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Sample records for brown dwarf kinematics

  1. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project (BDKP). III. Parallaxes for 70 Ultracool Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Walter, Frederick M.; Van der Bliek, Nicole; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; West, Andrew A.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem

    2012-06-01

    We report parallax measurements for 70 ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) including 11 late-M, 32 L, and 27 T dwarfs. In this sample, 14 M and L dwarfs exhibit low surface gravity features, 6 are close binary systems, and 2 are metal-poor subdwarfs. We combined our new measurements with 114 previously published UCD parallaxes and optical-mid-IR photometry to examine trends in spectral-type/absolute magnitude, and color-color diagrams. We report new polynomial relations between spectral type and MJHK . Including resolved L/T transition binaries in the relations, we find no reason to differentiate between a "bright" (unresolved binary) and a "faint" (single source) sample across the L/T boundary. Isolating early T dwarfs, we find that the brightening of T0-T4 sources is prominent in MJ where there is a [1.2-1.4] mag difference. A similar yet dampened brightening of [0.3-0.5] mag happens at MH and a plateau or dimming of [-0.2 to -0.3] mag is seen in MK . Comparison with evolutionary models that vary gravity, metallicity, and cloud thickness verifies that for L into T dwarfs, decreasing cloud thickness reproduces brown dwarf near-IR color-magnitude diagrams. However we find that a near constant temperature of 1200 ±100 K along a narrow spectral subtype of T0-T4 is required to account for the brightening and color-magnitude diagram of the L-dwarf/T-dwarf transition. There is a significant population of both L and T dwarfs which are red or potentially "ultra-cloudy" compared to the models, many of which are known to be young indicating a correlation between enhanced photospheric dust and youth. For the low surface gravity or young companion L dwarfs we find that 8 out of 10 are at least [0.2-1.0] mag underluminous in MJH and/or MK compared to equivalent spectral type objects. We speculate that this is a consequence of increased dust opacity and conclude that low surface gravity L dwarfs require a completely new spectral-type/absolute magnitude polynomial for analysis.

  2. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project (BDKP). III. Parallaxes for 70 Ultracool Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Walter, Frederick M.; van der Bliek, Nicole; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; West, Andrew A.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Anglada-Escud, Guillem

    2012-01-01

    We report parallax measurements for 70 ultracool dwarfs (UCDs). Using both literature values and our sample, we report new polynomial relations between spectral type and M$_{JHK}$. Including resolved L/T transition binaries in the relations, we find no reason to differentiate between a "bright" (unresolved binary) and "faint" (single source) sample across the L/T boundary. Isolating early T dwarfs, we find that the brightening of T0-T4 sources is prominent in M$_{J}$ where there is a [1.2 - 1...

  3. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  4. THE BROWN DWARF KINEMATICS PROJECT (BDKP). IV. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF 85 LATE-M AND L DWARFS WITH MagE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Logsdon, Sarah E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Gagné, Jonathan [Institute for Research on Exoplanets (iREx), Université de Montréal, Département de Physique, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bochanski, John J. [Rider University, 2083 Lawrenceville Road, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States); Faherty, Jaqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Schmidt, Sarah J. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cruz, Kelle L., E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.edu [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Radial velocity measurements are presented for 85 late M- and L-type very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs obtained with the Magellan Echellette spectrograph. Targets primarily have distances within 20 pc of the Sun, with more distant sources selected for their unusual spectral energy distributions. We achieved precisions of 2–3 km s{sup −1}, and combined these with astrometric and spectrophotometric data to calculate UVW velocities. Most are members of the thin disk of the Galaxy, and velocity dispersions indicate a mean age of 5.2 ± 0.2 Gyr for sources within 20 pc. We find signficantly different kinematic ages between late-M dwarfs (4.0 ± 0.2 Gyr) and L dwarfs (6.5 ± 0.4 Gyr) in our sample that are contrary to predictions from prior simulations. This difference appears to be driven by a dispersed population of unusually blue L dwarfs which may be more prevalent in our local volume-limited sample than in deeper magnitude-limited surveys. The L dwarfs exhibit an asymmetric U velocity distribution with a net inward flow, similar to gradients recently detected in local stellar samples. Simulations incorporating brown dwarf evolution and Galactic orbital dynamics are unable to reproduce the velocity asymmetry, suggesting non-axisymmetric perturbations or two distinct L dwarf populations. We also find the L dwarfs to have a kinematic age-activity correlation similar to more massive stars. We identify several sources with low surface gravities, and two new substellar candidate members of nearby young moving groups: the astrometric binary DENIS J08230313–4912012AB, a low-probability member of the β Pictoris Moving Group; and 2MASS J15104786–2818174, a moderate-probability member of the 30–50 Myr Argus Association.

  5. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project (BDKP). IV. Radial Velocities of 85 Late-M and L dwarfs with MagE

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J; Gagne, Jonathan; Bochanski, John J; Faherty, Jaqueline K; West, Andrew A; Mamajek, Eric E; Schmidt, Sarah J; Cruz, Kelle L

    2015-01-01

    Radial velocity measurements are presented for 85 late M- and L-type very low mass stars and brown dwarfs obtained with the Magellan Echellette (MagE) spectrograph. Targets primarily have distances within 20 pc of the Sun, with more distant sources selected for their unusual spectral energy distributions. We achieved precisions of 2--3 km/s, and combined these with astrometric and spectrophotometric data to calculate $UVW$ velocities. Most are members of the thin disk of the Galaxy, and velocity dispersions indicate a mean age of 5.2$\\pm$0.2 Gyr for sources within 20 pc. We find significantly different kinematic ages between late-M dwarfs (4.0$\\pm$0.2 Gyr) and L dwarfs (6.5$\\pm$0.4 Gyr) in our sample that are contrary to predictions from prior simulations. This difference appears to be driven by a dispersed population of unusually blue L dwarfs which may be more prevalent in our local volume-limited sample than in deeper magnitude-limited surveys. The L dwarfs exhibit an asymmetric $U$ velocity distribution w...

  6. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  7. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  8. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project. II. Details on Nine Wide Common Proper Motion Very Low Mass Companions to Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Shara, Michael M.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on nine wide common proper motion systems containing late-type M, L, or T companions. We confirm six previously reported companions, and identify three new systems. The ages of these systems are determined using diagnostics for both stellar primaries and low-mass secondaries and masses for the secondaries are inferred using evolutionary models. Of our three new discoveries, the M3+T6.5 pair G 204-39 and SDSS J1758+4633 has an age constrained to 0.5-1.5 Gyr making the secondary a potentially useful brown dwarf benchmark. The G5+L4 pair G 200-28 and SDSS J1416+5006 has a projected separation of ~25,000 AU making it one of the widest and lowest binding energy systems known to date. The system containing NLTT 2274 and SDSS J0041+1341 is an older M4+L0 (>4.5 Gyr) pair which shows Hα activity in the secondary but not the primary making it a useful tracer of age/mass/activity trends. Two of the nine systems have discrepant component ages that emerge from stellar or ultracool diagnostics indicating possible shortcomings in our understanding of the age diagnostics of stars and brown dwarfs. We find a resolved binary frequency for widely separated (>100 AU) low-mass companions (i.e., at least a triple system) which is at least twice the frequency found for the field ultracool dwarf population. The ratio of triples to binaries and quadruples to binaries is also high for this sample: 3:5 and 1:4, respectively, compared to 8 pc sample values of 1:4 and 1:26. The additional components in these wide companion systems indicates a formation mechanism that requires a third or fourth component to maintain gravitational stability or facilitate the exchange of angular momentum. The binding energies for the nine multiples discussed in this text are among the lowest known for wide low-mass systems, suggesting that weakly bound, low-to-intermediate mass (0.2 M sun meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. This paper makes use of data obtained with

  9. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  10. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2004-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  11. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  12. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  13. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  14. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2006-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the optically thin outer regions of circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  15. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  16. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  17. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  18. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  19. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing......-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  20. The luminosities of the coldest brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, NSW 2052 (Australia); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20005 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Mike [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: c.tinney@unsw.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    In recent years, brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500 K and masses in the range of 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own solar system (at around 130 K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures in the range of 1500-1000 K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T-dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric color. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these Y-dwarf absolute magnitudes. This is also the case for WISE0855-0714, the coldest and closest brown dwarf to the Sun, which shows evidence for water ice clouds. However, there are also some outstanding exceptions, which suggest either binarity or the presence of condensate clouds. The former is readily testable with current adaptive optics facilities. The latter would mean that the range of cloudiness in Y dwarfs is substantial with most hosting almost no clouds—while others have dense clouds, making them prime targets for future variability observations to study cloud dynamics.

  1. The Luminosities of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500K and masses in the range 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own Solar System (at around 130K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures of in the range 1500-1000K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very-late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric colour. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these ...

  2. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  3. Spectroscopy of Putative Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2+/-0.5) and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  4. Astrometry of brown dwarfs with Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    de Bruijne, J H J

    2014-01-01

    Europe's Gaia spacecraft will soon embark on its five-year mission to measure the absolute parallaxes of the complete sample of 1,000 million objects down to 20 mag. It is expected that thousands of nearby brown dwarfs will have their astrometry determined with sub-milli-arcsecond standard errors. Although this level of accuracy is comparable to the standard errors of the relative parallaxes that are now routinely obtained from the ground for selected, individual objects, the absolute nature of Gaia's astrometry, combined with the sample increase from one hundred to several thousand sub-stellar objects with known distances, ensures the uniqueness of Gaia's legacy in brown-dwarf science for the coming decade(s). We shortly explore the gain in brown-dwarf science that could be achieved by lowering Gaia's faint-end limit from 20 to 21 mag and conclude that two spectral-type sub-classes could be gained in combination with a fourfold increase in the solar-neighbourhood-volume sampled by Gaia and hence in the numbe...

  5. Correlated spectral variability in brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bailer-Jones, C A L

    2007-01-01

    Models of brown dwarf atmospheres suggest they exhibit complex physical behaviour. Observations have shown that they are indeed dynamic, displaying small photometric variations over timescales of hours. Here I report results of infrared (0.95-1.64 micron) spectrophotometric monitoring of four field L and T dwarfs spanning timescales of 0.1-5.5 hrs, the goal being to learn more about the physical nature of this variability. Spectra are analysed differentially with respect to a simultaneously observed reference source in order to remove Earth-atmospheric variations. The variability amplitude detected is typically 2-10%, depending on the source and wavelength. I analyse the data for correlated variations between spectral indices. This approach is more robust than single band or chisq analyses, because it does not assume an amplitude for the (often uncertain) noise level (although the significance test still assumes a shape for the noise power spectrum). Three of the four targets show significant evidence for cor...

  6. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, O.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very low mass pre-stellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which André et al. have identified as a pre-stellar core with mass between ˜0.020 M⊙ and ˜0.030 M⊙. We re-analyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit at ˜0.075 M⊙, is between 0.66 and 0.86 . We conclude that, if Oph-B11 is destined to collapse, it probably will form a brown dwarf. However, the flows required to trigger this appear to be so contrived that it is difficult to envisage this being the only way, or even a major way, of forming isolated brown dwarfs. Moreover, Oph-B11 could easily be a transient, bouncing, prolate core, seen end-on; there could, indeed should, be many such objects masquerading as very low mass pre-stellar cores.

  7. Explaining millimeter-sized particles in brown dwarf disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Pinilla; T. Birnstiel; M. Benisty; L. Ricci; A. Natta; C.P. Dullemond; C. Dominik; L. Testi

    2013-01-01

    Context. Planets have been detected around a variety of stars, including low-mass objects, such as brown dwarfs. However, such extreme cases are challenging for planet formation models. Recent sub-millimeter observations of disks around brown dwarf measured low spectral indices of the continuum emis

  8. The Coolest Isolated Brown Dwarf Candidate Member of TWA

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Cruz, Kelle; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne

    2014-01-01

    We present two new late-type brown dwarf candidate members of the TW Hydrae association (TWA) : 2MASS J12074836-3900043 and 2MASS J12474428-3816464, which were found as part of the BANYAN all-sky survey (BASS) for brown dwarf members to nearby young associations. We obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for both objects (NIR spectral types are respectively L1 and M9), as well as optical spectroscopy for J1207-3900 (optical spectral type is L0{\\gamma}), and show that both display clear signs of low-gravity, and thus youth. We use the BANYAN II Bayesian inference tool to show that both objects are candidate members to TWA with a very low probability of being field contaminants, although the kinematics of J1247-3816 seem slightly at odds with that of other TWA members. J1207-3900 is currently the latest-type and the only isolated L-type candidate member of TWA. Measuring the distance and radial velocity of both objects is still required to claim them as bona fide members. Such late-type objects are predicted...

  9. Investigating the magnetism of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmychov, O; Harrington, D; Kuhn, J

    2013-01-01

    We model the spectra of two brown dwarfs observed with the low resolution spectropolarimeter LRIS (Keck observatory) during several rotational phases in order to infer their magnetic properties. The spectra modeled include the intensity signal (Stokes I/Ic) as well as the polarimetric signals (Stokes Q/Ic, U/Ic, and V/Ic), all coming from the 0-0 vibrational band of the CrH molecule at approx. 8610 A. In order to model the Stokes profiles, we solve a set of the radiative transfer equations for the CrH transitions in the presence of an external magnetic field. We present the upper limits for the magnetic field strengths for the objects observed, based on the modeling of the intensity signal I/Ic and the signal-to-noise information only. The proper modeling of the polarimetric signals, that requires more careful data reduction, is underway. Nevertheless, our preliminary results show a hint for kG magnetic fields for both brown dwarfs, that is in a good agreement with the result obtained from the simultaneous ra...

  10. Chandra Captures Flare From Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The first flare ever seen from a brown dwarf, or failed star, was detected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The bright X-ray flare has implications for understanding the explosive activity and origin of magnetic fields of extremely low mass stars. Chandra detected no X-rays at all from LP 944-20 for the first nine hours of a twelve hour observation, then the source flared dramatically before it faded away over the next two hours. "We were shocked," said Dr. Robert Rutledge of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, the lead author on the discovery paper to appear in the July 20 issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We didn't expect to see flaring from such a lightweight object. This is really the 'mouse that roared.'" Chandra LP 944-20 X-ray Image Press Image and Caption The energy emitted in the brown dwarf flare was comparable to a small solar flare, and was a billion times greater than observed X-ray flares from Jupiter. The flaring energy is believed to come from a twisted magnetic field. "This is the strongest evidence yet that brown dwarfs and possibly young giant planets have magnetic fields, and that a large amount of energy can be released in a flare," said Dr. Eduardo Martin, also of Caltech and a member of the team. Professor Gibor Basri of the University of California, Berkeley, the principal investigator for this observation, speculated that the flare "could have its origin in the turbulent magnetized hot material beneath the surface of the brown dwarf. A sub-surface flare could heat the atmosphere, allowing currents to flow and give rise to the X-ray flare -- like a stroke of lightning." LP 944-20 is about 500 million years old and has a mass that is about 60 times that of Jupiter, or 6 percent that of the Sun. Its diameter is about one-tenth that of the Sun and it has a rotation period of less than five hours. Located in the constellation Fornax in the southern skies, LP 944-20 is one of the best studied brown dwarfs because it is

  11. Population Properties of Brown Dwarf Analogs to Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Riedel, Adric R.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Gagne, Jonathan; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Lambrides, Erini; Fica, Haley; Weinberger, Alycia; Thorstensen, John R.; Tinney, C. G.; Baldassare, Vivienne; Lemonier, Emily; Rice, Emily L.

    2016-07-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of 152 low surface gravity M7-L8 dwarfs by adding 18 new parallaxes (including 10 for comparative field objects), 38 new radial velocities, and 19 new proper motions. We also add low- or moderate-resolution near-infrared spectra for 43 sources confirming their low surface gravity features. Among the full sample, we find 39 objects to be high-likelihood or new bona fide members of nearby moving groups, 92 objects to be ambiguous members and 21 objects that are non-members. Using this age-calibrated sample, we investigate trends in gravity classification, photometric color, absolute magnitude, color-magnitude, luminosity, and effective temperature. We find that gravity classification and photometric color clearly separate 5-130 Myr sources from >3 Gyr field objects, but they do not correlate one to one with the narrower 5-130 Myr age range. Sources with the same spectral subtype in the same group have systematically redder colors, but they are distributed between 1 and 4σ from the field sequences and the most extreme outlier switches between intermediate- and low-gravity sources either confirmed in a group or not. The absolute magnitudes of low-gravity sources from the J band through W3 show a flux redistribution when compared to equivalently typed field brown dwarfs that is correlated with spectral subtype. Low-gravity, late-type L dwarfs are fainter at J than the field sequence but brighter by W3. Low-gravity M dwarfs are >1 mag brighter than field dwarfs in all bands from J through W3. Clouds, which are a far more dominant opacity source for L dwarfs, are the likely cause. On color-magnitude diagrams, the latest-type, low-gravity L dwarfs drive the elbow of the L/T transition up to 1 mag redder and 1 mag fainter than field dwarfs at M J but are consistent with or brighter than the elbow at M W1 and M W2. We conclude that low-gravity dwarfs carry an extreme version of the cloud conditions of field objects to lower temperatures

  12. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill

    2005-01-01

    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  13. A USNO Search for Astrometric Companions to Brown Dwarfs IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Vrba, F. J.; Munn, J. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Tilleman, T.; Henden, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of ten brown dwarfs observed by the U.S. Naval Observatory infrared parallax program show no clear indication of astrometric perturbations due to low mass companions. The data were collected using ASTROCAM on the 1.55-m (61-in) Kaj Strand Astrometric Reflector from 2000 September through 2006 June over periods from 2.0 to 5.3 years. After our standard solution for parallax and proper motion, the residuals were subjected to a time-series analysis using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. The multiplicity fraction for brown dwarfs constrains theories of brown dwarf formation and evolution. Binary systems, especially those that straddle the transition between L and T spectral types, are also significant tests of atmospheric models. In addition, the identification of companions would have enabled the eventual measurement of the associated masses. This search for astrometric companions is an extension of the initial infrared parallax program. When finalized, the trigonometric parallaxes for these brown dwarfs will provide accurate distances for use in determining their luminosities and temperatures. The brown dwarfs in this subsample have spectral types that range from late M through mid-T. None of them are known binaries. Distance estimates place six of these objects within the 25-pc limit of the Solar Neighborhood, and preliminary parallaxes place another three between 25 and 35 pc. These substellar objects are located north of -15° Dec. The brown dwarfs evaluated are 2MASS J00325937+1410371, 2MASS J01514155+1244300 (BF Ari) 2MASS J02074284+0000564, 2MASS J03095345-0753156, SDSS J083717.21-000018.0, 2MASS J11101001+0116130, 2MASS J13262981-0038314 (2MUCD 11143), 2MASS J17502385+4222373, 2MASS J23391025+1352284, and 2MASS J23565477-1553111. Analyses of another 30 brown dwarfs were presented earlier and the analyses of 19 more brown dwarfs are planned.

  14. A USNO Search for Astrometric Companions to Brown Dwarfs III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Vrba, F. J.; Munn, J. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Tillman, T.; Henden, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of ten brown dwarfs observed by the U.S. Naval Observatory infrared parallax program show no clear indication of astrometric perturbations due to low mass companions. The data were collected using ASTROCAM on the 1.55-m Strand Astrometric Reflector from 2000 October through 2006 June over periods from 1.3 to 5.4 years. After our standard solution for parallax and proper motion, the residuals were subjected to a time-series analysis using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. The multiplicity fraction for brown dwarfs constrains theories of brown dwarf formation and evolution. Binary systems, especially those that straddle the transition between L and T spectral types, are also significant tests of atmospheric models. In addition, the identification of companions would have enabled the eventual measurement of the associated masses. This search for astrometric companions is an extension of the initial infrared parallax program. When finalized, the trigonometric parallaxes for these brown dwarfs will provide accurate distances for use in determining their luminosities and temperatures. The brown dwarfs in this subsample have spectral types that range from early L through mid-T. None are known binaries. Distance estimates place all but two within the 25-pc limit of the Solar Neighborhood; one outlier has a distance of approximately 62 pc based on its preliminary parallax. These substellar objects are located north of -25° Dec. and lie between 13h and 23h in R.A. The brown dwarfs evaluated are 2MASS J13464634-0031501, SDSS J144600.60+002452.0, 2MASS J16241436+0029158, 2MASS J17580545+4633099, 2MASS J19010601+4718136, 2MASS J21241387+0059599, 2MASS J22425317+2542573, 2MASS J22443167+2043433, 2MASS J22541892+3123498, and 2MASS J22552907-0034336. Analyses of another 20 brown dwarfs were presented earlier and the analyses of 19 more brown dwarfs are planned.

  15. Cold Brown Dwarfs with WISE: Y Dwarfs and the Field Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2012-01-01

    Why study Brown Dwarf stars? They re the lowest mass byproducts of star formation.. They provide time capsules across the age of the Galaxy.. They show what low-T(sub eff) atmospheres look like.. They may be some of our closest neighbors in space..WISE is a 40cm Earth-orbiting telescope. There are 211 stars and only 33 brown dwarfs in this volume.. This means that stars outnumber brown dwarfs by a factor of 6:1 currently.. The number of brown dwarfs will continue to increase if:: (a) more nearby Y dwarf candidates are confirmed, or (b) our distances to known Y s are overestimated, or (c) there are colder BDs invisible to WISE..

  16. Forming isolated brown dwarfs by turbulent fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, O; Hubber, D A

    2016-01-01

    We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to explore the circumstances under which an isolated very-low-mass prestellar core can be formed by colliding turbulent flows and collapse to form a brown-dwarf. Our simulations suggest that the flows need not be very fast, but do need to be very strongly convergent, i.e. the gas must flow in at comparable speeds from all sides, which seems rather unlikely. We therefore revisit the object Oph-B11, which Andre, Ward-Thompson and Greaves (2012) have identified as a prestellar core with mass between $\\sim 0.020\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$ and $\\sim 0.030\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$. We reanalyse the observations using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method that allows us (i) to include the uncertainties on the distance, temperature and dust mass opacity, and (ii) to consider different Bayesian prior distributions of the mass. We estimate that the posterior probability that Oph-B11 has a mass below the hydrogen burning limit at $\\sim 0.075\\,\\mathrm{M_\\odot}$, is between 0.66 and 0.86. We conclude ...

  17. Relation between Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lauren Melissa Flor; Schröeder, Klauss-Peter; Caretta, César A; Jack, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the most debated subjects in Astronomy since the discovery of exoplanets is how can we distinguish the most massive of such objects from very-low mass stars like Brown Dwarfs (BDs)? We have been looking for evidences of a difference in physical characteristics that could be related to different formation processes. Using a new diagnostic diagram that compares the baryonic gravitational potential (BGP) with the distances from their host stars, we have classified a sample of 355 well-studied exoplanets according to their possible structures. We have then compared the exoplanets to a sample of 87 confirmed BDs, identifying a range in BGP that could be common to both objects. By analyzing the mass-radius relations (MRR) of the exoplanets and BDs in those different BGP ranges, we were able to distinguish different characteristic behaviors. By comparing with models in the literature, our results suggest that BDs and massive exoplanets might have similar structures dominated by liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH).

  18. Herschel survey of brown dwarf disks in ρ Ophiuchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Oliveira, C.; Ábrahám, P.; Marton, G.; Pinte, C.; Kiss, Cs.; Kun, M.; Kóspál, Á.; André, P.; Könyves, V.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Young brown dwarfs are known to possess circumstellar disks, a characteristic that is fundamental to the understanding of their formation process, and raises the possibility that these objects harbour planets. Aims: We want to characterise the far-IR emission of disks around the young brown dwarf population of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster in LDN 1688. Methods: Recent observations of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster with the Herschel Space Observatory allow us to probe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the brown dwarf population in the far-IR, where the disk emission peaks. We performed aperture photometry at 70, 100, and 160 μm, and constructed SEDs for all previously known brown dwarfs detected. These were complemented with ancillary photometry at shorter wavelengths. We compared the observed SEDs to a grid of synthetic disks produced with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and used the relative figure of merit estimated from the Bayesian inference of each disk parameter to analyse the structural properties. Results: We detected 12 Class II brown dwarfs with Herschel, which corresponds to one-third of all currently known brown dwarf members of ρ Ophiuchi. We did not detect any of the known Class III brown dwarfs. Comparison to models reveals that the disks are best described by an inner radius between 0.01 and 0.07 AU, and a flared disk geometry with a flaring index between 1.05 and 1.2. Furthermore, we can exclude values of the disk scale-height lower than 10 AU (measured at a fiducial radius of 100 AU). We combined the Herschel data with recent ALMA observations of the brown dwarf GY92 204 (ISO-Oph 102), and by comparing its SED to the same grid of disk models, we derived an inner disk radius of 0.035 AU, a scale height of 15 AU with a flaring index of β ~ 1.15, an exponent for dust settling of -1.5, and a disk mass of 0.001 M⊙. This corresponds to a disk-to-central object mass ratio of ~1%. Conclusions: The structural parameters constrained by the

  19. Herschel survey of brown dwarf disks in Rho Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, C Alves; Marton, G; Pinte, C; Kiss, Cs; Kun, M; Kóspál, Á; André, Ph; Könyves, V

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of the Rho Ophiuchi cluster with the Herschel Space Observatory allow us to probe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the brown dwarf population in the far-IR, where the disk emission peaks. We performed aperture photometry at 70, 100, and 160 micron, and constructed SEDs for all previously known brown dwarfs detected. These were complemented with ancillary photometry at shorter wavelengths. We compared the observed SEDs to a grid of synthetic disks produced with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and used the relative figure of merit estimated from the Bayesian inference of each disk parameter to analyse the structural properties. We detected 12 Class II brown dwarfs with Herschel, which corresponds to one-third of all currently known brown dwarf members of Rho Ophiuchi. We do not detect any of the known Class III brown dwarfs. Comparison to models reveals that the disks are best described by an inner radius between 0.01 and 0.07 AU, and a flared disk geometry with a flaring index ...

  20. Surprisingly Weak Magnetism on Young Accreting Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reiners, Ansgar; Christensen, Ulrich R

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the surface magnetic flux on four accreting young brown dwarfs and one non-accreting young very low-mass star utilizing high resolution spectra of absorption lines of the FeH molecule. A magnetic field of 1-2 kG had been proposed for one of the brown dwarfs, 2MASS J1207334$-$393254, because of its similarities to higher mass T Tauri stars as manifested in accretion and the presence of a jet. We do not find clear evidence for a kilo-Gauss field in any of our young brown dwarfs but do find a 2 kG field on the young VLM star. Our 3-$\\sigma$ upper limit for the magnetic flux in 2MASS J1207334$-$393254 just reaches 1 kG. We estimate the magnetic field required for accretion in young brown dwarfs given the observed rotations, and find that fields of only a few hundred Gauss are sufficient for magnetospheric accretion. This predicted value is less than our observed upper limit. We conclude that magnetic fields in young brown dwarfs are a factor of five or more lower than in young stars of about one ...

  1. A resolved outflow of matter from a Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Natta, A; Testi, L; Randich, S; Whelan, Emma T.; Ray, Thomas P.; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-01-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs amongst newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  2. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-01

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  3. A global cloud map of the nearest known brown dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Crossfield, I J M; Schlieder, J E; Deacon, N R; Bonnefoy, M; Homeier, D; Allard, F; Buenzli, E; Henning, Th; Brandner, W; Goldman, B; Kopytova, T

    2014-01-01

    Brown dwarfs -- substellar bodies more massive than planets but not massive enough to initiate the sustained hydrogen fusion that powers self-luminous stars -- are born hot and slowly cool as they age. As they cool below about 2,300 K, liquid or crystalline particles composed of calcium aluminates, silicates and iron condense into atmospheric 'dust', which disappears at still cooler temperatures (around 1,300 K). Models to explain this dust dispersal include both an abrupt sinking of the entire cloud deck into the deep, unob- servable atmosphere and breakup of the cloud into scattered patches (as seen on Jupiter and Saturn). Thus far, observations of brown dwarfs have been limited to globally integrated measurements, which can reveal surface inhomogeneities but cannot unambiguously resolve surface features. Here we report a two-dimensional map of a brown dwarf's surface that allows identification of large-scale bright and dark features, indicative of patchy clouds.

  4. Adaptive Optics Observations of Exoplanets, Brown Dwarfs, & Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkley, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    The current direct observations of brown dwarfs and exoplanets have been obtained using instruments not specifically designed for overcoming the large contrast ratio between the host star and any wide-separation faint companions. However, we are about to witness the birth of several new dedicated observing platforms specifically geared towards high contrast imaging of these objects. The Gemini Planet Imager, VLT-SPHERE, Subaru HiCIAO, and Project 1640 at the Palomar 5m telescope will return images of numerous exoplanets and brown dwarfs over hundreds of observing nights in the next five years. Along with diffraction-limited coronagraphs and high-order adaptive optics, these instruments also will return spectral and polarimetric information on any discovered targets, giving clues to their atmospheric compositions and characteristics. Such spectral characterization will be key to forming a detailed theory of comparative exoplanetary science which will be widely applicable to both exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Fu...

  5. Halo dark clusters of brown dwarfs and molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Jetzer, Ph; Roncadelli, M; 10.1086/305692

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) in microlensing experiments makes it compelling to understand their physical nature, as well as their formation mechanism. Within the present uncertainties, brown dwarfs are a viable candidate for MACHOs, and the present paper deals with this option. According to a recently proposed scenario, brown dwarfs are clumped along with cold molecular clouds into dark clusters -- in several respects similar to globular clusters -- which form in the outer part of the galactic halo. Here, we analyze the dynamics of these dark clusters and we address the possibility that a sizable fraction of MACHOs can be binary brown dwarfs. Moreover, we point out that Ly-$\\alpha$ absorption systems naturally fit within the present picture.

  6. Using Clustering Algorithms to Identify Brown Dwarf Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choban, Caleb

    2016-06-01

    Brown dwarfs are stars that are not massive enough to sustain core hydrogen fusion, and thus fade and cool over time. The molecular composition of brown dwarf atmospheres can be determined by observing absorption features in their infrared spectrum, which can be quantified using spectral indices. Comparing these indices to one another, we can determine what kind of brown dwarf it is, and if it is young or metal-poor. We explored a new method for identifying these subgroups through the expectation-maximization machine learning clustering algorithm, which provides a quantitative and statistical way of identifying index pairs which separate rare populations. We specifically quantified two statistics, completeness and concentration, to identify the best index pairs. Starting with a training set, we defined selection regions for young, metal-poor and binary brown dwarfs, and tested these on a large sample of L dwarfs. We present the results of this analysis, and demonstrate that new objects in these classes can be found through these methods.

  7. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY RED L-TYPE BROWN DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizis, John E.; Castro, Philip J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile, Cerro Calan, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes (Chile); Liu, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shaw, John D. [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Vrba, Frederick J.; Harris, Hugh C. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17 D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    We report the discovery of an unusually red brown dwarf found in a search for high proper motion objects using WISE and 2MASS data. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 is moving at 0.''44 yr{sup -1} and lies relatively close to the Galactic plane (b = 5.{sup 0}2). Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy reveals that this is one of the reddest (2MASS J - K{sub s} 2.55 {+-} 0.08 mag) field L dwarfs yet detected, making this object an important member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We discuss evidence for thick condensate clouds and speculate on the age of the object. Although models by different research groups agree that thick clouds can explain the red spectrum, they predict dramatically different effective temperatures, ranging from 1100 K to 1600 K. This brown dwarf is well suited for additional studies of extremely dusty substellar atmospheres because it is relatively bright (K{sub s} = 13.05 {+-} 0.03 mag), which should also contribute to an improved understanding of young gas-giant planets and the transition between L and T brown dwarfs.

  8. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mikkola, Seppo, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  9. Temperature Fluctuations as a Source of Brown Dwarf Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Tyler D

    2014-01-01

    A number of brown dwarfs are now known to be variable with observed amplitudes as large as 10-30% at some wavelengths. While spatial inhomogeneities in cloud coverage and thickness are likely responsible for much of the observed variability, it is possible that some of the variations arise from atmospheric temperature fluctuations instead of, or in addition to, clouds. To better understand the role that thermal variability might play we present a case study of brown dwarf variability using a newly-developed one-dimensional, time-stepping model of atmospheric thermal structure. We focus on the effects of thermal perturbations, intentionally simplifying the problem through omission of clouds and atmospheric circulation. Model results demonstrate that thermal perturbations occurring deep in the atmosphere (at pressures greater than 10 bar) of a model T-dwarf can be communicated to the upper atmosphere through radiative heating via the windows in near-infrared water opacity. The response time depends on where in ...

  10. Accretion-ejection connection in the young brown dwarf candidate ISO-Cha1 217

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Nisini, B; Bonito, R; Antoniucci, S; Stelzer, B; Biazzo, K; D'Elia, V; Ray, T P

    2014-01-01

    As the number of observed brown dwarf outflows is growing it is important to investigate how these outflows compare to the well studied jets from young stellar objects. A key point of comparison is the relationship between outflow and accretion activity and in particular the ratio between the mass outflow and accretion rates ($\\dot{M}_{out}$/$\\dot{M}_{acc}$). The brown dwarf candidate ISO-ChaI 217 was discovered by our group, as part of a spectro-astrometric study of brown dwarfs, to be driving an asymmetric outflow with the blue-shifted lobe having a position angle of $\\sim$ 20$^{\\circ}$. The aim here is to further investigate the properties of ISO-ChaI 217, the morphology and kinematics of its outflow, and to better constrain ($\\dot{M}_{out}$/$\\dot{M}_{acc}$). The outflow is spatially resolved in the $[SII]\\lambda \\lambda 6716,6731$ lines and is detected out to $\\sim$ 1\\farcs6 in the blue-shifted lobe and ~ 1" in the red-shifted lobe. The asymmetry between the two lobes is confirmed although the velocity as...

  11. A non-uniform distribution of the nearest brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bihain, G

    2016-01-01

    The census of solar neighbours is still complemented by new discoveries, mainly of very low-mass, faint dwarfs, close to or within the substellar domain. These discoveries contribute to a better understanding of the field population; its origin in terms of Galactic dynamics and (sub)stellar formation and evolution. Also, the nearest stars and brown dwarfs at any given age allow the most precise direct characterization, including the search for planetary companions. We aim to further assess the substellar census on the Galactic plane. We projected the 136 stars and 26 brown dwarfs known at <6.5 pc on the Galactic plane and evaluated their distributions. Stars present a uniform- and brown dwarfs a non-uniform distribution, with 21 objects behind the Sun and only five ahead relative to the direction of rotation of the Galaxy. This substellar configuration has a probability of 0.098$^{+10.878}_{-0.098}$% relative to uniformity. The helio- and geocentric nature of the distribution suggests it might result in pa...

  12. CLOUDS search for variability in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, B; Marley, M S; Artigau, É; Baliyan, K S; Béjar, V J S; Caballero, J A; Chanover, N; Connelley, M; Doyon, R; Forveille, T; Ganesh, S; Gelino, C R; Hammel, H B; Holtzman, J; Joshi, S; Joshi, U C; Leggett, S K; Liu, M C; Martín, E L; Mohan, V; Nadeau, D; Sagar, R; Stephens, D

    2008-01-01

    Context: L-type ultra-cool dwarfs and brown dwarfs have cloudy atmospheres that could host weather-like phenomena. The detection of photometric or spectral variability would provide insight into unresolved atmospheric heterogeneities, such as holes in a global cloud deck. Aims: It has been proposed that growth of heterogeneities in the global cloud deck may account for the L- to T-type transition as brown dwarf photospheres evolve from cloudy to clear conditions. Such a mechanism is compatible with variability. We searched for variability in the spectra of five L6 to T6 brown dwarfs in order to test this hypothesis. Methods: We obtained spectroscopic time series using VLT/ISAAC, over 0.99-1.13um, and IRTF/SpeX for two of our targets, in J, H and K bands. We search for statistically variable lines and correlation between those. Results: High spectral-frequency variations are seen in some objects, but these detections are marginal and need to be confirmed. We find no evidence for large amplitude variations in s...

  13. Using Narrow Band Photometry to Classify Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A K; Sievers, J L; Young, E T; Lean, Ian S. Mc

    2004-01-01

    We present a new system of narrow band filters in the near infrared that can be used to classify stars and brown dwarfs. This set of four filters, spanning the H band, can be used to identify molecular features unique to brown dwarfs, such as H2O and CH4. The four filters are centered at 1.495 um (H2O), 1.595 um (continuum), 1.66 um (CH4), and 1.75 um (H2O). Using two H2O filters allows us to solve for individual objects' reddenings. This can be accomplished by constructing a color-color-color cube and rotating it until the reddening vector disappears. We created a model of predicted color-color-color values for different spectral types by integrating filter bandpass data with spectra of known stars and brown dwarfs. We validated this model by making photometric measurements of seven known L and T dwarfs, ranging from L1 - T7.5. The photometric measurements agree with the model to within +/-0.1 mag, allowing us to create spectral indices for different spectral types. We can classify A through early M stars to...

  14. Exploration of the brown dwarf regime around solar-like stars by CoRoT

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Szilárd

    2016-01-01

    Aims. A summary of the CoRoT brown dwarf investigations are presented. Methods. Transiting brown dwarfs around solar like stars were studied by using the photometric time-series of CoRoT, and ground based radial velocity measurements. Results. CoRoT detected three transiting brown dwarfs around F and G dwarf stars. The occurence rate of brown dwarfs was found to be 0.20 +/- 0.15% around solar-like stars which is compatible with the value obtained by Kepler-data.

  15. A KECK LGS AO SEARCH FOR BROWN DWARF AND PLANETARY MASS COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We searched for binary companions to 20 young brown dwarfs in the Upper Scorpius association (145 pc, 5 Myr, nearest OB association) with the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics system and the facility infrared camera NIRC2 on the 10 m Keck II telescope. We discovered a 0.''14 companion (20.9 ± 0.4 AU) to the sun object SCH J16091837-20073523. From spectral deconvolution of integrated-light near-IR spectroscopy of SCH1609 using the SpeX spectrograph (Rayner et al. 2003), we estimate primary and secondary spectral types of M6 ± 0.5 and M7 ± 1.0, corresponding to masses of 79 ± 17 MJup and 55 ± 25 MJup at an age of 5 Myr and masses of 84 ± 15 MJup and 60 ± 25 MJup at an age of 10 Myr. For our survey objects with spectral types later than M8, we find an upper limit on the binary fraction of Jup) brown dwarfs in Upper Sco is similar to that for T dwarfs in the field; for higher mass brown dwarfs and very low mass stars, there is an excess of medium-separation (10-50 AU projected separation) young binaries with respect to the field. These medium-separation binaries will likely survive to late ages.

  16. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Discovery of KELU-1 Promises New Insights into Strange Objects Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are too small to become real stars, yet too large to be real planets. Their mass is too small to ignite those nuclear processes which are responsible for the large energies and high temperatures of stars, but it is much larger than that of the planets we know in our solar system. Until now, very few Brown Dwarfs have been securely identified as such. Two are members of double-star systems, and a few more are located deep within the Pleiades star cluster. Now, however, Maria Teresa Ruiz of the Astronomy Department at Universidad de Chile (Santiago de Chile), using telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory, has just discovered one that is all alone and apparently quite near to us. Contrary to the others which are influenced by other objects in their immediate surroundings, this new Brown Dwarf is unaffected and will thus be a perfect object for further investigations that may finally allow us to better understand these very interesting celestial bodies. It has been suggested that Brown Dwarfs may constitute a substantial part of the unseen dark matter in our Galaxy. This discovery may therefore also have important implications for this highly relevant research area. Searching for nearby faint stars The story of this discovery goes back to 1987 when Maria Teresa Ruiz decided to embark upon a long-term search (known as the Calan-ESO proper-motion survey ) for another type of unusual object, the so-called White Dwarfs , i.e. highly evolved, small and rather faint stars. Although they have masses similar to that of the Sun, such stars are no larger than the Earth and are therefore extremely compact. They are particularly interesting, because they most probably represent the future end point of evolution of our Sun, some billions of years from now. For this project, the Chilean astronomer obtained large-field photographic exposures with the 1-m ESO Schmidt telescope at

  17. OGLE-2014-BLG-0257L: A Microlensing Brown Dwarf Orbiting a Low-mass M Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Han, C; Udalski, A; Gould, A; Bozza, V; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Poleski, R; Kozłowski, S; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the discovery of a binary composed of a brown dwarf and a low-mass M dwarf from the observation of the microlensing event OGLE-2014-BLG-0257. Resolution of the very short-lasting caustic crossing combined with the detection of subtle continuous deviation in the lensing light curve induced by the Earth's orbital motion enable us to precisely measure both the Einstein radius \\theta_E and the lens parallax pi_E, which are the two quantities needed to unambiguously determine the mass and distance to the lens. It is found that the companion is a substellar brown dwarf with a mass 0.036 +/- 0.005 Msun (37.7 +/- 5.2\\ M_J) and it is orbiting an M dwarf with a mass 0.19 +/- 0.02 Msun. The binary is located at a distance 1.25 +/- 0.13 kpc toward the Galactic bulge and the projected separation between the binary components is 0.61 +/- 0.07 AU. The separation scaled by the mass of the host is 3.2 AU/Msun. Under the assumption that separations scale with masses, then, the discovered brown dwarf is...

  18. Flash ionisation signature in coherent cyclotron emission from Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Vorgul, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in form of lightning resulting in a substantial sudden increase of local ionisation. Brown dwarfs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionisation events (flash ionisation) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionisation events will open investigations into the ionisation state and atmospheric dynamics. Such ionisation events can also result from explosion shock waves, bursts or eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionisation events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the loca...

  19. The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Skemer, Andrew; Allers, Katelyn; Geballe, Thomas; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline; Bjoraker, Gordon; Lupu, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents our first opportunity to directly study an object outside the Solar System that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs---near infrared spectroscopy---is not currently feasible as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 $\\mu$m spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter's deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter. The spectrum is high enough quality to allow the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter's atmosphere, but now on an extrasolar world.

