae, 75% beef and 25% fat. The finished products were analyzed in terms of organoleptic and physicochemical, in different stages of storage, at 24 hours after obtaining and seven days of storage at 10 to 12 degrees. The correlations between investigated quality parameters and the ratios of algae were also established. The physicochemical analysis highlighted the highest values regarding the protein, moisture, sodium chloride and the lowest fat content values in the case of the V2 variant compared to the V1 and VM variants. Furthermore, an increase in protein, fat, sodium chloride and a decrease of the moisture content have been found in all variants observed during the storage. The shelf life of the product was not negatively affected by the addition of algae due to their antimicrobial activity. The addition of algae in combination with beef components led to obtaining a higher quality product with functional characteristics.

  20. Loss of Nlrp3 Does Not Protect Mice from Western Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Glucose Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringling, Rebecca E; Gastecki, Michelle L; Woodford, Makenzie L; Lum-Naihe, Kelly J; Grant, Ryan W; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that loss of Nlrp3 would protect mice from Western diet-induced adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and associated glucose intolerance and cardiovascular complications. Five-week old C57BL6J wild-type (WT) and Nlrp3 knockout (Nlrp3-/-) mice were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks (n = 8/group). Contrary to our hypothesis that obesity-mediated white AT inflammation is Nlrp3-dependent, we found that Western diet-induced expression of AT inflammatory markers (i.e., Cd68, Cd11c, Emr1, Itgam, Lgals, Il18, Mcp1, Tnf, Ccr2, Ccl5 mRNAs, and Mac-2 protein) were not accompanied by increased caspase-1 cleavage, a hallmark feature of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, Nlrp3 null mice were not protected from Western diet-induced white or brown AT inflammation. Although Western diet promoted glucose intolerance in both WT and Nlrp3-/- mice, Nlrp3-/- mice were protected from Western diet-induced aortic stiffening. Additionally, Nlrp3-/- mice exhibited smaller cardiomyocytes and reduced cardiac fibrosis, independent of diet. Collectively, these findings suggest that presence of the Nlrp3 gene is not required for Western diet-induced AT inflammation and/or glucose intolerance; yet Nlrp3 appears to play a role in potentiating arterial stiffening, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. PMID:27583382

  1. [Posttraumatic fat embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Y; Guillaume, C; Perrot, D; Delafosse, B; Motin, J

    1984-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1982, fifty cases of post-traumatic fat embolism were treated in a general intensive care unit. Average age of patients was 25.5 +/- 13 years; there was no male majority. Mean free interval was 39 +/- 27 h. 12 cases (24%) had single fractures and 38 (76%) multiple fractures. Forty-four patients had a fractured femur. Thirty-two patients presented the complete clinical syndrome with general, respiratory, neurological and cutaneous signs. Thrombocytopaenia and hypocholesterolaemia were the biological signs most often seen. In forty-four patients, orthopaedic treatment consisted of immediate immobilization, usually with traction. Twenty-six patients were reoperated on: intramedullary nail for twenty patients, plate for the other six. Fat embolism appeared in spite of surgery in six cases; it worsened after surgery in six others. Seven patients had per- or postanaesthetic problems. Fourteen per cent of patients died. The decrease in mortality was mainly due to an improvement in mechanical ventilation techniques. Early surgical fixation remained the rule if there was no serious respiratory distress or haemodynamic instability, although it did not seem to change the mortality rate in this group of patients. PMID:6497076

  2. Contrasting effects of cold acclimation versus obesogenic diets on chemerin gene expression in brown and brite adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ida R; Jansson, Kim M; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Based on results from a signal sequence trap, we investigated chemerin gene expression in brown adipose tissue. Male NMRI mice were exposed to 30, 22 or 4 °C for 3 weeks, or were fed control (chow) diet, cafeteria diet or high-fat diet at thermoneutrality for the same time. In brown adipose tissue, cold acclimation strongly diminished chemerin gene expression, whereas obesogenic diets augmented expression. Qualitatively, changes in expression were paralleled in brite/beige adipose tissues (e.g. inguinal), whereas white adipose tissue (epididymal) and muscle did not react to these cues. Changes in tissue expression were not directly paralleled by alterations in plasma levels. Both these intact animal studies and brown adipocyte cell culture studies indicated that the gene expression regulation was not congruent with a sympathetic/adrenergic control. The data are discussed in relation to suggested endocrine, paracrine and autocrine effects of chemerin. PMID:25224322

  3. Changes in UCP mRNA expression levels in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle after feeding a high-energy diet and relationships with leptin, glucose and PPARgamma

    OpenAIRE

    Margareto, J. (Javier); A. Marti; MARTINEZ, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle are known to be important sites for nonshivering thermogenesis. In this context, it is accepted that uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are involved in such process, but little is known about the physiological regulation of these proteins as affected by the intake of a high-energy (cafeteria) diet inducing fat deposition. In this study, the UCP messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and skeletal muscle was assesse...

  4. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Brown adipose tissue in humans: regulation and metabolic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuzar, Moe; Ho, Ken K Y

    2016-07-01

    The recent discovery that functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) persists in adult humans has enkindled a renaissance in metabolic research, with a view of harnessing its thermogenic capacity to combat obesity. This review focuses on the advances in the regulation and the metabolic significance of BAT in humans. BAT activity in humans is stimulated by cold exposure and by several factors such as diet and metabolic hormones. BAT function is regulated at two levels: an acute process involving the stimulation of the intrinsic thermogenic activity of brown adipocytes and a chronic process of growth involving the proliferation of pre-existing brown adipocytes or differentiation to brown adipocytes of adipocytes from specific white adipose tissue depots. BAT activity is reduced in the obese, and its stimulation by cold exposure increases insulin sensitivity and reduces body fat. These observations provide strong evidence that BAT plays a significant role in energy balance in humans and has the potential to be harnessed as a therapeutic target for the management of obesity. PMID:27220620

  5. Control of brown adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism by PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Festuccia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT non-shivering thermogenesis impacts energy homeostasis in rodents and humans. Mitochondrial UCP1 in brown fat cells produce heat by dissipating the energy generated by the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose. In addition to thermogenesis and despite its small relative size, sympathetically activated BAT constitutes an important glucose, fatty acid and triacylglycerol-clearing organ, and such function could potentially be used to alleviate dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. To date, chronic sympathetic innervation and PPARγ activation are the only recognized inducers of BAT recruitment. Here, we review the major differences between these two inducers of BAT recruitment in the regulation of lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, lipid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis, glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Whereas BAT recruitment through sympathetic drive translates into functional thermogenic activity, PPARγ-mediated recruitment is associated with a reduction in sympathetic activity leading to increased lipid storage in brown adipocytes. The promising therapeutic role of brown adipose tissue in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemic and hyperglycaemic conditions are also discussed.

  6. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B;

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat ox...

  7. Identification of Plants That Inhibit Lipid Droplet Formation in Liver Cells: Rubus suavissimus Leaf Extract Protects Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Directly Affecting Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Wataru; Takiguchi, Yuya; Takizawa, Kento; Nakabayashi, Ami; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Nagano-Ito, Michiyo; Ichikawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease.

