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Sample records for brown fat protect

  1. Perspective: Does brown fat protect against diseases of aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly studied laboratory rodents possess a specialized form of fat called brown adipose tissue (BAT) that generates heat to help maintain body temperature in cold environments. In humans, BAT is abundant during embryonic and early postnatal development, but is absent or present in relatively small amounts in adults where it is located in paracervical and supraclavicular regions. BAT cells can 'burn' fatty acid energy substrates to generate heat because they possess large numbers of mitochondria in which oxidative phosphorylation is uncoupled from ATP production as a result of a transmembrane proton leak mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Studies of rodents in which BAT levels are either increased or decreased have revealed a role for BAT in protection against diet-induced obesity. Data suggest that individuals with low levels of BAT are prone to obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, whereas those with higher levels of BAT maintain lower body weights and exhibit superior health as they age. BAT levels decrease during aging, and dietary energy restriction increases BAT activity and protects multiple organ systems including the nervous system against age-related dysfunction and degeneration. Future studies in which the effects of specific manipulations of BAT levels and thermogenic activity on disease processes in animal models (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases) are determined will establish if and how BAT affects the development and progression of age-related diseases. Data from animal studies suggest that BAT and mitochondrial uncoupling can be targeted for interventions to prevent and treat obesity and age-related diseases. Examples include: diet and lifestyle changes; specific regimens of mild intermittent stress; drugs that stimulate BAT formation and activity; induction of brown adipose cell progenitors in muscle and other tissues; and transplantation of brown adipose cells. Copyright 2009

  2. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  3. NFIA co-localizes with PPARγ and transcriptionally controls the brown fat gene program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiraike, Yuta; Waki, Hironori; Yu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Brown fat dissipates energy as heat and protects against obesity. Here, we identified nuclear factor I-A (NFIA) as a transcriptional regulator of brown fat by a genome-wide open chromatin analysis of murine brown and white fat followed by motif analysis of brown-fat-specific open chromatin regions...... results in brown adipocyte differentiation. Conversely, the brown fat of NFIA-knockout mice displays impaired expression of the brown-fat-specific genes and reciprocal elevation of muscle genes. Finally, expression of NFIA and the brown-fat-specific genes is positively correlated in human brown fat...

  4. Development and reproductive performance of beef heifers supplemented with brown rice meal and/or protected fat on temperate grasslands

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    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of energy supplementation was evaluated on the development and reproductive performance of beef heifers on temperate grasslands. Twenty-eight Charolais × Nellore heifers, with initial average age of 18 months and initial live weight of 274.9 kg were utilized. The animals were maintained on oat + ryegrass pasture and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation (NS: heifers kept exclusively on pasture; MEG: supplementation with protected fat Megalac®; BRM: supplementation with brown rice meal; BRM+MEG: supplementation with BRM + protected fat. The average final weight of the heifers was of 403.4 kg and corresponded to 89.5% of the adult weight. The body condition of heifers increased linearly with daily increase of 0.012 points, correlating positively with the final weight. There was interaction between treatment and period for average daily weight gain. The highest daily weight gain, 1.395 kg, occurred in the first period when the animals were supplemented with BRM+MEG. In the last period, the NS animals presented the lowest daily weight gain, 0.888 kg. Supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat does not interfere in the intake of pasture by heifers or increase the total intake of dry matter, not changing, therefore, the average daily weight gain at the end of the period of grazing. The daily weight gain does not change during supplementation. The use of temperate pasture with and without supplementation promotes the proper development of the structure and reproductive tract of heifers, benefiting the animal performance indexes in the first mating at 25-27 months of age.

  5. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

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    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  6. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...... the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, PGC-1α, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however...

  7. The brain and brown fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cristina; Gonzalez, Francisco; Fernø, Johan; Diéguez, Carlos; Rahmouni, Kamal; Nogueiras, Rubén; López, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized organ responsible for thermogenesis, a process required for maintaining body temperature. BAT is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which activates lipolysis and mitochondrial uncoupling in brown adipocytes. For many years, BAT was considered to be important only in small mammals and newborn humans, but recent data have shown that BAT is also functional in adult humans. On the basis of this evidence, extensive research has been focused on BAT function, where new molecules, such as irisin and bone morphogenetic proteins, particularly BMP7 and BMP8B, as well as novel central factors and new regulatory mechanisms, such as orexins and the canonical ventomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK)-SNS-BAT axis, have been discovered and emerged as potential drug targets to combat obesity. In this review we provide an overview of the complex central regulation of BAT and how different neuronal cell populations co-ordinately work to maintain energy homeostasis.

  8. Loss of the tumour suppressor gene AIP mediates the browning of human brown fat tumours.

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    Magnusson, Linda; Hansen, Nils; Saba, Karim H; Nilsson, Jenny; Fioretos, Thoas; Rissler, Pehr; Nord, Karolin H

    2017-10-01

    Human brown fat tumours (hibernomas) show concomitant loss of the tumour suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. We hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributable to these mutations. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumours, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one of 51 lipomas) and in brown fat tumours. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology. We conclude that this white-to-brown phenotype switch in brown fat tumours is mediated by the loss of AIP. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Temperatures rising: brown fat and bone.

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    Motyl, Katherine J; Rosen, Clifford J

    2011-03-01

    Caloric restriction is associated with a reduction in body weight and temperature, as well as a reduction in trabecular bone volume and paradoxically an increase in adipocytes within the bone marrow. The nature of these adipocytes is uncertain, although there is emerging evidence of a direct relationship between bone remodeling and brown adipocytes. For example, in heterotrophic ossification, brown adipocytes set up a hypoxic gradient that leads to vascular invasion, chondrocyte differentiation, and subsequent bone formation. Additionally, deletion of retinoblastoma protein in an osteosarcoma model leads to increased hibernoma (brown fat tumor). Brown adipose tissue (BAT) becomes senescent with age at a time when thermoregulation is altered, bone loss becomes apparent, and sympathetic activity increases. Interestingly, heart rate is an unexpected but good predictor of fracture risk in elderly individuals, pointing to a key role for the sympathetic nervous system in senile osteoporosis. Hence the possibility exists that BAT could play an indirect role in age-related bone loss. However, evidence of an indirect effect from thermogenic dysfunction on bone loss is currently limited. Here, we present current evidence for a relationship between brown adipose tissue and bone as well as provide novel insights into the effects of thermoregulation on bone mineral density.

  10. Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hun Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.

  11. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents

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    Giulia Ferrannini

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Rodent genetic background determines the brown remodeling of different white fat depots. This study provides new insights into the role of genetic variation in fat remodeling in susceptibility to metabolic diseases.

  12. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

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    Gianluca Iacobellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., for both. Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (, , vanilly mandelic acid (VMA (, , and serum adiponectin levels (, . Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased ( μg/mL versus  μg/mL, after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1 BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2 expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3 catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA.

  13. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrannini, Giulia; Namwanje, Maria; Fang, Bin; Damle, Manashree; Li, Dylan; Liu, Qiongming; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Qiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Genetic background largely contributes to the complexity of metabolic responses and dysfunctions. Induction of brown adipose features in white fat, known as brown remodeling, has been appreciated as a promising strategy to offset the positive energy balance in obesity and further to improve metabolism. Here we address the effects of genetic background on this process. Methods: We investigated browning remodeling in a depot-specific manner by comparing the response of C57BL/6J, 1...

  14. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrannini, Giulia; Namwanje, Maria; Fang, Bin; Damle, Manashree; Li, Dylan; Liu, Qiongming; Lazar, Mitchell A; Qiang, Li

    2016-10-01

    Genetic background largely contributes to the complexity of metabolic responses and dysfunctions. Induction of brown adipose features in white fat, known as brown remodeling, has been appreciated as a promising strategy to offset the positive energy balance in obesity and further to improve metabolism. Here we address the effects of genetic background on this process. We investigated browning remodeling in a depot-specific manner by comparing the response of C57BL/6J, 129/Sv and FVB/NJ mouse strains to cold. Surprisingly, 129/Sv and FVB/NJ mice showed distinct brown remodeling features despite their similar resistance to metabolic disorders in comparison to the obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. FVB/NJ mice demonstrated a preference of brown remodeling in inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (iWAT), whereas 129/Sv mice displayed robust brown remodeling in visceral epididymal fat (eWAT). We further compared gene expression in different depots by RNA-sequencing and identified Hoxc10 as a novel "brake" of brown remodeling in iWAT. Rodent genetic background determines the brown remodeling of different white fat depots. This study provides new insights into the role of genetic variation in fat remodeling in susceptibility to metabolic diseases.

  15. Mir193b-365 is essential for brown fat differentiation.

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    Sun, Lei; Xie, Huangming; Mori, Marcelo A; Alexander, Ryan; Yuan, Bingbing; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Liu, Qingqing; Kahn, C Ronald; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-07-10

    Mammals have two principal types of fat. White adipose tissue primarily serves to store extra energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defence against cold and obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that brown adipocytes arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic progenitor by the action of Prdm16 (PR domain containing 16). Here, we identified a brown-fat-enriched miRNA cluster, MiR-193b-365, as a key regulator of brown fat development. Blocking miR-193b and/or miR-365 in primary brown preadipocytes markedly impaired brown adipocyte adipogenesis by enhancing Runx1t1 (runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1) expression, whereas myogenic markers were significantly induced. Forced expression of Mir193b and/or Mir365 in C2C12 myoblasts blocked the entire programme of myogenesis, and, in adipogenic conditions, miR-193b induced myoblasts to differentiate into brown adipocytes. Mir193b-365 was upregulated by Prdm16 partially through Pparα. Our results demonstrate that Mir193b-365 serves as an essential regulator for brown fat differentiation, in part by repressing myogenesis.

  16. Ouabain-sensitive component of brown fat thermogenesis.

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    Horwitz, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The study discussed was undertaken to quantify the amount of energy utilized by the ouabain-sensitive Na(+)-K(+) membrane pump during the norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue. The data obtained indicate that the observed inhibition of the catecholamine-induced increase in brown fat thermogenesis by ouabain does not reflect an inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis.

  17. Browning of White Fat: Novel Insight Into Factors, Mechanisms, and Therapeutics.

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    Jeremic, Nevena; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2017-01-01

    What is more interesting about brown adipose tissue (BAT) is its ability to provide thermogenesis, protection against obesity by clearing triglycerides, releasing batokines, and mitigating insulin resistance. White adipose tissue (WAT) on the other hand stores excess energy and secretes some endocrine factors like leptin for regulating satiety. For the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the browning of fat keeping in view its beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and protection in the form of perivascular fat. Obesity is one such metabolic disorder that leads to significant morbidity and mortality from obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease risk. Browning of white fat paves the way to restrict obesity and obesity related disorders. Although exercise has been the most common factor for fat browning; however, there are other factors that involve: (1) beta aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA); (2) gamma amino butyric acid (GABA); (3) PPARɣ agonists; (4) JAK inhibition; and (5) IRISIN. In this review, we propose two novel factors musclin and TFAM for fat browning. Musclin a myokine released from muscles during exercise activates PPARɣ which induces browning of WAT that has beneficial metabolic and cardiac effects. TFAM is a transcription factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Since BAT is rich in mitochondria, higher expression of TFAM in WAT or TFAM treatment in WAT cells can induce browning of WAT. We propose that fat browning can be used as a therapeutic tool for metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 61-68, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. MiR-193b-365, a brown fat enriched microRNA cluster, is essential for brown fat differentiation

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    Sun, Lei; Xie, Huangming; Mori, Marcelo A; Alexander, Ryan; Yuan, Bingbing; Hattangadi, Shilpa M.; Liu, Qingqing; Kahn, C. Ronald; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2011-01-01

    Mammals have two principal types of fat. White adipose tissue (WAT) primarily serves to store extra energy as triglycerides, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation and energy expenditure as a defense against cold and obesity 1, 2. Recent studies demonstrate that brown adipocytes arise in vivo from a Myf5-positive, myoblastic progenitor by the action of Prdm16 (PR domain containing 16). Here, we identified a brown fat-enriched miRNA cluster, miR-193b-365, as a key regulator of brown fat development. Blocking miR-193b and/or miR-365 in primary brown preadipocytes dramatically impaired brown adipocyte adipogenesis by enhancing Runx1t1 (runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1) expression whereas myogenic markers were significantly induced. Forced expression of miR-193b and/or miR-365 in C2C12 myoblasts blocked the entire program of myogenesis, and, in adipogenic condition, miR-193b induced myoblasts to differentiate into brown adipocytes. MiR-193b-365 was upregulated by Prdm16 partially through Pparα. Our results demonstrate that miR-193b-365 serves as an essential regulator for brown fat differentiation, in part by repressing myogenesis. PMID:21743466

  19. The brown fat-enriched secreted factor Nrg4 preserves metabolic homeostasis through attenuating hepatic lipogenesis

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    Meng, Zhuo-Xian; Kern, Matthias; Dietrich, Arne; Chen, Zhimin; Cozacov, Zoharit; Zhou, Dequan; Okunade, Adewole L.; Su, Xiong; Li, Siming; Blüher, Matthias; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2014-01-01

    Brown fat activates uncoupled respiration to defend against cold and contributes to systemic metabolic homeostasis. To date, the metabolic action of brown fat has been primarily attributed to its role in fuel oxidation and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated thermogenesis. Whether brown fat engages other tissues through secreted factors remains largely unexplored. Here we show that Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), a member of the EGF family of extracellular ligands, is highly expressed in adipose tissues, enriched in brown fat, and markedly increased during brown adipocyte differentiation. Adipose tissue Nrg4 expression was reduced in rodent and human obesity. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in mice demonstrated that Nrg4 protects against diet-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through attenuating hepatic lipogenic signaling. Mechanistically, Nrg4 activates ErbB3/ErbB4 signaling in hepatocytes and negatively regulates de novo lipogenesis mediated by LXR/SREBP1c in a cell-autonomous manner. These results establish Nrg4 as a brown fat-enriched endocrine factor with therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders, including type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25401691

  20. How brown is brown fat that we can see?

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    Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2014-04-01

    There are many unanswered questions related to the heterogeneity of adipose tissue depots and the paucity of their function, development, and organization at the cellular level. Much effort has been directed at studying white adipose tissue (WAT), the driver of obesity and the associated metabolic disease. In recent years, the importance of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has also been appreciated. While BAT depots are prominent in many small mammal species, their detection in adult humans has been technically challenging and the identity of brown human adipocytes found within depots of WAT has remained controversial. We recently reported a peptide probe that binds to BAT vasculature and, when coupled with a near-infrared fluorophore, can be used to detect BAT in whole body imaging. This probe reliably discriminates between endothelium associated with brown or brown-like (beige/brite) adipocytes and endothelium of visceral WAT. Improved probes based on this approach could aid in assessing human adipose tissue body distribution and remodeling, which is a process underlying various pathologies. This commentary aims at discussing open questions that need to be addressed before full clinical advantage can be taken from adipose tissue imaging, as well as its metabolic activation strategies.

  1. The "Skinny" on brown fat, obesity, and bone.

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    Devlin, Maureen J

    2015-02-01

    The discovery that metabolically active brown fat is present in humans throughout ontogeny raises new questions about the interactions between thermoregulatory, metabolic, and skeletal homeostasis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is distinct from white adipose tissue (WAT) for its ability to burn, rather than store, energy. BAT uniquely expresses uncoupling protein-1 (abbreviated as UCP1), which diverts the energy produced by cellular respiration to generate heat. While BAT is found in small mammals, hibernators, and newborns, this depot was thought to regress in humans during early postnatal life. Recent studies revealed that human BAT remains metabolically active throughout childhood and even in adulthood, particularly in response to cold exposure. In addition to the constitutive BAT depots present at birth, BAT cells can be induced within WAT depots under specific metabolic and climatic conditions. These cells, called inducible brown fat, "brite," or beige fat, are currently the focus of intense investigation as a possible treatment for obesity. Inducible brown fat is associated with higher bone mineral density, suggesting that brown fat interacts with bone growth in previously unrecognized ways. Finally, BAT may have contributed to climatic adaptation in hominins. Here, I review current findings on the role of BAT in thermoregulation, bone growth, and metabolism, describe the potential role of BAT in moderating the obesity epidemic, and outline possible functions of BAT across hominin evolutionary history. © 2014 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  2. The Genetics of Brown Adipocyte Induction in White Fat Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie P. Kozak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that adult humans have functional brown adipose tissue has stirred interest in the possibility that the impressive effectiveness of induction of brown adipocytes to reduce obesity in mice may be translated to the human condition. A major focus recently on the identification of signaling and transcription factor that stimulate the induction of brown adipocytes has come from transgenic and gene KO models. However, these models have created a very complex picture of the regulatory mechanisms for brown fat induction. In this review insights into the critical regulatory pathways involved in brown adipocyte induction in the retroperitoneal fat depot of mice are described from quantitative trait locus analysis of allelic variability determining Ucp1 levels and brown adipocyte induction in A/J vs B6 mice. The key observation is that recombinant genotypes, found in recombinant inbred stains and backcross and intercross progeny , show transgressive variation for Ucp1 mRNA levels. These genetic crosses also show that the levels of Ucp1 mRNA are determined by interactions that control the levels of PPARα, PGC-1α and type 2 deiodinase and that each factor is controlled by a subset of QTLs that also control Ucp1expression. These results indicate that induction of Ucp1 in the retroperitoneal fat depot involves synergy between signaling and transcription factors that vary depending upon the environmental conditions. Inherent in this model is the idea that there is a high level of redundancy that can involve any factor with the potential to influence expression of the core factors, PPARα, PGC-1a and DIO2.

  3. miRNA-32 Drives Brown Fat Thermogenesis and Trans-activates Subcutaneous White Fat Browning in Mice.

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    Ng, Raymond; Hussain, Nurul Attiqah; Zhang, Qiongyi; Chang, Chengwei; Li, Hongyu; Fu, Yanyun; Cao, Lei; Han, Weiping; Stunkel, Walter; Xu, Feng

    2017-05-09

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and subcutaneous white fat browning are essential components of the thermogenic response to cold stimulus in mammals. microRNAs have been shown to regulate both processes in cis. Here, we identify miR-32 as a BAT-specific super-enhancer-associated miRNA in mice that is selectively expressed in BAT and further upregulated during cold exposure. Inhibiting miR-32 in vivo led to impaired cold tolerance, decreased BAT thermogenesis, and compromised white fat browning as a result of reduced serum FGF21 levels. Further examination showed that miR-32 directly represses its target gene Tob1, thereby activating p38 MAP kinase signaling to drive FGF21 expression and secretion from BAT. BAT-specific miR-32 overexpression led to increased BAT thermogenesis and serum FGF21 levels, which further promotes white fat browning in trans. Our results suggested miR-32 and Tob1 as modulators of FGF21 signaling that can be manipulated for therapeutic benefit against obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Feeding the heat on brown fat.

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    Sellayah, Dyan; Sikder, Devanjan

    2013-10-01

    Nutrition plays a dominant role in human adaptation. Biological traits conferring these adaptations are of considerable significance. Within an obesogenic environment, there is considerable variation among individuals in their susceptibility to weight gain. Some individuals rapidly gain weight, whereas others remain lean without any conscious effort, suggesting that obesity pathogenesis may not be centered on just the primal feeding behavior. The ability of certain individuals to subconsciously resist obesity reveals adaptive calorie-burning mechanisms that may promote fitness. Here, we review a fat-burning mechanism that is turned on by the brain hormone orexin during high-caloric food consumption. Remarkably, the same hormone also induces feeding, and its levels correlate with lean body mass in both rodents and humans. Intriguingly, loss of orexin prevents thermogenic energy expenditure while inducing obesity in the face of hypophagia. Thus, orexin is a unique neuropeptide that promotes both feeding and energy expenditure, conferring resistance to weight gain. Mechanisms that safely augment orexin signaling may have potential in antiobesity therapeutics. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Ubc9 Impairs Activation of the Brown Fat Energy Metabolism Program in Human White Adipocytes.

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    Hartig, Sean M; Bader, David A; Abadie, Kathleen V; Motamed, Massoud; Hamilton, Mark P; Long, Weiwen; York, Brian; Mueller, Michaela; Wagner, Martin; Trauner, Michael; Chan, Lawrence; Bajaj, Mandeep; Moore, David D; Mancini, Michael A; McGuire, Sean E

    2015-09-01

    Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) result from an inability to efficiently store and catabolize surplus energy in adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipocytes protect against insulin resistance and T2DM by coupling differentiation with the induction of brown fat gene programs for efficient energy metabolism. Mechanisms that disrupt these programs in adipocytes are currently poorly defined, but represent therapeutic targets for the treatment of T2DM. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we performed a high-throughput microscopy screen that identified ubiquitin carrier protein 9 (Ubc9) as a negative regulator of energy storage in human sc adipocytes. Ubc9 depletion enhanced energy storage and induced the brown fat gene program in human sc adipocytes. Induction of adipocyte differentiation resulted in decreased Ubc9 expression commensurate with increased brown fat gene expression. Thiazolidinedione treatment reduced the interaction between Ubc9 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, suggesting a mechanism by which Ubc9 represses PPARγ activity. In support of this hypothesis, Ubc9 overexpression remodeled energy metabolism in human sc adipocytes by selectively inhibiting brown adipocyte-specific function. Further, Ubc9 overexpression decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression by disrupting PPARγ binding at a critical uncoupling protein 1 enhancer region. Last, Ubc9 is significantly elevated in sc adipose tissue isolated from mouse models of insulin resistance as well as diabetic and insulin-resistant humans. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a critical role for Ubc9 in the regulation of sc adipocyte energy homeostasis.

  6. Metabolic regulation and the anti-obesity perspectives of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    and differentiation of brown fat progenitors. Increasing human BAT capacity could thus include inducing brown fat biogenesis as well as identifying novel batokines. Another attractive approach would be to induce a brown fat phenotype, the so-called brite or beige fat, within the white fat depots. In adult humans......Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans increase glucose and fatty acid clearance as well as resting metabolic rate, whereas a prolonged elevation of BAT activity improves insulin sensitivity. However, substantial reductions in body weight following BAT activation has not yet been...... shown in humans. This observation raise the possibility for feedback mechanisms in adult humans in terms of a brown fat-brain crosstalk, possibly mediated by batokines, factors produced by and secreted from brown fat. Batokines also seems to be involved in BAT recruitment by stimulating proliferation...

  7. Capsinoids and related food ingredients activating brown fat thermogenesis and reducing body fat in humans.

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    Saito, Masayuki; Yoneshiro, Takeshi

    2013-02-01

    Capsaicin and its nonpungent analog (capsinoids) are known to be food ingredients that increase energy expenditure and decrease body fat. This article reviews the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) for the thermogenic effect of these compounds in humans and proposes the possibility of some other antiobesity food ingredients. A single oral ingestion of capsinoids increases energy expenditure in human individuals with metabolically active BAT, but not those without it, indicating that capsinoids activate BAT and thereby increase energy expenditure. This finding gave a rational explanation for discrepant results of the effects of capsinoids in the previous studies. Human BAT may be largely composed of inducible 'beige' adipocytes more than typical brown adipocytes because its gene expression patterns are similar to beige cells isolated from murine white fat depots. In fact, preadipocytes isolated from supraclavicular fat deposits - where BAT is often detected - are capable of differentiating into brown-like adipocytes in vitro, providing evidence of inducible brown adipogenesis in adult humans. As human BAT may be inducible, a prolonged ingestion of capsinoids would recruit active BAT and thereby increase energy expenditure and decrease body fat. In addition to capsinoids, there are numerous food ingredients that are expected to activate BAT and so be useful for the prevention of obesity in daily life.

  8. The brown fat-enriched secreted factor Nrg4 preserves metabolic homeostasis through attenuation of hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Xiao; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Meng, Zhuo-Xian; Kern, Matthias; Dietrich, Arne; Chen, Zhimin; Cozacov, Zoharit; Zhou, Dequan; Okunade, Adewole L; Su, Xiong; Li, Siming; Blüher, Matthias; Lin, Jiandie D

    2014-12-01

    Brown fat activates uncoupled respiration in response to cold temperature and contributes to systemic metabolic homeostasis. To date, the metabolic action of brown fat has been primarily attributed to its role in fuel oxidation and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated thermogenesis. Whether brown fat engages other tissues through secreted factors remains largely unexplored. Here we show that neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of extracellular ligands, is highly expressed in adipose tissues, enriched in brown fat and markedly increased during brown adipocyte differentiation. Adipose tissue Nrg4 expression was reduced in rodent and human obesity. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in mice demonstrated that Nrg4 protects against diet-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through attenuating hepatic lipogenic signaling. Mechanistically, Nrg4 activates ErbB3 and ErbB4 signaling in hepatocytes and negatively regulates de novo lipogenesis mediated by LXR and SREBP1c in a cell-autonomous manner. These results establish Nrg4 as a brown fat-enriched endocrine factor with therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders, including type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

  9. Browning and graying: novel transcriptional regulators of brown and beige fat tissues and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMueller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of a number of metabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery that brown and beige fat cells exist in adult humans and contribute to energy expenditure, increasing interest has been devoted to the understanding of the molecular switches turning on calorie utilization. It has been reported that the ability of thermogenic tissues to burn energy declines during aging, possibly contributing to the development of metabolic dysfunction late in life. This review will focus on the recently identified transcriptional modulators of brown and beige cells and will discuss the potential impact of some of these thermogenic factors on age-associated metabolic disorders.

  10. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  11. Duodenal lipid sensing activates vagal afferents to regulate non-shivering brown fat thermogenesis in rats.

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    Clémence Blouet

    Full Text Available Previous evidence indicates that duodenal lipid sensing engages gut-brain neurocircuits to determine food intake and hepatic glucose production, but a potential role for gut-brain communication in the control of energy expenditure remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that duodenal lipid sensing activates a gut-brain-brown adipose tissue neuraxis to regulate thermogenesis. We demonstrate that direct administration of lipids into the duodenum increases brown fat temperature. Co-infusion of the local anesthetic tetracaine with duodenal lipids abolished the lipid-induced increase in brown fat temperature. Systemic administration of the CCKA receptor antagonist devazepide blocked the ability of duodenal lipids to increase brown fat thermogenesis. Parenchymal administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker MK-801 directly into the caudomedial nucleus of the solitary tract also abolished duodenal lipid-induced activation of brown fat thermogenesis. These findings establish that duodenal lipid sensing activates a gut-brain-brown fat axis to determine brown fat temperature, and thereby reveal a previously unappreciated pathway that regulates thermogenesis.

  12. Dynamic regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription during mouse brown fat cell differentiation and recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    ) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white...... precursor cells promotes mitochondrial DNA replication, and that silencing of PRDM16 expression during brown fat cell differentiation blunts mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of brown fat cell markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using both in vitro and in vivo model systems of white and brown fat cell...

  13. Cold-Inducible SIRT6 Regulates Thermogenesis of Brown and Beige Fat

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    Lu Yao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting development and function of brown and beige fat may reduce obesity. Here, we show that fat SIRT6 expression is markedly induced by cold exposure and a β-adrenergic agonist. Deletion of SIRT6 in adipose tissue impairs the thermogenic function of brown adipocytes, causing a morphological “whitening” of brown fat, reduced oxygen (O2 consumption, obesity, decreased core body temperature, and cold sensitivity. Fat SIRT6-deleted mice exhibit increased blood glucose levels, severe insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Moreover, SIRT6 deficiency inhibits the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT following cold exposure or β3-agonist treatment. Depletion of SIRT6 expression in brown adipocytes reduces expression of thermogenic genes, causing a reduction in cellular respiration. Conversely, SIRT6 overexpression in primary fat cells stimulates the thermogenic program. Mechanistically, SIRT6 interacts with and promotes phospho-ATF2 binding to the PGC-1α gene promoter to activate its expression. The present study reveals a critical role for SIRT6 in regulating thermogenesis of fat.

  14. Orexin receptor-1 mediates brown fat developmental differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Sellayah, Dyan; Sikder, Devanjan

    2012-01-01

    Orexin A (OX) is a small excitatory neuropeptide hormone that stimulates feeding, wakefulness and energy expenditure via a pair of G-coupled protein receptors, namely orexin receptor-1 (OXR1) and orexin receptor-2 (OXR2). OX-deficient mice are sensitive to obesity despite being hypophagic. The obesogenic effect of OX-deletion is due to brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction, a defect that originates during fetal growth. Brown preadipocytes in OX-null mice display undifferentiated histological...

  15. Novel function of the retinoblastoma protein in fat: regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; te Riele, Hein; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    The differentiation of white and brown fat cells is controlled by a similar set of transcription factors, including PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. However, despite many similarities between the two types of fat cells, they carry out essentially opposite functions in vivo, with white adipocytes being...... the major energy store and brown adipocytes being potent energy-dissipaters through thermogenesis. Yet, little is known about factors differentially regulating the formation of white and brown fat cells. Members of the retinoblastoma protein family (pRB, p107, p130) have been implicated in the regulation...... of adipocyte differentiation, and expression and phosphorylation of the three retinoblastoma family proteins oscillate in a characteristic manner during differentiation of the white preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1. We have recently demonstrated a surprising function of the retinoblastoma protein...

  16. Orexin receptor-1 mediates brown fat developmental differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellayah, Dyan; Sikder, Devanjan

    2012-01-01

    Orexin A (OX) is a small excitatory neuropeptide hormone that stimulates feeding, wakefulness and energy expenditure via a pair of G-coupled protein receptors, namely orexin receptor-1 (OXR1) and orexin receptor-2 (OXR2). OX-deficient mice are sensitive to obesity despite being hypophagic. The obesogenic effect of OX-deletion is due to brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction, a defect that originates during fetal growth. Brown preadipocytes in OX-null mice display undifferentiated histological appearance and fail to support both diet- and cold-induced thermogenesis. We show that the OXR1-null mice phenocopies the differentiation defect observed in the ligand-null mice indicating that OXR1 relays OX’s differentiation and thermogenic function. Consistent with this, OX fails to induce differentiation in cultured OXR1-null preadipocytes. Thus, OX signaling via OXR1 constitutes an important thermoregulatory mechanism that defends against cold and obesity. PMID:23700511

  17. Near-Infrared Photoluminescent Carbon Nanotubes for Imaging of Brown Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudasaka, Masako; Yomogida, Yohei; Zhang, Minfang; Tanaka, Takeshi; Nakahara, Masako; Kobayashi, Norihiko; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Machida, Ken; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Saeki, Kumiko; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared photoluminescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are expected to provide effectual bio-imaging tools, although, as yet, only limited applications have been reported. Here, we report that CNTs coated with an amphiphilic and biocompatible polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate; PMB), generate high-quality images of brown fat. Brown fat is a heat-productive adipose tissue, which is attracting increasing attention as a new therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Its brown colour is mainly attributed to densely packed capillaries, which facilitate its high heat-exchanging efficiency. Currently, positron emission tomography-computed tomography is the only practical technique to identify brown fat distribution in the living body; however, it is expensive to use. By virtue of their high affinity to apolipoproteins and exemption from macrophage phagocytosis, PMB-CNTs selectively accumulate on capillary endothelial cells but not larger vessels in adipose tissue. Therefore, the image brightness of adipose tissue can directly reflect the capillary density, and indirectly the thermogenic capability and brownness. PMB-CNTs provide clearer images than conventional organic dyes, as the high level of transmitted light passes through the body with less light scattering. Thus, PMB-CNT-based imaging methods could open a new phase in thermogenic adipose tissue research. PMID:28317858

  18. Metabolic regulation and the anti-obesity perspectives of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    is depot specific and originating from BAT. In conclusion, to utilize the anti-obesity potential of human BAT focus should be directed towards identifying novel regulators of brown and beige fat progenitor cells, as well as feedback mechanisms of BAT activation. This would allow for identification of novel...... anti-obesity targets....

  19. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shu-Wen; Tang, Yan; Li, Xi; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, You-You; Huang, Hai-Yan; Xue, Rui-Dan; Yu, Hao-Yong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Hui-Di; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xia; Li, Yi-Ming; Jia, Wei-Ping; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-02-26

    Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces "white adipocytes" with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) as the target of BMP signaling required for these brown fat-like changes in WAT. This effect of BMP4 on WAT appears to extend to human adipose tissue, because the level of expression of BMP4 in WAT correlates inversely with body mass index. These findings provide a genetic and metabolic basis for BMP4's role in altering insulin sensitivity by affecting WAT development.

  20. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by eating less trans fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. Sources of saturated fat • bacon and bacon grease • high-fat dairy products, • butter such as cheese, cream, • chitterlings ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk, ...

  1. MyomiR-133 regulates brown fat differentiation through Prdm16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Mirko; Ahmed, Kashan; Esau, Christine C; Stoffel, Markus

    2012-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) uses the chemical energy of lipids and glucose to produce heat, a function that can be induced by cold exposure or diet. A key regulator of BAT is the gene encoding PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16), whose expression can drive differentiation of myogenic and white fat precursors to brown adipocytes. Here we show that after cold exposure, the muscle-enriched miRNA-133 is markedly downregulated in BAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SAT) as a result of decreased expression of its transcriptional regulator Mef2. miR-133 directly targets and negatively regulates PRDM16, and inhibition of miR-133 or Mef2 promotes differentiation of precursors from BAT and SAT to mature brown adipocytes, thereby leading to increased mitochondrial activity. Forced expression of miR-133 in brown adipogenic conditions prevents the differentiation to brown adipocytes in both BAT and SAT precursors. Our results point to Mef2 and miR-133 as central upstream regulators of Prdm16 and hence of brown adipogenesis in response to cold exposure in BAT and SAT.

  2. Zbtb7b engages the long noncoding RNA Blnc1 to drive brown and beige fat development and thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siming; Mi, Lin; Yu, Lei; Yu, Qi; Liu, Tongyu; Wang, Guo-Xiao; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Wu, Jun; Lin, Jiandie D

    2017-08-22

    Brown and beige adipocytes convert chemical energy into heat through uncoupled respiration to defend against cold stress. Beyond thermogenesis, brown and beige fats engage other metabolic tissues via secreted factors to influence systemic energy metabolism. How the protein and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) regulatory networks act in concert to regulate key aspects of thermogenic adipocyte biology remains largely unknown. Here we developed a genome-wide functional screen to interrogate the transcription factors and cofactors in thermogenic gene activation and identified zinc finger and BTB domain-containing 7b (Zbtb7b) as a potent driver of brown fat development and thermogenesis and cold-induced beige fat formation. Zbtb7b is required for activation of the thermogenic gene program in brown and beige adipocytes. Genetic ablation of Zbtb7b impaired cold-induced transcriptional remodeling in brown fat, rendering mice sensitive to cold temperature, and diminished browning of inguinal white fat. Proteomic analysis revealed a mechanistic link between Zbtb7b and the lncRNA regulatory pathway through which Zbtb7b recruits the brown fat lncRNA 1 (Blnc1)/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNPU) ribonucleoprotein complex to activate thermogenic gene expression in adipocytes. These findings illustrate the emerging concept of a protein-lncRNA regulatory network in the control of adipose tissue biology and energy metabolism.

  3. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged.

  4. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Vibha; Maffazioli, Giovana D.; Ackerman, Kate E.; Lee, Hang; Elia, Elisa F.; Woolley, Ryan; Kolodny, Gerald; Cypess, Aaron M.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associ...

  5. The GPR120 agonist TUG-891 promotes metabolic health by stimulating mitochondrial respiration in brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilperoort, Maaike; van Dam, Andrea D; Hoeke, Geerte

    2018-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation stimulates energy expenditure in human adults, which makes it an attractive target to combat obesity and related disorders. Recent studies demonstrated a role for G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) in BAT thermogenesis. Here, we investigated the therapeu......Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation stimulates energy expenditure in human adults, which makes it an attractive target to combat obesity and related disorders. Recent studies demonstrated a role for G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) in BAT thermogenesis. Here, we investigated...... the therapeutic potential of GPR120 agonism and addressed GPR120-mediated signaling in BAT We found that activation of GPR120 by the selective agonist TUG-891 acutely increases fat oxidation and reduces body weight and fat mass in C57Bl/6J mice. These effects coincided with decreased brown adipocyte lipid content...... and increased nutrient uptake by BAT, confirming increased BAT activity. Consistent with these observations, GPR120 deficiency reduced expression of genes involved in nutrient handling in BAT Stimulation of brown adipocytes in vitro with TUG-891 acutely induced O2 consumption, through GPR120-dependent and GPR...

  6. Assessment of oxidative metabolism in Brown Fat using PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto eMuzik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although it has been believed that brown adipose tissue (BAT depots disappear shortly after the perinatal period in humans, PET imaging using the glucose analog FDG has shown unequivocally the existence of functional BAT in humans. The objective of this study was to determine, using dynamic oxygen-15 (15O PET imaging, to what extent BAT thermogenesis is activated in adults during cold stress and to establish the relationship between BAT oxidative metabolism and FDG tracer uptake.Methods: Fourteen adult normal subjects (9F/5M, 30+7 years underwent triple oxygen scans (H215O, C15O, 15O2 as well as indirect calorimetric measurements at rest and following exposure to mild cold (60F. Subjects were divided into two groups (BAT+ and BAT- based on the presence or absence of FDG tracer uptake (SUV > 2 in supraclavicular BAT. Blood flow (BF and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF was calculated from dynamic PET scans at the location of BAT, muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT. The metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2 in BAT was determined and used to calculate the contribution of activated BAT to daily energy expenditure (DEE.Results: The median mass of activated BAT in the BAT+ group (5F, 31+8yrs was 52.4 g (14-68g and was 1.7 g (0-6.3g in the BAT- group (5M/4F, 29+6yrs. SUV values were significantly higher in the BAT+ as compared to the BAT- group (7.4+3.7 vs 1.9+0.9; p=0.03. BF values in BAT were significantly higher in the BAT+ as compared to the BAT- group (13.1+4.4 vs 5.7+1.1 ml/100g/min, p=0.03, but were similar in WAT (4.1+1.6 vs 4.2+1.8 ml/100g/min and muscle (3.7+0.8 vs 3.3+1.2 ml/100g/min. Calculated MRO2 values in BAT increased from 0.95+0.74 to 1.62+0.82 ml/100g/min in the BAT+ group and were significantly higher than those determined in the BAT- group (0.43+0.27 vs 0.56+0.24; p=0.67. The DEE associated with BAT oxidative metabolism was highly variable in the BAT+ group, with an average of 5.5+6.4 kcal/day (range 0.57–15.3 kcal/day.

  7. Effect of intermittent cold exposure on brown fat activation, obesity, and energy homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Ravussin

    Full Text Available Homeotherms have specific mechanisms to maintain a constant core body temperature despite changes in thermal environment, food supply, and metabolic demand. Brown adipose tissue, the principal thermogenic organ, quickly and efficiently increases heat production by dissipating the mitochondrial proton motive force. It has been suggested that activation of brown fat, via either environmental (i.e. cold exposure or pharmacologic means, could be used to increase metabolic rate and thus reduce body weight. Here we assess the effects of intermittent cold exposure (4°C for one to eight hours three times a week on C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet. Cold exposure increased metabolic rate approximately two-fold during the challenge and activated brown fat. In response, food intake increased to compensate fully for the increased energy expenditure; thus, the mice showed no reduction in body weight or adiposity. Despite the unchanged adiposity, the cold-treated mice showed transient improvements in glucose homeostasis. Administration of the cannabinoid receptor-1 inverse agonist AM251 caused weight loss and improvements in glucose homeostasis, but showed no further improvements when combined with cold exposure. These data suggest that intermittent cold exposure causes transient, meaningful improvements in glucose homeostasis, but without synergy when combined with AM251. Since energy expenditure is significantly increased during cold exposure, a drug that dissociates food intake from metabolic demand during cold exposure may achieve weight loss and further metabolic improvements.

  8. Bone marrow fat has brown adipose tissue characteristics, which are attenuated with aging and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, A; Rahman, S; Huang, S; Lu, Y; Czernik, P J; Lecka-Czernik, B

    2012-02-01

    Fat occupies a significant portion of bone cavity however its function is largely unknown. Marrow fat expands during aging and in conditions which affect energy metabolism, indicating that fat in bone is under similar regulatory mechanisms as other fat depots. On the other hand, its location may determine specific functions in the maintenance of the environment for bone remodeling and hematopoiesis. We have demonstrated that marrow fat has a distinctive phenotype, which resembles both, white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT, respectively). Marrow adipocytes express gene markers of brown adipocytes at levels characteristic for the BAT, including transcription factor Prdm16, and regulators of thermogenesis such as deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and PGC1α. The levels of expression of BAT-specific gene markers are decreased in bone of 24 mo old C57BL/6 and in diabetic yellow agouti A(vy)/a mice implicating functional changes of marrow fat occurring with aging and diabetes. Administration of antidiabetic TZD rosiglitazone, which sensitizes cells to insulin and increases adipocyte metabolic functions, significantly increased both, BAT (UCP1, PGC1α, Dio2, β3AR, Prdm16, and FoxC2) and WAT (adiponectin and leptin) gene expression in marrow of normoglycemic C57BL/6 mice, but failed to increase the expression of BAT, but not WAT, gene markers in diabetic mice. In conclusion, the metabolic phenotype of marrow fat combines both BAT and WAT characteristics. Decrease in BAT-like characteristics with aging and diabetes may contribute to the negative changes in the marrow environment supporting bone remodeling and hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brown adipose tissue quantification in human neonates using water-fat separated MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerod M Rasmussen

    Full Text Available There is a major resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology, particularly regarding its determinants and consequences in newborns and infants. Reliable methods for non-invasive BAT measurement in human infants have yet to be demonstrated. The current study first validates methods for quantitative BAT imaging of rodents post mortem followed by BAT excision and re-imaging of excised tissues. Identical methods are then employed in a cohort of in vivo infants to establish the reliability of these measures and provide normative statistics for BAT depot volume and fat fraction. Using multi-echo water-fat MRI, fat- and water-based images of rodents and neonates were acquired and ratios of fat to the combined signal from fat and water (fat signal fraction were calculated. Neonatal scans (n = 22 were acquired during natural sleep to quantify BAT and WAT deposits for depot volume and fat fraction. Acquisition repeatability was assessed based on multiple scans from the same neonate. Intra- and inter-rater measures of reliability in regional BAT depot volume and fat fraction quantification were determined based on multiple segmentations by two raters. Rodent BAT was characterized as having significantly higher water content than WAT in both in situ as well as ex vivo imaging assessments. Human neonate deposits indicative of bilateral BAT in spinal, supraclavicular and axillary regions were observed. Pairwise, WAT fat fraction was significantly greater than BAT fat fraction throughout the sample (ΔWAT-BAT = 38 %, p<10(-4. Repeated scans demonstrated a high voxelwise correlation for fat fraction (Rall = 0.99. BAT depot volume and fat fraction measurements showed high intra-rater (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.93, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93 and inter-rater reliability (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.86, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93. This study demonstrates the reliability of using multi-echo water-fat MRI in human neonates for quantification throughout the torso of BAT depot volume and fat

  10. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vibha; Maffazioli, Giovana D; Ackerman, Kate E; Lee, Hang; Elia, Elisa F; Woolley, Ryan; Kolodny, Gerald; Cypess, Aaron M; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-01-01

    The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT) is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT. We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status. The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes) between 18-25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8) or eumenorrheic (n = 8).We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition. Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002), higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01) and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09). BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively). We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02).BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02), and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones. Our study shows a trend for lower BAT in young female athletes

  11. Effect of Chronic Athletic Activity on Brown Fat in Young Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Singhal

    Full Text Available The effect of chronic exercise activity on brown adipose tissue (BAT is not clear, with some studies showing positive and others showing negative associations. Chronic exercise is associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE secondary to increased lean mass and a probable increase in BAT. Many athletes are in a state of relative energy deficit suggested by lower fat mass and hypothalamic amenorrhea. States of severe energy deficit such as anorexia nervosa are associated with reduced BAT. There are no data regarding the impact of chronic exercise activity on BAT volume or activity in young women and it is unclear whether relative energy deficiency modifies the effects of exercise on BAT.We assessed cold induced BAT volume and activity in young female athletes compared with non-athletes, and further evaluated associations of BAT with measures of REE, body composition and menstrual status.The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to study initiation. This was a cross-sectional study of 24 women (16 athletes and8 non-athletes between 18-25 years of age. Athletes were either oligo-amenorrheic (n = 8 or eumenorrheic (n = 8.We used PET/CT scans to determine cold induced BAT activity, VMAX Encore 29 metabolic cart to obtain measures of REE, and DXA for body composition.Athletes and non-athletes did not differ for age or BMI. Compared with non-athletes, athletes had lower percent body fat (p = 0.002, higher percent lean mass (p = 0.01 and trended higher in REE (p = 0.09. BAT volume and activity in athletes trended lower than in non-athletes (p = 0.06; p = 0.07, respectively. We found negative associations of BAT activity with duration of amenorrhea (r = -0.46, p = 0.02.BAT volume correlated inversely with lean mass (r = -0.46, p = 0.02, and positively with percent body fat, irisin and thyroid hormones.Our study shows a trend for lower BAT in young female

  12. Regulation of brown fat adipogenesis by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Matsuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is a physiological regulator of insulin signaling and energy balance, but its role in brown fat adipogenesis requires additional investigation.To precisely determine the role of PTP1B in adipogenesis, we established preadipocyte cell lines from wild type and PTP1B knockout (KO mice. In addition, we reconstituted KO cells with wild type, substrate-trapping (D/A and sumoylation-resistant (K/R PTP1B mutants, then characterized differentiation and signaling in these cells. KO, D/A- and WT-reconstituted cells fully differentiated into mature adipocytes with KO and D/A cells exhibiting a trend for enhanced differentiation. In contrast, K/R cells exhibited marked attenuation in differentiation and lipid accumulation compared with WT cells. Expression of adipogenic markers PPARγ, C/EBPα, C/EBPδ, and PGC1α mirrored the differentiation pattern. In addition, the differentiation deficit in K/R cells could be reversed completely by the PPARγ activator troglitazone. PTP1B deficiency enhanced insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 tyrosyl phosphorylation, while K/R cells exhibited attenuated insulin-induced IR and IRS1 phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with WT cells. In addition, substrate-trapping studies revealed that IRS1 is a substrate for PTP1B in brown adipocytes. Moreover, KO, D/A and K/R cells exhibited elevated AMPK and ACC phosphorylation compared with WT cells.These data indicate that PTP1B is a modulator of brown fat adipogenesis and suggest that adipocyte differentiation requires regulated expression of PTP1B.