  20. A search for rocky planets transiting brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Selsis, Franck; Winn, Joshua N; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Artigau, Etienne; Laughlin, Gregory P; Seager, Sara; Helling, Christiane; Mayor, Michel; Albert, Loic; Anderson, Richard I; Bolmont, Emeline; Doyon, Rene; Forveille, Thierry; Hagelberg, Janis; Leconte, Jeremy; Lendl, Monika; Littlefair, Stuart; Raymond, Sean; Sahlmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanetary science has reached a historic moment. The James Webb Space Telescope will be capable of probing the atmospheres of rocky planets, and perhaps even search for biologically produced gases. However this is contingent on identifying suitable targets before the end of the mission. A race therefore, is on, to find transiting planets with the most favorable properties, in time for the launch. Here, we describe a realistic opportunity to discover extremely favorable targets - rocky planets transiting nearby brown dwarfs - using the Spitzer Space Telescope as a survey instrument. Harnessing the continuous time coverage and the exquisite precision of Spitzer in a 5,400 hour campaign monitoring nearby brown dwarfs, we will detect a handful of planetary systems with planets as small as Mars. The survey we envision is a logical extension of the immense progress that has been realized in the field of exoplanets and a natural outcome of the exploration of the solar neighborhood to map where the nearest habitab...

  1. How Dry is the Brown Dwarf Desert?: Quantifying the Relative Number of Planets, Brown Dwarfs and Stellar Companions around Nearby Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Grether, D; Grether, Daniel; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Sun-like stars have stellar, brown dwarf and planetary companions. To help constrain their formation and migration scenarios, we analyse the close companions (orbital period 2 M_Solar respectively. However, we find no evidence that companion mass scales with host mass in general. Approximately 16% of Sun-like stars have close (P < 5 years) companions more massive than Jupiter: 11% are stellar, 1% are brown dwarf and 4% are giant planets. The companion mass function in the brown dwarf and stellar mass range, has a different shape than the initial mass function of individual stars and free-floating brown dwarfs. This suggests either a different spectrum of gravitational fragmentation in the formation environment or post-formation migratory processes disinclined to leave brown dwarfs in close orbits.

  2. Planetesimals to brown dwarfs: What is a planet?

    OpenAIRE

    Basri, Gibor; Brown, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The past 15 years have brought about a revolution in our understanding of our Solar System and other planetary systems. During this time, discoveries include the first Kuiper Belt Objects, the first brown dwarfs, and the first extra-solar planets. Although discoveries continue apace, they have called into question our previous perspectives on planets, both here and elsewhere. The result has been a debate about the meaning of the word ''planet'' itself. It became clear that scientists do not h...

  3. Eclipse Observations of a Temperate Transiting Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas; Curtis, Jason; Montet, Benjamin; Vanderberg, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    We wish to use 15.7 hours of Spitzer time to observe two eclipses, one each at 3.6 um and 4.5 um of a newly discovered transiting brown dwarf, which we refer to as R147-BD. R147-BD is a 36 MJ object on a 5.3 day orbit about a K=10.666, 5800K solar analog. Uniquely, R147-BD and its host star are both members of the 3.0 Gyr old open cluster Ruprecht 147. R147-BD is thus one of the only transiting brown dwarfs for which we have a robust isochronal age that is not dependent upon brown dwarf evolutionary models. These models predict that a field object with the mass and age of R147-BD should have an effective temperature of about 800K due to internal heat. The zero-albedo blackbody equilibrium temperature for R147-BD, based only on its host star's insolation, is 1125K. This makes R147-BD the first observationally accessible sub-stellar object for which the internal and external energy fluxes are approximately equal, and it can serve as a unique laboratory to test the effect of stellar irradiation on the vertical pressure-temperature structure and clouds of giant planets. Specifically, we wish to investigate three different questions with these observations. First, how does the measured mass, radius, age and emission of R147-BD compare to brown dwarf evolution models, and how have these been altered by stellar irradiation? Second, does R147-BD's dayside atmosphere resemble its isolated field equivalent, or is it closer to hot Jupiters at similar temperatures? Third, can we constrain the cloud properties of R147-BD's dayside? Besides these particular science questions, observations of R147-BD allow us to scout-out future JWST observations of temperate giant planets, which also will have roughly equal amounts of stellar irradiation and internal heat.

  4. A homogeneous analysis of disks around brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y; Bayo, A; Nielbock, M; Wang, H

    2015-01-01

    We re-analyzed the Herschel/PACS data of a sample of 55 brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars with spectral types ranging from M5.5 to L0. We investigated the dependence of disk structure on the mass of the central object in the substellar regime based on a homogeneous analysis of Herschel data from flux density measurements to spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling. A systematic comparison between the derived disk properties and those of sun-like stars shows that the disk flaring of BDs and very low mass stars is generally smaller than that of their higher mass counterparts, the disk mass is orders of magnitude lower than the typical value found in T Tauri stars, and the disk scale heights are comparable in both sun-like stars and BDs. We further divided our sample into an early-type brown dwarf (ETBD) group and a late-type brown dwarf (LTBD) group by using spectral type (=M8) as the border criterion. We systematically compared the modeling results from Bayesian analysis between these two groups, a...

  5. Near Infrared Spectroscopy of Young Brown Dwarfs in Upper Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, P; Ray, T P; Peterson, D E; Rodgers-Lee, D; Geers, V

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up is a pre-requisite for studies of the formation and early evolution of brown dwarfs. Here we present IRTF/SpeX near-infrared spectroscopy of 30 candidate members of the young Upper Scorpius association, selected from our previous survey work. All 24 high confidence members are confirmed as young very low mass objects with spectral types from M5 to L1, 15-20 of them are likely brown dwarfs. This high yield confirms that brown dwarfs in Upper Scorpius can be identified from photometry and proper motions alone, with negligible contamination from field objects (<4%). Out of the 6 candidates with lower confidence, 5 might still be young very low mass members of Upper Scorpius, according to our spectroscopy. We demonstrate that some very low mass class II objects exhibit radically different near infrared (0.6 - 2.5micron) spectra from class III objects, with strong excess emission increasing towards longer wavelengths and partially filled in features at wavelengths shorter than 1.25micron...

  6. Formation of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, P.

    2012-11-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass function paying particular attention to four models, namely the competitive accretion and the theories based respectively on stopped accretion, MHD shocks and turbulent dispersion. As it is yet unsettled whether the brown dwarfs form as low-mass stars, we present the theory of brown dwarfs based on disk fragmentation stressing all the uncertainties due to the radiative feedback and magnetic field. Finally, we describe the results of large scale simulations performed to explain the collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds.

  7. Luminosity functions for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the luminosity function for low-mass objects to constrain the stellar initial mass function at the low-mass end is reported. The ways in which luminosity functions for low-mass stars are affected by star formation histories, brown dwarf and premain-sequence cooling rates and main-sequence mass luminosity relations, and the IMF are examined. Cooling rates and the mass-luminosity relation are determined through a new series of evolutionary calculations for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the range 0.05-0.50 solar mass. Model luminosity functions are constructed for specific comparison with the results of four recent observational surveys. The likelihood that the stellar mass function in the solar neighborhood is increasing at masses near the bottom of the main sequence and perhaps at lower masses is confirmed. In the most optimistic case, brown dwarfs contribute half of the local missing disk mass. The actual contribution is likely to be considerably less.

  8. The disk around the brown dwarf KPNO Tau 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda; Di Francesco, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Duchêne, Gaspard [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex, B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Scholz, Aleks [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Chrysostomou, Antonio [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North Aóhoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Jayawardhana, Ray [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2014-07-10

    We present submillimeter observations of the young brown dwarfs KPNO Tau 1, KPNO Tau 3, and KPNO Tau 6 at 450 μm and 850 μm taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. KPNO Tau 3 and KPNO Tau 6 have been previously identified as Class II objects hosting accretion disks, whereas KPNO Tau 1 has been identified as a Class III object and shows no evidence of circumsubstellar material. Our 3σ detection of cold dust around KPNO Tau 3 implies a total disk mass of (4.0 ± 1.1) × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} (assuming a gas to dust ratio of 100:1). We place tight constraints on any disks around KPNO Tau 1 or KPNO Tau 6 of <2.1 × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉} and <2.7 × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉}, respectively. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of KPNO Tau 3 and its disk suggests the disk properties (geometry, dust mass, and grain size distribution) are consistent with observations of other brown dwarf disks and low-mass T-Tauri stars. In particular, the disk-to-host mass ratio for KPNO Tau 3 is congruent with the scenario that at least some brown dwarfs form via the same mechanism as low-mass stars.

  9. Epsilon Indi Ba/Bb: the nearest binary brown dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    McCaughrean, M J; Scholz, R D; Lenzen, R; Biller, B; Brandner, W; Hartung, M; Lodieu, N

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out high angular resolution near-infrared imaging and low-resolution (R~1000) spectroscopy of the nearest known brown dwarf, Eps Indi B, using the ESO VLT NAOS/CONICA adaptive optics system. We find it to be a close binary with an angular separation of 0.732 arcsec, corresponding to 2.65AU at the 3.626pc distance of the Eps Indi system, as also noted by Volk et al. (2003). In our discovery paper (Scholz et al. 2003), we concluded that Eps Indi B was a ~50Mjup T2.5 dwarf: our revised finding is that the two system components (Eps Indi Ba and Eps Indi Bb) have spectral types of T1 and T6, respectively, and estimated masses of 44 and 28Mjup, respectively, assuming an age of 1.3Gyr. Errors in the masses are +/-10 and +/-7Mjup, respectively, dominated by the uncertainty in the age determination (0.8-2Gyr range). This uniquely well-characterised T dwarf binary system should prove important in the study of low-mass, cool brown dwarfs. The two components are bright and relatively well-resolved: it is ...

  10. A Brown Dwarf Census from the SIMP Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Jasmin; Artigau, Étienne; Lafrenière, David; Nadeau, Daniel; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Simard, Corinne; Gagliuffi, Daniella C Bardalez; Burgasser, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared (NIR) proper motion survey, the Sondage Infrarouge de Mouvement Propre (SIMP), in order to discover field ultracool dwarfs (UCD) in the solar neighborhood. The survey was conducted by imaging $\\sim28\\%$ of the sky with the Camera PAnoramique Proche-InfraRouge (CPAPIR) both in the southern hemisphere at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 1.5-m telescope, and in the northern hemisphere at the Observatoire du Mont-M\\'egantic (OMM) 1.6-m telescope and comparing the source positions from these observations with the Two Micron All-Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS PSC). Additional color criteria were used to further discriminate unwanted astrophysical sources. We present the results of a NIR spectroscopic follow-up of 169 M, L and T dwarfs. Among the sources discovered are two young field brown dwarfs, six unusually red M and L dwarfs, twenty-five unusually blue M and L dwarfs, two candidate unresolved L+T binaries and twenty-four peculiar UCDs. Additionally, w...

  11. Polarimetric Detection of Exoplanets Transiting T- and L- Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Sujan

    2016-01-01

    While scattering of light by atoms and molecules yields large amount of polarization at the B-band of both T- and L-dwarfs, scattering by dust grains in cloudy atmosphere of L-dwarfs gives rise to significant polarization at the far-optical and infra-red wavelengths where these objects are much brighter. However, the observable disk averaged polarization should be zero if the clouds are uniformly distributed and the object is spherically symmetric. Therefore, in order to explain the observed large polarization of several L-dwarfs, rotation-induced oblateness or horizontally inhomogeneous cloud distribution in the atmosphere is invoked. On the other hand, when an extra-solar planet of Earth-size or larger transits the brown dwarf along the line of sight, the asymmetry induced during the transit gives rise to a net non-zero, time dependent polarization. Employing atmospheric models for a range of effective temperature and surface gravity appropriate for T- and L-dwarfs, I derive the time dependent polarization ...

  12. A Brown Dwarf Joins the Jet-Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Jets of matter have been discovered around a very low mass 'failed star', mimicking a process seen in young stars. This suggests that these 'brown dwarfs' form in a similar manner to normal stars but also that outflows are driven out by objects as massive as hundreds of millions of solar masses down to Jupiter-sized objects. The brown dwarf with the name 2MASS1207-3932 is full of surprises [1]. Its companion, a 5 Jupiter-mass giant, was the first confirmed exoplanet for which astronomers could obtain an image (see ESO 23/04 and 12/05), thereby opening a new field of research - the direct detection of alien worlds. It was then later found (see ESO 19/06) that the brown dwarf has a disc surrounding it, not unlike very young stars. ESO PR Photo 24/07 ESO PR Photo 24/07 Jets from a Brown Dwarf (Artist's Impression) Now, astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have found that the young brown dwarf is also spewing jets, a behaviour again quite similar to young stars. The mass of the brown dwarf is only 24 Jupiter-masses. Hence, it is by far the smallest object known to drive an outflow. "This leads us to the tantalizing prospect that young giant planets could also be associated with outflows," says Emma Whelan, the lead-author of the paper reporting the results. The outflows were discovered using an amazing technique known as spectro-astrometry, based on high resolution spectra taken with UVES on the VLT. Such a technique was required due to the difficulty of the task. While in normal young stars - known as T-Tauri stars for the prototype of their class - the jets are large and bright enough to be seen directly, this is not the case around brown dwarfs: the length scale of the jets, recovered with spectro-astrometry is only about 0.1 arcsecond long, that is, the size of a two Euro coin seen from 40 km away. The jets stretch about 1 billion kilometres and the material is rushing away from the brown dwarf with a speed of a few kilometres per second. The

  13. Beyond the T Dwarfs: Theoretical Spectra, Colors, and Detectability of the Coolest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, A; Lunine, J; Burrows, Adam; Sudarsky, David; Lunine, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    We explore the spectral and atmospheric properties of brown dwarfs cooler than the latest known T dwarfs. Our focus is on the yet-to-be-discovered free-floating brown dwarfs in the \\teff range from $\\sim$800 K to $\\sim$130 K and with masses from 25 to 1 \\mj. This study is in anticipation of the new characterization capabilities enabled by the launch of SIRTF and the eventual launch of JWST. We provide spectra from $\\sim$0.4 \\mic to 30 \\mic, highlight the evolution and mass dependence of the dominant H$_2$O, CH$_4$, and NH$_3$ molecular bands, consider the formation and effects of water-ice clouds, and compare our theoretical flux densities with the sensitivities of the instruments on board SIRTF and JWST. The latter can be used to determine the detection ranges from space of cool brown dwarfs. In the process, we determine the reversal point of the blueward trend in the near-infrared colors with decreasing \\teff, the \\teffs at which water and ammonia clouds appear, the strengths of gas-phase ammonia and methan...

  14. Statistical Properties of Brown Dwarf Companions: Implications for Different Formation Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The mass domain where massive extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs overlap is still poorly understood due to the paucity of brown dwarfs orbiting close to solar-type stars, the so-called brown dwarf desert. In this paper we collect all of available data about close brown dwarfs around solar type stars and their host stars from literature and study the demographics of the brown dwarf desert. The data clearly show a short period and a medium mass gap in the brown dwarf period-mass distribution diagram ($ 35brown dwarf desert. Observation biases are highly unlikely to cause this gap due to its short period and medium mass, of which brown dwarfs can be easily detected by previous RV surveys. Brown dwarfs above and below this gap have significantly different eccentricity distribution, which not only confirms that this gap is real, but also implies that they may have different origins. Our further statistical study indicates t...

  15. Binarity in Brown Dwarfs T Dwarf Binaries Discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope WPFC2

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Reid, I N; Brown, M E; Miskey, C L; Gizis, J E; Burgasser, Adam J.; Brown, Michael E.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Gizis, John E.

    2003-01-01

    (abridged) We present the discovery of two T dwarf binaries, 2MASS 1225-2739AB and 2MASS 1534-2952AB, identified in a sample of ten T dwarfs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The separations of the two binary systems are 0{\\farcs}282$\\pm$0{\\farcs}005 and 0{\\farcs}065$\\pm$0{\\farcs}007, implying projected separations of 3.17$\\pm$0.14 and 1.0$\\pm$0.3 AU, respectively. The observed binary fraction of our HST sample, 20$^{+17}_{-7}$%, is consistent with results obtained for late-M and L field dwarfs, and implies a bias-corrected binary fraction of 9$^{+15}_{-4}$% for $a \\gtrsim 1$ AU and $q \\gtrsim 0.4$, significantly lower than the binary fractions of F--G and early-type M dwarf stars. Neither of the T binaries have separations $a \\gtrsim 10$ AU, consistent with results from other brown dwarf binary searches. We conclude that tidal disruption by passing stars or Giant Molecular Clouds, which limits the extent of wide stellar binaries, plays no role in eliminating wide brown dwa...

  16. The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2016-01-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855-0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf (~250 K) and the fourth closest known system to the Sun (2.2 pc). It has been previously detected only in the J band and two mid-IR bands. To better measure its spectral energy distribution (SED), we have performed deep imaging of WISE 0855-0714 in six optical and near-IR bands with Gemini Observatory, the Very Large Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Five of the bands show detections, although one detection is marginal (S/N~3). We also have obtained two epochs of images with the Spitzer Space Telescope for use in refining the parallax of the brown dwarf. By combining astrometry from this work and previous studies, we have derived a parallax of 0.449+/-0.008" (2.23+/-0.04 pc). We have compared our photometry for WISE 0855-0714 to data for known Y dwarfs and to the predictions of three suites of models by Saumon et al. (2012) and Morley et al. (2012, 2014) that are defined by the presence or absence of clouds and non-e...

  17. Fingering convection and cloudless models for cool brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblin, P; Mourier, P; Baraffe, I; Chabrier, G; Drummond, B; Homeier, D; Venot, O

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to improve the current understanding of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, especially cold ones with spectral type T and Y, whose modeling is a current challenge. Silicate and iron clouds are believed to disappear at the photosphere at the L/T transition, but cloudless models fail to reproduce correctly the spectra of T dwarfs, advocating for the addition of more physics, e.g. other types of clouds or internal energy transport mechanisms. We use a one-dimensional (1D) radiative/convective equilibrium code ATMO to investigate this issue. This code includes both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium chemistry and solves consistently the PT structure. Included opacity sources are H2-H2, H2-He, H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, NH3, K, Na, and TiO, VO if they are present in the atmosphere. We show that the spectra of Y dwarfs can be accurately reproduced with a cloudless model if vertical mixing and NH3 quenching are taken into account. T dwarf spectra still have some reddening in e.g. J - H compared to cloudless mode...

  18. CONFIRMATION OF ONE OF THE COLDEST KNOWN BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using two epochs of 4.5 μm images from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we recently identified a common proper motion companion to the white dwarf WD 0806-661 that is a candidate for the coldest known brown dwarf. To verify its cool nature, we have obtained images of this object at 3.6 μm with IRAC, at J with the High Acuity Wide-field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) on the Very Large Telescope, and in a filter covering the red half of J with FourStar on Magellan. WD 0806-661 B is detected by IRAC but not HAWK-I or FourStar. From these data we measure colors of [3.6] – [4.5] = 2.77 ± 0.16 and J – [4.5] > 7.0 (S/N eff = 300-345 K.

  19. Population Properties of Brown Dwarf Analogs to Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Cruz, Kelle L; Gagne, Jonathan; Filippazzo, Joseph C; Lambrides, Erini; Fica, Haley; Weinberger, Alycia; Thorstensen, John R; Tinney, C G; Baldassare, Vivienne; Lemonier, Emily; Rice, Emily L

    2016-01-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of 152 low surface gravity M7-L8 dwarfs by adding 8 parallaxes, 38 radial velocities, and 19 proper motions. We find 39 objects to be high-likelihood or bona fide members of nearby moving groups, 92 objects to be ambiguous members and 21 objects that are non-members. We find that gravity classification and photometric color separate 5-150 Myr sources from > 3 Gyr field objects, but they do not correlate one-to-one with the narrower 5 -150 Myr age range. The absolute magnitudes of low-gravity sources from J band through W3 show a flux redistribution when compared to equivalent field sources that is correlated with spectral subtype. Clouds, which are a far more dominant opacity source for L dwarfs, are the likely cause. On CMDs, the latest-type low-gravity L dwarfs drive the elbow of the L/T transition up to 1 mag redder and 1 mag fainter than field dwarfs at M_J but are consistent with or brighter than the elbow at M_W1 and M_W2. Furthermore, there is an indication on CMD's (suc...

  20. Akari Observations of Brown Dwarfs. II CO2 as Probe of Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuji, Takashi; Sorahana, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations with the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI have shown that the CO2 bands at 4.2 micron in three brown dwarfs are much stronger than expected from the unified cloudy model (UCM) based on recent solar C & O abundances. This result has been a puzzle, but we now find that this is simply an abundance effect: We show that these strong CO2 bands can be explained with the UCMs based on the classical C & O abundances (log Ac and log Ao), which are about 0.2 dex larger compared to the recent values. Since three other brown dwarfs could be well interpreted with the recent solar C & O abundances, we require at least two model sequences based on the different chemical compositions to interpret all the AKARI spectra. The reason for this is that the CO2 band is especially sensitive to C & O abundances, since the CO2 abundance depends approximately on AcAo^2 --- the cube of C & O abundances. For this reason, even low resolution spectra of very cool dwarfs, especially of CO2 cannot ...

  1. The First Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Lupu, Roxana

    2016-08-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents the first opportunity to directly study an object outside the solar system that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However, the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs—near-infrared spectroscopy—is not currently feasible, as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5–5.2 μm spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter’s deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter’s. The spectrum quality is high enough to allow for the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter’s atmosphere, but now on an extrasolar world.

  2. Kinematic sub-populations in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ural, Ugur; Koch, Andreas; Gilmore, Gerard; Beers, Timothy C; Belokurov, Vasily; Evans, N Wyn; Grebel, Eva K; Vidrih, Simon; Zucker, Daniel B

    2008-01-01

    We present new spectroscopic data for twenty six stars in the recently-discovered Canes Venatici I (CVnI) dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We use these data to investigate the recent claim of the presence of two dynamically inconsistent stellar populations in this system (Ibata et al., 2006). We do not find evidence for kinematically distinct populations in our sample and we are able to obtain a mass estimate for CVnI that is consistent with all available data, including previously published data. We discuss possible differences between our sample and the earlier data set and study the general detectability of sub-populations in small kinematic samples. We conclude that in the absence of supporting observational evidence (for example, metallicity gradients), sub-populations in small kinematic samples (typically fewer than 100 stars) should be treated with extreme caution, as their detection depends on multiple parameters and rarely produces a signal at the 3sigma confidence level. It is therefore essential to determi...

  3. The First Brown Dwarf/Planetary-Mass Object in the 32 Orionis Group

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J; Mamajek, Eric E; Gagne, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Tallis, Melisa; Choban, Caleb; Escala, Ivanna; Aganze, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 32 Orionis group is a co-moving group of roughly 20 young (24 Myr) M3-B5 stars 100 pc from the Sun. Here we report the discovery of its first substellar member, WISE J052857.69+090104.2. This source was previously reported to be an M giant star based on its unusual near-infrared spectrum and lack of measurable proper motion. We re-analyze previous data and new moderate-resolution spectroscopy from Magellan/FIRE to demonstrate that this source is a young near-infrared L1 brown dwarf with very low surface gravity features. Spectral model fits indicate T$_{eff}$ = 1880$^{+150}_{-70}$ K and $\\log{g}$ = 3.8$^{+0.2}_{-0.2}$ (cgs), consistent with a 15-22 Myr object with a mass near the deuterium-burning limit. Its sky position, estimated distance, kinematics (both proper motion and radial velocity), and spectral characteristics are all consistent with membership in 32 Orionis, and its temperature and age imply a mass (M = 14$^{+4}_{-3}$ M$_{Jup}$) that straddles the brown dwarf/planetary-mass object boundary. T...

  4. Microlensing Discovery of a Population of Very Tight, Very Low-mass Binary Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, J -Y; Udalski, A; Sumi, T; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Bennett, D P; Dominik, M; Beaulieu, J -P; Tsapras, Y; Bozza, V; Abe, F; Bond, I A; Botzler, C S; Chote, P; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Furusawa, K; Itow, Y; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Miyake, N; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, K; Sweatman, W L; Suzuki, D; Takino, S; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Szymański, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Almeida, L A; DePoy, D L; Dong, Subo; Gorbikov, E; Jablonski, F; Henderson, C B; Hwang, K -H; Janczak, J; Jung, Y -K; Kaspi, S; Lee, C -U; Malamud, U; Maoz, D; McGregor, D; Munoz, J A; Park, B -G; Park, H; Pogge, R W; Shvartzvald, Y; Shin, I -G; Yee, J C; Alsubai, K A; Browne, P; Burgdorf, M J; Novati, S Calchi; Dodds, P; Fang, X -S; Finet, F; Glitrup, M; Grundahl, F; Gu, S -H; Hardis, S; Harpsøe, K; Hinse, T C; Hornstrup, A; Hundertmark, M; Jessen-Hansen, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Liebig, C; Lund, M N; Lundkvist, M; Maier, G; Mancini, L; Mathiasen, M; Penny, M T; Rahvar, S; Ricci, D; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Wambsganss, J; Wertz, O; Zimmer, F; Albrow, M D; Bachelet, E; Batista, V; Brillant, S; Cassan, A; Cole, A A; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Fouqué, P; Greenhill, J; Kubas, D; Marquette, J -B; Menzies, J W; Sahu, K C; Zub, M; Bramich, D M; Horne, K; Steele, I A; Street, R A

    2013-01-01

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the brown-dwarf mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low-mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 Msun and 0.034 Msun, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field brown-dwarf binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that brown dwarf binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of ~0.02 Msun. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of brown-dwarf binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.

  5. An irradiated brown-dwarf companion to an accreting white dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Santisteban, Juan V.; Knigge, Christian; Littlefair, Stuart P.; Breton, Rene P.; Dhillon, Vikram S.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Marsh, Thomas R.; Pretorius, Magaretha L.; Southworth, John; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2016-05-01

    Interacting compact binary systems provide a natural laboratory in which to study irradiated substellar objects. As the mass-losing secondary (donor) in these systems makes a transition from the stellar to the substellar regime, it is also irradiated by the primary (compact accretor). The internal and external energy fluxes are both expected to be comparable in these objects, providing access to an unexplored irradiation regime. The atmospheric properties of donors are largely unknown, but could be modified by the irradiation. To constrain models of donor atmospheres, it is necessary to obtain accurate observational estimates of their physical properties (masses, radii, temperatures and albedos). Here we report the spectroscopic detection and characterization of an irradiated substellar donor in an accreting white-dwarf binary system. Our near-infrared observations allow us to determine a model-independent mass estimate for the donor of 0.055 ± 0.008 solar masses and an average spectral type of L1 ± 1, supporting both theoretical predictions and model-dependent observational constraints that suggest that the donor is a brown dwarf. Our time-resolved data also allow us to estimate the average irradiation-induced temperature difference between the dayside and nightside of the substellar donor (57 kelvin) and the maximum difference between the hottest and coolest parts of its surface (200 kelvin). The observations are well described by a simple geometric reprocessing model with a bolometric (Bond) albedo of less than 0.54 at the 2σ confidence level, consistent with high reprocessing efficiency, but poor lateral heat redistribution in the atmosphere of the brown-dwarf donor. These results add to our knowledge of binary evolution, in that the donor has survived the transition from the stellar to the substellar regime, and of substellar atmospheres, in that we have been able to test a regime in which the irradiation and the internal energy of a brown dwarf are

  6. 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7: A YOUNG, DUSTY, NEARBY, ISOLATED BROWN DWARF RESEMBLING A GIANT EXOPLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Chile Cerro Calan, Las Condes (Chile); Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Nunez, Alejandro [Department of Astrophysics , American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E., E-mail: jfaherty17@gmail.com, E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2013-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry for the low surface gravity L5{gamma} dwarf 2MASS J035523.37+113343.7 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth as 2M0355 is the reddest isolated L dwarf yet classified. We confirm its low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the {approx}10 Myr planetary-mass object 2M1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and Mauna Kea Observatory J, H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3 to 12 {mu}m, indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color-magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2M1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW space velocities and find that the motion of 2M0355 is consistent with young disk objects (<2-3 Gyr) and it shows a high likelihood of membership in the AB Doradus association.

  7. Analytic Models of Brown Dwarfs and The Substellar Mass Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Auddy, Sayantan; Valluri, S R

    2016-01-01

    We present the current status of the analytic theory of brown dwarf evolution and the lower mass limit of the hydrogen burning main sequence stars. In the spirit of a simplified analytic theory we also introduce some modifications to the existing models. We give an exact expression for the pressure of an ideal non-relativistic Fermi gas at a finite temperature, therefore allowing for non-zero values of the degeneracy parameter ($\\psi = \\frac{kT}{\\mu_{F}}$, where $\\mu_{F}$ is the Fermi energy). We review the derivation of surface luminosity using an entropy matching condition and the first-order phase transition between the molecular hydrogen in the outer envelope and the partially-ionized hydrogen in the inner region. We also discuss the results of modern simulations of the plasma phase transition, which illustrate the uncertainties in determining its critical temperature. Based on the existing models and with some simple modification we find the maximum mass for a brown dwarf to be in the range $0.064M_\\odot...

  8. Indications of Water Clouds in the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Skemer, Andrew; Monson, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    We present a deep near-infrared image of the newly discovered brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (W0855) using the FourStar imager at Las Campanas Observatory. Our detection of J3=24.8+0.33 -0.53 (J_MKO=25.0+0.33-0.53) at 2.6sigma -- or equivalently an upper limit of J3 > 23.8 (J_MKO > 24.0) at 5sigma makes W0855 the reddest brown dwarf ever categorized (J_MKO - W2 = 10.984+0.33 - 0.53 at 2.6sigma -- or equivalently an upper limit of J_MKO - W2 > 9.984 at 5sigma) and refines its position on color magnitude diagrams. Comparing the new photometry with chemical equilibrium model atmosphere predictions, we demonstrate that W0855 is 4.5sigma from models using a cloudless atmosphere and well reproduced by partly cloudy models (50%) containing sulfide and water ice clouds. Non-equilibrium chemistry or non-solar metallicity may change predictions, however using currently available model approaches, this is the first candidate outside our own solar system to have direct evidence for water clouds.

  9. The disk around the brown dwarf KPNO Tau 3

    CERN Document Server

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Duchene, Gaspard; Di Francesco, James; Scholz, Aleks; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-01-01

    We present submillimeter observations of the young brown dwarfs KPNO Tau 1, KPNO Tau 3, and KPNO Tau 6 at 450 micron and 850 micron taken with the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array on the James Clerke Maxwell Telescope. KPNO Tau 3 and KPNO Tau 6 have been previously identified as Class II objects hosting accretion disks, whereas KPNO Tau 1 has been identified as a Class III object and shows no evidence of circumsubstellar material. Our 3 sigma detection of cold dust around KPNO Tau 3 implies a total disk mass of (4.0 +/- 1.1) x 10^{-4} Msolar (assuming a gas to dust ratio of 100:1). We place tight constraints on any disks around KPNO Tau 1 or KPNO Tau 6 of <2.1 x 10^{-4} Msolar and <2.7 x 10^{-4} Msolar, respectively. Modeling the spectral energy distribution of KPNO Tau 3 and its disk suggests the disk properties (geometry, dust mass, and grain size distribution) are consistent with observations of other brown dwarf disks and low-mass T-Tauri stars. In particular, the disk-to-host mass ratio fo...

  10. MOA-2007-BLG-197: Exploring the brown dwarf desert

    CERN Document Server

    Ranc, C; Albrow, M D; Kubas, D; Bond, I A; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Bennett, D P; Dominik, M; Dong, Subo; Fouqué, P; Gould, A; Greenhill, J; Jørgensen, U G; Kains, N; Menzies, J; Sumi, T; Bachelet, E; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Gaudi, B S; Han, C; Hundertmark, M; Horne, K; Kane, S R; Lee, C -U; Marquette, J -B; Park, B -G; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Street, R; Tsapras, Y; Wambsganss, J; Williams, A; Zub, M; Abe, F; Fukui, A; Itow, Y; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sullivan, D J; Sweatman, W L; Tristram, P J; Yock, P C M; Yonehara, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of MOA-2007-BLG-197Lb, the first brown dwarf companion to a Sun-like star detected through gravitational microlensing. The event was alerted and followed-up photometrically by a network of telescopes from the PLANET, MOA, and uFUN collaborations, and observed at high angular resolution using the NaCo instrument at the VLT. From the modelling of the microlensing light curve, we derived the binary lens separation in Einstein radius units (s~1.13) and a mass ratio of (4.732+/-0.020)x10^{-2}. Annual parallax, lens orbital motion and finite source effects were included in the models. To recover the lens system's physical parameters, we combined the resulting light curve best-fit parameters with (J,H,Ks) magnitudes obtained with VLT NaCo and calibrated using IRSF and 2MASS data. We derived a lens total mass of 0.86+/-0.04 Msun and a lens distance of 4.2+/-0.3 kpc. We find that the companion of MOA-2007-BLG-197L is a brown dwarf of 41+/-2 Mjup observed at a projected separation of 4.3+/-0.1 A...

  11. Search for exoplanets and brown dwarfs with VLBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyński, K.; Gawroński, M.; Goździewski, K.

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to estimate possible radio GHz emission of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs and to check if such radiation can be detected by Very Large Baseline Interferometers (VLBI). In the estimation we assume that the emission may originate in processes similar to those observed in the Jupiter system. The frequency of the radio emission that is produced in this system depends mostly on the magnetic field strength. Jupiter's magnetic field (˜9 G on average) allows for radiation from kHz frequencies up to 40 MHz. This is is well below the frequency range of VLBI. However, it was demonstrated that the magnetic field strength in massive and young object may be up to two orders of magnitude higher than for Jupiter, which is especially relevant for planets around short-lived A type stars. This should extend the range of the emission up to GHz frequencies. We calculated expected flux densities of radio emission for a variety of hypothetical young planetary systems. We analysed two different emission scenarios, and found that the radiation induced by moons (process similar to Jupiter-Io interactions) appears to be less efficient than the emission generated by a stellar wind on a planetary magnetosphere. We also estimated hypothetical emission of planets and brown dwarfs located around relatively young and massive main sequence A-type stars. Our results show that the emission produced by stellar winds could be detected by currently operating VLBI networks.

  12. Search for exoplanets and brown dwarfs with VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyński, K.; Gawroński, M.; Goździewski, K.

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to estimate possible radio GHz emission of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs and to check if such radiation can be detected by Very Large Baseline Interferometers (VLBI). In the estimation we assume that the emission may originate in processes similar to those observed in the Jupiter system. The frequency of the radio emission that is produced in this system depends mostly on the magnetic field strength. Jupiter's magnetic field (˜9 G on average) allows for radiation from kHz frequencies up to 40 MHz. This is well below the frequency range of VLBI. However, it was demonstrated that the magnetic field strength in massive and young object may be up to two orders of magnitude higher than for Jupiter, which is especially relevant for planets around short-lived A type stars. This should extend the range of the emission up to GHz frequencies. We calculated expected flux densities of radio emission for a variety of hypothetical young planetary systems. We analysed two different emission scenarios, and found that the radiation induced by moons (process similar to Jupiter-Io interactions) appears to be less efficient than the emission generated by a stellar wind on a planetary magnetosphere. We also estimated hypothetical emission of planets and brown dwarfs located around relatively young and massive main-sequence A-type stars. Our results show that the emission produced by stellar winds could be detected by currently operating VLBI networks.

  13. The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.

    2016-09-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855-0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf (˜250 K) and the fourth-closest known system to the Sun (2.2 pc). It has been previously detected only in the J band and two mid-IR bands. To better measure its spectral energy distribution (SED), we have performed deep imaging of WISE 0855-0714 in six optical and near-IR bands with Gemini Observatory, the Very Large Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Five of the bands show detections, although one detection is marginal (S/N ˜ 3). We also have obtained two epochs of images with the Spitzer Space Telescope for use in refining the parallax of the brown dwarf. By combining astrometry from this work and previous studies, we have derived a parallax of 0.449 ± 0.008″ (2.23 ± 0.04 pc). We have compared our photometry for WISE 0855-0714 to data for known Y dwarfs and to the predictions of three suites of models by Saumon et al. and Morley et al. that are defined by the presence or absence of clouds and nonequilibrium chemistry. Our estimates of Y - J and J - H for WISE 0855-0714 are redder than colors of other Y dwarfs, confirming a predicted reversal of near-IR colors to redder values at temperatures below 300-400 K. In color-magnitude diagrams, no single suite of models provides a clearly superior match to the sequence formed by WISE 0855-0714 and other Y dwarfs. Instead, the best-fitting model changes from one diagram to the next. Similarly, all of the models have substantial differences from the SED of WISE 0855-0714. As a result, we are currently unable to constrain the presence of clouds or nonequilibrium chemistry in its atmosphere. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini Observatory, and the ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory.

  14. The First Hundred Brown Dwarfs Discovered by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; McLean, Ian S.; Bauer, James M.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lake, Sean E.; Petty, Sara M.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Beichman, Charles; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Stern, Daniel; Vacca, William D.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based spectroscopic verification of six Y dwarfs also Cushing et al.), eighty-nine T dwarfs, eight L dwarfs, and one M dwarf identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Eighty of these are cold brown dwarfs with spectral types > or =T6, six of which have been announced earlier in Mainzer et al. and I3urgasser et al. We present color-color and colortype diagrams showing the locus of M, L, T, and Y dwarfs in WISE color space. "

  15. Bok Prize Lecture (shared) The Brown Dwarf Radial Velocity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Dave

    2004-03-01

    The swarm of nearby brown dwarfs and very low mass stars is an attractive sample for radial velocity monitoring. Such work is best conducted with an echelle spectrograph operating at infrared wavelengths where these objects(i) are most luminous, (ii) have a forest of molecular features, providing an excellent velocity metric, and {iii) are superimposed on the telluric spectrum, which yields the requisite wavelength calibration. I will present first results from such a survey, with a precision sufficient to detect Jupiter-mass planets with orbital periods of less than a year. Should such systems be uncovered, the planets would be amenable to direct study, due to system proximity, and the favorable contrast ratio between the planet and parent object.

  16. Finding Brown Dwarf Companions with HST/NICMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Lowrance, P J; Schneider, G

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of a HST/NICMOS coronagraphic survey for the direct detection of substellar companions within the young TW Hydrae and Tucana Associations. At the distance of these associations, the lower mass limit of detection, based on models, is well into the high mass planet region for separations > 30 AU. Results presented here include spectra and proper motion verification of two brown dwarf companions, TWA 5B and HR 7329B, located 100 AU and 180 AU from their primaries, respectively. We also present a possible exo-solar giant planet candidate located 125 AU from TWA 6. These few examples demonstrate that the young associations remain fertile ground for discovery and environmental study of planetary systems.

  17. The formation of brown dwarfs in discs: Physics, numerics, and observations

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars may form by gravitational fragmentation of relatively massive (a few 0.1 Msun), extended (a few hundred AU) discs around Sun-like stars. We present an ensemble of radiative hydrodynamic simulations that examine the conditions for disc fragmentation. We demonstrate that this model can explain the low-mass IMF, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary properties of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Observing discs that are undergoing fragmentation is possible but very improbable, as the process of disc fragmentation is short lived (discs fragment within a few thousand years).

  18. 2MASSJ035523.51+113337.4: A Young, Dusty, Nearby, Isolated Brown Dwarf Resembling A Giant Exoplanet

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Cruz, Kelle L; Mamajek, Eric E; Núñez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    We present parallax and proper motion measurements, near-infrared spectra, and WISE photometry for the low surface gravity L5gamma dwarf 2MASSJ035523.51+113337.4 (2M0355). We use these data to evaluate photometric, spectral, and kinematic signatures of youth. We confirm low-gravity spectral morphology and find a strong resemblance to the sharp triangular shaped H-band spectrum of the ~10 Myr planetary-mass object 2MASSJ1207b. We find that 2M0355 is underluminous compared to a normal field L5 dwarf in the optical and MKO J,H, and K bands and transitions to being overluminous from 3-12 microns indicating that enhanced photospheric dust shifts flux to longer wavelengths for young, low-gravity objects, creating a red spectral energy distribution. Investigating the near-infrared color magnitude diagram for brown dwarfs confirms that 2M0355 is redder and underluminous compared to the known brown dwarf population, similar to the peculiarities of directly imaged exoplanets 2MASSJ1207b and HR8799bcd. We calculate UVW ...

  19. The BASS survey for brown dwarfs in young moving groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jonathan; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Artigau, Etienne; Cruz, Kelle L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Filippazzo, Joe; Naud, Marie-Eve; Albert, Loic; Bouchard, Sandie; Gizis, John; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel; Bowsher, Emily C.; Nicholls, Christine

    2016-01-01

    I will present in this dissertation talk the construction and follow-up of the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) that we led to identify dozens of new isolated young brown dwarfs in the Solar neighborhood, several of which have physical properties such as mass, age and temperature that make them similar to exoplanets that were recently discovered using the method of direct imaging.Such isolated analogs of the giant, gaseous exoplanets are precious benchmarks that will allow a deep characterization of their atmospheres using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, which is made possible due to the absence of a nearby and bright host star.I will end by describing BASS-Ultracool, an extension of BASS that focuses on the identification of extremely cool isolated exoplanet analogs that display methane in their atmospheres. This survey has already uncovered the first bonafide T dwarf member of a moving group, the ~150 Myr AB Doradus T5, SDSS1110+0116.

  20. Pleiades low-mass brown dwarfs: the cluster L dwarf sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Bihain, G; Béjar, V J S; Caballero, J A; Bailer-Jones, C A L; Mundt, R; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Torres, A M

    2006-01-01

    We present a search for low-mass brown dwarfs in the Pleiades open cluster. The identification of Pleiades members fainter and cooler than those currently known allows us to constrain evolutionary models for L dwarfs and to extend the study of the cluster mass function to lower masses. We conducted a 1.8 deg^2 near-infrared J-band survey at the 3.5m Calar Alto Telescope, with completeness J~19.0. The detected sources were correlated with those of previously available optical I-band images (completeness I~22). Using a J versus I-J colour-magnitude diagram, we identified 18 faint red L-type candidates, with magnitudes 17.43.2. If Pleiades members, their masses would span ~0.040-0.020 M_Sol. We performed follow-up HKs-band imaging to further confirm their cluster membership by photometry and proper motion. Out of 11 IJ candidates with proper motion measurements, we find six cluster members, two non-members and three whose membership is uncertain and depends on the intrinsic velocity dispersion of Pleiades brown ...