  8. Dietary enrichment with fish oil prevents high fat-induced metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K Philp

    Full Text Available High saturated fat (HF-S diets increase intramyocellular lipid, an effect ameliorated by omega-3 fatty acids in vitro and in vivo, though little is known about sex- and muscle fiber type-specific effects. We compared effects of standard chow, HF-S, and 7.5% HF-S replaced with fish oil (HF-FO diets on the metabolic profile and lipid metabolism gene and protein content in red (soleus and white (extensor digitorum longus muscles of male and female C57BL/6 mice (n = 9-12/group. Weight gain was similar in HF-S- and HF-FO-fed groups. HF-S feeding increased mesenteric fat mass and lipid marker, Oil Red O, in red and mixed muscle; HF-FO increased interscapular brown fat mass. Compared to chow, HF-S and HF-FO increased expression of genes regulating triacylglycerol synthesis and fatty acid transport, HF-S suppressed genes and proteins regulating fatty acid oxidation, whereas HF-FO increased oxidative genes, proteins and enzymes and lipolytic gene content, whilst suppressing lipogenic genes. In comparison to HF-S, HF-FO further increased fat transporters, markers of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial content, and reduced lipogenic genes. No diet-by-sex interactions were observed. Neither diet influenced fiber type composition. However, some interactions between muscle type and diet were observed. HF-S induced changes in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipogenic genes in red, but not white, muscle, and mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative genes were suppressed by HF-S and increased by HF-FO in red muscle only. In conclusion, HF-S feeding promotes lipid storage in red muscle, an effect abrogated by the fish oil, which increases mediators of lipolysis, oxidation and thermogenesis while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Greater storage and synthesis, and lower oxidative genes in red, but not white, muscle likely contribute to lipid accretion encountered in red muscle. Despite several gender-dimorphic genes, both sexes exhibited a similar HF-S-induced metabolic

  9. Protective effect of phloridzin on the fat-induced oxidative damage in drosophila melanogaster%根皮苷对由高脂导致果蝇氧化损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽生; 胡莎; 邵婵; 王浩; 张颖

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究根皮苷对高脂导致氧化损伤的果蝇寿命及抗氧化能力的影响。方法:将2d龄果蝇随机分组,在高脂培养基下饲喂不同剂量(0、5、10mg/mL)的根皮苷,统计果蝇平均寿命,最高寿命及半数致死时间,分光光度计法测定25d果蝇超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性及丙二醛(MDA)含量,并与模型组进行比较。结果:根皮苷组果蝇平均寿命、最高寿命及半数致死时间均显著高于高脂模型组,且不同剂量组之间呈现量效关系;SOD、CAT活性随根皮苷剂量升高而升高,MDA随根皮苷剂量升高而降低。结论:根皮苷对高脂膳食所导致的果蝇氧化损伤具有保护作用,能够明显延长果蝇寿命,增强SOD和CAT活性,降低MDA含量,具有抗氧化的作用。%Objective:The present study investigated the effect of phloridzin on the lifespan and antioxidant capacity of drosophila melanogaster upon oxidative stress induced by dietary fat.Methods:Phloridzin was administrated orraly to different groups of D.melanogaster fed with addition of 10% lard.The maximum life span,mean life span and 50% survival time were calculated.The activity of SOD and CAT and the content of MDA were analyzed.Results:The results showed that comparing with the model group,supplementation of phloridzin could significantly extend the lifespan of drosophila melanogaster.This was consistent with significant reduction in MDA content and increase in SOD and CAT activities in D.melanogaster.Conclusion:It was concluded that the antioxidant effect of phloridizn in D.melanogaster maintained on a high-fat diet was accompanied by up-regulation of CAT and SOD.

  10. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  11. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  12. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  13. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  14. A Ketogenic Diet Increases Brown Adipose Tissue Mitochondrial Proteins and UCP1 Levels in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Shireesh; Baxa, Ulrich; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Veech, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding a ketogenic diet (KD) for a month on general physiology with emphasis on brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice. KD did not reduce the caloric intake, or weight or lipid content of BAT. Relative epididymal fat pads were 40% greater in the mice fed the KD (P = 0.06) while leptin was lower (P < 0.05). Blood glucose levels were 30% lower while D-β-hydroxybutyrate levels were about 3.5-fold higher in the KD group. Plasma insulin and leptin levels in the KD group we...

  15. Regulation of gene expression by FSP27 in white and brown adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Bofu; Wang Yue; Zhou Linkang; Xu Li; Zhang Yinxin; Li(李, Li, 莉); Wen Zilong; Li Peng; Sang Jianli

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT) play critical roles in controlling energy homeostasis and in the development of obesity and diabetes. The mouse Fat-Specific protein 27 (FSP27), a member of the cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE) family, is expressed in both BAT and WAT and is associated with lipid droplets. Over-expression of FSP27 promotes lipid storage, whereas FSP27 deficient mice have improved insulin sensitivity and are resistant to diet-induc...

  16. Impact of Age on the Relationships of Brown Adipose Tissue With Sex and Adiposity in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Pfannenberg, Christina; Werner, Matthias K.; Ripkens, Sabine; Stef, Irina; Deckert, Annette; Schmadl, Maria; Reimold, Matthias; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Claussen, Claus D.; Stefan, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Brown adipose tissue (BAT) regulates energy homeostasis and fat mass in mammals and newborns and, most likely, in adult humans. Because BAT activity and BAT mass decline with age in humans, the impact of BAT on adiposity may decrease with aging. In the present study we addressed this hypothesis and further investigated the effect of age on the sex differences in BAT activity and BAT mass. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 260 subjects (98 with BAT and 162 study date–matched cont...

  17. Brown adipose tissue derived VEGF-A modulates cold tolerance and energy expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Kai; Kusminski, Christine M; Luby-Phelps, Kate; Spurgin, Stephen B.; An, Yu A.; Wang, Qiong A; Holland, William L.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that local overexpression of VEGF-A in white adipose tissue (WAT) protects against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. The observation that VEGF-A induces a “brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like” phenotype in WAT prompted us to further explore the direct function of VEGF-A in BAT. We utilized a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible, brown adipocyte-specific VEGF-A transgenic overexpression model to assess direct effects of VEGF-A in BAT in vivo. We observed that BAT-specific...

  18. Fat tissue, aging, and cellular senescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Tchkonia, T.; Morbeck, D.E.; Zglinicki, T. von; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Lustgarten, J.; Scrable, H.; Khosla, S.; Jensen, M.D.; Kirkland, J L

    2010-01-01

    Fat tissue, frequently the largest organ in humans, is at the nexus of mechanisms involved in longevity and age-related metabolic dysfunction. Fat distribution and function change dramatically throughout life. Obesity is associated with accelerated onset of diseases common in old age, while fat ablation and certain mutations affecting fat increase life span. Fat cells turn over throughout the life span. Fat cell progenitors, preadipocytes, are abundant, closely related to macrophages, and dys...

  19. Processing and phosphorylation of the Fat receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yongqiang; Irvine, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila tumor suppressors fat and discs overgrown (dco) function within an intercellular signaling pathway that controls growth and polarity. fat encodes a transmembrane receptor, but post-translational regulation of Fat has not been described. We show here that Fat is subject to a constitutive proteolytic processing, such that most or all cell surface Fat comprises a heterodimer of stably associated N- and C-terminal fragments. The cytoplasmic domain of Fat is phosphorylated, and this...