  13. Equations of prediction for abdominal fat in brown egg-laying hens fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, C; Jaimes, J J B; Gewehr, C E

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each. Sixteen hens per treatment of 92 wk age were utilized to evaluate body weight, bird length, tarsus and sternum, greater and lesser diameter of the tarsus, and abdominal fat weight, after slaughter. The equations were obtained by using measures evaluated with regressors through simple and multiple linear regression with the stepwise method of indirect elimination (backward), with P < 0.10 for all variables remaining in the model. The weight of abdominal fat as predicted by the equations and observed values for each bird were subjected to Pearson's correlation analysis. The equations generated by energy levels showed coefficients of determination of 0.50 and 0.74 for 2,800 and 2,550 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.84, with a highly significant correlation between the calculated and observed values of abdominal fat. For protein levels of 150, 160, and 170 g/kg in the diet, it was possible to obtain coefficients of determination of 0.75, 0.57, and 0.61, with correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. Regarding the general equation for predicting abdominal fat weight, the coefficient of determination was 0.62; the correlation coefficient was 0.79. The equations for predicting abdominal fat weight in laying hens, based on external measurements of the birds, showed positive coefficients of determination and correlation coefficients, thus

  14. BMP4 Gene Therapy in Mature Mice Reduces BAT Activation but Protects from Obesity by Browning Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny M. Hoffmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 on energy expenditure in adult mature mice by targeting the liver with adeno-associated viral (AAV BMP4 vectors to increase circulating levels. We verified the direct effect of BMP4 in inducing a brown oxidative phenotype in differentiating preadipocytes in vitro. AAV-BMP4-treated mice display marked browning of subcutaneous adipocytes, with increased mitochondria and Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1. These mice are protected from obesity on a high-fat diet and have increased whole-body energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced liver fat, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation. On a control diet, they show unchanged body weight but improved insulin sensitivity. In contrast, AAV-BMP4-treated mice showed beiging of BAT with reduced UCP1, increased lipids, and reduced hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Thus, BMP4 exerts different effects on WAT and BAT, but the overall effect is to enhance insulin sensitivity and whole-body energy expenditure by browning subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  15. Browning of subcutaneous fat and higher surface temperature in response to phenotype selection for advanced endurance exercise performance in male DUhTP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenmoehl, J; Ohde, D; Albrecht, E; Walz, C; Tuchscherer, A; Hoeflich, A

    2017-02-01

    For the assessment of genetic or conditional factors of fat cell browning, novel and polygenic animal models are required. Therefore, the long-term selected polygenic mouse line DUhTP originally established in Dummerstorf for high treadmill performance is used. DUhTP mice are characterized by increased fat accumulation in the sedentary condition and elevated fat mobilization during mild voluntary physical activity. In the present study, the phenotype of fat cell browning of subcutaneous fat and a potential effect on oral glucose tolerance, an indicator of metabolic health, were addressed in DUhTP mice. Analysis of peripheral fat pads revealed increased brite (brown-in-white) subcutaneous adipose tissues and in subcutaneous fat from DUhTP mice higher levels of irisin and different markers of fat cell browning like T-box transcription factor (Tbx1), PPARα, and uncoupling protein (UCP1) (P surface temperature of DUhTP mice was increased when compared to controls indicating a physiological effect of increased UCP1 expression. The present study suggests that DUhTP mice exhibit different markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and fat browning without external stimuli. At an age of 43 days, sedentary DUhTP mice have improved metabolic health as judged from lower levels of blood glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test. Consequently, the non-inbred mouse model DUhTP represents a novel model for the identification of fat cell browning mechanisms in white adipose tissues.

  16. Germinated brown rice ameliorates obesity in high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, See Meng; Goh, Yong Meng; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Loh, Su Peng

    2016-05-23

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a novel functional food that is high in fiber and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. This study aims to evaluate anti-obesity effects of GBR in obese rats fed high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The rats were then administrated with GBR where the source of dietary carbohydrate of HFD was replaced by either 25 % GBR, 50 % GBR or 100 % GBR for another 8 weeks. Changes in anthropometry, dietary status, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and adipose tissue were measured. Rats fed with HFD were showed elevation in body weight gain and in white adipose tissue mass compared with rats consumed commercial diet. The GBR administration in 50 % GBR and 100 % GBR were significantly decreased body weight gains and food intakes as well as improved lipid profiles in obese rats. In addition, the administration of GBR  had reduced adiposity by showing declination in white adipose tissue mass, adipocytes size and leptin level concomitantly with a higher ratio of fat excretion into feces. Micro- and macrovesicular steatosis were evidently attenuated in obese rats fed GBR. These findings demonstrated that GBR exhibited anti-obesity effects through suppression of body weight gain and food intake, improvement of lipid profiles and reduction of leptin level and white adipose tissue mass in obese rats fed HFD.

  17. Brown fat determination and development from muscle precursor cells by novel action of bone morphogenetic protein 6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Sharma

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays a pivotal role in promoting energy expenditure by the virtue of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 that differentiates BAT from its energy storing white adipose tissue (WAT counterpart. The clinical implication of "classical" BAT (originates from Myf5 positive myoblastic lineage or the "beige" fat (originates through trans-differentiation of WAT activation in improving metabolic parameters is now becoming apparent. However, the inducers and endogenous molecular determinants that govern the lineage commitment and differentiation of classical BAT remain obscure. We report here that in the absence of any forced gene expression, stimulation with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6 induces brown fat differentiation from skeletal muscle precursor cells of murine and human origins. Through a comprehensive transcriptional profiling approach, we have discovered that two days of BMP6 stimulation in C2C12 myoblast cells is sufficient to induce genes characteristic of brown preadipocytes. This developmental switch is modulated in part by newly identified regulators, Optineurin (Optn and Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2. Furthermore, pathway analyses using the Causal Reasoning Engine (CRE identified additional potential causal drivers of this BMP6 induced commitment switch. Subsequent analyses to decipher key pathway that facilitates terminal differentiation of these BMP6 primed cells identified a key role for Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF-1R. Collectively these data highlight a therapeutically innovative role for BMP6 by providing a means to enhance the amount of myogenic lineage derived brown fat.

  18. Central serotonergic neurons activate and recruit thermogenic brown and beige fat and regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGlashon, Jacob M; Gorecki, Michelle C; Kozlowski, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipocytes convert chemical energy to heat by metabolizing glucose and lipids. Serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the CNS are essential for thermoregulation and accordingly may control metabolic activity of thermogenic fat. To test this, we generated mice in which the human...... diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) was selectively expressed in central 5-HT neurons. Treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) eliminated 5-HT neurons and caused loss of thermoregulation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) steatosis, and a >50% decrease in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression in BAT and inguinal white...

  19. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  20. BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Shu-Wen; Tang, Yan; Li, Xi; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, You-You; Huang, Hai-Yan; Xue, Rui-Dan; Yu, Hao-Yong; Guo, Liang; Gao, Hui-Di; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xia; Li, Yi-Ming; Jia, Wei-Ping; Tang, Qi-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces “white adipocytes” with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP...

  1. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758) in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    OpenAIRE

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-01-01

    Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Albo...

  2. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  3. Discrimination Between Brown and White Adipose Tissue Using a 2-Point Dixon Water-Fat Separation Method in Simultaneous PET/MRI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franz, Daniela; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Rummeny, Ernst J; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Beer, Ambros J; Nekolla, Stephan G; Schwaiger, Markus; Eiber, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate signal-fat-fraction (SFF) analysis based on a 2-point-Dixon water-fat separation method in whole-body simultaneous PET/MR imaging for identifying brown adipose tissue (BAT...

  4. Understanding the Biology of Thermogenic Fat: Is Browning A New Approach to the Treatment of Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Castillo, Ariana; Fuentes-Romero, Rebeca; Rodriguez-Lopez, Leonardo A; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is characterized by an excess of white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent evidence has demonstrated that WAT can change its phenotype to a brown-like adipose tissue known as beige/brite adipose tissue. This transition is characterized by an increase in thermogenic capacity mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This browning process is a potential new target for treating obesity. The aim of this review is to integrate the different mechanisms by which beige/brite adipocytes are formed and to describe the physiological, pharmacological and nutritional inducers that can promote browning. An additional aim is to show evidence of how some of these inducers can be used as potential therapeutic agents against obesity and its comorbidities. This review shows the importance of brown and beige/brite adipose tissue and the mechanisms of their formation. Particularly, the two theories of beige/brite adipocyte origin are discussed: de novo differentiation and transdifferentiation. The gene markers that identify these types of adipocytes and the involvement of microRNAs in the epigenetic regulation of the browning process is also discussed. Additionally, we describe the transcriptional control of UCP1 expression by some of the inducers of browning. Furthermore, we describe in detail how some bioactive dietary compounds can induce browning and their subsequent beneficial health effects. The evidence suggests that browning is a new potential strategy for the treatment of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An ERβ agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yi-Fei; Su, Wen; Dai, Yu-Bing; Wu, Wan-Fu; Huang, Bo; Barros, Rodrigo P A; Nguyen, Hao; Maneix, Laure; Guan, You-Fei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-12-06

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα(-/-) female mice. Browning was associated with increased expression of ERβ in the nuclei of neurons in the sympathetic ganglia, increase in tyrosine hydroxylase in both nerve terminals in the SAT and sympathetic ganglia neurons and an increase of β3-adrenoceptor in the SAT. LY3201 had no effect on browning in young female or male mice. In the case of young females browning was already maximal while in males there was very little expression of ERβ in the SAT and very little expression of the β3-adrenoceptor. The increase in both sympathetic tone and responsiveness of adipocytes to catecholamines reveals a novel role for ERβ in controlling browning of adipose tissue.

  6. Activation of β3-adrenoceptors increases in vivo free fatty acid uptake and utilization in brown but not white fat depots in high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Kjellstedt, Ann; Carreras, Alba; Böttcher, Gerhard; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Seale, Patrick; Oakes, Nicholas; Lindén, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) present potential new therapies for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we examined the effects of β3-adrenergic stimulation on tissue-specific uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFA) and its implications for whole body FFA metabolism in diet-induced obese rats using a multi-radiotracer technique. Male Wistar rats were high fat-fed for 12 wk and administered β3-agonist CL316,243 (CL, 1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline via osmotic minipumps during the last 3 wk. The rats were then fasted and acutely infused with a tracer mixture ([(14)C]palmitate and the partially metabolized R-[(3)H]bromopalmitate) under anesthesia. CL infusion decreased body weight gain and fasting plasma glucose levels. While core body temperature was unaffected, infrared thermography showed an increase in tail heat dissipation following CL infusion. Interestingly, CL markedly increased both FFA storage and utilization in interscapular and perirenal BAT, whereas the flux of FFA to skeletal muscle was decreased. In this rat model of obesity, only sporadic populations of beige adipocytes were detected in the epididymal WAT depot of CL-infused rats, and there was no change in FFA uptake or utilization in WAT following CL infusion. In summary, β3-agonism robustly increased FFA flux to BAT coupled with enhanced utilization. Increased BAT activation most likely drove the increased tail heat dissipation to maintain thermostasis. Our results emphasize the quantitative role of brown fat as the functional target of β3-agonism in obesity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. An ER? agonist induces browning of subcutaneous abdominal fat pad in obese female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-fei Miao; Wen Su; Yu-bing Dai; Wan-fu Wu; Bo Huang; Barros, Rodrigo P. A.; Hao Nguyen; Laure Maneix; You-fei Guan; Margaret Warner; Jan-Åke Gustafsson

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ER? influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with ...

  8. Loss-of-function myostatin mutation increases insulin sensitivity and browning of white fat in Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunbo; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Sun, Youde; Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Dezun; Xiao, Gaojun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shanshan; Gao, Ting; Chen, Yaoxing; Liu, Jie; An, Xiaorong; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2017-05-23

    Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, the serum insulin level decreased and the insulin sensitivity increased significantly in Mstn -/- pigs. Moreover, we found a significant increase in levels of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate proteins in skeletal muscle of Mstn -/- pigs, which then activating the insulin signaling pathway. Irisin-mediated regulation is not the only pathway for the activation of insulin signal in Mstn -/- skeletal muscle. This study provides valuable insight for the treatment of human obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  9. Brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissue in high-fat junk food (HFJF) and chow-fed rats with dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions (DMNL rats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardis, L L; Bellinger, L L

    1991-05-15

    Male weanling rats received dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus lesions (DMNL) or sham operations and were fed for 173 postoperative days a high-fat diet and given a 32% sucrose solution as drinking fluid. This was supplemented with chocolate chip cookies, potato chips and marshmallows. Other DMNL and sham-operated controls were fed lab chow instead of the above high-fat junk food diet (HFJF) and given tap water instead of 32% sucrose solution. All animals were killed on postoperative day 174. Caloric intake per 100 g body weight was similar in all groups; however, the HFJF fed control and DMNL rats had significantly elevated carcass fat. Since HFJF-DMNL rats were not nearly as obese as the HFJF control animals, it appears that the DMNL offered some protection against the HFJF-diet-produced obesity. When their smaller body size is considered. DMN lesions had no effect on brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass in chow-fed or HFJF fed rats, whereas BAT size was significantly enlarged in HFJF-fed control animals. This suggests but does not prove that HFJF-fed controls, but not DMNL rats, may be using dietary-induced thermogenesis (DIT) to attenuate their obesity. We hypothesize that the HFJF-fed DMNL may not be enhancing DIT as reflected in normal BAT size, because they had not attained a degree of fatness to activate this system, or the DMN lesions impaired its activation. Both HFJF-fed groups showed reduced linear growth compared to their counterparts. The reason for stunting is uncertain, but may be related to their low plasma insulin concentrations.

  10. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  11. FGF21 mimetic antibody stimulates UCP1-independent brown fat thermogenesis via FGFR1/βKlotho complex in non-adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Z. Chen

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: Collectively, we propose that FGFR1/βKlotho targeted therapy indeed mimics the action of FGF21 in vivo and stimulates UCP1-independent brown fat thermogenesis through receptors outside of adipocytes and likely in the nervous system.

  12. Increased apoptosis and browning of TAK1-deficient adipocytes protects against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassmann-Schweda, Antonia; Singh, Pratibha; Tang, Cong; Wietelmann, Astrid; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan

    2016-05-19

    Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide, and nonsurgical strategies to treat obesity have remained rather inefficient. We here show that acute loss of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in adipocytes results in an increased rate of apoptotic adipocyte death and increased numbers of M2 macrophages in white adipose tissue. Mice with adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency have reduced adipocyte numbers and are resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet or leptin deficiency. In addition, adipocyte-specific TAK1-deficient mice under a high-fat diet showed increased energy expenditure, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of the uncoupling protein UCP1. Interestingly, acute induction of adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency in mice already under a high-fat diet was able to stop further weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Thus, loss of TAK1 in adipocytes reduces the total number of adipocytes, increases browning of white adipose tissue, and may be an attractive strategy to treat obesity, obesity-dependent diabetes, and other associated complications.

  13. Adipose Specific Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency More Profoundly Affects Brown Than White Fat Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Arcos, Itsaso; Hiyama, Yaeko; Drosatos, Konstantinos; Bharadwaj, Kalyani G.; Hu, Yunying; Huiping Son, Ni; O'Byrne, Sheila M.; Chang, Chuchun L.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Takahashi, Manabu; Westerterp, Marit; Obunike, Joseph C.; Jiang, Hongfeng; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Blaner, William S.; Goldberg, Ira J.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose fat storage is thought to require uptake of circulating triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acids via lipoprotein lipase (LpL). To determine how LpL affects the biology of adipose tissue, we created adipose specific LpL knockout (ATLO) mice, and compared them with whole body LpL knockout mice

  14. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism induces browning of white adipose tissue through impairment of autophagy and prevents adipocyte dysfunction in high-fat-diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armani, Andrea; Cinti, Francesca; Marzolla, Vincenzo; Morgan, James; Cranston, Greg A; Antelmi, Antonella; Carpinelli, Giulia; Canese, Rossella; Pagotto, Uberto; Quarta, Carmelo; Malorni, Walter; Matarrese, Paola; Marconi, Matteo; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Cinti, Saverio; Young, Morag J; Caprio, Massimiliano

    2014-08-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) controls adipocyte function, but its role in the conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) into thermogenic fat has not been elucidated. We investigated responses to the MR antagonists spironolactone (spiro; 20 mg/kg/d) and drospirenone (DRSP; 6 mg/kg/d) in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 90 d. DRSP and spiro curbed HF diet-induced impairment in glucose tolerance, and prevented body weight gain and white fat expansion. Notably, either MR antagonist induced up-regulation of brown adipocyte-specific transcripts and markedly increased protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in visceral and inguinal fat depots when compared with the HF diet group. Positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed acquisition of brown fat features in WAT. Interestingly, MR antagonists markedly reduced the autophagic rate both in murine preadipocytes in vitro (10(-5) M) and in WAT depots in vivo, with a concomitant increase in UCP1 protein expression. Moreover, the autophagy repressor bafilomycin A1 (10(-8) M) mimicked the effect of MR antagonists, increasing UCP1 protein expression in primary preadipocytes. Hence, we showed that adipocyte MR regulates brown remodeling of WAT through a modulation of autophagy. These results provide a rationale for the use of MR antagonists to prevent the adverse metabolic consequences of adipocyte dysfunction. © FASEB.

  15. Exendin-4 improves thermogenic capacity by regulating fat metabolism on brown adipose tissue in mice with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiong; Li, Ling; Chen, Ji-an; Wang, Shao-hua; Sun, Zi-lin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the benefits of exendin-4 treatment on brown adipose tissue (BAT) in C57BL/6J mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We examined the effects of exendin-4 on body adiposity and the level of genes associated with adipogenesis, glucose/lipid uptake, lipolysis, and thermogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity. Exendin-4 treatment deceased body weight, serum-free fatty acid, and triglyceride levels in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Exendin-4 treatment increased the expression of genes associated with adipogenesis, glucose/lipid uptake, lipolysis, and thermogenesis in BAT. Compared with HFD-fed mice, exendin-4 treatment also exhibited elevated energy expenditure and reduced respiratory quotient, but showed similar food intake and locomotor activity. Exendin-4 treatment reduced high-fat-induced obesity by decreasing adiposity and increasing thermogenesis. This result suggests that GLP-1 agonist may be a new approach to combat obesity by shifting the energy balance from obesogenesis to thermogenesis. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  16. Thermogenin amount and activity in hamster brown fat mitochondria: effect of cold acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundin, U.; Moore, G.; Nedergaard, J.; Cannon, B.

    1987-05-01

    To investigate the acclimation process in a hibernator, four different parameters of thermogenin amount and activity were investigated in brown adipose tissue mitochondria from cold-exposed and cold-acclimated Syrian hamsters. Hamsters, which are hibernators, have been considered to be primed for thermogenesis and thus not to show cold-acclimation effects, but here a significant increase in (/sup 3/H)GDP-binding capacity was observed, and this increase was paralleled by an increase in thermogenin antigen amount, as measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The transient nature of the effect of cold exposure on (/sup 3/H)GDP binding, characteristically observed with rat mitochondria, was not observed with hamster mitochondria, and the increase in (/sup 3/H)GDP binding occurred without a change in the dissociation constant. The increase in thermogenin amount was paralleled by an increase both in GDP-sensitive Cl/sup -/ permeability of the mitochondria and in GDP-sensitive respiration. It was established that it is the maximal activity of thermogenin that is rate limiting for thermogenesis in isolated mitochondria, provided that an optimal substrate is used (such as palmitoyl carnitine). Cold acclimation also increased the total amount of mitochondria in the tissue, leading totally to a sixfold increase in thermogenin content of the hamster. It is concluded that hamsters show the expected physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical signs of cold acclimation.

  17. Separate and shared sympathetic outflow to white and brown fat coordinately regulates thermoregulation and beige adipocyte recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T.; Barr, Candace L.; Ryu, Vitaly; Cao, Qiang; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are innervated and regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). It is not clear, however, whether there are shared or separate central SNS outflows to WAT and BAT that regulate their function. We injected two isogenic strains of pseudorabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, with unique fluorescent reporters into interscapular BAT (IBAT) and inguinal WAT (IWAT) of the same Siberian hamsters to define SNS pathways to both. To test the functional importance of SNS coordinated control of BAT and WAT, we exposed hamsters with denervated SNS nerves to IBAT to 4°C for 16–24 h and measured core and fat temperatures and norepinephrine turnover (NETO) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in fat tissues. Overall, there were more SNS neurons innervating IBAT than IWAT across the neuroaxis. However, there was a greater percentage of singly labeled IWAT neurons in midbrain reticular nuclei than singly labeled IBAT neurons. The hindbrain had ~30–40% of doubly labeled neurons while the forebrain had ~25% suggesting shared SNS circuitry to BAT and WAT across the brain. The raphe nucleus, a key region in thermoregulation, had ~40% doubly labeled neurons. Hamsters with IBAT SNS denervation maintained core body temperature during acute cold challenge and had increased beige adipocyte formation in IWAT. They also had increased IWAT NETO, temperature, and UCP1 expression compared with intact hamsters. These data provide strong neuroanatomical and functional evidence of WAT and BAT SNS cross talk for thermoregulation and beige adipocyte formation. PMID:27881398

  18. The emergence of cold-induced brown adipocytes in mouse white fat depots is determined predominantly by white to brown adipocyte transdifferentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbatelli, G.; Murano, I.; Madsen, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The origin of brown adipocytes arising in white adipose tissue (WAT) after cold acclimatization is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that several UCP1-immunoreactive brown adipocytes occurring in WAT after cold acclimatization have a mixed morphology (paucilocular adipocytes). These cells also had a ...... for C/EBP (an antimitotic protein), whereas Ccna1 expression (related to cell proliferation) was unchanged. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the cold-induced emergence of brown adipocytes in WAT predominantly reflects ß3-adrenoceptor-mediated transdifferentiation....

  19. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , A. Johnstone , T. Beasley , A. Ledbetter , M. Schladweiler , S. Snow, and U. Kodavanti. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28(5): 203-15, (2016).

  20. Ablation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ligen; Saha, Pradip K.; Ma, Xiaojun; Henshaw, Iyabo O.; Shao, Longjiang; Chang, Benny H. J.; Eric D Buras; Tong, Qiang; Chan, Lawrence; McGuinness, Owen P.; Sun, Yuxiang

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this paper, we show that ablation of the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R) improves insulin sensitivity during aging. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, old Ghsr−/− mice have reduced fat and...

  1. Sirt1 Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul T. Pfluger; Daniel Herranz; Susana Velasco-Miguel; Manuel Serrano; Matthias H. Tschöp

    2008-01-01

    .... Mammalian Sirt1 is a protein deacetylase that has been involved in resveratrol-mediated protection from high-fat diet-induced metabolic damage, but direct proof for the implication of Sirt1 has remained elusive...

  2. Stimulation of S14 mRNA and lipogenesis in brown fat by hypothyroidism, cold exposure, and cafeteria feeding: evidence supporting a general role for S14 in lipogenesis and lipogenesis in the maintenance of thermogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freake, H.C.; Oppenheimer, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    In liver, thyroid hormone rapidly induces S14 mRNA, which encodes a small acidic protein. This sequence is abundantly expressed only in lipogenic tissues and is thought to have some function in fat metabolism. In the euthyroid rat, we measured 20-fold higher levels of S14 mRNA in interscapular brown adipose tissue than liver. Furthermore, whereas in liver or epididymal fat, hypothyroidism resulted in an 80% fall in S14 mRNA, in brown fat the level of this sequence increased a further 3-fold. In all three tissues, the expression of S14 mRNA correlated well with lipogenesis, as assessed by /sup 3/H/sub 2/O incorporation. Physiological activation of brown fat by chronic cold exposure or cafeteria feeding increased the concentration of S14 mRNA in this tissue and again this was accompanied by a greater rate of fatty acid synthesis. Overall, in liver and white and brown adipose tissue, S14 mRNA and lipogenesis were well correlated and strongly suggest a function of the S14 protein related to fat synthesis. These studies suggest that the S14 protein and lipogenesis may be important for thyroid hormone-induced and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and that stimulation of these functions in hypothyroid brown fat is a consequence of decreased thyroid hormone-induced thermogenesis elsewhere.

  3. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This dataset...

  4. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w./day. Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α, compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  5. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Soo-Min; Kim, Min-Soo; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2017-09-21

    Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c) compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB) signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  6. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  7. Anti-obesity effects of Arctii Fructus (Arctium lappa) in white/brown adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Dae-Seung; Park, Jinbong; Jeong, Mi-Young; Mun, Jung-Geon; Park, Sung-Joo; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-12-07

    Arctii Fructus is traditionally used in oriental pharmacies as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Although several studies have shown its anti-inflammatory effects, there have been no reports on its use in obesity related studies. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of Arctii Fructus was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and the effect was confirmed in white and primary cultured brown adipocytes. Arctii Fructus inhibited weight gain and reduced the mass of white adipose tissue in HFD-induced obese mice. Serum levels of triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol were reduced, and HDL-cholesterol was increased in the Arctii Fructus treated group. In 3T3-L1 cells, a water extract (WAF) and 70% EtOH extract (EtAF) of Arctii Fructus significantly inhibited adipogenesis and suppressed the expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. In particular, EtAF activated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. On the other hand, uncoupling protein 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, known as brown adipocytes specific genes, were increased in primary cultured brown adipocytes by WAF and EtAF. This study shows that Arctii Fructus prevents the development of obesity through the inhibition of white adipocyte differentiation and activation of brown adipocyte differentiation which suggests that Arctii Fructus could be an effective therapeutic for treating or preventing obesity.

  8. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  9. 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine PET/CT imaging allows in vivo study of adaptive thermogenesis and white-to-brown fat conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Carmelo; Lodi, Filippo; Mazza, Roberta; Giannone, Ferdinando; Boschi, Laura; Nanni, Cristina; Nisoli, Enzo; Boschi, Stefano; Pasquali, Renato; Fanti, Stefano; Iozzo, Patricia; Pagotto, Uberto

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that novel pharmacological approaches aimed at converting white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown adipose tissue (BAT) may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for obesity and related disorders. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is the only positron emission tomography (PET) tracer commonly used to study BAT function, and so far no functional tools have been described to investigate in vivo white-to-brown fat conversion. In this report, we show that the PET tracer 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (11C-MHED, a norepinephrine analogue) is a useful tool to investigate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in BAT of lean and dietary obese mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that 11C-MHED is a specific marker of the SNS-mediated thermogenesis in typical BAT depots, and that this tracer can detect in vivo WAT to BAT conversion. PMID:24049730

  10. Caralluma fimbriata and metformin protection of rat pancreas from high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakara, G; Mallaiah, P; Rajendran, R; Saralakumari, D

    2018-02-01

    A high fat diet promotes oxidative stress, which contributes to the development of pancreatic fibrosis. We compared the protective effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) to metformin (Met) in the pancreas of Wistar rats fed a high fat diet. The experimental animals were divided into five groups: control (C), treated with CFE (C + CFE), treated with high fat diet (HFD), high fat diet treated with CFE (HFD + CFE), and high fat diet treated with metformin (Met) (HFD + Met). CFE was administered orally to groups C + CFE and HFD + CFE rats for 90 days. Met was given to the HFD + Met group. After 90 days, oxidative stress markers in the pancreas including reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid oxidation (LO), protein oxidation (PO), and activities of antioxidant and polyol pathway enzymes, aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) were assayed and tissue histology was examined. Establishment of oxidative stress in high fat diet fed rats was verified by elevated LO and PO, decreased GSH, decreased activities of antioxidants and increased activities of polyol pathway enzymes. Oxidative stress was prevented in HFD + CFE and HFD + Met groups. Group C + CFE exhibited improved antioxidant status compared to group C. CFE treatment prevented high fat diet induced acinar cell degeneration, necrosis, edema and hemorrhage. CFE could be used as adjuvant therapy for preventing or managing high fat diet induced pancreatic damage.

  11. Discrimination Between Brown and White Adipose Tissue Using a 2-Point Dixon Water-Fat Separation Method in Simultaneous PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Daniela; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Rummeny, Ernst J; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Beer, Ambros J; Nekolla, Stephan G; Schwaiger, Markus; Eiber, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate signal-fat-fraction (SFF) analysis based on a 2-point-Dixon water-fat separation method in whole-body simultaneous PET/MR imaging for identifying brown adipose tissue (BAT) and discriminating it from white adipose tissue (WAT) using cross-validation via PET. This retrospective, internal review board-approved study evaluated 66 PET/MR imaging examinations of 33 pediatric patients (mean age, 14.7 y; range, 7.4-21.4 y). Eleven elderly patients were evaluated as controls (mean age, 79.9 y; range, 76.3-88.6 y). Pediatric patients were divided into 2 groups: with and without metabolically active supraclavicular BAT. The standard of reference for the presence of BAT was at least 1 PET examination showing (18)F-FDG uptake. PET/MR imaging included a 2-point Dixon water-fat separation method. Signal intensities in regions of interest on fat and water images and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean) were determined bilaterally in supraclavicular and gluteal fat depots. SFF was calculated from the ratio of fat signal over summed water and fat signal. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Student t test and correlation analysis. SFF was significantly lower (P analysis is a reproducible imaging modality for the detection of human BAT and discrimination from WAT. SFF values of BAT are independent from its metabolic activity, making SFF a more reliable parameter for BAT than the commonly used PET signal. However, with the intent to investigate both the composition of BAT and its activation status, hybrid PET/MR imaging might provide supplemental information. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Hartati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula. Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro Animal Production 14(1:1-5, January 2012

  13. GQ-16, a TZD-Derived Partial PPARγ Agonist, Induces the Expression of Thermogenesis-Related Genes in Brown Fat and Visceral White Fat and Decreases Visceral Adiposity in Obese and Hyperglycemic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michella S Coelho

    Full Text Available Beige adipocytes comprise a unique thermogenic cell type in the white adipose tissue (WAT of rodents and humans, and play a critical role in energy homeostasis. In this scenario, recruitment of beige cells has been an important focus of interest for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat obesity. PPARγ activation by full agonists (thiazolidinediones, TZDs drives the appearance of beige cells, a process so-called browning of WAT. However, this does not translate into increased energy expenditure, and TZDs are associated with weight gain. Partial PPARγ agonists, on the other hand, do not induce weight gain, but have not been shown to drive WAT browning. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of GQ-16 on BAT and on browning of WAT in obese mice.Male Swiss mice with obesity and hyperglycemia induced by high fat diet were treated with vehicle, rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg/d or the TZD-derived partial PPARγ agonist GQ-16 (40 mg/kg/d for 14 days. Fasting blood glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lipid profile were measured. WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT depots were excised for determination of adiposity, relative expression of Ucp-1, Cidea, Prdm16, Cd40 and Tmem26 by RT-qPCR, histological analysis, and UCP-1 protein expression analysis by immunohistochemistry. Liver samples were also removed for histological analysis and determination of hepatic triglyceride content.GQ-16 treatment reduced high fat diet-induced weight gain in mice despite increasing energy intake. This was accompanied by reduced epididymal fat mass, reduced liver triglyceride content, morphological signs of increased BAT activity, increased expression of thermogenesis-related genes in interscapular BAT and epididymal WAT, and increased UCP-1 protein expression in interscapular BAT and in epididymal and inguinal WAT.This study suggests for the first time that a partial PPARγ agonist may increase BAT activity and induce

  14. Effects of physical exercise on myokines expression and brown adipose-like phenotype modulation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Rodríguez, Amaia; Gouveia, Alexandra M; Gonçalves, Inês O; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Beleza, Jorge; Frühbeck, Gema; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2016-11-15

    Exercise-stimulated myokine secretion into circulation may be related with browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), representing a positive metabolic effect on whole-body fat mass. However, limited information is yet available regarding the impact of exercise on myokine-related modulation of adipocyte phenotype in WAT from obese rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into sedentary and voluntary physical activity (VPA) groups and fed with standard (35kcal% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 71kcal% fat)-isoenergetic diets. The VPA-groups had unrestricted access to wheel running throughout the protocol. After-9weeks, half of sedentary standard (SS) and sedentary HFD (HS)-fed animals were exercised on treadmill (endurance training, ET) for 8-weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. The adipocyte hypertrophy induced by HFD were attenuated by VPA and ET. HFD decreased 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in muscle as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) proteins in eWAT, while not affecting circulating irisin. VPA increased eWAT Tmem26 mRNA levels in the standard diet-fed group, whereas ET increased AMPK, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) protein expression in muscle, but had no impact on circulating irisin protein content. In eWAT, ET increased bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7), Cidea and PGC-1α in both diet-fed animals, whereas BMP7, Prdm16, UCP1 and FNDC5 only in standard diet-fed group. Data suggest that ET-induced myokine production seems to contribute, at least in part, to the "brown-like" phenotype in WAT from rats fed a HFD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of maize, rumen-protected fat and whey permeate on energy utilisation and milk fat composition in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Battelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of utilisation of diets with different proportions of energy sources (starch, fat, lactose was studied with three pairs of lactating Saanen goats; the animals were fed, in a Latin square design, 3 silage-based diets containing (on DM basis the following energy sources: 32% maize meal (diet M; 4.7% rumen-protected fat (Megalac® and 23.5% maize meal (diet F; 9.8% milk whey permeate powder and 22.3% maize meal (diet W. During each of the three experimental periods, 8 days of total collection balance trials were conducted during which goats were allocated for 72 h (three 24 h cycles in open circuit respiration chambers to determine methane and heat production and, hence, the energy balance. Diet F, in comparison with diets M and W, significantly increased the milk fat content (4.13 vs 3.11 and 3.14%, P<0.001 and the 4%-FCM yield (3367 vs 2927 and 3055 g/d, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, while no relevant changes were observed for milk protein content and yield. Energy digestibility was equal in diets F and W. Megalac® did not decrease fibre digestibility. The partition of the gross energy intake (EI differed significantly between diets: diet M had lower DE (72.4 vs 74.3 and 74.3%; P<0.01 and ME (62.1 vs 64.7 and 63.5%; P<0.05 in comparison with diets F and W, respectively. Energy lost as methane was not significantly decreased by the inclusion of rumen- protected fat in the diet, although a trend for a reduction of methanogenesis was observed. Heat production deter- mined by treatment F was lower in comparison with the other treatments. This difference was almost significant (P=0.056 when expressed as a percentage of the ME. Milk energy output increased significantly (+12%, P<0.001 by including fat in the diet, as compared with treatments M and W: 21.4 vs 19.1 and 19.0% of the EI. The net ener- gy content of the protected fat was 27.94 MJ NEl/kg DM (+340% vs maize meal; its kl value resulted 0.77. The corresponding values for whey

  16. The Environmental Pollutants Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid Upregulate Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) in Brown-Fat Mitochondria Through a UCP1-Dependent Reduction in Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kramarova, Tatiana V; Mattsson, Charlotte L; Petrovic, Natasa; Rahman Qazi, Mousumi; Csikasz, Robert I; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John; DePierre, Joseph W; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2015-08-01

    The environmental pollutants perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) cause a dramatic reduction in the size of the major adipose tissue depots and a general body weight decrease when they are added to the food of mice. We demonstrate here that this is mainly due to a reduction in food intake; this reduction was not due to food aversion. Remarkably and unexpectedly, a large part of the effect of PFOA/PFOS on food intake was dependent on the presence of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the mice. Correspondingly, PFOA/PFOS treatment induced recruitment of brown adipose tissue mitochondria: increased oxidative capacity and increased UCP1-mediated oxygen consumption (thermogenesis). In mice pair-fed to the food intake during PFOA/PFOS treatment in wildtype mice, brown-fat mitochondrial recruitment was also induced. We conclude that we have uncovered the existence of a regulatory component of food intake that is dependent upon brown adipose tissue thermogenic activity. The possible environmental consequences of this novel PFOA/PFOS effect (a possible decreased fitness) are noted, as well as the perspectives of this finding on the general understanding of control of food intake control and its possible extension to combatting obesity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  18. Full fat milk consumption protects against severe childhood obesity in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Amy L; Heyman, Melvin; Chao, Cewin; Wojcicki, Janet

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of non- or low-fat dairy products is recommended as a strategy to lower the risk of childhood obesity. However, recent evidence suggests that consumption of whole fat dairy products may, in fact, be protective against obesity. Our objective was to determine the association between milk fat consumption and severe obesity among three-year-old Latino children, a population with a disproportionate burden of obesity and severe obesity. 24-hour-dietary recalls were conducted to determine child intake in San Francisco based cohort recruited in 2006-7. Mother-child dyads were weighed and measured. The 24-hour recall data was analyzed to determine participants' consumption of whole milk, 2% milk, and 1% milk. The milk consumption data was used to calculate grams of milk fat consumed. The cross-sectional association between milk fat intake and severe obesity (BMI ≥ 99th percentile) was determined using multivariable logistic regression. Data were available for 145 children, of whom 17% were severely obese. Severely obese children had a lower mean intake of milk fat (5.3 g vs. 8.9 g) and fewer drank any milk (79% versus 95% for not severely obese children (p severe obesity and were included in a multivariate model. In the multivariate model, higher milk fat consumption was associated with lower odds of severe obesity (OR 0.88 CI 0.80-0.97). Higher milk fat consumption is associated with lower odds of severe obesity among Latino preschoolers. These results call into question recommendations that promote consumption of lower fat milk.

  19. Correlations between hematological, parasitological patterns and animal performance of sheep supplemented with protected fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of populations of gastrointestinal parasites resistant to antihelmintics has led to seeks new alternatives its control. Stimulation of natural immunity by means of animal nutrition has shown promising results in controlling nematodes in sheep. The addition of protected fat sources, containing essential fatty acids, may be an alternative due to many effects, among them, regulation of immunity expression and regulation of the inflammatory response by immune effectors. The aim of this study was to estimate correlations between haematological and parasitological patterns, animal performance through weight and body condition, under the influence of protected fat in ewes. Fifty Santa Ines sheep, in the final third of pregnancy or postpartum, in paddocks of Panicum maximum, received, individually, 200 g per day of concentrate, isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, with or without the addition of protected fat. In general, except for total leukocytes and eosinophils, almost all of Pearson correlation coefficients of other variables were significant. However, the protected fat, in the amount offered, had no antihelmintic effect.

  20. The Protection of Polysaccharide from the Brown Seaweed Sargassum graminifolium against Ethylene Glycol-Induced Mitochondrial Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hui Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of polysaccharide from the Brown Seaweed Sargassum graminifolium (SGP on ethylene glycol-induced kidney damage and the mechanism of SGP-mediated protection. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial swelling, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, ATPases and mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes was observed in hyperoxaluric rats. Administration of SGP (25, 100 and 400 mg·kg−1, intragastrically increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, SDH and Na+/K+-ATPases, Ca2+-ATPases, Mg2+-ATPases, also decreased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial swelling. SGP exhibited a protective effect by improving antioxidant enzymes and restoring mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidney of hyperoxaluric rats. It may be used as a promising therapeutic agent to provide superior renal protection.

  1. Anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracing reveals central sensory circuits from brown fat and sensory denervation alters its thermogenic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Cheryl H.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and growth are controlled by its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation, but nerve fibers containing sensory-associated neuropeptides [substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)] also suggest sensory innervation. The central nervous system (CNS) projections of BAT afferents are unknown. Therefore, we used the H129 strain of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), an anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracer used to delineate sensor...

  2. MicroRNA Functions in Brite/Brown Fat — Novel Perspectives towards Anti-Obesity Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karbiener

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Current anti-obesity strategies are aiming at restricting energy uptake, but still, obesity treatment is far from being satisfactory. The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT in adult humans currently opens new avenues to combat obesity and follow-up complications as it tackles the other site of the energy balance: energy expenditure via non-shivering thermogenesis. This process of energy dissipation in the adipose tissue is tightly controlled, and the elucidation of its regulatory network is a key plank for therapeutic applications. MicroRNAs (miRNAs belong to a novel class of regulatory determinants which are small non-coding RNAs with vital roles in regulating gene expression that also play a role in many human diseases. In this review we summarize miRNAs which have been shown to govern thermogenic, i.e. brite or brown, adipocyte recruitment and physiology. Notably, most miRNAs in this context have so far been characterized solely in mice, revealing a great demand for more human studies. As in the context of other diseases, RNA-based therapeutics have meanwhile entered clinical trials, further exploring the functions of miRNAs in brown and white adipose tissues could result in novel therapeutic approaches to treat obesity and its follow-up complications.

  3. Ruscogenin protects against high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Lin, Sheng Da; Yang, Cheng; Wu, Ming-Chang; Liu, I-Min

    2014-07-01

    The protective effects of ruscogenin on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Ruscogenin (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/day) was orally administered by gavage once daily for eight weeks. A high-fat diet induced increases in plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids, while the degree of insulin resistance was lowered by ruscogenin. High-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation were improved by ruscogenin. Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB were also increased in the high-fat diet group, which were attenuted by ruscogenin. Ruscogenin decreased hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and its lipogenic target genes. The hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, together with its target genes responsible for fatty acid β-oxidation were upregulated by ruscogenin. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ruscogenin may attenuate high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, reducing hepatic lipogenic gene expression, and upregulating proteins in the fatty acid oxidation process. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. DHEA treatment reduces fat accumulation and protects against insulin resistance in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Hansen, P A; Chen, M M; Holloszy, J O

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) protects male rats against the accumulation of body fat the development of insulin resistance with advancing age. We found that supplementation of the diet with 0.3% DHEA between the ages of 5 months and approximately 25 months resulted in a significantly lower final body weight (DHEA, 593 +/- 18 g vs control, 668 +/- 12 g, p food intake. Lean body mass was unaffected by the DHEA, and the lower body weight was due to a approximately 25% reduction in body fat. The rate of glucose disposal during a euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp was 30% higher in the DHEA group than in the sedentary controls due to a greater insulin responsiveness. The DHEA administration was as effective in reducing body fat content and maintaining insulin responsiveness as exercise in the form of voluntary wheel running. The DHEA had no significant effect on muscle GLUT4 content. A preliminary experiment provided evidence suggesting that muscle insulin signaling, as reflected in binding of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to the insulin receptor substrate-1, was enhanced in the DHEA-treated and wheel running groups as compared to controls. These results provide evidence that DHEA, like exercise, protects against excess fat accumulation and development of insulin resistance in rats.

  5. Pharmacological TLR4 Inhibition Protects against Acute and Chronic Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether pharmacological TLR4 inhibition protects against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in rats.For the acute experiment, rats received a TLR4 inhibitor [TAK-242 or E5564 (2x5 mg/kg i.v. bolus] or vehicle, and an 8-h Intralipid (20%, 8.5 mg/kg/min or saline infusion, followed by a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. For the chronic experiment, rats were subcutaneously implanted with a slow-release pellet of TAK-242 (1.5 mg/d or placebo. Rats then received a high fat diet (HFD or a low fat control diet (LFD for 10 weeks, followed by a two-step insulin clamp.Acute experiment; the lipid-induced reduction (18% in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd was attenuated by TAK-242 and E5564 (the effect of E5564 was more robust, suggesting improved peripheral insulin action. Insulin was able to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP in saline- but not lipid-treated rats. TAK-242, but not E5564, partially restored this effect, suggesting improved HGP. Chronic experiment; insulin-stimulated Rd was reduced ~30% by the HFD, but completely restored by TAK-242. Insulin could not suppress HGP in rats fed a HFD and TAK-242 had no effect on HGP.Pharmacological TLR4 inhibition provides partial protection against acute and chronic fat-induced insulin resistance in vivo.

  6. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Song, Yeong Ok

    2017-10-01

    Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik, was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (P level was significantly lower, whereas glutathione was higher, in the GBRD group than in the RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group (P levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory status in HFD-fed mice via CAT and GPx upregulation and NF-κB downregulation. These effects were significantly higher than those of RCD.

  7. Tissue-specific expression of Sprouty1 in mice protects against high-fat diet-induced fat accumulation, bone loss and metabolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs, Sumithra; Henderson, Terry; Le, Phuong; Rosen, Clifford J; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-09-28

    We recently characterised Sprouty1 (Spry1), a growth factor signalling inhibitor as a regulator of marrow progenitor cells promoting osteoblast differentiation at the expense of adipocytes. Adipose tissue-specific Spry1 expression in mice resulted in increased bone mass and reduced body fat, while conditional knockout of Spry1 had the opposite effect with decreased bone mass and increased body fat. Because Spry1 suppresses normal fat development, we tested the hypothesis that Spry1 expression prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, bone loss and associated lipid abnormalities, and demonstrate that Spry1 has a long-term protective effect on mice fed a high-energy diet. We studied diet-induced obesity in mice with fatty acid binding promoter-driven expression or conditional knockout of Spry1 in adipocytes. Phenotyping was performed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, microCT, histology and blood analysis. In conditional Spry1-null mice, a high-fat diet increased body fat by 40 %, impaired glucose regulation and led to liver steatosis. However, overexpression of Spry1 led to 35 % (P fat, reduced bone loss and normal metabolic function compared with single transgenics. This protective phenotype was associated with decreased circulating insulin (70 %) and leptin (54 %; P fat diet. Additionally, Spry1 expression decreased adipose tissue inflammation by 45 %. We show that conditional Spry1 expression in adipose tissue protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and associated bone loss.

  8. Correlations between hematological, parasitological patterns and animal performance of sheep supplemented with protected fat

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso; Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa; Cecílio Viega Soares Filho; Eduardo Antonio da Cunha; Sílvia Helena Venturoli Perri; Fábio Luis Bonello; Caroline Marçal Gomes David

    2010-01-01

    The development of populations of gastrointestinal parasites resistant to antihelmintics has led to seeks new alternatives its control. Stimulation of natural immunity by means of animal nutrition has shown promising results in controlling nematodes in sheep. The addition of protected fat sources, containing essential fatty acids, may be an alternative due to many effects, among them, regulation of immunity expression and regulation of the inflammatory response by immune effectors. The aim of...

  9. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  10. Beef quality of young Angus×Nellore cattle supplemented with rumen-protected lipids during rearing and fatting periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E N; Polizel Neto, A; Roça, R O; Faria, M H; Resende, F D; Siqueira, G R; Pinheiro, R S B

    2014-12-01

    This work evaluated the beef quality parameters of 108 bulls randomly administered to three treatments during rearing in pastures and two treatments during fatting in feedlots, including mineral and rumen-protected lipids. Meat and fat color, cooking yield, shear force, sensorial traits and chemical and fatty acid compositions were evaluated. Generally, the beef quality parameters were not affected by the rumen protected lipids; however, supplementation with rumen-protected lipids during the rearing period yielded darker beef and brighter fat and increased beef tenderness in meat aged for 28days compared to the meat from animals that received only mineral supplementation. In addition, the percent of meat polyunsaturated fatty acids was negatively affected by the inclusion of protected lipids, yielding 5.58 and 3.72% in animals fed with and without rumen-protected lipids, respectively, during the fatting period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of enzymatic browning and protection of sulfhydryl enzymes by thiol compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, O; Ozawa, T

    2000-06-01

    In a reaction between (-)-epicatechin (EC) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), catalyzed by partially purified polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extracted from the style of Rhododendron mucronatum, 2'-(2-hydroxyethylthio)-(-)-epicatechin (2'-HETEC), 5'-(2-hydroxyethylthio)-(-)-epicatechin (5'-HETEC), and 2',5'-bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)-(-)-epicatechin (2',5'-HETEC) were formed. The rate of formation of 2',5'-HETEC from 5'-HETEC was faster than that from 2'-HETEC. In the absence of 2ME, the concentration of EC decreased rapidly and the reaction mixture turned brown; 2'-, 5'-, and 2',5'-HETEC, especially 2'-substituted HETECs. reacted more slowly. These data indicate that 2ME acts both as an inhibitor of the polymerization of O-quinone, presumably by binding to it and as a reductant involved in the conversion of O-quinone to O-dihydroxyphenol, Inhibition of enzymatic browning by other thiol compounds such as cysteine and dithiothreitol was also investigated.

  12. Hypothesis: Cryptochromes and brown fat are essential for adaptation and affect mood and mood-related behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo ePartonen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation and ambient temperature have acted as selective physical forces among populations and thereby guided species distributions in the globe. Circadian clocks are universal and evolve when subjected to selection, and their properties contribute to variations in fitness within specific environments. Concerning humans, as compared to the remaining, the evening owls have a greater deviation from the 24-hour cycle, are under a greater pressure to circadian desynchrony and more prone to a cluster of health hazards with the increased mortality. Because of their position in the hierarchy and repressive actions, cryptochromes are the key components of the feedback loops on which circadian clocks are built. Based on the evidence a new hypothesis is formulated in which brown adipocytes with their cryptochromes are responsive to a broad range of physical stimuli from the habitat and through their activity ensure adaptation of the individual. The over-activated brown adipose tissue with deficient cryptochromes might induce disrupted thermoregulation and circadian desynchrony, and thereby contribute to lowered mood and pronounced depressive behaviors.