  1. THE SEARCH FOR PLANETARY MASS COMPANIONS TO FIELD BROWN DWARFS WITH HST/NICMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a high-resolution spectral differential imaging survey of 12 nearby, relatively young field L dwarfs (≤1 Gyr) carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS to search for planetary mass companions at small physical separations from their host. The survey resolved two brown dwarf binaries: the L dwarf system Kelu-1 AB and the newly discovered L/T transition system 2MASS 031059+164815 AB. For both systems, common proper motion has already been confirmed in follow-up observations which have been published elsewhere. The derived separations of the binaries are smaller than 6 AU and consistent with previous brown dwarf binary statistics. Their mass ratios of q ≥ 0.8 confirm the preference for equal-mass systems similar to a large number of other surveys. Furthermore, we found tentative evidence for a companion to the L4 dwarf 2MASSW 033703-175807, straddling the brown dwarf/planetary mass boundary and revealing an uncommonly low-mass ratio system (q ∼ 0.2) compared to the vast majority of previously found brown dwarf binaries. With a derived minimum mass of 10-15 MJup a planetary nature of the secondary cannot be ruled out yet. However, it seems more likely to be a very low mass brown dwarf secondary at the border of the spectral T/Y transition regime, primarily due to its similarities to recently found very cool T dwarfs. This would make it one of the closest resolved brown dwarf binaries (0.''087 ± 0.''015, corresponding to 2.52 ± 0.44 AU at a distance of 29 pc) with the coolest (Teff ∼ 600-630 K) and least massive companion to any L or T dwarf.

  2. Spitzer Trigonometric Parallaxes of the Solar Neighborhood's Coldest Brown Dwarfs, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher; Beichman, Charles; Martin, Emily; Smart, Richard; Faherty, Jacqueline; Tinney, Christopher; Cushing, Michael; Schneider, Adam; Wright, Edward; Lowrance, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Objects in the immediate solar neighborhood serve as touchstones of stellar populations throughout the rest of the Milky Way and the Universe in general. A detailed accounting and characterization of these objects is therefore of fundamental importance to many fields of astrophysics. One of the most fundamental properties is distance, which directly determines absolute luminosity and space density and aids in the decipherment of radius, kinematics, age, the mass function, etc. The Gaia mission is soon poised to revolutionize our understanding of the solar neighborhood through micro-arcsecond astrometric monitoring. Its sensitivity, however, is limited to objects that emit strongly at wavelengths shorter than 1 micron; Gaia will be unable to detect any objects as cool as late-T and Y dwarfs (250-1100K). Nevertheless, these very cold objects are critically important not only to our understanding of the star formation process at the lowest masses, but also in our comprehension of the physical mechanisms present in cold, exoplanet-like atmospheres. In this proposal, we extend our distance determinations to objects colder than those Gaia can probe by continuing to measure parallaxes, as begun in our Cycle 9-10 program 90007, for all T6 and later brown dwarfs within 20 pc of the Sun.

  3. First limits on the occurrence rate of short-period planets orbiting brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    He, Matthias Y; Gillon, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Planet formation theories predict a large but still undetected population of short-period terrestrial planets orbiting brown dwarfs. Should specimens of this population be discovered transiting relatively bright and nearby brown dwarfs, the Jupiter-size and the low luminosity of their hosts would make them exquisite targets for detailed atmospheric characterisation with JWST and future ground-based facilities. The eventual discovery and detailed study of a significant sample of transiting terrestrial planets orbiting nearby brown dwarfs could prove to be useful not only for comparative exoplanetology but also for astrobiology, by bringing us key information on the physical requirements and timescale for the emergence of life. In this context, we present a search for transit-signals in archival time-series photometry acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope for a sample of 44 nearby brown dwarfs. While these 44 targets were not particularly selected for their brightness, the high precision of their Spitzer ligh...

  4. HST Spectral Mapping of L/T Transition Brown Dwarfs Reveals Cloud Thickness Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Apai, Daniel; Buenzli, Esther; Burrows, Adam; Reid, Iain N; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Most directly imaged giant exoplanets are fainter than brown dwarfs with similar spectra. To explain their relative underluminosity unusually cloudy atmospheres have been proposed. However, with multiple parameters varying between any two objects, it remained difficult to observationally test this idea. We present a new method, sensitive time-resolved Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy, to study two rotating L/T transition brown dwarfs (2M2139 and SIMP0136). The observations provide spatially and spectrally resolved mapping of the cloud decks of the brown dwarfs. The data allow the study of cloud structure variations while other parameters are unchanged. We find that both brown dwarfs display variations of identical nature: J- and H-band brightness variations with minimal color and spectral changes. Our light curve models show that even the simplest surface brightness distributions require at least three elliptical spots. We show that for each source the spectral changes can be reproduced with ...

  5. Kinematics of the Galactic disk from LAMOST Dwarf sample

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Yingjie; Gu, Jiayin; Jia, Yunpeng; Peng, Xiyan; Chen, Yuqin; Wu, Zhenyu; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Xu; Cao, Zihuang; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the LAMOST survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we use low-resolution spectra of 130,043 F/G-type dwarf stars to study the kinematics and metallicity properties of the Galactic disk. Our study shows that the stars with poorer metallicity and larger vertical distance from Galactic plane tend to have larger eccentricity and velocity dispersion. After separating the sample stars into likely thin-disk and thick-disk sub-sample, we find that there exits a negative gradient of rotation velocity $V_{\\phi}$ with metallicity [Fe/H] for the likely thin-disk sub-sample, and the thick-disk sub-sample exhibit a larger positive gradient of rotation velocity with metallicity. By comparing with model prediction, we consider the radial migration of stars appears to have influenced on the thin-disk formation. In addition, our results shows that the observed thick-disk stellar orbital eccentricity distribution peaks at low eccentricity ($e \\sim 0.2$) and extends to a high eccentricity ($e \\sim 0.8$). We compare ...

  6. A kinematic study of the Andromeda dwarf spheroidal system

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Michelle L M; Rich, R Michael; Ibata, Rodrigo A; Martin, Nicolas F; Irwin, Michael J; Bate, Nicholas F; Lewis, Geraint F; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Arimoto, Nobuo; Casey, Caitlin M; Ferguson, Annette M N; Koch, Andreas; McConnachie, Alan W; Tanvir, Nial

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous kinematic analysis of red giant branch stars within 18 of the 28 Andromeda dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, obtained using the Keck I LRIS and Keck II DEIMOS spectrographs. Based on their g-i colors (taken with the CFHT MegaCam imager), physical positions on the sky, and radial velocities, we assign probabilities of dSph membership to each observed star. Using this information, the velocity dispersions, central masses and central densities of the dark matter halos are calculated for these objects, and compared with the properties of the Milky Way dSph population. We also measure the average metallicity ([Fe/H]) from the co-added spectra of member stars for each M31 dSph and find that they are consistent with the trend of decreasing [Fe/H] with luminosity observed in the Milky Way population. We find that three of our studied M31 dSphs appear as significant outliers in terms of their central velocity dispersion, And XIX, XXI and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii (>700 pc) ...

  7. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA: evidence for truncated dust disks in Ophiuchus

    CERN Document Server

    Testi, L; Scholz, A; Tazzari, M; Ricci, L; Monsalvo, I de Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    The study of the properties of disks around young brown dwarfs can provide important clues on the formation of these very low mass objects and on the possibility of forming planetary systems around them. The presence of warm dusty disks around brown dwarfs is well known, based on near- and mid-infrared studies. High angular resolution observations of the cold outer disk are limited, we used ALMA to attempt a first survey of young brown dwarfs in the rho-Ophiuchi star forming region with ALMA. All 17 young brown dwarfs in our sample were observed at 890 um in the continuum at ~0.5" angular resolution. The sensitivity of our observations was chosen to detect ~0.5 MEarth of dust. We detect continuum emission in 11 disks (65% of the total), the estimated mass of dust in the detected disks ranges from ~0.5 to ~6 MEarth. These disk masses imply that planet formation around brown dwarfs may be relatively rare and that the supra-Jupiter mass companions found around some brown dwarfs are probably the result of a binar...

  8. An irradiated brown-dwarf companion to an accreting white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Santisteban, Juan V Hernández; Littlefair, Stuart P; Breton, Rene P; Dhillon, Vikram S; Gänsicke, Boris T; Marsh, Thomas R; Pretorius, Magaretha L; Southworth, John; Hauschildt, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and giant planets orbiting close to a host star are subjected to significant irradiation that can modify the properties of their atmospheres. In order to test the atmospheric models that are used to describe these systems, it is necessary to obtain accurate observational estimates of their physical properties (masses, radii, temperatures, albedos). Interacting compact binary systems provide a natural laboratory for studying strongly irradiated sub-stellar objects. As the mass-losing secondary in these systems makes a critical, but poorly understood transition from the stellar to the sub-stellar regime, it is also strongly irradiated by the compact accretor. In fact, the internal and external energy fluxes are both expected to be comparable in these objects, providing access to an unexplored irradiation regime. However, the atmospheric properties of such donors have so far remained largely unknown. Here, we report the direct spectroscopic detection and characterisation of an irradiated sub-stellar...

  9. Dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way: linking ages, kinematics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Vanessa

    2015-08-01

    I will review recent observations of stellar populations in dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way, with special emphasis on the picture emerging for the evolution of these systems when combining kinematics, metallicities, detailed abundances and ages for large samples of stars. Very recently, the conditions in these systems at the earliest epochs have been the subject of dedicated investigations, in the form of observing extremely-metal poor stars in dwarf galaxies, and I will review with special care this area, including the apparent carbon paucity in some dwarf galaxies (eg. Sculptor). Finally, I will highlight the expected return from the Gaia space astrometric mission for our understanding of nearby dwarf galaxies.

  10. Search for exoplanets and brown dwarfs with VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Katarzynski, K; Gozdziewski, K

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to estimate possible radio GHz emission of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs and to check if such radiation can be detected by Very Large Baseline Interferometers (VLBI). In the estimation we assume that the emission may originate in processes similar to those observed in the Jupiter system. The frequency of the radio emission that is produced in this system depends mostly on the magnetic field strength. Jupiter's magnetic field ($\\sim 9$ G on average) allows for radiation from kHz frequencies up to 40 MHz. This is well below the frequency range of VLBI. However, it was demonstrated that the magnetic field strength in massive and young object may be up to two orders of magnitude higher than for Jupiter, which is especially relevant for planets around short-lived A type stars. This should extend the range of the emission up to GHz frequencies. We calculated expected flux densities of radio emission for a variety of hypothetical young planetary systems. We analysed two different e...

  11. A New Parallax Measurement for the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2014-01-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 was recently discovered as the coldest known brown dwarf based on four epochs of images from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have improved the accuracy of its parallax measurement by obtaining two additional epochs of Spitzer astrometry. We derive a parallactic distance of 2.31+/-0.08 pc, which continues to support its rank as the fourth closest known system to the Sun when compared to WISE J104915.57-531906.1 AB (2.02+/-0.02 pc) and Wolf 359 (2.386+/-0.012 pc). The new constraint on the absolute magnitude at 4.5um indicates an effective temperature of 235-260 K based on four sets of theoretical models. We also show the updated positions of WISE J085510.83-071442.5 in two color-magnitude diagrams. Whereas Faherty and coworkers cited its location in MW2 versus J-W2 as evidence of water clouds, we find that those data can be explained instead by cloudless models that employ non-equilibrium chemistry.

  12. Mapping the shores of the brown dwarf desert. IV. Ophiuchus

    CERN Document Server

    Cheetham, Anthony C; Ireland, Michael J; Cieza, Lucas; Rizzuto, Aaron C; Tuthill, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a multiplicity survey of members of the rho Ophiuchus cloud complex with high resolution imaging to characterize the multiple star population of this nearby star forming region and investigate the relation between stellar multiplicity and star and planet formation. Our aperture masking survey reveals the presence of 5 new stellar companions beyond the reach of previous studies, but does not result in the detection of any new substellar companions. We find that 43+/-6% of the 114 stars in our survey have stellar mass companions between 1.3-780AU, while 7 (+8 -5)% host brown dwarf companions in the same interval. By combining this information with knowledge of disk-hosting stars, we show that the presence of a close binary companion (separation < 40 AU) significantly influences the lifetime of protoplanetary disks, a phenomenon previously seen in older star forming regions. At the ~1-2Myr age of our Ophiuchus members ~2/3 of close binary systems have lost their disks, compared to only ~30% of sing...

  13. Discovery of a Wide Binary Brown Dwarf Born in Isolation

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L; Allen, P R; Muench, A A; Finkbeiner, D P

    2009-01-01

    During a survey for stars with disks in the Taurus star-forming region using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have discovered a pair of young brown dwarfs, FU Tau A and B, in the Barnard 215 dark cloud. They have a projected angular separation of 5.7", corresponding to 800 AU at the distance of Taurus. To assess the nature of these two objects, we have obtained spectra of them and have constructed their spectral energy distributions. Both sources are young (~1 Myr) according to their Halpha emission, gravity-sensitive spectral features, and mid-IR excess emission. The proper motion of FU Tau A provides additional evidence of its membership in Taurus. We measure spectral types of M7.25 and M9.25 for FU Tau A and B, respectively, which correspond to masses of ~0.05 and ~0.015 Msun according to the evolutionary models of Chabrier and Baraffe. FU Tau A is significantly overluminous relative to an isochrone passing through FU Tau B and relative to other members of Taurus near its spectral type, which may indicate t...

  14. The Limiting Effects of Dust in Brown Dwarf Model Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, F; Alexander, D R; Tamanai, A; Schweitzer, A; Allard, France; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Alexander, David R.; Tamanai, Akemi; Schweitzer, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    We present opacity sampling model atmospheres, synthetic spectra and colors for brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in two limiting case of dust grain formation: 1) inefficient gravitational settling i.e. the dust is distributed according to the chemical equilibrium predictions, 2) efficient gravitational settling i.e. the dust forms and depletes refractory elements from the gas, but their opacity does not affect the thermal structure. The models include the formation of over 600 gas phase species, and 1000 liquids and crystals, and the opacities of 30 different types of grains including corundum (Al$_2$O$_3$), the magnesium aluminum spinel MgAl$_2$O$_4$, iron, enstatite (MgSiO$_3$), forsterite (Mg$_2$SiO$_4$), amorphous carbon, SiC, and a number of calcium silicates. The models extend from the beginning of the grain formation regime well into the condensation regime of water ice ($\\teff= 3000 - 100$ K) and encompasses the range of $\\log g= 2.5 - 6.0$ at solar metallicity. We find that silicate dust grains c...

  15. New light on dark stars red dwarfs, low-mass stars, brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I Neill

    2000-01-01

    Perhaps the most common question that a child asks when he or she sees the night sky from a dark site for the first time is: 'How many stars are there?' This happens to be a question which has exercised the intellectual skills of many astronomers over the course of most of the last century, including, for the last two decades, one of the authors of this text. Until recently, the most accurate answer was 'We are not certain, but there is a good chance that almost all of them are M dwarfs. ' Within the last three years, results from new sky-surveys - particularly the first deep surveys at near­ infrared wavelengths - have provided a breakthrough in this subject, solidifying our census of the lowest-mass stars and identifying large numbers of the hitherto almost mythical substellar-mass brown dwarfs. These extremely low-luminosity objects are the central subjects of this book, and the subtitle should be interpreted accordingly. The expression 'low-mass stars' carries a wide range of meanings in the astronomical...

  16. A KINEMATIC STUDY OF THE ANDROMEDA DWARF SPHEROIDAL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Rise, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Penarrubia, Jorge [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Arimoto, Nobuo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Casey, Caitlin M. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Koch, Andreas [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, British Columbia, Victoria V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tanvir, Nial [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    We present a homogeneous kinematic analysis of red giant branch stars within 18 of the 28 Andromeda dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, obtained using the Keck I/LRIS and Keck II/DEIMOS spectrographs. Based on their g - i colors (taken with the CFHT/MegaCam imager), physical positions on the sky, and radial velocities, we assign probabilities of dSph membership to each observed star. Using this information, the velocity dispersions, central masses, and central densities of the dark matter halos are calculated for these objects, and compared with the properties of the Milky Way dSph population. We also measure the average metallicity ([Fe/H]) from the co-added spectra of member stars for each M31 dSph and find that they are consistent with the trend of decreasing [Fe/H] with luminosity observed in the Milky Way population. We find that three of our studied M31 dSphs appear as significant outliers in terms of their central velocity dispersion, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii ({approx}> 700 pc) and low velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub v} < 5 km s{sup -1}). In addition, And XXV has a mass-to-light ratio within its half-light radius of just [M/L]{sub half}=10.3{sup +7.0}{sub -6.7}, making it consistent with a simple stellar system with no appreciable dark matter component within its 1{sigma} uncertainties. We suggest that the structure of the dark matter halos of these outliers have been significantly altered by tides.

  17. Deriving the true mass of an unresolved Brown Dwarf companion to an M-Dwarf with AO aided astrometry*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürster M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available From radial velocity (RV detections alone one does not get all orbital parameters needed to derive the true mass of a non-transiting, unresolved substellar companion to a star. Additional astrometric measurements are needed to calculate the inclination and the longitude of the ascending node. Until today only few true substellar companion masses have been determined by this method with the HST fine guidance sensor [1, 2]. We aim to derive the true mass of a brown dwarf candidate companion to an early M 2.5V dwarf with groundbased high-resolution astrometry aided by adaptive optics. We found this unique brown dwarf desert object, whose distance to the host star is only 0.42 AU, in our UVES precision RV survey of M dwarfs, inferring a minimum companion mass of 27 Jupiter masses [3]. Combining the data with HIPPARCOS astrometry, we found a probability of only 2.9% that the companion is stellar. We therefore observed the host star together with a reference star within a monitoring program with VLT/NACO to derive the true mass of the companion and establish its nature (brown dwarf vs. star. Simultaneous observations of a reference field in a globular cluster are performed to determine the stability of the adaptive optics (AO plus detector system and check its suitability for such high-precision astrometric measurements over several epochs which are needed to find and analyse extrasolar planet systems.

  18. The role of convection, overshoot, and gravity waves for the transport of dust in M dwarf and brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Freytag, Bernd; Ludwig, Hans-Guenter; Homeier, Derek; Steffen, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Observationally, spectra of brown dwarfs indicate the presence of dust in their atmospheres while theoretically it is not clear what prevents the dust from settling and disappearing from the regions of spectrum formation. Consequently, standard models have to rely on ad hoc assumptions about the mechanism that keeps dust grains aloft in the atmosphere. We apply hydrodynamical simulations to develop an improved physical understanding of the mixing properties of macroscopic flows in M dwarf and brown dwarf atmospheres, in particular of the influence of the underlying convection zone. We performed 2D radiation hydrodynamics simulations including a description of dust grain formation and transport with the CO5BOLD code. The simulations cover the very top of the convection zone and the photosphere including the dust layers for effective temperatures between 900K and 2800K, all with logg=5 assuming solar chemical composition. Convective overshoot occurs in the form of exponentially declining velocities with small s...

  19. A Keck LGS AO Search for Brown Dwarf and Planetary Mass Companions to Upper Scorpius Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Biller, Beth; Liu, Michael; Close, Laird; Dupuy, Trent

    2011-01-01

    We searched for binary companions to 20 young brown dwarfs in the Upper Scorpius association (145 pc, 5 Myr, nearest OB association) with the the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics system and the facility infrared camera NIRC2 on the 10 m Keck II telescope. We discovered a 0.14" companion (20.9+-0.4 AU) to the <0.1 MJup object SCH J16091837-20073523. From spectral deconvolution of integrated-light near-IR spectroscopy of SCH1609 using the SpeX spectrograph (Rayner et al. 2003), we estimate primary and secondary spectral types of M6+-0.5 and M7+-1.0, corresponding to masses of 79+-17 MJup and 55+-25 MJup at an age of 5 Myr and masses of 84+-15 MJup and 60+-25 MJup at an age of 10 Myr. For our survey objects with spectral types later than M8, we find an upper limit on the binary fraction of <9% (1-sigma) at separations of 10 -- 500 AU. We combine the results of our survey with previous surveys of Upper Sco and similar young regions to set the strongest constraints to date on binary fraction for young subste...

  20. Multiwaveband photometry of the irradiated brown dwarf WD0137-349B

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Maxted, P F L; Marley, M S; Fortney, J J; Rimmer, P B; Littlefair, S P; Wynn, G; Burleigh, M R; Helling, Ch

    2014-01-01

    WD0137-349 is a white dwarf-brown dwarf binary system in a 116 minute orbit. We present radial velocity observations and multiwaveband photometry from V, R and I in the optical, to J, H and Ks in the near-IR and [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] microns in the mid-IR. The photometry and lightcurves show variability in all wavebands, with the amplitude peaking at [4.5] microns, where the system is also brightest. Fluxes and brightness temperatures were computed for the heated and unheated atmosphere of the brown dwarf (WD0137-349B) using synthetic spectra of the white dwarf using model atmosphere simulations. We show that the flux from the brown dwarf dayside is brighter than expected in the Ks and [4.5] micron bands when compared to models of irradiated brown dwarfs with full energy circulation and suggest this over-luminosity may be attributed to H2 fluorescence or H3+ being generated in the atmosphere by the UV irradiation.

  1. Flash ionization signature in coherent cyclotron emission from brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorgul, I.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-05-01

    Brown dwarfs (BDs) form mineral clouds in their atmospheres, where charged particles can produce large-scale discharges in the form of lightning resulting in substantial sudden increase of local ionization. BDs are observed to emit cyclotron radio emission. We show that signatures of strong transient atmospheric ionization events (flash ionization) can be imprinted on a pre-existing radiation. Detection of such flash ionization events will open investigations into the ionization state and atmospheric dynamics. Such events can also result from explosion shock waves, material outbursts or (volcanic) eruptions. We present an analytical model that describes the modulation of a pre-existing electromagnetic radiation by a time-dependent (flash) conductivity that is characteristic for flash ionization events like lightning. Our conductivity model reproduces the conductivity function derived from observations of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, and is applicable to astrophysical objects with strong temporal variations in the local ionization, as in planetary atmospheres and protoplanetary discs. We show that the field responds with a characteristic flash-shaped pulse to a conductivity flash of intermediate intensity. More powerful ionization events result in smaller variations of the initial radiation, or in its damping. We show that the characteristic damping of the response field for high-power initial radiation carries information about the ionization flash magnitude and duration. The duration of the pulse amplification or the damping is consistently shorter for larger conductivity variations and can be used to evaluate the intensity of the flash ionization. Our work suggests that cyclotron emission could be probe signals for electrification processes inside BD atmosphere.

  2. SMA and CARMA observations of young brown dwarfs in ρ Ophiuchi and Taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C.-F.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular outflows provide vital information about the earliest stages in the birth of stars, studying the molecular outflow properties is therefore crucial for understanding how stars form. Brown dwarfs with masses between that of stars and planets are not massive enough to maintain stable hydrogen-burning fusion reactions during most of their lifetime. Their origins are subject to much debate in recent literature because their masses are far below the typical mass where core collapse is expected to occur. Based on Submillimeter Array (SMA and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA observations, we present the first detections of bipolar molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs in ρ Ophiuchi and Taurus. Our results demonstrate that the bipolar molecular outflow operates down to brown dwarf masses, occurring in brown dwarfs as a scaled-down version of the universal process seen in young low-mass stars. This demonstrates that brown dwarfs and low-mass stars likely share the same formation mechanism.

  3. On the mass segregation of stars and brown dwarfs in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J; Goodwin, Simon P; Moraux, Estelle; Allison, Richard J; Guieu, Sylvain; Guedel, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    We use the new minimum spanning tree (MST) method to look for mass segregation in the Taurus association. The method computes the ratio of MST lengths of any chosen subset of objects, including the most massive stars and brown dwarfs, to the MST lengths of random sets of stars and brown dwarfs in the cluster. This mass segregation ratio (Lambda_MSR) enables a quantitative measure of the spatial distribution of high-mass and low-mass stars, and brown dwarfs to be made in Taurus. We find that the most massive stars in Taurus are inversely mass segregated, with Lambda_MSR = 0.70 +/- 0.10 (Lambda_MSR = 1 corresponds to no mass segregation), which differs from the strong mass segregation signatures found in more dense and massive clusters such as Orion. The brown dwarfs in Taurus are not mass segregated, although we find evidence that some low-mass stars are, with an Lambda_MSR = 1.25 +/- 0.15. Finally, we compare our results to previous measures of the spatial distribution of stars and brown dwarfs in Taurus, and...

  4. Hunting for brown dwarf binaries and testing atmospheric models with X-Shooter

    CERN Document Server

    Manjavacas, E; Alcalá, J M; Zapatero-Osorio, M R; Béjar, V J S; Homeier, D; Bonnefoy, M; Smart, R L; Henning, T; Allard, F

    2015-01-01

    The determination of the brown dwarf binary fraction may contribute to the understanding of the substellar formation mechanisms. Unresolved brown dwarf binaries may be revealed through their peculiar spectra or the discrepancy between optical and near-infrared spectral type classification. We obtained medium-resolution spectra of 22 brown dwarfs with these characteristics using the X-Shooter spectrograph at the VLT. We aimed to identify brown dwarf binary candidates, and to test if the BT-Settl 2014 atmospheric models reproduce their observed spectra. To find binaries spanning the L-T boundary, we used spectral indices and compared the spectra of the selected candidates to single spectra and synthetic binary spectra. We used synthetic binary spectra with components of same spectral type to determine as well the sensitivity of the method to this class of binaries. We identified three candidates to be combination of L plus T brown dwarfs. We are not able to identify binaries with components of similar spectral ...

  5. A statistical analysis of seeds and other high-contrast exoplanet surveys: massive planets or low-mass brown dwarfs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Spiegel, David S. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, C. A. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Turner, Edwin L. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Mede, Kyle; Kuzuhara, Masayuki [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Schlieder, Joshua E.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Wisniewski, John P. [HL Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Hippolyte Fizeau, Nice (France); Biller, B. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Carson, J. [College of Charleston, Charleston, SC (United States); Currie, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Egner, S.; Golota, T.; Guyon, O. [Subaru Telescope, Hilo, Hawai' i (United States); Goto, M. [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Munich (Germany); Hashimoto, J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2014-10-20

    We conduct a statistical analysis of a combined sample of direct imaging data, totalling nearly 250 stars. The stars cover a wide range of ages and spectral types, and include five detections (κ And b, two ∼60 M {sub J} brown dwarf companions in the Pleiades, PZ Tel B, and CD–35 2722B). For some analyses we add a currently unpublished set of SEEDS observations, including the detections GJ 504b and GJ 758B. We conduct a uniform, Bayesian analysis of all stellar ages using both membership in a kinematic moving group and activity/rotation age indicators. We then present a new statistical method for computing the likelihood of a substellar distribution function. By performing most of the integrals analytically, we achieve an enormous speedup over brute-force Monte Carlo. We use this method to place upper limits on the maximum semimajor axis of the distribution function derived from radial-velocity planets, finding model-dependent values of ∼30-100 AU. Finally, we model the entire substellar sample, from massive brown dwarfs to a theoretically motivated cutoff at ∼5 M {sub J}, with a single power-law distribution. We find that p(M, a)∝M {sup –0.65} {sup ±} {sup 0.60} a {sup –0.85} {sup ±} {sup 0.39} (1σ errors) provides an adequate fit to our data, with 1.0%-3.1% (68% confidence) of stars hosting 5-70 M {sub J} companions between 10 and 100 AU. This suggests that many of the directly imaged exoplanets known, including most (if not all) of the low-mass companions in our sample, formed by fragmentation in a cloud or disk, and represent the low-mass tail of the brown dwarfs.

  6. Chemical Tracers of Pre-Brown Dwarf Cores Formed Through Turbulent Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Holdship, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A gas-grain time dependent chemical code, UCL\\_CHEM, has been used to investigate the possibility of using chemical tracers to differentiate between the possible formation mechanisms of brown dwarfs. In this work, we model the formation of a pre-brown dwarf core through turbulent fragmentation by following the depth-dependent chemistry in a molecular cloud through the step change in density associated with an isothermal shock and the subsequent freefall collapse once a bound core is produced. Trends in the fractional abundance of molecules commonly observed in star forming cores are then explored to find a diagnostic for identifying brown dwarf mass cores formed through turbulence. We find that the cores produced by our models would be bright in CO and NH$_3$ but not in HCO$^+$. This differentiates them from models using purely freefall collapse as such models produce cores that would have detectable transitions from all three molecules.

  7. WASP-30b: a 61 Mjup brown dwarf transiting a V=12, F8 star

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, D R; Hellier, C; Lendl, M; Maxted, P F L; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Todd, I; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Barros, S C C; Enoch, B; Gillon, M; Lister, T A; Pepe, F; Ségransan, D; Street, R A; Udry, S

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 61-Jupiter-mass brown dwarf, which transits its F8V, rotationally-synchronised host star, WASP-30, every 4.16 days. From a range of age indicators, we estimate the system age to be 1-2 Gyr. We derive a radius (0.89 \\pm 0.02 RJup) for the companion that is consistent with that predicted (0.914 RJup) by a model of a 1-Gyr-old, non-irradiated brown dwarf with a dusty atmosphere.

  8. Combing the Brown Dwarf Desert with the APOGEE Catalog of Stellar and Substellar Companion Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Nicholas William; De Lee, Nathan M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Nidever, David L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Stassun, Keivan; Covey, Kevin R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Hearty, Fred R.; APOGEE Substellar Companions Working Group

    2016-01-01

    While both exoplanets and stellar-mass companions have been found in extremely short-period orbits, there has been a paucity of brown dwarf (BD) companions orbiting Sun-like stars, a phenomenon known as the "Brown Dwarf Desert." However, more recent work has shown that this Desert might be limited in extent, only existing for small separation (a test this hypothesis by constraining the formation mechanisms of BD companions, and exploring their orbital evolution as their host evolves off the main sequence.

  9. Kinematics of dwarf galaxies in gas-rich groups, and the survival and detectability of tidal dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sweet, Sarah M; Meurer, Gerhardt; Kilborn, Virginia; Audcent-Ross, Fiona; Baumgardt, Holger; Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We present DEIMOS multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) of 22 star-forming dwarf galaxies located in four gas-rich groups, including six newly-discovered dwarfs. Two of the galaxies are strong tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates based on our luminosity-metallicity relation definition. We model the rotation curves of these galaxies. Our sample shows low mass-to-light ratios (M/L=0.73$\\pm0.39M_\\odot/L_\\odot$) as expected for young, star-forming dwarfs. One of the galaxies in our sample has an apparently strongly-falling rotation curve, reaching zero rotational velocity outside the turnover radius of $r_{turn}=1.2r_e$. This may be 1) a polar ring galaxy, with a tilted bar within a face-on disk; 2) a kinematic warp. These scenarios are indistinguishable with our current data due to limitations of slit alignment inherent to MOS-mode observations. We consider whether TDGs can be detected based on their tidal radius, beyond which tidal stripping removes kinematic tracers such as H$\\alpha$ emission. When the tidal radius i...

  10. Characterizing Young Brown Dwarfs using Low Resolution Near-IR Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Allers, K N; Luhman, K L; Liu, M C; Wilson, J C; Skrutskie, M F; Nelson, M; Peterson, D E; Smith, J D; Cushing, M C; Liu, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    We present near-infrared (1.0-2.4 micron) spectra confirming the youth and cool effective temperatures of 6 brown dwarfs and low mass stars with circumstellar disks toward the Chamaeleon II and Ophiuchus star forming regions. The spectrum of one of our objects indicates that it has a spectral type of ~L1, making it one of the latest spectral type young brown dwarfs identified to date. Comparing spectra of young brown dwarfs, field dwarfs, and giant stars, we define a 1.49-1.56 micron H2O index capable of determining spectral type to within 1 sub-type, independent of gravity. We have also defined an index based on the 1.14 micron sodium feature that is sensitive to gravity, but only weakly dependent on spectral type for field dwarfs. Our 1.14 micron Na index can be used to distinguish young cluster members (t <~ 5 Myr) from young field dwarfs, both of which may have the triangular H-band continuum shape which persists for at least tens of Myr. Using effective temperatures determined from the spectral types ...

  11. Kinematics of M dwarfs in the CARMENES input catalogue: membership in young moving groups

    CERN Document Server

    Montes, D; Gallardo, I; Cortes-Contreras, M; Alonso-Floriano, F J

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the kinematics of M dwarfs in the CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) input catalog. We have selected all M dwarfs with known parallactic distance or a good photometric distance estimation, precise proper motion in the literature or as determined by us, and radial velocity measurements. Using these parameters, we computed the M dwarfs galactic space motions (U, V, W). For the stars with U and V velocity components inside or near the boundaries that determine the young disk population, we have analyzed the possible membership in the classical moving groups and nearby loose associations with ages between 10 and 600 Ma. For the candidate members, we have compiled information available in the literature in order to constrain their membership by applying other age-dating methods.

  12. First detection of thermal radio jets in a sample of proto-brown dwarf candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Morata, O; González, R F; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Ribas, A; Perger, M; Bouy, H; Barrado, D; Eiroa, C; Bayo, A; Huélamo, N; Morales-Calderón, M; Rodríguez, L F

    2015-01-01

    We observed with the JVLA at 3.6 and 1.3 cm a sample of 11 proto-brown dwarf candidates in Taurus in a search for thermal radio jets driven by the most embedded brown dwarfs. We detected for the first time four thermal radio jets in proto-brown dwarf candidates. We compiled data from UKIDSS, 2MASS, Spitzer, WISE and Herschel to build the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of the objects in our sample, which are similar to typical Class~I SEDs of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). The four proto-brown dwarf candidates driving thermal radio jets also roughly follow the well-known trend of centimeter luminosity against bolometric luminosity determined for YSOs, assuming they belong to Taurus, although they present some excess of radio emission compared to the known relation for YSOs. Nonetheless, we are able to reproduce the flux densities of the radio jets modeling the centimeter emission of the thermal radio jets using the same type of models applied to YSOs, but with corresponding smaller stellar wind velocities a...

  13. The Rotation of Young Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Herbst, W; Mundt, R; Scholz, A

    2006-01-01

    We review the current state of our knowledge concerning the rotation and angular momentum evolution of young stellar objects and brown dwarfs from a primarily observational view point. Periods are typically accurate to 1% and available for about 1700 stars and 30 brown dwarfs in young clusters. Discussion of angular momentum evolution also requires knowledge of stellar radii, which are poorly known for pre-main sequence stars. It is clear that rotation rates at a given age depend strongly on mass; higher mass stars (0.4-1.2 M$_\\odot$) have longer periods than lower mass stars and brown dwarfs. On the other hand, specific angular momentum is approximately independent of mass for low mass pre-main sequence stars and young brown dwarfs. A spread of about a factor of 30 is seen at any given mass and age. The evolution of rotation of solar-like stars during the first 100 Myr is discussed. A broad, bimodal distribution exists at the earliest observable phases ($\\sim$1 Myr) for stars more massive than 0.4 M$_\\odot$....

  14. Discovery of Radio Emission from the Brown Dwarf LP944-20

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Becker, K M; Clarke, M; Frail, D A; Fukuda, T A; Hoffman, I M; Kulkarni, S R; Mellon, R R; Momjian, E; Murphy, N W; Teng, S H; Woodruff, T; Zauderer, B A; Zavala, R T

    2001-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are classified as objects which are not massive enough to sustain nuclear fusion of hydrogen, and are distinguished from planets by their ability to burn deuterium. Old (>10 Myr) brown dwarfs are expected to possess short-lived magnetic fields and, since they no longer generate energy from collapse and accretion, weak radio and X-ray emitting coronae. Several efforts have been undertaken in the past to detect chromospheric activity from the brown dwarf LP944-20 at X-ray and optical wavelengths, but only recently an X-ray flare from this object was detected. Here we report on the discovery of quiescent and flaring radio emission from this source, which represents the first detection of persistent radio emission from a brown dwarf, with luminosities that are several orders of magnitude larger than predicted from an empirical relation between the X-ray and radio luminosities of many stellar types. We show in the context of synchrotron emission, that LP944-20 possesses an unusually weak magnetic fiel...

  15. Microlensing discovery of a population of very tight, very low mass binary brown dwarfs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C.; Udalski, A.;

    2013-01-01

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs (BDs) are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the BD mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the disc...

  16. Discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the A3V star β Circini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Lucas, P. W.; Contreras Peña, C.; Kurtev, R.; Marocco, F.; Jones, H. R. A.; Beamin, J. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Borissova, J.; Burningham, B.; Faherty, J.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gromadzki, M.; Ivanov, V. D.; Minniti, D.; Stimson, W.; Villanueva, V.

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery of an L dwarf companion to the A3V star β Circini. VVV J151721.49-585131.5, or β Cir B, was identified in a proper motion and parallax catalogue of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea survey as having near-infrared luminosity and colour indicative of an early L dwarf, and a proper motion and parallax consistent with that of β Cir. The projected separation of ˜3.6 arcmin corresponds to 6656 au, which is unusually wide. The most recent published estimate of the age of the primary combined with our own estimate based on newer isochrones yields an age of 370-500 Myr. The system therefore serves as a useful benchmark at an age greater than that of the Pleiades brown dwarfs and most other young L dwarf benchmarks. We have obtained a medium resolution echelle spectrum of the companion which indicates a spectral type of L1.0 ± 0.5 and lacks the typical signatures of low-surface gravity seen in younger brown dwarfs. This suggests that signs of low-surface gravity disappear from the spectra of early L dwarfs by an age of ˜370-500 Myr, as expected from theoretical isochrones. The mass of β Cir B is estimated from the BHAC15 isochrones as 0.056 ± 0.007 M⊙.

  17. Mid-infrared followup of cold brown dwarfs: diversity in age, mass and metallicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leggett, Sandy K [GEMINI OBSERVATORY; Burningham, Ben [HERTFORDSHITE UNIV; Marley, Mark S [NASA AMES; Waren, S J [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Jones, H R A [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Pinfield, D J [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Smart, R L [ASTRONOMICAL OBS

    2009-01-01

    We present new Spitzer IRAC [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] photometry of nine very late-type T dwarfs. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T{sub eff}) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 {micro}m, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T{sub eff} at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 {micro}m) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T{sub eff} with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 {micro}m) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are twelve dwarfs currently known with H - [4.5] > 3.0, and {approx} 500 < T{sub eff} K {approx}< 800, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1 - 1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3 - 12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e. near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H]= -0.3 to [m/H]= +0.2. The small number of T8 - T9 dwarfs found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions warm-Spitzer and WISE are desirable in order to obtain the vital mid-infrared data for cold brown dwarfs, and to discover more of these rare objects.

  18. Kinematics of two dwarf galaxies in the NGC 6946 group

    CERN Document Server

    Begum, A; Begum, Ayesha; Chengalur, Jayaram N.

    2005-01-01

    We present high velocity resolution (~ 1.6 km/s) Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) HI 21 cm synthesis images of the dwarf galaxies KK98 250 and KK98 251, as well as optical broad band images of KK98 250. We find that, despite being faint (M_B <-14), both galaxies have regular velocity fields. In both cases the velocity fields are consistent with rigid body rotation. We derive rotation curves for the galaxies and fit mass models to them. For both galaxies, we find acceptable fits using isothermal halos while NFW halos provide a poor fit. Finally, we compile from literature a sample of galaxies with HI synthesis observations and I band magnitudes. From this sample we find, in agreement with earlier studies (which used single dish HI data), that dwarf galaxies tend to lie below the I band Tully-Fisher relation defined by brighter galaxies.

  19. CHARACTERIZING THE BROWN DWARF FORMATION CHANNELS FROM THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND BINARY-STAR DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key property of stellar populations. There is growing evidence that the classical star-formation mechanism by the direct cloud fragmentation process has difficulties reproducing the observed abundance and binary properties of brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars. In particular, recent analytical derivations of the stellar IMF exhibit a deficit of brown dwarfs compared to observational data. Here we derive the residual mass function of brown dwarfs as an empirical measure of the brown dwarf deficiency in recent star-formation models with respect to observations and show that it is compatible with the substellar part of the Thies-Kroupa IMF and the mass function obtained by numerical simulations. We conclude that the existing models may be further improved by including a substellar correction term that accounts for additional formation channels like disk or filament fragmentation. The term ''peripheral fragmentation'' is introduced here for such additional formation channels. In addition, we present an updated analytical model of stellar and substellar binarity. The resulting binary fraction and the dynamically evolved companion mass-ratio distribution are in good agreement with observational data on stellar and very-low-mass binaries in the Galactic field, in clusters, and in dynamically unprocessed groups of stars if all stars form as binaries with stellar companions. Cautionary notes are given on the proper analysis of mass functions and the companion mass-ratio distribution and the interpretation of the results. The existence of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs does not imply that these form just like stars in direct fragmentation

  20. CHARACTERIZING THE BROWN DWARF FORMATION CHANNELS FROM THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND BINARY-STAR DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, Ingo; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel; Marks, Michael [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (HISKP), Universität Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-02-10

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key property of stellar populations. There is growing evidence that the classical star-formation mechanism by the direct cloud fragmentation process has difficulties reproducing the observed abundance and binary properties of brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars. In particular, recent analytical derivations of the stellar IMF exhibit a deficit of brown dwarfs compared to observational data. Here we derive the residual mass function of brown dwarfs as an empirical measure of the brown dwarf deficiency in recent star-formation models with respect to observations and show that it is compatible with the substellar part of the Thies-Kroupa IMF and the mass function obtained by numerical simulations. We conclude that the existing models may be further improved by including a substellar correction term that accounts for additional formation channels like disk or filament fragmentation. The term ''peripheral fragmentation'' is introduced here for such additional formation channels. In addition, we present an updated analytical model of stellar and substellar binarity. The resulting binary fraction and the dynamically evolved companion mass-ratio distribution are in good agreement with observational data on stellar and very-low-mass binaries in the Galactic field, in clusters, and in dynamically unprocessed groups of stars if all stars form as binaries with stellar companions. Cautionary notes are given on the proper analysis of mass functions and the companion mass-ratio distribution and the interpretation of the results. The existence of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs does not imply that these form just like stars in direct fragmentation.