  20. Signal transduction by the Fat cytoplasmic domain

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Guohui; Feng, Yongqiang; Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A.; Sun, Gongping; Huff, Matthew; Rauskolb, Cordelia; Irvine, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    The large atypical cadherin Fat is a receptor for both Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways. Here we investigate the molecular basis for signal transduction downstream of Fat by creating targeted alterations within a genomic construct that contains the entire fat locus, and by monitoring and manipulating the membrane localization of the Fat pathway component Dachs. We establish that the human Fat homolog FAT4 lacks the ability to transduce Hippo signaling in Drosophila, but can trans...

  1. Desempenho e características qualitativas da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros terminados em confinamento alimentados com dietas contendo soja grão ou gordura protegida Performance and qualitative characteristics of carcasses and meat of lambs finished in confinement and fed diets containing soybean grain or protected fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes Fernandes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho, as características das carcaças e a qualidade da carne de cordeiros Santa Inês, terminados em confinamento, alimentados com dietas contendo 60% de concentrado e enriquecidas com soja grão ou gordura protegida. Os concentrados foram compostos de farelo de soja, milho, farelo de trigo, ureia, núcleo mineral, soja grão ou gordura protegida. Como volumoso foi utilizado o feno de capim-tifton 85. Foram utilizados 24 cordeiros com aproximadamente 19,30 ± 1,77 kg e média de idade de 5 meses alojados em baias individuais por um período de 105 dias (21 de adaptação e 84 dias de período experimental. Os animais foram pesados ao início do experimento e a intervalos de 28 dias, com a finalidade de acompanhar o ganho de peso dos animais. Findo o experimento, foram abatidos para mensurações nas carcaças e avaliação das características quantitativas. Após o resfriamento das carcaças por 24 horas, foram retiradas amostras do lombo para análises da qualidade da carne. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e oito repetições. Os animais que receberam a gordura protegida apresentaram maior ganho em peso (0,24 kg/dia. As dietas contendo soja grão ou gordura protegida proporcionaram melhor conversão alimentar (4,80 e 4,06 respectivamente. O enriquecimento da dieta com soja grão ou gordura protegida não promove diferenças significativas nas características de carcaça nem na qualidade da carne.The objective of this work was to evaluate performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Santa Inês lambs, finished in feedlot, fed diets containing 60% concentrate and enriched with soybean grain or with protected fat. The concentrates were composed with soybean meal, corn, wheat meal, urea, mineral mixture, soybean grain or protected fat. Tifton-85 hay was used as roughage. It was used 24 lambs with approximately 19.30 ± 1.77 kg and at average age of five months

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of autologous fat grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 30-year-old female patient with isolated facial lipodystrophy underwent two sessions of fat injection. MR signals of injected fat at different injection ages were compared to native fat. Native T1 signal was smaller for transplant fat, probably due to a slightly lower fat content and/or fibrosis or due to higher perfusion. T2 signal of transplants was significantly higher than that of native fat. T1 post-contrast was also higher, and contrast uptake of transplanted fat increased slightly with transplant age, which could be explained by an increasing perfusion. This study demonstrates the differences and MR signal time changes of native and transplanted fat. (orig.)

  3. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.;

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were posit...... in these hares. This is the first report of antibodies to EBHSV, EBHSV-antigen, and electron microscopy findings in free-ranging European brown hares from South America....

  4. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. PMID:23800269

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1997. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1993. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1988. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  8. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1989. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  9. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1991. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  10. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1995. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  11. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1992. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  12. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1998. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  13. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1996. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  14. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1994. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  15. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 1990. A general background is presented first with water rights information, management...

  16. Telemetry techniques used on Kodiak brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a study on the techniques used to monitor the movements of Kodiak brown bears instrumented with radio transmitters. Methods...

  17. Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma and Brown Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Mejia, A

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we describe a rare case of brown tumor and mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. This report emphasizes the value of radionuclide scintigraphy in the setting of persistent disease following parathyroid surgery.

  18. Ezra Brown named Alumni Distinguished Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Clara B.

    2005-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Board of Visitors conferred the title Alumni Distinguished Professor (ADP) to Ezra "Bud" Brown, professor of mathematics in the College of Science, in recognition of his extraordinary academic citizenship and distinguished service within the Virginia Tech community.

  19. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2012. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  20. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2007. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  1. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2011. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  2. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2010. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  3. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2008. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  4. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2006. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  5. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2005. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  6. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2009. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  7. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2013. After the creation of the Flaming Gorge Dam, the annual flooding of the Green River ceased...

  8. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  9. Improved properties of lipstick formulation with engkabang fats

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Husin Norazlin; Basri Mahiran; Hashim Puziah; Abd Gani Siti Salwa

    2015-01-01

    Engkabang fats are known as an excellent cocoa butter equivalent. It is selected to be aimed as potential softening ingredient in waxy base of lipstick formulation that promotes moisturising protection for the lips. The formulation was prepared by mixing homogenously the base and colour intermediate at 70-80°C, moulded in casing, followed by cooling at-20°C.The optimum ratio of lipstick formulation containing engkabang fats and other waxes was (10:20) in percentage. The other ingredients used...

  10. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  11. Candle power at Browns Ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the serious accident that occurred to the Browns Ferry nuclear power station in Alabama on March 22 1975, when a fire caused by an electrician searching for air leaks using a candle caused great damage to the reactor. The fire put several key safety systems out of action and caused problems in shutting down one of the plant's two reactors. The use of a candle for the purpose was regarded as a highly unofficial but time-honoured method. In this case the candle ignited polyurethane foam surrounding some electrical cables, and the fire spread back through the reactor walls. Some alarming features of the fire fighting effort are noted. The use of water finally quickly extinguished the fire. The unconventional means that had to be adopted to shut down the reactors are described. Implications of the accident for other plants are being considered and modifications are suggested. There were no adverse effects on public health and safety. (author)

  12. Inhibition of the Inflammasome NLRP3 by Arglabin Attenuates Inflammation, Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from Apoptosis, and Prevents Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Development in ApoE2Ki Mice on a Chronic High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrazak, Amna; El Hadri, Khadija; Bosc, Elodie; Blondeau, Bertrand; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Büchele, Berthold; Simmet, Thomas; Couchie, Dominique; Rouis, Mustapha