  13. Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Shih-Guei; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (pdrinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (pdrinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (pdrinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective effect of lycopene on high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Jin; Wang, Jian; Li, Yuxia; Xiao, Li; Duan, Dan; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-08-03

    A Western diet, high in saturated fats, has been linked to the development of cognitive impairment. Lycopene has recently received considerable attention for its potent protective properties demonstrated in several models of nervous system dysfunction. However, it remains unclear whether lycopene exerts protective effects on cognition. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lycopene on learning and memory impairment and the potential underlying mechanism in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). One-month-old male rats were fed different diets for 16 weeks (n=12 per group), including a standard chow diet (CD), a HFD, or a HFD plus lycopene (4mg/kg, oral gavage in the last three weeks). Behavioral testing, including the Morris water maze (MWM), object recognition task (ORT), and anxiety-like behavior in an open field (OF), were assessed at week 16. The dendritic spine density and neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 subfield were subsequently measured. The results indicate that HFD consumption for 16 weeks significantly impaired spatial memory (Plycopene significantly attenuated learning and memory impairments and prevented the reduction in dendritic spine density (Plycopene helps to protect HFD induced cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Life in the fat lane: seasonal regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake, and adipose biology in brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigano, K S; Gehring, J L; Evans Hutzenbiler, B D; Chen, A V; Nelson, O L; Vella, C A; Robbins, C T; Jansen, H T

    2017-05-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have evolved remarkable metabolic adaptations including enormous fat accumulation during the active season followed by fasting during hibernation. However, these fluctuations in body mass do not cause the same harmful effects associated with obesity in humans. To better understand these seasonal transitions, we performed insulin and glucose tolerance tests in captive grizzly bears, characterized the annual profiles of circulating adipokines, and tested the anorectic effects of centrally administered leptin at different times of the year. We also used bear gluteal adipocyte cultures to test insulin and beta-adrenergic sensitivity in vitro. Bears were insulin resistant during hibernation but were sensitive during the spring and fall active periods. Hibernating bears remained euglycemic, possibly due to hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia. Adipokine concentrations were relatively low throughout the active season but peaked in mid-October prior to hibernation when fat content was greatest. Serum glycerol was highest during hibernation, indicating ongoing lipolysis. Centrally administered leptin reduced food intake in October, but not in August, revealing seasonal variation in the brain's sensitivity to its anorectic effects. This was supported by strong phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 labeling within the hypothalamus of hibernating bears; labeling virtually disappeared in active bears. Adipocytes collected during hibernation were insulin resistant when cultured with hibernation serum but became sensitive when cultured with active season serum. Heat treatment of active serum blocked much of this action. Clarifying the cellular mechanisms responsible for the physiology of hibernating bears may inform new treatments for metabolic disorders.

  17. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik, was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. MATERIALS/METHODS Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. RESULTS The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (P < 0.05). The hepatic peroxynitrite level was significantly lower, whereas glutathione was higher, in the GBRD group than in the RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group (P < 0.05). In addition, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) expression in the GBRD group was significantly lower than that in the RCD group. CONCLUSIONS GBRD decreases the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti

  18. Protective effects of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) on Cardiovascular Pathophysiology of Rats, Fed with High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthe, Pallavi Shantkumar; Patil, Bheemshetty S; Bagali, Shrilaxmi C; Reddy, R Chandramouli; Aithala, Manjunatha R; Das, Kusal K

    2017-09-01

    Dietary high fat alters lipid profile and possibly induce sympatho-vagal imbalance. Emblica officinalis is found to be potential antioxidant and possibly counteract hyperlipidemia induced lipid peroxidation. To assess Ethanolic extract of Emblica Officinalis (EEO) as lipid lowering and cardiovascular protective agent against high dietary fat supplemented to experimental rats. Further to study a comparative analysis between EEO and atorvastatin on hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular integrity. EEO was prepared and phytochemical analysis was done. Rats were divided into five groups, having six rats in each group as following; Group I-control (20% fat); Group II (+ EEO 100 mg/kg body wt); Group III (fed with high fat diet; 30% fat); Group IV (fed with high fat diet; 30% fat + EEO 100 mg/kg body wt) and Group V (fed with high fat diet; 30% fat + atorvastatin 4 mg/kg body wt). The treatments were continued for 21 days. Gravimetric parameters and electrophysiological parameters {Heart Rate (HR), sympatho-vagal balance} were recorded and lipid profiles of all the groups were measured. ANOVA, correlation and multiple regressions were done for analysis of data. Significant alteration in serum lipid profile was observed in rats fed with high dietary fat but supplementation of EEO was found to be reversible. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed altered HR and sympatho-vagal balance in high dietary fat fed rats (Group III) which indicate cardiac autonomic malfunctions which were found to be improved in Emblica officinalis supplemented group of rats (Group IV). Further, analysis has shown significant negative correlation between HDL/LDL and sympatho-vagal balance in all groups of rats which clearly indicate a role of dietary fat on sympatho-vagal balance. These results further corroborated with findings of histopathological study on myocardium and elastic artery. Observations from the study indicate a beneficial role of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) on

  19. Quantification of brown and white adipose tissue based on Gaussian mixture model using water-fat and T2* MRI in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Steve C N; Ko, Jacky K L; Zhang, Teng; Shi, Lin; Yeung, David K W; Wang, Defeng; Chan, Queenie; Chu, Winnie C W

    2017-09-01

    To develop a technique for the separation and quantification of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) using fat fraction and T2* intensity based on the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). Chemical-shift water-fat and T2* images were acquired at the neck, supraclavicular, interscapular, and paravertebral regions in 24 volunteers (Obese: n = 12, female/male = 6/6, body mass index [BMI] = 31.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2 , age = 16.1 ± 0.6; Normal weight: n = 12, female/male = 6/6, BMI = 21.2 ± 2.4 kg/m2 , age = 12.9 ± 2.4) using a 3T scanner with the chemical-shift water-fat mDixon sequence. BAT and WAT were clustered based on the Gaussian mixture model using the expectation-maximization algorithm. Results and reproducibility were compared and assessed using independent t-tests and intraclass correlation coefficient. BAT in obese participants was predominately found at the supraclavicular region and in normal-weight participants it was more scattered and distributed in interscapular-supraclavicular, axillary, and spine regions. Absolute volume of BAT was higher in the obese group (Obese: 315.2 mL [±89.1], Normal weight: 248.5 mL [±86.4]), but BAT/WAT ratios were significantly higher (P = 0.029) in the normal group. T2* of BAT (P = 0.04) and volume of WAT (P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the normals. Within-group comparison between male and female indicated no significant differences were found in volume (P = 0.776 (normal), 0.501 [obese]), T2* (P = 0.908 [normal], 0.249 [obese]) and fat-fraction of BAT (P = 0.985 [normal], 0.108 [obese]). The intraclass correlation coefficient showed a good reproducibility in volume (BAT: 0.997, WAT: 0.948), T2* (BAT: 0.969, WAT: 0.983), and fat-fraction (BAT: 0.952, WAT: 0.517). BAT identified by this method was in agreement with other studies in terms of location, fat-fraction value, and T2* intensity. The proposed GMM-based segmentation could be

  20. Abscisic acid enhances glucose disposal and induces brown fat activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Laura; Mannino, Elena; Scarfì, Sonia; Bruzzone, Santina; Magnone, Mirko; Sociali, Giovanna; Booz, Valeria; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Fresia, Chiara; Emionite, Laura; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Marini, Cecilia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2017-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone also present in animals, where it is involved in the regulation of innate immune cell function and of glucose disposal, through its receptor LANCL2. ABA stimulates glucose uptake by myocytes and pre-adipocytes in vitro and oral ABA improves glycemic control in rats and in healthy subjects. Here we investigated the role of the ABA/LANCL2 system in the regulation of glucose uptake and metabolism in adipocytes. Silencing of LANCL2 abrogated both the ABA- and insulin-induced increase of glucose transporter-4 expression and of glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes; conversely, overexpression of LANCL2 enhanced basal, ABA- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. As compared with insulin, ABA treatment of adipocytes induced lower triglyceride accumulation, CO 2 production and glucose-derived fatty acid synthesis. ABA per se did not induce pre-adipocyte differentiation in vitro, but stimulated adipocyte remodeling in terminally differentiated cells, with a reduction in cell size, increased mitochondrial content, enhanced O 2 consumption, increased transcription of adiponectin and of brown adipose tissue (BAT) genes. A single dose of oral ABA (1μg/kg body weight) increased BAT glucose uptake 2-fold in treated rats compared with untreated controls. One-month-long ABA treatment at the same daily dose significantly upregulated expression of BAT markers in the WAT and in WAT-derived preadipocytes from treated mice compared with untreated controls. These results indicate a hitherto unknown role of LANCL2 in adipocyte sensitivity to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and suggest a role for ABA in the induction and maintenance of BAT activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracing reveals central sensory circuits from brown fat and sensory denervation alters its thermogenic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Bartness, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and growth are controlled by its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation, but nerve fibers containing sensory-associated neuropeptides [substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)] also suggest sensory innervation. The central nervous system (CNS) projections of BAT afferents are unknown. Therefore, we used the H129 strain of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), an anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracer used to delineate sensory nerve circuits, to define these projections. HSV-1 was injected into interscapular BAT (IBAT) of Siberian hamsters and HSV-1 immunoreactivity (ir) was assessed 24, 48, 72, 96, and 114 h postinjection. The 96- and 114-h groups had the most HSV-1-ir neurons with marked infections in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray, olivary areas, parabrachial nuclei, raphe nuclei, and reticular areas. These sites also are involved in sympathetic outflow to BAT suggesting possible BAT sensory-SNS thermogenesis feedback circuits. We tested the functional contribution of IBAT sensory innervation on thermogenic responses to an acute (24 h) cold exposure test by injecting the specific sensory nerve toxin capsaicin directly into IBAT pads and then measuring core (T(c)) and IBAT (T(IBAT)) temperature responses. CGRP content was significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated IBAT demonstrating successful sensory nerve destruction. T(IBAT) and T(c) were significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated hamsters compared with the saline controls at 2 h of cold exposure. Thus the central sensory circuits from IBAT have been delineated for the first time, and impairment of sensory feedback from BAT appears necessary for the appropriate, initial thermogenic response to acute cold exposure.

  2. Protective effect of doxycycline on germinal epithelial loss caused by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; García-Rivera, Alejandro; Madrigal-Pérez, M Violeta M; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Alejandrina; Lugo-Radillo, Agustin; Galvan-Salazar, Hector R; Soriano-Hernández, Alejandro D; Gómez-Tapia, Fernando; Martinez-Martinez, Rafael; Valdez-Velazquez, Laura L; Newton-Sanchez, Oscar A; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Rafael; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Melnikov, Valery; Lara-Esqueda, Agustin; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose

    2014-05-01

    A high-fat diet and male obesity are aspects associated with germinal epithelial alterations and male infertility. Some reports have shown that certain tetracyclines can protect the germinal epithelium from toxic drugs. The aim of the present study design was to evaluate the possible effect of doxycycline on testicular germ cells in individuals fed a Western diet (atherogenic), using a murine model. Two groups of male mice (BALB/c) were fed a high-fat Western diet (HFD). One of these two groups was given doxycycline at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day (HFD+Dox). A third group was fed a standard rodent diet (SD group). After 6 months, the mice were euthanized and morphologic and histopathologic analyses were performed. Germinal epithelial height was similar between the SD group (54 μm) and the HFD+Dox group (53 μm) (p = 0.26), and it was significantly reduced in the HFD group (47 μm) (p = 0.0001). The degree of germinal epithelial loss (DGEL) was significantly lower in the SD (10) and HFD+Dox (12.5) groups than in the HFD group (30) (p = 0.0001 and =0.007, respectively). There were no differences in the DGEL between the SD and HFD+Dox groups (p = 0.42). Doxycycline administration was shown to prevent germinal epithelial loss in the testes of mice fed a high-fat diet. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical usefulness of doxycycline or its analogs in persons with a habitual high-fat diet.

  3. Slimming down fat makes neuropathic hippo: the Fat/Hippo tumor suppressor pathway protects adult neurons through regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Piera; Fanto, Manolis

    2011-08-01

    Polyglutamine diseases are accompanied by large-scale alterations of transcription that may be responsible for neurodegeneration. We have monitored early transcriptional alterations in a Drosophila model for dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) and reported the critical downregulation of the fat tumor suppressor gene. We show that, besides partially mediating neurodegeneration in the Drosophila model for DRPLA, fat and the downstream hippo pathway are essential for adult neuronal homeostasis. This function of the Fat/Hippo pathway is independent of the well-established actions on proliferation and cell polarity; rather it has an impact upon autophagy, which is blocked and ineffective in fat/hippo mutants. These findings reveal the unexpected role in postmitotic neuronal homeostasis of a tumor suppressor pathway and hint at a new player involved directly or indirectly in the regulation of autophagy.

  4. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice treatment high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Hui-Li; Hao, Chi-Long; Chen, Fu-Chih; Chen, Chun-Yun; Chen, Jia-Hao; Shen, Kuo-Ping

    2017-05-01

    To investigate using pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) to treat metabolic syndrome, we fed one group of mice standard-regular-diet (SRD) for 20 weeks and another group of mice high-fat-diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. We subdivided them into HFD group and HFD + PGBR group whose dietary carbohydrate was replaced with PGBR for 4 weeks. The HFD group gained more weight, had higher blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose and lipids, liver levels of TG, feces TG and bile acid, lower adipose levels of adipocytokine, lower skeletal muscle IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3 K, Akt/PKB, GLUT-1, GLUT-4, GCK and PPAR-γ; higher liver SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α, and higher adipose SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, and lower adipose PPAR-α and adiponectin. The HFD + PGBR group had clearly improved blood pressure, biochemical parameters and above proteins expressions. PGBR successful treatment of metabolic syndrome was achieved through improvements in glucose and lipid synthesis and metabolism.

  5. Pre-germinated brown rice prevented high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia through ameliorating lipid synthesis and metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Jia-Hao; Chen, Fu-Chih; Lin, Hui-Li

    2016-07-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) can ameliorate hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism is not clear. We focus the mechanisms of PGBR prevented hyperlipidemia. Six-week-old mice were divided into: standard-regular diet (SRD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD with PGBR (HFD + PGBR) groups for 16 weeks. The HFD group has higher concentrations of TG, TC, HDL and Non-HDL in the blood, and a higher atherosclerosis index (AI). The TG levels in the liver, and TG, bile acid levels in the feces were enhanced; and the total adipocytokines level in adipose tissue was reduced. The HFD group had higher protein expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, LDLR, and CYP7α1 in the liver. Moreover, the greater expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS and the less expressions of PPAR-α and adiponectin were in adipose tissue. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR regulated the levels of TG, TC, HDL, Non-HDL, AI and adipocytokines. PGBR increased more cholesterol and bile acid exhaust in feces. The SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α proteins in the liver; and the SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, PPAR-α and adiponectin proteins in adipose tissue were reversed by PGBR. Taken together, PGBR can improve lipid synthesis and metabolism, and we suggest PGBR is a recommendable food for controlling hyperlipidemia.

  6. Pre-germinated brown rice prevents high-fat diet induced hyperglycemia through elevated insulin secretion and glucose metabolism pathway in C57BL/6J strain mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Wu, Bin-Nan; Lin, Hui-Li

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect and mechanism of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) prevented hyperglycemia in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat-diet (HFD). Normal six-week-old mice were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 was fed standard-regular-diet (SRD) and group 2 was fed HFD for 16 weeks. In group 3, the mice were fed a HFD with its carbohydrate replaced with PGBR for 16 weeks. Comparing the SRD and HFD groups, we found the HFD group had higher blood pressure, higher concentrations of blood glucose and HbA1c. The HFD group had less protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) and glucokinase (GCK) and greater expression of glucogen synthase kinase (GSK) in skeletal muscle. The HFD group also had less expression of IR, serine/threonine kinase PI3K-linked protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), GCK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in liver. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR could reverse the disorders of blood pressure, blood glucose, HbA1c and increase insulin concentration. PGBR increased the IR, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 proteins, and ameliorated AMPK, GCK, GSK and PPARγ proteins. Together, PGBR prevented HFD-induced hyperglycemia through improving insulin levels, insulin receptor, glucose transporters and enhancing glucose metabolism.

  7. and Lactation Responses in Mid-lactating Dairy Cows Fed Protected Amino Acids and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Nam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ruminally protected amino acids (RPAAs and ruminally protected fat (RPF supplementation on ruminal fermentation characteristics (in vitro and milk yield and milk composition (in vivo. Fourteen mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows (mean weight 653±62.59 kg were divided into two groups according to mean milk yield and number of days of postpartum. The cows were then fed a basal diet during adaptation (2 wk and experimental diets during the treatment period (6 wk. Dietary treatments were i a basal diet (control and ii basal diet containing 50 g of RPAAs (lysine and methionine, 3:1 ratio and 50 g of RPF. In rumen fermentation trail (in vitro, RPAAs and RPF supplementation had no influence on the ruminal pH, dry matter digestibility, total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N concentration. In feeding trial (in vivo, milk yield (p<0.001, 4% fat corrected milk (p<0.05, milk fat (p<0.05, milk protein (p<0.001, and milk urea nitrogen (p<0.05 were greater in cows fed RPAAs and RPF than the corresponding values in the control group. With an index against as 0%, the rates of decrease in milk yield and milk protein were lower in RPAAs and RPF treated diet than those of basal diet group (p<0.05. In conclusion, diet supplemented with RPAAs and RPF can improve milk yield and milk composition without negatively affecting ruminal functions in Holstein dairy cows at mid-lactating.

  8. Mfn2 deletion in brown adipose tissue protects from insulin resistance and impairs thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdaviani, Kiana; Benador, Ilan Y; Su, Shi; Gharakhanian, Raffi A; Stiles, Linsey; Trudeau, Kyle M; Cardamone, Maria; Enríquez-Zarralanga, Violeta; Ritou, Eleni; Aprahamian, Tamar; Oliveira, Marcus F; Corkey, Barbara E; Perissi, Valentina; Liesa, Marc; Shirihai, Orian S

    2017-07-01

    BAT-controlled thermogenic activity is thought to be required for its capacity to prevent the development of insulin resistance. This hypothesis predicts that mediators of thermogenesis may help prevent diet-induced insulin resistance. We report that the mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in BAT is essential for cold-stimulated thermogenesis, but promotes insulin resistance in obese mice. Mfn2 deletion in mice through Ucp1-cre (BAT-Mfn2-KO) causes BAT lipohypertrophy and cold intolerance. Surprisingly however, deletion of Mfn2 in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) results in improved insulin sensitivity and resistance to obesity, while impaired cold-stimulated thermogenesis is maintained. Improvement in insulin sensitivity is associated with a gender-specific remodeling of BAT mitochondrial function. In females, BAT mitochondria increase their efficiency for ATP-synthesizing fat oxidation, whereas in BAT from males, complex I-driven respiration is decreased and glycolytic capacity is increased. Thus, BAT adaptation to obesity is regulated by Mfn2 and with BAT-Mfn2 absent, BAT contribution to prevention of insulin resistance is independent and inversely correlated to whole-body cold-stimulated thermogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  9. Frequent extreme cold exposure and brown fat and cold-induced thermogenesis: a study in a monozygotic twin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J Vosselman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as 'the Iceman', who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a 'normal' sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. METHODS: The Iceman (subject A and his brother (subject B were studied during mild cold (13°C and thermoneutral conditions (31°C. Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. RESULTS: Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal, within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G. CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%, but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. CONCLUSION: No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the

  10. Supplementation with methyl donors during lactation to high-fat-sucrose-fed dams protects offspring against liver fat accumulation when consuming an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, P; Milagro, F I; Campion, J; Martinez, J A

    2014-10-01

    Methyl donor supplementation has been reported to prevent obesity-induced liver fat accumulation in adult rats. We hypothesized that this protection could be mediated by perinatal nutrition. For this purpose, we assessed the response to an obesogenic diet (high-fat-sucrose, HFS) during adulthood depending on maternal diet during lactation. Female Wistar rats fed control diet during pregnancy were assigned to four postpartum dietary groups: control, control supplemented with methyl donors (choline, betaine, folic acid, vitamin B12), HFS and HFS supplemented with methyl donors. At weaning, the male offspring was transferred to a chow diet and at week 12th assigned to a control or a HFS diet during 8 weeks. The offspring whose mothers were fed HFS during lactation showed increased adiposity (19%, Pobesogenic diet in the adult progeny. Interestingly, dietary methyl donor supplementation in lactating mothers fed an obesogenic diet reduced liver fat accumulation, but increased adipose tissue storage in adult HFS-fed offspring.

  11. Raspberry ketone protects rats fed high-fat diets against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Meng, Xianjun; Zhang, Fengqing

    2012-05-01

    The protective effect of raspberry ketone against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was tested by using a high-fat diet-induced NASH model, and its mechanism was explored. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats with a 1:1 male to female ratio were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control (NC) group (n=8) fed normal diet for 8 weeks, the model control (MC) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet (82% standard diet, 8.3% yolk powder, 9.0% lard, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.2% sodium taurocholate), and the raspberry ketone low-dose (0.5%) (RKL) group (n=8), the raspberry ketone middle-dose (1%) (RKM) group (n=8), and the raspberry ketone high-dose (2%) (RKH) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet for 4 weeks. After 8 weeks of experiment, all the rats were sacrificed, and blood lipid parameters (total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), liver function parameters (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), leptin (LEP), free fatty acid (FFA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), blood glucose (GLU), and insulin (INS) with calculated INS resistance index (IRI) and INS-sensitive index (ISI) were measured in rats. Therefore, we determined the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activity in liver homogenate and the levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponection (APN), superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The liver tissues of rats in each group were imaged by electron microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin as the staining agent. The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, INS, IRI, FFA, LEP, TNF-α, MDA, and hs-CRP of MC rats were significantly increased (Praspberry ketone was an effective intervention for NASH in rats. It was believed that raspberry ketone had a dual effect of liver protection and fat reduction, and the mechanism was probably

  12. Unilateral brown fat on [{sup 18}F]-F.D.G. PET/CT in the follow-up of a pleural mesothelioma; Detection unilaterale de graisse brune en [{sup 18}F]-FDG TEP/TDM dans le suivi d'un mesotheliome pleural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waele, A. de; Deroose, C.M. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Hopitaux Universitaires de Leuven, UZ Leuven, Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire, Leuven (Belgium); Nafteux, P. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Hopitaux Universitaires de Leuven, Dept. de Chirurgie Thoracique, Leuven (Belgium); Nackaerts, K. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Hopitaux Universitaires de Leuven, Dept. de Pneumologie, Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-10-15

    The fixation of the fluorodeoxyglucose (F.D.G.) in the brown fat is generally characterized by a strongly symmetric setting in some areas of predilection.Is reported here the case of a patient that after having undergone a multi modal treatment for a pleural mesothelioma presents a unilateral F.D.G. fixation in the brown fat, this fixation can be inhibited by the administering of a beta adrenergic blocking agent. (N.C.)

  13. Free Fatty Acid Concentration and Carboxy methyl cellulase Activity of Some Formulas of Protected Fat-proteins Tested In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Hartati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the levels of free fatty acids and carboxymethylcellulase activity (cmc-ase activity of some protected fat-proteins base on in vitro Tilley and Terry method. Two sources of fat, i.e. crude palm oil and fish oil and three sources of protein i.e. skim milk, soybean flour and soybean meal were used in the formulation of protected fat-protein, and thus there were six treatment combinations. The filtrate from the in vitro test was analyzed for the levels of free fatty acids and  cmcase activity. The result of this research indicates that different combinations of feed materials and fat give different content of free fatty acid in first stage and second stage in vitro, with the best results in the combination treatment of skim milk and palm oil that give the lowest result of  free fatty acid concentration in fisrt stage in vitro (0.168% and the highest result free fatty acid concentration in second stage in vitro ( 4.312% . The activity of CMC-ase was not influenced by different  sources of fat and protein. It can be concluded was that the protection of the combination between skim milk and CPO gives the highest protection results.

  14. Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempel, Monica C; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Varady, Krista A

    2013-01-01

    Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a low-fat (LF) diet is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection. However, the applicability of these findings is questionable as the majority of Americans consume a high-fat (HF) diet. The goal of this study was to determine if these beneficial changes in body weight and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk can be reproduced if an HF background diet is used in place of an LF diet during ADF. Thirty-two obese subjects were randomized to an ADF-HF (45% fat) or ADF-LF diet (25% fat), which consisted of two phases: 1) a 2-week baseline weight maintenance period, and 2) an 8-week ADF weight loss period. All food was provided during the study. Body weight was reduced (PADF-HF (4.8%±1.1%) and by ADF-LF (4.2%±0.8%). Fat mass decreased (PADF-HF (5.4±1.5 kg) and ADF-LF (4.2±0.6 kg). Fat free mass remained unchanged. Waist circumference decreased (PADF-HF (7.2±1.5 cm) and ADF-LF (7.3±0.9 cm). LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were reduced (PADF-HF: 18.3%±4.6%, 13.7%±4.8%; and ADF-LF: 24.8%±2.6%, 14.3%±4.4%). HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and heart rate remained unchanged. There were no between-group differences for any parameter. These findings suggest that an ADF-HF diet is equally as effective as an ADF-LF diet in helping obese subjects lose weight and improve CHD risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Habitat Suitability Modelling of Brown Bear (Ursus arctos in Shimbar Protected Area, Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Obeidavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Status determination of wildlife habitats is very important in conservation programs and management of wildlife. So, in this study Ursus arctos habitat suitability was modeled using maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt in Shimbar protected area. In order to model the habitat suitability, after investigating and resolving the spatial autocorrelation of occurrence records, spatially independent localities were divided into the calibration and evaluation sets and then were combined with 10 environmental variables (VIF<10 selected by MMS software. The performance of predictive models was tested using AUC and jackknife validation test. So, we applied two different thresholds, the LPT threshold and 10% threshold to generate presence/absence map. Also other Jackknife tests applied to measure variables importance. The results showed that predictive model was more efficient than random model (AUC=0.980. In addition, the potential suitable areas cover 20.75% of study area. The MaxEnt model had 88.46% success rate and was statistically significant (P = 0.000. Results of Jackknife showed that ‘plant type’ variable alone contains valuable information for modelling. Our study demonstrated that habitat suitability was successfully predicted by MaxEnt modelling, so this methodology might provide a powerful tool for improving the wildlife habitats information.

  16. Comparison of cardiovascular protective effects of tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, on high-cholesterol/high-fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanjun, Patricia; Mohamed, Suhaila; Muhammad, Kharidah; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the comparative in vivo cardiovascular protective effects of red, green, and brown tropical seaweeds, namely, Kappaphycus alvarezii (or Eucheuma cottonii), Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, in rats fed on high-cholesterol/high-fat (HCF) diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 260-300 g) on the HCF diet had significantly increased body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), plasma triglycerides (TG), lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase levels after 16 weeks. Supplementing 5% seaweeds to HCF diet significantly reduced plasma TC (-11.4% to -18.5%), LDL-C (-22% to -49.3%), and TG (-33.7% to -36.1%) levels and significantly increased HDL-C levels (16.3-55%). Among the seaweeds, S. polycystum showed the best anti-obesity and blood GSH-Px properties, K. alvarezii showed the best antihyperlipemic and in vivo antioxidation effects, and C. lentillifera was most effective at reducing plasma TC. All seaweeds significantly reduced body weight gain, erythrocyte GSH-Px, and plasma lipid peroxidation of HCF diet rats towards the values of normal rats.

  17. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  18. Thermogenic capacity is antagonistically regulated in classical brown and white subcutaneous fat depots by high fat diet and endurance training in rats: impact on whole-body energy expenditure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Michelle V; Bikopoulos, George; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-01-01

    ...) and subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) white adipose tissue (WAT) and how it affects whole-body energy expenditure in sedentary and endurance-trained rats fed ad libitum either low fat or high fat (HF) diets...

  19. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  20. RGC32 deficiency protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Bing; Luan, Jun-Na; Ye, Jianping; Chen, Shi-You

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is an important independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and many other chronic diseases. Adipose tissue inflammation is a critical link between obesity and insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and a contributor to disease susceptibility and progression. The objective of this study was to determine the role of response gene to complement 32 (RGC32) in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. WT and RGC32 knockout (Rgc32(-/-) (Rgcc)) mice were fed normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Metabolic, biochemical, and histologic analyses were performed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were used to study the role of RGC32 in adipocytes in vitro. Rgc32(-/-) mice fed with HFD exhibited a lean phenotype with reduced epididymal fat weight compared with WT controls. Blood biochemical analysis and insulin tolerance test showed that RGC32 deficiency improved HFD-induced dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Although it had no effect on adipocyte differentiation, RGC32 deficiency ameliorated adipose tissue and systemic inflammation. Moreover, Rgc32(-/-) induced browning of adipose tissues and increased energy expenditure. Our data indicated that RGC32 plays an important role in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, and thus it may serve as a potential novel drug target for developing therapeutics to treat obesity and metabolic disorders. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Brown Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extraction) have also been linked to acquired Brown syndrome. Inflammation of the tendon-trochlea complex (from adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and sinusitis) can be ... syndrome hereditary? Hereditary cases of Brown syndrome are rare. ...

  2. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) protects ovariectomized rats fed with high-saturated fat-sucrose diet from bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X L; Yu, W X; Li, C M; He, S; Zhou, L P; Poon, C W; Wong, M S

    2018-01-01

    Dietary patterns may interfere with the efficacy of herbal intervention. Our results demonstrated the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza aqueous extract (SMA) on bone metabolism were influenced by levels of dietary fat and sucrose in ovariectomized (OVX) rats through its actions on attenuating lipid deposition and oxidative stress in rats. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), also known as Danshen, has been tested as an osteoporosis treatment in a series of small, short human trials that generally report improvements in bone property. However, dietary patterns may interfere with the effects of herbal intervention. We hypothesized that dietary fat and sucrose levels could influence the effects of SM supplementation on bone in estrogen-deficient animals. Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley sham or OVX rats were fed either a low-saturated fat-sucrose (LFS, a diet that was similar in composition to normal rat chow) or a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet and OVX rats were treated (8 rats/group) with SM aqueous extract (SMA, 600 mg/kg/day), 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg/day), or vehicle for 12 weeks. SMA significantly improved bone properties as revealed by the increase in trabecular bone mineral density and decrease in trabecular separation at proximal metaphysis of the tibia (PT) in HFS-fed OVX rats, but not in LFS-fed OVX rats. SMA greatly reduced lipid deposition and malondialdehyde levels, improved the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the livers of HFS-fed OVX rats. SMA could directly improve the proliferation and differentiation in vitro in an H2O2-induced preosteoblast cell model by attenuating cellular reactive oxygen species levels. The protective effects of SMA on bone metabolism were influenced by dietary fat and sucrose levels in OVX rats. The ability of SMA to reduce bone loss in HFS-fed OVX rats was associated with the attenuation of lipid deposition and oxidative stress levels.

  3. Protective effects of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn against fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiuxian; Zhang, Qin; Xiao, Wei; Shao, Meng; Fan, Qin; Zhang, Hongwei; Zou, Yukai; Li, Xin; Xu, Wenxue; Mo, Zhixian; Cai, Hongbing

    2014-07-18

    Study the effects of alcohol extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (AESM) on the metabolism of blood fat, morphology of fenestrated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), and the ultrastructure of liver cells of the rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Divide SD rats into control group, model group, simvastatin (7.2 mg/kg) group, and S.mukorossi Gaertn group with high dosage (0.5 g/kg), moderate dosage (0.1 g/kg), and low dosage (0.05 g/kg). After feeding with fat-rich nutrients for 3 weeks and establishing the model of hepatic adipose, conduct intragastric administration and provide the rats with fat-rich nutrients at the same time. At the 43rd day, take blood sample and measure aminotransferase and different indexes of blood fat; take hepatic tissue for pathological section, and observe the hepatic morphological patterns under light microscope; obtain and fix the hepatic tissue after injecting perfusate into the body, and observe the changes of fenestrated LSEC under scanning electron microscope; observe the ultrastructure of liver cells under transmission electron microscope. High-dosage alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can alleviate the AST, ALT, TC, TG, LDL, γ-GT, and ALP level, as well as raise the HDL and APN level in the serum of NAFLD-rat model. In addition, through the observation from light microscope and electron microscopes, the morphology of the hepatic tissue and liver cells as well as the recovery of the fenestrated LSEC in the treatment group has become normal. Alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can regulate the level of blood fat and improve the pathological changes of the hepatic tissues in NAFLD-rat model, which demonstrates the effects of down-regulating fat level and protecting liver. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. A protective lipidomic biosignature associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in fat-1 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Astarita

    Full Text Available A balanced omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA ratio has been linked to health benefits and the prevention of many chronic diseases. Current dietary intervention studies with different sources of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 lack appropriate control diets and carry many other confounding factors derived from genetic and environmental variability. In our study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model as a proxy for long-term omega-3 supplementation to determine, in a well-controlled manner, the molecular phenotype associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The fat-1 mouse can convert omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs, which protect against a wide variety of diseases including chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Both wild-type (WT and fat-1 mice were subjected to an identical diet containing 10% corn oil, which has a high omega-6 content similar to that of the Western diet, for a six-month duration. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to compare the plasma lipidome between fat-1 and WT mice. In fat-1 mice, an unbiased profiling showed a significant increase in the levels of unesterified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, EPA-containing cholesteryl ester, and omega-3 lysophosphospholipids. The increase in omega-3 lipids is accompanied by a significant reduction in omega-6 unesterified docosapentaenoic acid (omega-6 DPA and DPA-containing cholesteryl ester as well as omega-6 phospholipids and triacylglycerides. Targeted lipidomics profiling highlighted a remarkable increase in EPA-derived diols and epoxides formed via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450 pathway in the plasma of fat-1 mice compared with WT mice. Integration of the results of untargeted and targeted analyses has identified a lipidomic biosignature that may underlie the healthful phenotype associated with a balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio, and can potentially be used as a circulating biomarker for monitoring the health status and the efficacy of omega-3 intervention in humans.

  5. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn

    2007-01-01

    to infective salmon lice larvae in the laboratory immediately before release in the inner part of the fjord to simulate a naturally high infection pressure. Groups of infected Atlantic salmon (n = 20) and brown trout (n = 12) were also retained in the hatchery to control the infection intensity and lice...

  6. Protective effects of some fruit juices with low-fat diet on rat testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological sections of testis indicated that low-fat diet has obvious effects than basal diet in both the low-fat diet with CCl4 "LdC""con++", LdC with grape juice 2 ml "grpL2", LdC with pomegranate juice 2 ml "pomL2" and hyper effect in LdC with pomegranate juice 4 ml "pomL4" while it was equal in effect with basal diet in ...

  7. Protective effects of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn against fatty liver disease induced by high fat diet in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Qiuxian [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhang, Qin; Xiao, Wei; Shao, Meng; Fan, Qin; Zhang, Hongwei [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Zou, Yukai [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, Xin [Cancer Research Institute of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Wenxue; Mo, Zhixian [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Cai, Hongbing, E-mail: chbing2008@163.com [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • AESM is able to prevent the elevation of ALT and AST, and to decreased LDL-C level. • AESM demonstrates the effects of down-regulating blood fat level and protecting liver. • AESM consistent with the efficacy of simvastatin in NAFLD. - Abstract: Objectives: Study the effects of alcohol extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (AESM) on the metabolism of blood fat, morphology of fenestrated liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), and the ultrastructure of liver cells of the rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Divide SD rats into control group, model group, simvastatin (7.2 mg/kg) group, and S.mukorossi Gaertn group with high dosage (0.5 g/kg), moderate dosage (0.1 g/kg), and low dosage (0.05 g/kg). After feeding with fat-rich nutrients for 3 weeks and establishing the model of hepatic adipose, conduct intragastric administration and provide the rats with fat-rich nutrients at the same time. At the 43rd day, take blood sample and measure aminotransferase and different indexes of blood fat; take hepatic tissue for pathological section, and observe the hepatic morphological patterns under light microscope; obtain and fix the hepatic tissue after injecting perfusate into the body, and observe the changes of fenestrated LSEC under scanning electron microscope; observe the ultrastructure of liver cells under transmission electron microscope. Results: High-dosage alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can alleviate the AST, ALT, TC, TG, LDL, γ-GT, and ALP level, as well as raise the HDL and APN level in the serum of NAFLD-rat model. In addition, through the observation from light microscope and electron microscopes, the morphology of the hepatic tissue and liver cells as well as the recovery of the fenestrated LSEC in the treatment group has become normal. Conclusions: Alcohol extracts of S.mukorossi Gaertn can regulate the level of blood fat and improve the pathological changes of the hepatic tissues in NAFLD-rat model, which

  8. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  9. Skin-specific Deletion of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Alters Skin Lipid Composition and Protects Mice from High Fat Diet-induced Obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harini Sampath; Matthew T. Flowers; Xueqing Liu; Chad M. Paton; Ruth Sullivan; Kiki Chu; Minghui Zhao; James M. Ntambi

    2009-01-01

    .... In addition, SKO mice have significantly increased energy expenditure and are protected from high fat diet-induced obesity, thereby recapitulating the hypermetabolic phenotype of global SCD1 deficiency...

  10. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pobese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet,) 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet), 35...... and inflammation were increased in muscles in response to EPO expression, while genes involved in glucose metabolism were down-regulated. In addition, muscular fat oxidation was increased 1.8-fold in both the EPO transfected and contralateral muscles.In conclusion, we have shown that EPO when expressed in supra......-physiological levels has substantial metabolic effects including protection against diet-induced obesity and normalisation of glucose sensitivity associated with a shift to increased fat metabolism in the muscles....

  11. A protective effect of milk fat globule EGF factor VIII (MFG-E8) on the spontaneous fusion of milk fat globules in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasueda, Takehiko; Oshima, Kenzi; Nakatani, Hajime; Tabuchi, Kanji; Nadano, Daita; Matsuda, Tsukasa

    2015-07-01

    Lipid droplets synthesized in mammary epithelial cells are secreted into breast milk by the budding-off mechanism. The milk lipids, termed mik fat globules (MFGs), are surrounded with the cell plasma membrane and contain various membrane proteins, including milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (EGF)-factor VIII (MFG-E8), on their surface. We report here that the MFGs in the milk of MFG-E8-deficient mice fused each other and turned into abnormally large size of lipid droplets within ∼48 h after being secreted into mammary alveolar lumen in situ or being incubated at 37°C in vitro. This biophysical degeneration of MFGs in the MFG-E8-deficient milk was efficiently rescued in vitro by adding the milk serum of wild-type mice, isolated MFG-E8 or annexin V. Moreover, addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (30 mM) also protected the MFG fusion remarkably in vitro. In addition, bovine MFGs also fused each other when isolated from milk serum, and the fusion was inhibited by adding isolated MFG-E8 or mouse milk serum, but not the milk serum of MFG-E8-deficient mice. MFG-E8 in breast milk may mask the phosphatidylserine exposed on the surface of MFGs with time after secretion and thereby suppress the membrane fusion among MFGs resulting in the enlargement of MFGs in the breast milk. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by myostatin/follistatin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan eSingh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops from perturbations of cellular bioenergetics, when energy uptake exceeds energy expenditure, and represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT has long been known to dissipate energy as heat and contribute to energy expenditure, but its presence and physiological role in adult human physiology has been questioned for years. Recent demonstrations of metabolically active brown fat depots in adult humans have revolutionized current therapeutic approaches for obesity-related diseases. The balance between white adipose tissue (WAT and BAT affects the systemic energy balance and is widely believed to be the key determinant in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily play an important role in regulating overall energy homeostasis by modulation of brown adipocyte characteristics. Inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3/myostatin (Mst signaling promotes browning of white adipocytes, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and protects mice from diet-induced obesity, suggesting the need for development of a novel class of TGF-β/Mst antagonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. We recently described an important role of follistatin (Fst, a soluble glycoprotein that is known to bind and antagonize Mst actions, during brown fat differentiation and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here we highlight various investigations performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to support the contention that targeting TGF-β/Mst signaling enhances brown adipocyte functions and regulates energy balance, reducing insulin resistance and curbing the development of obesity and diabetes.

  13. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3 is not required for fatty acid synthesis and does not protect against high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W Renner

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3 is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Previous characterization of Car3 knockout mice focused on mice fed standard diets, not high-fat diets that significantly alter the tissues that highly express Car3. We observed lower protein levels of Car3 in high-fat diet fed mice treated with niclosamide, a drug published to improve fatty liver symptoms in mice. However, it is unknown if Car3 is simply a biomarker reflecting lipid accumulation or whether it has a functional role in regulating lipid metabolism. We focused our in vitro studies toward metabolic pathways that require bicarbonate. To further determine the role of Car3 in metabolism, we measured de novo fatty acid synthesis with in vitro radiolabeled experiments and examined metabolic biomarkers in Car3 knockout and wild type mice fed high-fat diet. Specifically, we analyzed body weight, body composition, metabolic rate, insulin resistance, serum and tissue triglycerides. Our results indicate that Car3 is not required for de novo lipogenesis, and Car3 knockout mice fed high-fat diet do not have significant differences in responses to various diets to wild type mice.

  14. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  15. Mitochondrial-Targeted Catalase Protects Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Muscle Insulin Resistance by Decreasing Intramuscular Lipid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Alves, Tiago; Ladiges, Warren; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Jurczak, Michael J; Choi, Cheol Soo; Shulman, Gerald I; Samuel, Varman T

    2017-08-01

    We explored the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathogenesis of muscle insulin resistance. We assessed insulin action in vivo with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in mice expressing a mitochondrial-targeted catalase (MCAT) that were fed regular chow (RC) or a high-fat diet (HFD) or underwent an acute infusion of a lipid emulsion. RC-fed MCAT mice were similar to littermate wild-type (WT) mice. However, HFD-fed MCAT mice were protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. In contrast, an acute lipid infusion caused muscle insulin resistance in both MCAT and WT mice. ROS production was decreased in both HFD-fed and lipid-infused MCAT mice and cannot explain the divergent response in insulin action. MCAT mice had subtly increased energy expenditure and muscle fat oxidation with decreased intramuscular diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation, protein kinase C-θ (PKCθ) activation, and impaired insulin signaling with HFD. In contrast, the insulin resistance with the acute lipid infusion was associated with increased muscle DAG content in both WT and MCAT mice. These studies suggest that altering muscle mitochondrial ROS production does not directly alter the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance. However, the altered energy balance in HFD-fed MCAT mice protected them from DAG accumulation, PKCθ activation, and impaired muscle insulin signaling. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Song, Yeong Ok

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik, was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is ...

  17. Exercise protects against high-fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Al-Massadi, Omar; Donelan, Elizabeth; Lehti, Maarit; Weber, Jon; Ress, Chandler; Trivedi, Chitrang; Müller, Timo D; Woods, Stephen C; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2012-06-25

    Hypothalamic inflammation is a potentially important process in the pathogenesis of high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders that has recently received significant attention. Microglia are macrophage-like cells of the central nervous system which are activated by pro-inflammatory signals causing local production of specific interleukins and cytokines, and these in turn may further promote systemic metabolic disease. Whether or how this microglial activation can be averted or reversed is unknown. Since running exercise improves systemic metabolic health and has been found to promote neuronal survival as well as the recovery of brain functions after injury, we hypothesized that regular treadmill running may blunt the effect of western diet on hypothalamic inflammation. Using low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (l dlr-/-) mice to better reflect human lipid metabolism, we first confirmed that microglial activation in the hypothalamus is severely increased upon exposure to a high-fat, or "western", diet. Moderate, but regular, treadmill running exercise markedly decreased hypothalamic inflammation in these mice. Furthermore, the observed decline in microglial activation was associated with an improvement of glucose tolerance. Our findings support the hypothesis that hypothalamic inflammation can be reversed by exercise and suggest that interventions to avert or reverse neuronal damage may offer relevant potential in obesity treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective effect of brown Brazilian propolis against acute vaginal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice: involvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Gláubia; Pesarico, Ana Paula; Pinton, Simone; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Roman, Silvane Souza; Pauletto, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Luiz Carlos; Prigol, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Propolis has been highlighted for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate if brown Brazilian hydroalcoholic propolis extract (HPE) protects against vaginal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in female BALB/c mice. The treatment was divided in 5 days of pre-treatment with HPE [50 mg · kg(-1), once a day, intragastric (i.g.)], HSV-2 infection [10 µl of a solution 1 × 10(2) plaque-forming unit (PFU · ml(-1) HSV-2), intravaginal inoculation at day 6] and post-treatment with HPE (50 mg · kg(-1)) for 5 days more. At day 11, the animals were killed, and the in vivo analysis (score of lesions) and ex vivo analysis [haematological and histological evaluation; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities; reactive species (RS), tyrosine nitration levels, non-protein thiols (NPSH) and ascorbic acid (AA) levels] were carried out. HPE treatment reduced extravaginal lesions and the histological damage caused by HSV-2 infection in vaginal tissues of animals. HPE was able to decrease RS, tyrosine nitration, AA levels and MPO activity. Also, it protected against the inhibition of CAT activity in vaginal tissues of mice. HPE promoted protective effect on HSV-2 infected animals by acting on inflammatory and oxidative processes, and this effect probably is caused by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Protective Effects of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra betacea Extract against High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Atiqah Aizan Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Cyphomandra betacea in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high fat diet. Rats were fed on either normal chow or high fat diet for 10 weeks for obesity induction phase and subsequently received C. betacea extract at low dose (150 mg kg−1, medium dose (200 mg kg−1, or high dose (300 mg kg−1 or placebo via oral gavages for another 7 weeks for treatment phase. Treatment of obese rats with C. betacea extracts led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL-C (p<0.05. Also there was a trend of positive reduction in blood glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-C with positive reduction of body weight detected in medium and high dosage of C. betacea extract. Interestingly, C. betacea treated rats showed positive improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity along with a significant increase of total antioxidant status (TAS (p<0.05. Further, rats treated with C. betacea show significantly lower in TNF-α and IL-6 activities (p<0.05. This study demonstrates the potential use of Cyphomandra betacea extract for weight maintenance and complimentary therapy to suppress some obesity complication signs.

  20. Protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against dyslipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bobae; Park, Kun-Young; Ji, Yosep; Park, Soyoung; Holzapfel, Wilhelm; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2016-04-29

    Recent reports suggest that gut microbiota can be a major determinant of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its modulation by treating probiotics is a valid strategy to exert a protective effect. In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were orally administrated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) for 13 weeks. Significant reductions in the weights of the liver, mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissues were observed in LGG-treated HFD-fed mice compared to LGG-non-treated controls. The serum levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were also significantly reduced in LGG-treated mice. Gut microbial composition analysis showed that shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria were caused by HFD and restored by LGG treatment. A remarkable decrease of hepatic fat content was also observed in LGG-treated mice, accompanied by downregulated expressions of lipogenic and pro-inflammatory genes in the liver. LGG-treated mice had lower expression levels of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, but conversely, higher expression levels of cholesterol efflux-related genes compared to LGG-non-treated controls. The cholesterol-lowering effect of LGG was also found to be mediated by suppression of FXR and FGF15 signaling, resulting in the upregulation of hepatic CYP7A1. Our findings confirm a therapeutic potential of probiotics for ameliorating dyslipidemia and NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective effect of thymol on high fat diet induced diabetic nephropathy in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Settu; Pari, Leelevinothan

    2016-02-05

    Obesity is one of several factors implicated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thymol, a monoterpene phenolic compound found in the oils of thyme with multiple biological properties especially antidiabetic activity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the thymol against diabetic nephropathy by high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice. After 10 weeks of continuous dietary intervention, HFD (fat- 35.2%) to mice presented characteristic features of progressive nephropathy by significant increased in kidney weight, blood, and urinary parameters, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and subsequent renal injuries. After intragastric administration of thymol (40 mg/kg BW) daily for the subsequent 5 weeks significantly decreased the blood, urinary parameters and kidney weight. Thymol inhibited the activation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Also, significantly increased the antioxidants and suppresses the lipid peroxidation markers in erythrocytes and kidney tissue compared to the diabetic mice. Thymol downregulated the expression level of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and reduced the lipid accumulation in renal. Histopathological study of kidney tissues showed that extracellular mesangial matrix expansion, glomerulosclerosis in diabetic mice were suppressed by thymol. Further, our results indicate that administration of thymol afforded remarkable protection against HFD-induced diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. [Protective effects of sulforaphane on the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondria complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongfeng; Li, Yajie; Liang, Bing; Wang, Shuran

    2014-11-01

    To realize the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondrial complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet and investigate the protective effects of sulforaphane against the damage. Eighty-eight adult male SD rats were used, after 1 week adaptability feeding, 8 rats were selected as control group and given low-fat diet. The other 80 rats were given high-fat diet. After 2 weeks, the 32 diet-induced obesity models were choosen whose weight gain was higher than 40%. The 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e. high fat group, high fat+sulforaphane low dose group, high fat+sulforaphane middle dose group and high fat+sulforaphane high dose group. The rats in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were orally administered with sulforaphane 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, all the 4 groups were kept feeding high-fat diet for 5 weeks. All rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed to assay the index of oxidative damages. The content of ROS (0.26 ± 0.04) and MDA((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg) in the hight-fat group were significantly higher than those in the control group((0.20 ± 0.02),(0.57 ± 0.08) U/mg)(t values were -3.02 and -4.72, P sulforaphane, the MDA amount ((0.67 ± 0.05), (0.55 ± 0.05), (0.56 ± 0.07) U/mg) in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were lower than the hight-fat group ((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg (t values were 3.65, 5.71 and 5.60. P sulforaphane low and middle dose groups ((69.12 ± 8.63), (64.43 ± 6.58) U/mg) were higher than those in the high-fat group((53.03 ± 5.70) U/mg)(t values were -3.82 and -2.71, P 0.05). High-fat diet can induce the mitochondrial oxidative dysfunction in kidney, and sulforaphane shows protective effect on the kidney mitochondrial complex from oxidative damage in obese rats induced by high-fat diet.