  1. A High-Resolution Survey of the Very Youngest Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Katelyn

    2012-10-01

    We propose to image the youngest { 0.5 Myr} brown dwarfs in the nearby Ophiuchus star-forming region {d=125 pc}. These observations will complete our high resolution imaging survey of a well-defined sample of young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars spanning the age range of 0.5-100 Myr {Allers et al. 2009, Allers et al. 2010, Biller et al. 2011}. Our proposed survey will be the culmination of the most extensive high resolution search for companions to young substellar objects conducted to date. We have established a novel, reddening-insensitive approach, which uses imaging in three WFC3 UVIS and IR filters to discern candidate companions from contaminant background stars. Our proposed survey is sensitive enough to discover planetary-mass companions. As only two planetary-mass companions to brown dwarfs are known {Chauvin et al. 2005, Todorov et al. 2010}, such discoveries will provide valuable new benchmark objects for testing atmospheric and evolutionary models of planetary-mass objects. Our survey will put the strongest constraints to date on the primordial binary fraction for brown dwarfs. By comparing results in Ophiuchus with our completed survey of the Upper Sco region {Biller et al. 2011}, we can directly measure how the binary characteristics change with age {i.e. as a cluster dynamically evolves}, providing key inputs for refining models of brown dwarf formation. The proposed observations are only possible with HST WFC3. Because of the high extinction of the Ophiuchus cloud, suitable tip-tilt stars are not available to allow for ground-based LGS AO imaging of our sample.

  2. A submillimetre search for pre- and proto-brown dwarfs in Chamaeleon II

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Barrado, D.; Bouy, H.; Bayo, A.; Palau, A.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Huélamo, N.; Morata, O.; Merín, B.; Eiroa, C.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The Chamaeleon II molecular cloud is an active star-forming region that offers an excellent opportunity to study the formation of brown dwarfs in the southern hemisphere. Aims: Our aims are to identify a population of pre- and proto-brown dwarfs (5σ mass limit threshold of ~0.015 M⊙) and provide information on the formation mechanisms of substellar objects. Methods: We performed high sensitivity observations at 870 μm using the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope towards an active star-forming region in Chamaeleon II. The data are complemented by an extensive multiwavelength catalogue of sources, which covers the optical to the far-infrared, to study the nature of the LABOCA detections. Results: We detect 15 cores at 870 μm, and 11 of them show masses in the substellar regime. The most intense objects in the surveyed field correspond to the submillimetre counterparts of the well-known young stellar objects DK Cha and IRAS 12500-7658. We identify a possible proto-brown dwarf candidate (ChaII-APEX-L) with IRAC emission at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Conclusions: Our analysis indicates that most of the spatially resolved cores are transient, and that the point-like starless cores in the substellar regime (with masses between 0.016 M⊙ and 0.066 M⊙) could be pre-brown dwarfs cores that are gravitationally unstable if they have radii less than 220 AU to 907 AU (1.2'' to 5'' at 178 pc), respectively, for different masses. ALMA observations will be key to revealing the energetic state of these pre-brown dwarfs candidates.

  3. Polarimetric Detection of Exoplanets Transiting T- and L- Brown Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Sujan

    2016-01-01

    While scattering of light by atoms and molecules yields large amount of polarization at the B-band of both T- and L-dwarfs, scattering by dust grains in cloudy atmosphere of L-dwarfs gives rise to significant polarization at the far-optical and infra-red wavelengths where these objects are much brighter. However, the observable disk averaged polarization should be zero if the clouds are uniformly distributed and the object is spherically symmetric. Therefore, in order to explain the observed ...

  4. Go Long! Identifying Distant Brown Dwarfs in HST/WFC3 Parallel Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganze, Christian; Burgasser, Adam J.; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Masters, Daniel C.; Mercado, Gretel; Suarez, Adrian; Tamiya, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of brown dwarfs beyond the local Solar Neighborhood is crucial for understanding their Galactic formation, dynamical and evolutionary history. Wide-field red optical and infrared surveys (e.g., 2MASS, SDSS, WISE) have enabled measures of the local density of brown dwarfs, but probe a relatively shallow (˜100 parsecs) volume; few constraints exist for the scale height or radial distributions of these low mass and low luminosity objects. We have searched ~1400 square arcminutes of WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISPS) data to identify distant brown dwarfs (d > 300 pc) with near-infrared grism spectra from the the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Using spectral indices to identify candidates, measure spectral types and estimate distances, and comparing the WFC3 spectra to spectral templates in the SpeX Prism Library, we report our first results from this work, the discovery of ~50 late-M, L and T dwarfs with distances of 30 - 1000+ pc. We compare the distance and spectral type distribution to population simulations, and discuss current selection biases.The material presented here is based on work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX15AI75G

  5. Discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the A3V star \\beta{} Circini

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, L C; Peña, C Contreras; Kurtev, R; Marocco, F; Jones, H R A; Beamin, J C; Napiwotzki, R; Borissova, J; Burningham, B; Faherty, J; Pinfield, D J; Gromadzki, M; Ivanov, V D; Minniti, D; Stimson, W; Villanueva, V

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an L dwarf companion to the A3V star \\beta{} Circini. VVV J151721.49-585131.5, or \\beta{} Cir B, was identified in a proper motion and parallax catalogue of the Vista Variables in the V\\'{i}a L\\'{a}ctea survey as having near infrared luminosity and colour indicative of an early L dwarf, and a proper motion and parallax consistent with that of \\beta{} Cir. The projected separation of $\\sim$3.6' corresponds to $6656$ au, which is unusually wide. The most recent published estimate of the age of the primary combined with our own estimate based on newer isochrones yields an age of $370-500$ Myr. The system therefore serves as a useful benchmark at an age greater than that of the Pleiades brown dwarfs and most other young L dwarf benchmarks. We have obtained a medium resolution echelle spectrum of the companion which indicates a spectral type of L1.0$\\pm$0.5 and lacks the typical signatures of low surface gravity seen in younger brown dwarfs. This suggests that signs of low surface gravit...

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry in Giant Planets, Brown Dwarfs, and Low-Mass Dwarf Stars II. Sulfur and Phosphorus

    CERN Document Server

    Visscher, C

    2005-01-01

    We use thermochemical equilibrium and kinetic calculations to model sulfur and phosphorus chemistry in the atmospheres of giant planets, brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, and extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). The chemical behavior of individual S- and P-bearing gases and condensates is determined as a function of pressure, temperature, and metallicity. Our results are independent of any particular model atmosphere and the behavior of different gases can be used to constrain atmospheric structure and metallicity. Hydrogen sulfide is the dominant sulfur gas in substellar atmospheres and approximately represents the atmospheric sulfur inventory. Depending on the prevailing S and C chemistry, the abundance of minor sulfur gases may constrain atmospheric temperatures or metallicity. Disequilibrium abundances of PH3 are expected in the observable atmospheres of substellar objects, and PH3 is representative of the total P abundance in giant planets and T dwarfs. A number of other phosphorus gases become relatively abunda...

  7. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  8. The Surface Densities of Disk Brown Dwarfs in JWST Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, R E

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions for the surface density of ultracool dwarfs (with spectral types M8-T8) for a host of deep fields that are likely to be observed with the James Webb Space Telescope. Based on simple thin and thick/thin disk (exponential) models, we show the typical distance modulus is mu~9.8 mag, which at high Galactic latitude is 5log(2 z_scl)-5. Since this is a property of the density distribution of an exponential disk, it is independent of spectral type or stellar sample. Using the published estimates of the ultracool dwarf luminosity function, we show that their number counts typically peak around J~24 mag with a total surface density of Sigma ~ 0.3 arcmin^-2, but with a strong dependence on galactic coordinate and spectral type. Owing to the exponential shape of the disk, the ultracool dwarfs are very rare at faint magnitudes (J>~27 mag), with typical densities of Sigma~0.005 arcmin^-2 (or ~20% of the total contribution within the field). Therefore in the very narrow and deep fields, we predict th...

  9. Testing core creation in hydrodynamical simulations using the HI kinematics of field dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    The majority of recent hydrodynamical simulations indicate the creation of central "cores" in the mass profiles of low-mass halos, a process that is attributed to star formation-related baryonic feedback. Core creation is regarded as one of the most promising solutions to potential issues faced by LambdaCDM cosmology on small scales. For example, the reduced dynamical mass enclosed by cores can explain the low rotational velocities measured for nearby dwarf galaxies, thus possibly lifting the seeming contradiction with the LambdaCDM expectations (the so-called "too big to fail" problem). Here we test core creation as a solution of cosmological issues by using a sample of dwarfs with measurements of their atomic hydrogen (HI) kinematics extending to large radii. Using the NIHAO hydrodynamical simulation as an example, we show that core creation can successfully reproduce the kinematics of dwarfs with small kinematic radii, R <~ 1.5 kpc. However, the agreement with observations becomes poor once galaxies wit...

  10. Mid-infrared followup of cold brown dwarfs: Diversity in age, mass and metallicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We use Spitzer IRAC 3.6–8.0 μm photometry of late-type T dwarfs to investigate various trends which can aid the planning and interpretation of infrared (IR surveys for the coldest T or Y dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (Teff50% of their flux at λ>3 μm, and the ratio of the mid-IR to the near-IR flux becomes very sensitive to Teff. The color H − [4.5] is a good indicator of Teff with a weak dependence on metallicity ([m/H] and gravity (g while H −K and [4.5] − [5.8] are sensitive to [m/H] and g. Thus Teff and g can be constrained and mass and age can then be determined from evolutionary models. There are 12 dwarfs known with H − [4.5] > 3.0 and 500 ≲ Teff K ≲ 800, which we examine in detail. The ages of these dwarfs range from very young (0.1–1.0 Gyr to old (3–12 Gyr. The mass range is possibly as low as 5 MJup to 70 MJup, and [m/H] also spans a large range of ~ −0.3 to ~ +0.3. The T8–T9 dwarfs found so far in the UKIRT IR Deep Sky Survey are unexpectedly young and low-mass. Extensions to the warm Spitzer and WISE space missions are needed to obtain mid-IR data for cold brown dwarfs, and to discover more of these rare objects.

  11. Benchmark Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C: Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations Yield Brightness Temperature and mid-T Spectral Class

    CERN Document Server

    Montet, Benjamin T; Fortney, Jonathan J; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    There are no field brown dwarf analogs with measured masses, radii, and luminosities, precluding our ability to connect the population of transiting brown dwarfs with measurable masses and radii and field brown dwarfs with measurable luminosities and atmospheric properties. LHS 6343 C, a weakly-irradiated brown dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field, provides the first opportunity to probe the atmosphere of a non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass and radius. Here, we analyze four Spitzer observations of secondary eclipses of LHS 6343 C behind LHS 6343 A. Jointly fitting the eclipses with a Gaussian process noise model of the instrumental systematics, we measure eclipse depths of 1.06 \\pm 0.21 ppt at 3.6 microns and 2.09 \\pm 0.08 ppt at 4.5 microns, corresponding to brightness temperatures of 1026 \\pm 57 K and 1249 \\pm 36 K, respectively. We then apply brown dwarf evolutionary models to infer a bolometric luminosity log(L_star / L_sun) = -5.16 \\pm 0.04. Given the known physica...

  12. Expect the unexpected: non-equilibrium processes in brown dwarf atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarf atmosphere are a chemically extremely rich, one example being the formation of clouds driven by the phase-non-equilibrium of the atmospheric gas. Cloud formation modelling is an integral part of any atmosphere simulation used to interpret spectral observations of ultra-cool objects and to determine fundamental parameters like log(g) and Teff. This proceeding to the workshop 'GAIA and the Unseen: The Brown Dwarf Question' first summarizes what a model atmosphere simulation is, and then advocates two ideas: A) The use of a multitude of model families to determine fundamental parameters with realistic confidence interval. B) To keep an eye on the unexpected, like for example, ionisation signatures resulting plasma processes

  13. Exoplanets versus brown dwarfs: the CoRoT view and the future

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Jean

    2016-01-01

    CoRoT has detected by transit several tens of objects whose radii run from 1.67 Earth radius. Their mass run from less than 5.7 Earth mass (CoRoT-24 b, Alonso et al. 2014) to 63 Jupiter mass (CoRoT-15 b, Bouchy et al. 2011). One could be tempted to think that more massive the object is, the larger it is in size and that there is some limit in mass and/or radius beyond which objects are not planets but very low mass stars below the 80 Jupiter mass limit to trigger nuclear fusion (namely "brown dwarfs" ). CoRoT findings contribute to the planet versus brown dwarf debate since there is no clear mass-radius relation.

  14. Ionisation and discharge in cloud-forming atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Ch; Rodriguez-Barrera, I M; Wood, Kenneth; Robertson, G B; Stark, C R

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and giant gas extrasolar planets have cold atmospheres with a rich chemical compositions from which mineral cloud particles form. Their properties, like particle sizes and material composition, vary with height, and the mineral cloud particles are charged due to triboelectric processes in such dynamic atmospheres. The dynamics of the atmospheric gas is driven by the irradiating host star and/or by the rotation of the objects that changes during its lifetime. Thermal gas ionisation in these ultra-cool but dense atmospheres allows electrostatic interactions and magnetic coupling of a substantial atmosphere volume. Combined with a strong magnetic field $\\gg B_{\\rm Earth}$, a chromosphere and aurorae might form as suggested by radio and X-ray observations of brown dwarfs. Non-equilibrium processes like cosmic ray ionisation and discharge processes in clouds will increase the local pool of free electrons in the gas. Cosmic rays and lighting discharges also alter the composition of the local atmospheri...

  15. Lightning climatology of exoplanets and brown dwarfs guided by Solar System data

    CERN Document Server

    Hodosán, Gabriella; Asensio-Torres, Rubén; Vorgul, Irena; Rimmer, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Clouds form on extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs where lightning could occur. Lightning is a tracer of atmospheric convection, cloud formation and ionization processes as known from the Solar System, and may be significant for the formation of prebiotic molecules. We study lightning climatology for the different atmospheric environments of Earth, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn. We present lightning distribution maps for Earth, Jupiter and Saturn, and flash densities for these planets and Venus, based on optical and/or radio measurements from the WWLLN and STARNET radio networks, the LIS/OTD satellite instruments, the Galileo, Cassini, New Horizons and Venus Express spacecraft. We also present flash densities calculated for several phases of two volcano eruptions, Eyjafjallaj\\"okull's (2010) and Mt Redoubt's (2009). We estimate lightning rates for sample, transiting and directly imaged extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. Based on the large variety of exoplanets, six categories are suggested for which we use the ...

  16. An Optical and Near Infrared Search for Brown Dwarfs in the Pleiades Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Nagashima, C; Nagayama, T; Nakajima, Y; Nagata, T; Tamura, M; Nakajima, T; Sugitani, K; Nakaya, H; Hodgkin, S T; Pickles, A J; Sato, S

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out a brown dwarf search over an area of 14' x 23' near the central portion of the Pleiades open cluster in five optical and near infrared bands (i', Z, J, H, Ks) with 10 sigma detection limits of i' = 22.0, J = 20.0 and Ks = 18.5 mag. The surveyed area has large extinction in excess of Av = 3 in the Pleiades region. We detected four new brown dwarf candidates from the colour-colour (J-K, i'-J) and the colour-magnitude (J, i'-K) diagrams. We estimated their masses as 0.046 Msun down to 0.028 Msun. The least massive one is estimated to have a mass smaller than Roque 25 or int-pl-IZ-69, and maybe the lowest mass object found so far in the Pleiades cluster.

  17. ALMA and CARMA observations of Brown Dwarfs disks: testing the models of dust evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, L; Natta, A; Scholz, A; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Isella, A; Carpenter, J M

    2013-01-01

    The first steps toward planet formation involve the coagulation of small microscopic grains into larger and larger pebbles and rocks in gas-rich disks around young stars and brown dwarfs. Observations in the sub-millimeter can trace mm/cm-sized pebbles in the outer disks, and investigate the mechanisms of coagulation/fragmentation and radial migration of these solids. These represent key, yet not fully understood ingredients for our understanding of the formation of planetesimals, the building blocks of planets. Here we present the first results from an observational program using the ALMA and CARMA sub-mm/mm interferometers aimed at characterizing the dust properties and disk structure of young disks around brown dwarfs and very low mass stars. Given the physical conditions expected for these disks, they represent critical test beds for the models of the early stages of planet formation in proto-planetary disks.

  18. Methane, Carbon Monoxide, and Ammonia in Brown Dwarfs and Self-Luminous Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Marley, Mark S.

    2014-12-01

    We address disequilibrium abundances of some simple molecules in the atmospheres of solar composition brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar giant planets using a kinetics-based one-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model. Our approach is to use the full kinetics model to survey the parameter space with effective temperatures between 500 K and 1100 K. In all of these worlds, equilibrium chemistry favors CH4 over CO in the parts of the atmosphere that can be seen from Earth, but in most disequilibrium favors CO. The small surface gravity of a planet strongly discriminates against CH4 when compared to an otherwise comparable brown dwarf. If vertical mixing is like Jupiter's, the transition from methane to CO occurs at 500 K in a planet. Sluggish vertical mixing can raise this to 600 K, but clouds or more vigorous vertical mixing could lower this to 400 K. The comparable thresholds in brown dwarfs are 1100 ± 100 K. Ammonia is also sensitive to gravity, but, unlike CH4/CO, the NH3/N2 ratio is insensitive to mixing, which makes NH3 a potential proxy for gravity. HCN may become interesting in high-gravity brown dwarfs with very strong vertical mixing. Detailed analysis of the CO-CH4 reaction network reveals that the bottleneck to CO hydrogenation goes through methanol, in partial agreement with previous work. Simple, easy to use quenching relations are derived by fitting to the complete chemistry of the full ensemble of models. These relations are valid for determining CO, CH4, NH3, HCN, and CO2 abundances in the range of self-luminous worlds we have studied, but may not apply if atmospheres are strongly heated at high altitudes by processes not considered here (e.g., wave breaking).

  19. A new benchmark T8-9 brown dwarf and a couple of new mid-T dwarfs from the UKIDSS DR5+ LAS

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, B; Henning, T; Clemens, C; Greiner, J

    2010-01-01

    Benchmark brown dwarfs are those objects for which fiducial constraints are available, including effective temperature, parallax, age, metallicity. We searched for new cool brown dwarfs in 186 sq.deg. of the new area covered by the data release DR5+ of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey. Follow-up optical and near-infrared broad-band photometry, and methane imaging of four promising candidates, revealed three objects with distinct methane absorption, typical of mid- to late-T dwarfs, and one possibly T4 dwarf. The latest-type object, classified as T8-9, shares its large proper motion with Ross 458 (BD+13o2618), an active M0.5 binary which is 102" away, forming a hierarchical low-mass star+brown dwarf system. Ross 458C has an absolute J-band magnitude of 16.4, and seems overluminous, particularly in the K band, compared to similar field brown dwarfs. We estimate the age of the system to be less than 1 Gyr, and its mass to be as low as 14 Jupiter masses for the age of 1 Gyr. At 11.4 pc, this new late T benchmark dwar...

  20. EPIC201702477b: A Long Period Transiting Brown Dwarf from K2

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, D; Santerne, A; Dragomir, D; Zhou, G; Shporer, A; Colón, K D; Almenara, J; Armstrong, D J; Barrado, D; Barros, S C C; Bento, J; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Brown, D J A; Brown, T; Cameron, A; Cochran, W D; Demangeon, O; Deleuil, M; Díaz, R F; Fulton, B; Horne, K; Hébrard, G; Lillo-Box, J; Lovis, C; Mawet, D; Ngo, H; Osborn, H; Palle, E; Petigura, E; Pollacco, D; Santos, N; Sefako, R; Siverd, R; Sousa, S G; Tsantaki, M

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of EPIC201702477b, a transiting brown dwarf in a long period (40.73691 +/- 0.00037 day) and eccentric (e=0.2281 +/- 0.0026) orbit. This system was initially reported as a planetary candidate based on two transit events seen in K2 Campaign 1 photometry and later validated as an exoplanet. We confirm the transit and refine the ephemeris with two subsequent ground-based detections of the transit using the LCOGT 1m telescope network. We rule out any transit timing variations above the level of 30s. Using high precision radial velocity measurements from HARPS and SOPHIE we identify the transiting companion as a brown dwarf with a mass, radius, and bulk density of 66.9 +/- 1.7 M$_J$, 0.757 +/- 0.065 R$_J$, and 191+/-51 g.cm$^{-3}$ respectively. EPIC201702477b is the smallest radius brown dwarf yet discovered, with a mass just below the H-burning limit. It has the highest density of any planet, substellar mass object or main-sequence star discovered so far. We find evidence in the set of know...

  1. Methane, Carbon Monoxide, and Ammonia in Brown Dwarfs and Self-Luminous Giant Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zahnle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    We address disequilibrum abundances of some simple molecules in the atmospheres of solar composition brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar giant planets using a kinetics-based 1D atmospheric chemistry model. We employ cloudless atmospheres of approximately solar metallicity. Our approach is to use the complete model to survey the parameter space with effective temperatures between 500 K and 1100 K. In all of these worlds equilibrium chemistry favors CH4 over CO in the parts of the atmosphere that can be seen from Earth. Small surface gravity of planets strongly discriminates against CH4 when compared to an otherwise comparable brown dwarf. If vertical mixing is comparable to Jupiter's, methane becomes more abundant than CO in Jupiter-mass planets cooler than 500 K. Sluggish vertical mixing can raise this threshold to 600 K; but clouds or more vigorous vertical mixing could lower this threshold to 400 K. The comparable threshold in brown dwarfs is 1100 K. Ammonia is also sensitive to gravity, but unlike CH...

  2. The BANYAN All-Sky Survey for Brown Dwarf Members of Young Moving Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gagné, Jonathan; Doyon, René; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Malo, Lison; Cruz, Kelle L; Artigau, Étienne; Burgasser, Adam J; Naud, Marie-Eve; Bouchard, Sandie; Gizis, John E; Albert, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    We describe in this work the BASS survey for brown dwarfs in young moving groups of the solar neighborhood, and summarize the results that it generated. These include the discovery of the 2MASS J01033563-5515561 (AB)b and 2MASS J02192210-3925225 B young companions near the deuterium-burning limit as well as 44 new low-mass stars and 69 new brown dwarfs with a spectroscopically confirmed low gravity. Among those, ~20 have estimated masses within the planetary regime, one is a new L4 $\\gamma$ bona fide member of AB Doradus, three are TW Hydrae candidates with later spectral types (L1-L4) than all of its previously known members and six are among the first contenders to low-gravity $\\geq$ L5 $\\beta$/$\\gamma$ brown dwarfs, reminiscent of WISEP J004701.06+680352.1, PSO J318.5338-22.8603 and VHS J125601.92-125723.9 b. Finally, we describe a future version of this survey, BASS-Ultracool, that will specifically target $\\geq$ L5 candidate members of young moving groups. First experimentations in designing the survey h...

  3. Rotation Periods of Young Brown Dwarfs: K2 Survey in Upper Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks; Jayawardhana, Ray; Muzic, Koraljka

    2015-01-01

    We report rotational periods for 16 young brown dwarfs in the nearby Upper Scorpius association, based on 72 days of high-cadence, high-precision photometry from the Kepler space telescope's K2 mission. The periods range from a few hours to two days (plus one outlier at 5 days), with a median just above one day, confirming that brown dwarfs, except at the very youngest ages, are fast rotators. Interestingly, four of the slowest rotators in our sample exhibit mid-infrared excess emission from disks; at least two also show signs of disk eclipses and accretion in the lightcurves. Comparing these new periods with those for two other young clusters and simple angular momentum evolution tracks, we find little or no rotational braking in brown dwarfs between 1-10 Myr, in contrast to low-mass stars. Our findings show that disk braking, while still at work, is inefficient in the substellar regime, thus provide an important constraint on the mass dependence of the braking mechanism.

  4. Mid-Infrared Selection of Brown Dwarfs and High-Redshift Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, D; Allen, L; Bian, C; Blain, A; Brand, K; Brodwin, M; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Desai, V; Dey, A; Eisenhardt, P; González, A; Jannuzi, B T; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Smith, H A; Soifer, B T; Tiede, G P; Wright, E

    2006-01-01

    We discuss color selection of rare objects in a wide-field, multiband survey spanning from the optical to the mid-infrared. Simple color criteria simultaneously identify and distinguish two of the most sought after astrophysical sources: the coolest brown dwarfs and the most distant quasars. We present spectroscopically-confirmed examples of each class identified in the IRAC Shallow Survey of the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. ISS J142950.9+333012 is a T4.5 brown dwarf at a distance of approximately 42 pc, and ISS J142738.5+331242 is a radio-loud quasar at redshift z=6.12. Our selection criteria identify a total of four candidates over 8 square degrees of the Bootes field. The other two candidates are both confirmed 5.5brown dwarfs and higher redshift quasars.

  5. The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets IX. Populating the brown dwarf desert

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, P A; Santos, N C; Sahlmann, J; Montagnier, G; Astudillo-Defru, N; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Rey, J; Arnold, L; Bonfils, X; Bourrier, V; Courcol, B; Deleuil, M; Delfosse, X; Díaz, R F; Ehrenreich, D; Forveille, T; Moutou, C; Pepe, F; Santerne, A; Ségransan, D; Udry, S

    2016-01-01

    Radial velocity planet search surveys of nearby Solar-type stars have shown a strong deficit of brown dwarf companions within $\\sim5\\,\\mathrm{AU}$. There is presently no comprehensive explanation of this lack of brown dwarf companions, therefore, increasing the sample of such objects is crucial to understand their formation and evolution. Based on precise radial velocities obtained using the SOPHIE spectrograph at Observatoire de Haute-Provence we characterise the orbital parameters of $15$ companions to solar-type stars and constrain their true mass using astrometric data from the Hipparcos space mission. The nine companions not shown to be stellar in nature have minimum masses ranging from ~$13$ to $70\\,\\mathrm{M}_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, and are well distributed across the planet/brown dwarf mass regime, making them an important contribution to the known population of massive companions around solar-type stars. We characterise six companions as stellar in nature with masses ranging from a minimum mass of $76 \\pm 4...

  6. Using Narrow Band Photometry to Detect Young Brown Dwarfs in IC348

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A K; Lean, Ian S. Mc

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of a population of young brown dwarf candidates in the open star cluster IC348 and the development of a new spectroscopic classification technique using narrow band photometry. Observations were made using FLITECAM, the First Light Camera for SOFIA, at the 3-m Shane Telescope at Lick Observatory. FLITECAM is a new 1-5 micron camera with an 8 arcmin field of view. Custom narrow band filters were developed to detect absorption features of water vapor (at 1.495 microns) and methane (at 1.66 microns) characteristic of brown dwarfs. These filters enable spectral classification of stars and brown dwarfs without spectroscopy. FLITECAM's narrow and broadband photometry was verified by examining the color-color and color-magnitude characteristics of stars whose spectral type and reddening was known from previous surveys. Using our narrow band filter photometry method, it was possible to identify an object measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 or better to within +/-3 spectral class subtyp...

  7. ROTATION PERIODS OF YOUNG BROWN DWARFS: K2 SURVEY IN UPPER SCORPIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Alexander [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kostov, Veselin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Jayawardhana, Ray [Faculty of Science, York University, 355 Lumbers Building, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P2 (Canada); Mužić, Koraljka, E-mail: as110@st-andrews.ac.uk [Nucleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-08-20

    We report rotational periods for 16 young brown dwarfs in the nearby Upper Scorpius association, based on 72 days of high-cadence, high-precision photometry from the Keplerspace telescope’s K2 mission. The periods range from a few hours to two days (plus one outlier at five days), with a median just above one day, confirming that brown dwarfs, except at the very youngest ages, are fast rotators. Interestingly, four of the slowest rotators in our sample exhibit mid-infrared excess emission from disks; at least two also show signs of disk eclipses and accretion in the light curves. Comparing these new periods with those for two other young clusters and simple angular momentum evolution tracks, we find little or no rotational braking in brown dwarfs between 1–10 Myr, in contrast to low-mass stars. Our findings show that disk braking, while still at work, is inefficient in the substellar regime, thus providing an important constraint on the mass dependence of the braking mechanism.

  8. A Non-Gray Theory of Extrasolar Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, A; Hubbard, W B; Lunine, J I; Guillot, T; Saumon, D S; Freedman, R; Sudarsky, D; Sharp, C

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a new series of non-gray calculations of the atmospheres, spectra, colors, and evolution of extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) and brown dwarfs for effective temperatures below 1300 K. This theory encompasses most of the mass/age parameter space occupied by substellar objects and is the first spectral study down to 100 K. These calculations are in aid of the multitude of searches being conducted or planned around the world for giant planets and brown dwarfs and reveal the exotic nature of the class. Generically, absorption by H_2 at longer wavelengths and H_2O opacity windows at shorter wavelengths conspire to redistribute flux blueward. Below 1200 K, methane is the dominant carbon bearing molecule and is a universal diagnostic feature of EGP and brown dwarf spectra. We find that the primary bands in which to search are $Z$ (\\sim 1.05 \\mic), $J$ (\\sim 1.2 \\mic), $H$ (\\sim 1.6 \\mic), $K$ (\\sim 2.2 \\mic), $M$ (\\sim 5 \\mic), and $N$ (\\sim 10 \\mic), that enhancements of the emergent flux ov...

  9. X-ray emission from young brown dwarfs in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Preibisch, T; Grosso, N; Feigelson, E D; Flaccomio, E; Getman, K; Hillenbrand, L A; Meeus, G; Micela, G; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, B; Preibisch, Thomas; Caughrean, Mark J. Mc; Grosso, Nicolas; Feigelson, Eric D.; Flaccomio, Ettore; Getman, Konstantin; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Micela, Giusi; Sciortino, Salvatore; Stelzer, Beate

    2005-01-01

    We use the sensitive X-ray data from the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) to study the X-ray properties of 34 spectroscopically-identified brown dwarfs with near-infrared spectral types between M6 and M9 in the core of the Orion Nebula Cluster. Nine of the 34 objects are clearly detected as X-ray sources. The apparently low detection rate is in many cases related to the substantial extinction of these brown dwarfs; considering only the BDs with $A_V \\leq 5$ mag, nearly half of the objects (7 out of 16) are detected in X-rays. Our 10-day long X-ray lightcurves of these objects exhibit strong variability, including numerous flares. While one of the objects was only detected during a short flare, a statistical analysis of the lightcurves provides evidence for continuous (`quiescent') emission in addition to flares for all other objects. Of these, the $\\sim$ M9 brown dwarf COUP 1255 = HC 212 is one of the coolest known objects with a clear detection of quiescent X-ray emission. The X-ray properties (spectra...

  10. A submillimeter search for pre- and proto-brown dwarfs in Chamaeleon II

    CERN Document Server

    de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Bouy, H; Bayo, A; Palau, Aina; Morales-Calderon, M; Huelamo, N; Morata, O; Merin, B; Eiroa, C

    2015-01-01

    Context. Chamaeleon II molecular cloud is an active star forming region that offers an excellent opportunity for studying the formation of brown dwarfs in the southern hemisphere. Aims. Our aims are to identify a population of pre- and proto- brown dwarfs (5 sigma mass limit threshold of ~0.015 Msun) and provide information on the formation mechanisms of substellar objects. Methods. We performed high sensitivity observations at 870 microns using the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope towards an active star forming region in Chamaeleon II. The data are complemented with an extensive multiwavelength catalogue of sources from the optical to the far-infrared to study the nature of the LABOCA detections. Results. We detect fifteen cores at 870 microns, and eleven of them show masses in the substellar regime. The most intense objects in the surveyed field correspond to the submillimeter counterparts of the well known young stellar objects DK Cha and IRAS 12500-7658. We identify a possible proto-brown dwarf cand...

  11. The Brown dwarf Atmosphere Monitoring (BAM) Project I: The largest near-IR monitoring survey of L- & T-dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, P A; Patience, J

    2014-01-01

    Using SofI on the 3.5m New Technology Telescope, we have conducted an extensive near-infrared monitoring survey of an unbiased sample of 69 brown dwarfs spanning the L0 and T8 spectral range, with at least one example of each spectral type. Each target was observed for a 2-4 hour period in the Js-band, and the median photometric precision of the data is ~0.7%. A total of 14 brown dwarfs were identified as variables with min-to-max amplitudes ranging from 1.7% to 10.8% over the observed duration. All variables satisfy a statistical significance threshold with a p-value <5% based on comparison with the median reference star light curve. Approximately half of the variables show sinusoidal amplitude variations similar to 2M2139, and the remainder shows short timescale evolving light curves similar to SIMP0136. The L/T transition has been suggested to be a region of a higher degree of variability if patchy clouds are present and this survey was designed to test the patchy cloud model with photometric monitoring...

  12. Towards Precise Ages and Masses of Free Floating Planetary Mass Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Canty, James; Roche, Patrick; Pinfield, David

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the substellar initial mass function (IMF) in very young clusters is hampered by the possibility of the age spread of cluster members. This is particularly serious for candidate planetary mass objects (PMOs), which have a very similar location to older and more massive brown dwarfs on the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD). This degeneracy can be lifted by the measurement of gravity-sensitive spectral features. To this end we have obtained medium resolution (R~5000) Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) K band spectra of a sample of late M- / early L-type dwarfs. The sample comprises old field dwarfs and very young brown dwarfs in the Taurus association and in the Sigma Orionis cluster. We demonstrate a positive correlation between the strengths of the 2.21micron NaI doublet and the objects' ages. We demonstrate a further correlation between these objects' ages and the shape of their K band spectra. We have quantified this correlation in the form of a new index, the H2(K) index. This ...

  13. Epsilon Indi Ba, Bb: a spectroscopic study of the nearest known brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    King, Robert R; Homeier, Derek; Allard, France; Scholz, Ralf-Dieter; Lodieu, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of Epsilon Indi Ba and Bb, a nearby binary brown dwarf system with a main-sequence companion, allows a concerted campaign to characterise the physical parameters of two T dwarfs providing benchmarks against which atmospheric and evolutionary models can be tested. Some recent observations suggest the models at low mass and intermediate age may not reflect reality with, however, few conclusive tests. We are carrying out a comprehensive characterisation of these, the nearest known brown dwarfs, to allow constraints to be placed upon models of cool field dwarfs. We present broadband photometry from the V- to M-band and the individual spectrum of both components from 0.6-5.1 microns at a resolution of up to R=5000. A custom analytic profile fitting routine was implemented to extract the blended spectra and photometry of both components separated by 0.7 arcsec. We confirm the spectral types to be T1 and T6, and notably, we do not detect lithium at 6708A in the more massive object which may be indicati...

  14. A Search for Brown Dwarf Companions to Low-Luminosity Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, M. W.; Koerner, D. W.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Reid, I. N.; Allen, P. R.; Murphy, G. R.

    2001-12-01

    We present the results of a deep infrared search for substellar companions to low-luminosity dwarfs. K-band imaging of a sample of late M and L dwarfs was carried out at the Keck telescope down to a limiting magnitude of mK = 20. Companions were distinguished from background stars by common proper motion as identified in a double-epoch study with a 1 to 3 year timeline. We found no companions at separations of 1'' to 15'' in a sample of 90 targets. We are testing this result further with an IRTF survey of a larger sample over a wider field of view. Preliminary results of the latter are also presented here. Four close companions were detected in the Keck survey with luminosities similar to the primaries. Angular separations of 0.3'' to 0.5'' corresponded to linear separations of 5-10 AU, assuming trigonometric parallaxes recently obtained by USNO. This result accords well with the number of similar-luminosity companions detected in a recent HST survey of low-luminosity dwarfs (Reid et al. 2001). The detection rate of both studies falls short of that for earlier spectral types, but sensitivity to high luminosity contrast was reduced at these separations. High-contrast companions may in fact be abundant at the shorter separations. Thus we can conclude only that companions to low-luminosity dwarfs are absent at the separations for which they are most abundant in earlier spectral types ( ~30 AU for G dwarfs). This signifies either a lower companion rate overall for low-luminosity dwarfs, or a separation distribution peaked closer to the primary.

  15. The Dawes Review 3: The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The last few years has seen a dramatic increase in the number of exoplanets known and in the range of methods for characterising their atmospheric properties. At the same time, new discoveries of increasingly cooler brown dwarfs have pushed down their temperature range which now extends down to Y-dwarfs of <300 K. Modelling of these atmospheres has required the development of new techniques to deal with the molecular chemistry and clouds in these objects. The atmospheres of brown dwarfs are relatively well understood, but some problems remain, in particular the behavior of clouds at the L/T transition. Observational data for exoplanet atmosphere characterization is largely limited to giant exoplanets that are hot because they are near to their star (hot Jupiters) or because they are young and still cooling. For these planets there is good evidence for the presence of CO and H2O absorptions in the IR. Sodium absorption is observed in a number of objects. Reflected light measurements show that some giant exo...

  16. The First Science Results from SPHERE: Disproving the Predicted Brown Dwarf around V471 Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, A; Parsons, S G; Caceres, C; Retamales, G; Wahhaj, Z; Mawet, D; Canovas, H; Cieza, L; Marsh, T R; Bours, M C P; Dhillon, V S; Bayo, A

    2015-01-01

    Variations of eclipse arrival times have recently been detected in several post common envelope binaries consisting of a white dwarf and a main sequence companion star. The generally favoured explanation for these timing variations is the gravitational pull of one or more circumbinary substellar objects periodically moving the center of mass of the host binary. Using the new extreme-AO instrument SPHERE, we image the prototype eclipsing post-common envelope binary V471 Tau in search of the brown dwarf that is believed to be responsible for variations in its eclipse arrival times. We report that an unprecedented contrast of 12.1 magnitudes in the H band at a separation of 260 mas was achieved, but resulted in a non-detection. This implies that there is no brown dwarf present in the system unless it is three magnitudes fainter than predicted by evolutionary track models, and provides damaging evidence against the circumbinary interpretation of eclipse timing variations. In the case of V471 Tau, a more consisten...

  17. Epsilon Indi Ba, Bb: a detailed study of the nearest known brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    King, Robert R; Homeier, Derek; Allard, France; Scholz, Ralf-Dieter; Lodieu, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of epsilon Indi Ba, Bb, a binary brown dwarf system very close to the Sun, makes possible a concerted campaign to characterise the physical parameters of two T dwarfs. Recent observations suggest substellar atmospheric and evolutionary models may be inconsistent with observations, but there have been few conclusive tests to date. We therefore aim to characterise these benchmark brown dwarfs to place constraints on such models. We have obtained high angular resolution optical, near-infrared, and thermal-infrared imaging and medium-resolution (up to R~5000) spectroscopy of epsilon Indi Ba, Bb with the ESO VLT and present VRIzJHKL'M' broad-band photometry and 0.63--5.1 micron spectroscopy of the individual components. Furthermore, we use deep AO-imaging to place upper limits on the (model-dependent) mass of any further system members. We derive luminosities of log L/L_sun = -4.699+/-0.017 and -5.232+/-0.020 for epsilon Indi Ba, Bb, respectively, and using the dynamical system mass and COND03 evolut...

  18. A Search for Substellar Companions to the Two Nearest Brown Dwarf Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melso, N D; Luhman, K L

    2015-01-01

    WISE J104915.57-531906.1 A+B and WISE J085510.83-071442.5 were recently discovered as the third and fourth closest known systems to the Sun, respectively (2.0 and 2.3 pc). The former consists of a L8+T0.5 binary and the latter is a probable Y dwarf and is the coldest known brown dwarf (~250 K). We present a search for common proper motion companions to these brown dwarfs using multi-epoch mid-infrared images from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have also obtained near-infrared adaptive optics images of WISE J104915.57-531906.1 A+B with the Very Large Telescope to search for companions at smaller separations than reached by Spitzer. No new companions are detected in either system. At projected separations of 25-420" (50-840 AU) for WISE J104915.57-531906.1 A+B and 4-420" (9-970 AU) for WISE J085510.83-071442.5, the Spitzer images are sensitive to companions with M_4.5=1 M_Jup for ages of >=1 Gyr and temperatures of >=150 K. The detection limit in the adaptive optics images of WISE J104915.57-531906.1 A+B is dH...

  19. Habitable Planets Around White and Brown Dwarfs: The Perils of a Cooling Primary

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory

    2012-01-01

    White and brown dwarfs are astrophysical objects that are bright enough to support an insolation habitable zone (IHZ). Unlike hydrogen-burning stars, they cool and become less luminous with time, and hence their IHZ moves in with time. The inner edge of the IHZ is defined as the orbital radius at which a planet may enter a moist or runaway greenhouse, phenomena that can remove a planet's surface water forever. Thus, as the IHZ moves in, planets that enter it may no longer have any water, and are still uninhabitable. Additionally, the close proximity of the IHZ to the primary leads to concern that tidal heating may also be strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse, even for orbital eccentricities as small as 10^-6. Water loss occurs due to photolyzation by UV photons in the planetary stratosphere, followed by hydrogen escape. Young white dwarfs emit a large amount of these photons as their surface temperatures are over 10^4 K. The situation is less clear for brown dwarfs, as observational data do not const...

  20. Signatures of Cloud, Temperature, and Gravity From Spectra of the Closest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Burgasser, Adam J; Tinney, Chris; Osip, David J; Filippazzo, Joseph C; Simcoe, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    We present medium resolution optical and NIR spectral data for components of the newly discovered WISE J104915.57-531906.1AB (Luhman 16AB) brown dwarf binary. The optical spectra reveal strong 6708 A Li I absorption in both Luhman 16A (8.0+/-0.4 A) and Luhman 16B (3.8+/-0.4 A). Interestingly, this is the first detection of Li I absorption in a T dwarf. Combined with the lack of surface gravity features, the Li I detection constrains the system age to 0.1 - 3 Gyr. In the NIR data, we find strong KI absorption at 1.168, 1.177, 1.243, and 1.254 {\\mu}m in both components. Compared to the strength of KI line absorption in equivalent spectral subtype brown dwarfs, Luhman 16A is weaker while Luhman 16B is stronger. Analyzing the spectral region around each doublet in distance scaled flux units and comparing the two sources, we confirm the J band flux reversal and find that Luhman 16B has a brighter continuum in the 1.17 {\\mu}m and 1.25 {\\mu}m regions than Luhman 16A. Converting flux units to a brightness temperature...