    2016-06-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of arglabin (2.5 ng/g of body weight, twice daily, 13 weeks) into female human apolipoprotein E2 gene knock-in (ApoE2Ki) mice fed a high-fat Western-type diet (HFD) reduced plasma levels of glucose and insulin by ∼20.0% ± 3.5% and by 50.0% ± 2.0%, respectively, in comparison with vehicle-treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of active caspase-3 in islet sections from ApoE2Ki mice fed a HFD and treated with arglabin. In addition, arglabin reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in a concentration-dependent manner in Langerhans islets isolated from ApoE2Ki mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and with cholesterol crystals. This inhibitory effect is specific for the inflammasome NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) because IL-1β production was abolished in Langerhans islets isolated from Nlrp3(-/-) mice. In the insulin-secreting INS-1 cells, arglabin inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the maturation of pro-IL-1β into biologically active IL-1β probably through the inhibition of the maturation of procaspase-1 into active capsase-1. Moreover, arglabin reduced the susceptibility of INS-1 cells to apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 levels. Similarly, autophagy activation by rapamycin decreased apoptosis susceptibility while autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenin treatment promoted apoptosis. Arglabin further increased the expression of the autophagic markers Bcl2-interacting protein (Beclin-1) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 II (LC3-II) in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, arglabin reduces NLRP3-dependent inflammation as well as apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells in vivo and in the INS-1 cell line in vitro, whereas it increases autophagy in cultured INS-1 cells, indicating survival-promoting properties of the compound in these cells. Hence, arglabin may represent a new promising compound to treat inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus development

  13. Effects of Portabella mushrooms on collagen-induced arthritis, inflammatory cytokines, and body composition in dilute brown non-agouti (DBA1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley A. Lightfoot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Exotic mushrooms have long been used in Asia for treatment and/or prevention of chronic diseases due to their immunomodulatory properties. However, the health benefits of portabella mushrooms (PM (brown Agaricus bisporous, on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA and associated complications, (i.e. loss of lean mass, increased fat mass and inflammatory cytokines, have not been previously investigated.Methods:We investigated CIA pathogenesis, body composition and plasma levels of IL- 6, TNF-α and sICAM1 in DBA1 female mice fed either the AIN76 diet or the same diet fortified with 5% lyophilized PM (n=19-20/group. Ten mice/group were immunized with 100 μg bovine collagen type II on day 42 of the protocol, followed by 50 μg lipopolysaccharides on day 62, and euthanized on day 73-74. Cytokines were measured by ELISA.Results:Compared to baseline diet, PM had: no protective effect from CIA since all collagen-immunized mice developed severe edema, bone erosion, and mononuclear cell infiltration in paws. In mice with and those without CIA, feeding a PM-fortified diet resulted in higher percent of body fat than feeding the baseline diet (p<0.05. After CIA induction, PM provided the followingFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 9:279-296beneficial effects: (a a smaller reduction in lean mass and absolute thymus weight; (b a higher fat mass loss; and (c lower plasma TNF-α levels (p <0.05. PM-fortification did not alter plasma IL-6 and sICAM1 regardless of CIA status; but it increased in vitro IL-6 secretion by mitogen-treated spleen cells.Conclusion:Our data suggest that PM may reduce plasma TNF-α, attenuate lean mass loss and thymus atrophy associated with arthritis, and protect spleen cell function assessed by IL-6 secretion. However, PM-fortification did not attenuate overall CIA pathogenesis which may be due to lack of effect on plasma IL-6. Decreased TNF-α without alterations in IL-6 may reduce the risk of other conditions

  14. Dining centers cut trans fats

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Katie

    2007-01-01

    Dining Services has pulled ahead of the pack in cutting trans fat from its menus--surpassing restaurants like Burger King, KFC, Taco Bell, and others who have announced that they also will be making the change this spring.

  15. MRI of Hoffa's fat pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrapatellar fat pad of Hoffa is commonly injured but rarely discussed in the radiological literature. Abnormalities within it most commonly are the consequences of trauma and degeneration, but inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the synovium can be confined to the fat pad. The commonest traumatic lesions follow arthroscopy, but intrinsic signal abnormalities can also be due to posterior and superior impingements syndromes and following patellar dislocation. Infrapatellar plica syndrome may also be traumatic in aetiology. The precise aetiology of ganglion cysts is not understood; the principal differential diagnosis is a meniscal or cruciate cyst. Hoffa's fat pad contains residual synovial tissue, meaning that primary neoplastic conditions of synovium may originate and be confined to the fat pad. Inflammatory changes along the posterior border of the pad may also be used to help differentiate effusion from acute synovitis on unenhanced MR examinations. (orig.)

  16. Corticosteroids for fat embolism after multiple fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huai-sheng; ZHANG Qing-mei; WEN Jun-min; WEN Shun-kang; YI Jing; ZHOU Zhi-qiang; WU Sheng-nan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fat embolism is a common complication of multiple fractures. Corticosteroids are usually prescribed in prophylactic and treatment of fat embolism. A case of fat embolism followed multiple fractures was hospitalized, and we searched best evidences about corticosteroids for fat embolism so as to provide best therapeutics for the patient.

  17. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.; Rønsholt, L.; Speck, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  18. Hsp70 plays an important role in high-fat diet induced gestational hyperglycemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Baoheng; Wang, Lili; Li, Qin; Cao, Yalei; Dong, Xiujuan; Liang, Jun; Wu, Xiaohua

    2015-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has emerged as an epidemic disease during the last decade, affecting about 2 to 5% pregnant women. Even among women who have gestational hyperglycemia may also be positively related to adverse outcomes as GDM. Since heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 has been reported to be associated with diabetes and insulin resistance and its expression was reported to be negatively regulated by the membrane-permeable Hsp70 inhibitor MAL3-101 while positively regulated by the Hsp70 activator BGP-15, we investigated whether Hsp70 played a role in a gestational hyperglycemia mouse model. Mice were divided into non-pregnant and pregnant groups, and each comprised three subgroups: control, high-fat diet (HFD) + MAL3-101, and HFD + BGP-15. We examined the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, and insulin, as well as conducted thermal detection of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The role of Hsp70 in BAT apoptosis was also investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and caspase-3 staining. Higher serum level of Hsp70 was associated with increased bodyweight gain after pregnancy in mice fed HFD. Circulating Hsp70 was elevated in control pregnant mice compared to control non-pregnant mice. BGP-induced serum Hsp70 expression reduced triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, and insulin levels in the serum. Additionally, thermal detection of BAT, TUNEL, and caspase-3 staining revealed relationship correlation between Hsp70 and BAT functions. Hsp70 level is associated with hyperglycemia during pregnancy. Our results support the role of Hsp70 in facilitating BAT activities and protecting BAT cells from apoptosis via caspase-3 pathway. PMID:26318018

  19. Intracellular pH of brown adipose tissue increases during norepinephrine stimulation of thermogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norepinephrine (NE) activation of brown fat (BAT) thermogenesis appears to involve dissociation of purine nucleotides from the mitochondrial uncoupling protein, resulting in release of normal respiratory control and enhanced substrate oxidation. Since the affinity of the uncoupling protein for purine nucleotides decreases significantly with increasing pH, the authors wished to determine if NE administration shifted the intracellular pH of BAT. To examine this question under in vivo conditions, they positioned a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) surface coil over the interscapular BAT of anesthetized male Syrian hamsters. The underlying and surrounding musculature was shielded to minimize their contribution to the 31P spectra. The hamster was placed in a Nicolet 200 Mhz spectrometer, operating in the Fourier Transform mode and tuned to 31P. Scans taken during infusion of ascorbate buffer (vehicle for NE) were compared to those taken during NE infusion (8 ng/g x min). During this infusion, BAT temperature increased 3.7 +/- 0.50C, confirming that BAT thermogenesis was activated. There also occurred a statistically significant PPM (parts per million) shift, averaging 0.070 +/- 0.022 (n = 22) and corresponding to an increase of approximately 0.07 pH units. This shift in intracellular pH from 7.32 to 7.39, although small, would facilitate the maintenance of loosely coupled brown fat mitochondria

  20. Intracellular pH of brown adipose tissue increases during norepinephrine stimulation of thermogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, B.A.; Hamilton, J.S.