  3. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Aleksunes, Lauren M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy and Environmental and Occupational Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Guo, Grace L., E-mail: lguo@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  4. Brown Fat AKT2 Is a Cold-Induced Kinase that Stimulates ChREBP-Mediated De Novo Lipogenesis to Optimize Fuel Storage and Thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Tang, Yuefeng; Jespersen, Naja Zenius; Wallace, Martina; Martinez Calejman, Camila; Gujja, Sharvari; Li, Huawei; Edwards, Yvonne J K; Wolfrum, Christian; Metallo, Christian M; Nielsen, Søren; Scheele, Camilla; Guertin, David A

    2017-11-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a therapeutic target for metabolic diseases; thus, understanding its metabolic circuitry is clinically important. Many studies of BAT compare rodents mildly cold to those severely cold. Here, we compared BAT remodeling between thermoneutral and mild-cold-adapted mice, conditions more relevant to humans. Although BAT is renowned for catabolic β-oxidative capacity, we find paradoxically that the anabolic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) genes encoding ACLY, ACSS2, ACC, and FASN were among the most upregulated by mild cold and that, in humans, DNL correlates with Ucp1 expression. The regulation and function of adipocyte DNL and its association with thermogenesis are not understood. We provide evidence suggesting that AKT2 drives DNL in adipocytes by stimulating ChREBPβ transcriptional activity and that cold induces the AKT2-ChREBP pathway in BAT to optimize fuel storage and thermogenesis. These data provide insight into adipocyte DNL regulation and function and illustrate the metabolic flexibility of thermogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice diet on low levels of Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Hongzhi; Tian, Su; Yin, Jie; Chen, Qing; Ma, Li; Cui, Shijie; Niu, Yujie

    2010-03-30

    Lead (Pb) is a known neurotoxicant in humans and experimental animals. Numerous studies have provided evidence that humans, especially young children, and animals chronically intoxicated with low levels of Pb show learning and memory impairments. Unfortunately, Pb-poisoning cases continue to occur in many countries. Because the current treatment options are very limited, there is a need for alternative methods to attenuate Pb toxicity. In this study, the weaning (postnatal day 21, PND21) rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group (AIN-93G diet, de-ionized water), the lead acetate (PbAC) group (AIN-93G diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water), the lead acetate+WR group (white rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+WR), the lead acetate+BR group (brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+BR) and the lead acetate+PR group (pre-germinated brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+PR). The animals received the different diets until PND60, and then the experiments were terminated. The protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PR) on Pb-induced learning and memory impairment in weaning rats were assessed by the Morris water maze and one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The anti-oxidative effects of feeding a PR diet to Pb-exposed rats were evaluated. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were determined by HPLC. Our data showed that feeding a PR diet decreased the accumulation of lead and decreased Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rats. The mechanisms might be related to the anti-oxidative effects and large amount of GABA in PR. Our study provides a regimen to reduce Pb-induced toxicity, especially future learning and memory deficits in the developing brain.

  6. Fermented garlic protects diabetic, obese mice when fed a high-fat diet by antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Mi; Lee, Seon-Ha; Lee, Dong-Sub; You, Myung-Jin; Chung, In Kwon; Cheon, Woo Hyun; Kwon, Young-Sam; Lee, Young-Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the bioactivity of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)-fermented aged black garlic (FBG) on obese mice supplied a high-fat diet (HFD) and its in vitro antioxidant activity. Aged black garlic (BG) exhibits potent antioxidative effects and has been subjected to extensive research. In addition, the bioactivity of some natural products is increased by fermentation. In a preliminary test, this study found that the antioxidant activity of FBG is stronger than that of BG. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the bioactivity of BG would be increased by yeast fermentation and would be a good candidate as a nutraceutical product for improving the oxidative defense systems in older patients or patients affected by various oxidative stresses, for example, diabetes and diabetic complications. To test this hypothesis, the bioactivities of FBG in diabetic and obese mice as well as the antioxidant activity in vitro were examined. After 91 days of continuous HFD supply, the mice showed marked obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, and liver and kidney damages. Black garlic and all 3 different doses of FBG showed favorable hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, and antiobesity effects compared with the HFD control, but no hypoglycemic effects. In particular, more favorable bioactivity against all 4 HFD-induced diabetic complications was detected in the FBG-treated groups compared with the group given equivalent doses of BG. These findings suggest that the bioactivities of BG can be improved by yeast fermentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The antidepressant trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Shemesh

    Full Text Available Mice treated with the antidepressant trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (2-PCPA were protected against diet-induced-obesity, and adiposity was reversed in pre-established diet-induced obese mice. Contrary to a recent report that inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase-1 by 2-PCPA results in increased energy expenditure, long-term 2-PCPA treatment had no such effect but its protection against obesity was associated with increased spontaneous locomotor activity, Moreover, pair feeding to assure equal caloric intake in wild type mice as well as in genetic hyperphagic mice (ob/ob also resulted in weight reduction in 2-PCPA treated mice that correlated with increased activity but no change in energy expenditure. Similarly, short-term intraperitoneal injections of 2-PCPA did not affect food intake but caused a substantial increase in locomotor activity in the light cycle that correlated with increased energy expenditure, whereas activity and energy expenditure were unchanged in the dark cycle. Lastly, 2-PCPA was also effective in reducing obesity in genetic UCP1 null mice. These data suggest that 2-PCPA can reduce obesity by decreasing food intake in the long term while increasing activity in the short-term. However, the protective and weight loss effects of 2-PCPA are independent of UCP1-regulated thermogenesis or basal energy expenditure.

  8. Pharmacological and Genetic Manipulation of p53 in Brown Fat at Adult But Not Embryonic Stages Regulates Thermogenesis and Body Weight in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Massadi, Omar; Porteiro, Begoña; Kuhlow, Doreen; Köhler, Markus; Gonzalez-Rellan, María J; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Díaz-Rodríguez, Esther; Quiñones, Mar; Senra, Ana; Alvarez, Clara V; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Schulz, Tim J; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor that plays multiple biological roles, including the capacity to modulate metabolism at different levels. However, its metabolic role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) remains largely unknown. Herein we sought to investigate the physiological role of endogenous p53 in BAT and its implication on BAT thermogenic activity and energy balance. To this end, we generated and characterized global p53-null mice and mice lacking p53 specifically in BAT. Additionally we performed gain-and-loss-of-function experiments in the BAT of adult mice using virogenetic and pharmacological approaches. BAT was collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, thermography, real-time PCR, and Western blot. p53-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity due to increased energy expenditure and BAT activity. However, the deletion of p53 in BAT using a Myf5-Cre driven p53 knockout did not show any changes in body weight or the expression of thermogenic markers. The acute inhibition of p53 in the BAT of adult mice slightly increased body weight and inhibited BAT thermogenesis, whereas its overexpression in the BAT of diet-induced obese mice reduced body weight and increased thermogenesis. On the other hand, pharmacological activation of p53 improves body weight gain due to increased BAT thermogenesis by sympathetic nervous system in obese adult wild-type mice but not in p53(-/-) animals. These results reveal that p53 regulates BAT metabolism by coordinating body weight and thermogenesis, but these metabolic actions are tissue specific and also dependent on the developmental stage.

  9. The NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Carles; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Pirinen, Eija; Youn, Dou Y.; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Cen, Yana; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Andreux, Pénélope A.; Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Gademann, Karl; Rinsch, Chris; Schoonjans, Kristina; Sauve, Anthony A.; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY As NAD+ is a rate-limiting co-substrate for the sirtuin enzymes, its modulation is emerging as a valuable tool to regulate sirtuin function and, consequently, oxidative metabolism. In line with this premise, decreased activity of PARP-1 or CD38 —both NAD+ consumers— increases NAD+ bioavailability, resulting in SIRT1 activation and protection against metabolic disease. Here we evaluated whether similar effects could be achieved by increasing the supply of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a recently described natural NAD+ precursor with the ability to increase NAD+ levels, Sir2-dependent gene silencing and replicative lifespan in yeast. We show that NR supplementation in mammalian cells and mouse tissues increases NAD+ levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism and protection against high fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, our results indicate that the natural vitamin, NR, could be used as a nutritional supplement to ameliorate metabolic and age-related disorders characterized by defective mitochondrial function. PMID:22682224

  10. The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Carles; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Pirinen, Eija; Youn, Dou Y; Oosterveer, Maaike H; Cen, Yana; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Andreux, Pénélope A; Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Gademann, Karl; Rinsch, Chris; Schoonjans, Kristina; Sauve, Anthony A; Auwerx, Johan

    2012-06-06

    As NAD(+) is a rate-limiting cosubstrate for the sirtuin enzymes, its modulation is emerging as a valuable tool to regulate sirtuin function and, consequently, oxidative metabolism. In line with this premise, decreased activity of PARP-1 or CD38-both NAD(+) consumers-increases NAD(+) bioavailability, resulting in SIRT1 activation and protection against metabolic disease. Here we evaluated whether similar effects could be achieved by increasing the supply of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a recently described natural NAD(+) precursor with the ability to increase NAD(+) levels, Sir2-dependent gene silencing, and replicative life span in yeast. We show that NR supplementation in mammalian cells and mouse tissues increases NAD(+) levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism and protection against high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, our results indicate that the natural vitamin NR could be used as a nutritional supplement to ameliorate metabolic and age-related disorders characterized by defective mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Muscle-Specific IRS-1 Ser→Ala Transgenic Mice Are Protected From Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katsutaro Morino; Susanne Neschen; Stefan Bilz; Saki Sono; Dimitrios Tsirigotis; Richard M. Reznick; Irene Moore; Yoshio Nagai; Varman Samuel; David Sebastian; Morris White; William Philbrick; Gerald I. Shulman

    2008-01-01

    Muscle-Specific IRS-1 Ser→Ala Transgenic Mice Are Protected From Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle Katsutaro Morino 1 2 , Susanne Neschen 1 2 , Stefan Bilz 2 , Saki Sono 2 , Dimitrios Tsirigotis 2 3 , Richard M...

  12. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...

  13. Angptl4 Protects against Severe Proinflammatory Effects of Saturated Fat by Inhibiting Fatty Acid Uptake into Mesenteric Lymph Node Macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenstein, L.L.; Mattijssen, F.B.J.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Georgiadi, A.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Meer, van der R.; He, Y.; Qi, L.; Köster, A.; Tamsma, J.T.; Tan, N.S.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary saturated fat is linked to numerous chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Here we study the role of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor Angptl4 in the response to dietary saturated fat. Strikingly, in mice lacking Angptl4, saturated fat induces a severe and lethal phenotype

  14. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestion was studied in three dairy cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum. Cows were fed encapsulated fat sources (vegetable oil, saturated fat and fish oil). A preperiod diet was fed with no added fat. In a graeco-latin design nine diets comprising three levels of each of ...

  15. Activation and recruitment of brown adipose tissue by cold exposure and food ingredients in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Matsushita, Mami

    2016-08-01

    Since the recent re-discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, this thermogenic tissue has attracted increasing interest. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. Cold exposure activates and recruits BAT in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fatness. The stimulatory effects of cold are mediated through transient receptor potential channels (TRP), most of which are also chemesthetic receptors for various food ingredients. In fact, capsaicin and its analog capsinoids, representative agonists of TRPV1, mimic the effects of cold to decrease body fatness through the activation and recruitment of BAT. The anti-obesity effect of some other food ingredients including tea catechins may also be attributable to the activation of the TRP-BAT axis. Thus, BAT is a promising target for combating obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduction of the {sup 18}FDG uptake by the brown fat with the help of propranolol in a difficult case of lymphoma with residual disease suspicion; Reduction de la captation du 18FDG par la graisse brune grace au propranolol dans un cas difficile de lymphome avec suspicion de maladie residuelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervueren, L.; Berthelot, C.; Rakotonirina, H.; Lacoeuille, F.; Cahouet Vannier, A.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Couturier, O. [Service de medecine nucleaire et biophysique, CHU d' Angers, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The oncology group of the French Society of nuclear medicine implemented evaluation criteria of the lymphomas therapy response. The problem often encountered is this one of identification of minimum residual fixations in PET-F.D.G., considered as the residual disease in the non Hodgkin lymphomas. we report the case of a thirty four years old patient treated for diffuse at big B cells non Hodgkin lymphoma, in failure after the first line of treatment and with persistence of a hyper-metabolism in pre and post graft at the level of a para-cardiac residual mass. The post auto graft PET examination showed an important activation of the brown fat, able to question the origin of the residual para-cardiac hyper-metabolism in this dramatic situation, for a young patient and potentially still in therapy failure. In order to reduce the F.D.G. captation by the brown fat, it was proposed a new PET evaluation with propranolol administration (beta blocking) before the tracer injection. The intake of propranolol allowed to reduce in an important way, the F.D.G. captation by the brown fat, without modifying the residual hyper-metabolism. This result is going to lead to the realisation of a surgical biopsy. (N.C.)

  17. Unmaking Brown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  18. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 protects genetically fat Zucker rat livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amersi, Farin; Buelow, Roland; Kato, Hirohisa; Ke, Bibo; Coito, Ana J.; Shen, Xiu-Da; Zhao, Delai; Zaky, Joseph; Melinek, Judy; Lassman, Charles R.; Kolls, Jay K.; Alam, J.; Ritter, Thomas; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Farmer, Douglas G.; Ghobrial, Rafik M.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effects of upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in steatotic rat liver models of ex vivo cold ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In the model of ischemia/isolated perfusion, treatment of genetically obese Zucker rats with the HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or with adenoviral HO-1 (Ad-HO-1) significantly improved portal venous blood flow, increased bile production, and decreased hepatocyte injury. Unlike in untreated rats or those pretreated with the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), upregulation of HO-1 by Western blots correlated with amelioration of histologic features of I/R injury. Adjunctive infusion of ZnPP abrogated the beneficial effects of Ad-HO-1 gene transfer, documenting the direct involvement of HO-1 in protection against I/R injury. Following cold ischemia/isotransplantation, HO-1 overexpression extended animal survival from 40% in untreated controls to about 80% after CoPP or Ad-HO-1 therapy. This effect correlated with preserved hepatic architecture, improved liver function, and depressed infiltration by T cells and macrophages. Hence, CoPP- or gene therapy–induced HO-1 prevented I/R injury in steatotic rat livers. These findings provide the rationale for refined new treatments that should increase the supply of usable donor livers and ultimately improve the overall success of liver transplantation. J. Clin. Invest. 104:1631–1639 (1999). PMID:10587527

  19. (--Epicatechin protects the intestinal barrier from high fat diet-induced permeabilization: Implications for steatosis and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cremonini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased permeability of the intestinal barrier is proposed as an underlying factor for obesity-associated pathologies. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD is associated with increased intestinal permeabilization and increased paracellular transport of endotoxins which can promote steatosis and insulin resistance. This study investigated whether dietary (--epicatechin (EC supplementation can protect the intestinal barrier against HFD-induced permeabilization and endotoxemia, and mitigate liver damage and insulin resistance. Mechanisms leading to loss of integrity and function of the tight junction (TJ were characterized. Consumption of a HFD for 15 weeks caused obesity, steatosis, and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice. This was associated with increased intestinal permeability, decreased expression of ileal TJ proteins, and endotoxemia. Supplementation with EC (2–20 mg/kg body weight mitigated all these adverse effects. EC acted modulating cell signals and the gut hormone GLP-2, which are central to the regulation of intestinal permeability. Thus, EC prevented HFD-induced ileum NOX1/NOX4 upregulation, protein oxidation, and the activation of the redox-sensitive NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways. Supporting NADPH oxidase as a target of EC actions, in Caco-2 cells EC and apocynin inhibited tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα-induced NOX1/NOX4 overexpression, protein oxidation and monolayer permeabilization. Together, our findings demonstrate protective effects of EC against HFD-induced increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. This can in part underlie EC capacity to prevent steatosis and insulin resistance occurring as a consequence of HFD consumption. Keywords: Intestinal permeability, (--Epicatechin, Steatosis, Insulin resistance, Endotoxemia, NADPH oxidase

  20. High Endogenous Accumulation of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protect against Ischemia-Reperfusion Renal Injury through AMPK-Mediated Autophagy in Fat-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hyeong Gwon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulated autophagy is involved in the repair of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. Fat-1 transgenic mice produce ω3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs from ω6-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω6-PUFAs without a dietary ω3-PUFAs supplement, leading to a high accumulation of omega-3 in various tissues. ω3-PUFAs show protective effects against various renal injuries and it has recently been reported that ω3-PUFAs regulate autophagy. We assessed whether ω3-PUFAs attenuated IR-induced acute kidney injury (AKI and evaluated its associated mechanisms. C57Bl/6 background fat-1 mice and wild-type mice (wt were divided into four groups: wt sham (n = 10, fat-1 sham (n = 10, wt IRI (reperfusion 35 min after clamping both the renal artery and vein; n = 15, and fat-1 IRI (n = 15. Kidneys and blood were harvested 24 h after IRI and renal histological and molecular data were collected. The kidneys of fat-1 mice showed better renal cell survival, renal function, and pathological damage than those of wt mice after IRI. In addition, fat-1 mice showed less oxidative stress and autophagy impairment; greater amounts of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II, Beclin-1, and Atg7; lower amounts of p62; and, higher levels of renal cathepsin D and ATP6E than wt kidneys. They also showed more adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation, which resulted in the inhibition of phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Collectively, ω3-PUFAs in fat-1 mice contributed to AMPK mediated autophagy activation, leading to a renoprotective response.

  1. High Endogenous Accumulation of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protect against Ischemia-Reperfusion Renal Injury through AMPK-Mediated Autophagy in Fat-1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Do Hyeong; Hwang, Tae Woong; Ro, Ju-Ye; Kang, Yoon-Joong; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Do-Kyung; Lim, Kyu; Kim, Dong Woon; Choi, Dae Eun; Kim, Jwa-Jin

    2017-09-30

    Regulated autophagy is involved in the repair of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Fat-1 transgenic mice produce ω3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) from ω6-Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω6-PUFAs) without a dietary ω3-PUFAs supplement, leading to a high accumulation of omega-3 in various tissues. ω3-PUFAs show protective effects against various renal injuries and it has recently been reported that ω3-PUFAs regulate autophagy. We assessed whether ω3-PUFAs attenuated IR-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and evaluated its associated mechanisms. C57Bl/6 background fat-1 mice and wild-type mice (wt) were divided into four groups: wt sham (n = 10), fat-1 sham (n = 10), wt IRI (reperfusion 35 min after clamping both the renal artery and vein; n = 15), and fat-1 IRI (n = 15). Kidneys and blood were harvested 24 h after IRI and renal histological and molecular data were collected. The kidneys of fat-1 mice showed better renal cell survival, renal function, and pathological damage than those of wt mice after IRI. In addition, fat-1 mice showed less oxidative stress and autophagy impairment; greater amounts of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II, Beclin-1, and Atg7; lower amounts of p62; and, higher levels of renal cathepsin D and ATP6E than wt kidneys. They also showed more adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which resulted in the inhibition of phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Collectively, ω3-PUFAs in fat-1 mice contributed to AMPK mediated autophagy activation, leading to a renoprotective response.

  2. META060 protects against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in a high-fat-diet fed mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.A. van den; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Darland, G.; Konda, V.; Tripp, M.L.; Bland, J.S.; Voshol, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a reduced iso-alpha acid derived from an extract of Humulus lupulus L., META060, had an effect on weight gain, body composition, and metabolism in a high-fat-diet (HFD) fed mouse model. METHODS: Weight gain was monitored for up to 20 wk in mice receiving a low-fat

  3. Supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex does not protect against insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Iwanik, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    Improper eating habits such as high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets are responsible for metabolic changes resulting in impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and ultimately diabetes. Although the essentiality of trivalent chromium for humans has been recently questioned by researchers, pharmacological dosages of this element can improve insulin sensitivity in experimental animals and diabetic subjects. The aim of the study was to assess the preventive potential of the supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex (CrProp) in rats fed a high-fat diet. The experiment was conducted on 32 male Wistar rats divided into four groups and fed the following diets: the control (C, AIN-93G), high-fat diets (HF, 40% energy from fat), and a high-fat diet supplemented with CrProp at dosages of 10 and 50 mg Cr/kg diet (HF + Cr10 and HF + Cr50, respectively). After 8 weeks, high-fat feeding led to an increased body mass, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, a decreased serum urea concentration, accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocytes, and increased renal Fe and splenic Cu contents. Supplementary CrProp in both dosages did not alleviate these changes but increased renal Cr content and normalized splenic Cu content in high-fat-fed rats. Supplementary CrProp does not prevent the development of insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  4. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses: e0128003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emeline Creis; Ludovic Delage; Sophie Charton; Sophie Goulitquer; Catherine Leblanc; Philippe Potin; Erwan Ar Gall

    2015-01-01

      A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure...

  5. Lactation responses and amino acid utilization of dairy cows fed low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles with or without rumen-protected lysine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, H A; Kononoff, P J

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding different amounts of low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets with or without supplementation of rumen-protected Lys (RPL) on lactation responses and AA utilization. Eight multiparous Holstein cows averaging 188 ± 13 DIM were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) 15% low-fat DDGS, (2) 15% low-fat DDGS plus RPL, (3) 30% low-fat DDGS, and (4) 30% low-fat DDGS plus RPL. Periods lasted 21 d, with the last 3 d for data collection. Basal diets (without RPL) were formulated using the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model [Cornell University (Ithaca, NY), University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), and the W. H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute (Chazy, NY)] to be isonitrogenous (16.9% crude protein) and isocaloric (2.63 Mcal/kg) and inclusion of low-fat DDGS increased at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Inclusion rate of low-fat DDGS and RPL supplementation had no effect on dry matter intake and milk yield, averaging 25.3 ± 0.97 kg/d and 26.9 ± 1.94 kg/d, respectively (means ± standard error of the means). Milk fat and lactose concentrations were unaffected by treatments but milk protein concentration decreased in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS compared with those fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS (3.49 vs. 3.40 ± 0.12%). Updated predictions from the Cornell-Penn-Miner Dairy model showed a decrease of 25 g of metabolizable protein Lys in cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS. Compared with cows fed treatments with 15% low-fat DDGS, cows fed treatments with 30% low-fat DDGS had a marked increase in extraction efficiency (49.4 vs. 61.4 ± 2.51%) and a tendency to increase milk protein concentration (3.41 vs. 3.48 ± 0.12%) with RPL supplementation, which supported that Lys supply was inadequate. Despite differences observed in milk protein concentration, milk protein

  6. Probiotic treatment protects against the pro-depressant-like effect of high-fat diet in Flinders Sensitive Line rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, Anders; Elfving, Betina; Hokland, Marianne; Lund, Sten; Wegener, Gregers

    2017-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly associated with dysmetabolic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, and the gut microbiota may interact with both disease entities. We have previously shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) exacerbated depressive-like behaviour uniquely in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats that inherently present with an increased level of depressive-like behaviour compared with Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. We therefore investigated whether multispecies probiotics possessed anti-depressant-like effect in FSL rats or protected against the pro-depressant-like effect of HFD. We also examined blood and cerebral T cell subsets as well as plasma cytokines. Lastly, we investigated the effect of HFD in outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to substantiate the association between depressive-like behaviour and any immunological measures affected by HFD. HFD exacerbated the depressive-like behaviour in FSL rats in the forced swim test, whereas SD rats remained unaffected. Probiotic treatment completely precluded the pro-depressant-like effect of HFD, but it did not affect FSL rats on control diet. Cerebral T lymphocyte CD4/8 ratios closely mirrored the behavioural changes, whereas the proportions of Treg and Th17 subsets were unaltered. No association between blood and brain CD4/8 ratios were evident; nor did plasma cytokine levels change as a consequence of HFD of probiotic treatment. Our findings suggest that MDD may hold a dysmetabolic component that responds to probiotic treatment. This finding has wide implications owing to the high metabolic comorbidity in MDD. Furthermore, the close association between depressive-like behaviour and cerebral T cell populations demonstrate lymphocyte-brain interactions as a promising future research area in the field of psychoneuroimmunology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Protective Effect of Brown-, Gray-, and Blue-Tinted Lenses against Blue LED Light-Induced Cell Death in A2E-Laden Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Il; Jang, Young Pyo

    2017-01-01

    A2E-laden ARPE-19 cells were exposed to a blue light to induce cytotoxicity, in order to investigate the protective effects of various tinted ophthalmic lenses against photo-induced cytotoxicity in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells laden with A2E, known to be among the etiologies of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Different-colored tinted lenses with varying levels of tint and different filtering characteristics, such as polarized, blue-cut, and photochromatic lenses, were placed over the cells, and the protective efficacies thereof were evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase assay. When tinted lenses were placed over ARPE-19 cells, there were different reductions in cytotoxicity according to the colors and tint levels. The level of protection afforded by brown-tinted lenses was 6.9, 36.1, and 49% with a tint level of 15, 50, and 80%, respectively. For gray-tinted lenses, the protective effect was 16.3, 35, and 43.4% for the corresponding degree of tint, respectively. In the case of blue-tinted lenses, a protective effect of 20% was observed with 80% tinted lenses, but 15 and 50% tinted lenses provided no significant protection. In addition, photochromic lenses showed a protective effect but blue-cut lenses and polarized lenses provided no significant protection. Tinted lenses significantly reduced cytotoxicity in RPE cells irradiated with blue light. The protection was more efficient in lenses with a brown or gray tint than in blue-tinted lenses. Tinted glasses may provide significant protection against potential blue-light-induced photochemical and photo-oxidative damage in RPE cells. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Glycine supplementation during calorie restriction accelerates fat loss and protects against further muscle loss in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldow, Marissa K; Ham, Daniel J; Godeassi, Daniel P; Chee, Annabel; Lynch, Gordon S; Koopman, René

    2016-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces co-morbidities associated with obesity, but also reduces lean mass thereby predisposing people to weight regain. Since we demonstrated that glycine supplementation can reduce inflammation and muscle wasting, we hypothesized that glycine supplementation during CR would preserve muscle mass in mice. High-fat fed male C57BL/6 mice underwent 20 days CR (40% reduced calories) supplemented with glycine (1 g/kg/day; n = 15, GLY) or l-alanine (n = 15, ALA). Body composition and glucose tolerance were assessed and hindlimb skeletal muscles and epididymal fat were collected. Eight weeks of a high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and glucose intolerance. CR caused rapid weight loss (ALA: 20%, GLY: 21%, P fat mass (ALA: 41%, GLY: 49% P fat mass (14%, p fat mass (26%, P muscle mass (4%, P fat mass (pre CR) and the mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation (r = 0.51 to 0.68, P muscle mass and stimulating loss of adipose tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Brown recluse spider (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown recluse is a venomous spider most commonly found in midwestern and southern states of the United States. It ... inch overall and has long skinny legs. The brown recluse is brown with a characteristic dark violin-shaped ...

  10. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jiqu Xu; Xiaoli Liu; Hui Gao; Chang Chen; Qianchun Deng; Qingde Huang; Zhonghua Ma; Fenghong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed ...

  11. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Thomas R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4 signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Results Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005, epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005, fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P Conclusion Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice.

  12. Adipose Tissue-Specific Deletion of 12/15-Lipoxygenase Protects Mice from the Consequences of a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banumathi K. Cole

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adipose tissue. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LO generates proinflammatory lipid mediators, which induce inflammation in adipose tissue. Therefore we investigated the role of 12/15-LO activity in mouse white adipose tissue in promoting obesity-induced local and systemic inflammatory consequences. We generated a mouse model for fat-specific deletion of 12/15-LO, aP2-Cre; 12/15-LOloxP/loxP, which we call ad-12/15-LO mice, and placed wild-type controls and ad-12/15-LO mice on a high-fat diet for 16 weeks and examined obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. High-fat diet-fed ad-12/15-LO exhibited improved fasting glucose levels and glucose metabolism, and epididymal adipose tissue from these mice exhibited reduced inflammation and macrophage infiltration compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, fat-specific deletion of 12/15-LO led to decreased peripheral pancreatic islet inflammation with enlarged pancreatic islets when mice were fed the high-fat diet compared to wild-type mice. These results suggest an interesting crosstalk between 12/15-LO expression in adipose tissue and inflammation in pancreatic islets. Therefore, deletion of 12/15-LO in adipose tissue can offer local and systemic protection from obesity-induced consequences, and blocking 12/15-LO activity in adipose tissue may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  13. High fat diet enhances cardiac abnormalities in SHR rats: Protective role of heme oxygenase-adiponectin axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction including obesity, cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Methods The present study was designed to examine effect of high fat (HF diet on cardio-vascular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, fed HF diet for 15 weeks, a phenotype designed to mimic metabolic syndrome. Results Development of metabolic syndrome like phenotype was confirmed using parameters, including body weight, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels. High fat diet impaired vascular relaxation by acetylcholine and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in SHRs as evidenced by lower left ventricular function, and higher coronary resistance (CR as compared to controls (p 2- levels in SHR fed a HF diet (p Conclusion In conclusion, this novel study demonstrates that up-regulation of HO-1 improves cardiac and vascular dysfunction by blunting oxidative stress, COX-2 levels and increasing adiponectin levels in hypertensive rats on HF diet.

  14. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  15. Unexpected long-term protection of adult offspring born to high-fat fed dams against obesity induced by a sucrose-rich diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet, rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in

  16. Unexpected Long-Term Protection of Adult Offspring Born to High-Fat Fed Dams against Obesity Induced by a Sucrose-Rich Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Odile; Ferezou, Jacqueline; Gripois, Daniel; Serougne, Colette; Crépin, Delphine; Aubourg, Alain; Gertler, Arieh; Vacher, Claire-Marie; Taouis, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic and endocrine environment during early life is crucial for metabolic imprinting. When dams were fed a high fat diet (HF diet), rat offspring developed hypothalamic leptin resistance with lean phenotype when weaned on a normal diet. Interestingly, when grown on the HF diet, they appeared to be protected against the effects of HF diet as compared to offspring of normally fed dams. The mechanisms involved in the protective effect of maternal HF diet are unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We thus investigated the impact of maternal high fat diet on offspring subjected to normal or high palatable diet (P diet) on metabolic and endocrine parameters. We compared offspring born to dams fed P or HF diet. Offspring born to dams fed control or P diet, when fed P diet exhibited a higher body weight, altered hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and metabolic parameters suggesting that maternal P diet has no protective effect on offspring. Whereas, maternal HF diet reduces body weight gain and circulating triglycerides, and ameliorates corpulence index of offspring, even when subjected to P diet. Interestingly, this protective effect is differently expressed in male and female offspring. Male offspring exhibited higher energy expenditure as mirrored by increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/R2 expression, and a profound change in the arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization. In female offspring, the most striking impact of maternal HF diet is the reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC. Conclusions/Significance HF diet given during gestation and lactation protects, at least partially, offspring from excessive weight gain through several mechanisms depending upon gender including changes in arcuate nucleus astrocytic organization and increased hypothalamic UCP-2 and liver AdipoR1/2 expression in males and reduced hypothalamic expression of NPY and POMC in females. Taken together our results reveal new mechanisms involved in the protective

  17. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvaere, Kevin; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette; Hammershøj, Marianne; Skibsted, Leif H; Sørensen, John; Vognsen, Lene; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup

    2011-08-24

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were not detected, but their interference was suggested from the formation of secondary lipid oxidation products such as hexanal and heptanal. The occurrence of these oxidation markers was inhibited by spiking with 50 ppm EDTA or 750 ppm GTE, or a combination of the two prior to irradiation. In contrast, addition of 50 ppm EDTA to samples with 6% fat was ineffective, but 750 ppm GTE (alone or in combination with EDTA) strongly reduced levels of hexanal and heptanal. Accumulation of primary lipid hydroperoxides was not affected by GTE, hence antioxidative activity was ascribed to scavenging of hexanal and heptanal precursors. These radical intermediates result from hydroperoxide disintegration, and subsequent scavenging by GTE, which acts as a radical sink, corroborates the intense signal observed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.

  18. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-10-14

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet.

  19. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiqu Xu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1 but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet.

  20. Brown Adipogenic Reprogramming Induced by a Small Molecule

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    Baoming Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT has attracted considerable research interest because of its therapeutic potential to treat obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Augmentation of brown fat mass and/or its function may represent an attractive strategy to enhance energy expenditure. Using high-throughput phenotypic screening to induce brown adipocyte reprogramming in committed myoblasts, we identified a retinoid X receptor (RXR agonist, bexarotene (Bex, that efficiently converted myoblasts into brown adipocyte-like cells. Bex-treated mice exhibited enlarged BAT mass, enhanced BAT function, and a modest browning effect in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT. Expression analysis showed that Bex initiated several “browning” pathways at an early stage during brown adipocyte reprogramming. Our findings suggest RXRs as new master regulators that control brown and beige fat development and activation, unlike the common adipogenic regulator PPARγ. Moreover, we demonstrated that selective RXR activation may potentially offer a therapeutic approach to manipulate brown/beige fat function in vivo.

  1. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Vanegas, Sally M; Patel, Nilam; Aitken, Jesse D; Ziegler, Thomas R; Ganji, Vijay

    2011-03-09

    Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO) rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF) rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005), epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005), fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P effects of LPS in mice.

  2. Effects of adipocyte lipoprotein lipase on de novo lipogenesis and white adipose tissue browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Alexander; Weigelt, Clara; Cherradi, M Lisa; Niemeier, Andreas; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2013-05-01

    Efficient storage of dietary and endogenous fatty acids is a prerequisite for a healthy adipose tissue function. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the master regulator of fatty acid uptake from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In addition to LPL-mediated fatty acid uptake, adipocytes are able to synthesize fatty acids from non-lipid precursor, a process called de novo lipogenesis (DNL). As the physiological relevance of fatty acid uptake versus DNL for brown and white adipocyte function remains unclear, we studied the role of adipocyte LPL using adipocyte-specific LPL knockout animals (aLKO). ALKO mice displayed a profound increase in DNL-fatty acids, especially palmitoleate and myristoleate in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) depots while essential dietary fatty acids were markedly decreased. Consequently, we found increased expression in adipose tissues of genes encoding DNL enzymes (Fasn, Scd1, and Elovl6) as well as the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein-β. In a high-fat diet (HFD) study aLKO mice were characterized by reduced adiposity and improved plasma insulin and adipokines. However, neither glucose tolerance nor inflammatory markers were ameliorated in aLKO mice compared to controls. No signs of increased BAT activation or WAT browning were detected in aLKO mice either on HFD or after 1 week of β3-adrenergic stimulation using CL316,243. We conclude that despite a profound increase in DNL-derived fatty acids, proposed to be metabolically favorable, aLKO mice are not protected from metabolic disease per se. In addition, induction of DNL alone is not sufficient to promote browning of WAT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... polyunsaturated fat; Heart disease - polyunsaturated fat; Peripheral artery disease - polyunsaturated fat; PAD - polyunsaturated fat; Stroke - polyunsaturated fat; CAD - polyunsaturated fat; Heart healthy diet - polyunsaturated fat

  4. Targeted Overexpression of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase in Adipose Tissue Increases Fat Deposition but Protects against Diet-induced Insulin Resistance and Inflammatory Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Xu, Hang; Halim, Vera; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Huan; Fan, Yang-Yi; Ong, Kuok Teong; Woo, Shih-Lung; Chapkin, Robert S.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Chen, Yanming; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer; Wei, Lai; Wu, Chaodong

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the dissociation of fat deposition, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. As a regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK2, encoded by PFKFB3) protects against diet-induced adipose tissue inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance independently of adiposity. Using aP2-PFKFB3 transgenic (Tg) mice, we explored the ability of targeted adipocyte PFKFB3/iPFK2 overexpression to modulate diet-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance arising from fat deposition in both adipose and liver tissues. Compared with wild-type littermates (controls) on a high fat diet (HFD), Tg mice exhibited increased adiposity, decreased adipose inflammatory response, and improved insulin sensitivity. In a parallel pattern, HFD-fed Tg mice showed increased hepatic steatosis, decreased liver inflammatory response, and improved liver insulin sensitivity compared with controls. In both adipose and liver tissues, increased fat deposition was associated with lipid profile alterations characterized by an increase in palmitoleate. Additionally, plasma lipid profiles also displayed an increase in palmitoleate in HFD-Tg mice compared with controls. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, overexpression of PFKFB3/iPFK2 recapitulated metabolic and inflammatory changes observed in adipose tissue of Tg mice. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from iPFK2-overexpressing adipocytes, mouse primary hepatocytes displayed metabolic and inflammatory responses that were similar to those observed in livers of Tg mice. Together, these data demonstrate a unique role for PFKFB3/iPFK2 in adipocytes with regard to diet-induced inflammatory responses in both adipose and liver tissues. PMID:22556414

  5. Protection from High Fat Diet-induced Increase in Ceramide in Mice Lacking Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1*

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Charmi; Yang, Guang; Lee, Ian; Bielawski, Jacek; Yusuf A Hannun; Samad, Fahumiya

    2008-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, and adipose tissue plays a central role in this process. Ceramide, the key intermediate of sphingolipid metabolism, also contributes to obesity-related disorders. We show that a high fat diet increased ceramide levels in the adipose tissues and plasma in C57BL/6J mice via a mechanism that involves an increase in gene expression of enzymes mediating ceramide generation through the de novo pathway (e.g. serine palmitoyltransfe...

  6. High-fat diet induces periodontitis in mice through lipopolysaccharides (LPS receptor signaling: protective action of estrogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Blasco-Baque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A fat-enriched diet favors the development of gram negative bacteria in the intestine which is linked to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Interestingly, some pathogenic gram negative bacteria are commonly associated with the development of periodontitis which, like T2D, is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, estrogens have been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis via an LPS receptor dependent immune-modulation. In this study, we evaluated whether diet-induced metabolic disease would favor the development of periodontitis in mice. In addition, the regulatory role of estrogens in this process was assessed. METHODS: Four-week-old C57BL6/J WT and CD14 (part of the TLR-4 machinery for LPS-recognition knock-out female mice were ovariectomised and subcutaneously implanted with pellets releasing either placebo or 17β-estradiol (E2. Mice were then fed with either a normal chow or a high-fat diet for four weeks. The development of diabetes was monitored by an intraperitoneal glucose-tolerance test and plasma insulin concentration while periodontitis was assessed by identification of pathogens, quantification of periodontal soft tissue inflammation and alveolar bone loss. RESULTS: The fat-enriched diet increased the prevalence of periodontal pathogenic microbiota like Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia, gingival inflammation and alveolar bone loss. E2 treatment prevented this effect and CD14 knock-out mice resisted high-fat diet-induced periodontal defects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show that mice fed with a diabetogenic diet developed defects and microflora of tooth supporting-tissues typically associated with periodontitis. Moreover, our results suggest a causal link between the activation of the LPS pathway on innate immunity by periodontal microbiota and HFD-induced periodontitis, a pathophysiological mechanism that could be targeted by estrogens.

  7. The adipose organ: white-brown adipocyte plasticity and metabolic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorlesi, A; Frontini, A; Giordano, A; Cinti, S

    2012-12-01

    White adipocytes can store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions are contained in multiple fat depots forming the adipose organ. In this review, we outline the plasticity of this organ in physiological (cold exposure, physical exercise and lactation) and pathological conditions (obesity). We also highlight molecules and signalling pathways involved in the browning phenomena of white adipose tissue. This phenotypic change has proved to be effective in the protection against the metabolic disorders associated to obesity and diabetes, not only because brown adipocytes are more 'healthy' than white adipocytes, but also because the simple size reduction of white adipocytes that characterizes the first steps of transdifferentiation can be useful in determining how to avoid triggering death based on critical size and the consequent chronic low-grade inflammation due to macrophage infiltration. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the basis of white-brown transdifferentiation can be extremely useful to exploit new therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creis, Emeline; Delage, Ludovic; Charton, Sophie; Goulitquer, Sophie; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe; Ar Gall, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70), which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast), which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo), which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of phenolic compounds

  9. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Creis

    Full Text Available A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70, which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast, which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo, which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of

  10. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6.4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located ... Habitat The Brown Recluse Spider builds small retreat webs behind objects of any type. Symptoms • The severity ...

  11. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fat remains an important quality determinant of meat. Although ... Nutritional influences on the fatty acid composition and the associated effect on flavour have been found in beef (Westerling &. Hedrick, 1979; Brown, Melton, .... Effect of maize meal in diet on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat (SCF)and kidney fat (KF).

  12. Reduced dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and 12/15-lipoxygenase deficiency are protective against chronic high fat diet-induced steatohepatitis.

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    Milos Lazic

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6 promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3 reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ω6/ω3 ratio (11∶1, HFH, similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ω6/ω3 ratio of 2.7∶1 (HFL. Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in HF diet

  13. Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet

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    Abd Eltawab Mohamed A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered renal function Methods Rats were fed a standard control diet for 12 week (wk or a diet containing 65% high sucrose (HSD or 35% fat (HFD for 8 wk and then HFD group divided into two groups for the following 4 wks. One group was given Garcinia+HFD, the second only high fat, Also the HSD divided into two groups, 1st HSD+Garcinia and 2nd HSD. Blood and renal, mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues were collected for biochemical assays. Results HFD and HSD groups of rats showed a significant increase in feed intake, Body weight (BW and body mass index (BMI. Also there were significant increases in weights of mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues in HFD and HSD groups. HFD and HSD affect the kidney by increasing serum urea and creatinine levels and decreased level of nitric oxide (NO and increased blood glucose, low density lipoproteins (LDL, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC and malondialdehyde (MDA. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were significantly decreased in HFD while there were significant increases in HSD and HSD+G groups p ≤ 0.05 compared with control. Moreover, renal catalase activities and MDA levels were significantly increased while NO level was lowered. These changes improved by Garcinia that decreased the oxidative stress biomarkers and increased NO level. There were significant positive correlations among BMI, kidney functions (Creatinine and urea, TG and Oxidative markers (renal MDA and catalase. Conclusions Rats fed a diet with HFD or HSD showed, hypertriglyceridemia, increased LDL production

  14. Solanum nigrum Protects against Hepatic Fibrosis via Suppression of Hyperglycemia in High-Fat/Ethanol Diet-Induced Rats

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    Cheng-Jeng Tai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs signal through the receptor for AGE (RAGE, which can lead to hepatic fibrosis in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. We investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts from Solanum nigrum (AESN on AGEs-induced RAGE signaling and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet with ethanol. Methods: An animal model was used to evaluate the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of AESN in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 30% with ethanol (10%. Male Wistar rats (4 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6: (1 control (basal diet; (2 HFD (30% + ethanol (10% (HFD/ethanol; (3 HFD/ethanol + AESN (100 mg/kg, oral administration; and (4 HFD/ethanol + pioglitazone (10 mg/kg, oral administration and treated with HFD for 6 months in the presence or absence of 10% ethanol in dietary water. Results: We found that AESN improved insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and downregulated lipogenesis via regulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, PPARγ co-activator (PGC-1α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and fatty acid synthase (FAS mRNA levels in the liver of HFD/ethanol-treated rats. In turn, AESN may delay and inhibit the progression of hepatic fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA inhibition and MMP-2 production. Conclusions: These results suggest that AESN may be further explored as a novel anti-fibrotic strategy for the prevention of liver disease.

  15. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HS group compared to HFD fed group. MoSE also protected hepatocytes nuclei from the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction. MoSE was found to be polyphenol rich with potent reducing power, free radicals and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Thus, MoSE exhibited robust antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders.

  16. Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom ethyl acetate extract protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating kinase phosphorylation in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji-Su; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Choo, Young-Kug

    2016-09-30

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model.

  17. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  18. Legally Brown: Using Ethnographic Methods to Understand Sun Protection Attitudes and Behaviours among Young Australians "I Didn't Mean to Get Burnt--It Just Happened!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potente, Sofia; Coppa, Kay; Williams, Ainslie; Engels, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Sun protection is not commonly perceived as an important issue by adolescents yet this behaviour would, if adopted, confer significant lifelong protection against skin cancer. Despite the world's highest skin cancer rates, Australia remains a culture which values sun seeking, tanning and outdoor activities. This qualitative study used ethnographic…

  19. Protective effects of L-arabinose in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: L-Arabinose is a non-caloric sugar, which could affect glucose and lipid metabolism and suppress obesity. However, few reports have described the effect of L-arabinose in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objective: This study was conducted to explore the effects of L-arabinose in rats with metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF diet. Methods: After the rat model for metabolic syndrome was successfully established, L-arabinose was administrated by oral gavage for 6 weeks. The biochemical index and histological analysis were measured, and the expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism were analyzed using real-time PCR. Results: Following treatment with L-arabinose, metabolic syndrome rats had an obvious reduction in body weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, serum insulin, TNF-α, and leptin. Further study showed that treatment with L-arabinose significantly increased the expression of mRNA for hepatic CPT-1α and PDK4, but the expression of mRNA for hepatic ACCα was reduced. Conclusions: This work suggests that L-arabinose could lower body weight, Lee's index, and visceral index and improve dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, and viscera function, which indicate that it might be a promising candidate for therapies combating metabolic syndrome.

  20. Ki-ras mutation modifies the protective effect of dietary monounsaturated fat and calcium on sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, D; Obrador, A; Moreno, V; Cabeza, E; Canet, R; Benito, E; Bosch, X; Costa, J

    1997-01-01

    The geographic differences in the incidence of colorectal cancer have been mostly attributed to variations in diet. The diversity of the Mediterranean diet and the heterogeneity of acquired genetic alterations in colorectal cancer sets the stage for investigating the possible association between dietary factors and mutations in tumor genes known to play a role in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. With this purpose, we have studied the Ki-ras gene in 108 colorectal cancers using archival tissue and epidemiological data from our previous case-control study. Mutations in exon 1 of the Ki-ras gene were detected by a PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism approach. A polychotomous logistic regression model was used to assess the significance of observed differences between wild-type and mutated tumors with respect to population controls in the different categories of nutrient consumption. Multivariate density models were used to adjust the correlation between nutrients and total energy. Our studies show that high consumption of monounsaturated fats, mostly derived from olive oil, is associated with a statistically significant decrease in the risk of cancer with wild-type Ki-ras genotype but not of Ki-ras mutated cancers. Conversely, we find that high calcium intake is associated with a decreased risk of Ki-ras mutated tumors but not of wild-type tumors. Tumor genotyping can reveal epidemiological associations that are weak or unapparent when cases-control studies are not stratified by tumor genotype.

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21 Protects against High Fat Diet Induced Inflammation and Islet Hyperplasia in Pancreas.

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    Garima Singhal

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is an important endocrine metabolic regulator expressed in multiple tissues including liver and adipose tissue. Although highest levels of expression are in pancreas, little is known about the function of FGF21 in this tissue. In order to understand the physiology of FGF21 in the pancreas, we analyzed its expression and regulation in both acinar and islet tissues. We found that acinar tissue express 20-fold higher levels than that observed in islets. We also observed that pancreatic FGF21 is nutritionally regulated; a marked reduction in FGF21 expression was noted with fasting while obesity is associated with 3-4 fold higher expression. Acinar and islet cells are targets of FGF21, which when systemically administered, leads to phosphorylation of the downstream target ERK 1/2 in about half of acinar cells and a small subset of islet cells. Chronic, systemic FGF21 infusion down-regulates its own expression in the pancreas. Mice lacking FGF21 develop significant islet hyperplasia and periductal lymphocytic inflammation when fed with a high fat obesogenic diet. Inflammatory infiltrates consist of TCRb+ Thy1+ T lymphocytes with increased levels of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Increased levels of inflammatory cells were coupled with elevated expression of cytokines such as TNFα, IFNγ and IL1β. We conclude that FGF21 acts to limit islet hyperplasia and may also prevent pancreatic inflammation.