  1. Identification and characterization of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using Virtual Observatory tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberasturi, Miriam

    2015-11-01

    Context: Two thirds of the stars in our galactic neighborhood (d Isaac Newton telescope at La Palma, as well as with an astrometric and photometric study. In the third paper we attempted to refine the multiplicity properties of T dwarfs studying the largest sample so far observed with high angular resolution imaging. We undertook two parallel programs using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We used a PSF-fitting subtraction technique to reveal the presence of any close companion to the sources in our sample. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to estimate the capability of WFC3 to detect close binaries in terms of angular separation and magnitude difference. Simulations were also used to determine the fraction of binaries that would have been detected around each source based on assumed separations, mass ratio distributions and orientations of the systems. Results: The main conclusion from this dissertation is that the Virtual Observatory has proved to be an excellent research methodology in the field of low mass stars and brown dwarfs. In particular, it allowed an efficient management of the queries to different catalogues and archives as well as the estimation of physical parameters through VO-tools. In the first publication we present the identification of 31 brown dwarf (25 known and 6 strong candidates not previously reported in the literature) identified in the sky area in common toWISE, 2MASS and SDSS. This is a remarkable number considering that 2MASS has been extensively searched for ultracool dwarfs and clearly show how new surveys and the use of VO tools can help to mine older surveys. The robustness of our methodology was confirmed with the spectroscopic confirmation of our candidate targets making it an ideal technique to identify brown dwarfs and, by extension, other rare objects. In the second paper, we show the potential of the VO and a purely photometric approach for finding new bright, nearby M

  2. WD0837+185:the formation and evolution of an extreme mass ratio white dwarf-brown dwarf binary in Praesepe

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Wynn, G A; Alexander, R D; Napiwotzki, R; Lawrie, K A; Dobbie, P D; Jameson, R F; Hodgkin, S T

    2012-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained dearth of brown dwarf companions in close orbits (< 3AU) around stars more massive than the Sun, in stark contrast to the frequency of stellar and planetary companions. Although rare and relatively short-lived, these systems leave detectable evolutionary end points in the form of white dwarf - brown dwarf binaries and these remnants can offer unique insights into the births and deaths of their parent systems. We present the discovery of a close (orbital separation ~ 0.006 AU) substellar companion to a massive white dwarf member of the Praesepe star cluster. Using the cluster age and the mass of the white dwarf we constrain the mass of the white dwarf progenitor star to lie in the range 3.5 - 3.7 Msun (B9). The high mass of the white dwarf means the substellar companion must have been engulfed by the B star's envelope while it was on the late asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Hence, the initial separation of the system was ~2 AU, with common envelope evolution reducing the s...

  3. Dwarf Galaxy Dark Matter Density Profiles Inferred from Stellar and Gas Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Joshua J; Fabricius, Maximilian H; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Barentine, John C; Bender, Ralf; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J; Murphy, Jeremy D; Swaters, R A; Thomas, Jens; van de Ven, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    We present new constraints on the density profiles of dark matter (DM) halos in seven nearby dwarf galaxies from measurements of their integrated stellar light and gas kinematics. The gas kinematics of low mass galaxies frequently suggest that they contain constant density DM cores, while N-body simulations instead predict a cuspy profile. We present a data set of high resolution integral field spectroscopy on seven galaxies and measure the stellar and gas kinematics simultaneously. Using Jeans modeling on our full sample, we examine whether gas kinematics in general produce shallower density profiles than are derived from the stars. Although 2/7 galaxies show some localized differences in their rotation curves between the two tracers, estimates of the central logarithmic slope of the DM density profile, gamma, are generally robust. The mean and standard deviation of the logarithmic slope for the population are gamma=0.67+/-0.10 when measured in the stars and gamma=0.58+/-0.24 when measured in the gas. We als...

  4. Ionisation and discharge in cloud-forming atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, Ch; Rimmer, P. B.; Rodriguez-Barrera, I. M.; Wood, Kenneth; Robertson, G. B.; Stark, C. R.

    2016-07-01

    Brown dwarfs and giant gas extrasolar planets have cold atmospheres with rich chemical compositions from which mineral cloud particles form. Their properties, like particle sizes and material composition, vary with height, and the mineral cloud particles are charged due to triboelectric processes in such dynamic atmospheres. The dynamics of the atmospheric gas is driven by the irradiating host star and/or by the rotation of the objects that changes during its lifetime. Thermal gas ionisation in these ultra-cool but dense atmospheres allows electrostatic interactions and magnetic coupling of a substantial atmosphere volume. Combined with a strong magnetic field \\gg {{B}\\text{Earth}} , a chromosphere and aurorae might form as suggested by radio and x-ray observations of brown dwarfs. Non-equilibrium processes like cosmic ray ionisation and discharge processes in clouds will increase the local pool of free electrons in the gas. Cosmic rays and lighting discharges also alter the composition of the local atmospheric gas such that tracer molecules might be identified. Cosmic rays affect the atmosphere through air showers in a certain volume which was modelled with a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to be able to visualise their spacial extent. Given a certain degree of thermal ionisation of the atmospheric gas, we suggest that electron attachment to charge mineral cloud particles is too inefficient to cause an electrostatic disruption of the cloud particles. Cloud particles will therefore not be destroyed by Coulomb explosion for the local temperature in the collisional dominated brown dwarf and giant gas planet atmospheres. However, the cloud particles are destroyed electrostatically in regions with strong gas ionisation. The potential size of such cloud holes would, however, be too small and might occur too far inside the cloud to mimic the effect of, e.g. magnetic field induced star spots.

  5. Optical and NIR Polarimetry of a Core L328 with Proto-Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soam, A.; Kwon, J.; Maheswar, G.; Tamura, M.; Lee, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    LDN 328 is cited as an example of a fairly isolated clump contracting to form multiple sub-cores possibly through gravitational fragmentation. In one of these sub-cores, a proto-brown dwarf (L328-IRS) candidate is in the process of formation through the self-gravitating contraction. We present results of our optical and near infrared polarisation observations of regions towards LDN 328. Results from the present study suggest that the magnetic field may be playing a vital role even in the cores that are forming sub-stellar sources.

  6. The Near-infrared Spectrum of the Brown Dwarf Gliese 229B

    OpenAIRE

    Geballe, T. R.; Kulkarni, S.R.; Woodward, C. E.; Sloan, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A medium resolution 1.0-2.5um spectrum of the brown dwarf, Gliese 229B has been obtained using CGS4 on UKIRT. In addition to the broad spectral structure seen in earlier low resolution observations, the new spectrum reveals a large number of absorption lines, many of which can be identified with water vapor. Water and methane are both shown to be strong absorbers in the near-infrared spectrum of the object. Several spectral features in Gl 229B that are attributable to methane match ones seen ...

  7. An Analysis of the SEEDS High-Contrast Exoplanet Survey: Massive Planets or Low-Mass Brown Dwarfs?

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Timothy D; Turner, Edwin L; Mede, Kyle; Spiegel, David S; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Schlieder, Joshua E; Wisniewski, John P; Abe, L; Brandner, W; Carson, J; Currie, T; Egner, S; Feldt, M; Golota, T; Goto, M; Grady, C A; Guyon, O; Hashimoto, J; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Henning, T; Hodapp, K W; Inutsuka, S; Ishii, M; Iye, M; Janson, M; Kandori, R; Knapp, G R; Kudo, T; Kusakabe, N; Kwon, J; Matsuo, T; Miyama, S; Morino, J -I; Moro-Martín, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T -S; Serabyn, E; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takami, M; Takato, N; Terada, H; Thalmann, C; Tomono, D; Watanabe, M; Yamada, T; Takami, H; Usuda, T; Tamura, M

    2014-01-01

    We conduct a statistical analysis of a combined sample of direct imaging data, totalling nearly 250 stars observed by HiCIAO on the Subaru Telescope, NIRI on Gemini North, and NICI on Gemini South. The stars cover a wide range of ages and spectral types, and include five detections (kap And b, two ~60 M_J brown dwarf companions in the Pleiades, PZ Tel B, and CD-35 2722 B). We conduct a uniform, Bayesian analysis of the ages of our entire sample, using both membership in a kinematic moving group and activity/rotation age indicators, to obtain posterior age distributions. We then present a new statistical method for computing the likelihood of a substellar distribution function. By performing most integrals analytically, we achieve an enormous speedup over brute-force Monte Carlo. We use this method to place upper limits on the maximum semimajor axis beyond which the distribution function for radial-velocity planets cannot extend, finding model-dependent values of ~30--100 AU. Finally, we treat our entire subst...

  8. The Properties of the 500 K Dwarf UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, and a Study of the Far-Red Flux of Cold Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, S K; Marley, M S; Lodders, K; Canty, J; Lucas, P; Smart, R L; Tinney, C G; Homeier, D; Allard, F; Burningham, Ben; Day-Jones, A; Fegley, B; Ishii, Miki; Jones, H R A; Marocco, F; Pinfield, D J; Tamura, M

    2012-01-01

    We present i and z photometry for 25 T dwarfs and one L dwarf. Combined with published photometry, the data show that the i - z, z - Y and z - J colors of T dwarfs are very red, and continue to increase through to the late-type T dwarfs, with a hint of a saturation for the latest types with T_eff ~ 600 K. We present new 0.7-1.0 um and 2.8-4.2 um spectra for the very late-type T dwarf UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, as well as improved astrometry for this dwarf. Examination of the spectral energy distribution using the new and published data, with Saumon & Marley models, shows that the dwarf has T_eff = 505 +/- 10 K, a mass of 3-11 M_Jupiter and an age between 60 Myr and 1 Gyr. This young age is consistent with the thin disk kinematics of the dwarf. The mass range overlaps with that usually considered to be planetary, despite this being an unbound object discovered in the field near the Sun. This apparently young rapid rotator is also undergoing vigorous atmospheric mixing, as determined by the IRAC and WISE-2 4...

  9. A Venus-mass Planet Orbiting a Brown Dwarf: A Missing Link between Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalski, A.; Jung, Y. K.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Kozłowski, S.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Mróz, P.; Szymański, M. K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Maoz, D.; Kaspi, S.; Gaudi, B. S.; Hwang, K.-H.; Choi, J.-Y.; Shin, I.-G.; Park, H.; Bozza, V.

    2015-10-01

    The co-planarity of solar system planets led Kant to suggest that they formed from an accretion disk, and the discovery of hundreds of such disks around young stars as well as hundreds of co-planar planetary systems by the Kepler satellite demonstrate that this formation mechanism is extremely widespread. Many moons in the solar system, such as the Galilean moons of Jupiter, also formed out of the accretion disks that coalesced into the giant planets. Here we report the discovery of an intermediate system, OGLE-2013-BLG-0723LB/Bb, composed of a Venus-mass planet orbiting a brown dwarf, which may be viewed either as a scaled-down version of a planet plus a star or as a scaled-up version of a moon plus a planet orbiting a star. The latter analogy can be further extended since they orbit in the potential of a larger, stellar body. For ice-rock companions formed in the outer parts of accretion disks, like Uranus and Callisto, the scaled masses and separations of the three types of systems are similar, leading us to suggest that the formation processes of companions within accretion disks around stars, brown dwarfs, and planets are similar.

  10. VLT X-shooter spectroscopy of the nearest brown dwarf binary

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Rebolo, R; Bejar, V J S; Pavlenko, Y; Perez-Garrido, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the project is to characterise both components of the nearest brown dwarf sytem to the Sun, WISE J104915.57-531906.1 (=Luhman16AB) at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. We obtained high signal-to-noise intermediate-resolution (R~6000-11000) optical (600-1000 nm) and near-infrared (1000-2480nm) spectra of each component of Luhman16AB, the closest brown dwarf binary to the Sun, with the X-Shooter instrument on the Very Large Telescope. We classify the primary and secondary of the Luhman16 system as L6-L7.5 and T0+/-1, respectively, in agreement with previous measurements published in the literature. We present measurements of the lithium pseudo-equivalent widths, which appears of similar strength on both components (8.2+/-1.0 Angstroms and 8.4+/-1.5 Angstroms for the L and T components, respectively). The presence of lithium (Lithium 7) in both components imply masses below 0.06 Msun while comparison with models suggests lower limits of 0.04 Msun. The detection of lithium in the T component is th...

  11. A multi-wavelength characterization of proto-brown dwarf candidates in Serpens

    CERN Document Server

    Riaz, B; Harsono, D; Caselli, P; Tikare, K; Gonzalez-Martin, O

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a deep sub-millimeter survey in the Serpens Main and Serpens/G3-G6 clusters, conducted with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We have combined Herschel PACS far-infrared photometry, sub-millimeter continuum and molecular gas line observations, with the aim to conduct a detailed multi-wavelength characterization of `proto-brown dwarf' candidates in Serpens. We have performed continuum and line radiative transfer modeling, and have considered various classification schemes to understand the structure and the evolutionary stage of the system. We have identified four proto-brown dwarf candidates, of which the lowest luminosity source has an Lbol ~0.05 Lsun. Two of these candidates show characteristics consistent with Stage 0/I systems, while the other two are Stage I-T/Class Flat systems with tenuous envelopes. Our work has also revealed a ~20% fraction of mis-identified Class 0/I/Flat sources that show characteristics consistent ...

  12. Ionization in atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and extrasolar planets IV. The Effect of Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Cosmic rays provide an important source for free electrons in the Earth's atmosphere and also in dense interstellar regions where they produce a prevailing background ionization. We utilize a Monte Carlo cosmic ray transport model for particle energies of 1 MeV < E < 1 GeV, and an analytic cosmic ray transport model for particle energies of 1 GeV < E < 1 TeV in order to investigate the cosmic ray enhancement of free electrons in substellar atmospheres of free-floating objects. The cosmic ray calculations are applied to Drift-Phoenix model atmospheres of an example brown dwarf with effective temperature Teff = 1500 K, and two example giant gas planets (Teff = 1000 K, 1500 K). For the model brown dwarf atmosphere, the electron fraction is enhanced significantly by cosmic rays when the pressure pgas < 10^-2 bar. Our example giant gas planet atmosphere suggests that the cosmic ray enhancement extends to 10^-4 - 10^-2 bar, depending on the effective temperature. For the model atmosphere of the examp...

  13. Discovery of a ~250 K Brown Dwarf at 2 pc from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2014-01-01

    Through a previous analysis of multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), I identified WISE J085510.83-071442.5 as a new high proper motion object. By combining astrometry from WISE and the Spitzer Space Telescope, I have measured a proper motion of 8.1+/-0.1"/yr and a parallax of 0.454+/-0.045" (2.20+0.24/-0.20 pc) for WISE J085510.83-071442.5, giving it the third highest proper motion and the fourth largest parallax of any known star or brown dwarf. It is also the coldest known brown dwarf based on its absolute magnitude at 4.5um and its color in [3.6]-[4.5]. By comparing M4.5 with the values predicted by theoretical evolutionary models, I estimate an effective temperature of 225-260 K and a mass of 3-10 Mjup for the age range of 1-10 Gyr that encompasses most nearby stars.

  14. Brown dwarf disks with Herschel: Linking far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Scholz, Alexander; Testi, Leonardo; Jayawardhana, Ray; Greaves, Jane; Eastwood, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarf disks are excellent laboratories to test our understanding of disk physics in an extreme parameter regime. In this paper we investigate a sample of 29 well-characterized brown dwarfs and very low mass stars, for which Herschel far-infrared fluxes as well as (sub)-mm fluxes are available. We have measured new Herschel PACS fluxes for 11 objects and complement these with (sub)-mm data and Herschel fluxes from the literature. We analyze their spectral energy distributions in comparison with results from radiative transfer modeling. Fluxes in the far-infrared are strongly affected by the shape and temperature of the disk (and hence stellar luminosity), whereas the (sub)-mm fluxes mostly depend on disk mass. Nevertheless, there is a clear correlation between far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes. We argue that the link results from the combination of the stellar mass-luminosity relation and a scaling between disk mass and stellar mass. We find strong evidence of dust settling to the disk midplane. The spect...

  15. A Statistical Study of Brown Dwarf Companions from the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; De Lee, Nathan M.; Lee, Brian L.; Fleming, Scott W.; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Varosi, Frank; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Li, Rui; Agol, Eric; MARVELS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present 23 new Brown Dwarf (BD) candidates from the Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III). The BD candidates were selected from the processed MARVELS data using the latest University of Florida 2D pipeline, which shows significant improvement and reduction of systematic errors over the 1D pipeline results included in the SDSS Data Release 12. This sample is the largest BD yield from a single radial velocity survey. Of the 23 candidates, 18 are around main sequence stars and 5 are around giant stars. Given a giant contamination rate of ~24% for the MARVELS survey, we find a BD occurrence rate around main sequence stars of ~0.7%, which agrees with previous studies and confirms the BD desert, while the BD occurrence rate around the MARVELS giant stars is ~0.6%. Preliminary results show that our new candidates around solar type stars support a two population hypothesis, where BDs are divided at a mass of ~42.5 MJup. BDs less massive than 42.5 MJup have eccentricity distributions consistent with planet-planet scattering models, where BDs more massive than 42.5 MJup have both period and eccentricity distributions similar to that of stellar binaries. Special Brown Dwarf systems such as multiple BD systems and highly eccentric BDs will also be presented.

  16. Dynamical masses for the nearest brown dwarf binary: Epsilon Indi Ba, Bb

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, C V; King, R R; Close, L M; Scholz, R -D; Lenzen, R; Brandner, W; Lodieu, N; Zinnecker, H

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary astrometric results for the closest known brown dwarf binary to the Sun: Epsilon Indi Ba, Bb at a distance of 3.626 pc. Via ongoing monitoring of the relative separation of the two brown dwarfs (spectral types T1 and T6) with the VLT NACO near-IR adaptive optics system since June 2004, we obtain a model-independent dynamical total mass for the system of 121 MJup, some 60% larger than the one obtained by McCaughrean et al. (2004), implying that the system may be as old as 5 Gyr. We have also been monitoring the absolute astrometric motions of the system using the VLT FORS2 optical imager since August 2005 to determine the individual masses. We predict a periastron passage in early 2010, by which time the system mass will be constrained to < 1 MJup and we will be able to determine the individual masses accurately in a dynamical, model-independent manner.

  17. Brown Dwarf Jets: Investigating the Universality of Jet Launching Mechanisms at the Lowest Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, Emma Teresa; Ray, Tom; Dougados, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Recently it has become apparent that proto-stellar-like outflow activity extends to the brown dwarf (BD) mass regime. While the presence of accretion appears to be the common ingredient in all objects known to drive jets fundamental questions remain unanswered. The more prominent being the exact mechanism by which jets are launched, and whether this mechanism remains universal among such a diversity of sources and scales. To address these questions we have been investigating outflow activity in a sample of protostellar objects that differ considerably in mass and mass accretion rate. Central to this is our study of brown dwarf jets. To date Classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) have offered us the best touchstone for decoding the launching mechanism. Here we shall summarise what is understood so far of BD jets and the important constraints observations can place on models. We will focus on the comparison between jets driven by objects with central mass < 0.1M \\odot and those driven by CTTSs. In particular we wish...

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Spectroscopy of Brown Dwarfs Discovered with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Adam C; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Gelino, Christopher R; Mace, Gregory N; Wright, Edward L; Eisenhardt, Peter R; Skrutskie, M F; Griffith, Roger L; Marsh, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the {\\it Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} (WISE) for which we have obtained {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} ({\\it HST}) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (twenty-two in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10$-$1.70 $\\mu$m, while fifteen were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90$-$1.10 $\\mu$m. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to 1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.\\ ammonia bands) and 2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35$+$280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38$+$840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77$+$024015.0 (Y1) are the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first spec...

  19. The radius anomaly in the planet/brown dwarf overlapping mass regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraffe I.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent detection of the transit of very massive substellar companions (Deleuil et al. 2008; Bouchy et al. 2010; Anderson et al. 2010; Bakos et al. 2010 provides a strong constraint to planet and brown dwarf formation and migration mechanisms. Whether these objects are brown dwarfs originating from the gravitational collapse of a dense molecular cloud that, at the same time, gave birth to the more massive stellar companion, or whether they are planets that formed through core accretion of solids in the protoplanetary disk can not always be determined unambiguously and the mechanisms responsible for their short orbital distances are not yet fully understood. In this contribution, we examine the possibility to constrain the nature of a massive substellar object from the various observables provided by the combination of Radial Velocity and Photometry measurements (e.g. Mp , Rp , M⋆, Age, a, e.... In a second part, developments in the modeling of tidal evolution at high eccentricity and inclination - as measured for HD 80 606 with e = 0.9337 (Naef et al. 2001 , XO-3 with a stellar obliquity ε⋆  > 37.3 ± 3.7 deg (Hébrard et al. 2008; Winn et al. 2009 and several other exoplanets - are discussed along with their implication in the understanding of the radius anomaly problem of extrasolar giant planets.

  20. A Herschel Search For Cold Dust in Brown Dwarf Disks: First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Paul M; Menard, Francois; Wolf, Sebastian; Liu, Yao; Cieza, Lucas A; Evans, Neal J; Pascucci, Ilaria; Merin, Bruno; Pinte, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    We report initial results from a {\\it Herschel} program to search for far-infrared emission from cold dust around a statistically significant sample of young brown dwarfs. The first three objects in our survey are all detected at 70\\micron, and we report the first detection of a brown dwarf at 160\\micron. The flux densities are consistent with the presence of substantial amounts of cold dust in the outer disks around these objects. We modeled the SED's with two different radiative transfer codes. We find that a broad range of model parameters provides a reasonable fit to the SED's, but that the addition of our 70\\micron, and especially the 160\\micron\\ detection enables strong lower limits to be placed on the disk masses since most of the mass is in the outer disk. We find likely disk masses in the range of a few $\\times 10^{-6}$ to $10^{-4}$ \\msun. Our models provide a good fit to the SED's and do not require dust settling.

  1. Brown Dwarfs in Young Moving Groups from Pan-STARRS1. I. AB Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, Kimberly M; Magnier, Eugene A; Best, William M J; Kotson, Michael C; Burgett, William S; Chambers, Kenneth C; Hodapp, Klaus W; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick; Metcalf, Nigel; Tonry, John L; Wainscoat, Richard J; Waters, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Substellar members of young ($\\lesssim$150 Myr) moving groups are valuable benchmarks to empirically define brown dwarf evolution with age and to study the low-mass end of the initial mass function. We have combined Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) proper motions with optical$-$IR photometry from PS1, 2MASS and $\\textit{WISE}$ to search for substellar members of the AB Dor Moving Group within $\\approx$50 pc and with spectral types of late-M to early-L, corresponding to masses down to $\\approx$30 M$_{Jup}$ at the age of the group ($\\approx$125 Myr). Including both photometry and proper motions allows us to better select candidates by excluding field dwarfs whose colors are similar to young AB~Dor Moving Group members. Our near-IR spectroscopy has identified six ultracool dwarfs (M6$-$L4; $\\approx$30$-$100 M$_{Jup}$) with intermediate surface gravities (INT-G) as candidate members of the AB Dor Moving Group. We find another two candidate members with spectra showing hints of youth but consistent with field gravities. We also ...

  2. Disk or Halo white dwarfs? Kinematic analysis of high proper motion surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Spagna, A; Lattanzi, M G; Bucciarelli, B

    2004-01-01

    We present an alternative method for the kinematic analysis of high proper motion surveys and discuss its application to the survey of Oppenheimer et al. (2001) for the selection of reliable halo white dwarfs (WDs). The local WD space density we estimate is (1-2) 10^{-5}MSun/pc^{3}, which is about an order of magnitude smaller than the value derived in Oppenheimer et al. (2001), and is consistent with the values obtained from recent reanalyses of the same data (e.g. Reid et al. 2001, Reyle et al. 2001, Torres et al. 2002, Salim et al. 2004). Our result, which corresponds to a fraction of 0.1%-0.2% of the local dark matter, does not support the scenario suggested by the microlensing experiments that ancient cool WDs could contribute significantly to the dark halo of the Milky Way.

  3. Uncovering the Outflow Driven by the Brown Dwarf LS-RCr A1: H-alpha as a Tracer of Outflow Activity in Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F

    2009-01-01

    It is now apparent that classical T Tauri-like outflows commonly accompany the formation of young brown dwarfs. To date two optical outflows have been discovered and results presented in this paper increase this number to three. Using spectro-astrometry the origin of the LS-RCrA 1 forbidden emission lines in a blue-shifted outflow is confirmed. The non-detection of the red-shifted component of the outflow in forbidden lines, along with evidence for some separation between low and high velocity outflow components, do not support the hypothesis that LS-RCrA 1 has an edge-on accretion disk. The key result of this analysis is the discovery of an outflow component to the H-alpha line. The H-alpha line profile has blue and red-shifted features in the wings which spectro-astrometry reveals to also originate in the outflow. The discovery that H-alpha emission in BDs can have a significant contribution from an outflow suggests the use of H-alpha line widths as a proxy of mass accretion in BDs is not clear-cut. This me...

  4. A Signature of Chromospheric Activity in Brown Dwarfs Revealed by 2.5-5.0 Micron AKARI Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Sorahana, Satoko; Yamamura, Issei

    2014-01-01

    We propose that the 2.7 micron H_2O, 3.3 micron CH_4 and 4.6 micron CO absorption bands can be good tracers of chromospheric activity in brown dwarfs. In our previous study, we found that there are difficulties in explaining entire spectra between 1.0 and 5.0 microns with the Unified Cloudy Model (UCM), a brown dwarf atmosphere model. Based on simple radiative equilibrium, temperature in a model atmosphere usually decreases monotonically with height. However, if a brown dwarf has a chromosphere, as inferred by some observations, the temperature in the upper atmosphere is higher. We construct a simple model that takes into account heating due to chromospheric activity by setting a temperature floor in an upper atmosphere, and find that the model spectra of 3 brown dwarfs with moderate H-alpha emission, an indicator of chromospheric activity, are considerably improved to match the AKARI spectra. Because of the higher temperatures in the upper atmospheres, the amount of CH_4 molecules is reduced and the absorpti...

  5. The TRENDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey. VI. Discovery of a Mass, Age, and Metallicity Benchmark Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R; Bechter, Eric B; Montet, Benjamin T; Johnson, John Asher; Piskorz, Danielle; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The mass and age of substellar objects are degenerate parameters leaving the evolutionary state of brown dwarfs ambiguous without additional information. Theoretical models are normally used to help distinguish between old, massive brown dwarfs and young, low mass brown dwarfs but these models have yet to be properly calibrated. We have carried out an infrared high-contrast imaging program with the goal of detecting substellar objects as companions to nearby stars to help break degeneracies in inferred physical properties such as mass, age, and composition. Rather than using imaging observations alone, our targets are pre-selected based on the existence of dynamical accelerations informed from years of stellar radial velocity (RV) measurements. In this paper, we present the discovery of a rare benchmark brown dwarf orbiting the nearby ($d=18.69\\pm0.19$ pc), solar-type (G9V) star HD 4747 ([Fe/H]=$-0.22\\pm0.04$) with a projected separation of only $\\rho=11.3\\pm0.2$ AU ($\\theta \\approx$ 0.6''). Precise Doppler m...

  6. Spitzer and z' secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bruns, Jacob M. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Showman, Adam P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, 1629 E. University Blvd., University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Eastman, Jason [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G., E-mail: tbeatty@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b. These observations represent the first constraints on the atmospheric dynamics of a highly irradiated brown dwarf, the atmospheres of irradiated giant planets at high surface gravity, and the atmospheres of brown dwarfs that are dominated by external, rather than internal, energy. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.195% ± 0.010% at 3.6 μm and 0.200% ± 0.012% at 4.5 μm. We also find tentative evidence for the secondary eclipse in the z' band with a depth of 0.049% ± 0.023%. These measured eclipse depths are most consistent with an atmosphere model in which there is a strong substellar hotspot, implying that heat redistribution in the atmosphere of KELT-1b is low. While models with a more mild hotspot or even with dayside heat redistribution are only marginally disfavored, models with complete heat redistribution are strongly ruled out. The eclipse depths also prefer an atmosphere with no TiO inversion layer, although a model with TiO inversion is permitted in the dayside heat redistribution case, and we consider the possibility of a day-night TiO cold trap in this object. For the first time, we compare the IRAC colors of brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters as a function of effective temperature. Importantly, our measurements reveal that KELT-1b has a [3.6] – [4.5] color of 0.07 ± 0.11, identical to that of isolated brown dwarfs of similarly high temperature. In contrast, hot Jupiters generally show redder [3.6] – [4.5] colors of ∼0.4, with a very large range from ∼0 to ∼1. Evidently, despite being more similar to hot Jupiters than to isolated brown dwarfs in terms of external forcing of the atmosphere by stellar insolation, KELT-1b appears to have an atmosphere most like that of other brown dwarfs. This suggests that surface gravity is very important in controlling the atmospheric systems of substellar mass bodies.

  7. A search for mass segregation of stars and brown dwarfs in \\rho\\ Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J; de Oliveira, Catarina Alves

    2012-01-01

    We apply two different algorithms to search for mass segregation to a recent observational census of the rho Ophiuchi star forming region. Firstly, we apply the Lambda_MSR method, which compares the minimum spanning tree (MST) of a chosen subset of stars to MSTs of random subsets of stars in the cluster, and determine the mass segregation ratio, Lambda_MSR. Secondly, we apply the m-Sigma method, which calculates the local stellar surface density around each star and determines the statistical significance of the average surface density for a chosen mass bin, compared to the average surface density in the whole cluster. Using both methods, we find no indication of mass segregation (normal or inverse) in the spatial distribution of stars and brown dwarfs in rho Ophiuchi. Although rho Ophiuchi suffers from high visual extinction, we show that a significant mass segregation signature would be detectable, albeit slightly diluted, despite dust obscuration of centrally located massive stars.

  8. A LOFAR mini-survey for low-frequency radio emission from the nearest brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Burningham, Ben; Nichols, J D; Casewell, S L; Littlefair, S P; Stark, C; Burleigh, M R; Metchev, S; Tannock, M E; van Weeren, R J; Williams, W L; Wynn, G A

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a mini-survey for low-frequency radio emission from some of the closest brown dwarfs to the Sun with rapid rotation rates: SIMP J013656.5+093347, WISEPC J150649.97+702736.0, and WISEPA J174124.26+255319.5. We have placed robust 3-sigma upper limits on the flux density in the 111 - 169 MHz frequency range for these targets: WISE 1506: < 0.72 mJy; WISE 1741: < 0.87 mJy; SIMP 0136: < 0.66 mJy. At 8 hours of integration per target to achieve these limits, we find that systematic and detailed study of this class of object at LOFAR frequencies will require a substantial dedication of resources.

  9. MICROLENSING DISCOVERY OF A POPULATION OF VERY TIGHT, VERY LOW MASS BINARY BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Dominik, M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bozza, V. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001 (New Zealand); Chote, P. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Fukui, A. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2013-05-10

    Although many models have been proposed, the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of low-mass brown dwarfs (BDs) are poorly understood. The multiplicity properties and minimum mass of the BD mass function provide critical empirical diagnostics of these mechanisms. We present the discovery via gravitational microlensing of two very low mass, very tight binary systems. These binaries have directly and precisely measured total system masses of 0.025 M{sub Sun} and 0.034 M{sub Sun }, and projected separations of 0.31 AU and 0.19 AU, making them the lowest-mass and tightest field BD binaries known. The discovery of a population of such binaries indicates that BD binaries can robustly form at least down to masses of {approx}0.02 M{sub Sun }. Future microlensing surveys will measure a mass-selected sample of BD binary systems, which can then be directly compared to similar samples of stellar binaries.

  10. Studies of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The coolest T and Y-class Brown Dwarf objects are very faint and are therefore very poorly understood, since they are barely detectable with the current astronomical instrumentation. The upcoming James Webb Space Telescope now in development for a launch in the Fall of 2018 will have vastly increased sensitivity in the near and mid-infrared compared to any current facilities and will not be affected by telluric absorption over its entire wavelength range of operations. As a result it will be an ideal tool to obtain information about the composition and temperature-pressure structure in these objects' atmospheres. This presentation will outline the JWST guaranteed time observing plans for these studies.

  11. Atomic and Molecular Opacities for Brown Dwarf and Giant Planet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Sharp, C M; Sharp, Christopher M.; Burrows, Adam

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive description of the theory and practice of opacity calculations from the infrared to the ultraviolet needed to generate models of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets. Methods for using existing line lists and spectroscopic databases in disparate formats are presented and plots of the resulting absorptive opacities versus wavelength for the most important molecules and atoms at representative temperature/pressure points are provided. Electronic, ro-vibrational, bound-free, bound-bound, free-free, and collision-induced transitions and monochromatic opacities are derived, discussed, and analyzed. The species addressed include the alkali metals, iron, heavy metal oxides, metal hydrides, $H_2$, $H_2O$, $CH_4$, $CO$, $NH_3$, $H_2S$, $PH_3$, and representative grains. [Abridged

  12. WASP-30b: A 61 MJup BROWN DWARF TRANSITING A V = 12, F8 STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of a 61-Jupiter-mass brown dwarf (BD), which transits its F8V host star, WASP-30, every 4.16 days. From a range of age indicators we estimate the system age to be 1-2 Gyr. We derive a radius (0.89 ± 0.02 RJup) for the companion that is consistent with that predicted (0.914 RJup) by a model of a 1 Gyr old, non-irradiated BD with a dusty atmosphere. The location of WASP-30b in the minimum of the mass-radius relation is consistent with the quantitative prediction of Chabrier and Baraffe, thus confirming the theory.

  13. Strong brightness variations signal cloudy-to-clear transition of brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radigan, Jacqueline [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Etienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Jayawardhana, Ray, E-mail: radigan@stsci.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2014-10-01

    We report the results of a J-band search for cloud-related variability in the atmospheres of 62 L4-T9 dwarfs using the Du Pont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea. We find 9 of 57 objects included in our final analysis to be significantly variable with >99% confidence, 5 of which are new discoveries. In our study, strong signals (peak-to-peak amplitudes >2%) are confined to the L/T transition (4/16 objects with L9-T3.5 spectral types and 0/41 objects for all other spectral types). The probability that the observed occurrence rates for strong variability inside and outside the L/T transition originate from the same underlying true occurrence rate is excluded at >99.7% confidence. Based on a careful assessment of our sensitivity to astrophysical signals, we infer that 39{sub −14}{sup +16}% of L9-T3.5 dwarfs are strong variables on rotational timescales. If we consider only L9-T3.5 dwarfs with 0.8 < J – K {sub s} < 1.5, and assume an isotropic distribution of spin axes for our targets, we find that 80{sub −19}{sup +18}% would be strong variables if viewed edge-on; azimuthal symmetry and/or binarity may account for non-variable objects in this group. These observations suggest that the settling of condensate clouds below the photosphere in brown dwarf (BD) atmospheres does not occur in a spatially uniform manner. Rather, the formation and sedimentation of dust grains at the L/T transition is coupled to atmospheric dynamics, resulting in highly contrasting regions of thick and thin clouds and/or clearings. Outside the L/T transition we identify five weak variables (peak-to-peak amplitudes of 0.6%-1.6%). Excluding L9-T3.5 spectral types, we infer that 60{sub −18}{sup +22}% of targets vary with amplitudes of 0.5%-1.6%, suggesting that surface heterogeneities are common among L and T dwarfs. Our survey establishes a significant link between strong variability and L/T transition spectral types, providing

  14. Lightning climatology of exoplanets and brown dwarfs guided by Solar system data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodosán, G.; Helling, Ch.; Asensio-Torres, R.; Vorgul, I.; Rimmer, P. B.

    2016-10-01

    Clouds form on extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs where lightning could occur. Lightning is a tracer of atmospheric convection, cloud formation and ionization processes as known from the Solar system, and may be significant for the formation of prebiotic molecules. We study lightning climatology for the different atmospheric environments of Earth, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn. We present lightning distribution maps for Earth, Jupiter and Saturn, and flash densities for these planets and Venus, based on optical and/or radio measurements from the World Wide Lightning Location Network and Sferics Timing and Ranging Network radio networks, the Lightning Imaging Sensor/Optical Transient Detector satellite instruments, the Galileo, Cassini, New Horizons and Venus Express spacecraft. We also present flash densities calculated for several phases of two volcano eruptions, Eyjafjallajökull's (2010) and Mt Redoubt's (2009). We estimate lightning rates for sample, transiting and directly imaged extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. Based on the large variety of exoplanets, six categories are suggested for which we use the lightning occurrence information from the Solar system. We examine lightning energy distributions for Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. We discuss how strong stellar activity may support lightning activity. We provide a lower limit of the total number of flashes that might occur on transiting planets during their full transit as input for future studies. We find that volcanically very active planets might show the largest lightning flash densities. When applying flash densities of the large Saturnian storm from 2010/11, we find that the exoplanet HD 189733b would produce high lightning occurrence even during its short transit.

  15. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. III. BREAKDOWN CONDITIONS FOR MINERAL CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helling, Ch.; Jardine, M.; Stark, C. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Diver, D., E-mail: ch@leap2010.eu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-20

    Electric discharges were detected directly in the cloudy atmospheres of Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, are debatable for Venus, and indirectly inferred for Neptune and Uranus in our solar system. Sprites (and other types of transient luminous events) have been detected only on Earth, and are theoretically predicted for Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus. Cloud formation is a common phenomenon in ultra-cool atmospheres such as in brown dwarf and extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Cloud particles can be expected to carry considerable charges which may trigger discharge events via small-scale processes between individual cloud particles (intra-cloud discharges) or large-scale processes between clouds (inter-cloud discharges). We investigate electrostatic breakdown characteristics, like critical field strengths and critical charge densities per surface, to demonstrate under which conditions mineral clouds undergo electric discharge events which may trigger or be responsible for sporadic X-ray emission. We apply results from our kinetic dust cloud formation model that is part of the DRIFT-PHOENIX model atmosphere simulations. We present a first investigation of the dependence of the breakdown conditions in brown dwarf and giant gas exoplanets on the local gas-phase chemistry, the effective temperature, and primordial gas-phase metallicity. Our results suggest that different intra-cloud discharge processes dominate at different heights inside mineral clouds: local coronal (point discharges) and small-scale sparks at the bottom region of the cloud where the gas density is high, and flow discharges and large-scale sparks near, and maybe above, the cloud top. The comparison of the thermal degree of ionization and the number density of cloud particles allows us to suggest the efficiency with which discharges will occur in planetary atmospheres.

  16. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  17. Ionization in Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Planets V: Alfv\\'{e}n Ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Craig R; Diver, Declan A; Rimmer, Paul B

    2013-01-01

    Observations of continuous radio and sporadic X-ray emission from low-mass objects suggest they harbour localized plasmas in their atmospheric environments. For low-mass objects, the degree of thermal ionization is insufficient to qualify the ionized component as a plasma, posing the question: what ionization processes can efficiently produce the required plasma that is the source of the radiation? We propose Alfv\\'{e}n ionization as a mechanism for producing localized pockets of ionized gas in the atmosphere, having sufficient degrees of ionization ($\\geq10^{-7}$) that they constitute plasmas. We outline the criteria required for Alfv\\'{e}n ionization and demonstrate it's applicability in the atmospheres of low-mass objects such as giant gas planets, brown dwarfs and M-dwarfs for both solar and sub-solar metallicities. We find that Alfv\\'{e}n ionization is most efficient at mid to low atmospheric pressures where a seed plasma is easier to magnetize and the pressure gradients needed to drive the required neut...

  18. Strong Brightness Variations Signal Cloudy-to-Clear Transition of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Jayawardhana, Ray; Artigau, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a $J$ band search for cloud-related variability in the atmospheres of 62 L4-T9 dwarfs using the Du Pont 2.5-m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the Canada France Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea. We find 9 of 57 objects included in our final analysis to be significantly variable with >99% confidence, 5 of which are new discoveries. In our study, strong variability (peak-to-peak amplitudes >2%) are confined to the L/T transition (4/16 objects with L9-T3.5 spectral types and 0/41 objects for all other spectral types). The probability that the observed occurrence rates for strong variability inside and outside the L/T transition originate from the same underlying true occurrence rate is excluded with >99.7% confidence. These observations suggest that the settling of condensate clouds below the photosphere in brown dwarf atmospheres does not occur in a spatially uniform manner. Rather, the formation and sedimentation of dust grains at the L/T transition is coupled to atmospheric dyna...

  19. PROPERTIES OF THE NEARBY BROWN DWARF WISEP J180026.60+013453.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Vrba, Frederick J. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We present new spectroscopy and astrometry to characterize the nearby brown dwarf WISEP J180026.60+013453.1. The optical spectral type, L7.5, is in agreement with the previously reported near-infrared spectral type. The preliminary trigonometric parallax places it at a distance of 8.01 ± 0.21 pc, confirming that it is the fourth closest known late-L (L7–L9) dwarf. The measured luminosity, our detection of lithium, and the lack of low surface gravity indicators indicates that WISEP J180026.60+013453.1 has a mass 0.03 < M < 0.06 M{sub ⊙} and an age between 300 million and 1.5 billion years according to theoretical substellar evolution models. The low space motion is consistent with this young age. We have measured the rotational broadening (v sin i = 13.5 ± 0.5 km s{sup −1}), and use it to estimate a maximum rotation period of 9.3 hr.

  20. DE0823$-$49 is a juvenile binary brown dwarf at 20.7 pc

    CERN Document Server

    Sahlmann, J; Martín, E L; Lazorenko, P F; Gagliuffi, D C Bardalez; Mayor, M; Ségransan, D; Queloz, D; Udry, S

    2015-01-01

    Astrometric monitoring of the nearby early-L dwarf DE0823$-$49 has revealed a low-mass companion in a 248-day orbit that was announced in an earlier work. Here, we present new astrometric and spectroscopic observations that allow us to characterise the system in detail. The optical spectrum shows LiI-absorption indicative of a young age and/or substellar mass for the primary component. The near-infrared spectrum is best reproduced by a binary system of brown dwarfs with spectral types of L1.5 $+$ L5.5 and effective temperatures of $2150\\pm100$ K and $1670\\pm140$ K. To conform with the photocentric orbit size measured with astrometry and the current understanding of substellar evolution, the system must have an age in the 80--500 Myr range. Evolutionary models predict component masses in the ranges of $M_1\\simeq0.028-0.063\\,M_\\odot$ and $M_2\\simeq0.018-0.045\\,M_\\odot$ with a mass ratio of $q\\simeq0.64-0.74$. Multi-epoch radial velocity measurements unambiguously establish the three-dimensional orbit of the sys...