    1986-03-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) activation of brown fat (BAT) thermogenesis appears to involve dissociation of purine nucleotides from the mitochondrial uncoupling protein, resulting in release of normal respiratory control and enhanced substrate oxidation. Since the affinity of the uncoupling protein for purine nucleotides decreases significantly with increasing pH, the authors wished to determine if NE administration shifted the intracellular pH of BAT. To examine this question under in vivo conditions, they positioned a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) surface coil over the interscapular BAT of anesthetized male Syrian hamsters. The underlying and surrounding musculature was shielded to minimize their contribution to the /sup 31/P spectra. The hamster was placed in a Nicolet 200 Mhz spectrometer, operating in the Fourier Transform mode and tuned to /sup 31/P. Scans taken during infusion of ascorbate buffer (vehicle for NE) were compared to those taken during NE infusion (8 ng/g x min). During this infusion, BAT temperature increased 3.7 +/- 0.5/sup 0/C, confirming that BAT thermogenesis was activated. There also occurred a statistically significant PPM (parts per million) shift, averaging 0.070 +/- 0.022 (n = 22) and corresponding to an increase of approximately 0.07 pH units. This shift in intracellular pH from 7.32 to 7.39, although small, would facilitate the maintenance of loosely coupled brown fat mitochondria.

  1. Movement and survival of brown trout and rainbow trout in an ozark tailwater river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J.W.; Kwak, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the movement of adult brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to a catch-andrelease area in the White River downstream from Beaver Dam, Arkansas. Nine fish of each species were implanted with radio transmitters and monitored from July 1996 to July 1997. The 1.5- km river length of a catch-and-release area (closed to angler harvest) was greater than the total linear range of 72% of the trout (13 of 18 fish), but it did not include two brown trout spawning riffles, suggesting that it effectively protects resident fish within the catch-and-release area except during spawning. The total detected linear range of movement varied from 172 to 3,559 m for brown trout and from 205 to 3,023mfor rainbow trout. The movements of both species appeared to be generally similar to that in unregulated river systems. The annual apparent survival of both trout species was less than 0.40, and exploitation was 44%.Management to protect fish on spawning riffles may be considered if management for wild brown trout becomes a priority. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  2. Epicardial fat volume assessment in cardiac CT

    OpenAIRE

    Coppini, Giuseppe; Favilla, Riccardo; Moroni, Davide; Salvetti, Ovidio; D'Errico, Luigina; Salituri, F; Ciardetti, Marco; Schlueter, Mathis; Faggioni, Luca; Coceani, Michele; Mazzarisi, Alessandro; M. Bianchi; Bartolozzi, C; Marraccini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Epicardial fat, as other visceral fat localizations, is correlated with car- diovascular disease, cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. However, many concerns remain about the method for measuring epi- cardial fat, its regional distribution on the myocardium, as well as the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. At present, dedi- cated software procedures to assess epicardial fat are lacking. On the other hand, manual fat segmentation requires a huge and tedious oper...

  3. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  4. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  5. Intravitreally Injected Anti-VEGF Antibody Reduces Brown Fat in Neonatal Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, D.H.; Park, S W; Cho, C S; Powner, M. B.; Fruttiger, M; Kim, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are the mainstay treatment for various angiogenesis-related retinal diseases. Currently, bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-VEGF antibody, is trailed in retinopathy of prematurity, a vasoproliferative retinal disorder in premature infants. However, the risks of systemic complications after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody in infants are not well understood. In this study, we show that intravitreally injected anti-VEGF an...

  6. Perilipin overexpression in white adipose tissue induces a brown fat-like phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Perilipin A (PeriA) exclusively locates on adipocyte lipid droplets and is essential for lipid storage and lipolysis. Previously, we reported that adipocyte specific overexpression of PeriA caused resistance to diet-induced obesity and resulted in improved insulin sensitivity. In order...

  7. Cell autonomous lipin 1 function is essential for development and maintenance of white and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadra, Karim; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Mul, Joram D; Han, Gil-Soo; Grès, Sandra; Pende, Mario; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Cuppen, Edwin; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Carman, George M; Desvergne, Béatrice; Chrast, Roman

    2012-12-01

    Through analysis of mice with spatially and temporally restricted inactivation of Lpin1, we characterized its cell autonomous function in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipocyte development and maintenance. We observed that the lipin 1 inactivation in adipocytes of aP2(Cre/+)/Lp(fEx2)(-)(3/fEx2)(-)(3) mice resulted in lipodystrophy and the presence of adipocytes with multilocular lipid droplets. We further showed that time-specific loss of lipin 1 in mature adipocytes in aP2(Cre-ERT2/+)/Lp(fEx2)(-)(3/fEx2)(-)(3) mice led to their replacement by newly formed Lpin1-positive adipocytes, thus establishing a role for lipin 1 in mature adipocyte maintenance. Importantly, we observed that the presence of newly formed Lpin1-positive adipocytes in aP2(Cre-ERT2/+)/Lp(fEx2)(-)(3/fEx2)(-)(3) mice protected these animals against WAT inflammation and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet. Loss of lipin 1 also affected BAT development and function, as revealed by histological changes, defects in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), PGC-1α, and UCP1, and functionally by altered cold sensitivity. Finally, our data indicate that phosphatidic acid, which accumulates in WAT of animals lacking lipin 1 function, specifically inhibits differentiation of preadipocytes. Together, these observations firmly demonstrate a cell autonomous role of lipin 1 in WAT and BAT biology and indicate its potential as a therapeutical target for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23028044

  8. Dicer1-miR-328-Bace1 signalling controls brown adipose tissue differentiation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliverio, Matteo; Schmidt, Elena; Mauer, Jan; Baitzel, Catherina; Hansmeier, Nils; Khani, Sajjad; Konieczka, Sandra; Pradas-Juni, Marta; Brodesser, Susanne; Van, Trieu-My; Bartsch, Deniz; Brönneke, Hella S; Heine, Markus; Hilpert, Hans; Tarcitano, Emilio; Garinis, George A; Frommolt, Peter; Heeren, Joerg; Mori, Marcelo A; Brüning, Jens C; Kornfeld, Jan-Wilhelm

    2016-03-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) controls energy homeostasis in rodents and humans and has emerged as an innovative strategy for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we show that ageing- and obesity-associated dysfunction of brown fat coincides with global microRNA downregulation due to reduced expression of the microRNA-processing node Dicer1. Consequently, heterozygosity of Dicer1 in BAT aggravated diet-induced-obesity (DIO)-evoked deterioration of glucose metabolism. Analyses of differential microRNA expression during preadipocyte commitment and mouse models of progeria, longevity and DIO identified miR-328 as a regulator of BAT differentiation. Reducing miR-328 blocked preadipocyte commitment, whereas miR-328 overexpression instigated BAT differentiation and impaired muscle progenitor commitment-partly through silencing of the β-secretase Bace1. Loss of Bace1 enhanced brown preadipocyte specification in vitro and was overexpressed in BAT of obese and progeroid mice. In vivo Bace1 inhibition delayed DIO-induced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. These experiments reveal Dicer1-miR-328-Bace1 signalling as a determinant of BAT function, and highlight the potential of Bace1 inhibition as a therapeutic approach to improve not only neurodegenerative diseases but also ageing- and obesity-associated impairments of BAT function. PMID:26900752