  2. Protective effect of agaro-oligosaccharides on gut dysbiosis and colon tumorigenesis in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimura, Yasuki; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Ushiroda, Chihiro; Ohnogi, Hiromu; Kudo, Yoko; Yasui, Madoka; Inui, Seina; Hisada, Takayoshi; Honda, Akira; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2016-03-15

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced alteration in the gut microbial composition, known as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for various diseases, including colon cancer. This report describes a comprehensive investigation of the effect of agaro-oligosaccharides (AGO) on HFD-induced gut dysbiosis, including alterations in short-chain fatty acid contents and bile acid metabolism in mice. C57BL/6N mice were fed a control diet or HFD, with or without AGO. Terminal restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis produced their fecal microbiota profiles. Profiles of cecal organic acids and serum bile acids were determined, respectively, using HPLC and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry systems. T-RFLP analyses showed that an HFD changed the gut microbiota significantly. Changes in the microbiota composition induced by an HFD were characterized by a decrease in the order Lactobacillales and by an increase in the Clostridium subcluster XIVa. These changes of the microbiota community generated by HFD treatment were suppressed by AGO supplementation. As supported by the data of the proportion of Lactobacillales order, the concentration of lactic acid increased in the HFD + AGO group. Data from the serum bile acid profile showed that the level of deoxycholic acid, a carcinogenic secondary bile acid produced by gut bacteria, was increased in HFD-receiving mice. The upregulation tended to be suppressed by AGO supplementation. Finally, results show that AGO supplementation suppressed the azoxymethane-induced generation of aberrant crypt foci in the colon derived from HFD-treated mice. Our results suggest that oral intake of AGO prevents HFD-induced gut dysbiosis, thereby inhibiting colon carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Pleiotropic protective effects of Vitamin D against high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats: One for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Dalia K; Nasra, Rasha A; Zahran, Noha; Ghoneim, Mohammed T

    2016-12-05

    Several lines of evidence point to the association of vitamin D deficiency with the different components of metabolic syndrome. Yet, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome is not clearly elucidated. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that administration of vitamin D, either alone or in combination of metformin can improve metabolic and structural derangements associated with metabolic syndrome. Fifty wistar rats were randomly assigned to serve either as normal control (10 rats) or metabolic syndrome rats, by feeding them with a standard or a high fat diet (HFD), respectively. Metabolic syndrome rats were further assigned to receive either vehicle, Metformin (100mg/Kg orally), vitamin D (6ng/Kg SC.) or both, daily for 8 weeks. Body weight, blood pressure, serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, lipid profile, oxidative stress, serum uric acid and Ca(+2) were assessed at the end of the study. Histopathological examination of hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues were also performed. Treatment with vitamin D was associated with a significant improvement of the key features of metabolic syndrome namely obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia with a neutral effect on Ca(+2) level. When combined with metformin, most of the other metabolic abnormalities were ameliorated. Furthermore, a significant attenuation of the associated hepatic steatosis was observed with vitamin D as well as vitamin D/metformin combination. In conclusion, vitamin D can improve hypertension, metabolic and structural abnormalities induced by HFD, and it provides additional benefits when combined with metformin. Therefore, vitamin D could represent a feasible therapeutic option for prevention of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Deficiency of IKKε inhibits inflammation and induces cardiac protection in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changchun; Li, Liangpeng; Chen, Wen; Zhu, Yifan; Qi, Yongchao; Wang, Xiaodi; Wan, Xin; Chen, Xin

    2014-07-01

    Immune response and metabolic regulation have been recognized as a central homeostatic mechanism, the dysfunction of which can trigger a cluster of chronic metabolic disorders, particularly obesity, type Ⅱ diabetes and cardio-vascular disease. Serine/threonine kinase IκB kinase (IKK) ε is a multifunctional regulator that participates in immune regulation, cell proliferation and transformation, and oncogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the role of IKKε in cardiovascular disorders using murine models of apolipo-protein E‑deficient [ApoE(-/-)] mice and ApoE/IKKε double‑knockout [ApoE(-/-)/IKKε(-/-)]mice, which were fed a normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, respectively. Results of this study showed that mouse obesity correlated in vivo with an increased expression of IKKε. Additionally, chronic low‑grade inflammation in cardiac tissue was evident in ApoE(-/-) mice, but was markedly reduced in ApoE(-/-)/IKKε(-/-) mice. However, serum lipid levels in the ApoE(-/-) mice group were not significantly higher than those of the ApoE(-/-)/IKKε(-/-) group. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis demonstrated evident increases in the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway components and downstream factors in the ApoE(-/-) mice group, while these increases were blocked in the ApoE(-/-)/IKKε(-/-) group. Taken together, these data indicate that deficiency of IKKε prevented obesity and inflammatory response in the murine hearts in ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-)/IKKε(-/-) mice fed an ND and HFD, respectively, suggesting that IKKε may play a role in HFD-induced inflammation in hearts of obese mice and may serve as a novel target for the treatment of a variety of metabolism-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Small heterodimer partner (SHP deficiency protects myocardia from lipid accumulation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hun Ohn

    Full Text Available The small heterodimer partner (SHP regulates fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis in the liver by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ expression. SHP is also abundantly expressed in the myocardium. We investigated the effect of SHP expression on myocardia assessing not only heart structure and function but also lipid metabolism and related gene expression in a SHP deletion animal model. Transcriptional profiling with a microarray revealed that genes participating in cell growth, cytokine signalling, phospholipid metabolism, and extracellular matrix are up-regulated in the myocardia of SHP knockout (KO mice compared to those of wild-type (WT mice (nominal p value < 0.05. Consistent with these gene expression changes, the left ventricular masses of SHP KO mice were significantly higher than WT mice (76.8 ± 20.5 mg vs. 52.8 ± 6.8 mg, P = 0.0093. After 12 weeks of high fat diet (HFD, SHP KO mice gained less weight and exhibited less elevation in serum-free fatty acid and less ectopic lipid accumulation in the myocardium than WT mice. According to microarray analysis, genes regulated by PPARγ1 and PPARα were down-regulated in myocardia of SHP KO mice compared to their expression in WT mice after HFD, suggesting that the reduction in lipid accumulation in the myocardium resulted from a decrease in lipogenesis regulated by PPARγ. We confirmed the reduced expression of PPARγ1 and PPARα target genes such as CD36, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase by SHP KO after HFD.

  6. Dietary Green Pea Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice Challenged with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Shima; de Sousa Moraes, Luís Fernando; Lebow, Noelle; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2017-05-18

    Obesity is a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease. Pea is unique with its high content of dietary fiber, polyphenolics, and glycoproteins, all of which are known to be health beneficial. We aimed to investigate the impact of green pea (GP) supplementation on the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Six-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were fed a 45% HFD or HFD supplemented with 10% GP. After 7-week dietary supplementation, colitis was induced by adding 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days followed by a 7-day recovery period. GP supplementation ameliorated the disease activity index score in HFD-fed mice during the recovery stage, and reduced neutrophil infiltration, mRNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-17, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in HFD-fed mice. Further, GP supplementation increased mucin 2 content and mRNA expression of goblet cell differentiation markers including Trefoil factor 3 (Tff3), Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), and SAM pointed domain ETS factor 1 (Spdef1) in HFD-fed mice. In addition, GP ameliorated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as indicated by the reduced expression of Activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6) protein and its target genes chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), the ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like 1 protein (Edem1), and the X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) in HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, GP supplementation ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in HFD-fed mice, which was associated with the suppression of inflammation, mucin depletion, and ER stress in the colon.

  7. Loss of Mbd2 Protects Mice Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance by Regulating the Homeostasis of Energy Storage and Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jia; Song, Jia; He, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Meng; Hu, Shuang; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Qilin; Yang, Ping; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Dao Wen; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ning, Qin; Chen, Zhishui; Eizirik, Decio L; Zhou, Zhiguang; Zhao, Chunxia; Wang, Cong-Yi

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies including ours demonstrated that methyl-CpG-binding domain 2 (MBD2) acts as a reader to decipher DNA methylome-encoded information. We thus in the current study used Mbd2(-/-) mice as a model to dissect the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) on DNA methylome relevant to the pathoetiology of obesity. It was interestingly noted that mice deficient in Mbd2 were protected from HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Mechanistic study revealed that HFD rendered epididymal adipose tissues to undergo a DNA methylation turnover as evidenced by the changes of methylation levels and patterns. Specifically, HFD was noted with higher potency to induce DNA hypomethylation in genes relevant to energy storage than that in genes associated with energy expenditure. As a result, arrays of genes were subjected to expression changes, which led to an altered homeostasis for energy storage and expenditure in favor of obesity development. Loss of Mbd2 resulted in impaired implementation of above DNA methylation changes associated with altered energy homeostasis, which then protected mice from HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Those data would provide novel insight into the understanding of the pathoetiology underlying obesity with potential for developing effective therapies against obesity in clinical settings. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Aspectos produtivos da raça Pardo-Suíça no Brasil: Fatores de ajustamento, produção de leite e de gordura, e parâmetros genéticos Productive aspects of the brown Swiss Breed in Brazil: Adjustment factors, milk and fat yields, and genetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palma Rennó

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sobre o desempenho produtivo da raça Pardo-Suíça com o objetivo de estimar fatores de ajustamento, avaliar fatores de ambiente e genéticos que influenciam a produção de leite, de gordura e a porcentagem de gordura, e estimar parâmetros genéticos para estas características produtivas. Foram avaliadas 11189 lactações de 5382 vacas Pardo-Suíças, de 1980 a 1999, oriundas de 201 rebanhos, sendo os registros de produção do serviço de controle leiteiro realizado pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Gado Pardo-Suíço. As lactações foram ajustadas por meio de fatores multiplicativos de ajustamento para duas ordenhas, períodos de lactação de 305 dias e produção a idade adulta. As médias estimadas, os respectivos desvios-padrão e os coeficientes de variação da produção de leite, produção de gordura e percentagem de gordura foram 5791,50 ± 1211,58 kg e 20,92%; 217,25 ± 47,36 kg e 21,80% e 3,78 ± 0,34 e 9,16%, respectivamente. Os efeitos de ano e época de partos, interação ano-época de partos, rebanho e grupo genético influenciaram as características estudadas, com exceção da época de partos sobre a percentagem de gordura. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade e repetibilidade estimados para a produção de leite e gordura foram 0,37e 0,40, e 0,36 e 0,37, respectivamente. A correlação genética entre a produção de leite e de gordura encontrada neste estudo foi de 0,96. Os resultados obtidos revelam a necessidade do ajustamento das produções de leite e gordura para os efeitos avaliados. As médias de produção de leite, de gordura e à percentagem de gordura apresentada demonstram o elevado desempenho produtivo da raça Pardo-Suíça nos rebanhos brasileiros.A study was carried on performance of the Brown Swiss cattle with the objective of estimating adjustment factors, evaluate some environment and genetics factors that affect milk and fat yields and fat percentage, and estimate

  9. EBF2 transcriptionally regulates brown adipogenesis via the histone reader DPF3 and the BAF chromatin remodeling complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Suzanne N; Lim, Hee-Woong; Rajakumari, Sona; Sakers, Alexander P; Ishibashi, Jeff; Harms, Matthew J; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Seale, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The transcription factor early B-cell factor 2 (EBF2) is an essential mediator of brown adipocyte commitment and terminal differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which EBF2 regulates chromatin to activate brown fat-specific genes in adipocytes were unknown. ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] followed by deep sequencing) analyses in brown adipose tissue showed that EBF2 binds and regulates the activity of lineage-specific enhancers. Mechanistically, EBF2 physically interacts with the chromatin remodeler BRG1 and the BAF chromatin remodeling complex in brown adipocytes. We identified the histone reader protein DPF3 as a brown fat-selective component of the BAF complex that was required for brown fat gene programming and mitochondrial function. Loss of DPF3 in brown adipocytes reduced chromatin accessibility at EBF2-bound enhancers and led to a decrease in basal and catecholamine-stimulated expression of brown fat-selective genes. Notably, Dpf3 is a direct transcriptional target of EBF2 in brown adipocytes, thereby establishing a regulatory module through which EBF2 activates and also recruits DPF3-anchored BAF complexes to chromatin. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which EBF2 cooperates with a tissue-specific chromatin remodeling complex to activate brown fat identity genes. © 2017 Shapira et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Brown recluse spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbee, R Brent; Kao, Louise W; Ibrahim, Danyal

    2006-03-01

    Brown recluse spider bite is a common diagnosis in almost every state in America. In fact, cases have been reported in areas where the spider has never been seen. A review of medical literature reveals that most current concepts regarding brown recluse spider envenomation are based on supposition. In this article, we attempt to review critically our present understanding of brown recluse bites with a focus on the published evidence.

  11. Plasmodesmata of brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10?20?nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD ...

  12. Protective Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog on Renal Tubular Injury in Mice on High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Guo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study aimed to investigate the renoprotective effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 against renal tubular injury in C57BL/6 mice induced by a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods: Twenty C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD for 12 weeks. Ten of these mice were treated with GLP-1 at 200 µg/kg subcutaneously twice daily for 4 weeks (HFDG group, and the other ten mice received vehicle only (HFD group. Ten mice fed standard rodent chow served as controls (Con group. Body weight, kidney weight, food intake, and systolic blood pressure were measured. The expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS markers (BIP, p-eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP and apoptosis in the kidney were examined utilizing western blotting, immunohistochemistry and TUNEL, respectively. Angiotensin II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R were examined by ELISA. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK2 were treated with GLP-1(150 nM followed by treatment with palmitic acid (500 nM [PA] for 24 h. HK2 cells treated with BSA were used as controls. The protein levels of ERS markers, apoptosis-associated protein, and AT1R were measured by western blotting. Results: Increase of body weight, food intake, and systolic blood pressure was less pronounced in GLP-1 treated HFDG mice compared to HFD mice. The levels of ERS markers (BIP, p-eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP and apoptosis decreased following GLP-1 treatment in vivo and in vitro (p<0.05. Increased AT1R induced by HFD and PA were blocked with GLP-1 treatment. In contrast, the level of angiotensin II after GLP-1 treatment was not significantly different between the HFD and HFDG mice. Conclusion: The study indicated that saturated fatty acids induced ERS and apoptosis in the kidney and increased AT1R expression. GLP-1 treatment exerted renoprotective effects against saturated fatty acid-induced kidney tubular cell ERS and apoptosis together with inhibition of AT1R expression in vivo and in vitro.

  13. Reduction of FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue in clinical patients by a single dose of propranolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, Veli [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    Uptake in brown adipose tissue (hibernating fat) is sometimes seen at FDG-PET examinations. Despite a characteristic appearance, this may hide clinically relevant uptake. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system increases glucose uptake of brown fat. We now re-examine patients with brown fat activity that could disguise tumour uptake after pre-treatment with propranolol (a non-selective {beta}-blocker) in order to reduce the uptake. Our first examinations of this kind are reported. Eleven patients with strong brown fat uptake were studied. There was a mean of 5 days (range 2-8) between the examinations. At the second examination, 80 mg of propranolol was given orally 2 h before FDG administration. In addition to visual evaluation of the brown fat uptake, SUV assessments of the uptake in brown fat, lung, heart, liver, spleen and bone marrow were made. All patients showed complete or almost complete disappearance of the brown fat activity at the second examination (p < 0.001) both upon visual evaluation and when comparing SUVs. In seven patients there was also uptake in a known or strongly suspected malignancy, which remained unchanged between the examinations. Beyond an insignificant decrease in the myocardial uptake, there was no redistribution to the various examined organs at the second examination. Pre-treatment with a single dose of propranolol blocks the FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue, thereby increasing the specificity of the examination. The tumour uptake seems not to be impaired. (orig.)

  14. Piperidine alkaloids from Piper retrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-07-22

    The fruits of Piper retrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300mg/kg/day for 8weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver by decreasing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Consistent with the in vitro results, PRPA activated AMPK signaling and altered the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in liver and skeletal muscle. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Forkhead Box O6 (FoxO6) Depletion Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Protects against Fat-induced Glucose Disorder in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Lee, Sojin; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yun-Zi; Sadlek, Kelsey; Coudriet, Gina M; Piganelli, Jon D; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Miller, Rita; Lowe, Mark; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Dong, H Henry

    2015-06-19

    Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. FoxO6 is a distinct member of the FoxO subfamily. To elucidate the role of FoxO6 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and assess its contribution to the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes, we generated FoxO6 knock-out (FoxO6-KO) mice followed by determining the effect of FoxO6 loss-of-function on hepatic gluconeogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO6 depletion attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowered fasting glycemia in FoxO6-KO mice. FoxO6-deficient primary hepatocytes were associated with reduced capacities to produce glucose in response to glucagon. When fed a high fat diet, FoxO6-KO mice exhibited significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced blood glucose levels accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. These effects correlated with attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis in FoxO6-KO mice. In contrast, wild-type littermates developed fat-induced glucose intolerance with a concomitant induction of fasting hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, FoxO6-KO mice displayed significantly diminished macrophage infiltration into liver and adipose tissues, correlating with the reduction of macrophage expression of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a factor that is critical for regulating macrophage recruitment in peripheral tissues. Our data indicate that FoxO6 depletion protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by attenuating hepatic gluconeogenesis and curbing macrophage infiltration in liver and adipose tissues in mice. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Forkhead Box O6 (FoxO6) Depletion Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Protects against Fat-induced Glucose Disorder in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Lee, Sojin; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yun-Zi; Sadlek, Kelsey; Coudriet, Gina M.; Piganelli, Jon D.; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Miller, Rita; Lowe, Mark; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Dong, H. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. FoxO6 is a distinct member of the FoxO subfamily. To elucidate the role of FoxO6 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and assess its contribution to the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes, we generated FoxO6 knock-out (FoxO6-KO) mice followed by determining the effect of FoxO6 loss-of-function on hepatic gluconeogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO6 depletion attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowered fasting glycemia in FoxO6-KO mice. FoxO6-deficient primary hepatocytes were associated with reduced capacities to produce glucose in response to glucagon. When fed a high fat diet, FoxO6-KO mice exhibited significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced blood glucose levels accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. These effects correlated with attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis in FoxO6-KO mice. In contrast, wild-type littermates developed fat-induced glucose intolerance with a concomitant induction of fasting hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, FoxO6-KO mice displayed significantly diminished macrophage infiltration into liver and adipose tissues, correlating with the reduction of macrophage expression of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a factor that is critical for regulating macrophage recruitment in peripheral tissues. Our data indicate that FoxO6 depletion protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by attenuating hepatic gluconeogenesis and curbing macrophage infiltration in liver and adipose tissues in mice. PMID:25944898

  17. Loss of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Function Partially Protects against Peripheral and Cardiac Glucose Metabolic Derangements During a Long-Term High-Fat Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E Jackson

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease that carries a high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the pathophysiological link between these disorders is not well known. We hypothesize that TLR4 signaling mediates high fat diet (HFD-induced peripheral and cardiac glucose metabolic derangements. Mice with a loss-of-function mutation in TLR4 (C3H/HeJ and age-matched control (C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat diet or normal diet for 16 weeks. Glucose tolerance and plasma insulin were measured. Protein expression of glucose transporters (GLUT, AKT (phosphorylated and total, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and SOCS-3 were quantified in the heart using Western Blotting. Both groups fed a long-term HFD had increased body weight, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared to mice fed a normal diet. TLR4-mutant mice were partially protected against long-term HFD-induced insulin resistance. In control mice, feeding a HFD decreased cardiac crude membrane GLUT4 protein content, which was partially rescued in TLR4-mutant mice. TLR4-mutant mice fed a HFD also had increased expression of GLUT8, a novel isoform, compared to mice fed a normal diet. GLUT8 content was positively correlated with SOCS-3 and IL-6 expression in the heart. No significant differences in cytokine expression were observed between groups, suggesting a lack of inflammation in the heart following a HFD. Loss of TLR4 function partially restored a healthy metabolic phenotype, suggesting that TLR4 signaling is a key mechanism in HFD-induced peripheral and cardiac insulin resistance. Our data further suggest that TLR4 exerts its detrimental metabolic effects in the myocardium through a cytokine-independent pathway.

  18. Peripheral-specific y2 receptor knockdown protects mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Chuan; Lin, Shu; Castillo, Lesley; Aljanova, Aygul; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Nguyen, Amy D; Baldock, Paul A; Zhang, Lei; Bijker, Martijn S; Macia, Laurence; Yulyaningsih, Ernie; Zhang, Hui; Lau, Jackie; Sainsbury, Amanda; Herzog, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    Y2 receptors, particularly those in the brain, have been implicated in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-mediated effects on energy homeostasis and bone mass. Recent evidence also indicates a role for Y2 receptors in peripheral tissues in this process by promoting adipose tissue accretion; however their effects on energy balance remain unclear. Here, we show that adult-onset conditional knockdown of Y2 receptors predominantly in peripheral tissues results in protection against diet-induced obesity accompanied by significantly reduced weight gain, marked reduction in adiposity and improvements in glucose tolerance without any adverse effect on lean mass or bone. These changes occur in association with significant increases in energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio, and physical activity and despite concurrent hyperphagia. On a chow diet, knockdown of peripheral Y2 receptors results in increased respiratory exchange ratio and physical activity with no effect on lean or bone mass, but decreases energy expenditure without effecting body weight or food intake. These results suggest that peripheral Y2 receptor signaling is critical in the regulation of oxidative fuel selection and physical activity and protects against the diet-induced obesity. The lack of effects on bone mass seen in this model further indicates that bone mass is primarily controlled by non-peripheral Y2 receptors. This study provides evidence that novel drugs that target peripheral rather than central Y2 receptors could provide benefits for the treatment of obesity and glucose intolerance without adverse effects on lean and bone mass, with the additional benefit of avoiding side effects often associated with pharmaceuticals that act on the central nervous system.

  19. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their

  20. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    . The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...... kinase 3 as a negative regulator of the canonical p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. Thus both studies add novel regulatory layers to the growing understanding of brown adipocyte signal transduction. Activated BAT also exerts great influence on whole body glucose homeostasis......, of great interest for diabetes treatment. The second part of this thesis explores this by investigating glycolytic flux in activated brown adipocytes. Study 3 identifies hypoxia-inducible factor 1α as an important regulator of glycolytic gene expression in brown adipocytes. Study 4 establishes...

  1. Gut Microbiota Mediates the Protective Effects of Dietary Capsaicin against Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Associated Obesity Induced by High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Kang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain. High-resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA measurements, and phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt analysis. The results showed, among others, that dietary CAP induced increased levels of butyrate-producing Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, while it caused lower levels of members of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-producing family S24_7. Predicted function analysis (PICRUSt showed depletion of genes involved in bacterial LPS synthesis in response to CAP. We further identified that inhibition of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 by CAP also contributes to prevention of HFD-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Importantly, fecal microbiota transplantation experiments conducted in germfree mice demonstrated that dietary CAP-induced protection against HFD-induced obesity is transferrable. Moreover, microbiota depletion by a cocktail of antibiotics was sufficient to block the CAP-induced protective phenotype against obesity, further suggesting the role of microbiota in this context. Together, our findings uncover an interaction between dietary CAP and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CAP acting through prevention of microbial dysbiosis, gut barrier dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation.

  2. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Controls Mature Brown Adipocyte Inducibility through Glycerol Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lasar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs have been suggested as the master regulators of adipose tissue formation. However, their role in regulating brown fat functionality has not been resolved. To address this question, we generated mice with inducible brown fat-specific deletions of PPARα, β/δ, and γ, respectively. We found that both PPARα and β/δδ are dispensable for brown fat function. In contrast, we could show that ablation of PPARγ in vitro and in vivo led to a reduced thermogenic capacity accompanied by a loss of inducibility by β-adrenergic signaling, as well as a shift from oxidative fatty acid metabolism to glucose utilization. We identified glycerol kinase (Gyk as a partial mediator of PPARγ function and could show that Gyk expression correlates with brown fat thermogenic capacity in human brown fat biopsies. Thus, Gyk might constitute the link between PPARγ-mediated regulation of brown fat function and activation by β-adrenergic signaling.

  4. Gut Microbiota Mediates the Protective Effects of Dietary Capsaicin against Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation and Associated Obesity Induced by High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chao; Wang, Bin; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Wang, Xiaolan; Lang, Hedong; Hui, Suocheng; Huang, Li; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Mengting; Mi, Mantian

    2017-05-23

    Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain. High-resolution responses of the microbiota were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) measurements, and phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis. The results showed, among others, that dietary CAP induced increased levels of butyrate-producing Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae , while it caused lower levels of members of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-producing family S24_7. Predicted function analysis (PICRUSt) showed depletion of genes involved in bacterial LPS synthesis in response to CAP. We further identified that inhibition of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB 1 ) by CAP also contributes to prevention of HFD-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Importantly, fecal microbiota transplantation experiments conducted in germfree mice demonstrated that dietary CAP-induced protection against HFD-induced obesity is transferrable. Moreover, microbiota depletion by a cocktail of antibiotics was sufficient to block the CAP-induced protective phenotype against obesity, further suggesting the role of microbiota in this context. Together, our findings uncover an interaction between dietary CAP and gut microbiota as a novel mechanism for the anti-obesity effect of CAP acting through prevention of microbial dysbiosis, gut barrier dysfunction, and chronic low-grade inflammation. IMPORTANCE Metabolic endotoxemia due to gut microbial dysbiosis is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of

  5. Data for Brown et al MEA Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening Manuscript

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are the individual parameter and well-level data that were support the conclusions in Brown et al. Note: the parameters CVtime and CVnetwork were not...

  6. Loss of function mutation in toll-like receptor-4 does not offer protection against obesity and insulin resistance induced by a diet high in trans fat in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewirtz Andrew T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4 triggers inflammatory signaling in response to microbial lipoploysaccharide. It has been reported that loss of TLR4 protected against saturated fat-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. It is not known whether loss of TLR4 function offers protection against trans fat (TF induced obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. We investigated whether mice with loss of function mutation in TLR4 were resistant to TF-induced pathologies such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Methods C57BL/6j and C57BL/10 mice were cross bred to generate TLR4 mutant and wild type (WT. TLR4 mutant (n = 12 and WT (n = 12 mice were fed either low fat (LF (13.5% fat energy or high TF diets (60% fat energy for 12 weeks. In vitro experiments were conducted on mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 to investigate whether elaidic (trans 18:1 or oleic acid (cis 18:1 would upregulate inflammatory markers. Results TLR4 mutant mice were ~26.4% heavier than WT mice. In both genotypes, mice that received TF diet were significantly heavier than those mice that received LF diet (P Conclusions Loss of function mutation in TLR4 not only did not protect mice from TF-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia but also exacerbated the above pathologies suggesting that functional TLR4 is necessary in attenuating TF-induced deleterious effects. It is likely that TF induces pathologies through pathways independent of TLR4.

  7. Fat Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yakovlev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fat embolism ranges from 0.5 to 30% in injuries with long and pelvic bone fractures; it also occurs in other diseases and conditions. Moreover, mortality accounts for 3 to 67%. There is still no clear idea on the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of fat embolism. This review gives current views on this problem. Key words: fat embolism, poly-trauma.

  8. Proteção do cafeeiro contra cercosporiose por acibenzolar-S-metil e proteína harpina Protection of coffee plants against brown eye spot by acibenzolar-S-methyl and harpin protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Manzano Galdeano

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em cafeeiro suscetível, a proteção contra a cercosporiose, pela aplicação da proteína harpina e acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, e avaliar seu efeito na germinação de conídios e crescimento micelial in vitro. No primeiro experimento, cafeeiros tratados com ASM (25, 50, 100, 200 μg mL-1 receberam o inóculo de uma suspensão de conídios de Cercospora coffeicola, e a severidade da doença foi avaliada aos 30 e 60 dias após a inoculação. No segundo experimento, cafeeiros foram aspergidos com harpina (7,5, 15, 30, 60, 120 μg mL-1, tendo-se utilizado o mesmo procedimento. No terceiro experimento, plantas aspergidas previamente com ASM (200 μg mL-1 ou harpina (15 μg mL-1 foram tratadas novamente com esses produtos, aos 30 dias após terem recebido inóculo do patógeno. ASM e harpina protegeram os cafeeiros contra cercosporiose 30 dias após a inoculação com C. coffeicola. Entretanto, 60 dias após a inoculação, apenas o ASM (200 μg mL-1, com uma ou duas aplicações, protegeu as plantas contra C. coffeicola. Os cafeeiros foram protegidos contra cercosporiose, em reaplicação de harpina, 30 dias após o primeiro tratamento com essa proteína. Harpina e acibenzolar-S-metil não inibiram o desenvolvimento micelial nem a germinação in vitro dos conídios do patógeno.The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of harpin protein and acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM against brown eye spot, in coffee plants, and its effect on in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of Cercospora coffeicola. In the first assay, plants treated with ASM (25, 50, 100, 200 μg mL-1 received the inoculum of a C. coffeicola conidial suspension, and the disease severity was evaluated 30 and 60 days after inoculation. In the second assay, plants were sprayed with harpin (7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120 μg mL-1 following the same procedure. In a third trial, plants previously sprayed with ASM (200 μg mL-1 or

  9. Plasmodesmata of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Nagasato, Chikako; Motomura, Taizo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular connections in plants which play roles in various developmental processes. They are also found in brown algae, a group of eukaryotes possessing complex multicellularity, as well as green plants. Recently, we conducted an ultrastructural study of PD in several species of brown algae. PD in brown algae are commonly straight plasma membrane-lined channels with a diameter of 10-20 nm and they lack desmotubule in contrast to green plants. Moreover, branched PD could not be observed in brown algae. In the brown alga, Dictyota dichotoma, PD are produced during cytokinesis through the formation of their precursor structures (pre-plasmodesmata, PPD). Clustering of PD in a structure termed "pit field" was recognized in several species having a complex multicellular thallus structure but not in those having uniseriate filamentous or multiseriate one. The pit fields might control cell-to-cell communication and contribute to the establishment of the complex multicellular thallus. In this review, we discuss fundamental morphological aspects of brown algal PD and present questions that remain open.

  10. Regulatory circuits controlling white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    1 (uncoupling protein 1), can dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. In rodents, ample evidence supports BAT as an organ counteracting obesity, whereas less is known about the presence and significance of BAT in humans. Despite the different functions of white and brown adipocytes......, knowledge of factors differentially influencing the formation of white and brown fat cells is sparse. Here we summarize recent progress in the molecular understanding of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation, including novel insights into transcriptional and signal transduction pathways. Since...... expression of UCP1 is the hallmark of BAT and a key factor determining energy expenditure, we also review conditions associated with enhanced energy expenditure and UCP1 expression in WAT that may provide information on processes involved in brown adipocyte differentiation....

  11. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH), a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day) and probucol (500 mg/kg/day). APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low densi...

  12. Fermentação ruminal de ovinos alimentados com alto concentrado e grãos de girassol ou gordura protegida Ruminal fermentation of sheep fed high-concentrated diet containing sunflower grains or protected fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Homem Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seis ovinos machos, não castrados, da raça Santa Inês, com média de peso de 30kg, fistulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em delineamento de quadrado-latino duplo (3x3. Três períodos e três dietas, uma controle, sem inclusão de fonte de lipídio, e duas com inclusão de grãos de girassol ou gordura protegida, foram testados quanto aos parâmetros ruminais. Foram verificadas diferenças (PSix not castrated Santa Inês breed male sheep, weighing 30kg, fistulated in the rumen, were randomly alloted in a double Latin-Square design (3x3. Three periods and three diets, a control without addition of the lipid source, and two with addition of sunflower seeds or protected fat, were tested on the ruminal fermentation. Differences (P<0.05 between diets for ruminal ammonia concentration (18mg/dL were observed. However, effects were not detected on pH (6.1; the total production of short-chain fatty acids (98mM; proportions of acetate (66.4%, propionate (20%, and butyrate (13%; and acetate:propionate ratio (3.2:1. The solid-adherent bacteria isolated from the rumen content of animals fed control diet had higher nitrogen content (10.7% than those fed protected fat diet (9.8% or sunflower seeds diet (9.1%. The production of nitrogen by bacteria attached to solid-control diet (170mg/kg did not differ from sunflower seeds (153mg/kg or protected fat diets (160mg/kg. The inclusion of sunflower seeds or protected fat in diets with high concentrate for sheep provided suitable environment for rumen fermentation.

  13. Hypolipidemic effect and protection ability of liver-kidney functions of melanin from Lachnum YM226 in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fang; Li, Jinglei; Yang, Liuqing; Hou, Guohua; Ye, Ming

    2018-02-21

    In the present study, we investigated the hypolipidemic properties of melanin from Lachnum YM226 (LM) in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemic mice. After the hyperlipidemic model was established, mice were randomly divided into six groups, as follows: normal control group (NC), hyperlipidemic control group (HC), positive control group (7 mg kg -1 d -1 simvastatin) (PC) and LM groups (50, 100 and 200 mg kg -1 d -1 denoted as LM-50, LM-100 and LM-200, respectively). Subsequently, the body weight, organ indices, lipid metabolism, antioxidant properties and liver-kidney functions of the mice were examined. Moreover, the activities of lipoprotein metabolism enzymes in serum and liver tissue were examined to study the feasible mechanism. The results imply that LM could effectively reduce body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index (AI), and increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, treatment with LM also increased the antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content relative to the HC group. In addition, the liver and kidney damage indices such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid were lowered. LM administration also significantly corrected disturbances of liver-kidney functions with no fatty deposits in the liver, resulting in a protective effect against renal histological alteration. The hypolipidemic effect occurred partly due to the regulation of hepatic lipase (HL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in serum and liver to markedly decrease TG. This confirms the important role of LM in the prevention of hyperlipidemia.

  14. Protective effect of pioglitazone on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in low-dose streptozotocin & high-fat diet-induced type-2 diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is one of the pathologic phenomena associated with diabetes and related conditions including obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the protective effects of pioglitazone on cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated in experimental diabetes induced by low dose of streptozoticin (STZ combined with high fat diet (HFD in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (150-200 g were injected with low-dose STZ (45 mg/kg, i.v., single dose and orally fed with a HFD (20 g/day/rat for a period of 28 days and simultaneously treated with pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/p.o. for a period of 21 days (from 8 th day to 28 th day. On 29 th day blood was collected, serum separated and used for biochemical parameters. Heart tissue was used for cardiomyocyte apoptosis measurement and also for histopathological examination. Results: Pioglitazone treatment resulted in a decrease in cardiomyocyte apoptosis as revealed by a decrease in cardiac caspase-3, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels and DNA fragmentation, and an increase in Na+K+ATPase levels in diabetic rats. Cardiac histology of diabetic control rats showed dense focal fatty infiltration in the myocardial cells whereas normal architecture with regular morphology and well preserved cytoplasm was observed with pioglitazone treatment. Pioglitazone treatment significantly reduced the heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, body mass index (BMI and levels of serum glucose, leptin, insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TGs, apoliproprotein-B glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels and atherogenic index, and increased the levels of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and cardiac antioxidant enzymes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study results suggest that pioglitazone possesses cardiac anti-apoptotic potential in diabetic rat model and can be further explored for its use for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  15. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  16. Reliability and agreement of adipose tissue fat fraction measurements with water-fat MRI in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssens, Bas T; Eikendal, Anouk L; Leiner, Tim; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Hoogduin, J M

    The supraclavicular fat depot is known for brown adipose tissue presence. To unravel adipose tissue physiology and metabolism, high quality and reproducible imaging is required. In this study we quantified the reliability and agreement of MRI fat fraction measurements in supraclavicular and

  17. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure...

  18. Altered miRNA processing disrupts brown/white adipocyte determination and associates with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Marcelo A; Thomou, Thomas; Boucher, Jeremie; Lee, Kevin Y; Lallukka, Susanna; Kim, Jason K; Torriani, Martin; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Grinspoon, Steven K; Cypess, Aaron M; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-08-01

    miRNAs are important regulators of biological processes in many tissues, including the differentiation and function of brown and white adipocytes. The endoribonuclease dicer is a major component of the miRNA-processing pathway, and in adipose tissue, levels of dicer have been shown to decrease with age, increase with caloric restriction, and influence stress resistance. Here, we demonstrated that mice with a fat-specific KO of dicer develop a form of lipodystrophy that is characterized by loss of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous white fat, severe insulin resistance, and enlargement and "whitening" of interscapular brown fat. Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte-like phenotype and reduced expression of several miRNAs. Brown preadipocyte whitening was partially reversed by expression of miR-365, a miRNA known to promote brown fat differentiation; however, introduction of other miRNAs, including miR-346 and miR-362, also contributed to reversal of the loss of the dicer phenotype. Interestingly, fat samples from patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy exhibited a substantial downregulation of dicer mRNA expression. Together, these findings indicate the importance of miRNA processing in white and brown adipose tissue determination and provide a potential link between this process and HIV-related lipodystrophy.

  19. Microbiota depletion promotes browning of white adipose tissue and reduces obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Zamorano, Nicolas; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Chevalier, Claire; Stojanović, Ozren; Colin, Didier J; Stevanović, Ana; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Tarallo, Valentina; Rigo, Dorothée; Germain, Stéphane; Ilievska, Miroslava; Montet, Xavier; Seimbille, Yann; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes a lean and healthy phenotype and improves insulin sensitivity. In response to cold or exercise, brown fat cells also emerge in the white adipose tissue (WAT; also known as beige cells), a process known as browning. Here we show that the development of functional beige fat in the inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ingSAT) and perigonadal visceral adipose tissue (pgVAT) is promoted by the depletion of microbiota either by means of antibiotic treatment or in germ-free mice. This leads to improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean mice, obese leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Such metabolic improvements are mediated by eosinophil infiltration, enhanced type 2 cytokine signaling and M2 macrophage polarization in the subcutaneous white fat depots of microbiota-depleted animals. The metabolic phenotype and the browning of the subcutaneous fat are impaired by the suppression of type 2 cytokine signaling, and they are reversed by recolonization of the antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice with microbes. These results provide insight into the microbiota-fat signaling axis and beige-fat development in health and metabolic disease.

  20. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  1. Effect of the slow (K or rapid (k+ feathering gene on body and feather growth and fatness according to ambient temperature in a Leghorn × brown egg type cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordas André

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chicks of both sexes issued from the cross of heterozygous K/k+ cocks for the slow-feathering sex linked K allele with k+ (rapid feathering hens, were compared from the age of 4 to 10 weeks at two ambient temperatures. In individual cages, 30 male chicks of each genotype (K/k+ and k+/k+ were raised at 21°C, and 60 others, distributed in the same way, were raised at 31°C. 71 K/W females and 69 k+/W females were raised in a floor pen at 31°C till 10 weeks of age. In the males, the body weight, feed consumption and feed efficiency at different ages were influenced only by temperature (lower growth rate and feed intake at 31°C; no significant effects of the genotype at locus K nor genotype × temperature interaction were observed. In females, all at 31°C, the genotype (K/W or k+/W had no significant effect on growth rate. Plumage weight and weight of abdominal fat (absolute or related to body weight were measured on half of the males of each group in individual cages, at 10 weeks of age. Moreover, on 36 males and 48 females of the two genotypes, in a group battery at 31°C, the absolute and relative weight of plumage were measured on a sample every two weeks between 4 and 10 weeks. In the first case, no significant effect of genotype appeared. In the second case, an interaction between age and genotype was suggested from plumage weight: its growth, especially in male chicks, appears to be temporarily and unexpectedly faster from 4 to 6 weeks of age for the K/k+ and K/W genotypes.

  2. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  3. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat diary with low-fat or nonfat milk, yogurt, and cheese. Alternative Names Trans fatty acids; Partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs); Cholesterol - trans fats; Hyperlipidemia - trans fats; Atherosclerosis - trans fat; ...

  4. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat diary with low-fat or nonfat milk, yogurt, and cheese. Eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods with low or no saturated fat. Alternative Names Cholesterol - saturated fat; Atherosclerosis - saturated fat; Hardening of the ...

  5. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you need. Eating foods containing saturated fat and trans fat causes your body to produce even more, raising ... cholesterol when used in place of saturated and trans fats. Trans Fat Trans fats (or trans fatty acids) ...

  6. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    incorporated into pre-selected candidate ration components for evaluation via storage, sensory and chemical analysis. The concentration of inhibitor was...inhibiting Maillard browning, also known as non-enzymatic browning, a complex reaction which can lead to darkening of color, off- odors , off-flavors...nutritional intake, and decrease waste due to non-consumption of sensory degraded ration components. 1.1 Maillard Browning Maillard browning, also

  7. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    in the metabolic syndrome. Changes in fat mass can be induced by altered energy intake or even diet composition. These macroscopic changes must manifest themselves as dynamic adipose cell-size distribution alterations at the microscopic level. The dynamic relationship between these 2 independent measurements...... of body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28...... the relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive...

  8. Quantitative proton MR techniques for measuring fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H H; Kan, H E

    2013-12-01

    Accurate, precise and reliable techniques for the quantification of body and organ fat distributions are important tools in physiology research. They are critically needed in studies of obesity and diseases involving excess fat accumulation. Proton MR methods address this need by providing an array of relaxometry-based (T1, T2) and chemical shift-based approaches. These techniques can generate informative visualizations of regional and whole-body fat distributions, yield measurements of fat volumes within specific body depots and quantify fat accumulation in abdominal organs and muscles. MR methods are commonly used to investigate the role of fat in nutrition and metabolism, to measure the efficacy of short- and long-term dietary and exercise interventions, to study the implications of fat in organ steatosis and muscular dystrophies and to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of obesity and its comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of mainstream MR strategies for fat quantification. The article succinctly describes the principles that differentiate water and fat proton signals, summarizes the advantages and limitations of various techniques and offers a few illustrative examples. The article also highlights recent efforts in the MR of brown adipose tissue and concludes by briefly discussing some future research directions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Female mice lacking p47phox have altered adipose tissue gene expression and are protected against high fat-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress in the fat and the liver has been linked to the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, the molecular origin of reactive oxygen species and the role of these in obesity remain areas of active investigation. The NADPH oxidases (NOX) enzymes are a major source of ...

  10. Emodin protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity via regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase pathways in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2012-06-01

    Emodin is an active herbal component traditionally used in China for treating a variety of diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of emodin on the reducing lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats, and on the regulation of the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism to elucidate the mechanisms. After being fed a high-fat diet for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with emodin (20, 40, 80 mg/kg/day) or pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/day), once daily for eight weeks. Changes in body weight, feeding pattern, serum lipids, coronary artery risk index, and atherogenic index were investigated. Subcutaneous white adipose tissues were isolated for pathology histology and Western blot analyses. Changes of triglyceride accumulation in differentiated 3 T3-L1 adipocytes were also investigated. Emodin exhibited a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the intracellular accumulation of triglyceride in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. Emodin (80 mg/kg/day) displayed similar characteristics to pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/day) in reducing body weight gain and plasma lipid levels as well as the coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of high-fat diet-fed rats. Emodin also caused dose related reductions in epididymal white adipose tissue sizes in high-fat diet-fed rats. Emodin and pioglitazone enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, upregulated gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and downregulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the epididymal white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats. Our findings suggest that emodin could attenuate lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue through AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    structural details of fucoidans. Mild extraction techniques coupled with the use of new tools such as enzymes can provide the much needed knowledge about structural characteristics of different fucoidan molecules and thus pave the way for a better understanding of the structural chemistry and bioactivities......-proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......, of the fucoidan polysaccharides are significantly influenced by the extraction parameters. This review discusses the structural features of fucoidans, the significance of different extraction technologies, and reviews enzymatic degradation of fucoidans and the use of fucoidan-modifying enzymes for elucidating...

  12. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.

  13. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  14. The TRPC1 Ca2+-permeable channel inhibits exercise-induced protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krout, Danielle; Schaar, Anne; Sun, Yuyang; Sukumaran, Pramod; Roemmich, James N; Singh, Brij B; Claycombe-Larson, Kate J

    2017-12-15

    The transient receptor potential canonical channel-1 (TRPC1) is a Ca 2+ -permeable channel found in key metabolic organs and tissues, including the hypothalamus, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Loss of TRPC1 may alter the regulation of cellular energy metabolism resulting in insulin resistance thereby leading to diabetes. Exercise reduces insulin resistance, but it is not known whether TRPC1 is involved in exercise-induced insulin sensitivity. The role of TRPC1 in adiposity and obesity-associated metabolic diseases has not yet been determined. Our results show that TRPC1 functions as a major Ca 2+ entry channel in adipocytes. We have also shown that fat mass and fasting glucose concentrations were lower in TRPC1 KO mice that were fed a high-fat (HF) (45% fat) diet and exercised as compared with WT mice fed a HF diet and exercised. Adipocyte numbers were decreased in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of TRPC1 KO mice fed a HF diet and exercised. Finally, autophagy markers were decreased and apoptosis markers increased in TRPC1 KO mice fed a HF diet and exercised. Overall, these findings suggest that TRPC1 plays an important role in the regulation of adiposity via autophagy and apoptosis and that TRPC1 inhibits the positive effect of exercise on type II diabetes risk under a HF diet-induced obesity environment.

  15. Moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formationviaelevating retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhixiu; de Avila, Jeanene M; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Zhang, Faya; Gomez, Noe Alberto; Zhao, Liang; Tian, Qiyu; Zhao, Junxing; Maricelli, Joseph; Zhang, Hui; Rodgers, Buel D; Du, Min

    2017-10-01

    Clinically, low and moderate alcohol intake improves human health with protection against metabolic syndromes, including type 2 diabetes; however, mechanisms that are associated with these effects remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake on thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation and glucose and lipid homeostasis, as well as the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the entire process. C57BL6 male mice were supplemented with 8% (w/v) alcohol in water for 1 or 4 mo. Alcohol intake prevented body weight gain, induced the formation of uncoupling protein 1-positive beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue, and increased thermogenesis in mice, which is associated with decreased serum glucose and triacylglycerol levels. Mechanistically, alcohol intake increased RA levels in serum and adipose tissue, which was associated with increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 subfamily A1 ( Aldh1a1 ). When RA receptor-α signaling was conditionally blocked in platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive adipose progenitors, the effects of alcohol on beige adipogenesis were largely abolished. Finally, moderate alcohol prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. In conclusion, moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation and promotes glucose and lipid oxidation via elevation of RA signaling.-Wang, B., Wang, Z., de Avila, J. M., Zhu, M.-J., Zhang, F., Gomez, N. A., Zhao, L., Tian, Q., Zhao, J., Maricelli, J., Zhang, H., Rodgers, B. D., Du, M. Moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation via elevating retinoic acid signaling. © FASEB.

  16. The Gut Microbiota Modulates Energy Metabolism in the Hibernating Brown Bear Ursus arctos

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Felix; Ståhlman, Marcus; Ilkayeva, Olga; Arnemo, Jon M.; Kindberg, Jonas; Josefsson, Johan; Newgard, Christopher B.; Fröbert, Ole; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation that helps many animals to conserve energy during food shortage in winter. Brown bears double their fat depots during summer and use these stored lipids during hibernation. Although bears seasonally become obese, they remain metabolically healthy. We analyzed the microbiota of free-ranging brown bears during their active phase and hibernation. Compared to the active phase, hibernation microbiota had reduced diversity, reduced levels of F...