  1. Kinematics and energetics of swimming performance during acute warming in brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, J M D; Keen, A N; Nudds, R L; Shiels, H A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how acute warming of water temperature affects the mechanical efficiency of swimming and aerobic capabilities of the brown trout Salmo trutta. Swimming efficiency was assessed using the relationship between swimming kinematics and forward speed (U), which is thought to converge upon an optimum range of a dimensionless parameter, the Strouhal number (St ). Swim-tunnel intermittent stopped-flow respirometry was used to record kinematics and measure oxygen consumption (ṀO2) of S. trutta during warming and swimming challenges. Salmo trutta maintained St between 0·2 and 0·3 at any given U over a range of temperatures, irrespective of body size. The maintenance of St within the range for maximum efficiency for oscillatory propulsion was achieved through an increase in tail-beat frequency (ftail) and a decrease in tail-beat amplitude (A) as temperature increased. Maintenance of efficient steady-state swimming was fuelled by aerobic metabolism, which increased as temperature increased up to 18° C but declined above this temperature, decreasing the apparent metabolic scope. As St was maintained over the full range of temperatures whilst metabolic scope was not, the results may suggest energetic trade-offs at any given U at temperatures above thermal optima. PMID:26563644

  2. Kinematics and energetics of swimming performance during acute warming in brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, J M D; Keen, A N; Nudds, R L; Shiels, H A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how acute warming of water temperature affects the mechanical efficiency of swimming and aerobic capabilities of the brown trout Salmo trutta. Swimming efficiency was assessed using the relationship between swimming kinematics and forward speed (U), which is thought to converge upon an optimum range of a dimensionless parameter, the Strouhal number (St ). Swim-tunnel intermittent stopped-flow respirometry was used to record kinematics and measure oxygen consumption (ṀO2) of S. trutta during warming and swimming challenges. Salmo trutta maintained St between 0·2 and 0·3 at any given U over a range of temperatures, irrespective of body size. The maintenance of St within the range for maximum efficiency for oscillatory propulsion was achieved through an increase in tail-beat frequency (ftail) and a decrease in tail-beat amplitude (A) as temperature increased. Maintenance of efficient steady-state swimming was fuelled by aerobic metabolism, which increased as temperature increased up to 18° C but declined above this temperature, decreasing the apparent metabolic scope. As St was maintained over the full range of temperatures whilst metabolic scope was not, the results may suggest energetic trade-offs at any given U at temperatures above thermal optima.

  3. The white dwarfs within 25 pc of the Sun: Kinematics and spectroscopic subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sion, Edward M.; McCook, George P.; Wasatonic, Richard; Myszka, Janine [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Holberg, J. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 75201 (United States); Oswalt, Terry D., E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu, E-mail: george.mccook@villanova.edu, E-mail: richard.wasatonic@villanova.edu, E-mail: janine.myszka@villanova.edu, E-mail: holberg@vega.lpl.arizona.edu, E-mail: toswalt@fit.edu [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 19085 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present the fractional distribution of spectroscopic subtypes, range and distribution of surface temperatures, and kinematical properties of the white dwarfs (WDs) within 25 pc of the Sun. There is no convincing evidence of halo WDs in the total 25 pc sample of 224 WDs. There is also little to suggest the presence of genuine thick disk subcomponent members within 25 pc. It appears that the entire 25 pc sample likely belongs to the thin disk. We also find no significant kinematic differences with respect to spectroscopic subtypes. The total DA to non-DA ratio of the 25 pc sample is 1.8, a manifestation of deepening envelope convection, which transforms DA stars with sufficiently thin H surface layers into non-DAs. We compare this ratio with the results of other studies. We find that at least 11% of the WDs within 25 pc of the Sun (the DAZ and DZ stars) have photospheric metals that likely originate from accretion of circumstellar material (debris disks) around them. If this interpretation is correct, then it suggests the possibility that a similar percentage have planets, asteroid-like bodies, or debris disks orbiting them. Our volume-limited sample reveals a pileup of DC WDs at the well-known cutoff in DQ WDs at T {sub eff} ∼ 6000 K. Mindful of small number statistics, we speculate on its possible evolutionary significance. We find that the incidence of magnetic WDs in the 25 pc sample is at least 8% in our volume-limited sample, dominated by cool WDs. We derive approximate formation rates of DB and DQ degenerates and present a preliminary test of the evolutionary scenario that all cooling DB stars become DQ WDs via helium convective dredge-up with the diffusion tail of carbon extending upward from their cores.

  4. AN ACTIVITY–ROTATION RELATIONSHIP AND KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF NEARBY MID-TO-LATE-TYPE M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Andrew A.; Weisenburger, Kolby L. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Dittmann, Jason [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Berta-Thompson, Zachory K. [MIT, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Bldg. 37, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pineda, J. Sebastian, E-mail: aawest@bu.edu [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, 1200 E. California Ave, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-10

    Using spectroscopic observations and photometric light curves of 238 nearby M dwarfs from the MEarth exoplanet transit survey, we examine the relationships between magnetic activity (quantified by Hα emission), rotation period, and stellar age. Previous attempts to investigate the relationship between magnetic activity and rotation in these stars were hampered by the limited number of M dwarfs with measured rotation periods (and the fact that v sin i measurements probe only rapid rotation). However, the photometric data from MEarth allows us to probe a wide range of rotation periods for hundreds of M dwarf stars (from shorter than one to longer than 100 days). Over all M spectral types that we probe, we find that the presence of magnetic activity is tied to rotation, including for late-type, fully convective M dwarfs. We also find evidence that the fraction of late-type M dwarfs that are active may be higher at longer rotation periods compared to their early-type counterparts, with several active, late-type, slowly rotating stars present in our sample. Additionally, we find that all M dwarfs with rotation periods shorter than 26 days (early-type; M1–M4) and 86 days (late-type; M5–M8) are magnetically active. This potential mismatch suggests that the physical mechanisms that connect stellar rotation to chromospheric heating may be different in fully convective stars. A kinematic analysis suggests that the magnetically active, rapidly rotating stars are consistent with a kinematically young population, while slow-rotators are less active or inactive and appear to belong to an older, dynamically heated stellar population.

  5. Kinematic properties as probes of the evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Toloba, E; Gorgas, J; Peletier, R F; Cenarro, A J; Gadotti, D A; de Paz, A Gil; Pedraz, S; Yildiz, U

    2009-01-01

    We present new observational results on the kinematical, morphological, and stellar population properties of a sample of 21 dEs located both in the Virgo cluster and in the field, which show that 52% of the dEs i) are rotationally supported, ii) exhibit structural signs of typical rotating systems such as discs, bars or spiral arms, iii) are younger (~3 Gyr) than non-rotating dEs, and iv) are preferentially located either in the outskirts of Virgo or in the field. This evidence is consistent with the idea that rotationally supported dwarfs are late type spirals or irregulars that recently entered the cluster and lost their gas through a ram pressure stripping event, quenching their star formation and becoming dEs through passive evolution. We also find that all, but one, galaxies without photometric hints for hosting discs are pressure supported and are all situated in the inner regions of the cluster. This suggests a different evolution from the rotationally supported systems. Three different scenarios for t...

  6. The Gravitational Potential near the Sun from SEGUE K-dwarf Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Rix, Hans-Walter; van de Ven, Glenn; Bovy, Jo; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Gang

    2013-08-01

    To constrain the Galactic gravitational potential near the Sun (~1.5 kpc), we derive and model the spatial and velocity distributions for a sample of 9000 K-dwarfs with spectra from SDSS/SEGUE, which yield radial velocities and abundances ([Fe/H] and [α/Fe]). We first derive the spatial density distribution for three abundance-selected sub-populations of stars accounting for the survey's selection function. The vertical profiles of these sub-populations are simple exponentials and their vertical dispersion profile is nearly isothermal. To model these data, we apply the "vertical" Jeans equation, which relates the observable tracer number density and vertical velocity dispersion to the gravitational potential or vertical force. We explore a number of functional forms for the vertical force law, fit the dispersion and density profiles of all abundance-selected sub-populations simultaneously in the same potential, and explore all parameter co-variances using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. Our fits constrain a disk mass scale height round dark matter halos to kinematic data in the outskirts of the Galaxy.

  7. Structural and compositional properties of brown dwarf disks: the case of 2MASS J04442713+2512164

    CERN Document Server

    Bouy, H; Pinte, C; Olofsson, J; Navascues, D Barrado y; Martín, E L; Pantin, E; Monin, J -L; Basri, G; Augereau, J -C; Ménard, F; Duvert, G; Duchêne, G; Marchis, F; Bayo, A; Bottinelli, S; Lefort, B; Guieu, S

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve our understanding of substellar formation, we have performed a compositional and structural study of a brown dwarf disk. We present the result of photometric, spectroscopic and imaging observations of 2MASS J04442713+2512164, a young brown dwarf (M7.25) member of the Taurus association. Our dataset, combined with results from the literature, provides a complete coverage of the spectral energy distribution from the optical to the millimeter including the first photometric measurement of a brown dwarf disk at 3.7mm, and allows us to perform a detailed analysis of the disk properties. The target was known to have a disk. High resolution optical spectroscopy shows that it is intensely accreting, and powers a jet and an outflow. The disk structure is similar to that observed for more massive TTauri stars. Spectral decomposition models of Spitzer/IRS spectra suggest that the mid-infrared emission from the optically thin disk layers is dominated by grains with intermediate sizes (1.5micron). Crys...

  8. Probing Cloud-Driven Variability on Two of the Youngest, Lowest-Mass Brown Dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adam; Cushing, Michael; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2016-08-01

    Young, late-type brown dwarfs share many properties with directly imaged giant extrasolar planets. They therefore provide unique testbeds for investigating the physical conditions present in this critical temperature and mass regime. WISEA 1147-2040 and 2MASS 1119-1137, two recently discovered late-type (~L7) brown dwarfs, have both been determined to be members of the ~10 Myr old TW Hya Association (Kellogg et al. 2016, Schneider et al. 2016). Each has an estimated mass of 5-6 MJup, making them two of the youngest and lowest-mass free floating objects yet found in the solar neighborhood. As such, these two planetary mass objects provide unparalleled laboratories for investigating giant planet-like atmospheres far from the contaminating starlight of a host sun. Condensate clouds play a critical role in shaping the emergent spectra of both brown dwarfs and gas giant planets, and can cause photometric variability via their non-uniform spatial distribution. We propose to photometrically monitor WISEA 1147-2040 and 2MASS 1119-1137 in order to search for the presence of cloud-driven variability to 1) investigate the potential trend of low surface gravity with high-amplitude variability in a previously unexplored mass regime and 2) explore the angular momentum evolution of isolated planetary mass objects.

  9. Rotation periods and astrometric motions of the Luhman 16AB brown dwarfs by high-resolution lucky-imaging monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, L; Littlefair, S P; Southworth, J; Bozza, V; Damasso, M; Dominik, M; Hundertmark, M; Jorgensen, U G; Juncher, D; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Schmidt, R W; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Sozzetti, A; Alsubai, K; Bramich, D M; Novati, S Calchi; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Jaimes, R Figuera; Galianni, P; Gu, S -H; Harpsoe, K; Haugbolle, T; Henning, Th; Hinse, T C; Kains, N; Korhonen, H; Scarpetta, G; Starkey, D; Surdej, J; Wang, X -B; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    Context. Photometric monitoring of the variability of brown dwarfs can provide useful information about the structure of clouds in their cold atmospheres. The brown-dwarf binary system Luhman 16AB is an interesting target for such a study, as its components stand at the L/T transition and show high levels of variability. Luhman 16AB is also the third closest system to the Solar system, allowing precise astrometric investigations with ground-based facilities. Aims. The aim of the work is to estimate the rotation period and study the astrometric motion of both components. Methods. We have monitored Luhman 16AB over a period of two years with the lucky-imaging camera mounted on the Danish 1.54m telescope at La Silla, through a special i+z long-pass filter, which allowed us to clearly resolve the two brown dwarfs into single objects. An intense monitoring of the target was also performed over 16 nights, in which we observed a peak-to-peak variability of 0.20 \\pm 0.02 mag and 0.34 \\pm 0.02 mag for Luhman 16A and 1...

  10. The Solar Neighborhood XXVIII: The Multiplicity Fraction of Nearby Stars from 5 to 70 AU and the Brown Dwarf Desert Around M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dieterich, Sergio B; Golimowski, David A; Krist, John E; Tanner, Angelle M

    2012-01-01

    We report on our analysis of HST/NICMOS snapshot high resolution images of 255 stars in 201 systems within ~10 parsecs of the Sun. Photometry was obtained through filters F110W, F180M, F207M, and F222M using NICMOS Camera 2. These filters were selected to permit clear identification of cool brown dwarfs through methane contrast imaging. With a plate scale of 76 mas/pixel, NICMOS can easily resolve binaries with sub-arcsecond separations in the 19".5x19".5 field of view. We previously reported five companions to nearby M and L dwarfs from this search. No new companions were discovered during the second phase of data analysis presented here, confirming that stellar/substellar binaries are rare. We establish magnitude and separation limits for which companions can be ruled out for each star in the sample, and then perform a comprehensive sensitivity and completeness analysis for the subsample of 138 M dwarfs in 126 systems. We calculate a multiplicity fraction of 0.0{-0.0}^{+3.5}% for L companions to M dwarfs in...

  11. Discovery of a Brown Dwarf Companion to Gliese 570ABC A 2MASS T Dwarf Significantly Cooler than Gliese 229B

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Cutri, R M; McCallon, H; Kopan, G; Gizis, J E; Liebert, J; Reid, I N; Brown, M E; Monet, D G; Dahn, C C; Beichman, C A; Skrutskie, M F

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of a widely separated (258$\\farcs3\\pm0\\farcs$4) T dwarf companion to the Gl 570ABC system. This new component, Gl 570D, was initially identified from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Its near-infrared spectrum shows the 1.6 and 2.2 $\\micron$ CH$_4$ absorption bands characteristic of T dwarfs, while its common proper motion with the Gl 570ABC system confirms companionship. Gl 570D (M$_J$ = 16.47$\\pm$0.07) is nearly a full magnitude dimmer than the only other known T dwarf companion, Gl 229B, and estimates of L = (2.8$\\pm$0.3)x10$^{-6}$ L$_{\\sun}$ and T$_{eff}$ = 750$\\pm$50 K make it significantly cooler and less luminous than any other known brown dwarf companion. Using evolutionary models by Burrows et al. and an adopted age of 2-10 Gyr, we derive a mass estimate of 50$\\pm$20 M$_{Jup}$ for this object.

  12. Neptune's Dynamic Atmosphere from Kepler K2 Observations: Implications for Brown Dwarf Light Curve Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Amy A; Gaulme, Patrick; Hammel, Heidi B; Casewell, Sarah L; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gizis, John E; Lissauer, Jack J; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Orton, Glenn S; Wong, Michael H; Marley, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Observations of Neptune with the Kepler Space Telescope yield a 49-day light curve with 98% coverage at a 1-minute cadence. A significant signature in the light curve comes from discrete cloud features. We compare results extracted from the light curve data with contemporaneous disk-resolved imaging of Neptune from the Keck 10-meter telescope at 1.65 microns and Hubble Space Telescope visible imaging acquired 9 months later. This direct comparison validates the feature latitudes assigned to the K2 light curve periods based on Neptune's zonal wind profile, and confirms observed cloud feature variability. Although Neptune's clouds vary in location and intensity on short and long time scales, a single large discrete storm seen in Keck imaging dominates the K2 and Hubble light curves; smaller or fainter clouds likely contribute to short-term brightness variability. The K2 Neptune light curve, in conjunction with our imaging data, provides context for the interpretation of current and future brown dwarf and extras...

  13. Temperature constraints on the coldest brown dwarf known WISE 0855-0714

    CERN Document Server

    Beamín, J C; Bayo, A; Mužić, K; Boffin, H M J; Allard, F; Homeier, D; Minniti, D; Gromadzki, M; Kurtev, R; Lodieu, N; Martin, E L; Mendez, R A

    2014-01-01

    Context. Nearby isolated planetary mass objects are beginning to be discovered, but their individual properties are poorly constrained because their low surface temperatures and strong molecular self-absorption make them extremely faint. Aims. We aimed to detect the near infrared emission of the coldest brown dwarf (BD) found so far WISE0855$-$0714, located $\\sim$2.2 pc away, and to improve its temperature estimate (T$_{\\rm eff}$= 225-260 K) from a comparison with state of the art models of BD atmospheres. Methods. We observed the field containing WISE0855-0714 with HAWK-I at the VLT in the $Y$ band. For BDs with T$_{\\rm eff}24.4 mag at 3-$\\sigma$ level, leading to Y-[4.5]>10.5. Combining this limit with previous detections and upper limits at other wavelengths, WISE0855-0714 is confirmed as the reddest BD detected. We applied spectral energy distribution fitting with collections of models from two independent groups for extremely cool BD atmospheres leading to an effective temperature of T$_{\\rm eff}<$250...

  14. A Search for Companions to Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, K O; Konopacky, Q M; McLeod, K K; Apai, D; Ghez, A M; Pascucci, I; Robberto, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a search for companions to young brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star forming regions (1/2-3 Myr). We have used WFPC2 on board HST to obtain F791W and F850LP images of 47 members of these regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (0.01-0.1 Msun). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. We have applied PSF subtraction to the primaries and have searched the resulting images for objects that have colors and magnitudes that are indicative of young low-mass objects. Through this process, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (rho=0.105"/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (rho=0.05"/7 AU), and ISO 217 (rho=0.03"/5 AU). We reported the discovery of the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary through a comparison of astrometry measured with WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional e...

  15. A Venus-Mass Planet Orbiting a Brown Dwarf: Missing Link between Planets and Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Udalski, A; Han, C; Gould, A; Kozlowski, S; Skowron, J; Poleski, R; Soszyński, I; Pietrukowicz, P; Mróz, P; Szymański, M K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrzyński, G; Shvartzvald, Y; Maoz, D; Kaspi, S; Gaudi, B S; Hwang, K -H; Choi, J -Y; Shin, I -G; Park, H; Bozza, V

    2015-01-01

    The co-planarity of solar-system planets led Kant to suggest that they formed from an accretion disk, and the discovery of hundreds of such disks around young stars as well as hundreds of co-planar planetary systems by the {\\it Kepler} satellite demonstrate that this formation mechanism is extremely widespread. Many moons in the solar system, such as the Galilean moons of Jupiter, also formed out of the accretion disks that coalesced into the giant planets. We report here the discovery of an intermediate system OGLE-2013-BLG-0723LB/Bb composed of a Venus-mass planet orbiting a brown dwarf, which may be viewed either as a scaled down version of a planet plus star or as a scaled up version of a moon plus planet orbiting a star. The latter analogy can be further extended since they orbit in the potential of a larger, stellar body. For ice-rock companions formed in the outer parts of accretion disks, like Uranus and Callisto, the scaled masses and separations of the three types of systems are similar, leading us ...

  16. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Disks in Lupus

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, P R; Myers, P C; Megeath, S T; Allen, L E; Hartmann, L; Fazio, G G

    2007-01-01

    Using the Infrared Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer aboard the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}, we have obtained images of the Lupus 3 star-forming cloud at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 \\micron. We present photometry in these bands for the 41 previously known members that are within our images. In addition, we have identified 19 possible new members of the cloud based on red 3.6-8.0 \\micron colors that are indicative of circumstellar disks. We have performed optical spectroscopy on 6 of these candidates, all of which are confirmed as young low-mass members of Lupus 3. The spectral types of these new members range from M4.75 to M8, corresponding to masses of 0.2-0.03 $M_\\odot$ for ages of $\\sim1$ Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. We also present optical spectroscopy of a candidate disk-bearing object in the vicinity of the Lupus 1 cloud, 2M 1541-3345, which Jayawardhana & Ivanov recently classified as a young brown dwarf ($M\\sim0.03$ $M_\\odot$) with a spectral type of M8. In co...

  17. Self-consistent evolution of accreting low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Baraffe, I; Vorobyov, E I; Chabrier, G

    2016-01-01

    We present self-consistent calculations coupling numerical hydrodynamics simulations of collapsing pre-stellar cores and stellar evolution models of accreting objects. We analyse the main impact of consistent accretion history on the evolution and lithium depletion of young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. These consistent models confirm the generation of a luminosity spread in Herzsprung-Russell diagrams at ages $\\sim$ 1-10 Myr. They also confirm that early accretion can produce objects with abnormal Li depletion, as found in a previous study that was based on arbitrary accretion rates. The results strengthen that objects with anomalously high level of Li depletion in young clusters should be extremely rare. We also find that early phases of burst accretion can produce coeval models of similar mass with a range of different Li surface abundances, and in particular with Li-excess compared to the predictions of non-accreting counterparts. This result is due to a subtle competition between the effect of burst a...

  18. EPIC 219388192 b - an inhabitant of the brown dwarf desert in the Ruprecht 147 open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Grzegorz; Gandolfi, Davide; Dai, Fei; Lanza, Antonino F; Hirano, Teruyuki; Barragán, Oscar; Fukui, Akihiko; Bruntt, Hans; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Kiilerich, Amanda; Nespral, David; Hatzes, Artie P; Albrecht, Simon; Deeg, Hans; Winn, Joshua N; Yu, Liang; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Grziwa, Sascha; Smith, Alexis M S; Moroni, Pier G Prada; Guenther, Eike W; Van Eylen, Vincent; Csizmadia, Szilard; Fridlund, Malcolm; Cabrera, Juan; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Korth, Judith; Narita, Norio; Pätzold, Martin; Rauer, Heike; Ribas, Ignasi

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of EPIC 219388192 b, a transiting brown dwarf in a 5.3-day orbit around a member star of Ruprecht-147, the oldest nearby open cluster association, which was photometrically monitored by K2 during its Campaign 7. We combine the K2 time-series data with ground-based adaptive optics imaging and high resolution spectroscopy to rule out false positive scenarios and determine the main parameters of the system. EPIC 219388192 b has a radius of $R_\\mathrm{b}$=$0.937\\pm0.042$~$\\mathrm{R_{Jup}}$ and mass of $M_\\mathrm{b}$=$36.50\\pm0.09$~$\\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$, yielding a mean density of $59.0\\pm8.1$~$\\mathrm{g\\,cm^{-3}}$. The host star is nearly a Solar twin with mass $M_\\star$=$0.99\\pm0.05$~$\\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$, radius $R_\\star$=$1.01\\pm0.04$~$\\mathrm{R_{\\odot}}$, effective temperature $\\mathrm{T_{eff}}$=$5850\\pm85$~K and iron abundance [Fe/H]=$0.03\\pm0.08$~dex. Its age, spectroscopic distance, and reddening are consistent with those of Ruprecht-147, corroborating its cluster membership. EPIC 21938...

  19. A molecular outflow driven by the brown dwarf binary FU Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Monin, J -L; Lefloch, B; Dougados, C; de Oliveira, C Alves

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of a molecular outflow driven by the brown dwarf binary FU Tau. Using the IRAM 30 m telescope we observed the $^{12}$CO(2-1) (CO) emission in the vicinity of FU Tau and detected a bipolar outflow by examining the wings of the CO(2-1) line as we moved away from the source position. An integrated map of the wing emission between 3 kms$^{-1}$ and 5 kms$^{-1}$ reveals a blue-shifted lobe at a position of $\\sim$ 20 \\arcsec\\ from the FU Tau system and at a position angle of $\\sim$ 20$^{\\circ}$. The beam size of the observations is $11\\arcsec$\\ hence it is not possible to distinguish between the two components of the FU Tau binary. However as optical forbidden emission, a strong tracer of the shocks caused by outflow activity, has been detected in the spectrum of FU Tau A we assume this component to be the driving source of the molecular outflow. We estimate the mass and mass outflow rate of the outflow at 4 $\\times$ 10$^{-6}$ \\Msun\\ and 6 $\\times$ 10$^{-10}$ \\Msun/yr respectively. These resu...

  20. Water Clouds in the Atmosphere of a Jupiter-Like Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Lying a mere 7.2 light-years away, WISE 0855 is the nearest known planetary-mass object. This brown dwarf, a failed star just slightly more massive than Jupiter, is also the coldest known compact body outside of our solar system and new observations have now provided us with a first look at its atmosphere.Temperaturepressure profiles of Jupiter, WISE 0855, and what was previously the coldest extrasolar object with a 5-m spectrum, Gl 570D. Thicker lines show the location of each objects 5-m photospheres. WISE 0855s and Jupiters photospheres are near the point where water starts to condense out into clouds (dashed line). [Skemer et al. 2016]Challenging ObservationsWith a chilly temperature of 250 K, the brown dwarf WISE 0855 is the closest thing weve been able to observe to a body resembling Jupiters ~130 K. WISE 0855 therefore presents an intriguing opportunity to directly study the atmosphere of an object whose physical characteristics are similar to our own gas giants.But studying the atmospheric characteristics of such a body is tricky. WISE 0855 is too cold and faint to be able to obtain traditional optical or near-infrared ( 2.5 m) spectroscopy of it. Luckily, like Jupiter, the opacity of its gas allows thermal emission from its deep atmosphere to escape through an atmospheric window around ~5 m.A team of scientists led by Andrew Skemer (UC Santa Cruz) set out to observe WISE 0855 in this window with the Gemini-North telescope and the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph. Though WISE 0855 is five times fainter than the faintest object previously detected with ground-based 5-m spectroscopy, the dry air of Mauna Kea (and a lot of patience!) allowed the team to obtain unprecedented spectra of this object.WISE 0855s spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor, and its best fit by a cloudy brown-dwarf model. [Skemer et al. 2016]Water Clouds FoundExoplanets and brown dwarfs cooler than ~350 K are expected to form water ice clouds in upper atmosphere

  1. Photometric Monitoring of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf with the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}

    CERN Document Server

    Esplin, Taran; Cushing, Michael; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Trucks, Jessica; Burgasser, Adam; Schneider, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Because WISE J085510.83$-$071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855-0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf ($\\sim250$ K) and one of the Sun's closest neighbors (2.2 pc), it offers a unique opportunity for studying a planet-like atmosphere in an unexplored regime of temperature. To detect and characterize inhomogeneities in its atmosphere (e.g., patchy clouds, hot spots), we have performed time-series photometric monitoring of WISE 0855-0714 at 3.6 and 4.5 micron with the Spitzer Space Telescope during two 23~hr periods that were separated by several months. For both bands, we have detected variability with peak-to-peak amplitudes of 4-5% and 3-4% in the first and second epochs, respectively. The light curves are semi-periodic in the first epoch for both bands, but are more irregular in the second epoch. Models of patchy clouds have predicted a large increase in mid-IR variability amplitudes (for a given cloud covering fraction) with the appearance of water ice clouds at $T_{\\rm eff}<$375 K, so if such clouds are respo...

  2. The properties of discs around planets and brown dwarfs as evidence for disc fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Direct imaging searches have revealed many very low-mass objects, including a small number of planetary mass objects, as wide-orbit companions to young stars. The formation mechanism of these objects remains uncertain. In this paper we present the predictions of the disc fragmentation model regarding the properties of the discs around such low-mass objects. We find that the discs around objects that have formed by fragmentation in discs hosted by Sun-like stars (referred to as 'parent' discs and 'parent' stars) are more massive than expected from the ${M}_{\\rm disc}-M_*$ relation (which is derived for stars with masses $M_*>0.2 {\\rm M}_{\\odot}$). Accordingly, the accretion rates onto these objects are also higher than expected from the $\\dot{M}_*-M_*$ relation. Moreover there is no significant correlation between the mass of the brown dwarf or planet with the mass of its disc nor with the accretion rate from the disc onto it. The discs around objects that form by disc fragmentation have larger than expected m...

  3. Classical T Tauri-like Outflow Activity in the Brown Dwarf Mass Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Podio, L; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S

    2009-01-01

    Over the last number of years spectroscopic studies have strongly supported the assertion that protostellar accretion and outflow activity persists to the lowest masses. In this paper we present the results of our latest investigation of brown dwarf (BD) outflow activity and report on the discovery of two new outflows. Here ISO-Oph 32 is shown to drive a blue-shifted outflow with a radial velocity of 10-20 km/s and spectro-astrometric analysis constrains the position angle of this outflow to 240 +/- 7 degrees. The BD candidate ISO-Cha1 217 is found to have a bipolar outflow bright in several key forbidden lines (radial velocity = -20 km/s, +40 km/s) and with a PA of 190-210 degrees. A striking feature of the ISO-Cha1 217 outflow is the strong asymmetry between the red and blue-shifted lobes. This asymmetry is revealed in the relative brightness of the two lobes (red-shifted lobe is brighter), the factor of two difference in radial velocity (the red-shifted lobe is faster) and the difference in the electron de...

  4. Spectroscopy across the brown dwarf/planetary mass boundary - I. Near-infrared JHK spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Patience, J; De Rosa, R J; Vigan, A; Witte, S; Rice, E; Helling, Ch; Hauschildt, P

    2012-01-01

    With a uniform VLT SINFONI data set of nine targets, we have developed an empirical grid of J,H,K spectra of the atmospheres of objects estimated to have very low substellar masses of \\sim5-20 MJup and young ages of \\sim1-50 Myr. Most of the targets are companions, objects which are especially valuable for comparison with atmosphere and evolutionary models, as they present rare cases in which the age is accurately known from the primary. Based on the sample youth, all objects are expected to have low surface gravity, and this study investigates the critical early phases of the evolution of substellar objects. The spectra are compared with grids of five different theoretical atmosphere models. This analysis represents the first systematic model comparison with infrared spectra of young brown dwarfs. The fits to the full JHK spectra of each object result in a range of best fit effective temperatures of +/-150-300K whether or not the full model grid or a subset restricted to lower log(g) values is used. This eff...

  5. Small hydrocarbon molecules in cloud-forming Brown Dwarf and giant gas planet atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bilger, Camille; Helling, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    We study the abundances of complex carbon-bearing molecules in the oxygen-rich dust- forming atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and giant gas planets. The inner atmospheric re- gions that form the inner boundary for thermochemical gas-phase models are investigated. Results from Drift-phoenix atmosphere simulations, which include the feedback of phase- non-equilibrium dust cloud formation on the atmospheric structure and the gas-phase abun- dances, are utilised. The resulting element depletion leads to a shift in the carbon-to-oxygen ratio such that several hydrocarbon molecules and cyanopolycyanopolyynene molecules can be present. An increase in surface gravity and/or a decrease in metallicity support the increase in the partial pressures of these species. CO, CO2, CH4, and HCN contain the largest fraction of carbon. In the upper atmosphere of low-metallicity objects, more carbon is contained in C4H than in CO, and also CH3 and C2H2 play an increasingly important role as carbon-sink. We determine chemical relaxation...

  6. ON THE SURVIVAL OF BROWN DWARFS AND PLANETS ENGULFED BY THEIR GIANT HOST STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passy, Jean-Claude; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); De Marco, Orsola [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-11-10

    The recent discovery of two Earth-mass planets in close orbits around an evolved star has raised questions as to whether substellar companions can survive encounters with their host stars. We consider whether these companions could have been stripped of significant amounts of mass during the phase when they orbited through the dense inner envelopes of the giant. We apply the criterion derived by Murray et al. for disruption of gravitationally bound objects by ram pressure to determine whether mass loss may have played a role in the histories of these and other recently discovered low-mass companions to evolved stars. We find that the brown dwarf and Jovian-mass objects circling WD 0137-349, SDSS J08205+0008, and HIP 13044 are most unlikely to have lost significant mass during the common envelope phase. However, the Earth-mass planets found around KIC 05807616 could well be the remnants of one or two Jovian-mass planets that lost extensive mass during the common envelope phase.

  7. New Brown Dwarfs and an Updated Initial Mass Function in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2004-01-01

    I have performed a search for young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (BDs) in 2 regions encompassing a total area of 4 deg^2 in the Taurus star-forming region, discovering 15 new members of Taurus. In addition, I present 7 new members outside of these areas from the initial stage of a survey of all of Taurus. These 22 objects exhibit spectral types of M4.5-M9.25 and masses of 0.3-0.015 M_sun according to the theoretical evolutionary models of Baraffe and Chabrier, 7 of which are likely to be BDs. Emission in H(alpha), He I, Ca II, [O I], and [S II] and excess emission in optical and near-IR bands among some of these objects suggest the presence of accretion, outflows, and circumstellar disks. The results from the 4 deg^2 survey have been combined with previous studies of Taurus to arrive at an IMF for a total area of 12.4 deg^2. As in the previous IMFs for Taurus, the updated IMF peaks at a higher mass (0.8 M_sun) than the mass functions in IC 348 and Orion (0.1-0.2 M_sun). Meanwhile, the deficit of BDs in Tau...

  8. Determination of the globular cluster and halo stellar mass functions and stellar and brown dwarf densities

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Chabrier, Gilles; Méra, Dominique

    1997-01-01

    We use recent low-mass star models, which reproduce accurately the observed sequences of various globular clusters, to convert the observed luminosity functions into bolometric luminosity functions and mass functions down to the bottom of the main sequence. These mass functions are well describedby a slowly rising power-law $dN/dm\\propto m^{-\\alpha}$, with $0.5\\wig < \\alpha \\wig < 1.5$, down to $\\sim 0.1 \\msol$, independently of the metallicity, suggesting a rather universal behaviour of the cluster initial mass functions. We predict luminosity functions in the NICMOS filters in the stellar and in the brown dwarf domains for different mass functions and metallicities. We apply these calculations to the determination, slope and normalization, of the mass function of the Galactic halo (spheroid and dark halo). The spheroid mass function is well described by the afore-mentioned power-law function with function below $\\sim 0.15 \\msol$ can not be excluded with the data presently available. Comparison with th...

  9. Detection of brown dwarf-like objects in the core of NGC3603

    CERN Document Server

    Spezzi, Loredana; De Marchi, Guido; Young, Erick T; Paresce, Francesco; Dopita, Michael A; Andersen, Morten; Panagia, Nino; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard E; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, C Marcella; Disney, Michael J; Frogel, Jay A; Hall, Donald N B; Holtzman, Jon A; Kimble, Randy A; McCarthy, Patrick J; O'Connell, Robert W; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I; Trauger, John T; Walker, Alistair R; Whitmore, Bradley C; Windhorst, Rogier A

    2011-01-01

    We use near-infrared data obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope to identify objects having the colors of brown dwarfs (BDs) in the field of the massive galactic cluster NGC 3603. These are identified through use of a combination of narrow and medium band filters spanning the J and H bands, and which are particularly sensitive to the presence of the 1.3-1.5{\\mu}m H2O molecular band - unique to BDs. We provide a calibration of the relationship between effective temperature and color for both field stars and for BDs. This photometric method provides effective temperatures for BDs to an accuracy of {\\pm}350K relative to spectroscopic techniques. This accuracy is shown to be not significantly affected by either stellar surface gravity or uncertainties in the interstellar extinction. We identify nine objects having effective temperature between 1700 and 2200 K, typical of BDs, observed J-band magnitudes in the range 19.5-21.5, and that are strongly clustered towards the luminous...

  10. BANYAN. VIII. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Candidate Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Boucher, Anne; Gagné, Jonathan; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Doyon, René; Chen, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new circumstellar disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types >K5 that are confirmed or candidate members of nearby young moving groups. Our search input sample was drawn from the BANYAN surveys of Malo et al. and Gagn\\'e et al. Two-Micron All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data were used to detect near- to mid-infrared excesses that would reveal the presence of circumstellar disks. A total of 13 targets with convincing excesses were identified: four are new and nine were already known in the literature. The new candidates are 2MASS J05010082$-$4337102 (M4.5), J08561384$-$1342242 (M8$\\,\\gamma$), J12474428$-$3816464 (M9$\\,\\gamma$) and J02265658$-$5327032 (L0$\\,\\delta$), and are candidate members of the TW Hya ($\\sim10\\pm 3\\,$Myr), Columba ($\\sim 42^{+6}_{-4}\\,$Myr) and Tucana-Horologium ($\\sim 45\\pm 4\\,$Myr) associations, with masses of $120$ and $13-18\\,M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$. The M8$-$L0 objects in Columba and Tucana-Horologium are po...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hydrogen and Helium EOS in brown dwarfs (Becker+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Lorenzen, W.; Fortney, J. J.; Nettelmann, N.; Schottler, M.; Redmer, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present new equations of state (EOSs) for hydrogen and helium covering a wide range of temperatures from 60K to 107K and densities from 10-10g/cm3 to 103g/cm3. They include an extended set of ab initio EOS data for the strongly correlated quantum regime with an accurate connection to data derived from other approaches for the neighboring regions. We compare linear mixing isotherms based on our EOS tables with available real mixture data. A first important astrophysical application of this new EOS data is the calculation of interior models for Jupiter and comparison with recent results. Second, mass-radius relations are calculated for Brown Dwarfs (BDs) which we compare with predictions derived from the widely used EOS of Saumon, Chabrier, and van Horn. Furthermore, we calculate interior models for typical BDs with different masses, namely, Corot-3b, Gliese-229b, and Corot-15b, and the giant planet KOI-889b. The predictions for the central pressures and densities differ by up to 10% dependent on the EOS used. (2 data files).

  12. Lucky Imaging Adaptive Optics of the brown dwarf binary GJ569Bab

    CERN Document Server

    Femenía, Autors: B; Pérez-Prieto, J A; Hildebrandt, S R; Labadie, L; Pérez-Garrido, A; Béjar, V J S; Díaz-Sánchez, A; Villó, I; Oscoz, A; López, R; Rodríguez, L F; Piqueras, J

    2010-01-01

    The potential of combining Adaptive Optics (AO) and Lucky Imaging (LI) to achieve high precision astrometry and differential photometry in the optical is investigated by conducting observations of the close 0\\farcs1 brown dwarf binary GJ569Bab. We took 50000 $I$-band images with our LI instrument FastCam attached to NAOMI, the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) AO facility. In order to extract the most of the astrometry and photometry of the GJ569Bab system we have resorted to a PSF fitting technique using the primary star GJ569A as a suitable PSF reference which exhibits an $I$-band magnitude of $7.78\\pm0.03$. The AO+LI observations at WHT were able to resolve the binary system GJ569Bab located at $4\\farcs 92 \\pm 0\\farcs05$ from GJ569A. We measure a separation of $98.4 \\pm 1.1$ mas and $I$-band magnitudes of $13.86 \\pm 0.03$ and $14.48 \\pm 0.03$ and $I-J$ colors of 2.72$\\pm$0.08 and 2.83$\\pm$0.08 for the Ba and Bb components, respectively. Our study rules out the presence of any other companion to GJ569A...

  13. Rotational studies in the Orion Nebula Cluster: from solar mass stars to brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, Maria Victoria; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    Rotational studies at a variety of ages and masses are important for constraining the angular momentum evolution of young stellar objects (YSO). Of particular interest are the very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs (BDs), because of the significant lack of known rotational periods in that mass range. We provide for the first time information on rotational periods for a large sample of young VLM stars and BDs. This extensive rotational period study in the 1 Myr old Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is based on a deep photometric monitoring campaign using the Wide Field Imager (WFI) camera on the ESO/MPG 2.2m telescope on La Silla, Chile. Accurate I-band photometry of 2908 stars was obtained, extending three magnitudes deeper than previous studies in the ONC. We found 487 periodic variables with estimated masses between 0.5 Msun and 0.015 Msun, 124 of which are BD candidates. This is by far the most extensive and complete rotational period data set for young VLM stars and BDs. In addition, 808 objects show non-per...

  14. Not Alone: Tracing the Origins of Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs Through Multiplicity Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Siegler, N; Close, L; Allen, P; Lowrance, P J; Gizis, J; Burgasser, Adam J.; Siegler, Nick; Close, Laird; Allen, Peter; Lowrance, Patrick; Gizis, John

    2006-01-01

    The properties of multiple stellar systems have long provided important empirical constraints for star formation theories, enabling (along with several other lines of evidence) a concrete, qualitative picture of the birth and early evolution of normal stars. At very low masses (VLM; M = 0.8) occurring infrequently (perhaps 10-30%). Both the frequency and maximum separation of stellar and brown dwarf binaries steadily decrease for lower system masses, suggesting that VLM binary formation and/or evolution may be a mass-dependent process. There is evidence for a fairly rapid decline in the number of loosely-bound systems below ~0.3 M_sun, corresponding to a factor of 10-20 increase in the minimum binding energy of VLM binaries as compared to more massive stellar binaries. This wide-separation ``desert'' is present among both field (~1-5 Gyr) and older (> 100 Myr) cluster systems, while the youngest (<~10 Myr) VLM binaries, particularly those in nearby, low-density star forming regions, appear to have somewhat...

  15. A Pulsation Search Among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, Palla & Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars (VLMSs; <0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of 1-4 hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters $\\sigma$ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to obs...

  16. The SONYC survey: Towards a complete census of brown dwarfs in star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Muzic, K; Geers, V C; Jayawardhana, R; Tamura, M; Dawson, P; Ray, T P

    2013-01-01

    SONYC, short for "Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters", is a survey program to provide a census of the substellar population in nearby star forming regions. We have conducted deep optical and near-infrared photometry in five young regions (NGC1333, rho Ophiuchi, Chamaeleon-I, Upper Sco, and Lupus-3), combined with proper motions, and followed by extensive spectroscopic campaigns with Subaru and VLT, in which we have obtained more than 700 spectra of candidate low-mass objects. We have identified and characterized more than 60 new substellar objects, among them a handful of objects with masses close to, or below the Deuterium burning limit. Through SONYC and surveys by other groups, the substellar IMF is now well characterized down to ~ 5 - 10 MJup, and we find that the ratio of the number of stars with respect to brown dwarfs lies between 2 and 6. A comprehensive survey of NGC 1333 reveals that, down to ~5MJup, free-floating objects with planetary masses are 20-50 times less numerous than stars, i.e. ...