  9. Inflammation of the infrapatellar fat pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymard, Florent; Chevalier, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) of Hoffa's fat pad is the main adipose structure within the knee joint. It is located between the joint capsule and the synovial membrane, which lines its posterior aspect. The IFP is composed chiefly of adipocytes and receives an abundant supply of blood vessels and nerves. Immune cells can infiltrate the IFP, which can become a major source of numerous proinflammatory mediators (cytokines and adipokines). The physiological role for the IFP remains unclear but may involve shock absorption and the protection of adjacent tissues. Hoffa's disease is characterized by inflammation, hypertrophy, and fibrosis of the pad in response to repetitive trauma. Anterior knee pain is the most common symptom. In advanced forms, metaplasia of the IFP may result in the development of a sometimes sizable osteochondroma. The IFP may also contribute to the pathophysiology of knee osteoarthritis, in particular via procatabolic and proinflammatory effects on its synovial lining. Finally, in patients with knee osteoarthritis, inflammation of the IFP may be a source of pain. PMID:27068617

  10. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  11. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  12. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS--USE OF RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF A MINERALIZED YOLK SAC IN A BROWN KIWI (APTERYX MANTELLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett

    2015-01-01

    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization. PMID:25199884

  13. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BLACK SEA CYSTOSEIRA BARBATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Panayotova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Cystoseira barbata is the most widely distributed seaweed in the Black Sea. There is limited information about fat soluble vitamins content and fatty acids composition of this specie from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The aim of this study was to determine fat soluble vitamins, pigments, total lipid and fatty acid composition of Cystoseira barbata. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin E and D, pigments (β-carotene and astaxanthin and total cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC/UV/FL system equipped with RP analytical column. Sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata contained high amounts of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Lipids were extracted by following the method of Bligh and Dyer. The residual lipid fraction was methylated using base-catalyzed transmethylation with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Cystoseira barbata was rich in linoleic (C18:2n6 and eicosopentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 although total lipid content was generally low. High levels of α-tocopherol correlate with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. As an antioxidant α-tocopherol preserves tissue PUFA from oxidation.

  14. [Renal ultrasound in fat necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizki, S; Lasry, F; Elftoiki, F Z; Hadj Khalifa, H; Itri, M; Khadir, K; Benchikhi, H

    2013-07-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis is an uncommon disease that may be complicated with potentially fatal hypercalcemia or with nephrocalcinosis. We report on the case of a patient with a history of significant perinatal asphyxia, hospitalized for a urinary tract infection. Lesions of subcutaneous fat necrosis were noted, with asymptomatic hypercalcemia at 3.9mmol/L. A renal ultrasound was performed and showed echogenic medullary pyramids bilaterally, consistent with nephrocalcinosis and left nephrolithiasis. The treatment of hypercalcemia included hyperhydration, a diuretic and corticosteroids. Progression was characterized by the total regression of skin lesions and normalization of serum calcium. Hypercalcemia is a rare complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis. It develops within days to weeks after the appearance of skin lesions. Nephrocalcinosis appears after several weeks or months. Hypercalcemia must be treated in due time to avoid the impact on the kidney. PMID:23726682

  15. Inflammatory and Metabolic Alterations of Kager's Fat Pad in Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Petersen, M Christine H; Fredberg, Ulrich;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achilles tendinopathy is a painful inflammatory condition characterized by swelling, stiffness and reduced function of the Achilles tendon. Kager's fat pad is an adipose tissue located in the area anterior to the Achilles tendon. Observations reveal a close physical interplay between...... Kager's fat pad and its surrounding structures during movement of the ankle, suggesting that Kager's fat pad may stabilize and protect the mechanical function of the ankle joint. AIM: The aim of this study was to characterize whether Achilles tendinopathy was accompanied by changes in expression of...... inflammatory markers and metabolic enzymes in Kager's fat pad. METHODS: A biopsy was taken from Kager's fat pad from 31 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and from 13 healthy individuals. Gene expression was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Focus was on genes related to inflammation...

  16. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  17. Browns Park NWR Water Use Report- 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Browns Park NWR for 2001 and 2002. A basic introduction highlighting the region that Browns Park NWR is a part of...

  18. Estimation of genetic parameters for individual udder quarter milk content traits in Brown Swiss cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M; Erbe, M; Bapst, B; Bieber, A; Simianer, H

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and accuracies of breeding values for milk content traits of individual udder quarters in Brown Swiss cattle. Data of 1,799 phenotyped cows from 40 Swiss dairy herds were analyzed, taking the complete pedigree into account. Fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents, somatic cell score (SCS), and information about hyperkeratosis were available for each udder quarter. The milk of rear udder quarters was found to have significantly higher lactose content and significantly lower fat content than milk of the front udder quarters. The same trend found for fat content was observed for protein content, whereas no differences between the udder quarters were observed for urea content, SCS, or hyperkeratosis. Heritabilities for each udder quarter were in the following ranges: fat content 0.09±0.06 to 0.14±0.06, protein content 0.20±0.09 to 0.33±0.07, lactose content 0.04±0.03 to 0.16±0.07, urea content 0.13±0.07 to 0.22±0.08, SCS 0.18±0.06 to 0.32±0.07, and hyperkeratosis 0.12±0.04 to 0.26±0.05. In our study, hyperkeratosis, protein content, and SCS showed higher heritabilities in the front udder quarters, fat content had higher heritabilities in the rear udder quarters, and no systematic pattern in heritability was observed for lactose content or urea content. Additive genetic correlations between all udder quarters were >0.90 for protein and urea contents, whereas they were remarkably low (traits (lactose content: 0.33±0.05, protein content: 0.53±0.05). Some of these findings can be explained by differences in the physiological background of the traits. PMID:23871376

  19. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid. PMID:26213057

  20. Responsiveness to Thyroid Hormone and to Ambient Temperature Underlies Differences Between Brown Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Thermogenesis in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ueta, Cintia B; Olivares, Emerson L.; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone accelerates energy expenditure (EE) and is critical for cold-induced thermogenesis. To define the metabolic role played by thyroid hormone in the dissipation of calories from diet, hypothyroid mice were studied for 60 d in a comprehensive lab animal monitoring system. Hypothyroidism decreased caloric intake and body fat while down-regulating genes in the skeletal muscle but not brown adipose tissue thermogenic programs, without affecting daily EE. Only at thermoneutrality (30 ...

  1. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue in Obese C57BL/6J Mice Using iTRAQ-Coupled 2D LC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Wei-Gang; Shen, Zhu-Fang; Yuan, Tao; Liu, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Quan; Fu, Yong; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) leads to the development of obesity accompanied by insulin resistance, which increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an essential role in energy metabolism, thus it will give us promising treatment targets through elucidating underlying mechanisms of BAT in obesity. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD or normal diet (ND) for 22 weeks. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed to evaluate...