  17. Protective effects of various ratios of DHA/EPA supplementation on high-fat diet-induced liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tingting; Liu, Liang; Zhou, Jia; Zhang, Mingzhen; Hu, Qinling; Fang, Min; Wu, Yongning; Yao, Ping; Gong, Zhiyong

    2017-03-29

    A sedentary lifestyle and poor diet are risk factors for the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic lipid accumulation is not completely understood. Therefore, the present study explored the effects of dietary supplementation of various ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on a high-fat diet-induced lipid metabolism disorder and the concurrent liver damage. Using high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 J mice as the animal model, diets of various ratios of DHA/EPA (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) with an n-6/n-3 ratio of 4:1 were prepared using fish and algae oils enriched in DHA and/or EPA and sunflower seed oils to a small extent instead of the high-fat diet. Significantly decreased hepatic lipid deposition, body weight, serum lipid profile, inflammatory reactions, lipid peroxidation, and expression of adipogenesis-related proteins and inflammatory factors were observed for mice that were on a diet supplemented with DHA/EPA compared to those in the high-fat control group. The DHA/EPA 1:2 group showed lower serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, lower SREBP-1C, FAS, and ACC-1 relative mRNA expression, and higher Fra1 mRNA expression, with higher relative mRNA expression of enzymes such as AMPK, PPARα, and HSL observed in the DHA/EPA 1:1 group. Lower liver TC and TG levels and higher superoxide dismutase levels were found in the DHA/EPA 2:1 group. Nonetheless, no other notable effects were observed on the biomarkers mentioned above in the groups treated with DHA/EPA compared with the DHA group. The results showed that supplementation with a lower DHA/EPA ratio seems to be more effective at alleviating high-fat diet-induced liver damage in mice, and a DHA/EPA ratio of 1:2 mitigated inflammatory risk factors. These effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on lipid metabolism may be linked to the upregulation of Fra1 and attenuated activity of c

  18. MicroRNA-455 regulates brown adipogenesis via a novel HIF1an-AMPK-PGC1α signaling network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Guan, Meiping; Townsend, Kristy L

    2015-01-01

    adipogenesis. miR-455 exhibits a BAT-specific expression pattern and is induced by cold and the browning inducer BMP7. In vitro gain- and loss-of-function studies show that miR-455 regulates brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis. Adipose-specific miR-455 transgenic mice display marked browning...... of subcutaneous white fat upon cold exposure. miR-455 activates AMPKα1 by targeting HIF1an, and AMPK promotes the brown adipogenic program and mitochondrial biogenesis. Concomitantly, miR-455 also targets the adipogenic suppressors Runx1t1 and Necdin, initiating adipogenic differentiation. Taken together...

  19. Enhancement of brown fat thermogenesis using chenodeoxycholic acid in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teodoro, J.S.; Zouhar, Petr; Flachs, Pavel; Bardová, Kristina; Janovská, Petra; Gomes, A.P.; Duarte, F.V.; Varela, A.T.; Rolo, A.P.; Palmeira, C.M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 8 (2014), s. 1027-1034 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E12073; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : white adipose tissue * uncoupling protein 1 * energy expenditure * bile acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.004, year: 2014

  20. Orexin restores aging-related brown adipose tissue dysfunction in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellayah, Dyan; Sikder, Devanjan

    2014-02-01

    The aging process causes an increase in percent body fat, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study we examined the impact of aging on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity as potential cause for the increase in adiposity. We show that aging is associated with interscapular BAT morphologic abnormalities and thermogenic dysfunction. In vitro experiments revealed that brown adipocyte differentiation is defective in aged mice. Interscapular brown tissue in aged mice is progressively populated by adipocytes bearing white morphologic characteristics. Aged mice fail to mobilize intracellular fuel reserves from brown adipocytes and exhibit deficiency in homeothermy. Our results suggest a role for orexin (OX) signaling in the regulation of thermogenesis during aging. Brown fat dysfunction and age-related assimilation of fat mass were accelerated in mice in which OX-producing neurons were ablated. Conversely, OX injections in old mice increased multilocular morphology, increased core body temperature, improved cold tolerance, and reduced adiposity. These results argue that BAT can be targeted for interventions to reverse age-associated increase in fat mass.

  1. Fat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  2. MicroRNA Regulation of Brown Adipogenesis and Thermogenic Energy Expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamsi, Farnaz; Zhang, Hongbin; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and associated metabolic diseases have become global epidemics. Obesity results from excess accumulation of white fat, while brown and its related beige fat function to dissipate energy as heat, thus counteracting obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Understanding...... attracted a great deal of research interests in exploring their roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This review focuses on the recent advances of regulating brown adipogenesis and energy metabolism by miRNAs, aiming to delineate the regulatory principles of miRNAs on this unique aspect...

  3. Fto-Deficiency Affects the Gene and MicroRNA Expression Involved in Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipose Tissue in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justiina Ronkainen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto are linked to the onset of obesity in humans. The causal role of the FTO protein in obesity is supported by evidence obtained from transgenic mice; however, the underlying molecular pathways pertaining to the role of FTO in obesity have yet to be established. In this study, we investigate the Fto gene in mouse brown adipose tissue and in the browning process of white adipose tissue. We analyze distinct structural and molecular factors in brown and white fat depots of Fto-deficient mice under normal and obesogenic conditions. We report significant alterations in the morphology of adipose tissue depots and the expression of mRNA and microRNA related to brown adipogenesis and metabolism in Fto-deficient mice. Furthermore, we show that high-fat feeding does not attenuate the browning process of Fto-deficient white adipose tissue as observed in wild-type tissue, suggesting a triggering effect of the FTO pathways by the dietary environment.

  4. Switching harmful visceral fat to beneficial energy combustion improves metabolic dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Sui, Wenhai; Zhang, Meng; Dong, Mei; Lim, Sharon; Seki, Takahiro; Guo, Ziheng; Fischer, Carina; Lu, Huixia; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jianmin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Yangang; Cao, Caixia; Gao, Yanyan; Zhao, Xingguo; Sun, Meili; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Samani, Nilesh J; Zhang, Yun; Cao, Yihai

    2017-02-23

    Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature-dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake. In high-fat diet-fed mice, low temperature exposure improved browning of visceral fat, global metabolism via nonshivering thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide expression profiling showed upregulation of WAT browning-related genes including Cidea and Dio2. Conversely, Prdm16 was unchanged in healthy mice or was downregulated in obese mice. Surgical removal of visceral fat and genetic knockdown of UCP1 in epididymal fat largely ablated low temperature-increased global thermogenesis and resulted in the death of most mice. Thus, browning of visceral fat may be a compensatory heating mechanism that could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating visceral fat-associated obesity and diabetes.

  5. Fat and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian R

    2010-11-01

    Body weight is a principal determinant of bone density and fracture risk, and adipose tissue mass is a major contributor to this relationship. In contrast, some recent studies have argued that "fat mass after adjustment for body weight" actually has a deleterious effect on bone, but these analyses are confounded by the co-linearity between the variables studied, and therefore have produced misleading results. Mechanistically, fat and bone are linked by a multitude of pathways, which ultimately serve the function of providing a skeleton appropriate to the mass of adipose tissue it is carrying. Adiponectin, insulin/amylin/preptin, leptin and adipocytic estrogens are all likely to be involved in this connection. In the clinic, the key issues are that obesity is protective against osteoporosis, but underweight is a major preventable risk factor for fractures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Overnutrition in spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus): beta-cell expansion leading to rupture and overt diabetes on fat-rich diet and protective energy-wasting elevation in thyroid hormone on sucrose-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafrir, E

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of diabetes propensity in spiny mice, performed in Geneva and Jerusalem colonies, is reviewed. Spiny mice live in semi-desert regions of the eastern Mediterranean countries. Those transferred to Geneva in the 1950s were maintained on a rodent diet supplemented by fat-rich seeds. They became obese, exhibited pancreatic islet hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Low insulin secretion response was characteristic of this species, despite ample pancreatic content of insulin. After a few months, diabetes with ketosis occurred, often suddenly, in association with islet cell disintegration. In Jerusalem the spiny mice were collected from their native habitat and placed on diets containing 50% sucrose or fat-rich seed diets. On a sucrose-rich diet, spiny mice developed hepatomegaly, lipogenic enzyme hyperactivity, and elevation in very low density lipoproteins as a result of metabolism of the fructose component mainly in the liver. No overt diabetes or pancreatic islet disintegration were observed, although insulin content and beta-cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were apparent. On a fat-rich diet, spiny mice exhibited marked weight gain, adipose tissue growth and low hepatic lipogenesis. The obesity was accompanied by mild hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia with glucose intolerance leading to an occasional glucosuria after several months on the diet. The sucrose diet induced an extrathyroidal elevation of triiodothyronine (T(3)). Serum T(3) level and hepatic T(4)-T(3) conversion were increased, while serum T(4) levels tended to decrease. The activity of the T(3)-inducible hepatic mitochondrial FAD-glycerophosphate oxidase and K(+)/Na(+)-ATPase, as well as body temperature were increased, indicating that the sucrose diet was associated with enhanced thermogenesis and energy-wasting metabolic cycling. The sucrose-rich diet might exert an adaptive thermogenesis-mediated defense mechanism, protecting against excessive weight gain and disruptive pancreatic islet

  7. Mammary fat of breast cancer: gene expression profiling and functional characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengliang Wang

    Full Text Available Mammary fat is the main composition of breast, and is the most probable candidate to affect tumor behavior because the fat produces hormones, growth factors and adipokines, a heterogeneous group of signaling molecules. Gene expression profiling and functional characterization of mammary fat in Chinese women has not been reported. Thus, we collected the mammary fat tissues adjacent to breast tumors from 60 subjects, among which 30 subjects had breast cancer and 30 had benign lesions. We isolated and cultured the stromal vascular cell fraction from mammary fat. The expression of genes related to adipose function (including adipogenesis and secretion was detected at both the tissue and the cellular level. We also studied mammary fat browning. The results indicated that fat tissue close to malignant and benign lesions exhibited distinctive gene expression profiles and functional characteristics. Although the mammary fat of breast tumors atrophied, it secreted tumor growth stimulatory factors. Browning of mammary fat was observed and browning activity of fat close to malignant breast tumors was greater than that close to benign lesions. Understanding the diversity between these two fat depots may possibly help us improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and find the key to unlock new anticancer therapies.

  8. The magnolia bioactive constituent 4-O-methylhonokiol protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and systemic insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Jian; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Yang; Conklin, Daniel J; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Ki Ho; Tan, Yi; Kim, Young Heui; Cai, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is caused by a combination of both genetic and environmental risks. Disruption in energy balance is one of these risk factors. In the present study, the preventive effect on high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice by Magnolia bioactive constituent 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH) was compared with Magnolia officinalis extract BL153. C57BL/6J mice were fed by normal diet or by HFD with gavage-administered vehicle, BL153, low-dose MH, and high-dose MH simultaneously for 24 weeks, respectively. Either MH or BL153 slightly inhibited body-weight gain of mice by HFD feeding although the food intake had no obvious difference. Body fat mass and the epididymal white adipose tissue weight were also mildly decreased by MH or BL153. Moreover, MH significantly lowered HFD-induced plasma triglyceride, cholesterol levels and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), liver weight and hepatic triglyceride level, and ameliorated hepatic steatosis. BL153 only significantly reduced ALT and liver triglyceride level. Concurrently, low-dose MH improved HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the infiltration of mast cells in adipose tissue was decreased in MH or in BL153 treatment. These results suggested that Magnolia bioactive constituent MH might exhibit potential benefits for HFD-induced obesity by improvement of lipid metabolism and insulin resistance.

  9. Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-07-05

    Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N). The composition of gut microbiota was assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Nopal modified gut microbiota and increased intestinal occludin-1 in the HFS + N group. This was associated with a decrease in metabolic endotoxemia, glucose insulinotropic peptide, glucose intolerance, lipogenesis, and metabolic inflexibility. These changes were accompanied by reduced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in adipose tissue and brain, and improved cognitive function, associated with an increase in B. fragilis. This study supports the use of nopal as a functional food and prebiotic for its ability to modify gut microbiota and to reduce metabolic endotoxemia and other obesity-related biochemical abnormalities.

  10. Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinah; Chang, Yun-Hee; Park, Jung Hwa; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Haeyon; Shim, Eugene; Hwang, Hye Jin

    2011-10-20

    Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and beef tallow (BT) on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt) CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg), samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. The Magnolia Bioactive Constituent 4-O-Methylhonokiol Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Systemic Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is caused by a combination of both genetic and environmental risks. Disruption in energy balance is one of these risk factors. In the present study, the preventive effect on high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice by Magnolia bioactive constituent 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH was compared with Magnolia officinalis extract BL153. C57BL/6J mice were fed by normal diet or by HFD with gavage-administered vehicle, BL153, low-dose MH, and high-dose MH simultaneously for 24 weeks, respectively. Either MH or BL153 slightly inhibited body-weight gain of mice by HFD feeding although the food intake had no obvious difference. Body fat mass and the epididymal white adipose tissue weight were also mildly decreased by MH or BL153. Moreover, MH significantly lowered HFD-induced plasma triglyceride, cholesterol levels and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, liver weight and hepatic triglyceride level, and ameliorated hepatic steatosis. BL153 only significantly reduced ALT and liver triglyceride level. Concurrently, low-dose MH improved HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the infiltration of mast cells in adipose tissue was decreased in MH or in BL153 treatment. These results suggested that Magnolia bioactive constituent MH might exhibit potential benefits for HFD-induced obesity by improvement of lipid metabolism and insulin resistance.

  12. [Brown recluse bite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehemya, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    Spider bites are not uncommon in our warm climate. The most prevalent species of venomous spiders in Israel are the brown recluse and the black widow. Although the black widow is more notorious than the recluse, for every bite by a black widow there are hundreds of recluse bites reported. Despite the numerous bites, there is little awareness amongst physicians with regard to the clinical signs of recluse bites, and very often the wrong diagnosis is made, resulting in complex and unnecessary treatments. The basis of this error stems from the numerous clinical diagnoses which closely imitate a recluse bite, the relative scarceness of documented recluse bites and the fact that in most cases the spider is not witnessed by the victim. The following article describes three cases of children admitted to our department, presenting with high fever, a necrotic lesion and an extensive maculopapular rash. The children were eventually diagnosed with brown recluse bites. Furthermore, the article summarizes the literature regarding the clinical signs of recluse bites, possible complications and treatment options. The objective of this review is to increase awareness towards recluse bites, thereby preventing misdiagnoses and unnecessary treatments.

  13. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rodrigo Barros; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Mendonça, Bianca Gazolla; Santos, Eliziária Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Fietto, Luciano Gomes; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Leite, João Paulo Viana

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO]) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals' diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  14. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO] on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals’ diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  15. Analysis of the liver lipidome reveals insights into the protective effect of exercise on high fat diet induced hepatosteatosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting; Kraakman, Michael J; Gardner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    lipidomic profiling via mass spectrometry in liver and skeletal muscle samples from exercise trained mice, to decipher the lipid changes associated with exercise-induced improvements in whole body glucose metabolism. Obesity and insulin resistance was induced in C57BL/6J mice by high fat feeding for four......The accumulation of lipid at ectopic sites including the skeletal muscle and liver is a common consequence of obesity and is associated with tissue-specific and whole-body insulin resistance. Exercise is well known to improve insulin resistance by mechanisms not completely understood. We performed...... weeks. Mice then underwent an exercise training program (treadmill running) five days a week (Ex) for four weeks or remained sedentary (Sed). Compared with Sed, Ex displayed improved (P

  16. Enzymes involved in adenosine metabolism in rat white and brown adipocytes. Effects of streptozotocin-diabetes, hypothyroidism, age and sex differences.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Z; Saggerson, E D

    1987-01-01

    1. Adipocytes were isolated from epididymal white fat and interscapular brown fat of male rats, and activities of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase were measured in cell extracts. 2. 5'-Nucleotidase activity in white adipocytes was increased in streptozotocin-diabetes, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased with age. That activity in brown adipocytes was unchanged in diabetes, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased with age. 5'-Nucleotidase activity was higher in...

  17. Platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos compared to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Särndahl Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on hemostasis and platelet function in brown bear (Ursus arctos is of importance for understanding the physiological, protective changes during hibernation. Objective The study objective was to document platelet activity values in brown bears shortly after leaving the den and compare them to platelet function in healthy humans. Methods Blood was drawn from immobilized wild brown bears 7-10 days after leaving the den in mid April. Blood samples from healthy human adults before and after clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid administration served as control. We analyzed blood samples by standard blood testing and platelet aggregation was quantified after stimulation with various agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry within 3 hours of sampling. Results Blood samples were collected from 6 bears (3 females between 1 and 16 years old and from 10 healthy humans. Results of adenosine diphosphate, aspirin, and thrombin receptor activating peptide tests in bears were all half or less of those in humans. Platelet and white blood cell counts did not differ between species but brown bears had more and smaller red blood cells compared with humans. Conclusion Using three different tests, we conclude that platelet function is lower in brown bears compared to humans. Our findings represent the first descriptive study on platelet function in brown bears and may contribute to explain how bears can endure denning without obvious thrombus building. However, the possibility that our findings reflect test-dependent and not true biological variations in platelet reactivity needs further studies.

  18. MuRF2 regulates PPARγ1 activity to protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and enhance weight gain induced by a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Quintana, Megan T; Sullivan, Jenyth; L Parry, Traci; J Grevengoed, Trisha; Schisler, Jonathan C; Hill, Joseph A; Yates, Cecelia C; Mapanga, Rudo F; Essop, M Faadiel; Stansfield, William E; Bain, James R; Newgard, Christopher B; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Han, Yipin; Clarke, Brian A; Willis, Monte S

    2015-08-05

    In diabetes mellitus the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease is increased and represents an important independent mechanism by which heart disease is exacerbated. The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy involves the enhanced activation of PPAR transcription factors, including PPARα, and to a lesser degree PPARβ and PPARγ1. How these transcription factors are regulated in the heart is largely unknown. Recent studies have described post-translational ubiquitination of PPARs as ways in which PPAR activity is inhibited in cancer. However, specific mechanisms in the heart have not previously been described. Recent studies have implicated the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase muscle ring finger-2 (MuRF2) in inhibiting the nuclear transcription factor SRF. Initial studies of MuRF2-/- hearts revealed enhanced PPAR activity, leading to the hypothesis that MuRF2 regulates PPAR activity by post-translational ubiquitination. MuRF2-/- mice were challenged with a 26-week 60% fat diet designed to simulate obesity-mediated insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mice were followed by conscious echocardiography, blood glucose, tissue triglyceride, glycogen levels, immunoblot analysis of intracellular signaling, heart and skeletal muscle morphometrics, and PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ1-regulated mRNA expression. MuRF2 protein levels increase ~20% during the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy induced by high fat diet. Compared to littermate wildtype hearts, MuRF2-/- hearts exhibit an exaggerated diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by an early onset systolic dysfunction, larger left ventricular mass, and higher heart weight. MuRF2-/- hearts had significantly increased PPARα- and PPARγ1-regulated gene expression by RT-qPCR, consistent with MuRF2's regulation of these transcription factors in vivo. Mechanistically, MuRF2 mono-ubiquitinated PPARα and PPARγ1 in vitro, consistent with its non-degradatory role in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However

  19. Body fat distribution and organ weights of 14 common strains and a 22-strain consomic panel of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Danielle R.; Duke, Fujiko F.; Ellis, Hillary K.; Rosazza, Matthew R.; Lawler, Maureen P.; Alarcon, Laura K.; Tordoff, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the adiposity of a range of rat strains including a panel of consomics to estimate the heritability of fatness as measured by necropsy. To that end, we assessed the body fat distribution and organ weights of groups of adult male rats from 3 outbred strains, 11 inbred strains and 22 consomic strains. We measured the weights of the gonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, femoral, subscapular and pericardial white fat depots, the subscapular brown fat depot,...

  20. The protective role of the opioid antagonist LY255582 in the management of high fat diet-induced obesity in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I Y; Ibrahim, H M; Aziz, N M; Rahman, D M

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of the opioid system in energy balance has been known for several decades but many questions remain unanswered. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist (LY255582) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, HFD non-treated, HFD+LY255582 treated during the first 4 weeks and Obese-LY255582- treated groups during the following 4 weeks after the induction of obesity. LY255582 (0.31 mg/kg, s.c.) was administrated daily with HFD feeding. Blood samples were collected for measurement of lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and leptin. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and food intake were also measured. Consumption of HFD resulted in a significant increase in body weight, body mass index (BMI), glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and induced a state of dyslipideamia. Opioid antagonist LY255582 administration with HFD decreased food intake, body weight and BMI, in addition to the improvement of HFD related metabolic abnormalities (dyslipidemia and insulin resistance) during the dynamic phase of obesity development than in animals with already developed dietary obesity. The use of opioid antagonist may be a promising approach in treatment of HFD-induced obesity.

  1. Crafting identities and accessing opportunities post-Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Margaret Beale

    2005-11-01

    Decades following Brown v. Board of Education (1954), issues regarding the effects of skin color, poverty, and racial differences in the availability of protective factors persist. For a multiethnic sample of mainly African American (56%), female (69%), and high-achieving (65%) youths, a dual-axis model of vulnerability is used to compare four groups of youths identified as high, masked, low, and undetermined vulnerability on the basis of the presence of risk and protective factors. Risks included level of poverty, number of parents in home, and skin-color pigmentation. Protective factors included youths' perceptions of school climate, parental monitoring, and consonance between skin pigmentation and preferred skin color. The author suggests that 50 years post-Brown, issues concerning White privilege, color stereotyping, power discrepancies, and economic disparities maintain "invisible" and persistent hurdles for vulnerable youths who vary on available protective factors. Findings confirm the impact of vulnerability on psychosocial and achievement outcomes. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Visceral and subcutaneous fat have different origins and evidence supports a mesothelial source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, You-Ying; Bandiera, Roberto; Serrels, Alan; Martínez-Estrada, Ofelia M; Qing, Wei; Lee, Martin; Slight, Joan; Thornburn, Anna; Berry, Rachel; McHaffie, Sophie; Stimson, Roland H; Walker, Brian R; Chapuli, Ramon Muñoz; Schedl, Andreas; Hastie, Nick

    2014-04-01

    Fuelled by the obesity epidemic, there is considerable interest in the developmental origins of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the stem and progenitor cells from which it arises. Whereas increased visceral fat mass is associated with metabolic dysfunction, increased subcutaneous WAT is protective. There are six visceral fat depots: perirenal, gonadal, epicardial, retroperitoneal, omental and mesenteric, and it is a subject of much debate whether these have a common developmental origin and whether this differs from that for subcutaneous WAT. Here we show that all six visceral WAT depots receive a significant contribution from cells expressing Wt1 late in gestation. Conversely, no subcutaneous WAT or brown adipose tissue arises from Wt1-expressing cells. Postnatally, a subset of visceral WAT continues to arise from Wt1-expressing cells, consistent with the finding that Wt1 marks a proportion of cell populations enriched in WAT progenitors. We show that all visceral fat depots have a mesothelial layer like the visceral organs with which they are associated, and provide several lines of evidence that Wt1-expressing mesothelium can produce adipocytes. These results reveal a major ontogenetic difference between visceral and subcutaneous WAT, and pinpoint the lateral plate mesoderm as a major source of visceral WAT. They also support the notion that visceral WAT progenitors are heterogeneous, and suggest that mesothelium is a source of adipocytes.

  3. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You should ... limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  4. Oral salmon calcitonin protects against impaired fasting glycemia, glucose intolerance, and obesity induced by high-fat diet and ovariectomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigh, Michael; Andreassen, Kim V; Hjuler, Sara T; Nielsen, Rasmus H; Christiansen, Claus; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A

    2013-07-01

    Oral salmon calcitonin (sCT) has demonstrated clinical efficacy in treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The postmenopausal state is also associated with obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of oral sCT on energy and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet (HFD)- and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced obese rats. Furthermore, the weight-regulatory and gluco-regulatory effects of short-term oral sCT intervention on HFD-induced obese rats were explored. For prevention, female rats exposed to HFD with or without OVX were treated with oral sCT for 5 weeks. As intervention, HFD-induced obese male rats were treated with oral sCT for 4 days. Body weight, food intake, and plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin levels were measured, and the clinical homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated. In addition, oral glucose tolerance was evaluated in the systemic and portal circulations. For prevention, oral sCT reduced body weight by ∼16% to 19% (P fasting glycemia (P obesity. Furthermore, oral sCT significantly reduced the incremental area under the curve for plasma glucose and insulin by ∼40% and ∼70%, respectively, during glucose tolerance testing. As intervention in HFD-induced obese rats, oral sCT reduced body weight, fasting glycemia, and insulinemia in conjunction with HOMA-IR (P obese rats, indicating the clinical usefulness of oral sCT in postmenopausal obesity-related IR and type 2 diabetes.

  5. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Syun Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH, a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day and probucol (500 mg/kg/day. APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway.

  6. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-05-05

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH), a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day) and probucol (500 mg/kg/day). APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain) induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day) in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day) rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day) treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway.

  7. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  8. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  9. Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat Is Positively Associated With Visceral Fat and Inversely Associated With IGF-1 in Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Brick, Danielle J.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an important physiologic link between bone and fat. Bone and fat cells arise from the same mesenchymal precursor cell within bone marrow, capable of differentiation into adipocytes or osteoblasts. Increased BMI appears to protect against osteoporosis. However, recent studies have suggested detrimental effects of visceral fat on bone health. Increased visceral fat may also be associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)...

  10. Brown adipose tissue in cetacean blubber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT plays an important role in thermoregulation in species living in cold environments, given heat can be generated from its chemical energy reserves. Here we investigate the existence of BAT in blubber in four species of delphinoid cetacean, the Pacific white-sided and bottlenose dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens and Tursiops truncates, and Dall's and harbour porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli and Phocoena phocoena. Histology revealed adipocytes with small unilocular fat droplets and a large eosinophilic cytoplasm intermingled with connective tissue in the innermost layers of blubber. Chemistry revealed a brown adipocyte-specific mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, within these same adipocytes, but not those distributed elsewhere throughout the blubber. Western blot analysis of extracts from the inner blubber layer confirmed that the immunohistochemical positive reaction was specific to UCP1 and that this adipose tissue was BAT. To better understand the distribution of BAT throughout the entire cetacean body, cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT scanning. Resulting imagery, coupled with histological corroboration of fine tissue structure, revealed adipocytes intermingled with connective tissue in the lowest layer of blubber were distributed within a thin, highly dense layer that extended the length of the body, with the exception of the rostrum, fin and fluke regions. As such, we describe BAT effectively enveloping the cetacean body. Our results suggest that delphinoid blubber could serve a role additional to those frequently attributed to it: simple insulation blanket, energy storage, hydrodynamic streamlining or contributor to positive buoyancy. We believe delphinoid BAT might also function like an electric blanket, enabling animals to frequent waters cooler than blubber as an insulator alone might otherwise allow an animal to withstand, or allow animals to maintain body temperature in cool

  11. Responsiveness to thyroid hormone and to ambient temperature underlies differences between brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle thermogenesis in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Cintia B; Olivares, Emerson L; Bianco, Antonio C

    2011-09-01

    Thyroid hormone accelerates energy expenditure (EE) and is critical for cold-induced thermogenesis. To define the metabolic role played by thyroid hormone in the dissipation of calories from diet, hypothyroid mice were studied for 60 d in a comprehensive lab animal monitoring system. Hypothyroidism decreased caloric intake and body fat while down-regulating genes in the skeletal muscle but not brown adipose tissue thermogenic programs, without affecting daily EE. Only at thermoneutrality (30 C) did hypothyroid mice exhibit slower rate of EE, indicating a metabolic response to hypothyroidism that depends on ambient temperature. A byproduct of this mechanism is that at room temperature (22 C), hypothyroid mice are protected against diet-induced obesity, i.e. only at thermoneutrality did hypothyroid mice become obese when placed on a high-fat diet (HFD). This is in contrast to euthyroid controls, which on a HFD gained more body weight and fat at any temperature while activating the brown adipose tissue and accelerating daily EE but not the skeletal muscle thermogenic program. In the liver of euthyroid controls, HFD caused an approximately 5-fold increase in triglyceride content and expression of key metabolic genes, whereas acclimatization to 30 C cut triglyceride content by half and normalized gene expression. However, in hypothyroid mice, HFD-induced changes in liver persisted at 30 C, resulting in marked liver steatosis. Acclimatization to thermoneutrality dramatically improves glucose homeostasis, but this was not affected by hypothyroidism. In conclusion, hypothyroid mice are metabolically sensitive to environmental temperature, constituting a mechanism that defines resistance to diet-induced obesity and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  12. Fibronectin-α4β1 Integrin-Mediated Blockade Protects Genetically Fat Zucker Rat Livers from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amersi, Farin; Shen, Xiu-Da; Moore, Carolina; Melinek, Judy; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Coito, Ana J.

    2003-01-01

    We tested a hypothesis that interactions between fibronectin (FN), the major extracellular matrix component, and its integrin α4β1 receptor is important in the development of ischemia/reperfusion injury of steatotic liver transplants. We examined the effect of connecting segment-1 (CS1) peptide-facilitated blockade of FN-α4β1 interaction in a well-established steatotic rat liver model of ex vivo cold ischemia followed by iso-transplantation. In this model, CS1 peptides were administered through the portal vein of steatotic Zucker rat livers before and after cold ischemic storage. Lean Zucker recipients of fatty liver transplants received an additional 3-day course of CS1 peptides after transplant. CS1 peptide therapy significantly inhibited the recruitment of T lymphocytes, neutrophil activation/infiltration, and repressed the expression of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ. Moreover, it resulted in selective inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, peroxynitrite formation, and hepatic necrosis. Importantly, CS1 peptide therapy improved function/histological preservation of steatotic liver grafts, and extended their 14-day survival in lean recipients from 40% in untreated to 100% in CS1-treated OLTs. Thus, CS1 peptide-mediated blockade of FN-α4β1 interaction protects against severe ischemia/reperfusion injury experienced otherwise by steatotic OLTs. These novel findings document the potential of targeting FN-α4β1 in vivo interaction to increase the transplant donor pool through modulation of marginal steatotic livers. PMID:12651615

  13. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  14. Arotinolol is a weak partial agonist on beta 3-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Golozoubova, V; Cannon, B; Nedergaard, J

    2001-07-01

    Arotinolol, a clinically used alpha/beta-adrenergic blocker, has been demonstrated to be an anti-obesity agent. The anti-obesity effect of arotinolol was suggested to be the result of direct activation of thermogenesis in brown-fat cells. We tested the ability of arotinolol to stimulate thermogenesis (oxygen consumption) in isolated brown-fat cells and in intact animals. Arotinolol stimulated thermogenesis in brown-fat cells isolated from mouse and hamster. A relatively low sensitivity to the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (pK(B) approximately 6) indicated that arotinolol interacted with the beta3-adrenergic receptor. On the beta3-receptor, arotinolol was a very weak (EC50 approximately 20 microM) and only partial (approximately 50%) agonist, but arotinolol also demonstrated the properties of being a beta3-receptor antagonist with a pK(B) of 5.7. In intact animals, only the antagonistic action of arotinolol could be observed. Because arotinolol is only a very weak and partial agonist on the beta3-receptors, direct stimulation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is unlikely to be sufficient to cause significant weight loss. It may be necessary to invoke additional pathways to explain the anti-obesity effects of chronic treatment with arotinolol.

  15. Dermatoses of Belchatow brown coal mine employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruszczak, Z.; Bienias, L.; Proszczynska-Kuczynska, W.

    1981-09-01

    Evaluates the results of examinations carried out in the Belchatow brown coal surface mine on skin diseases. Influence of working conditions specific for brown coal mines on the development of some dermatoses is analyzed. From 1978 to 1979 443 miners were examined. Two groups of miners were examined separately: 1. 235 miners who contacted the firm physician due to skin problems and 2. 208 miners who underwent a periodic examination. In group 1 skin dermatoses were found in 86% of all cases, and in group 2 in 48%. Foot skin inflammation, particularly interdigital intertrigo, was the most common dermatosis. Oil acne (occupational disease of coal miners) was diagnosed in 15 cases, common acne in 23 cases, pytiriasis versicolor in 19 cases, erythrasma in 10, eczema and other contact dermatitis in 10 cases. Investigations show that 23% of the foot interdigital intertrigo is caused by mycotic infections. Dermatoses of the skin of miners' feet are caused mainly by rubber protective boots. (10 refs.) (In Polish)

  16. Honeys from different floral sources as inhibitors of enzymatic browning in fruit and vegetable homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Mehta, A; Berenbaum, M; Zangerl, A R; Engeseth, N J

    2000-10-01

    Honeys from different floral sources were evaluated for their antioxidant content and for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables. Antioxidant contents of honeys vary widely from different floral sources, as do their abilities to protect against enzymatic browning. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was reduced over a range of approximately 2-45% in fruit and vegetable homogenates, corresponding to a reduction in browning index by 2.5-12 units. Soy honey was particularly effective when compared to clover honey, which had a similar antioxidant content. When compared to commercial inhibitors of browning, honeys were less effective; however, in combination they added to the effectiveness of metabisulfite and ascorbic acid. Honey has great potential to be used as a natural source of antioxidants to reduce the negative effects of PPO browning in fruit and vegetable processing.

  17. Dahuang Zexie Decoction Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD by Modulating Gut Microbiota-Mediated Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Activation and Loss of Intestinal Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and activated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling play key roles in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Dahuang Zexie Decoction (DZD has been verified to be effective for treating NAFLD, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of DZD on NAFLD rats and determined whether such effects were associated with change of the gut microbiota, downregulated activity of the TLR4 signaling pathway, and increased expressions of tight junction (TJ proteins in the gut. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD for 16 weeks to induce NAFLD and then given DZD intervention for 4 weeks. We found that DZD reduced body and liver weights of NAFLD rats, improved serum lipid levels and liver function parameters, and relieved NAFLD. We further found that DZD changed intestinal bacterial communities, inhibited the intestinal TLR4 signaling pathway, and restored the expressions of TJ proteins in the gut. Meanwhile ten potential components of DZD had been identified. These findings suggest that DZD may protects against NAFLD by modulating gut microbiota-mediated TLR4 signaling activation and loss of intestinal barrier. However, further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which DZD treats NAFLD.

  18. Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelqader, M M; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-03-01

    Sixteen multiparous cows (12 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss, 132 +/- 20 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects of feeding corn germ on dairy cow performance. Diets were formulated with increasing concentrations of corn germ (Dakota Germ, Poet Nutrition, Sioux Falls, SD) at 0, 7, 14, and 21% of the diet dry matter (DM). All diets had a 55:45 forage to concentrate ratio, where forage was 55% corn silage and 45% alfalfa hay. Dietary fat increased from 4.8% in the control diet to 8.2% at the greatest inclusion level of corn germ. The addition of corn germ resulted in a quadratic response in DM intake with numerically greater intake at 14% of diet DM. Feeding corn germ at 7 and 14% of diet DM increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk as well as fat percentage and yield. Milk protein yield tended to decrease as the concentration of corn germ increased in the diet. Dietary treatments had no effect on feed efficiency, which averaged 1.40 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DMI. Increasing the dietary concentration of corn germ resulted in a linear increase in milk fat concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Milk fat concentration and yield of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid were increased with increased dietary concentrations of corn germ. Although milk fat concentrations of both total trans-18:1 and cis-18:1 fatty acids increased linearly, a marked numeric increase in the concentration of trans-10 C18:1 was observed in milk from cows fed the 21% corn germ diet. A similar response was observed in plasma concentration of trans-10 C18:1. Feeding increasing concentrations of corn germ had no effect on plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, or beta-hydroxybutyrate; however, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids increased linearly, with plasma cholesterol concentration demonstrating a similar trend

  19. Chronic hyperinsulinemia reduces insulin sensitivity and metabolic functions of brown adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sujith; Shankar, Kripa; Beg, Muheeb; Varshney, Salil; Gupta, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ankita; Kumar, Durgesh; Mishra, Raj K; Hussain, Zakir; Gayen, Jiaur R; Gaikwad, Anil N

    2016-09-01

    The growing pandemics of diabetes have become a real threat to world economy. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are closely associated with the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In pretext of brown adipocytes being considered as the therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance, we have tried to understand the effect of hyperinsulinemia on brown adipocyte function. We here with for the first time report that hyperinsulinemia-induced insulin resistance in brown adipocyte is also accompanied with reduced insulin sensitivity and brown adipocyte characteristics. CI treatment decreased expression of brown adipocyte-specific markers (such as PRDM16, PGC1α, and UCP1) and mitochondrial content as well as activity. CI-treated brown adipocytes showed drastic decrease in oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and spare respiratory capacity. Morphological study indicates increased accumulation of lipid droplets in CI-treated brown adipocytes. We have further validated these findings in vivo in C57BL/6 mice implanted with mini-osmotic insulin pump for 8weeks. CI treatment in mice leads to increased body weight gain, fat mass and impaired glucose intolerance with reduced energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity. CI-treated mice showed decreased BAT characteristics and function. We also observed increased inflammation and ER stress markers in BAT of CI-treated animals. The above results conclude that hyperinsulinemia has deleterious effect on brown adipocyte function, making it susceptible to insulin resistance. Thus, the above findings have greater implication in designing approaches for the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes via recruitment of brown adipocytes. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Knockdown of NPY expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus promotes development of brown adipocytes and prevents diet-induced obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Pei-Ting; Yang, Liang; Aja, Susan; Moran, Timothy H.; Bi, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in control of energy balance, but the physiological importance of NPY in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) remains unclear. Here we report that knockdown of NPY expression in the DMH by adeno-associated virus-mediated RNAi reduced fat depots in rats fed regular chow and ameliorated high-fat diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity. DMH NPY knockdown resulted in development of brown adipocytes in inguinal white adipose tissue through the sympa...

  1. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  2. Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CANNON, BARBARA; NEDERGAARD, JAN

    2004-01-01

    .... Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance. Physiol Rev 84: 277–359, 2004; 10.1152/physrev.00015.2003.—The function of brown adipose tissue is to transfer energy from food into heat...

  3. Hydrothermal-mechanical dewatering of brown coal

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jian

    2017-01-01

    There are enormous reserves of brown coal in the world. In Australia, brown coal is used to generate most of electricity in the states of Victoria and South Australia. Brown coal is characterised by very high moisture content (around 60 wt% on a wet basis). Therefore, boilers used in the power station are very large and have low thermal efficiency, leading to high cost and large emissions of green house gas. High moisture content also makes brown coal uneconomical for transport...

  4. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity.…

  5. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health. How Monounsaturated Fats Affect Your Health Monounsaturated fats are good for your health in several ways: They can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance ...

  6. Dietary fat and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some fat in the diet is needed for normal growth and development. However, many conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are linked to eating too much fat or eating the wrong types of ...

  7. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  8. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Barquissau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT. Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity.

  9. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, also contain saturated fats. These fats are solid at room temperature. A diet high in saturated fat increases cholesterol buildup in your arteries (blood vessels). Cholesterol is ...

  10. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy fats are a vital part of a child’s diet, and they should not be excessively limited or banned. For young kids, especially, fat and cholesterol play important roles in brain development. And for those under 2 years old, fat ...

  11. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  12. Second messenger signaling mechanisms of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program: an integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fubiao; Collins, Sheila

    2017-09-26

    β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) are well established for conveying the signal from catecholamines to adipocytes. Acting through the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) they stimulate lipolysis and also increase the activity of brown adipocytes and the 'browning' of adipocytes within white fat depots (so-called 'brite' or 'beige' adipocytes). Brown adipose tissue mitochondria are enriched with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is a regulated proton channel that allows the dissipation of chemical energy in the form of heat. The discovery of functional brown adipocytes in humans and inducible brown-like ('beige' or 'brite') adipocytes in rodents have suggested that recruitment and activation of these thermogenic adipocytes could be a promising strategy to increase energy expenditure for obesity therapy. More recently, the cardiac natriuretic peptides and their second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) have gained attention as a parallel signaling pathway in adipocytes, with some unique features. In this review, we begin with some important historical work that touches upon the regulation of brown adipocyte development and physiology. We then provide a synopsis of some recent advances in the signaling cascades from β-adrenergic agonists and natriuretic peptides to drive thermogenic gene expression in the adipocytes and how these two pathways converge at a number of unexpected points. Finally, moving from the physiologic hormonal signaling, we discuss yet another level of control downstream of these signals: the growing appreciation of the emerging roles of non-coding RNAs as important regulators of brown adipocyte formation and function. In this review, we discuss new developments in our understanding of the signaling mechanisms and factors including new secreted proteins and novel non-coding RNAs that control the function as well as the plasticity of the brown/beige adipose tissue as it responds to the energy needs and environmental

  13. Application of Exogenous Ethylene Inhibits Postharvest Peel Browning of 'Huangguan' Pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yurong; Yang, Mengnan; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Wang, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of 'Huangguan' pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Although different methods have been applied for inhibiting the peel browning of 'Huangguan' pear, there are numerous issues associated with these approaches, such as time cost, efficacy, safety and stability. In this study, to develop a rapid, efficient and safe way to protect 'Huangguan' pear from skin browning, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0°C was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene treatments at 0.70-1.28 μL/L significantly decreased the browning rate and browning index from 73.80% and 0.30 to 6.80% and 0.02 after 20 days storage at 0°C, respectively, whereas ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L completely inhibited the occurrence of browning. In addition, ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L decreased the electrolyte leakage and respiration rate, delayed the loss of total phenolic compounds. Furthermore, ethylene (5 μL/L) treatment significantly enhanced the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition rate, but inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). Our data revealed that ethylene prevented the peel browning through improving antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX and SOD) activities and reducing PPO activity, electrolyte leakage rate and respiration rate. This study demonstrates that exogenous ethylene application may provide a safe and effective alternative method for controlling browning, and contributes to the understanding of peel browning of 'Huangguan' pear.

  14. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells differentiate into functional brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elabd, Christian; Chiellini, Chiara; Carmona, Mamen

    2009-01-01

    adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cells exhibit a normal karyotype and high self-renewal ability; they are known to differentiate into cells that exhibit the key properties of human white adipocytes, that is, uncoupling protein two expression, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, lipolysis in response to beta......In contrast to the earlier contention, adult humans have been shown recently to possess active brown adipose tissue with a potential of being of metabolic significance. Up to now, brown fat precursor cells have not been available for human studies. We have shown previously that human multipotent......-agonists and atrial natriuretic peptide, and release of adiponectin and leptin. Herein, we show that, upon chronic exposure to a specific PPARgamma but not to a PPARbeta/delta or a PPARalpha agonist, hMADS cell-derived white adipocytes are able to switch to a brown phenotype by expressing both uncoupling protein one...

  15. The Gut Microbiota Modulates Energy Metabolism in the Hibernating Brown Bear Ursus arctos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Felix; Ståhlman, Marcus; Ilkayeva, Olga; Arnemo, Jon M; Kindberg, Jonas; Josefsson, Johan; Newgard, Christopher B; Fröbert, Ole; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-02-23

    Hibernation is an adaptation that helps many animals to conserve energy during food shortage in winter. Brown bears double their fat depots during summer and use these stored lipids during hibernation. Although bears seasonally become obese, they remain metabolically healthy. We analyzed the microbiota of free-ranging brown bears during their active phase and hibernation. Compared to the active phase, hibernation microbiota had reduced diversity, reduced levels of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and increased levels of Bacteroidetes. Several metabolites involved in lipid metabolism, including triglycerides, cholesterol, and bile acids, were also affected by hibernation. Transplantation of the bear microbiota from summer and winter to germ-free mice transferred some of the seasonal metabolic features and demonstrated that the summer microbiota promoted adiposity without impairing glucose tolerance, suggesting that seasonal variation in the microbiota may contribute to host energy metabolism in the hibernating brown bear. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ras signalling regulates differentiation and UCP1 expression in models of brown adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Hansen, Jacob B

    2010-01-01

    on two unrelated models of mouse brown adipocyte differentiation. RESULTS: A constitutively active H-Ras mutant (Ras V12) caused a complete block of adipose conversion, as manifested by a lack of both lipid accumulation and induction of adipocyte gene expression. The Ras V12-mediated impediment...... mutant (Ras N17) did not inhibit differentiation, but led to increased expression of genes important for energy dissipation in brown fat cells, including UCP1. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the intensity of Ras signalling is important for differentiation and UCP1 expression in models......BACKGROUND: The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway has been recognised as an important signalling module in adipogenesis and adipocyte function, but whether it promotes or inhibits the formation of fat cells has not been reconciled. METHODS: Here we investigate the significance of Ras signalling intensity...

  17. Thermoneutrality decreases thermogenic program and promotes adiposity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Cao, Qiang; Li, Fenfen; Zha, Lin; Bartness, Timothy; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Brown/beige adipocytes are therapeutic targets to combat obesity due to their abilities to dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. Most studies investigating induction of brown/beige adipocytes were conducted in cold condition (e.g., 4°C); much is unknown about how the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes is regulated in thermoneutral condition (e.g., 30°C), which is within the thermal comfort zone of human dwellings in daily life. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes in mice housed under ambient (22°C) versus thermoneutral condition (30°C). Male mice raised at 22°C or 30°C were fed either chow diet or high-fat (HF) diet for 20 weeks. Despite less food intake, chow-fed mice housed at 30°C remained the same body weight compared to mice at 22°C. However, these thermoneutrally housed mice displayed a decrease in the expression of thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots with larger adipocytes. When pair-fed with chow diet, thermoneutrally housed mice showed an increase in body weight. Moreover, thermoneutrality increased body weight of mice fed with HF diet. This was associated with decreased expression of the thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots of the thermoneutrally housed mice. The downregulation of the thermogenic program might have resulted from decreased sympathetic drive in the thermoneutrally housed mice evident by decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase expression and norepinephrine turnover in both brown and white fat depots. Our data demonstrate that thermoneutrality may negatively regulate the thermogenic program and sympathetic drive, leading to increased adiposity in mice. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  18. Brown adipose tissue: research milestones of a potential player in human energy balance and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrir, B

    2013-10-01

    Obesity and diabetes mellitus are worldwide epidemics driven by the disruption in energy balance. In recent years, it was discovered that functional brown adipose tissue (BAT), once thought to exist mainly in infants, is present in adults, and can be detected during cold stimulation, and is associated with decreased adiposity. Brown fat pads were shown to be highly vascularized and metabolically active and on stimulation, they caused enhanced energy expenditure and increased glucose and fatty acid uptake. These observations drew attention to the possibility that nonshivering thermogenesis mediated by activation of BAT might be important in human energy balance and a potential tool to counter obesity. Recent investigations have revealed significant advances in the understanding of the role of BAT-mediated thermogenesis, uncovering essential knowledge on the origin, differentiation, activation, and regulation of BAT in both murine models and humans. In addition to classic BAT depots, transformation of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes, and the development of "beige" cells from distinct precursors, were demonstrated in different animal models and resulted in increased thermogenic activity. Several transcription factors, activating proteins, and hormones are increasingly identified as regulating the development and function of both brown-like adipocytes and classic brown fat pads. This review will summarize the evolution of research on BAT in humans, in light of the renewed scientific interest and growing body of evidence showing that recruitment and activation of BAT and browning of white adipose tissue can affect energy expenditure and may be a future feasible target in the treatment of metabolic diseases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian P; Taylor, Vivien F; Karagas, Margaret R; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2012-05-01

    Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products. We determined the concentration and speciation of As in commercially available brown rice syrups and in products containing OBRS, including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high-energy foods used by endurance athletes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the Internet or in stores in the Hanover, New Hampshire, area. We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethyl-arsenate (DMA). An "organic" toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high-energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Asi was the main As species in most food products tested in this study. There are currently no U.S. regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi into an individual's diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.

  20. Evidence and Mechanisms of Fat Depletion in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Maryam; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience wasting characterized by muscle loss with or without fat loss. In human and animal models of cancer, body composition assessment and morphological analysis reveals adipose atrophy and presence of smaller adipocytes. Fat loss is associated with reduced quality of life in cancer patients and shorter survival independent of body mass index. Fat loss occurs in both visceral and subcutaneous depots; however, the pattern of loss has been incompletely characterized. Increased lipolysis and fat oxidation, decreased lipogenesis, impaired lipid depositionand adipogenesis, as well as browning of white adipose tissue may underlie adipose atrophy in cancer. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) produced by the tumor or adipose tissue may also contribute to adipose depletion. Identifying the mechanisms and time course of fat mass changes in cancer may help identify individuals at risk of adipose depletion and define interventions to circumvent wasting. This review outlines current knowledge of fat mass in cancer and illustrates the need for further studies to assess alterations in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots and possible mechanisms for loss of fat during cancer progression. PMID:25415607

  1. Vibration Training Triggers Brown Adipocyte Relative Protein Expression in Rat White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, vibration training is considered as a novel strategy of weight loss; however, its mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, normal or high-fat diet-induced rats were trained by whole body vibration for 8 weeks. We observed that the body weight and fat metabolism index, blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and free fatty acid in obesity rats decreased significantly compared with nonvibration group (n=6. Although intrascapular BAT weight did not change significantly, vibration enhanced ATP reduction and increased protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT, PGC-1α, and UCP1 in BAT. Interestingly, the adipocytes in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT became smaller due to vibration exercise and had higher protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT, PGC-1α, and UCP1 and inflammatory relative proteins, IL-6 and TNFα. Simultaneously, ATP content and PPARγ protein level in WAT became less in rats compared with nonvibration group. The results indicated that vibration training changed lipid metabolism in rats and promoted brown fat-like change in white adipose tissues through triggering BAT associated gene expression, inflammatory reflect, and reducing energy reserve.