  17. Recent Variability Observations of Solar System Giant Planets: Fresh Context for Understanding Exoplanet and Brown Dwarf Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.; Kepler Giant Planet Variability Team, Spitzer Ice Giant Variability Team

    2016-10-01

    Over the past several years a number of of high cadence photometric observations of solar system giant planets have been acquired by various platforms. Such observations are of interest as they provide points of comparison to the already expansive set of brown dwarf variability observations and the small, but growing, set of exoplanet variability observations. By measuring how rapidly the integrated light from solar system giant planets can evolve, variability observations of substellar objects that are unlikely to ever be resolved can be placed in a fuller context. Examples of brown dwarf variability observations include extensive work from the ground (e.g., Radigan et al. 2014), Spitzer (e.g., Metchev et al. 2015), Kepler (Gizis et al. 2015), and HST (Yang et al. 2015). Variability has been measured on the planetary mass companion to the brown dwarf 2MASS 1207b (Zhou et al. 2016) and further searches are planned in thermal emission for the known directly imaged planets with ground based telescopes (Apai et al. 2016) and in reflected light with future space based telescopes. Recent solar system variability observations include Kepler monitoring of Neptune (Simon et al. 2016) and Uranus, Spitzer observations of Neptune (Stauffer et al. 2016), and Cassini observations of Jupiter (West et al. in prep). The Cassini observations are of particular interest as they measured the variability of Jupiter at a phase angle of ˜60○, comparable to the viewing geometry expected for space based direct imaging of cool extrasolar Jupiters in reflected light. These solar system analog observations capture many of the characteristics seen in brown dwarf variability, including large amplitudes and rapid light curve evolution on timescales as short as a few rotation periods. Simon et al. (2016) attribute such variations at Neptune to a combination of large scale, stable cloud structures along with smaller, more rapidly varying, cloud patches. The observed brown dwarf and exoplanet

  18. Spectral energy distribution simulations of a possible ring structure around the young, red brown dwarf G 196-3 B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhozhay, Olga V.; Zapatero Osorio, María Rosa; Béjar, Víctor J. S.; Boehler, Yann

    2016-09-01

    The origin of the very red optical and infrared colours of intermediate-age (˜10-500 Myr) L-type dwarfs remains unknown. It has been suggested that low-gravity atmospheres containing large amounts of dust may account for the observed reddish nature. We explored an alternative scenario by simulating protoplanetary and debris discs around G 196-3 B, which is an L3 young brown dwarf with a mass of ˜15 MJup and an age in the interval 20-300 Myr. The best-fit solution to G 196-3 B's photometric spectral energy distribution from optical wavelengths through 24 μm corresponds to the combination of an unreddened L3 atmosphere (Teff ≈ 1870 K) and a warm (≈ 1280 K), narrow (≈ 0.07-0.11 R⊙) debris disc located at very close distances (≈ 0.12-0.20 R⊙) from the central brown dwarf. This putative, optically thick, dusty belt, whose presence is compatible with the relatively young system age, would have a mass ≥7 × 10-10 M⊕ comprised of sub-micron/micron characteristic dusty particles with temperatures close to the sublimation threshold of silicates. Considering the derived global properties of the belt and the disc-to-brown dwarf mass ratio, the dusty ring around G 196-3 B may resemble the rings of Neptune and Jupiter, except for its high temperature and thick vertical height (≈6 × 103 km). Our inferred debris disc model is able to reproduce G 196-3 B's spectral energy distribution to a satisfactory level of achievement.

  19. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. I. Kinematically Decoupled Cores and Implications for Infallen Groups in Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    2014-03-01

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc), respectively. Each of these KDCs is distinct from the main body of its host galaxy in two ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation and (2) younger (and possibly more metal-rich) stellar population. The observed stellar population differences are probably associated with the KDC, although we cannot rule out the possibility of intrinsic radial gradients in the host galaxy. We describe a statistical analysis method to detect, quantify the significance of, and characterize KDCs in long-slit rotation curve data. We apply this method to the two dE galaxies presented in this paper and to five other dEs for which KDCs have been reported in the literature. Among these seven dEs, there are four significant KDC detections, two marginal KDC detections, and one dE with an unusual central kinematic anomaly that may be an asymmetric KDC. The frequency of occurrence of KDCs and their properties provide important constraints on the formation history of their host galaxies. We discuss different formation scenarios for these KDCs in cluster environments and find that dwarf-dwarf wet mergers or gas accretion can explain the properties of these KDCs. Both of these mechanisms require that the progenitor had a close companion with a low relative velocity. This suggests that KDCs were formed in galaxy pairs residing in a poor group environment or in isolation whose subsequent infall into the cluster quenched star formation.

  20. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1: AN INTERMEDIATE SURFACE GRAVITY, DUSTY BROWN DWARF IN THE AB DOR MOVING GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Allers, Katelyn N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Harris, Hugh C. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present spectroscopy, astrometry, and photometry of the brown dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047+68), an unusually red field L dwarf at a distance of 12.2 ± 0.4 pc. The three-dimensional space motion identifies it as a member of the AB Dor Moving Group, an identification supported by our classification of W0047+68 as intermediate surface gravity (INT-G) using the Allers and Liu near-infrared classification system. This moving group membership implies near-solar metallicity, age ∼100-125 Myr, M ≈ 0.018 M {sub ☉}, and log g ≈ 4.5; the thick condensate clouds needed to explain the infrared spectrum are, therefore, a result of surface gravity that is lower than that of ordinary field brown dwarfs. From the observed luminosity and evolutionary model radius, we find T {sub eff} ≈ 1300 K, a temperature normally associated with early T dwarfs. Thick clouds are also used to explain the spectral properties of directly imaged giant planets, and we discuss the successes and challenges for such substellar models in matching the observed optical and infrared spectra. W0047+68 shows that cloud thickness is more sensitive to intermediate surface gravity than in most models. We also present a trigonometric parallax of the dusty L6 dwarf 2MASS J21481628+4003593. It lies at 8.060 ± 0.036 parsecs; its astrometry is consistent with the view that it is older and metal-rich.

  1. Diagnostics of models and observations in the contexts of exoplanets, brown dwarfs, and very low-mass stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytova, Taisiya

    2016-01-01

    When studying isolated brown dwarfs and directly imaged exoplanets with insignificant orbital motion,we have to rely on theoretical models to determine basic parameters such as mass, age, effective temperature, and surface gravity.While stellar and atmospheric models are rapidly evolving, we need a powerful tool to test and calibrate them.In my thesis, I focussed on comparing interior and atmospheric models with observational data, in the effort of taking into account various systematic effects that can significantly influence the data analysis.As a first step, about 460 candidate member os the Hyades were screened for companions using diffraction limited imaging observation (both our own data and archival data). As a result I could establish the single star sequence for the Hyades comprising about 250 stars (Kopytova et al. 2015, accepted to A&A). Open clusters contain many coeval objects of the same chemical composition and age, and spanning a range of masses. We compare the obtained sequence with a set of theoretical isochrones identifying systematic offsets and revealing probable issues in the models.However, there are many cases when it is impossible to test models before comparing them with observations.As a second step, we apply atmospheric models for constraining parameters of WISE 0855-07, the coolest known Y dwarf(Kopytova et al. 2014, ApJ 797, 3). We demonstrate the limits of constraining effective temperature and the presence/absence of water clouds.As a third step, we introduce a novel method to take into account the above-mentioned systematics. We construct a "systematics vector" that allows us to reveal problematic wavelength ranges when fitting atmospheric models to observed near-infrared spectraof brown dwarfs and exoplanets (Kopytova et al., in prep.). This approach plays a crucial role when retrieving abundances for these objects, in particularly, a C/O ratio. The latter parameter is an important key to formation scenarios of brown dwarf and

  2. CFBDSIR J1458+1013B: A Very Cold (>T10) Brown Dwarf in a Binary System

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Michael C; Dupuy, Trent J; Bowler, Brendan P; Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Reyle, Celine; Forveille, Thierry; Delfosse, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    (Abridged) We have identified CFBDSIR J1458+10 as a 0.11" binary using Keck laser guide star AO imaging. We measure a parallactic distance of 23.1+/-2.4 pc to the system based on CFHT near-IR astrometry. We assign a spectral type of T9.5 to the integrated-light near-IR spectrum, and model atmospheres suggest a slightly higher temperature and surface gravity than the T10 dwarf UGPS J0722-05. Thus, CFBDSIR J1458+10AB is the coolest brown dwarf binary to date. Its secondary component has an absolute H-band magnitude that is 1.9+/-0.3 mag fainter than UGPS J0722-05, giving an inferred spectral type of >T10. The secondary's bolometric luminosity of ~2 x 10^{-7} L_sun makes it the least luminous known brown dwarf by a factor of 4-5. By comparing to models and known T9-T10 objects, we estimate a temperature of 370+/-40 K and a mass of 6-15 Mjup for CFBDSIR J1458+10B. At such extremes, atmospheric models predict the onset of novel photospheric processes, namely the appearance of water clouds and the removal of strong...

  3. Spectral energy distribution simulations of a possible ring structure around the young, red brown dwarf G196-3B

    CERN Document Server

    Zakhozhay, Olga V; Béjar, Víctor J S; Boehler, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the very red optical and infrared colours of intermediate-age ($\\sim$10 - 500 Myr) L-type dwarfs remains unknown. It has been suggested that low-gravity atmospheres containing large amounts of dust may account for the observed reddish nature. We explored an alternative scenario by simulating protoplanetary and debris discs around G196-3B, which is an L3 young brown dwarf with a mass of $\\sim 15$ $M_{\\rm Jup}$ and an age in the interval 20 - 300 Myr. The best-fit solution to G196-3B's photometric spectral energy distribution from optical wavelengths through 24 $\\mu$m corresponds to the combination of an unreddened L3 atmosphere ($T_{\\rm eff} \\approx 1870$~K) and a warm ($\\approx$ 1280 K), narrow ($\\approx$ 0.07 - 0.11 R$_{\\odot}$) debris disc located at very close distances ($\\approx$ 0.12 - 0.20 R$_{\\odot}$) from the central brown dwarf. This putative, optically thick, dusty belt, whose presence is compatible with the relatively young system age, would have a mass $\\ge 7\\times 10^{-10}$ M$_{\\opl...

  4. WISEP J060738.65+242953.4: A Nearby. Pole-On L8 Brown Dwarf with Radio Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Gizis, John E; Burgasser, Adam J; Libralato, Mattia; Nardiello, Domenico; Piotto, Giampaolo; Bedin, Luigi R; Berger, Edo; Paudel, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    We present a simultaneous, multi-wavelength campaign targeting the nearby (7.2 pc) L8/L9 (optical/near-infrared) dwarf WISEP J060738.65+242953.4 in the mid-infrared, radio, and optical. Spitzer Space Telescope observations show no variability at the 0.2% level over 10 hours each in the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands. Kepler K2 monitoring over 36 days in Campaign 0 rules out stable periodic signals in the optical with amplitudes great than 1.5% and periods between 1.5 hours and 2 days. Non-simultaneous Gemini optical spectroscopy detects lithium, constraining this L dwarf to be less than ~2 Gyr old, but no Balmer emission is observed. The low measured projected rotation velocity (v sin i < 6 km/s) and lack of variability are very unusual compared to other brown dwarfs, and we argue that this substellar object is likely viewed pole-on. We detect quiescent (non-bursting) radio emission with the VLA. Amongst radio detected L and T dwarfs, it has the lowest observed L_nu and the lowest v sin i. We discuss the implica...

  5. THE GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL NEAR THE SUN FROM SEGUE K-DWARF KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lan; Liu Chao; Zhao Gang [Key Lab of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, 100012 Beijing (China); Rix, Hans-Walter; Van de Ven, Glenn [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    To constrain the Galactic gravitational potential near the Sun ({approx}1.5 kpc), we derive and model the spatial and velocity distributions for a sample of 9000 K-dwarfs with spectra from SDSS/SEGUE, which yield radial velocities and abundances ([Fe/H] and [{alpha}/Fe]). We first derive the spatial density distribution for three abundance-selected sub-populations of stars accounting for the survey's selection function. The vertical profiles of these sub-populations are simple exponentials and their vertical dispersion profile is nearly isothermal. To model these data, we apply the 'vertical' Jeans equation, which relates the observable tracer number density and vertical velocity dispersion to the gravitational potential or vertical force. We explore a number of functional forms for the vertical force law, fit the dispersion and density profiles of all abundance-selected sub-populations simultaneously in the same potential, and explore all parameter co-variances using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. Our fits constrain a disk mass scale height {approx}< 300 pc and the total surface mass density to be 67 {+-} 6 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2} at |z| = 1.0 kpc of which the contribution from all stars is 42 {+-} 5 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2} (assuming a contribution from cold gas of 13 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}). We find significant constraints on the local dark matter density of 0.0065 {+-} 0.0023 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -3} (0.25 {+-} 0.09 GeV cm{sup -3}). Together with recent experiments this firms up the best estimate of 0.0075 {+-} 0.0021 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -3} (0.28 {+-} 0.08 GeV cm{sup -3}), consistent with global fits of approximately round dark matter halos to kinematic data in the outskirts of the Galaxy.

  6. Multiple scattering polarization – Application of Chandrasekhar’s formalisms to the atmosphere of brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujan Sengupta; Mark S Marley

    2011-07-01

    Chandrasekhar’s formalisms for the transfer of polarized radiation are used to explain the observed dust scattering polarization of brown dwarfs in the optical band. Model polarization profiles for hot and young directly imaged extrasolar planets are presented with specific prediction of the degree of polarization in the infrared. The model invokes Chandrasekhar’s formalism for the rotation-induced oblateness of the objects that gives rise to the necessary asymmetry for yielding net non-zero disk integrated linear polarization. The observed optical polarization constrains the surface gravity and could be a tool to estimate the mass of extrasolar planets.

  7. A Search for Photometric Rotation Periods in Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Pleiades

    OpenAIRE

    Terndrup, Donald M.; Krishnamurthi, Anita; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Stauffer, John R.

    1999-01-01

    We have photometrically monitored (Cousins Ic) eight low mass stars and brown dwarfs which are probable members of the Pleiades. We derived rotation periods for two of the stars - HHJ409 and CFHT-PL8 - to be 0.258 d and 0.401 d, respectively. The masses of these stars are near 0.4 and 0.08 Msun, respectively; the latter is the second such object near the hydrogen-burning boundary for which a rotation period has been measured. We also observed HHJ409 in V; the relative amplitude in the two ban...

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Binary Very-Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Gizis, J. E.; Reid, I N; Knapp, G. R.; Liebert, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Koerner, D. W.; Burgasser, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images of 82 nearby field late-M and L dwarfs. We resolve 13 of these systems into double M/L dwarf systems and identify an additional possible binary. Combined with previous observations of 20 L dwarfs, we derive an observed binary fraction for ultracool dwarfs of 17+4-3%, where the statistics included systems with separations in the range 1.6-16 A.U. We argue that accounting for biases and incompleteness leads to an estimated binary fraction 15+...

  9. Cloud Atlas: Discovery of Patchy Clouds and High-amplitude Rotational Modulations in a Young, Extremely Red L-type Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Ben W. P.; Apai, Daniel; Zhou, Yifan; Schneider, Glenn; Burgasser, Adam J.; Karalidi, Theodora; Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Radigan, Jacqueline; Lowrance, Patrick J.

    2016-10-01

    Condensate clouds fundamentally impact the atmospheric structure and spectra of exoplanets and brown dwarfs, but the connections between surface gravity, cloud structure, dust in the upper atmosphere, and the red colors of some brown dwarfs remain poorly understood. Rotational modulations enable the study of different clouds in the same atmosphere, thereby providing a method to isolate the effects of clouds. Here, we present the discovery of high peak-to-peak amplitude (8%) rotational modulations in a low-gravity, extremely red (J-K s = 2.55) L6 dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047). Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) time-resolved grism spectroscopy, we find a best-fit rotational period (13.20 ± 0.14 hr) with a larger amplitude at 1.1 μm than at 1.7 μm. This is the third-largest near-infrared variability amplitude measured in a brown dwarf, demonstrating that large-amplitude variations are not limited to the L/T transition but are present in some extremely red L-type dwarfs. We report a tentative trend between the wavelength dependence of relative amplitude, possibly proxy for small dust grains lofted in the upper atmosphere, and the likelihood of large-amplitude variability. By assuming forsterite as a haze particle, we successfully explain the wavelength-dependent amplitude with submicron-sized haze particle sizes of around 0.4 μm. W0047 links the earlier spectral and later spectral type brown dwarfs in which rotational modulations have been observed; the large amplitude variations in this object make this a benchmark brown dwarf for the study of cloud properties close to the L/T transition.

  10. Kelu-1 is a Binary L Dwarf: First Brown Dwarf Science from Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, M C; Liu, Michael C.; Leggett, Sandy K.

    2005-01-01

    (Abridged) We present near-IR imaging of the nearby L dwarf Kelu-1 obtained with the Keck sodium laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) system as part of a high angular resolution survey for substellar binaries. Kelu-1 was one of the first free-floating L dwarfs identified, and the origin of its overluminosity compared to other similar objects has been a long-standing question. Our images clearly resolve Kelu-1 into a 0.29'' (5.4 AU) binary, and a previous non-detection by HST demonstrates that the system is a true physical pair. Binarity explains the properties of Kelu-1 that were previously noted to be anomalous compared to other early-L dwarfs. We estimate spectral types of L1.5-L3 and L3-L4.5 for the two components, giving model-derived masses of 0.05-0.07 Msun and 0.045-0.065 Msun for an estimated age of 0.3-0.8 Gyr. More distant companions are not detected to a limit of 5-9 Mjup. The presence of lithium absorption indicates that both components are substellar, but the weakness of this feature relativ...

  11. Classical T Tauri-like Outflow Activity in the Brown Dwarf Mass Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P.; Podio, L.; Bacciotti, F.; Randich, S.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last number of years, spectroscopic studies have strongly supported the assertion that protostellar accretion and outflow activity persist to the lowest masses. Indeed, previous to this work, the existence of three brown dwarf (BD) outflows had been confirmed by us. In this paper, we present the results of our latest investigation of BD outflow activity and report on the discovery of two new outflows. Observations to date have concentrated on studying the forbidden emission line (FEL) regions of young BDs and in all cases data have been collected using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrometer (UVES) on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Offsets in the FEL regions are recovered using spectro-astrometry. Here, ISO-Oph 32 is shown to drive a blueshifted outflow with a radial velocity of 10-20 km s-1 and spectro-astrometric analysis constrains the position angle of this outflow to 240° ± 7°. The BD candidate, ISO-ChaI 217 is found to have a bipolar outflow bright in several key forbidden lines (VRAD = -20 km s-1, +40 km s-1) and with a P.A. of 193°-209°. A striking feature of the ISO-ChaI 217 outflow is the strong asymmetry between the red- and blueshifted lobes. This asymmetry is revealed in the relative brightness of the two lobes (redshifted lobe is brighter), the factor of 2 difference in radial velocity (the redshifted lobe is faster) and the difference in the electron density (again higher in the red lobe). Such asymmetries are common in jets from low-mass protostars and the observation of a marked asymmetry at such a low mass (Bacciotti & Eislöffel technique is used to study the ionization fraction, electron temperature, and total density. For LS-RCrA 1, ISO-ChaI 217 and ISO-Oph 102 \\dot{M}_out are measured to be in the range 10-10 to 10-9 M ⊙ yr-1 using a method based on the luminosity of the [O I]λ6300 and [S II]λ6731 lines. Mass loss rates for our sample of BD outflows are found to be comparable to the mass accretion rates. Overall, as our results

  12. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Konopacky, Q. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); McLeod, K. K. [Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 (United States); Apai, D.; Pascucci, I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Robberto, M., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉}). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15{sub −0.03}{sup +0.05} for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M {sub ☉}) and 4/108 = 0.04{sub −0.01}{sup +0.03} for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  13. Lucky Imaging Adaptive Optics of the brown dwarf binary GJ569Bab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femenía, B.; Rebolo, R.; Pérez-Prieto, J. A.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Labadie, L.; Pérez-Garrido, A.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Díaz-Sánchez, A.; Villó, I.; Oscoz, A.; López, R.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Piqueras, J.

    2011-05-01

    The potential of combining Adaptive Optics (AO) and Lucky Imaging (LI) to achieve high-precision astrometry and differential photometry in the optical is investigated by conducting observations of the close 0.1 arcsec brown dwarf binary GJ569Bab. We took 50 000 I-band images with our LI instrument FastCam attached to NAOMI, the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) AO facility. In order to extract the most of the astrometry and photometry of the GJ569Bab system we have resorted to a PSF fitting technique using the primary star GJ569A as a suitable PSF reference which exhibits an I-band magnitude of 7.78 ± 0.03. The AO+LI observations at WHT were able to resolve the binary system GJ569Bab located at 4.92 ± 0.05 arcsec from GJ569A. We measure a separation of 98.4 ± 1.1 mas and I-band magnitudes of 13.86 ± 0.03 and 14.48 ± 0.03 and I-J colours of 2.72 ± 0.08 and 2.83 ± 0.08 for the Ba and Bb components, respectively. Our study rules out the presence of any other companion to GJ569A down to magnitude I˜ 17 at distances larger than 1 arcsec. The I-J colours measured are consistent with M8.5-M9 spectral types for the Ba and Bb components. The available dynamical, photometric and spectroscopic data are consistent with a binary system with Ba being slightly (10-20 per cent) more massive than Bb. We obtain new orbital parameters which are in good agreement with those in the literature. Based on service observations made with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group and on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  14. Herschel/PACS view of disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the TW Hya association

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yao; Gong, Munan; Allers, Katelyn N; Brown, Joanna M; Kraus, Adam L; Liu, Michael C; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01

    We conducted Herschel/PACS observations of five very low-mass stars or brown dwarfs located in the TW Hya association with the goal of characterizing the properties of disks in the low stellar mass regime. We detected all five targets at $70\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$ and $100\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$ and three targets at $160\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$. Our observations, combined with previous photometry from 2MASS, WISE, and SCUBA-2, enabled us to construct SEDs with extended wavelength coverage. Using sophisticated radiative transfer models, we analyzed the observed SEDs of the five detected objects with a hybrid fitting strategy that combines the model grids and the simulated annealing algorithm and evaluated the constraints on the disk properties via the Bayesian inference method. The modelling suggests that disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are generally flatter than their higher mass counterparts, but the range of disk mass extends to well below the value found in T Tauri stars, and the disk scale heights are comparable in both...

  15. A Cautionary Tale: MARVELS Brown Dwarf Candidate Reveals Itself To Be A Very Long Period, Highly Eccentric Spectroscopic Stellar Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Mack, Claude E; Deshpande, Rohit; Wisniewski, John P; Stassun, Keivan G; Gaudi, B Scott; Fleming, Scott W; Mahadevan, Suvrath; De Lee, Nathan; Eastman, Jason; Ghezzi, Luan; Hernandez, Jonay I Gonzalez; Femenia, Bruno; Ferreira, Leticia; de Mello, Gustavo Porto; Crepp, Justin R; Sanchez, Daniel Mata; Agol, Eric; Beatty, Thomas G; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Cargile, Phillip A; da Costa, Luiz N; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ebelke, Garret; Hebb, Leslie; Jiang, Peng; Kane, Stephen R; Lee, Brian; Maia, Marcio A G; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Victor; Oravetz, Daniel; Paegert, Martin; Pan, Kaike; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Peper, Joshua; Rebolo, Rafael; Roy, Arpita; Santiago, Basilio X; Schneider, Donald P; Simmons, Audrey; Siverd, Robert J; Snedden, Stephanie; Tofflemire, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a highly eccentric, double-lined spectroscopic binary star system (TYC 3010-1494-1), comprising two solar-type stars that we had initially identified as a single star with a brown dwarf companion. At the moderate resolving power of the MARVELS spectrograph and the spectrographs used for subsequent radial-velocity (RV) measurements (R ~ <30,000), this particular stellar binary mimics a single-lined binary with an RV signal that would be induced by a brown dwarf companion (Msin(i)~50 M_Jup) to a solar-type primary. At least three properties of this system allow it to masquerade as a single star with a very low-mass companion: its large eccentricity (e~0.8), its relatively long period (P~238 days), and the approximately perpendicular orientation of the semi-major axis with respect to the line of sight (omega~189 degrees). As a result of these properties, for ~95% of the orbit the two sets of stellar spectral lines are completely blended, and the RV measurements based on centroiding ...

  16. $Extrasolar~Storms$: Pressure-dependent Changes In Light Curve Phase In Brown Dwarfs From Simultaneous $Hubble$ and $Spitzer$ Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S; Karalidi, Theodora; Flateau, Davin; Showman, Adam P; Metchev, Stanimir; Buenzli, Esther; Radigan, Jacqueline; Artigau, Étienne; Lowrance, Patrick J; Burgasser, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    We present $Spitzer$/IRAC Ch1 and Ch2 monitoring of six brown dwarfs during 8 different epochs over the course of 20 months. For four brown dwarfs, we also obtained simulataneous $HST$/WFC3 G141 Grism spectra during two epochs and derived light curves in five narrow-band filters. Probing different pressure levels in the atmospheres, the multi-wavelength light curves of our six targets all exhibit variations, and the shape of the light curves evolves over the timescale of a rotation period, ranging from 1.4 h to 13 h. We compare the shapes of the light curves and estimate the phase shifts between the light curves observed at different wavelengths by comparing the phase of the primary Fourier components. We use state-of-the-art atmosphere models to determine the flux contribution of different pressure layers to the observed flux in each filter. We find that the light curves that probe higher pressures are similar and in phase, but are offset and often different from the light curves that probe lower pressures. ...

  17. Variable and polarized radio emission from the T6 brown dwarf WISEP J112254.73+255021.5

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, P K G; Berger, E

    2016-01-01

    Route & Wolszczan (2016) recently detected five radio bursts from the T6 dwarf WISEP J112254.73+255021.5 and used the timing of these events to propose that this object rotates with an ultra-short period of ~17.3 minutes. We conducted follow-up observations with the Very Large Array and Gemini-North but found no evidence for this periodicity. We do, however, observe variable, highly circularly polarized radio emission possibly with a period of 116 minutes, although our observation lasted only 162 minutes and so more data are needed to confirm it. Our proposed periodicity is typical of other radio-active ultracool dwarfs. The handedness of the circular polarization alternates with time and there is no evidence for any unpolarized emission component, the first time such a phenomenology has been observed in radio studies of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. We suggest that the object's magnetic dipole axis may be highly misaligned relative to its rotation axis.

  18. Membership, binarity and accretion among very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs of the σ Orionis cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Naylor, Tim; Oliveira, J. M.; Maxted, P. F. L.

    2005-01-01

    Intermediate-resolution (R~ 7000) spectroscopy is presented for 76 photometrically selected very low-mass (0.04 consistent with the cluster mean. Photometric selection alone therefore appears to be very effective in identifying cluster members in this mass range. Only six objects appear to be certain non-members; however, a substantial subset of 13 candidates have ambiguous or contradictory indications of membership and lack Li absorption. Together with an observed spread in the equivalent width of the Li absorption feature in the cooler stars of our sample, this indicates that there may be deficiencies in our understanding of the formation of this line in cool, low-gravity objects. Four candidate binary cluster members are identified. Consideration of sampling and radial velocity measurement precision leads us to conclude that either the fraction of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in small separation (a < 1 au) binary systems is larger than in field M-dwarfs, or the distribution of separations is much less skewed towards large separations. This conclusion hinges critically on the correct identification of the small number of binary candidates, although it remains significant even when only the candidate members displaying Li absorption are considered. Broadened Hα emission, indicative of circum(sub)stellar accretion discs is found in five or six of the candidate cluster members, three of which probably have substellar masses. The fraction of accretors (10 +/- 5 per cent) is similar to that found in stars of higher mass in the σ Ori cluster using Hα emission as a diagnostic, but much lower than found for very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs of younger clusters. The time-scale for accretion rates to drop to <~10-11 Msolar yr-1 is hence less than the age of the σ Ori cluster (3-7 Myr) for most low-mass objects.

  19. New evidence for a substellar luminosity problem: Dynamical mass for the brown dwarf binary Gl 417BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, Trent J. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 2515 Speedway C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2014-08-01

    We present new evidence for a problem with cooling rates predicted by substellar evolutionary models that implies that model-derived masses in the literature for brown dwarfs and directly imaged planets may be too high. Based on our dynamical mass for Gl 417BC (L4.5+L6) and a gyrochronology system age from its young, solar-type host star, commonly used models predict luminosities 0.2-0.4 dex lower than we observe. This corroborates a similar luminosity-age discrepancy identified in our previous work on the L4+L4 binary HD 130948BC, which coincidentally has nearly identical component masses (≈50-55 M{sub Jup}) and age (≈800 Myr) as Gl 417BC. Such a luminosity offset would cause systematic errors of 15%-25% in model-derived masses at this age. After comparing different models, including cloudless models that should not be appropriate for mid-L dwarfs like Gl 417BC and HD 130948BC but actually match their luminosities better, we speculate the observed overluminosity could be caused by opacity holes (i.e., patchy clouds) in these objects. Moreover, from hybrid substellar evolutionary models that account for cloud disappearance, we infer the corresponding phase of overluminosity may extend from a few hundred million years up to a few gigayears and cause masses to be overestimated by up to 25%, even well after clouds disappear from view entirely. Thus, the range of ages and spectral types affected by this potential systematic shift in luminosity evolution would encompass most known directly imaged gas-giants and field brown dwarfs.

  20. New evidence for a substellar luminosity problem: Dynamical mass for the brown dwarf binary Gl 417BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new evidence for a problem with cooling rates predicted by substellar evolutionary models that implies that model-derived masses in the literature for brown dwarfs and directly imaged planets may be too high. Based on our dynamical mass for Gl 417BC (L4.5+L6) and a gyrochronology system age from its young, solar-type host star, commonly used models predict luminosities 0.2-0.4 dex lower than we observe. This corroborates a similar luminosity-age discrepancy identified in our previous work on the L4+L4 binary HD 130948BC, which coincidentally has nearly identical component masses (≈50-55 MJup) and age (≈800 Myr) as Gl 417BC. Such a luminosity offset would cause systematic errors of 15%-25% in model-derived masses at this age. After comparing different models, including cloudless models that should not be appropriate for mid-L dwarfs like Gl 417BC and HD 130948BC but actually match their luminosities better, we speculate the observed overluminosity could be caused by opacity holes (i.e., patchy clouds) in these objects. Moreover, from hybrid substellar evolutionary models that account for cloud disappearance, we infer the corresponding phase of overluminosity may extend from a few hundred million years up to a few gigayears and cause masses to be overestimated by up to 25%, even well after clouds disappear from view entirely. Thus, the range of ages and spectral types affected by this potential systematic shift in luminosity evolution would encompass most known directly imaged gas-giants and field brown dwarfs.

  1. Kinematic Constraints on Evolutionary Scenarios for Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies I. Neutral Gas Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Van Zee, L; Skillman, E D; Zee, Liese van; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of high spatial resolution HI synthesis observations of six blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies. Optically, the selected galaxies have smooth, symmetric isophotes, and thus are the most likely of the BCD class to fade into an object morphologically similar to a dwarf elliptical when the current starburst ends. The neutral gas in all six galaxies appears to be rotationally supported, however, indicating that true morphological transformation from a BCD to a dE will require significant loss of angular momentum. Based on the observed neutral gas dynamics of these and other BCDs, it is unlikely that present-day BCDs will evolve directly into dwarf ellipticals after a starburst phase. We discuss alternative evolutionary scenarios for BCDs and place them within the larger context of galaxy formation and evolution models.

  2. Cloud Atlas: Discovery of Patchy Clouds and High-amplitude Rotational Modulations In a Young, Extremely Red L-type Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Ben W P; Zhou, Yifan; Schneider, Glenn; Burgasser, Adam J; Karalidi, Theodora; Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S; Cowan, N B; Bedin,; R., L; Metchev, Stanimir A; Radigan, Jacqueline; Lowrance, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Condensate clouds fundamentally impact the atmospheric structure and spectra of exoplanets and brown dwarfs but the connections between surface gravity, cloud structure, dust in the upper atmosphere, and the red colors of some brown dwarfs remain poorly understood. Rotational modulations enable the study of different clouds in the same atmosphere, thereby providing a method to isolate the effects of clouds. Here we present the discovery of high peak-to-peak amplitude (8%) rotational modulations in a low-gravity, extremely red (J-Ks=2.55) L6 dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047). Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) time-resolved grism spectroscopy we find a best-fit rotational period (13.20$\\pm$0.14 hours) with a larger amplitude at 1.1 micron than at 1.7 micron. This is the third largest near-infrared variability amplitude measured in a brown dwarf, demonstrating that large-amplitude variations are not limited to the L/T transition but are present in some extremely red L-type dwarfs. We report a tentativ...

  3. Star-Formation Histories, Abundances, and Kinematics of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Hill, Vanessa; Tosi, Monica; Blandford, R; Kormendy, J; VanDishoeck, E

    2009-01-01

    Within the Local Universe galaxies can be studied in great detail star by star, and here we review the results of quantitative studies in nearby dwarf galaxies. The color-magnitude diagram synthesis method is well established as the most accurate way to determine star-formation histories of galaxies

  4. The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets VIII. Follow-up of ELODIE candidates: long-period brown-dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchy, F; Díaz, R F; Forveille, T; Boisse, I; Arnold, L; Astudillo-Defru, N; Beuzit, J -L; Bonfils, X; Borgniet, S; Bourrier, V; Courcol, B; Delfosse, X; Demangeon, O; Delorme, P; Ehrenreich, D; Hébrard, G; Lagrange, A -M; Mayor, M; Montagnier, G; Moutou, C; Naef, D; Pepe, F; Perrier, C; Queloz, D; Rey, J; Sahlmann, J; Santerne, A; Santos, N C; Sivan, J -P; Udry, S; Wilson, P A

    2015-01-01

    Long-period brown dwarf companions detected in radial velocity surveys are important targets for direct imaging and astrometry to calibrate the mass-luminosity relation of substellar objects. Through a 20-year radial velocity monitoring of solar-type stars that began with ELODIE and was extended with SOPHIE spectrographs, giant exoplanets and brown dwarfs with orbital periods longer than ten years are discovered. We report the detection of five new potential brown dwarfs with minimum masses between 32 and 83 Jupiter mass orbiting solar-type stars with periods longer than ten years. An upper mass limit of these companions is provided using astrometric Hipparcos data, high-angular resolution imaging made with PUEO, and a deep analysis of the cross-correlation function of the main stellar spectra to search for blend effects or faint secondary components. These objects double the number of known brown dwarf companions with orbital periods longer than ten years and reinforce the conclusion that the occurrence of s...

  5. THE PROPERTIES OF THE 500 K DWARF UGPS J072227.51–054031.2 AND A STUDY OF THE FAR-RED FLUX OF COLD BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present i and z photometry for 25 T dwarfs and 1 L dwarf. Combined with published photometry, the data show that the i – z, z – Y, and z – J colors of T dwarfs are very red, and continue to increase through to the late-type T dwarfs, with a hint of a saturation for the latest types with Teff ≈ 600 K. We present new 0.7-1.0 μm and 2.8-4.2 μm spectra for the very late type T dwarf UGPS J072227.51–054031.2, as well as improved astrometry for this dwarf. Examination of the spectral energy distribution using new and published data, with Saumon and Marley models, shows that the dwarf has Teff = 505 ± 10 K, a mass of 3-11 MJupiter, and an age between 60 Myr and 1 Gyr. This young age is consistent with the thin disk kinematics of the dwarf. The mass range overlaps with that usually considered to be planetary, despite this being an unbound object discovered in the field near the Sun. This apparently young rapid rotator is also undergoing vigorous atmospheric mixing, as determined by the IRAC and WISE 4.5 μm photometry and the Saumon and Marley models. The optical spectrum for this 500 K object shows clearly detected lines of the neutral alkalis Cs and Rb, which are emitted from deep atmospheric layers with temperatures of 900-1200 K.

  6. A radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures: I. Kinematics of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, N F; Conn, B C; Lewis, G F; Bellazzini, M; Irwin, M J

    2005-01-01

    As part of a radial velocity survey of low Galactic latitude structures that we undertook with the 2dF spectrograph on the AAT, we present the radial velocities of more than 1400 Red Giant Branch and Red Clump stars towards the centre of the Canis Major dwarf galaxy. With a mean velocity of 69\\pm12 km/s at a Heliocentric distance of 5.5 kpc and 114\\pm2 km/s at 8.5 kpc, these stars present a peculiar distance -- radial velocity relation that is unlike that expected from thin or thick disk stars. Moreover, they belong to a kinematically cold population with an intrinsic dispersion that may be as low as 12_{-1}^{+3} km/s. The radial velocity distribution is used to select Canis Major stars in the UCAC2.0 proper motion catalogue and derive proper motions in Galactic coordinates of (\\mu_l,\\mu_b)= (-3.3\\pm1.0 mas/yr, 1.5\\pm0.4 mas/yr) for the dwarf galaxy, which after correcting for the reflex solar motion along this line-of-sight gives (\\mu_l',\\mu_b')= (-6.5\\pm1.0 mas/yr, 0.8\\pm0.4 mas/yr), corresponding to a prog...

  7. Rotation periods and astrometric motions of the Luhman 16AB brown dwarfs by high-resolution lucky-imaging monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L.; Giacobbe, P.; Littlefair, S. P.; Southworth, J.; Bozza, V.; Damasso, M.; Dominik, M.; Hundertmark, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Juncher, D.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Schmidt, R. W.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Sozzetti, A.; Alsubai, K.; Bramich, D. M.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Galianni, P.; Gu, S.-H.; Harpsøe, K.; Haugbølle, T.; Henning, Th.; Hinse, T. C.; Kains, N.; Korhonen, H.; Scarpetta, G.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Photometric monitoring of the variability of brown dwarfs can provide useful information about the structure of clouds in their cold atmospheres.The brown-dwarf binary system Luhman 16AB is an interesting target for such a study, because its components stand at the L/T transition and show high levels of variability. Luhman 16AB is also the third closest system to the solar system, which allows precise astrometric investigations with ground-based facilities. Aims: The aim of the work is to estimate the rotation period and study the astrometric motion of both components. Methods: We have monitored Luhman 16AB over a period of two years with the lucky-imaging camera mounted on the Danish 1.54 m telescope at La Silla, through a special i + z long-pass filter, which allowed us to clearly resolve the two brown dwarfs into single objects. An intense monitoring of the target was also performed over 16 nights, in which we observed a peak-to-peak variability of 0.20 ± 0.02 mag and 0.34 ± 0.02 mag for Luhman 16A and 16B, respectively. Results: We used the 16-night time-series data to estimate the rotation period of the two components. We found that Luhman 16B rotates with a period of 5.1 ± 0.1 h, in very good agreement with previous measurements. For Luhman 16A, we report that it rotates more slowly than its companion, and even though we were not able to get a robust determination, our data indicate a rotation period of roughly 8 h. This implies that the rotation axes of the two components are well aligned and suggests a scenario in which the two objects underwent the same accretion process. The 2-year complete data set was used to study the astrometric motion of Luhman 16AB. We predict a motion of the system that is not consistent with a previous estimate based on two months of monitoring, but cannot confirm or refute the presence of additional planetary-mass bodies in the system. Based on data collected by MiNDSTEp with the Danish 1.54 m telescope at the ESO La

  8. Stellar kinematics and metallicities in the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy -- wide field implications for galactic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, A; Kleyna, J T; Gilmore, G F; Grebel, E K; MacKey, A D; Evans, N W; Wyse, R F G

    2006-01-01

    We present low-resolution spectroscopy of 120 red giants in the Galactic satellite dwarf spheroidal (dSph) Leo I, obtained with the GeminiN-GMOS and Keck-DEIMOS spectrographs. We find stars with velocities consistent with membership of Leo I out to 1.3 King tidal radii. By measuring accurate radial velocities with a median measurement error of 4.6 km/s we find a mean systemic velocity of 284.2 km/s with a global velocity dispersion of 9.9 km/s. The dispersion profile is consistent with being flat out to the last data point. We show that a marginally-significant rise in the radial dispersion profile at a radius of 3' is not associated with any real localized kinematical substructure. Given its large distance from the Galaxy, tides are not likely to have affected the velocity dispersion, a statement we support from a quantitative kinematical analysis, as we observationally reject the occurrence of a significant apparent rotational signal or an asymmetric velocity distribution. Mass determinations adopting both ...

  9. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-Type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. I. Kinematically Decoupled Cores and Implications for Infallen Groups in Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Toloba, E; van de Ven, G; Boissier, S; Boselli, A; Brok, M den; Falcon-Barroso, J; Hensler, G; Janz, J; Laurikainen, E; Lisker, T; Paudel, S; Peletier, R F; Rys, A; Salo, H

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.8'' (0.14 kpc) and 4.2'' (0.33 kpc), respectively. Each of these KDCs is distinct from the main body of its host galaxy in two ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation; and (2) younger (and possibly more metal-rich) stellar population. The observed stellar population differences are probably associated with the KDC, although we cannot rule out the possibility of intrinsic radial gradients in the host galaxy. We describe a statistical analysis method to detect, quantify the significance of, and characterize KDCs in long-slit rotation curve data. We apply this method to the two dE galaxies presented in this paper and to five other dEs for which KDCs have been reported in the literature. Among these seven dEs, there are four significant KDC detections, two margi...

  10. Tidal evolution of CoRoT massive planets and brown dwarfs and of their host stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraz-Mello, Sylvio

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Revisit and improvement of the main results obtained in the study of the tidal evolution of several massive CoRoT planets and brown dwarfs and of the rotation of their host stars. Methods: Simulations of the past and future evolution of the orbital and rotational elements of the systems under the joint action of the tidal torques and the braking due to the stellar wind. Results: Presentation of several paradigms and significant examples of tidal evolution in extrasolar planetary systems. It is shown that the high quality of the photometric and spectrographic observations of the CoRoT objects allow for a precise study of their past and future evolution and to estimate the tidal parameters ruling the dissipation in the systems.

  11. Ionisation in atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets VI: Properties of large-scale discharge events

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, R L; Hodos, G; Bilger, C; Stark, C R

    2013-01-01

    Mineral clouds in substellar atmospheres play a special role as a catalyst for a variety of charge processes. If clouds are charged, the surrounding environment becomes electrically activated, and ensembles of charged grains are electrically discharging (e.g. by lightning), which significantly infuences the local chemistry creating conditions similar to those thought responsible for life in early planetary atmospheres. We note that such lightning discharges contribute also to the ionisation state of the atmosphere. We apply scaling laws for electrical discharge processes from laboratory measurements and numerical experiments to Drift-Phoenix model atmosphere results to model the discharge's propagation downwards (as lightning) and upwards (as sprites) through the atmospheric clouds. We evaluate the spatial extent and energetics of lightning discharges. The atmospheric volume affected (e.g. by increase of temperature or electron number) is larger in a brown dwarf atmosphere ($10^8 -~10^{10}$m$^3$) than in a gi...

  12. Discovery of a companion at the brown dwarf limit to the solar-type star Gliese 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, R.; Fuhrmann, K.; Pozo Nuñez, F.; Ramolla, M.; Kaderhandt, L.; Niedworok, N.; Hodapp, K.-W.