  2. Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Thorsten; Scheibler, Saskia; von Kügelgen, Ivar;

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy expenditure, making it a potential target for anti-obesity therapies. Following exposure to cold, BAT is activated by the sympathetic nervous system with concomitant release of catecholamines and activation of β-adrenergic receptors. Because BAT...... that adenosine-A2A signalling plays an unexpected physiological role in sympathetic BAT activation and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. Those findings reveal new possibilities for developing novel obesity therapies....

  3. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Lima e Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures or plastic surgery (liposuction, compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. CASE REPORT: SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45 min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH = 7.21; PCO2 = 51 mmHg; PO2 = 52 mmHg; BE = -8; HCO3 = 18 mEq L-1, and lactate = 6.0 mmol L-1. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP = 55 mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF = 60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24 h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale = 3. A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72 h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. CONCLUSION: Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction. The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis.

  4. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...

  5. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear Ursus arctos from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  6. Black-Brown Relations: Are Alliances Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klor de Alva, J. Jorge; West, Cornel

    1997-01-01

    Dialogue between Cornel West and Jorge Klor de Alva explores the question of black-brown alliances, those between African Americans and Hispanic Americans. If minority groups can put aside the difference of skin color and join to combat economic and social racism, they can have far-reaching and meaningful impacts on society. (SLD)

  7. From a Brown to a Green Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    instruments such as taxes and subsidies. In this way, renewable energy sources and green industries become more competitive, thus enhancing the transition from brown to green economy. Not only can these economic incentives accelerate the so-called switch point in time from fossil fuel–based energy sources to...

  8. The White, the Brite and the Brown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lone Møller

    development, also termed adipocyte differentiation, and the role played by adipocytes in wholebody energy metabolism is therefore of utmost importance. Mammals harbour two general types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) that carry out essentially opposite functions...

  9. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  10. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  11. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Ferramosca; Annalea Conte; Vincenzo Zara

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated...

  12. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther; Jess, Tine; Berentzen, Tina; Toubro, Søren; Hansen, Torben; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in...

  13. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth;

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or...

  14. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  15. Características da carcaça de bovinos de quatro grupos genéticos submetidos a dietas com ou sem adição de gordura protegida Carcass characteristics of bovines from four genetic groups fed diets with or without protected fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Maria Palma Luz Jaeger

    2004-12-01

    and fed diet with and without protected fat for 166 days, were slaughtered. A completely randomized design, with four replicates, following a factorial scheme of 2 x 4 (diet, genetic group, was used. The effect of genetic group was observed on the prime cuts yield and the group NA presented the greatest yield means of the hindquarter (41.65% and spare ribs (13.90% and the group LN presented a greater yield of forequarter (47.40%. The loin eye area (AOL was affected by the diet, showing means of 81.31 cm² vs. 88.50 cm² in the diets without and with protected fat, respectively. The physical composition of the carcass was affected by the genetic group, and the group LN showed the greatest percentage of muscle (63.62% and the lowest percentage of fat tissue (21.65%, while the group Nellore showed the greatest percentage of fat tissue (28.28% and the lowest percentage of muscle (56.76%. The chemical composition of the HH section was affected by the genetic group, and the greatest contents of crude protein were observed in the groups LN (27.24% and CN (26.10%, and the ether extract in the group Nellore (68.35%, that did not differ form the AN (68.02%. The lowest contents of Ca, P and Mg (2.62; 1.32 and 0.081% were observed in the group Nellore.

  16. Hump behind the shoulders (Dorsocervical fat pad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalo hump; Dorsocervical fat pad ... Cause of dorsocervical fat pad includes any of the following: Certain medicines used to treat HIV or AIDS Long-term use of certain glucocorticoid medicines, ...

  17. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  18. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism. PMID:26301251

  19. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  20. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:23578611

  1. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta, Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane La Barre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.

  2. Breast Augmentation With Autologous Fat Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fa-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autologous fat transplantation has attracted great interest in breast augmentation for cosmetic purpose. In the present study, we reported our experience in fat grafting in breast in 105 cases, and some detailed procedure concerning efficacy and safety of grafting was evaluated. Methods Fat was harvested using 20-mL syringe attached to a 3-hole blunt cannula in a diameter not beyond 3 mm. After washing with cool normal saline to remove blood, the fat was managed with open method ...

  3. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  4. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  5. The great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger as a good model for cold-induced browning of intra-abdominal white adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inducing beige fat from white adipose tissue (WAT is considered to be a shortcut to weight loss and increasingly becoming a key area in research into treatments for obesity and related diseases. However, currently, animal models of beige fat are restricted to rodents, where subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT, benign WAT is more liable to develop into the beige fat under specific activators than the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (aWAT, malignant WAT that is the major source of obesity related diseases in humans. METHODS: Here we induced beige fat by cold exposure in two species of bats, the great roundleaf bat (Hipposideros armiger and the rickett's big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti, and compared the molecular and morphological changes with those seen in the mouse. Expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp1 and Pgc1a was measured by RT-qPCR and adipocyte morphology examined by HE staining at three adipose locations, sWAT, aWAT and iBAT (interscapular brown adipose tissue. RESULTS: Expression of Ucp1 and Pgc1a was significantly upregulated, by 729 and 23 fold, respectively, in aWAT of the great roundleaf bat after exposure to 10°C for 7 days. Adipocyte diameters of WATs became significantly reduced and the white adipocytes became brown-like in morphology. In mice, similar changes were found in the sWAT, but much lower amounts of changes in aWAT were seen. Interestingly, the rickett's big-footed bat did not show such a tendency in beige fat. CONCLUSIONS: The great roundleaf bat is potentially a good animal model for human aWAT browning research. Combined with rodent models, this model should be helpful for finding therapies for reducing harmful aWAT in humans.

  6. Fat tissue, aging, and cellular senescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchkonia, T.; Morbeck, D.E.; Zglinicki, T. von; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Lustgarten, J.; Scrable, H.; Khosla, S.; Jensen, M.D.; Kirkland, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Fat tissue, frequently the largest organ in humans, is at the nexus of mechanisms involved in longevity and age-related metabolic dysfunction. Fat distribution and function change dramatically throughout life. Obesity is associated with accelerated onset of diseases common in old age, while fat abla

  7. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness.