  2. Vibration Training Triggers Brown Adipocyte Relative Protein Expression in Rat White Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Zeng, Ruixia; Cao, Ge; Song, Zhibang; Zhang, Yibo; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, vibration training is considered as a novel strategy of weight loss; however, its mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, normal or high-fat diet-induced rats were trained by whole body vibration for 8 weeks. We observed that the body weight and fat metabolism index, blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and free fatty acid in obesity rats decreased significantly compared with nonvibration group (n = 6). Although intrascapular BAT weight did not change significantly, vibration enhanced ATP reduction and increased protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1α, and UCP1 in BAT. Interestingly, the adipocytes in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) became smaller due to vibration exercise and had higher protein level of the key molecule of brown adipose tissue (BAT), PGC-1α, and UCP1 and inflammatory relative proteins, IL-6 and TNFα. Simultaneously, ATP content and PPARγ protein level in WAT became less in rats compared with nonvibration group. The results indicated that vibration training changed lipid metabolism in rats and promoted brown fat-like change in white adipose tissues through triggering BAT associated gene expression, inflammatory reflect, and reducing energy reserve.

  3. Characterization of Brown Adipose-Like Tissue in Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Elizabeth A; Dickerson, Austin R; Davis, Thomas A; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Davis, Alan R; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO), the abnormal formation of bone within soft tissues, is a major complication after severe trauma or amputation. Transient brown adipocytes have been shown to be a critical regulator of this process in a mouse model of HO. In this study, we evaluated the presence of brown fat within human HO lesions. Most of the excised tissue samples displayed histological characteristics of bone, fibroproliferative cells, blood vessels, and adipose tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed extensive expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a definitive marker of brown adipocytes, within HO-containing tissues but not normal tissues. As seen in the brown adipocytes observed during HO in the mouse, these UCP1 + cells also expressed the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α. However, further characterization showed these cells, like their mouse counterparts, did not express PR domain containing protein 16, a key factor present in brown adipocytes found in depots. Nor did they express factors present in beige adipocytes. These results identify a population of UCP1 + cells within human tissue undergoing HO that do not entirely resemble either classic brown or beige adipocytes, but rather a specialized form of brown adipocyte-like cells, which have a unique function. These cells may offer a new target to prevent this unwanted bone. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(2), the ingredient is...

  5. The roles of metabolic thermogenesis in body fat regulation in striped hamsters fed high-fat diet at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Lu; Fan, Wei-Jia; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Zhao, Xiao-Ya; Tan, Song; Wen, Jing; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Wang, De-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2017-10-01

    The metabolic thermogenesis plays important roles in thermoregulation, and it may be also involved in body fat regulation. The thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is largely affected by ambient temperature, but it is unclear if the roles in body fat regulation are dependent on the temperature. In the present study, uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1)-based BAT thermogenesis, energy budget and body fat content were examined in the striped hamsters fed high fat diet (HF) at cold (5°C) and warm (30°C) temperatures. The effect of 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a chemical uncoupler, on body fat was also examined. The striped hamsters showed a notable increase in body fat following the HF feeding at 21°C. The increased body fat was markedly elevated at 30°C, but was significantly attenuated at 5°C compared to that at 21°C. The hamsters significantly increased energy intake at 5°C, but consumed less food at 30°C relative to those at 21°C. Metabolic thermogenesis, indicated by basal metabolic rate, UCP1 expression and/or serum triiodothyronine levels, significantly increased at 5°C, but decreased at 30°C compared to that at 21°C. A significant decrease in body fat content was observed in DNP-treated hamsters relative to the controls. These findings suggest that the roles of metabolic thermogenesis in body fat regulation largely depend on ambient temperature. The cold-induced enhancement of BAT thermogenesis may contribute the decreased body fat, resulting in a lean mass. Instead, the attenuation of BAT thermogenesis at the warm may result in notable obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PD-L1 is an activation-independent marker of brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jessica R; Dougan, Michael; Rashidian, Mohammad; Knoll, Marko; Keliher, Edmund J; Garrett, Sarah; Garforth, Scott; Blomberg, Olga S; Espinosa, Camilo; Bhan, Atul; Almo, Steven C; Weissleder, Ralph; Lodish, Harvey; Dougan, Stephanie K; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2017-09-21

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on a number of immune and cancer cells, where it can downregulate antitumor immune responses. Its expression has been linked to metabolic changes in these cells. Here we develop a radiolabeled camelid single-domain antibody (anti-PD-L1 VHH) to track PD-L1 expression by immuno-positron emission tomography (PET). PET-CT imaging shows a robust and specific PD-L1 signal in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We confirm expression of PD-L1 on brown adipocytes and demonstrate that signal intensity does not change in response to cold exposure or β-adrenergic activation. This is the first robust method of visualizing murine brown fat independent of its activation state.Current approaches to visualise brown adipose tissue (BAT) rely primarily on markers that reflect its metabolic activity. Here, the authors show that PD-L1 is expressed on brown adipocytes, does not change upon BAT activation, and that BAT volume in mice can be measured by PET-CT with a radiolabeled anti-PD-L1 antibody.

  7. Surprising Legacies of Brown v. Board

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most powerful legacy of Brown v. Board is this: opponents in varied political battles fifty years later each claim ties to the decision and its meaning. So although the analogy between Brown and same-sex marriage has divided Black clergy, each side vies to inherit the civil rights heritage. President George W. Bush invoked Brown in opposing race-conscious college admission practices. The success of Brown in reshaping the moral landscape has been so profound that I fear we do not f...

  8. HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC AND ANTI-OXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF GERMINATED BROWN RICE (GBR IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA-INDUCED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froilan Bernard Matias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia, as one of the causes of obesity, affects vital organs in the body, such as the liver and kidney, resulting to oxidative stress. Germinated Brown Rice (GBR as a food-based solution in dealing with this condition is highly recommended. In this study, the effects of GBR on hypercholesterolemia-induced rats were evaluated by measuring and analyzing the changes on body weight, serum lipid profiles (TC, TG, LDL and HDL, liver function (ALT and AST, kidney function (Crea and Urea and its antioxidant capacity (MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Thirty (30 SD male rats were divided into 5 groups (6 rats per group; Group A was given normal basal diet, Group B (hypercholesterolemic group was given a high fat diet, while Groups C, D, and E were given 12.5%, 25% and 50% GBR, respectively. Groups C, D and E were fed with high fat diet for 4 weeks, then fed with the GBR feeds, accordingly, for another 5 weeks. Sera and liver samples were collected for testing and evaluation. Hypercholesterolemia was successfully induced in Groups B, C, D, and E after 4 weeks. Noticeable responses were observed in groups fed with GBR after 5 weeks. Group E fed with 50% GBR showed the satisfactory results (significant at p<0.05 in weight gain, serum lipid profiles, liver function enzymes, creatinine, urea and oxidative stress markers compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties of GBR were found to have a dose-response effect where higher percentage of GBR showed acceptable results as compared to the normal and hypercholesterolemic groups. GBR showed to effectively lessen TC, TG and LDL while increases HDL. It effectively protects the liver while its kidney protective ability was associated to its hypocholesterolemic properties. Oxidative stress was reduced as shown by a decline in lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidant production. In addition, the abovementioned GBR‘s properties are combined effects of its

  9. Free fatty acids and IL-6 induce adipocyte galectin-3 which is increased in white and brown adipose tissues of obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Hader, Yvonne; Buechler, Christa

    2014-10-01

    Galectin-3 regulates immune cell function and clearance of advanced glycation end products. Galectin-3 is increased in serum of obese humans and mice and most studies suggest that this protein protects from inflammation in metabolic diseases. Current data show that galectin-3 is markedly elevated in the liver, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat depots of mice fed a high fat diet and ob/ob mice. Galectin-3 is also increased in brown adipose tissues of these animals and immunohistochemistry confirms higher levels in adipocytes. Raised galectin-3 in obese white adipocytes has been described in the literature and regulation of adipocyte galectin-3 by metabolites with a role in obesity has been analyzed. Galectin-3 is expressed in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and human preadipocytes and is modestly induced in mature adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes galectin-3 is localized in the cytoplasm and is also detected in cell supernatants. Glucose does not alter soluble galectin-3. Lipopolysaccharide has no effect while TNF reduces and IL-6 raises this lectin in cell supernatants. Palmitate and oleate modestly elevate soluble galectin-3. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of 100 μM and 200 μM linoleate induces soluble galectin-3 and cellular levels are upregulated by the higher concentration. Current data suggest that free fatty acids and IL-6 increase galectin-3 in adipocytes and thereby may contribute to higher levels in obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonality of brown recluse populations is reflected by numbers of brown recluse envenomations

    OpenAIRE

    Rader, RK; Stoecker, WV; Malters, JM; Marr, MT; Dyer, JA

    2012-01-01

    A significant seasonal correlation was recently shown for brown recluse spider activity. Vetter (2011) observed brown recluse spiders were submitted by the general public predominantly during April–October. For patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites (BRSB), we have observed the same seasonality. Among 45 cases with features consistent of a BRSB, 43 (95.6%) occurred during April–October. Both the Vetter study and our study serve to demonstrate seasonal activity for brown recluse sp...

  11. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  12. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lower-fat ingredients. “Low-fat and fat-free yogurt and milk still contain the important proteins and minerals found in the full-fat versions, but you’re getting less saturated fat and cholesterol,” McDowell says. “In some recipes, you can use ...

  13. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  14. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  15. Trans-polar-fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Counil, Emilie; Dewailly, Eric; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As part of the rapid socio-cultural transition observed in Arctic populations, the Inuit diet is changing. We present original data derived from the baseline Inuit Health in Transition cohort study regarding biological levels of n-3 fatty acids and trans-fatty acids (TFA), lipids with opposite he...... of 2 g/100 g fat on industrially produced trans-fats in 2003....

  16. Dietary fats and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    The present review addresses the evidence for a possible link between dietary fat and cancer. International comparisons suggest that a high-fat diet may increase cancer risk, and this hypothesis is supported by animal experiments. However, epidemiological studies within populations show little or

  17. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other animal products, such as butter and cheese. Saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which are often used in baked goods you buy at the store. Eating too much saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol levels and increase the chance of getting heart ...

  18. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  19. Fat and bone interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeo, Sandra; Gunaratnam, Krishanthi; Duque, Gustavo

    2014-06-01

    Fat and bone have a complicated relationship. Although obesity has been associated with low fracture risk, there is increasing evidence that some of the factors that are released by peripheral fat into the circulation may also have a deleterious effect on bone mass, thus, predisposing to fractures. More importantly, the local interaction between fat and bone within the bone marrow seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. This "local interaction" occurs inside the bone marrow and is associated with the autocrine and paracrine release of fatty acids and adipokines, which affect the cells in their vicinity including the osteoblasts, reducing their function and survival. In this review, we explore the particularities of the fat and bone cell interactions within the bone marrow, their significance in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and the potential therapeutic applications that regulating marrow fat may have in the near future as a novel pharmacologic treatment for osteoporosis.

  20. Antioxidant Activities of Various Brown Seaweeds from Seribu Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seftylia Diachanty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown seaweeds contain various metabolites (carotenoids, laminarin, alginate, fucoidan, mannitol, and phlorotannin as anticancer substances, antioxidants and chemopreventive agent against degenerative diseases. This research was aimed to determine the chemical properties and antioxidants activity of Sargassum polycystum, Padina minor and Turbinaria conoides. This research consisted of the proximate analysis, crude fiber, minerals, heavy metals, extraction, phytochemicals, analysis phenolic compound and antioxidant activity with DPPH, FRAP and CUPRAC methods. The results showed moisture content of S. polycystum, P.  minor, and T. conoides 24-31%, fat 0.23-0,47%, protein 3-4%, ash 27-45%, carbohydrate 26-38% and crude fiber 2-6%. Mineral Fe S. polycystum, P.minor and T.conoides about 0.03 g/kg to 0.39 g/kg, Ca 11.28 g/kg to 27.98 g/kg, K 13.86 g/kg to 41.15 g/kg, Na 16.31 g/kg to 20.51 g/kg and Mg 8.04 g/ kg to 18.68 g/kg. The range of heavy metals Pb S. polycystum, P.  m i n o r  and T. conoides 3.48 mg/kg to 12.68 mg/kg, Hg 0.24 mg/kg to 0.53 mg/kg and Cu 5.66 mg/kg to 7.02 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of S. polycystum, P. minor, and T. conoides contains alkaloids, phenolic, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, and triterpenoids. Total phenolic compounds of brown seaweeds ranged from 3758.97-8287.18 mg GAE/g. Brown seaweeds contain DPPH antioxidant activities within IC50 values of 1.9-9.6 mg/mL, FRAP 70.643-105.357 µmol Trolox/g and CUPRAC 85.268-201 µmol Trolox/g.

  1. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  2. Detection of prion infectivity in fat tissues of scrapie-infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Race

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of prion infectivity in organs and tissues is important in understanding prion disease pathogenesis and designing strategies to prevent prion infection in animals and humans. Transmission of prion disease from cattle to humans resulted in banning human consumption of ruminant nervous system and certain other tissues. In the present study, we surveyed tissue distribution of prion infectivity in mice with prion disease. We show for the first time detection of infectivity in white and brown fat. Since high amounts of ruminant fat are consumed by humans and also incorporated into animal feed, fat-containing tissues may pose a previously unappreciated hazard for spread of prion infection.

  3. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  4. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  5. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  6. Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Taking Care of Your Teeth Bad Breath Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! Print A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Tarantula ...

  7. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  8. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural…

  9. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  10. Brown vs. Board of Education Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    IDEA, UCLA

    2004-01-01

    This booklet was designed for K-12 classrooms and community groups examining the legacy of Brown v Board for California. The booklet chronicles the national battle for equal schooling up to and since the Brown decision. It also highlights the history of school segregation in California and the ongoing struggle for equal schooling.

  11. "Brown" and Black-White Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" only presumed to eliminate the "de jure" apartheid that existed in 1954. It was never intended to resolve the "de facto" gap in minority achievement that still faces education policymakers today. Sociologist David J. Armor goes beyond "Brown" to identify a set of definite risk…

  12. Brown recluse spider bite on the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kori; Misra, Subhasis

    2014-05-01

    Brown recluse spiders are one of two types of spiders in the United States that can cause significant tissue damage and, in rare cases, death. Brown recluse spider bites are most often benign and self-limiting, but in a few cases can cause severe necrotic skin lesions.

  13. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  14. 19 CFR 4.72 - Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inedible fats. 4.72 Section 4.72 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats. (a) No clearance shall be granted to any vessel..., oleo oil, or other rendered fat derived from cattle, sheep, swine, or goats for export from the United...

  15. Traumatic Brown-Séquard-plus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, M O; Flynn, P A; Pang, K A; Hawkins, S A

    2001-09-01

    In the 1840s Brown-Séquard described the motor and sensory effects of sectioning half of the spinal cord. Penetrating injuries can cause Brown-Séquard or, more frequently, Brown-Séquard-plus syndromes. To report the case of a 25-year-old man who developed left-sided Brown-Séquard syndrome at the C8 level and left-sided Horner syndrome plus urinary retention and bilateral extensor responses following a stab wound in the right side of the neck. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a low cervical lesion and somatosensory evoked potentials confirmed the clinical finding of left-side dorsal column disturbance. At follow-up, the patient's mobility and bladder function had returned to normal. This patient recovered well after a penetrating neck injury that disturbed function in more than half the lower cervical spinal cord (Brown-Séquard-plus syndrome).

  16. Thermogenic activity of UCP1 in human white fat-derived beige adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartesaghi, Stefano; Hallen, Stefan; Huang, Li; Svensson, Per-Arne; Momo, Remi A; Wallin, Simonetta; Carlsson, Eva K; Forslöw, Anna; Seale, Patrick; Peng, Xiao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Heat-producing beige/brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes in white adipose tissue have the potential to suppress metabolic disease in mice and hold great promise for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Here, we demonstrate that human adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (hASCs) from subcutaneous white adipose tissue can be efficiently converted into beige adipocytes. Upon pharmacological activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, hASC-derived adipocytes activated beige fat-selective genes and a brown/beige fat-selective electron transport chain gene program. Importantly, hASC-derived beige fat cells displayed the bioenergetic characteristics of genuine brown fat cells, including a capacity for increased respiratory uncoupling in response to β-adrenergic agonists. Furthermore, knock-down experiments reveal that the thermogenic capacity of human beige fat cells was entirely dependent on the presence of Uncoupling protein 1. In summary, this study reveals that hASCs can be readily differentiated into beige adipocytes that, upon activation, undergo uncoupling protein 1-dependent thermogenesis.

  17. Preferential impact of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A deficiency on visceral fat in mice on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A; Harstad, Sara L; Tchkonia, Tamar; Kirkland, James L

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of visceral fat, more so than subcutaneous fat, is strongly associated with severe metabolic complications. However, the factors regulating depot-specific adipogenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we show differential expression of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a secreted regulator of local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action, in adipose tissue of mice. PAPP-A mRNA expression was fivefold higher in visceral (mesenteric) fat compared with subcutaneous (inguinal, subscapular), perirenal, and brown fat of mice. To investigate the possible role of depot-specific PAPP-A expression in fat accumulation, wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for up to 20 wk. Adipocyte size increased in subcutaneous and perirenal depots similarly in WT and PAPP-A KO mice. However, fat cell size and in vivo lipid uptake were significantly reduced in mesenteric fat of PAPP-A KO compared with WT mice. After 20 wk on HFD, phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream signaling intermediate of IGF-I and insulin receptor activation, was significantly decreased by 50% in mesenteric compared with subcutaneous fat in WT mice, but was significantly increased threefold in mesenteric compared with subcutaneous fat in PAPP-A KO mice. This appeared to be because of enhanced insulin-stimulated signaling in mesenteric fat of PAPP-A KO mice. These data establish fat depot-specific expression of PAPP-A and indicate preferential impact of PAPP-A deficiency on visceral fat in the mouse that is associated with enhanced insulin receptor signaling. Thus, PAPP-A may be a potential target for treatment and/or prevention strategies for visceral obesity and related morbidities.

  18. Marrow Adipose Tissue: Trimming the Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L; Cawthorn, William P; Burr, Aaron A; Horowitz, Mark C; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2016-06-01

    Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a unique fat depot, located in the skeleton, that has the potential to contribute to both local and systemic metabolic processes. In this review we highlight several recent conceptual developments pertaining to the origin and function of MAT adipocytes; consider the relationship of MAT to beige, brown, and white adipose depots; explore MAT expansion and turnover in humans and rodents; and discuss future directions for MAT research in the context of endocrine function and metabolic disease. MAT has the potential to exert both local and systemic effects on metabolic homeostasis, skeletal remodeling, hematopoiesis, and the development of bone metastases. The diversity of these functions highlights the breadth of the potential impact of MAT on health and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  20. Sex differences in sympathetic innervation and browning of white adipose tissue of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Nam; Jung, Young-Suk; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Seong, Je Kyung; Granneman, James G; Lee, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    The higher prevalence of obesity-related metabolic disease in males suggests that female sex hormones provide protective mechanisms against the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Because browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is protective against obesity-related metabolic disease, we examined sex differences in β3-adrenergic remodeling of WAT in mice. Effects of the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL) on browning of white adipose tissue were investigated in male and female C57BL mice. The role of ovarian hormones in female-specific browning was studied in control female C57BL mice and mice with ovarian failure induced by 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide treatment for 15 days. We found that treatment with CL-induced upregulation of brown adipocyte markers and mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins in gonadal WAT (gWAT) of female mice, but was without effect in males. In contrast, CL treatment was equally effective in males and females in inducing brown adipocyte phenotypes in inguinal WAT. The tissue- and sex-specific differences in brown adipocyte recruitment were correlated with differences in sympathetic innervation, as determined by tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining and western blotting. Levels of the neurotrophins NGF and BDNF were significantly higher in gWAT of female mice. CL treatment significantly increased NGF levels in gWAT of female mice but did not affect BDNF expression. In contrast, estradiol treatment doubled BDNF expression in female adipocytes differentiated in vitro. Ovarian failure induced by 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide treatment dramatically reduced BDNF and TH expression in gWAT, eliminated induction of UCP1 by CL, and reduced tissue metabolic rate. Collectively, these data demonstrate that female mice are more responsive than males to the recruitment of brown adipocytes in gonadal WAT and this difference corresponds to greater levels of estrogen-dependent sympathetic innervation.

  1. DNA damage inhibitory effect and phytochemicals of fermented red brown rice extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee-Ling Kong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the polyphenol compounds (phenolic and flavonoid compounds, antioxidant activity [1,1-diphenylpicryl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity] and DNA damage inhibitory effect of fermented local red brown rice. Methods: DNA nicking assay was employed to determine the antioxidant activity of the fermented rice extract. Phytochemical screening was completed using standard methods and DPPH radical assays were used to confirm the antioxidant properties of the extracts. Results: After four days of fermentation, fermented red brown rice had more polyphenol compounds compared to unfermented counterpart. Fermented red brown rice showed greater antioxidant properties with EC50 value of DPPH radical scavenging of 43.00 mg extract/mL or 8 mg quercetin equivalent antioxidant activity. In addition, fermented rice extract showed DNA damage inhibitory effect to a certain extent. It protected DNA from reactive oxygen species; however, at high concentration it might induce reductive damage to DNA, whereas, unfermented red brown rice showed weak DNA damage inhibitory effect. Conclusions: Fermented red brown rice could protect DNA from oxidative damage but might induce reductive damage to DNA at high concentrations.

  2. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks to delivery) Prostate Cancer Protein in Urine (Proteinuria) Reactive Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Sarcoidosis Scleroderma Sepsis Septic ... healthcare practitioner's instructions; this may include consuming 50-150 grams of fat a day in your diet ...

  3. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... 150 grams of fat a day in your diet for 2-3 days prior to and during ...

  4. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  5. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TIPS: Vary Your Veggies Beans and Peas Are Unique Foods Food Gallery Take the Vegetable Quiz Grains ... Foods and Beverages Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fats Sodium Added Sugars Others Everything You Eat and Drink ...

  6. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  7. Saturated and trans fats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shader, Richard I

    2014-01-01

    ... Original Pancake Mix plus ingredients suggested by the recipe: 2 g saturated fat (SF) and no trans fatty acids or trans fat (TFA); bacon, Oscar Mayer Lower Sodium Bacon: 2.5 g SF and no TFA; sausages, Jimmy Dean Original Pork Sausage Links: 8 g SF and no TFA; potatoes, Ore-Ida Mini Tater Tots: 2 g SF and no TFA; and nondairy creamer, Nestlé Coffee-...

  8. Brown adipose tissue in morbidly obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy H E J Vijgen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cold-stimulated adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT to increase energy expenditure is suggested as a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. We have recently shown high prevalence of BAT in adult humans, which was inversely related to body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage (BF%, suggesting that obesity is associated with lower BAT activity. Here, we examined BAT activity in morbidly obese subjects and its role in cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT after applying a personalized cooling protocol. We hypothesize that morbidly obese subjects show reduced BAT activity upon cold exposure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After applying a personalized cooling protocol for maximal non-shivering conditions, BAT activity was determined using positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT. Cold-induced BAT activity was detected in three out of 15 morbidly obese subjects. Combined with results from lean to morbidly obese subjects (n = 39 from previous study, the collective data show a highly significant correlation between BAT activity and body composition (P<0.001, respectively explaining 64% and 60% of the variance in BMI (r = 0.8; P<0.001 and BF% (r = 0.75; P<0.001. Obese individuals demonstrate a blunted CIT combined with low BAT activity. Only in BAT-positive subjects (n = 26 mean energy expenditure was increased significantly upon cold exposure (51.5±6.7 J/s versus 44.0±5.1 J/s, P = 0.001, and the increase was significantly higher compared to BAT-negative subjects (+15.5±8.9% versus +3.6±8.9%, P = 0.001, indicating a role for BAT in CIT in humans. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in an extremely large range of body compositions, BAT activity is highly correlated with BMI and BF%. BAT-positive subjects showed higher CIT, indicating that BAT is also in humans involved in adaptive thermogenesis. Increasing BAT activity could be a therapeutic target in (morbid obesity.

  9. Brown recluse spider bite to the eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, R M; Neufeld, M V; Westfall, C T

    2000-08-01

    To present a photographically documented case of a known brown recluse spider bite to the eyelid. Interventional case report. The wound was photographed daily during an 11-day hospitalization and at 1 month and 6 months after the injury. Treatment included canthotomy and cantholysis; administration of dapsone, antibiotics, and steroids; and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Clinical presentation and course of a known brown recluse spider bite. Complete recovery with cicatrization at the site of the bite. We present a case of a brown recluse spider bite to the left lower eyelid with a discussion of management and outcome of this rarely reported injury.

  10. Thioesterase superfamily member 1 suppresses cold thermogenesis by limiting the oxidation of lipid droplet-derived fatty acids in brown adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okada

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: These results show that Them1 may act as a break on uncontrolled heat production and limit the extent of energy expenditure. Pharmacologic inhibition of Them1 could provide a targeted strategy for the management of metabolic disorders via activation of brown fat.

  11. Control of brown adipose tissue glucose and lipid metabolism by PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Festuccia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT non-shivering thermogenesis impacts energy homeostasis in rodents and humans. Mitochondrial UCP1 in brown fat cells produce heat by dissipating the energy generated by the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose. In addition to thermogenesis and despite its small relative size, sympathetically activated BAT constitutes an important glucose, fatty acid and triacylglycerol-clearing organ, and such function could potentially be used to alleviate dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. To date, chronic sympathetic innervation and PPARγ activation are the only recognized inducers of BAT recruitment. Here, we review the major differences between these two inducers of BAT recruitment in the regulation of lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, lipid uptake and triacylglycerol synthesis, glucose uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Whereas BAT recruitment through sympathetic drive translates into functional thermogenic activity, PPARγ-mediated recruitment is associated with a reduction in sympathetic activity leading to increased lipid storage in brown adipocytes. The promising therapeutic role of brown adipose tissue in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemic and hyperglycaemic conditions are also discussed.

  12. Browning of white adipose tissue uncouples glucose uptake from insulin signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Mössenböck

    Full Text Available Presence of thermogenically active adipose tissue in adult humans has been inversely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. While it had been shown that insulin is crucial for the development of classical brown fat, its role in development and function of inducible brown-in-white (brite adipose tissue is less clear. Here we show that insulin deficiency impaired differentiation of brite adipocytes. However, adrenergic stimulation almost fully induced the thermogenic program under these settings. Although brite differentiation of adipocytes as well as browning of white adipose tissue entailed substantially elevated glucose uptake by adipose tissue, the capacity of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake surprisingly was not higher in the brite state. Notably, in line with the insulin-independent stimulation of glucose uptake, our data revealed that brite recruitment results in induction of solute carrier family 2 (GLUT-1 expression in adipocytes and inguinal WAT. These results for the first time demonstrate that insulin signaling is neither essential for brite recruitment, nor is it improved in cells or tissues upon browning.

  13. Brown trout as an invader: A synthesis of problems and perspectives in western North America: Chapter 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Gaeta, Jereme W.; Lobón-Cerviá, Javier; Sanz, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Brown trout are one of the most pervasive and successful invaders worldwide and are ubiquitous across the Intermountain West, USA (IMW). This species is the foundation of extremely popular and economically significant sport fisheries despite well-established negative effects on native fishes and ecosystems, resulting in very challenging, and often opposing, conservation and management goals. Herein, we review the direct (e.g., competition and predation) and indirect (e.g., disease vectors) pathways through which brown trout across the IMW have posed a threat to native species. We discuss the importance of brown trout as economically and culturally important fisheries, especially in novel tailwater ecosystems created by damming. To this end, we surveyed 24 experts from eight states across the IMW to document the relevance of novel brown trout fisheries in 51 tailwaters and found brown trout are thriving in these novel ecosystems, which are often unsuitable for native fishes. We discuss the challenging interplay between protecting native species and managing novel brown trout fisheries. Notably, the future of exotic brown trout in the IMW is shifting as the prestige of native fisheries is growing and many non-native eradication efforts have occurred. The future of exotic brown trout in the IMW, will depend on the nexus of public sentiment and policy, the effectiveness of eradication efforts, and the effect of climate change on both the native fishes and exotic brown trout. Regardless, because brown trout are pervasive and have a broad distribution through the IMW, populations of this species will likely persist at least in some locations into the future.

  14. 40 CFR 417.20 - Applicability; description of the fatty acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acid manufacturing by fat splitting subcategory. 417.20 Section 417.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fatty Acid Manufacturing by Fat Splitting Subcategory § 417.20 Applicability...

  15. Recent records and distribution of the Indian Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus Gray, 1837 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Herpestidae from the southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sreehari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting four new records of Brown Mongoose Herpestes fuscus Gray, 1837 from four protected areas in Western Ghats including Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Periyar Tiger Reserve and Pampadum Shola National Park and one new site record outside a protected area from Pambanar Tea plantation in Idukki dt. situated in Kerala part of southern Western Ghats. An updated distribution map of Brown Mongoose in Western Ghats is presented here.  

  16. Progress report: brown bear studies - 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Forty-four brown bears (22 adult female, 22 offspring) were captured in the Ayakulik River, Sturgeon River, and Frazer Lake drainages of Kodiak Island in July, 1983....

  17. Live-trapping and handling brown bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In recent years bears have become increasingly important as big game animals. The brown bears (Ursus middendorfi) on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Kodiak...

  18. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  19. Deletion of Inducible Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Leptin-Deficient Mice Improves Brown Adipose Tissue Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Sara; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Sáinz, Neira; Ramírez, Beatriz; Collantes, María; Peñuelas, Iván; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptin and nitric oxide (NO) on their own participate in the control of non-shivering thermogenesis. However, the functional interplay between both factors in this process has not been explored so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of the absence of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) gene in the regulation of energy balance in ob/ob mice. Methods and Findings Double knockout (DBKO) mice simultaneously lacking the ob and iNOS genes were generated, and the expression of molecules involved in the control of brown fat cell function was analyzed by real-time PCR, western-blot and immunohistochemistry. Twelve week-old DBKO mice exhibited reduced body weight (p<0.05), decreased amounts of total fat pads (p<0.05), lower food efficiency rates (p<0.05) and higher rectal temperature (p<0.05) than ob/ob mice. Ablation of iNOS also improved the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of ob/ob mice. DBKO showed a marked reduction in the size of brown adipocytes compared to ob/ob mutants. In this sense, in comparison to ob/ob mice, DBKO rodents showed an increase in the expression of PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16), a transcriptional regulator of brown adipogenesis. Moreover, iNOS deletion enhanced the expression of mitochondria-related proteins, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 α (Pgc-1α), sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) and sirtuin-3 (Sirt-3). Accordingly, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 1 and 3 (Ucp-1 and Ucp-3) were upregulated in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of DBKO mice as compared to ob/ob rodents. Conclusion Ablation of iNOS improved the energy balance of ob/ob mice by decreasing food efficiency through an increase in thermogenesis. These effects may be mediated, in part, through the recovery of the BAT phenotype and brown fat cell function improvement. PMID:20532036

  20. Seasonality of brown recluse populations is reflected by numbers of brown recluse envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, R K; Stoecker, W V; Malters, J M; Marr, M T; Dyer, J A

    2012-07-01

    A significant seasonal correlation was recently shown for brown recluse spider activity. Vetter (2011) observed brown recluse spiders were submitted by the general public predominantly during April-October. For patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites (BRSB), we have observed the same seasonality. Among 45 cases with features consistent of a BRSB, 43 (95.6%) occurred during April-October. Both the Vetter study and our study serve to demonstrate seasonal activity for brown recluse spiders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of hibernation and reproductive status on body mass and condition of coastal brown bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, G.V.; Schwartz, C. C.; Robbins, C.T.; Hanley, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hibernation and reproductive status on changes in body mass and composition of adult female brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. This information is fundamental to understanding nutritional ecology of wild brown bear populations. Six adult females handled in the fall and following spring (paired samples) lost 73 ± 22 kg (x̄ ± SD; 32 ± 10%) of fall body mass over 208 ± 19 days. Of this mass loss, 56 ± 22% (55 ± 22 kg) was lipid and 44 ± 22% (43 ± 21 kg) was lean body mass. Catabolism of lipid stores accounted for 88.4 ± 8.1% of the body energy used to meet maintenance demands. Overwinter differences in body composition of adult females assessed only once in either the fall (n = 21) or spring (n = 32) were similar to those of paired samples. Relative fatness of bears entering the den was positively related to the contribution of fat (%) to body mass (P hibernation. Thus, relative fatness at the onset of fasting influences the relative proportion of lipid stores and lean body mass catabolized to meet protein and energy demands during hibernation. In the spring, lone females had greater body and lean masses than females with cubs of the year or yearlings. Lipid content was greatest in lone females in the fall. Studies using body mass and composition as indices of population health should consider season or reproductive class.

  2. Robust multipoint water-fat separation using fat likelihood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huanzhou; Reeder, Scott B; Shimakawa, Ann; McKenzie, Charles A; Brittain, Jean H

    2012-04-01

    Fat suppression is an essential part of routine MRI scanning. Multiecho chemical-shift based water-fat separation methods estimate and correct for Bo field inhomogeneity. However, they must contend with the intrinsic challenge of water-fat ambiguity that can result in water-fat swapping. This problem arises because the signals from two chemical species, when both are modeled as a single discrete spectral peak, may appear indistinguishable in the presence of Bo off-resonance. In conventional methods, the water-fat ambiguity is typically removed by enforcing field map smoothness using region growing based algorithms. In reality, the fat spectrum has multiple spectral peaks. Using this spectral complexity, we introduce a novel concept that identifies water and fat for multiecho acquisitions by exploiting the spectral differences between water and fat. A fat likelihood map is produced to indicate if a pixel is likely to be water-dominant or fat-dominant by comparing the fitting residuals of two different signal models. The fat likelihood analysis and field map smoothness provide complementary information, and we designed an algorithm (Fat Likelihood Analysis for Multiecho Signals) to exploit both mechanisms. It is demonstrated in a wide variety of data that the Fat Likelihood Analysis for Multiecho Signals algorithm offers highly robust water-fat separation for 6-echo acquisitions, particularly in some previously challenging applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Lightning on exoplanets and brown dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Hodosán, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Lightning is an important electrical phenomenon, known to exist in several Solar System planets. Amongst others, it carries information on convection and cloud formation, and may be important for pre-biotic chemistry. Exoplanets and brown dwarfs have been shown to host environments appropriate for the initiation of lightning discharges. In this PhD project, I aim to determine if lightning on exoplanets and brown dwarfs can be more energetic than it is known from Solar System planets, what are...

  4. Brown recluse spider bites: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Janice D

    2006-02-01

    The brown recluse spider is found more commonly in the Southeast and the Central Midwest. Its bite is not common because it is a shy spider that only bites if cornered. A severe bite may necrose a large area that requires skin grafting; systemic reactions rarely occur. This article discusses the brown recluse spider and presents a case study of a patient with two spider bites that did require extensive grafting.

  5. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Sedláček; Nikolas Mucha; Iva Pečtová; Peter Fečko

    2007-01-01

    One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2).In the past brown-coal pellets weremade...

  6. Clonal analyses and gene profiling identify genetic biomarkers of the thermogenic potential of human brown and white preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ruidan; Lynes, Matthew D; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M; Shamsi, Farnaz; Schulz, Tim J; Zhang, Hongbin; Huang, Tian Lian; Townsend, Kristy L; Li, Yiming; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Weiner, Lauren S; White, Andrew P; Lynes, Maureen S; Rubin, Lee L; Goodyear, Laurie J; Cypess, Aaron M; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Targeting brown adipose tissue (BAT) content or activity has therapeutic potential for treating obesity and the metabolic syndrome by increasing energy expenditure. However, both inter- and intra-individual differences contribute to heterogeneity in human BAT and potentially to differential thermogenic capacity in human populations. Here we generated clones of brown and white preadipocytes from human neck fat and characterized their adipogenic and thermogenic differentiation. We combined an uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) reporter system and expression profiling to define novel sets of gene signatures in human preadipocytes that could predict the thermogenic potential of the cells once they were maturated. Knocking out the positive UCP1 regulators, PREX1 and EDNRB, in brown preadipocytes using CRISPR-Cas9 markedly abolished the high level of UCP1 in brown adipocytes differentiated from the preadipocytes. Finally, we were able to prospectively isolate adipose progenitors with great thermogenic potential using the cell surface marker CD29. These data provide new insights into the cellular heterogeneity in human fat and offer potential biomarkers for identifying thermogenically competent preadipocytes.

  7. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  8. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  9. Differential Effects of Dietary Fat Content and Protein Source on Bone Phenotype and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Female C57Bl/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Emily A; Stroup, Bridget M; Murali, Sangita G; O'Neill, Lucas M; Ntambi, James M; Ney, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear. To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat) or 13% Fat Kcal (control) with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral) biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone. Weanling female C57Bl/6 mice were fed high-fat (60% Fat Kcal) or control diets (13% Fat Kcal) with GMP or casein from 3 to 32 weeks of age with assessment of body weight and food intake. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fatty acid oxidation was measured in liver, muscle, and fat tissues using 14C-palmitate. Plasma concentrations of hormones and cytokines were determined. Bone biomechanical performance was assessed by the 3-point bending test. Female mice fed high-fat diets showed increased fatty acid oxidation capacity in both gastrocnemius muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to mice fed the control diets with a lower fat content. Despite increased fat mass in mice fed the high-fat diets, there was little evidence of glucose impairment or inflammation. Mice fed the high-fat diets had significantly greater total body bone mineral density (BMD), femoral BMD, and femoral cross-sectional area than mice fed the control diets. Femora of mice fed the high-fat diets had increased yield load and maximum load before fracture, consistent with greater bone strength, but reduced post-yield displacement or ductility, consistent with bone brittleness. Female mice fed a high-fat GMP diet displayed increased fat oxidation capacity in subcutaneous fat relative to mice fed the high-fat casein diet. Regardless of dietary fat content, GMP increased total body bone

  10. Differential Effects of Dietary Fat Content and Protein Source on Bone Phenotype and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Female C57Bl/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Sawin

    Full Text Available Glycomacropeptide (GMP is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear.To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat or 13% Fat Kcal (control with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone.Weanling female C57Bl/6 mice were fed high-fat (60% Fat Kcal or control diets (13% Fat Kcal with GMP or casein from 3 to 32 weeks of age with assessment of body weight and food intake. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Fatty acid oxidation was measured in liver, muscle, and fat tissues using 14C-palmitate. Plasma concentrations of hormones and cytokines were determined. Bone biomechanical performance was assessed by the 3-point bending test.Female mice fed high-fat diets showed increased fatty acid oxidation capacity in both gastrocnemius muscle and brown adipose tissue compared to mice fed the control diets with a lower fat content. Despite increased fat mass in mice fed the high-fat diets, there was little evidence of glucose impairment or inflammation. Mice fed the high-fat diets had significantly greater total body bone mineral density (BMD, femoral BMD, and femoral cross-sectional area than mice fed the control diets. Femora of mice fed the high-fat diets had increased yield load and maximum load before fracture, consistent with greater bone strength, but reduced post-yield displacement or ductility, consistent with bone brittleness. Female mice fed a high-fat GMP diet displayed increased fat oxidation capacity in subcutaneous fat relative to mice fed the high-fat casein diet. Regardless of dietary fat content, GMP increased total

  11. Evaluation of dazomet as fumigant for the control of brown root rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuen-Hsu; Hu, Bau-Yuan; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Hsueh, Kai-Leen; Hsu, Wei-Tse

    2012-07-01

    Brown root rot disease caused by Phellinus noxius is widespread in approximately 216 tree and plant species in tropical and subtropical countries. No direct means of protection against P. noxius infection have thus far been developed. Therefore, in this field survey, a method was developed for preventing and controlling brown root rot disease using fumigation with dazomet. Tracers were used to monitor the effect of dazomet fumigation. The results from field surveys and phytotoxicity tests showed that dazomet is able to kill P. noxius without any side effects on plants. The use of an environmentally friendly agent to control brown root rot disease is needed, and prevention of the disease is more important than treatment. Hence, chemical fumigation with 60 g m(-2) of 98% dazomet may be a possible means of preventing P. noxius incursion in agriculture, gardening and agroforestry. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Common and distinct regulation of human and mouse brown and beige adipose tissues: a promising therapeutic target for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejiao; Cervantes, Christopher; Liu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Obesity, which underlies various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, is a growing public health challenge for which established therapies are inadequate. Given the current obesity epidemic, there is a pressing need for more novel therapeutic strategies that will help adult individuals to manage their weight. One promising therapeutic intervention for reducing obesity is to enhance energy expenditure. Investigations into human brown fat and the recently discovered beige/brite fat have galvanized intense research efforts during the past decade because of their pivotal roles in energy dissipation. In this review, we summarize the evolution of human brown adipose tissue (hBAT) research and discuss new in vivo methodologies for evaluating energy expenditure in patients. We highlight the differences between human and mouse BAT by integrating and comparing their cellular morphology, function, and gene expression profiles. Although great advances in hBAT biology have been achieved in the past decade, more cellular models are needed to acquire a better understanding of adipose-specific processes and molecular mechanisms. Thus, this review also describes the development of a human brown fat cell line, which could provide promising mechanistic insights into hBAT function, signal transduction, and development. Finally, we focus on the therapeutic potential and current limitations of hBAT as an anti-glycemic, anti-lipidemic, and weight loss-inducing 'metabolic panacea'.

  13. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  14. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  15. Fat Grams: How to Track Your Dietary Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating To track how much fat I eat each day, should I focus on ... 30, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/fat-grams/faq- ...

  16. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolich, K.; Kujawski, G.E.J.G.; Rudolph, M.

    2003-01-01

    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nine hares were...

  17. Chromium picolinate and chromium histidinate protects against renal dysfunction by modulation of NF-κB pathway in high-fat diet fed and Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus. Although chromium is an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, its effects on diabetic nephropathy are not well understood. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic and chromium histidinate (CrHis on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 pathway in the rat kidney. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. Group I received a standard diet (8% fat and served as a control; Group II was fed with a standard diet and received CrPic; Group III was fed with a standard diet and received CrHis; Group IV received a high fat diet (HFD, 40% fat for 2 weeks and then were injected with streptozotocin (STZ (HFD/STZ; Group V was treated as group IV (HFD/STZ but supplemented with CrPic for 12 weeks. Group VI was treated as group IV (HFD/STZ but supplemented with CrHis. Results The increased NF-κβ p65 in the HFD/STZ group was inhibited by CrPic and CrHis supplementation (P P P Conclusion Our result show that in kidney tissue CrHis/CrPic increases Nrf2 level, parallelly decreases NF-κB and partially restores IκBα levels in HFD/STZ group, suggesting that CrPic and CrHis may play a role in antioxidant defense system via the Nrf2 pathway by reducing inflammation through NF-κβ p65 inhibition. Moreover, a greater reduction in NF-κB expression and greater increases in expressions of IκBα and Nrf2 in diabetic rats supplemented with CrHis than rats supplemented with CrPic suggest that CrHis has more favorable effects than CrPic.

  18. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...... the fat-rich diet. Whole-body plasma FA oxidation (determined by comparison of (13)CO(2) production and blood palmitate labelling) was 55-65 % of total lipid oxidation, and was higher after the fat-rich diet than after the carbohydrate-rich diet (13.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.1 micromol min(-1) kg(-1); P

  19. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  20. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  1. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  2. A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Pontus; Wu, Jun; Jedrychowski, Mark P

    2012-01-01

    Exercise benefits a variety of organ systems in mammals, and some of the best-recognized effects of exercise on muscle are mediated by the transcriptional co-activator PPAR-γ co-activator-1 α (PGC1-α). Here we show in mouse that PGC1-α expression in muscle stimulates an increase in expression...... increased irisin levels in the blood cause an increase in energy expenditure in mice with no changes in movement or food intake. This results in improvements in obesity and glucose homeostasis. Irisin could be therapeutic for human metabolic disease and other disorders that are improved with exercise....

  3. No evidence of white adipocyte browning after endurance exercise training in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiloulis, T; Carey, A L; Bayliss, J; Canny, B; Meex, R C R; Watt, M J

    2017-11-30

    The phenomenon of adipocyte 'beiging' involves the conversion of non-classic brown adipocytes to brown-like adipose tissue with thermogenic, fat-burning properties, and this phenomenon has been shown in rodents to slow the progression of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Rodent studies consistently report adipocyte beiging after endurance exercise training, indicating that increased thermogenic capacity in these adipocytes may underpin the improved health benefits of exercise training. The aim of this study was to determine whether prolonged endurance exercise training induces beige adipogenesis in subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese men. Molecular markers of beiging were examined in adipocytes obtained from abdominal (AbSC) and gluteofemoral (GF) subcutaneous adipose tissues before and after six weeks of endurance exercise training in obese men (n=6, 37.3±2.3 years, 30.1±2.3 kg/m2). The mRNAs encoding the brown or beige adipocyte-selective proteins were very lowly expressed in AbSC and GF adipose tissues and exercise training did not alter the mRNA expression of UCP1, CD137, CITED, TBX1, LHX8 and TCF21. Using immunohistochemistry, neither multilocular adipocytes, nor UCP1 or CD137-positive adipocytes were detected in any sample. MicroRNAs known to regulate brown and/or beige adipose development were highly expressed in white adipocytes but endurance exercise training did not impact their expression. The present study reaffirms emerging data in humans demonstrating no evidence of white adipose tissue beiging in response to exercise training, and supports a growing body of work demonstrating divergence of brown/beige adipose location, molecular characterisation and physiological function between rodents and humans.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 30 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.295.

  4. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks.

  5. Effect Of Fat Source And Vitamin E Supplimentation On Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different sources of fat on carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of broilers and the interactive effect of fat source and vitamin E on keeping quality of broiler thigh meat were evaluated. The four dietary treatments were the control (No fat inclusion); palm oil; groundnut oil and palm kernel oil. The diets ...

  6. The colored Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Ballarini, D.; González-Tudela, A.; de Giorgi, M.; Gigli, G.; West, K.; Pfeiffer, L.; Del Valle, E.; Sanvitto, D.; Laussy, F. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible. The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is nowadays universally accepted and, being so fundamental, embodies many subtleties of our understanding of the wave/particle dual nature of light. Thanks to a novel experimental technique, we report here a generalized version of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to include the frequency of the detected light, or, from the particle point of view, the energy of the detected photons. Our source of light is a polariton condensate, that allows high-resolution filtering of a spectrally broad source with a high degree of coherence. In addition to the known tendencies of indistinguishable photons to arrive together on the detector, we find that photons of different colors present the opposite characteristic of avoiding each others. We postulate that fermions can be similarly brought to exhibit positive (boson-like) correlations by frequency filtering.

  7. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ˜ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ˜2 km s-1, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  8. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our growth and activities — everything from solving a math problem to racing up and down the soccer ... saturated fat and trans fat raise blood cholesterol levels, increasing a person's chances of developing heart disease, ...

  9. Does dietary fat influence insulin action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlien, L H; Kriketos, A D; Jenkins, A B; Baur, L A; Pan, D A; Tapsell, L C; Calvert, G D

    1997-09-20

    What is clear from the research thus far is that dietary fat intake does influence insulin action. However, whether the effect is good, bad, or indifferent is strongly related to the fatty acid profile of that dietary fat. The evidence has taken many forms, including in vitro evidence of differences in insulin binding and glucose transport in cells grown with different types of fat in the incubation medium, in vivo results in animals fed different fats, relationships demonstrated between the membrane structural lipid fatty acid profile and insulin resistance in humans, and finally epidemiological evidence linking particularly high saturated fat intake with hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of diabetes. This contrasts with the lack of relationship, or even possible protective effect, of polyunsaturated fats. In particular, habitual increased n-3 polyunsaturated dietary fat intake (as fish fats) would appear to be protective against the development of glucose intolerance. It is reassuring that the patterns of dietary fatty acids that appear beneficial for insulin action and energy balance are also the patterns that would seem appropriate in the fight against thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms, though, still need to be defined. However, there are strong indicators that defining the ways in which changes in the fatty acid profile of membrane structural lipids are achieved, and in turn influence relevant transport events, plus understanding the processes that control accumulation and availability of storage lipid in muscle may be fruitful avenues for future research. One of the problems of moving the knowledge gained from research at the cellular level through to the individual and on to populations is the need for more accommodating research designs. In vitro studies may provide in-depth insights into intricate mechanisms, but they do not give the "big picture" for practical recommendations. On the other hand, correlational studies tend to be fairly

  10. Whither do the microlensing Brown Dwarfs rove?

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro; Mollerach, S; Roulet, Esteban; de Rujula, A; Giudice, G; Mollerach, S; Roulet, E

    1995-01-01

    The EROS and MACHO collaborations have reported observations of light curves of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud that are compatible with gravitational microlensing by intervening massive objects, presumably Brown-Dwarf stars. The OGLE and MACHO teams have also seen similar events in the direction of the galactic Bulge. Current data are insufficient to decide whether the Brown-Dwarfs are dark-matter constituents of the non-luminous galactic Halo, or belong to a more conventional population, such as that of faint stars in the galactic Spheroid, in its Thin or Thick Disks, or in their possible LMC counterparts. We discuss in detail how further observations of microlensing rates and of the moments of the distribution of event durations, can help resolve the issue of the Brown-Dwarf location, and eventually provide information on the mass function of the dark objects.

  11. Epidemiology of the brown recluse spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Jacqueline

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive epidemiological and clinical description of the brown recluse spider bite. Review of evidenced-based scientific literature and practice guidelines. A specific descriptive case study is interwoven through the article to tie in the clinical presenting figure associated with this bite. The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the United States (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely populated southwest United States. In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. Most spider bites are asymptomatic but what makes this bite so devastating is the toxin injected by the brown recluse spider, which can cause considerable systemic symptoms as well as necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). The article presents process for diagnosis and stresses the importance of identifying the spider if at all possible.

  12. Hypothalamic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, but the strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT is important for cold protection by producing heat using lipids and glucose as metabolic fuels. This thermogenic action causes increased energy expenditure and significant lipid/glucose disposal. In addition, BAT in white adipose tissue (WAT or beige cells have been found and they also exhibit the thermogenic action similar to BAT. These data provide evidence indicating BAT/beige cells as a potential target for combating obesity and diabetes. Recent discoveries of active BAT and beige cells in adult humans have further highlighted this potential. Growing studies have also shown the importance of central nervous system in the control of BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning using animal models. This review is focused on central neural thermoregulation, particularly addressing our current understanding of the importance of hypothalamic neural signaling in the regulation of BAT/beige thermogenesis and energy homeostasis.

  13. Hanbury Brown-Twiss interference of anyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnano, Gabriele; Zilberberg, Oded; Gornyi, Igor V; Feldman, Dmitri E; Potter, Andrew C; Gefen, Yuval

    2012-09-07

    We present a study of a Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometer realized with anyons. Such a device can directly probe entanglement and fractional statistics of initially uncorrelated particles. We calculate Hanbury Brown-Twiss cross correlations of Abelian Laughlin anyons. The correlations we calculate exhibit partial bunching similar to bosons, indicating a substantial statistical transmutation from the underlying electronic degrees of freedom. We also find qualitative differences between the anyonic signal and the corresponding bosonic or fermionic signals, indicating that anyons cannot be simply thought of as intermediate between bosons and fermions.

  14. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  15. Caloric restriction and diet-induced weight loss do not induce browning of human subcutaneous white adipose tissue in women and men with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane

    2018-01-01

    adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal...... variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent...

  16. Fat transfer and fatal macroembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarita, Denis C; Scheinin, Lisa A; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan

    2015-03-01

    Fat embolism is usually associated with long bone fractures or other trauma. The diagnosis is usually clinical, and in most cases, emboli are not fatal and not usually seen on gross examination. At the Los Angeles County Coroner's Office, we autopsied the victim of fatal macroscopic fat embolization to the lungs. The patient died during buttock enhancement surgery when fat from liposuction was injected into her buttocks. Fat embolism from liposuction and fat injection is reportedly rare, and macroscopic embolization is rarer still. Varicose veins can occur in the area of the sciatic notch and are known to cause painful sciatica symptoms. We suggest them as a potential conduit for macroscopic fat to reach the lungs. Simple pre-operative questioning for sciatica symptoms and possible radiologic study to rule out sciatic varices seem prudent before undertaking buttock-enhancing surgery. Careful fat injection with pre-aspiration is always advised. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  18. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  19. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Effect of pre-germination time of brown rice on serum cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohinejad, Shahin; Omidizadeh, Alireza; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Saari, Nazamid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yusof, Rokiah Mohd; Hussin, Anis Shobirin Meor; Hamid, Azizah; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2010-01-30

    Brown rice is unpolished rice with immeasurable benefits for human health. Brown rice (BR) and pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) are known to contain various functional compounds such as gamma-oryzanol, dietary fibre and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In the present study, the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR (24, 48 h pre-germination) were used to investigate the influence of pre-germination time of brown rice on blood cholesterol in Sprague-Dawley male rats. Hypercholesterolaemia and elevation of LDL-cholesterol were successfully ameliorated by the experimental diets containing BR and PGBR (24 and 48 h pre-germination). As compared to the control sample, the pre-germination time had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on blood cholesterol of Sprague-Dawley male rats. It was also found that the significantly (P < 0.05) better effect on lipid profile of hypercholesterolaemic rats was observed by prolonging the pre-germination time. As compared to non-germinated brown rice, the germinated brown rice showed the higher cardio-protective effect on hypercholesterolaemic Sprague-Dawley male rats. The present study suggests that the changes of blood cholesterol can be mainly modulated by using the PGBR rather than BR. The prolonging of pre-germination time led to an increase in the bioactive components, thereby providing a more efficient functional diet affecting the high blood cholesterol. This study suggests that PGBR can be used instead of BR and polished rice in the human diet. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Brown Adipose Tissue Bioenergetics: A New Methodological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon‐Dominguez, María; Alcalá, Martín; Sebastián, David; Zorzano, Antonio; Viana, Marta; Serra, Dolors

    2017-01-01

    The rediscovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans and its capacity to oxidize fat and dissipate energy as heat has put the spotlight on its potential as a therapeutic target in the treatment of several metabolic conditions including obesity and diabetes. To date the measurement of bioenergetics parameters has required the use of cultured cells or extracted mitochondria with the corresponding loss of information in the tissue context. Herein, we present a method to quantify mitochondrial bioenergetics directly in BAT. Based on XF Seahorse Technology, we assessed the appropriate weight of the explants, the exact concentration of each inhibitor in the reaction, and the specific incubation time to optimize bioenergetics measurements. Our results show that BAT basal oxygen consumption is mostly due to proton leak. In addition, BAT presents higher basal oxygen consumption than white adipose tissue and a positive response to b‐adrenergic stimulation. Considering the whole tissue and not just subcellular populations is a direct approach that provides a realistic view of physiological respiration. In addition, it can be adapted to analyze the effect of potential activators of thermogenesis, or to assess the use of fatty acids or glucose as a source of energy. PMID:28435771

  2. Impact of dietary fats on brain functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, Rosanna; Coccurello, Roberto; Viggiano, Andrea; Scafuro, Marika; Fiore, Marco; Coppola, Giangennaro; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Fasano, Silvia; Layé, Sophie; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2017-10-17

    Adequate dietary intake and nutritional status have important effects on brain functions and on brain health. Energy intake and specific nutrients excess or deficiency from diet differently affect cognitive processes, emotions, behaviour, neuroendocrine functions and synaptic plasticity with possible protective or detrimental effects on neuronal physiology. Lipids, in particular, play structural and functional roles in neurons. Here the importance of dietary fats and the need to understand the brain mechanisms activated by peripheral and central metabolic sensors. Thus, the manipulation of lifestyle factors such as dietary interventions may represent a successful therapeutic approach to maintain and preserve brain health along lifespan. This review aims at summarizing the impact of dietary fats on brain functions. Starting from fat consumption, nutrient sensing and food-related reward, the impact of gut-brain communications will be discussed in brain health and disease. A specific focus will be on the impact of fats on the molecular pathways within the hypothalamus involved in the control of reproduction via the expression and the release of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone. Lastly, the effects of specific lipid classes such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and of the "fattest" of all diets, commonly known as "ketogenic diets", on brain functions will also be discussed. Despite the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms is still a work in progress, the clinical relevance of the manipulation of dietary fats is well acknowledged and such manipulations are in fact currently in use for the treatment of brain diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Transcriptional Pathways in cPGI2-Induced Adipocyte Progenitor Activation for Browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir, Irem; Babaeikelishomi, Rohollah; Kocanova, Silvia; Sousa, Isabel Sofia; Lerch, Sarah; Hardt, Olaf; Wild, Stefan; Bosio, Andreas; Bystricky, Kerstin; Herzig, Stephan; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    De novo formation of beige/brite adipocytes from progenitor cells contributes to the thermogenic adaptation of adipose tissue and holds great potential for the therapeutic remodeling of fat as a treatment for obesity. Despite the recent identification of several factors regulating browning of white fat, there is a lack of physiological cell models for the mechanistic investigation of progenitor-mediated beige/brite differentiation. We have previously revealed prostacyclin (PGI2) as one of the few known endogenous extracellular mediators promoting de novo beige/brite formation by relaying β-adrenergic stimulation to the progenitor level. Here, we present a cell model based on murine primary progenitor cells defined by markers previously shown to be relevant for in vivo browning, including a simplified isolation procedure. We demonstrate the specific and broad induction of thermogenic gene expression by PGI2 signaling in the absence of lineage conversion, and reveal the previously unidentified nuclear relocalization of the Ucp1 gene locus in association with transcriptional activation. By profiling the time course of the progenitor response, we show that PGI2 signaling promoted progenitor cell activation through cell cycle and adhesion pathways prior to metabolic maturation toward an oxidative cell phenotype. Our results highlight the importance of core progenitor activation pathways for the recruitment of thermogenic cells and provide a resource for further mechanistic investigation.

  4. Transcriptional pathways in cPGI2-induced adipocyte progenitor activation for browning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem eBayindir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available De novo formation of beige/brite adipocytes from progenitor cells contributes to the thermogenic adaptation of adipose tissue and holds great potential for the therapeutic remodeling of fat as a treatment for obesity. Despite the recent identification of several factors regulating browning of white fat, there is a lack of physiological cell models for the mechanistic investigation of progenitor-mediated beige/brite differentiation. We have previously revealed prostacyclin (PGI2 as one of the few known endogenous extracellular mediators promoting de novo beige/brite formation by relaying beta-adrenergic stimulation to the progenitor level. Here we present a cell model based on murine primary progenitor cells defined by markers previously shown to be relevant for in vivo browning, including a simplified isolation procedure. We demonstrate the specific and broad induction of thermogenic gene expression by PGI2 signaling in the absence of lineage conversion, and reveal the previously unidentified nuclear relocalization of the Ucp1 gene locus in association with transcriptional activation. By profiling the time course of the progenitor response we show that PGI2 signaling promoted progenitor cell activation through cell cycle and adhesion pathways prior to metabolic maturation towards an oxidative cell phenotype. Our results highlight the importance of core progenitor activation pathways for the recruitment of thermogenic cells and provide a resource for further mechanistic investigation.

  5. Trustworthy-looking face meets brown eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kleisner

    Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.

  6. Natural history of presumed congenital Brown syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, T J; Smith, K; Orton, R B; Noel, L P; Clarke, W; Cadera, W

    1993-07-01

    To evaluate the stability of the ocular alignment in patients with presumed congenital Brown syndrome. A retrospective review of patients with Brown syndrome with an emphasis on nonsurgical cases. Follow-up of at least 1 year was required for inclusion in the study. Patients were selected for this study from the pediatric ophthalmology services at the Ivey Institute of Ophthalmology, London, Ontario, and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa. A cohort of 71 patients with presumed congenital Brown syndrome. Two cases were bilateral. Eleven cases were excluded because of insufficient length of follow-up, leaving 60 patients with an average follow-up of 46 months. All patients were assessed and followed up by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Of 38 patients who had no hypotropia in primary position at presentation, only two (5%) patients experienced a worsening with the development of a small vertical strabismus during the follow-up period. Six (10%) of the entire group of 60 patients experienced a complete spontaneous resolution of the deficiency in elevation at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 years of age. Among patients with congenital Brown syndrome, those who are orthotropic in the primary position tend to remain stable or improve over time without surgical intervention.

  7. Brown Bodies, Racialisation and physical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how school physical education (PE) can both reinforce stereotyped notions of the brown body as inherently physical while also allowing young people to gain educational success. Drawing on a critical ethnographic study of Maori and Pasifika (Pacific Island) youth in PE in New Zealand, the article explores how the academic…

  8. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a maxillary brown tumour caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to parathyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a large swelling in the right maxilla, which caused right-sided nasal obstruction, intermittent bleeding and diplopia. A computed tomography scan demonstrated ...

  9. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  10. The browning of Alaska's boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Parent; David. Verbyla

    2010-01-01

    We used twelve Landsat scenes from the 1980s-2009 and regional 2000-2009 MODIS data to examine the long-term trend in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within unburned areas of the Alaskan boreal forest. Our analysis shows that there has been a declining trend in NDVI in this region, with the strongest "browning trend" occurring in eastern...

  11. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  12. Brown hares on the edge: Genetic population structure of the Danish brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Liselotte W.; Fredsted, Tina; Wincentz, Trine

    2009-01-01

    Andersen L. W., Fredsted T., Wincentz T. and Pertoldi C. 2009. Brown hares on the edge: Genetic population structure of the Danish brown hare. Acta Theriologica 54: 97-110. Denmark lies on the edge of the distributional range of the brown hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778, where population......-69.8 respectively). There was no correlation between the geographic and the genetic distance. Population structure was influenced by genetic drift, anthropogenic effects (eg translocation and escapes from hare-farms) and by post-glacial recolonization from southern refuges or refuges north east of the Black Sea...... glaciations or by stocking effects. Colonization from southern refuges was supported by the observation that haplotype 2 in the Danish brown hare was identical to the central European ancestral haplotype c07....

  13. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  14. Gas exchange and brown heart in conference pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otma, E.C.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    Brown heart is a tissue disorder found in Conference pears during CA storage. Differences in susceptibility for brown heart have been found between countries, orchards, harvest dates and storage conditions. One hypothesis is that brown heart is caused by increased internal CO2. This research

  15. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  16. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population......-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated...... as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  17. Simulationsverfahren fuer Brown-Resnick-Prozesse (Simulation Techniques for Brown-Resnick Processes)

    OpenAIRE

    Oesting, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Brown-Resnick processes form a flexible class of stationary max-stable processes based on Gaussian random fields. With regard to applications fast and accurate simulation of these processes is an important issue. In fact, Brown-Resnick processes that are generated by a dissipative flow do not allow for good finite approximations using the definition of the processes. On large intervals we get either huge approximation errors or very long operating times. Looking for solutions of t...

  18. Contributions of fat mass and fat distribution to hip bone strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hong Da; Li, Guan Wu; Liu, Yong; Qiu, Yu You; Yao, Jian Hua; Tang, Guang Yu

    2015-09-01

    The fat and bone connection is complicated, and the effect of adipose tissue on hip bone strength remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of body fat accumulation and fat distribution to the determination of proximal femur strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This cross-sectional study enrolled 528 healthy postmenopausal women without medication history or known diseases. Total lean mass (LM), appendicular LM (ALM), percentage of lean mass (PLM), total fat mass (FM), appendicular FM (AFM), percentage of body fat (PBF), android and gynoid fat amount, android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AOI), bone mineral density (BMD), and proximal femur geometry were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip structure analysis was used to compute some variables as geometric strength-related parameters by analyzing the images of the hip generated from DXA scans. Correlation analyses among anthropometrics, variables of body composition and bone mass, and geometric indices of hip bone strength were performed with stepwise linear regression analyses as well as Pearson's correlation analysis. In univariate analysis, there were significantly inverse correlations between age, years since menopause (YSM), hip BMD, and hip geometric parameters. Bone data were positively related to height, body weight, LM, ALM, FM, AFM, and PBF but negatively related to AOI and amount of android fat (all P relationship with anthropometric parameters (P relationship with those parameters. The correlation between LM, ALM, FM, PLM, ALM, age, and YSM was not significant. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the hip bone strength was observed to have a consistent and unchanged positive association with AFM and a negative association with AOI, whereas its association with other variables of body composition was not significant after adjusting for age, years since menopause, height, body weight, and BMI. AFM may be a positively protective effect for hip

  19. Effects of Diets Differing in Composition of 18-C Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Gene Expression in Mice Fed High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhye Shin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4.4% kcal fat from soybean oil (CON or high-fat diets (HFD containing 25% kcal from lard and 20% kcal fat from shea butter (stearic acid-rich fat; SHB, olive oil (oleic acid-rich oil; OO, safflower oil (linoleic acid-rich oil; SFO, or soybean oil (mixed oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids; SBO ad libitum for 12 weeks, with or without a terminal 4-h norepinephrine (NE treatment. When compared to SHB, feeding OO, SFO, and SBO resulted in lower body weight gain. The OO fed group had the highest thermogenesis level, which resulted in lower body fat accumulation and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. Feeding SFO downregulated expression of lipid oxidation-related genes and upregulated expression of lipogenic genes, perhaps due to its high n-6:n-3 ratio. In general, HFD-feeding downregulated Ucp1 expression in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue, and suppressed NE-induced Pgc1a expression in brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the position of double bonds in dietary fatty acids, as well as the quantity of dietary fat, may have a significant effect on the regulation of oxidative and thermogenic conditions in vivo.

  20. MRI characterization of brown adipose tissue in obese and normal-weight children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Shore, Richard M. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Huiyuan [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Collaborative Research Unit, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Soyang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Stanley Manne Children' s Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Josefson, Jami L. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Endocrinology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is identified in mammals as an adaptive thermogenic organ for modulation of energy expenditure and heat generation. Human BAT may be primarily composed of brown-in-white (BRITE) adipocytes and stimulation of BRITE may serve as a potential target for obesity interventions. Current imaging studies of BAT detection and characterization have been mainly limited to PET/CT. MRI is an emerging application for BAT characterization in healthy children. To exploit Dixon and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize cervical-supraclavicular BAT/BRITE properties in normal-weight and obese children while accounting for pubertal status. Twenty-eight healthy children (9-15 years old) with a normal or obese body mass index participated. MRI exams were performed to characterize supraclavicular adipose tissues by measuring tissue fat percentage, T2*, tissue water mobility, and microvasculature properties. We used multivariate linear regression models to compare tissue properties between normal-weight and obese groups while accounting for pubertal status. MRI measurements of BAT/BRITE tissues in obese children showed higher fat percentage (P < 0.0001), higher T2* (P < 0.0001), and lower diffusion coefficient (P = 0.015) compared with normal-weight children. Pubertal status was a significant covariate for the T2* measurement, with higher T2* (P = 0.0087) in pubertal children compared to prepubertal children. Perfusion measurements varied by pubertal status. Compared to normal-weight children, obese prepubertal children had lower perfusion fraction (P = 0.003) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.048); however, obese pubertal children had higher perfusion fraction (P = 0.02) and pseudo-perfusion coefficient (P = 0.028). This study utilized chemical-shift Dixon MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI methods to characterize supraclavicular BAT/BRITE tissue properties. The multi-parametric evaluation revealed evidence of morphological differences in brown

  1. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  2. Facial Fat Necrosis Following Autologous Fat Transfer and its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta Rai; Alexander M Marsland; Vishal Madan

    2014-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the...

  3. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  4. Dietary enrichment with fish oil prevents high fat-induced metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K Philp

    Full Text Available High saturated fat (HF-S diets increase intramyocellular lipid, an effect ameliorated by omega-3 fatty acids in vitro and in vivo, though little is known about sex- and muscle fiber type-specific effects. We compared effects of standard chow, HF-S, and 7.5% HF-S replaced with fish oil (HF-FO diets on the metabolic profile and lipid metabolism gene and protein content in red (soleus and white (extensor digitorum longus muscles of male and female C57BL/6 mice (n = 9-12/group. Weight gain was similar in HF-S- and HF-FO-fed groups. HF-S feeding increased mesenteric fat mass and lipid marker, Oil Red O, in red and mixed muscle; HF-FO increased interscapular brown fat mass. Compared to chow, HF-S and HF-FO increased expression of genes regulating triacylglycerol synthesis and fatty acid transport, HF-S suppressed genes and proteins regulating fatty acid oxidation, whereas HF-FO increased oxidative genes, proteins and enzymes and lipolytic gene content, whilst suppressing lipogenic genes. In comparison to HF-S, HF-FO further increased fat transporters, markers of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial content, and reduced lipogenic genes. No diet-by-sex interactions were observed. Neither diet influenced fiber type composition. However, some interactions between muscle type and diet were observed. HF-S induced changes in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipogenic genes in red, but not white, muscle, and mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative genes were suppressed by HF-S and increased by HF-FO in red muscle only. In conclusion, HF-S feeding promotes lipid storage in red muscle, an effect abrogated by the fish oil, which increases mediators of lipolysis, oxidation and thermogenesis while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Greater storage and synthesis, and lower oxidative genes in red, but not white, muscle likely contribute to lipid accretion encountered in red muscle. Despite several gender-dimorphic genes, both sexes exhibited a similar HF-S-induced metabolic

  5. Fat circadian biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M; Floyd, Z Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    While adipose tissue has long been recognized for its major role in metabolism, it is now appreciated as an endocrine organ. A growing body of literature has emerged that identifies circadian mechanisms as a critical regulator of adipose tissue differentiation, metabolism, and adipokine secretory function in both health and disease. This concise review focuses on recent data from murine and human models that highlights the interplay between the core circadian regulatory proteins and adipose tissue in the context of energy, fat, and glucose metabolism. It will be important to integrate circadian mechanisms and networks into future descriptions of adipose tissue physiology.

  6. Fat sensing and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jang H

    2014-12-01

    Overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that high dietary fat may promote these metabolic states not only by providing calories but also by inducing impaired control of energy balance. In normal metabolic states, fat interacts with various organs or receptors to generate signals for the regulation of energy balance. Many of these interactions are impaired by high-fat diets or in obesity, contributing to the development or maintenance of obesity. These impairments may arise largely from fundamental alterations in the hypothalamus where all peripheral signals are integrated to regulate energy balance. This review focuses on various mechanisms by which fat is sensed at different stages of ingestion, circulation, storage, and utilization to regulate food intake, and how these individual mechanisms are altered by high-fat diets or in obesity.

  7. Inhibition of the Inflammasome NLRP3 by Arglabin Attenuates Inflammation, Protects Pancreatic β-Cells from Apoptosis, and Prevents Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Development in ApoE2Ki Mice on a Chronic High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrazak, Amna; El Hadri, Khadija; Bosc, Elodie; Blondeau, Bertrand; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Büchele, Berthold; Simmet, Thomas; Couchie, Dominique; Rouis, Mustapha

    2016-06-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of arglabin (2.5 ng/g of body weight, twice daily, 13 weeks) into female human apolipoprotein E2 gene knock-in (ApoE2Ki) mice fed a high-fat Western-type diet (HFD) reduced plasma levels of glucose and insulin by ∼20.0% ± 3.5% and by 50.0% ± 2.0%, respectively, in comparison with vehicle-treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of active caspase-3 in islet sections from ApoE2Ki mice fed a HFD and treated with arglabin. In addition, arglabin reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in a concentration-dependent manner in Langerhans islets isolated from ApoE2Ki mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and with cholesterol crystals. This inhibitory effect is specific for the inflammasome NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) because IL-1β production was abolished in Langerhans islets isolated from Nlrp3(-/-) mice. In the insulin-secreting INS-1 cells, arglabin inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the maturation of pro-IL-1β into biologically active IL-1β probably through the inhibition of the maturation of procaspase-1 into active capsase-1. Moreover, arglabin reduced the susceptibility of INS-1 cells to apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 levels. Similarly, autophagy activation by rapamycin decreased apoptosis susceptibility while autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenin treatment promoted apoptosis. Arglabin further increased the expression of the autophagic markers Bcl2-interacting protein (Beclin-1) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 II (LC3-II) in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, arglabin reduces NLRP3-dependent inflammation as well as apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells in vivo and in the INS-1 cell line in vitro, whereas it increases autophagy in cultured INS-1 cells, indicating survival-promoting properties of the compound in these cells. Hence, arglabin may represent a new promising compound to treat inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus development

  8. Protective Effects of 2-Dodecyl-6-Methoxycyclohexa-2,5 -Diene-1,4-Dione Isolated from Averrhoa Carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) Roots on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juman; Wei, Xiaojie; Xie, Qiuqiao; Hoa Pham, Thi Thai; Wei, Jinbin; He, Ping; Jiao, Yang; Xu, Xiaohui; Giang Nguyen, Thi Huong; Wen, Qingwei; Huang, Renbin

    2016-01-01

    The roots of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) have long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes and diabetes-related diseases. 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycycyclohexa-2,5-1,4-dione (DMDD) has been isolated from A. carambola L. roots, and this study was carried out to investigate the potential beneficial effects of DMDD on obesity and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered DMDD (12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg of body weight per day) and metformin (280 mg/kg of body weight per day) for the last 4 weeks. The body weights and adipose tissue weights as well as the serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly decreased by DMDD, and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor (Myd88) in the epididymal adipose tissue was downregulated by DMDD. In contrast, insulin sensitivity was enhanced. The results of the glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and insulin release tests indicated that there was a marked improvement in insulin secretion, and the areas under the curve corresponding to the three tests were also significantly decreased by DMDD. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were simultaneously enhanced, whereas the content of malondialdehyde was decreased by DMDD in the liver homogenates of the C57BL/6J mice. In addition, hepatic steatosis and adipocyte hypertrophy, as assessed by H&E staining of liver and adipose tissues, were significantly improved by DMDD. These data suggest that MDD has potential benefits for the treatment of HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance, and its effects may be associated with improvements in lipid metabolism and inhibition of the expression of TLR4 in adipose tissues. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Hedgehog partial agonism drives Warburg-like metabolism in muscle and brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teperino, Raffaele; Amann, Sabine; Bayer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes, obesity, and cancer affect upward of 15% of the world's population. Interestingly, all three diseases juxtapose dysregulated intracellular signaling with altered metabolic state. Exactly which genetic factors define stable metabolic set points in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we...

  10. Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Attainment of Water Temperature Criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 169:136-146.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  11. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta, Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane La Barre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.

  12. [Body fat distribution: anthropometric indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, M; Albala, C

    1995-12-01

    There are two types of fat distribution in obese subjects. The abdominal, superior, android or apple shaped and the gluteo-femoral, gynecoid, inferior or pear shaped. In the former, fat is accumulated in the abdomen and in the latter, in the gluteal region. The superior distribution is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. Among anthropometric measurements of fat distribution, the ratio between waist circumference measured at the level of the navel and hip circumference, measured at the level of greater trochanters, is the best indicator. Using the cutoff points of 0.8 for women and 1 for men, it has a good correlation with visceral fat.

  13. Insulin Resistance and Adipocytokine Levels in High Fat High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high fat high fructose (HF/HFr) diet on the onset of the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome and the levels of some adipocytokines in growing male and female rats. Also we aimed to study the possible protective effects of cinnamon (CN) against HF/HFr diet ...

  14. Seasonal variation in haematological and biochemical variables in free-ranging subadult brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Græsli, Anne Randi; Evans, Alina L; Fahlman, Åsa; Bertelsen, Mads F; Blanc, Stéphane; Arnemo, Jon M

    2015-12-08

    Free-ranging brown bears exhibit highly contrasting physiological states throughout the year. They hibernate 6 months of the year, experiencing a decrease in body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and metabolism. An increase in food consumption and the resulting weight gain (mostly through fat storage) prior to hibernation are also part of the brown bear's annual cycle. Due to these physiological changes, haematological and biochemical variables vary dramatically throughout the year. Seasonal changes in 12 haematological and 34 biochemical variables were evaluated in blood samples collected from 40 free-ranging subadult brown bears (22 females, 18 males) immobilised in Sweden in winter (February-March), spring (April-May), and summer (June). Higher levels of haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cell count, and a lower white blood cell count and mean cell volume was found during hibernation than in spring and summer. Lower values of the enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GD) and amylase, and increased values of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HBA) and blood lipids; triglycerides, cholesterol and free fatty acids, were present during hibernation compared to spring and summer. This study documents significant shifts in haematological and biochemical variables in samples collected from brown bears anaesthetised in winter (February-March) compared to in spring and summer (April-June), reflecting the lowered metabolic, renal and hepatic activity during hibernation. Lower values of enzymes and higher values of blood lipids during hibernation, likely reflect a lipid-based metabolism.

  15. Supplementation with protected fat to manage gastro-intestinal nematode infections in Santa Ines sheepSuplementação com gordura protegida na infecção por nematódeos gastrintestinais em ovelhas Santa Inês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to determine the influence of supplementation with protected fat on nematode infections in periparturient sheep or sheep in their final stage of pregnancy. Fifty Santa Ines ewes received 200 g of concentrate/animal/day, mineral salt and water and were grouped according to their weight, hematocrit and the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG. Two diets were used: a control treatment and a treatment consisting of supplementation with 30 g/animal/day of protected fat in the concentrate. Three monthly evaluations were performed over a total of 84 days of testing. The variables analyzed were weight, body condition, EPG and coprocultures; blood tests were performed for the determination of packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration and total plasma protein, and leukograms and eosinophil counts were performed. For weight and hemoglobin concentrations, interactions were observed between diet and collection date (P 0. 05 but did differ by collection day (P 0.05. The genus Haemonchus was predominant, followed by the genera Cooperia, Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum. The protected fat did not decrease EPG and did not improve the blood parameters of infected sheep. O objetivo do experimento foi verificar a influência da suplementação com gordura protegida na infecção por nematódeos gastrintestinais em ovelhas Santa Ines no periparto ou terço final de gestação. Cinqüenta ovelhas Santa Inês receberam 200 g de concentrado/animal/dia, sal mineral e água, sendo divididas de acordo com peso, número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e porcentagem do hematócrito em duas dietas, consideradas como tratamento controle e tratamento com suplementação de 30g/dia/animal de gordura protegida no concentrado. Duas avaliações mensais foram realizadas durante três meses, totalizando 84 dias de experimentação. As variáveis analisadas foram peso e condição corporal, OPG e coprocultura, contagem de leucócitos e eosin

  16. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mandibular brown tumor in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Woo; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, In Tae [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Brown tumor is a histologically benign lesion that is a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy because it may result in severe deformity and discomfort. We report a case of brown tumor, which occurred in a 35-year-old woman with chronic renal failure, who had been treated with hemodialysis for 14 years. The lesion was found on the lingual side of the mandible. Standard panoramic radiograph showed generally decreased bone mineral density, loss of lamina dura, and thin cortical plates. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multilocular expansible lesions with heterogeneous attenuation in the anterior mandible, as well as generalized trabecular alteration with homogeneous sclerosis, and thinning or obliteration of cortical plates. Excision of the mandibular lesion and curettage of the affected bone were performed.

  18. Identifying and misidentifying the brown recluse spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R

    1999-11-01

    The brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, is often implicated as a cause of necrotic skin lesions.[1-3] Diagnoses are most commonly made by clinical appearance and infrequently is a spider seen, captured or identified at the time of the bite.[1, 2, 4-6] The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the U.S. (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely-populated southwest U.S.[7] In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. However, outside the natural range of these recluse species, the conviction that they are the etiological agents behind necrotic lesions of unknown origin is widespread, and most often erroneous. In some states such as California, unsubstantiated reports concerning recluse spider bites have taken on the status of "urban legend" leading to overdiagnosis and, therefore, inappropriate treatment.

  19. Histological findings after brown recluse spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, D M; Eggers, J S; Schmidt, W E; Storrow, A B; Doe, R H; McGlasson, D; Fischer, J R

    2000-06-01

    Histologic specimens from 41 rabbits were studied for changes resulting from the manual injection of brown recluse spider venom. Major findings included a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, coagulative tissue necrosis, and vasculitis. All specimens demonstrated a well-delineated zone of eosinophilic staining recognizable as "mummified" coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis. A dense band of neutrophils bordered the zone of necrosis. Immediately adjacent to the neutrophilic band, small vessel vasculitis was a universal finding. Degranulated eosinophils and neutrophils and macrophages filled with eosinophilic granules were common. Inflammatory foci were often centered on groups of lipocytes within the dermis. Large vessel vasculitis resembling that seen in polyarteritis nodosa was present deep to 7 of the 40 eschars. Large vessel vasculitis may contribute to the large zones of necrosis seen after some brown recluse spider bites. Eosinophils may play a role in tissue damage after envenomation.

  20. Thermodynamic study of brown-coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonka, P.; Holub, R.; Schoengut, S.; Schoengut, J.

    1988-04-01

    Describes a method for calculating and assessing results of partial adiabatic oxidation of brown coal from the North Bohemian brown-coal field, which may in future act as a source of raw material for production of energy and synthesis gas. Calculations assume idealized fluid and burner generators and reaction parameters were selected to cover a range of operational values (these parameters include pressure, temperature, gasification ratio, water content, ash content and degree of coal conversion). After describing mathematics involved, concludes that thermodynamic analysis shows burner generator to have some advantages over fluid generator for production of synthesis gas, and vice versa for production of energy gas. However, final conclusions must await experimental evidence with regard to degree of conversion and composition of gas mixture; also, validity of this assessment is limited by the fact that no account was taken of the possibility of using reaction heat for production of steam or of any energy consumption involved. 10 refs.

  1. Ecological pellets from brown coal and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Sedláček

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available One way of renewable energy sources applications in the Czech republic is a cultivation of biomass plants. After the biomass reformation, it is possible to add it to palletizing mixes with coal and delulfurisative additives. Possibilities of brown coal of palletizing with biomass adds were tested recently. The product represents a new coal-biomass combustible wich can be used in some types of boilers with a low pollutant production level (specially SO2.In the past brown-coal pellets weremade with an addition of melted wood mass (wood fibres, wood wastes and mustard straw. Practical tests have shown of an extension the waste field of coal-pellets utilization.

  2. Deterministic remote preparation via the Brown state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Song-Ya; Gao, Cong; Zhang, Pei; Qu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    We propose two deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) schemes by using the Brown state as the entangled channel. Firstly, the remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state is considered. It is worth mentioning that the construction of measurement bases plays a key role in our scheme. Then, the remote preparation of an arbitrary three-qubit state is investigated. The proposed schemes can be extended to controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) with unit success probabilities. At variance with the existing CRSP schemes via the Brown state, the derived schemes have no restriction on the coefficients, while the success probabilities can reach 100%. It means the success probabilities are greatly improved. Moreover, we pay attention to the DRSP in noisy environments under two important decoherence models, the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise.

  3. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research.

  4. Body fat distribution and inflammation among obese older adults with and without metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.; Stenholm, S.; Alley, D.E.; Kim, L.J.; Simonsick, E.M.; Kanaya, A.M.; Visser, M.; Houston, D.K.; Nicklas, B.J.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Satterfield, S.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Ferrucci, L.; Harris, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    The protective mechanisms by which some obese individuals escape the detrimental metabolic consequences of obesity are not understood. This study examined differences in body fat distribution and adipocytokines in obese older persons with and without metabolic syndrome. Additionally, we examined

  5. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS--USE OF RADIOGRAPHY AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF A MINERALIZED YOLK SAC IN A BROWN KIWI (APTERYX MANTELLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett

    2015-01-01

    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  6. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Verbyla

    2011-01-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a “browning trend” in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al. 2005, Bunn et al. 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al. 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was...

  7. Finding Brown's peony a sweet attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan. Vance

    2012-01-01

    I first encountered Brown’s peony (Paeonia brownie) with its verdant, lavender-tinged leaves and elegantly nodding maroon flowers growing among bitterbrush and bunchgrass on the eastern flank of the Oregon Cascades. My first thought was “What is a plant like you doing in a place like this?” It would be natural to visualize this native wild peony as...

  8. Drivers of hibernation in the brown bear

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Alina; Singh, N.J.; Friebe, A.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Laske, T.G.; Fröbert, O.; Swenson, Jon E.; Blanc, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hibernation has been a key area of research for several decades, essentially in small mammals in the laboratory, yet we know very little about what triggers or ends it in the wild. Do climatic factors, an internal biological clock, or physiological processes dominate? Using state-of-the-art tracking and monitoring technology on fourteen free-ranging brown bears over three winters, we recorded movement, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature (Tb), physical a...

  9. Knockdown of NPY expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus promotes development of brown adipocytes and prevents diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pei-Ting; Yang, Liang; Aja, Susan; Moran, Timothy H; Bi, Sheng

    2011-05-04

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in control of energy balance, but the physiological importance of NPY in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) remains unclear. Here we report that knockdown of NPY expression in the DMH by adeno-associated virus-mediated RNAi reduced fat depots in rats fed regular chow and ameliorated high-fat diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity. DMH NPY knockdown resulted in development of brown adipocytes in inguinal white adipose tissue through the sympathetic nervous system. This knockdown increased uncoupling protein 1 expression in both inguinal fat and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT). Consistent with the activation of BAT, DMH NPY knockdown increased energy expenditure and enhanced the thermogenic response to a cold environment. This knockdown also increased locomotor activity, improved glucose homeostasis, and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Together, these results demonstrate critical roles of DMH NPY in body weight regulation through affecting food intake, body adiposity, thermogenesis, energy expenditure, and physical activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  11. New brown dwarf candidates in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbeiss, T.; Moualla, M.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Raetz, St.; Neuhäuser, R.; Ginski, Ch.; Hohle, M. M.; Koeltzsch, A.; Marka, C.; Rammo, W.; Reithe, A.; Roell, T.; Vaňko, M.

    2009-05-01

    We have performed deep, wide-field imaging on a ˜ 0.4 deg2 field in the Pleiades (Melotte 22). The selected field was not yet target of a deep search for low mass stars and brown dwarfs. Our limiting magnitudes are R˜22 mag and I˜20 mag, sufficient to detect brown dwarf candidates down to 40 MJ. We found 197 objects, whose location in the (I, R-I) color magnitude diagram is consistent with the age and the distance of the Pleiades. Using CTK R and I as well as JHK photometry from our data and the 2MASS survey we were able to identify 7 new brown dwarf candidates. We present our data reduction technique, which enables us to resample, calibrate, and co-add many images by just two steps. We estimate the interstellar extinction and the spectral type from our optical and the NIR data using a two-dimensional χ2 fitting. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich- Schiller-University. Table A3 is available at the CDS via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/J/AN/330/439

  12. Disintegration of brown coal using alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vydra, J.; Skalicka, J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations carried out by the Institute of Geology and Geotechnics of the Academy of Sciences of Czechoslovakia are discussed. The investigations were aimed at determining the optimum conditions for in situ solution mining of brown coal using alkaline solutions. Twelve brown coal samples with carbon content ranging from 64.5 to 90.7% were treated with sodium hydroxide solution with concentration ranging from 1 to 5%. Effects of hydrogen peroxide (15%) and ethanolamine (5%) also were investigated. Proportion of the 3 compounds in water was the following: 500 ml sodium hydroxide, 100 ml ethanolamine and 20 ml hydrogen peroxide. Effects of coal grain size on its disintegration in the alkaline solution also were analyzed. Conditions of in situ solution mining were simulated in the laboratory. Investigations showed that the optimum coal grain size was 2 mm, in which case disintegration efficiency depended on carbon content in coal. The lower the carbon content was, the more efficient was the alkaline disintegration. Alkaline solutions did not influence brown coal with carbon content higher than 85%. The optimum concentration of sodium hydroxide was 3%. Addition of hydrogen peroxide and ethanolamine did not influence disintegration. When alkaline solution was pumped 96 h long into a borehole, it penetrated coal to a depth of 2 mm causing swelling of the borehole walls but not coal disintegration. 8 references.

  13. Dietary plasticity in a nutrient-rich system does not influence brown bear (Ursus arctos) body condition or denning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipane, Lindsey S.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Lafferty, Diana J. R.; Gustine, David D.; Hiller, Tim L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Mangipane, Buck A.; Hilderbrand, Grant

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral differences within a population can allow use of a greater range of resources among individuals. The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a generalist omnivore that occupies diverse habitats and displays considerable plasticity in food use. We evaluated whether brown bear foraging that resulted in deviations from a proposed optimal diet influenced body condition and, in turn, denning duration in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska. To assess assimilated diet, we used sectioned guard hair samples (n = 23) collected in autumn to determine stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. To index proportional contributions of meat and vegetation to assimilated diets, we compared the carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) values of hair samples with the values identified for major food categories. We then compared percentage body fat and body mass in relation to the proportion of assimilated meat in the diet using linear models. We also examined the influence of autumn percentage body fat and mass on denning duration. Percentage body fat was not influenced by the proportion of assimilated meat in the diet. Additionally, percentage body fat and body mass did not influence denning duration. However, body mass of bears assimilating proportionately more meat was greater than bears assimilating less meat. Our results provide support for previous findings that larger bears consume higher amounts of protein to maintain their body size and therefore forage further from the proposed optimal diet. Additionally, our results demonstrate that individuals can achieve similar biological outcomes (e.g., percentage body fat) despite variable foraging strategies, suggesting that individuals within generalist populations may confer an adaptive advantage through behavioral plasticity.

  14. Impact of the Breakdown Behavior on Chinese Traditional Stewed Pork with Brown Sauce: Physical Properties Using Microstructural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengyong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential physics differences of Chinese traditional stewed pork during mastication were investigated. Ten subjects chewed and expectorated the fat and lean layers of stewed pork with brown sauce at different stages of mastication. The produced boluses were analyzed for their physical properties. The results suggested the subjects’ saliva secretion and moisture content of the boluses during mastication increased significantly depending on subjects and food types studied (P<0.05 and led to increase of bolus apparent particle size because of saliva uptake. Bolus first peak force tended to decrease significantly, whereas bolus flowability increased significantly during mastication (P<0.05. Further, microstructure of boluses revealed series processing was conducted by comminution, aggregation, hydration, and dilution. The boluses ready-to-swallow possessed a higher flowability and a homogenetic matrix. Therefore, the changes in physics and microstructure of bolus contributed to dynamic texture perception of traditional Chinese stewed pork with brown sauce.

  15. Predicting the Distribution of Asiatic Cheetah, Persian Leopard and Brown Bear in Response to EnvironmentalFactors in Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hemami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution modelling is important for assessing threats and conservation status of species and for planning conservation programs. We studied the distribution of suitable habitats of Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor and brown bear (Ursus arctos in Isfahan province within and outside the protected areas. Suitable habitats of the three studied carnivores in Isfahan province were mapped in relation to climatic, topographic and anthropogenic variables using MAXENT. Assessing the developed model using the area under the ROC function showed that predictions for the three carnivore species were significantly better than random. Potential suitable habitats of Asiatic cheetah, Persian leopard and brown bear constituted 5.2%, 12% and 3.4% of the Isfahan province area, respectively. Slope was the most important factor determining Persian leopard habitat suitability, while climatic factors (mainly mean autumn and mean annual precipitation were the most important determinants of Asiatic cheetah and brown bear distribution. The protected area network within the province covers 55.7%, 23.7%, and 11.6% of the suitable habitats for Asiatic cheetah, Persian leopard and brown bear, respectively. Parts of suitable habitats of the three species are located outside the protected areas, which could be considered in planning conservation programs as potential movement corridors.

  16. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  17. Fats and oils: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  18. Influence of selected factors on browning of Camembert cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Alexandra; Dillinger, Klaus; Eliskases-Lechner, Frieda; Loureiro, Virgílio; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Rohm, Harald

    2002-05-01

    Experimental Camembert cheeses were made to investigate the effects on browning of the following factors: inoculation with Yarrowia lipolytica, the use of Penicillium candidum strains with different proteolytic activity, the addition of tyrosine, and the addition of Mn2+ thus leading to 16 different variants of cheese. Two physical colour parameters were used to describe browning, depending on the location in the cheeses: a whiteness index for the outside browning (mould mycelium), and a brownness index for the inside browning (surface of the cheese body). Mn2+ promoted a significant increase of browning at both locations, whereas Yar. lipolytica had the opposite effect. Outside browning was significantly more intense when using the Pen. candidum strain with higher proteolytic activity. A significant interaction was found between Yar. lipolytica and Pen. candidum. The yeast had no effect in combination with a low proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum, but significantly reduced proteolysis and browning in combination with a high proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum. We further confirmed that both strains of Pen. candidum were able to produce brown pigments from tyrosine and thus both are presumably responsible for the browning activity in this type of cheese.

  19. The impacts of human recreation on brown bears (Ursus arctos): A review and new management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin-noreus, Jennifer; Rode, Karyn D.; Hilderbrand, Grant V; Wilder, James; Farley, Sean; Jorgensen, Carole; Marcot, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    Increased popularity of recreational activities in natural areas has led to the need to better understand their impacts on wildlife. The majority of research conducted to date has focused on behavioral effects from individual recreations, thus there is a limited understanding of the potential for population-level or cumulative effects. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are the focus of a growing wildlife viewing industry and are found in habitats frequented by recreationists. Managers face difficult decisions in balancing recreational opportunities with habitat protection for wildlife. Here, we integrate results from empirical studies with expert knowledge to better understand the potential population-level effects of recreational activities on brown bears. We conducted a literature review and Delphi survey of brown bear experts to better understand the frequencies and types of recreations occurring in bear habitats and their potential effects, and to identify management solutions and research needs. We then developed a Bayesian network model that allows managers to estimate the potential effects of recreational management decisions in bear habitats. A higher proportion of individual brown bears in coastal habitats were exposed to recreation, including photography and bear-viewing than bears in interior habitats where camping and hiking were more common. Our results suggest that the primary mechanism by which recreation may impact brown bears is through temporal and spatial displacement with associated increases in energetic costs and declines in nutritional intake. Killings in defense of life and property were found to be minimally associated with recreation in Alaska, but are important considerations in population management. Regulating recreation to occur predictably in space and time and limiting recreation in habitats with concentrated food resources reduces impacts on food intake and may thereby, reduce impacts on reproduction and survival. Our results suggest that

  20. A robust impact assessment that informs actionable climate change adaptation: future sunburn browning risk in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Leanne; Darbyshire, Rebecca; Erwin, Tim; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-05-01

    Climate change impact assessments are predominantly undertaken for the purpose of informing future adaptation decisions. Often, the complexity of the methodology hinders the actionable outcomes. The approach used here illustrates the importance of considering uncertainty in future climate projections, at the same time providing robust and simple to interpret information for decision-makers. By quantifying current and future exposure of Royal Gala apple to damaging temperature extremes across ten important pome fruit-growing locations in Australia, differences in impact to ripening fruit are highlighted, with, by the end of the twenty-first century, some locations maintaining no sunburn browning risk, while others potentially experiencing the risk for the majority of the January ripening period. Installation of over-tree netting can reduce the impact of sunburn browning. The benefits from employing this management option varied across the ten study locations. The two approaches explored to assist decision-makers assess this information (a) using sunburn browning risk analogues and (b) through identifying hypothetical sunburn browning risk thresholds, resulted in varying recommendations for introducing over-tree netting. These recommendations were location and future time period dependent with some sites showing no benefit for sunburn protection from nets even by the end of the twenty-first century and others already deriving benefits from employing this adaptation option. Potential best and worst cases of sunburn browning risk and its potential reduction through introduction of over-tree nets were explored. The range of results presented highlights the importance of addressing uncertainty in climate projections that result from different global climate models and possible future emission pathways.