  8. Fucoidan alleviates high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE(shl) mice deficient in apolipoprotein E expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Takashi; Nomura, Koichi; Nagashima, Mikio; Kamimura, Naomi

    2016-06-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, possesses many biological activities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of fucoidan on dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (ApoE(shl) mice) and to elucidate its molecular targets in the liver by using a transcriptomic approach. For 12weeks, ApoE(shl) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with either 1% or 5% fucoidan. Fucoidan supplementation significantly reduced tissue weight (liver and white adipose tissue), blood lipid, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and glucose levels in HFD-fed ApoE(shl) mice but increased plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and HDL-C levels. Fucoidan also reduced hepatic steatosis levels (liver size, TC and TG levels, and lipid peroxidation) and increased white adipose tissue LPL activity. DNA microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated differential expression of genes encoding proteins involved in lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, by activating Ppara and inactivating Srebf1. Fucoidan supplementation markedly reduced the thickness of the lipid-rich plaque, lipid peroxidation and foaming macrophage accumulation in the aorta in HFD-fed ApoE(shl) mice. Thus, fucoidan supplementation appears to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects by inducing LPL activity and inhibiting the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress in HFD-fed ApoE(shl) mice. PMID:27142736

  9. The Molecular Signature of HIV-1-Associated Lipomatosis Reveals Differential Involvement of Brown and Beige/Brite Adipocyte Cell Lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Cereijo

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy has remarkably improved quality of life of HIV-1-infected patients. However, this treatment has been associated with the so-called lipodystrophic syndrome, which conveys a number of adverse metabolic effects and morphological alterations. Among them, lipoatrophy of subcutaneous fat in certain anatomical areas and hypertrophy of visceral depots are the most common. Less frequently, lipomatous enlargements of subcutaneous fat at distinct anatomic areas occur. Lipomatous adipose tissue in the dorso-cervical area ("buffalo hump" has been associated with a partial white-to-brown phenotype transition and with increased cell proliferation, but, to date, lipomatous enlargements arising in other parts of the body have not been characterized. In order to establish the main molecular events associated with the appearance of lipomatosis in HIV-1 patients, we analyzed biopsies of lipomatous tissue from "buffalo hump" and from other anatomical areas in patients, in comparison with healthy subcutaneous adipose tissue, using a marker gene expression approach. Both buffalo-hump and non-buffalo-hump lipomatous adipose tissues exhibited similar patterns of non-compromised adipogenesis, unaltered inflammation, non-fibrotic phenotype and proliferative activity. Shorter telomere length, prelamin A accumulation and SA-β-Gal induction, reminiscent of adipocyte senescence, were also common to both types of lipomatous tissues. Buffalo hump biopsies showed expression of marker genes of brown adipose tissue (e.g. UCP1 and, specifically, of "classical" brown adipocytes (e.g. ZIC1 but not of beige/brite adipocytes. No such brown fat-related gene expression occurred in lipomatous tissues at other anatomical sites. In conclusion, buffalo hump and other subcutaneous adipose tissue enlargements from HIV-1-infected patients share a similar lipomatous character. However, a distorted induction of white-to-"classical brown adipocyte" phenotype

  10. 'Low-dose' corticosteroid prophylaxis against fat embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, J; Lewis, M; Zaltzman, M; Feldman, C; Orford, A; Zwi, S

    1987-10-01

    The effect of 'low-dose' corticosteroids (9 mg/kg methylprednisolone), given after skeletal trauma, on the incidence of the fat embolism syndrome and isolated arterial hypoxemia was studied in 42 controls and 40 steroid-treated subjects. Fat embolism occurred in ten controls (23.8%) and one steroid-treated subject (2.5%) (p = 0.01). A further 44 subjects developed isolated hypoxemia. This was severe (PaO2 less than 50 mm Hg) in seven of 32 controls (21.9%) and one of 39 steroid-treated subjects (2.6%) (p = 0.01). The overall incidence of hypoxemia was 67.1%, affecting 33 controls (78.6%) and 22 steroid-treated patients (55%) (p less than 0.05). The degree of hypoxemia was severe (PaO2 less than 50 mm Hg) in 12 controls (28.6%) and two (5%) of the steroid-treated subjects (p = 0.005). No control subject died or required mechanical ventilation. One steroid-treated subject without fat embolism died of a fulminant infection. Although methylprednisolone in a relatively low dose provides protection against fat embolism and pulmonary dysfunction after skeletal trauma, the safety of this therapy requires further evaluation. PMID:3312625

  11. Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Keshava Munegowda; Dr. G T Raju; Veera Maninkandanraju

    2014-01-01

    The File Allocation Table (FAT) file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS). Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD) and Hard disk Drives (HDD). The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT) to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontroll...

  12. The Study on Correlation Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IGF2 Gene and Body Fatness Traits in Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hui; LI Hui; WANG Qi-gui; ZHAO Jian-guo; WANG Yu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor Ⅱ has profound effects on the growth and differentiation of animal embryo. Some researches indicated that it affects the fat metabolism of poultry.This study was designed to investigate the effect of IGF2 on chicken fatness traits.Broiler, Hyline Brown layer and three native breeds (Shiqiza, Beijing You, Baier) were used in this research. Body weight and body composition traits were measured in broiler line at the age of 7 weeks. Primers for exon2 in IGF2 were designed from database of chicken genomic sequence. Polymorphisms were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing.The total χ2 test results showed that there was a significant difference (P< 0.01) in the frequency of genotype among breeds. A C/G mutation at base position 139 was found among individuals in broiler line and the least square analysis showed that BB genotype birds had significant lower (P< 0.05) abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat than AA or AB genotype birds. From the results we can conclude putatively that IGF2 gene is the major gene affecting the fatness traits of chicken or it links with the major gene,and the mutation could be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chicken for low abdominal fat.

  13. Spontaneous physical activity protects against fat mass gain

    OpenAIRE

    Teske, Jennifer A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear whether elevated spontaneous physical activity (SPA, very low-intensity physical activity) positively influences body composition long-term. Objective We determined whether SPA and caloric intake were differentially related to the growth curve trajectories of body weight, FM and FFM between obesity resistant and Sprague-Dawley rats at specific age intervals. Design and Subjects Body composition, SPA and caloric intake were measured in selectively-bred obesity resistant and out-b...

  14. Use of Extrusion Technology and Fat Replacers to Produce High Protein, Low Fat Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Amrita

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of extrusion technology and fat replacers to produce high protein, low fat Cheddar cheese. In chapter 3, four different fat replacers were tested at the highest concentration level of each, as recommended by the manufacturers for low fat cheese, to investigate the change in cheese texture and optimize extruder conditions. In addition, the press time/pressure combinations of the extruded cheeses were optimized. The fat replacers and extruder conditions that w...

  15. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  16. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. PMID:26566569

  17. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  18. Recommendations related to Browns Ferry Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its review of the events transpiring before, during and after the Browns Ferry fire, the Review Group concludes that the probability of disruptive fires of the magnitude of the Browns Ferry event is small, and that there is no need to restrict operation of nuclear power plants for public safety. However, it is clear that much can and should be done to reduce even further the likelihood of disabling fires and to improve assurance of rapid extinguishment of fires that occur. Consideration should be given also to features that would increase further the ability of nuclear facilities to withstand large fires without loss of important functions should such fires occur. The Review Group believes that improvements, especially in the areas of fire prevention and fire control, can and should be made in most existing facilities

  19. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  20. Low fat meat products - An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naga Mallika

    Full Text Available Meat is an excellent source of valuable nutrients. Meat fat acts as a reservoir for flavor compounds and contributes to the texture of product. There are diverse possible strategies for developing low fat meat and meat products. Reducing the fat content in products leads to a firmer, rubbery, less juicy product with dark color and more cost. Other technological problems like reduction in particle binding, reduced cook yields, soft and mushy interiors, rubbery skin formation, excessive purge and shortened shelf life are also associated with reduction in fat levels. This paper describes Procedured of reducing fat content, Selection of additives, Protein, Carbohydrat and fat based fat replacer and Super critical fluid extraction. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 364-366