    2016-07-01

    Gliese 29 is a 7 to 8 Gyr old, southern Population I turnoff star with a large proper motion of 1 arcsec/yr. Using recent direct imaging observations with the 0.8 m Infrared Imaging System (IRIS) of the Universitätssternwarte Bochum near Cerro Armazones in Chile, we demonstrate that the faint source 2MASS J00402651-5927168 at a projected angular separation ρ=6.35 arcsec is a common-proper-motion companion to Gl 29. Provided this source is not part of a further subsystem, the IRIS J- and K_s-band photometry either implies a spectral type of about L2, based on its absolute magnitude, or an approximate mass M_B ≃ 0.077 M⊙, suggesting that it may even be a brown dwarf. Assuming a face-on circular orbit this faint companion orbits Gl 29 in 1880 years.

  13. Emission line diagnostics for accretion and outflows in young very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzer B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss accretion and outflow properties of three very low-mass young stellar objects based on broad-band mid-resolution X-Shooter/VLT spectra. Our targets (FU Tau A, 2M1207-39, and Par-Lup3-4 have spectral types between M5 and M8, ages between 1Myr and ~ 10Myr, and are known to be accreting from previous studies. The final objective of our project is the determination of mass outflow to accretion rate for objects near or within the substellar regime as a probe for the T Tauri phase of brown dwarfs and the investigation of variability in the accretion and outflow processes.

  14. The rotation and Galactic kinematics of mid M dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Elisabeth R; Charbonneau, David; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Dittmann, Jason A; West, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Rotation is a directly-observable stellar property, and drives magnetic field generation and activity through a magnetic dynamo. Main sequence stars with masses below approximately 0.35Msun (mid-to-late M dwarfs) are fully-convective, and are expected to have a different type of dynamo mechanism than solar-type stars. Measurements of their rotation rates provide insights into these mechanisms, but few rotation periods are available for these stars at field ages. Using photometry from the MEarth transit survey, we measure rotation periods for 391 nearby, mid-to-late M dwarfs in the Northern hemisphere, finding periods from 0.1 to 150 days. The typical detected rotator has stable, sinusoidal photometric modulations at a semi-amplitude of 0.5 to 1%. We find no period-amplitude relation for stars below 0.25Msun and an anti-correlation between period and amplitude for higher-mass M dwarfs. We highlight the existence of older, slowly-rotating stars without H{\\alpha} emission that nevertheless have strong photometri...

  15. FIRST OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF A MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMING A PROTO-BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soam, A.; Maheswar, G. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital-263 002 (India); Kwon, Jugmi; Tamura, Motohide [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Lee, Chang Won, E-mail: archana@aries.res.in [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-20

    LDN 328 is cited as an example of a fairly isolated clump contracting to form multiple sub-cores, possibly through gravitational fragmentation. In one of these sub-cores, a proto-brown dwarf (L328-IRS) candidate is in the process of formation through the self-gravitating contraction, similar to the formation scenario of a low-mass star. We present results of our optical and near-infrared polarization observations of regions toward LDN 328. This is the first observational attempt to map the magnetic field geometry of a cloud harboring a proto-brown dwarf candidate associated with a sub-parsec-scale molecular outflow. On a parsec scale, the magnetic field is found to follow the curved structure of the cloud showing a head–tail morphology. The magnetic field is found to be well ordered over a 0.02–0.2 pc scale around L328-IRS. Taking into account the uncertainties in the determination of position angles, the projected angular offset between the magnetic field direction and the outflow axis is found to be in the range of 0°–70°. Considering outflow to be the proxy for the rotation axis, the result obtained in this study implies that the rotation axis in L328 is preferably parallel to the local magnetic field. The magnetic field strength estimated in the close vicinity of L328-IRS is ∼20 μG. Results from the present study suggest that the magnetic field may be playing a vital role even in the cores that are forming sub-stellar sources.

  16. First Optical and Near-infrared Polarimetry of a Molecular Cloud Forming a Proto-brown Dwarf Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soam, A.; Kwon, Jugmi; Maheswar, G.; Tamura, Motohide; Lee, Chang Won

    2015-04-01

    LDN 328 is cited as an example of a fairly isolated clump contracting to form multiple sub-cores, possibly through gravitational fragmentation. In one of these sub-cores, a proto-brown dwarf (L328-IRS) candidate is in the process of formation through the self-gravitating contraction, similar to the formation scenario of a low-mass star. We present results of our optical and near-infrared polarization observations of regions toward LDN 328. This is the first observational attempt to map the magnetic field geometry of a cloud harboring a proto-brown dwarf candidate associated with a sub-parsec-scale molecular outflow. On a parsec scale, the magnetic field is found to follow the curved structure of the cloud showing a head-tail morphology. The magnetic field is found to be well ordered over a 0.02-0.2 pc scale around L328-IRS. Taking into account the uncertainties in the determination of position angles, the projected angular offset between the magnetic field direction and the outflow axis is found to be in the range of 0°-70°. Considering outflow to be the proxy for the rotation axis, the result obtained in this study implies that the rotation axis in L328 is preferably parallel to the local magnetic field. The magnetic field strength estimated in the close vicinity of L328-IRS is ˜20 μG. Results from the present study suggest that the magnetic field may be playing a vital role even in the cores that are forming sub-stellar sources.

  17. Transmission of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus from Frozen Infected Leaves to Healthy Rice Plants by Small Brown Planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tong; WU Li-juan; WANG Ying; CHENG Zhao-bang; JI Ying-hua; FAN Yong-jian; ZHOU Yi-jun

    2011-01-01

    In order to preserve virus for identifying the resistance of rice varieties against rice black-streaked dwarf disease,a simple and reliable method was developed,through which virus-free small brown planthopper (SBPH) acquired rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) from frozen infected leaves and the virus was transmitted to healthy rice plants.The experimental results showed that SBPH could obtain RBSDV from frozen infected rice leaves and the virus could be transmitted to a susceptible rice variety.For the ability to acquire RBSDV and transmit the virus to healthy plants by SBPH,there was no significant difference between frozen infected leaves and in vitro infected leaves.The novel method could be applied to identification of rice variety resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf disease,facilitating the breeding process for rice black-streaked dwarf disease resistance.

  18. The properties of brown dwarfs and low-mass hydrogen-burning stars formed by disc fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that a high proportion of brown dwarfs are formed by gravitational fragmentation of massive extended discs around Sun-like stars. Such discs should arise frequently, but should be observed infrequently, precisely because they fragment rapidly. By performing an ensemble of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we show that such discs fragment within a few thousand years, and produce mainlybrown dwarf (BDs) stars, but also planetary mass (PM) stars and very low-mass hydrogen-burning (HB) stars. Most of the the PM stars and BDs are ejected by mutual interactions. We analyse the statistical properties of these stars, and compare them with observations. After a few hundred thousand years the Sun-like primary is typically left with a close low-mass HB companion, and two much wider companions: a low-mass HB star and a BD star, or a BD-BD binary. There is a BD desert extending out to at least ~100 AU; this is because BDs tend to be formed further out than low-mass HB stars, and then they tend to be scattered...

  19. Adaptive Optics imaging of VHS 1256-1257: A Low Mass Companion to a Brown Dwarf Binary System

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Jordan M; Kratter, Kaitlin M; Dupuy, Trent J; Close, Laird M; Eisner, Josh A; Fortney, Jonathan J; Hinz, Philip M; Males, Jared R; Morley, Caroline V; Morzinski, Katie M; Ward-Duong, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Gauza et al. (2015) reported the discovery of a companion to the late M-dwarf, VHS J125601.92-125723.9 (VHS 1256-1257). The companion's absolute photometry suggests its mass and atmosphere are similar to the HR 8799 planets. However, as a wide companion to a late-type star, it is more accessible to spectroscopic characterization. We discovered that the primary of this system is an equal-magnitude binary. For an age $\\sim300$ Myr the A and B components each have a mass of $64.6^{+0.8}_{-2.0}~M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, and the b component has a mass of $11.2^{+9.7}_{-1.8}$, making VHS 1256-1257 only the third brown dwarf triple system. There exists some tension between the spectrophotometric distance of $17.2\\pm2.6$ pc and the parallax distance of $12.7\\pm1.0$ pc. At 12.7 pc VHS1256-1257 A and B would be the faintest known M7.5 objects, and are even faint outliers among M8 types. If the larger spectrophotmetric distance is more accurate than the parallax, then the mass of each component increases. In particul...

  20. New Evidence for a Substellar Luminosity Problem: Dynamical Mass for the Brown Dwarf Binary Gl 417BC

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuy, Trent J; Ireland, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We present new evidence for a problem with cooling rates predicted by substellar evolutionary models that implies model-derived masses in the literature for brown dwarfs and directly imaged planets may be too high. Based on our dynamical mass for Gl 417BC (L4.5+L6) and a gyrochronology system age from its young, solar-type host star, commonly used models predict luminosities 0.2$-$0.4 dex lower than we observe. This corroborates a similar luminosity$-$age discrepancy identified in our previous work on the L4+L4 binary HD 130948BC, which coincidentally has nearly identical component masses ($\\approx$50$-$55 $M_{\\rm Jup}$) and age ($\\approx$800 Myr) as Gl 417BC. Such a luminosity offset would cause systematic errors of 15%$-$25% in model-derived masses at this age. After comparing different models, including cloudless models that should not be appropriate for mid-L dwarfs like Gl 417BC and HD 130948BC but actually match their luminosities better, we speculate the observed over-luminosity could be caused by opac...

  1. Cloud structure of the nearest brown dwarfs: Spectroscopic variability of Luhman 16AB from the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Buenzli, Esther; Marley, Mark S; Apai, Daniel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Bedin, Luigi R; Reid, I Neill; Morley, Caroline V

    2014-01-01

    The binary brown dwarf WISE J104915.57$-$531906.1 (also Luhman 16AB), composed of a late L and early T dwarf, is a prototypical L/T transition flux reversal binary located at only 2 pc distance. Luhman 16B is a known variable whose light curves evolve rapidly. We present spatially resolved spectroscopic time-series of Luhman 16A and B covering 6.5 h using HST/WFC3 at 1.1 to 1.66 $\\mu$m. The small, count-dependent variability of Luhman 16A at the beginning of the observations likely stems from instrumental systematics; Luhman 16A appears non-variable above $\\approx$0.4%. Its spectrum is well fit by a single cloud layer with intermediate cloud thickness (f_sed=2, Teff=1200 K). Luhman 16B varies at all wavelengths with peak-to-valley amplitudes of 7-11%. The amplitude and light curve shape changes over only one rotation period. The lowest relative amplitude is found in the deep water absorption band at 1.4 $\\mu$m, otherwise it mostly decreases gradually from the blue to the red edge of the spectrum. This is very...

  2. First simultaneous microlensing observations by two space telescopes: $Spitzer$ & $Swift$ reveal a brown dwarf in event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319

    CERN Document Server

    Shvartzvald, Y; Udalski, A; Gould, A; Sumi, T; Street, R A; Novati, S Calchi; Hundertmark, M; Bozza, V; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Drummond, J; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C B; Tan, T G; Wibking, B; Pogge, R W; Yee, J C; Zhu, W; Tsapras, Y; Bachelet, E; Dominik, M; Bramich, D M; Cassan, A; Jaimes, R Figuera; Horne, K; Ranc, C; Schmidt, R; Snodgrass, C; Wambsganss, J; Steele, I A; Menzies, J; Mao, S; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Szymański, M K; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Soszyński, I; Ulaczyk, K; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Barry, R K; Bennett, D P; Bhattacharya, A; Bond, I A; Freeman, M; Hirao, Y; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Fukui, A; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Nishioka, T; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sharan, A; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Jørgensen, U G; Burgdorf, M J; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Evans, D F; Hinse, T C; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Southworth, J; Peixinho, N; Verma, P; Sbarufatti, B; Kennea, J A; Gehrels, N

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of microlensing events from multiple locations allow for the breaking of degeneracies between the physical properties of the lensing system, specifically by exploring different regions of the lens plane and by directly measuring the "microlens parallax". We report the discovery of a 30-55$M_J$ brown dwarf orbiting a K dwarf in microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319. The system is located at a distance of $\\sim$5 kpc toward the Galactic bulge. The event was observed by several ground-based groups as well as by $Spitzer$ and $Swift$, allowing the measurement of the physical properties. However, the event is still subject to an 8-fold degeneracy, in particular the well-known close-wide degeneracy, and thus the projected separation between the two lens components is either $\\sim$0.25 AU or $\\sim$45 AU. This is the first microlensing event observed by $Swift$, with the UVOT camera. We study the region of microlensing parameter space to which $Swift$ is sensitive, finding that while for thi...

  3. OGLE-2008-BLG-510: first automated real-time detection of a weak microlensing anomaly - brown dwarf or stellar binary?

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, V; Rattenbury, N J; Joergensen, U G; Tsapras, Y; Bramich, D M; Udalski, A; Bond, I A; Liebig, C; Cassan, A; Fouque, P; Fukui, A; Hundertmark, M; Shin, I -G; Lee, S H; Choi, J -Y; Park, S -Y; Gould, A; Allan, A; Mao, S; Wyrzykowski, L; Street, R A; Buckley, D; Nagayama, T; Mathiasen, M; Hinse, T C; Novati, S Calchi; Harpsoee, K; Mancini, L; Scarpetta, G; Anguita, T; Burgdorf, M J; Horne, K; Hornstrup, A; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Kjaergaard, P; Masi, G; Rahvar, S; Ricci, D; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Steele, I A; Surdej, J; Thoene, C C; Wambsganss, J; Zub, M; Albrow, M D; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Bennett, D P; Caldwell, J A R; Cole, A; Cook, K H; Coutures, C; Dieters, S; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Greenhill, J; Kane, S R; Kubas, D; Marquette, J -B; Martin, R; Menzies, J; Pollard, K R; Sahu, K C; Williams, A; Szymanski, M K; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Poleski, R; Ulaczyk, K; DePoy, D L; Dong, S; Han, C; Janczak, J; Lee, C -U; Pogge, R W; Abe, F; Furusawa, K; Hearnshaw, J B; Itow, Y; Kilmartin, P M; Korpela, A V; Lin, W; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Miyake, N; Muraki, Y; Ohnishi, K; Perrott, Y C; Saito, To; Skuljan, L; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; Sweatman, W L; Tristram, P J; Wada, K; Yock, P C M; Gulbis, A; Hashimoto, Y; Kniazev, A; Vaisanen, P

    2012-01-01

    The microlensing event OGLE-2008-BLG-510 is characterised by an evident asymmetric shape of the peak, promptly detected by the ARTEMiS system in real time. The skewness of the light curve appears to be compatible both with binary-lens and binary-source models, including the possibility that the lens system consists of an M dwarf orbited by a brown dwarf. The detection of this microlensing anomaly and our analysis demonstrates that: 1) automated real-time detection of weak microlensing anomalies with immediate feedback is feasible, efficient, and sensitive, 2) rather common weak features intrinsically come with ambiguities that are not easily resolved from photometric light curves, 3) a modelling approach that finds all features of parameter space rather than just the `favourite model' is required, and 4) the data quality is most crucial, where systematics can be confused with real features, in particular small higher-order effects such as orbital motion signatures. It moreover becomes apparent that events wit...

  4. Astrophysics of brown dwarfs; Proceedings of the Workshop, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, Oct. 14, 15, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, Minas C. (Editor); Harrington, Robert S. (Editor); Maran, Stephen P. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Various reports on theoretical and observational studies of brown dwarfs (BDs) are presented. The topics considered include: astrometric detection of BDs, search for substellar companions to nearby stars using IR imaging, constraints on BD mass function from optical and IR searches, properties of stellar objects near the main sequence mass limit, search for low-mass stellar companions with the HF precision velocity technique, dynamical search for substellar objects, search for BDs in the IRAS data base, deep CCD survey for low mass stars in the disk and halo, the Berkeley search for a faint solar companion, the luminosity function for late M stars, astronomic search for IR dwarfs, and the role of the Space Telescope in the detection of BDs. Also addressed are: theoretical significance of BDs, evolution of super-Jupiters, compositional indicators in IR spectra of BDs, evolution of BDs and the evolutionary status of VB8B, the position of BDs on universal diagrams, theoretical determination of the minimum protostellar mass, Population II BDs and dark halos.

  5. Kinematics and Chemistry of Recently Discovered Reticulum 2 and Horologium 1 Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koposov, Sergey E.; Casey, Andrew R.; Belokurov, Vasily; Lewis, James R.; Gilmore, Gerard; Worley, Clare; Hourihane, Anna; Randich, S.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Bergemann, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Flaccomio, E.; Francois, P.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Jofre, P.; Lando, C.; Lanzafame, A. C.; de Laverny, P.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sbordone, L.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Ryde, N.

    2015-09-01

    We report on VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of stars in two recently discovered ultra-faint satellites, Reticulum 2 and Horologium 1, obtained as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey. We identify 18 members in Reticulum 2 and five in Horologium 1. We find Reticulum 2 to have a velocity dispersion of {3.22}-0.49+1.64 {km} {{{s}}}-1, implying a mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of ˜500. The mean metallicity of Reticulum 2 is [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-2.46, with an intrinsic dispersion of ˜0.3 dex and α-enhancement of ˜0.4 dex. We conclude that Reticulum 2 is a dwarf galaxy. We also report on the serendipitous discovery of four stars in a previously unknown stellar substructure near Reticulum 2 with [{Fe}/{{H}}]˜ -2 and {V}{hel}˜ 220 {km} {{{s}}}-1, far from the systemic velocity of Reticulum 2. For Horologium 1 we infer a velocity dispersion of σ ≤ft(V\\right)={4.9}-0.9+2.8 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and a M/L ratio of ˜600, leading us to conclude that Horologium 1 is also a dwarf galaxy. Horologium 1 is slightly more metal-poor than Reticulum 2 ([{Fe}/{{H}}]=-2.76) and is similarly α-enhanced: [α /{Fe}]˜ 0.3 {dex} with a significant spread of metallicities of 0.17 dex. The line-of-sight velocity of Reticulum 2 is offset by 100 km s-1 from the prediction of the orbital velocity of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), thus making its association with the Cloud uncertain. However, at the location of Horologium 1, both the backward-integrated orbit of the LMC and its halo are predicted to have radial velocities similar to that of the dwarf. Therefore, it is possible that Horologium 1 is or once was a member of the Magellanic family.

  6. Kinematics and chemistry of recently discovered Reticulum 2 and Horologium 1 dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Koposov, S. E.; Casey, A. R.; Belokurov, V.; Lewis, J.R.; Gilmore, G.; Worley, C.; Hourihane, A.; Randich, S.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Bergemann, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Flaccomio, E.; Francois, P.

    2015-01-01

    Photometry alone is not sufficient to unambiguously distinguish between ultra-faint star clusters and dwarf galaxies because of their overlap in morphological properties. Here we report on VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of candidate member stars in two recently discovered ultra-faint satellites Reticulum 2 and Horologium 1, obtained as part of the ongoing Gaia-ESO Survey. We identify 18 members in Reticulum 2 and 5 in Horologium 1. We find Reticulum 2 to have a velocity dispersion of ~3.22 km/s, implyin...

  7. Virgo cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D - I. On the variety of stellar kinematic and line-strength properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryś, Agnieszka; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; van de Ven, Glenn

    2013-02-01

    We present the first large-scale stellar kinematic and line-strength maps for dwarf elliptical galaxies (nine in the Virgo cluster and three in the field environment) obtained with the SAURON (Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae) integral-field unit. No two galaxies in our sample are alike: we see that the level of rotation is not tied to flattening (we have, e.g., round rotators and flattened non-rotators); we observe kinematic twists in one Virgo and one field object; we discover large-scale kinematically decoupled components in two field galaxies; we see varying gradients in line-strength maps, from nearly flat to strongly peaked in the centre. The great variety of morphological, kinematic and stellar population parameters seen in our data points to a formation scenario in which properties are shaped stochastically. A combined effect of ram-pressure stripping and galaxy harassment is the most probable explanation. We show the need for a comprehensive analysis of kinematic, dynamical and stellar population properties which will enable us to place dwarf ellipticals and processes that govern their evolution in the wider context of galaxy formation.

  8. Virgo Cluster and field dwarf ellipticals in 3D: I. On the variety of stellar kinematic and line-strength properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ryś, Agnieszka; van de Ven, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    We present the first large-scale stellar kinematic and line-strength maps for dwarf elliptical galaxies (9 in the Virgo Cluster and 3 in the field environment) obtained with the SAURON integral-field unit. No two galaxies in our sample are alike: we see that the level of rotation is not tied to flattening (we have, e.g. round rotators and flattened nonrotators); we observe kinematic twists in 1 Virgo and 1 field object; we discover large-scale kinematically-decoupled components in 2 field galaxies; we see varying gradients in line-strength maps, from nearly flat to strongly peaked in the center. The great variety of morphological, kinematic, and stellar population parameters seen in our data points to a formation scenario in which properties are shaped stochastically. A combined effect of ram-pressure stripping and galaxy harassment is the most probable explanation. We show the need for a comprehensive analysis of kinematic, dynamical, and stellar population properties which will enable us to place dwarf elli...

  9. Kinematics and chemistry of recently discovered Reticulum 2 and Horologium 1 dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Koposov, Sergey E; Belokurov, Vasily; Lewis, James R; Gilmore, Gerard; Worley, Clare; Hourihane, Anna; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Bergemann, M; Carraro, G; Flaccomio, E; Heiter, U; Hill, V; Jofre, P; de Laverny, P; Monaco, L; Sbordone, L; Mikolaitis, S; Ryde, N

    2015-01-01

    Photometry alone is not sufficient to unambiguously distinguish between ultra-faint star clusters and dwarf galaxies because of their overlap in morphological properties. Here we report on VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of candidate member stars in two recently discovered ultra-faint satellites Reticulum 2 and Horologium 1, obtained as part of the ongoing Gaia-ESO Survey. We identify 18 members in Reticulum 2 and 5 in Horologium 1. We find Reticulum 2 to have a velocity dispersion of ~3.22 km/s, implying a M/L ratio of ~ 500. We have inferred stellar parameters for all candidates and we find Reticulum 2 to have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.46+/-0.1, with an intrinsic dispersion of ~ 0.29, and is alpha-enhanced to the level of [alpha/Fe]~0.4. We conclude that Reticulum 2 is a dwarf galaxy. We also report on the serendipitous discovery of four stars in a previously unknown stellar substructure near Reticulum 2 with [Fe/H] ~ -2 and V_hel ~ 220 km/s, far from the systemic velocity of Reticulum 2. For Horologium 1 we in...

  10. Kinematic Properties and Dark Matter Fraction of Virgo Dwarf Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Toloba, E; Peletier, R; Gorgas, J

    2012-01-01

    What happens to dwarf galaxies as they enter the cluster potential well is one of the main unknowns in studies of galaxy evolution. Several evidence suggests that late-type galaxies enter the cluster and are transformed to dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs). We study the Virgo cluster to understand which mechanisms are involved in this transformation. We find that the dEs in the outer parts of Virgo have rotation curves with shapes and amplitudes similar to late-type galaxies of the same luminosity. These dEs are rotationally supported, have disky isophotes, and younger ages than those dEs in the center of Virgo, which are pressure supported, often have boxy isophotes and are older. Ram pressure stripping, thus, explains the properties of the dEs located in the outskirts of Virgo. However, the dEs in the central cluster regions, which have lost their angular momentum, must have suffered a more violent transformation. A combination of ram pressure stripping and harassment is not enough to remove the rotation and ...

  11. Accurate Stellar Kinematics at Faint Magnitudes: application to the Bootes~I dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Koposov, Sergey E; Walker, M G; Belokurov, V; Evans, N Wyn; Fellhauer, M; Gieren, W; Geisler, D; Monaco, L; Norris, J E; Okamoto, S; Penarrubia, J; Wilkinson, M; Wyse, R F G; Zucker, D B

    2011-01-01

    We develop, implement and characterise an enhanced data reduction approach which delivers precise, accurate, radial velocities from moderate resolution spectroscopy with the fibre-fed VLT/FLAMES+GIRAFFE facility. This facility, with appropriate care, delivers radial velocities adequate to resolve the intrinsic velocity dispersions of the very faint dSph dwarf galaxies. Importantly, repeated measurements let us reliably calibrate our individual velocity errors ($0.2 \\leq \\delta_V\\leq 5$ km s$^{-1}$) and directly detect stars with variable radial velocities. We show, by application to the Bootes-1 dwarf spheroidal, that the intrinsic velocity dispersion of this system is significantly below 6.5\\,km/s reported by previous studies. Our data favor a two-population model of Bootes-1, consisting of a majority `cold' stellar component, with velocity dispersion $2.4^{+0.9}_{-0.5}$\\,km/s, and a minority `hot' stellar component, with velocity dispersion $\\sim 9$\\,km/s, although we can not completely rule out a single co...

  12. The parsec program: a large sample of brown dwarf trigonometric parallaxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Alexandre H.; Smart, Richard L.; Bucciarelli, Beatrice; Penna, Jucira L.; Marocco, Federico; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Crosta, Mariateresa; Teixeira, Ramakrishna

    2013-02-01

    We report on the parsec program, which observed 140 L and T dwarfs on a regular basis from 2007 to 2011, using the WIFI camera on the ESO/2.2 m telescope. Trigonometric parallaxes at 5 mas precision are derived for 49 objects, and mas yr-1-level proper motions are derived for approximately 200,000 objects in the same fields. We discuss image cleaning, object centroiding, and astrometric methods, in particular three different approaches for trigonometric parallax determination.

  13. H I Structure and Kinematics in the LITTLE THINGS Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Nau Raj; Simpson, Caroline E.; LITTLE THINGS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present a catalog and analysis of the properties of neutral hydrogen gas (H I) holes/shells in the LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey) galaxies. LITTLE THINGS uses high angular resolution (~6''), high spectral resolution (≤ 2.6 km s-1), and high sensitivity (≤ 1.1 mJy beam-1 channel-1) H I observations of 41 nearby (≤ 10.3 Mpc) gas-rich dwarf galaxies. We are interested in dwarf galaxies because they are the most common types of galaxies in the local universe and they are believed to be the first galaxies to form in the universe. Here we study the interaction between star formation evolution and the interstellar medium from which stars form. In the sample, we detected 306 holes with sizes ranging from about 38 pc to 2.3 kpc, the expansion rates varying from 5 to 30 km s-1, and the estimated kinetic age varying from 1 Myr to 127 Myr. The distribution of the holes per unit area is found nearly constant both inside (51%) and outside (49%) of the V-band break radius, where the radial luminosity function changes slope. We derived surface and volume porosity and found that porosity doesn't correlate with star formation rate (SFR) for the LITTLE THINGS sample. Assuming that the holes are formed from the stellar feedback, we calculated the supernova rate (SNR) and the SFR. We did find a correlation between the SFR calculated from Hα (a star formation tracer) and the SFR estimated from the SNR, consistent with hole formation from stellar feedback. The relation between the estimated kinetic ages of the holes with the SNR gives the indication of the star formation history.

  14. Kinematics and M(sub v) calibration of K and M dwarf stars using Hipparcos data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upgren, A. R.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Casertano, S.; Weis, E.

    1997-01-01

    The luminosities and kinematics of lower main sequence stars in a spectroscopically selected sample covering spectral types K 3 to M 5 are determined using Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions. The stars separate into two kinematically distinct components, called young disk and old disk components. The young component has velocity dispersion (30, 17, 12) km/s in the U, V and W directions, respectively, and features an asymmetric drift of 8 km/s, a vertex deviation of 10 +/- 3 deg and an absolute magnitude of 10.48 mag at color (R - I)(sub Kron) = 1.0 mag. The respective features of the old component are: (56, 34, 31) km/s, 28 km/s and 0.6 mag at the same color. The slope and intrinsic width of the magnitude calibration of each component are determined. The analysis is used to investigate the possible presence of residual systematic discrepancies of the model with Hipparcos data. There are indications of a possible underestimation of the parallax errors.

  15. Three new massive companions in the planet-brown dwarf boundary detected with SOPHIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santerne A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the detection of three new massive companions to mainsequence stars based on precise radial velocities obtained with the SOPHIE spectrograph, as part of an ongoing programme to search for extrasolar planets. The minimum masses of the detected companions range from around 16 Mjup to around 60 Mjup, and therefore lie at both sides of the boundary between massive extrasolar planets and brown dwarves.

  16. J-Band Infrared Spectroscopy of a Sample of Brown Dwarfs Using Nirspec on Keck II

    CERN Document Server

    McLean, I S; Becklin, E E; Figer, D F; Gilbert, A M; Graham, J R; Larkin, J E; Levenson, N A; Teplitz, H I; Kirkpatrick, J D; Lean, Ian S. Mc; Wilcox, Mavourneen K.; Figer, Donald F.; Gilbert, Andrea M.; Graham, James R.; Larkin, James E.; Teplitz, Harry I.

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of very cool, low-massobjects are presented with higher spectral resolution than in any previousstudies. Six of the objects are L-dwarfs, ranging in spectral class from L2 toL8/9, and the seventh is a methane or T-dwarf. These new observations wereobtained during commissioning of NIRSPEC, the first high-resolutionnear-infrared cryogenic spectrograph for the Keck II 10-meter telescope onMauna Kea, Hawaii. Spectra with a resolving power of R=2500 from 1.135 to 1.360microns (approximately J-band) are presented for each source. At thisresolution, a rich spectral structure is revealed, much of which is due toblending of unresolved molecular transitions. Strong lines due to neutralpotassium (K I), and bands due to iron hydride (FeH) and steam (H2O) changesignificantly throughout the L sequence. Iron hydride disappears between L5 andL8, the steam bands deepen and the K I lines gradually become weaker but widerdue to pressure broadening. An unidentified feature occ...

  17. Extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs around AF-type stars. IX. The HARPS southern sample

    CERN Document Server

    Borgniet, Simon; Meunier, Nadège; Galland, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Massive, Main-Sequence AF-type stars have so far remained unexplored in past radial velocity surveys, due to their small number of spectral lines and their high rotational velocities that prevent the classic RV computation method. Our aim was to search for giant planets around AF MS stars, to get first statistical information on their occurrence rate and to compare the results with evolved stars and lower-mass MS stars. We used the HARPS spectrograph located on the 3.6m telescope at ESO La Silla Observatory to observe 108 AF MS stars with B-V in the -0.04 to 0.58 range and masses in the range 1.1-3.6 Msun. We used our SAFIR software specifically developed to compute the radial velocities of these early-type stars. We report the new detection of a mpsini = 4.51 Mjup companion with a ~826-day period to the F6V dwarf HD111998. We present new data on the 2-planet system around the F6IV-V dwarf HD60532. We also report the detection of 14 binaries with long-term RV trends. 70% of our targets show detection limits b...

  18. Stellar Kinematics and Metallicities in the Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum II

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, J D; Li, T S; Nord, B; Geha, M; Bechtol, K; Balbinot, E; Buckley-Geer, E; Lin, H; Marshall, J; Santiago, B; Strigari, L; Wang, M; Wechsler, R H; Yanny, B; Abbott, T; Bauer, A H; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dodelson, S; Cunha, C E; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Fernandez, E; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Maia, M A G; March, M; Martini, P; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Ogando, R; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Rykoff, E S; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Schubnell, M; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Tucker, D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wester, W

    2015-01-01

    We present Magellan/M2FS, VLT/GIRAFFE, and Gemini South/GMOS spectroscopy of the newly discovered Milky Way satellite Reticulum II. Based on the spectra of 25 Ret II member stars selected from Dark Energy Survey imaging, we measure a mean heliocentric velocity of 62.8 +/- 0.5 km/s and a velocity dispersion of 3.3 +/- 0.7 km/s. The mass-to-light ratio of Ret II within its half-light radius is 470 +/- 210 Msun/Lsun, demonstrating that it is a strongly dark matter-dominated system. Despite its spatial proximity to the Magellanic Clouds, the radial velocity of Ret II differs from that of the LMC and SMC by 199 and 83 km/s, respectively, suggesting that it is not gravitationally bound to the Magellanic system. The likely member stars of Ret II span 1.3 dex in metallicity, with a dispersion of 0.28 +/- 0.09 dex, and we identify several extremely metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < -3. In combination with its luminosity, size, and ellipticity, these results confirm that Ret II is an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. With a me...

  19. The Gravitational Potential Near the Sun From SEGUE K-dwarf Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lan; van de Ven, Glenn; Bovy, Jo; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Gang

    2012-01-01

    To constrain the Galactic gravitational potential near the Sun ($\\sim$1.5 kpc), we derive and model the spatial and velocity distribution for a sample of 9000 K-dwarfs that have spectra from SDSS/SEGUE, which yield radial velocities and abundances ([Fe/H] & [$\\alpha$/Fe]). We first derive the spatial density distribution for stars of three abundance-selected sub-populations by accounting for the survey's selection function. The vertical profile of these sub-populations are simple exponentials and their vertical dispersion profile is nearly isothermal. To model these data, we apply the `vertical' Jeans Equation, which relates the observable tracer number density and vertical velocity dispersion to the gravitational potential or vertical force. We explore a number of functional forms for the vertical force law, and fit the dispersion and density profiles of all abundance selected sub-populations simultaneously in the same potential, and explore all parameter co-variances using MCMC. Our fits constrain a dis...

  20. Exoplanets versus brown dwarfs: the CoRoT view and the future

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Jean

    2016-01-01

    CoRoT has detected by transit several tens of objects whose radii run from 1.67 Earth radius. Their mass run from less than 5.7 Earth mass (CoRoT-24 b, Alonso et al. 2014) to 63 Jupiter mass (CoRoT-15 b, Bouchy et al. 2011). One could be tempted to think that more massive the object is, the larger it is in size and that there is some limit in mass and/or radius beyond which objects are not planets but very low mass stars below the 80 Jupiter mass limit to trigger nuclear fusion (namely "brown...

  1. Modeling the Cloudy Atmospheres of Cool Stars, Brown Dwarfs and Hot Exoplanets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juncher, Diana

    M-dwarfs are very attractive targets when searching for new exoplanets. Unfortunately, they are also very difficult to model since their temperatures are low enough for dust clouds to form in their atmospheres. Because the properties of an exoplanet cannot be determined without knowing...... the properties of its host star, it is crucial that the stellar models linking the observations of a star to its properties are as precise as possible. The primary goal of this project is therefore to merge the model atmosphere code MARCS with the dust model code DRIFT, thus facilitating the computation of self......-consistent cloudy atmosphere models that can be used to properly determine the stellar parameters of cool stars. With this enhanced model atmosphere code I have created a grid of cool, dusty atmosphere models ranging in effective temperatures from Teff = 2000 − 3000 K. I have studied the formation and structure...

  2. The spectroscopic study of M8.5-M9.5 stars and brown dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlenko Y.V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present high-resolution spectra analysis of the three late-M dwarfs LP944-20, SIPS J2045-6332 and DENIS-P J0021.0-4244. The stellar spectra were observed with Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet–Visual Echelle Spectrograph (VLT/UVES in optical and near-infrared regions. The effective temperatures Teff and log g was defined by comparing observed and theoretical energy distributions for the investigated objects. Synthetic spectra were calculated for PHOENIX atmosphere models – COND and DUSTY, as well as for Semi-empirical atmosphere model. We discuss the influence of the effects associated with dust in stellar atmosphere on the energy distribution in the stellar spectra.

  3. The number fraction of discs around brown dwarfs in Orion OB1a and the 25 Orionis group

    CERN Document Server

    Downes, Juan José; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Mateu, Cecilia; Briceño, César; Hernández, Jesús; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Mauco, Karina

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of 15 new brown dwarfs belonging to the $\\sim7$ Myr old 25 Orionis group and Orion OB1a sub-association with spectral types between M6 and M9 and estimated masses between $\\sim0.07$M$_\\odot$ and $\\sim0.01$ M$_\\odot$. By comparing them through a Bayesian method with low mass stars ($0.8\\lesssim$ M/M$_\\odot\\lesssim0.1$) from previous works in the 25 Orionis group, we found statistically significant differences in the number fraction of classical T Tauri stars, weak T Tauri stars, class II, evolved discs and purely photospheric emitters at both sides of the sub-stellar mass limit. Particularly we found a fraction of $3.9^{+2.4}_{-1.6}~\\%$ low mass stars classified as CTTS and class II or evolved discs, against a fraction of $33.3^{+10.8}_{-9.8}~\\%$ in the sub-stellar mass domain. Our results support the suggested scenario in which the dissipation of discs is less efficient for decreasing mass of the central object.

  4. IRAS 16253-2429: the First Proto-Brown Dwarf Binary Candidate Identified through Dynamics of Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    The formation mechanism of brown dwarfs (BDs) is one of the long-standing problems in star formation because the typical Jeans mass in molecular clouds is too large to form these substellar objects. To answer this question, it is crucial to study a BD at the embedded phase. IRAS 16253-2429 is classified as a very low luminosity object (VeLLO) with internal luminosity 0.1 Lsun. VeLLOs are believed to be very low-mass protostars or even proto-BDs. We observed the jet/outflow driven by IRAS 16253-2429 in CO (2-1), (6-5), and (7-6) using the IRAM 30 m and APEX telescopes and the SMA in order to study its dynamical features and physical properties. Our SMA map reveals two protostellar jets, indicating the existence of a proto-binary system as implied by the precessing jet detected in H2 emission. We detect a wiggling pattern in the position-velocity diagrams along the jet axes, which is likely due to the binary orbital motion. Based on this, we derive the current mass of the binary as ~0.032 Msun. Given the low en...

  5. Spatially Resolved Observations of the Bipolar Optical Outflow from the Brown Dwarf 2MASSJ12073347-3932540

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, Emma; Comeron, Fernando; Bacciotti, Francesca; Kavanagh, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Studies of brown dwarf (BD) outflows provide information pertinent to questions on BD formation, as well as allowing outflow mechanisms to be investigated at the lowest masses. Here new observations of the bipolar outflow from the 24 M$_{JUP}$ BD, 2MASSJ12073347-3932540 are presented. The outflow was originally identified through the spectro-astrometric analysis of the [OI]$\\lambda$6300 emission line. Follow-up observations consisting of spectra and [SII], R-band and I-band images were obtained. The new spectra confirm the original results and are used to constrain the outflow PA at $\\sim$ 65$^{\\circ}$. The [OI]$\\lambda$6300 emission line region is spatially resolved and the outflow is detected in the [SII] images. The detection is firstly in the form of an elongation of the point spread function along the direction of the outflow PA. Four faint knot-like features (labelled {\\it A-D}) are also observed to the south-west of 2MASSJ12073347-3932540 along the same PA suggested by the spectra and the elongation in...

  6. Deuterium Burning in Massive Giant Planets and Low-Mass Brown Dwarfs formed by Core-Nucleated Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Bodenheimer, Peter; Lissauer, Jack J; Fortney, Jonathan J; Saumon, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Formation of bodies near the deuterium-burning limit is considered by detailed numerical simulations according to the core-nucleated giant planet accretion scenario. The objects, with heavy-element cores in the range 5-30 Mearth, are assumed to accrete gas up to final masses of 10-15 Jupiter masses (Mjup). After the formation process, which lasts 1-5 Myr and which ends with a 'cold-start', low-entropy configuration, the bodies evolve at constant mass up to an age of several Gyr. Deuterium burning via proton capture is included in the calculation, and we determined the mass, M50, above which more than 50% of the initial deuterium is burned. This often-quoted borderline between giant planets and brown dwarfs is found to depend only slightly on parameters, such as core mass, stellar mass, formation location, solid surface density in the protoplanetary disk, disk viscosity, and dust opacity. The values for M50 fall in the range 11.6-13.6 Mjup, in agreement with previous determinations that do not take the formati...

  7. Emission Line Variability of the Accreting Young Brown Dwarf 2MASSW J1207334-393254: From Hours to Years

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, Beate; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2007-01-01

    We have obtained a series of high-resolution optical spectra for the brown dwarf 2MASSW J1207334-393254 (2M1207) using the ESO Very Large Telescope with the UVES spectrograph during two consecutive observing nights (time resolution of ~12 min) and the Magellan Clay telescope with the MIKE spectrograph. Combined with previously published results, these data allow us to investigate changes in the emission line spectrum of 2M1207 on timescales of hours to years. Most of the emission line profiles of 2M1207 are broad, in particular that of Halpha, indicating that the dominant fraction of the emission must be attributed to disk accretion rather than to magnetic activity. From the Halpha 10% width we deduce a relatively stable accretion rate between 10^(-10.1...-9.8) Msun/yr for two nights of consecutive observations. Therefore, either the accretion stream is nearly homogeneous over (sub-)stellar longitude or the system is seen face-on. Small but significant variations are evident throughout our near-continuous obs...

  8. Search for very low-mass brown dwarfs and free-floating planetary-mass objects in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Quanz, Sascha P; Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang; Burrows, Adam; Hofstetter, Lorne W

    2009-01-01

    The number of low-mass brown dwarfs and even free floating planetary mass objects in young nearby star-forming regions and associations is continuously increasing, offering the possibility to study the low-mass end of the IMF in greater detail. In this paper, we present six new candidates for (very) low-mass objects in the Taurus star-forming region one of which was recently discovered in parallel by Luhman et al. (2009). The underlying data we use is part of a new database from a deep near-infrared survey at the Calar Alto observatory. The survey is more than four magnitudes deeper than the 2MASS survey and covers currently ~1.5 square degree. Complementary optical photometry from SDSS were available for roughly 1.0 square degree. After selection of the candidates using different color indices, additional photometry from Spitzer/IRAC was included in the analysis. In greater detail we focus on two very faint objects for which we obtained J-band spectra. Based on comparison with reference spectra we derive a s...

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The ELM survey. VII. 15 new ELM white dwarf cand. (Brown+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. R.; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, M.; Kenyon, S. J.; Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present observations of 15 new extremely low-mass white dwarf (ELM WD) candidates. Ten objects are selected by color for our targeted spectroscopic ELM Survey program as described in Brown et al. (2012ApJ...744..142B). Five objects come from follow-up spectroscopy of the completed Hypervelocity Star survey. We acquire spectra for the 15 ELM WD candidates using the Blue Channel spectrograph on the 6.5m MMT telescope. We configured the Blue Channel spectrograph to obtain 3650-4500Å spectral coverage with 1.0Å spectral resolution. We acquire additional spectra for 5 objects using the KOSMOS spectrograph on the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4m Mayall telescope on program numbers 2014B-0119 and 2015A-0082. We configured the KOSMOS spectrograph to obtain 3500-6200Å spectral coverage with 2.0Å spectral resolution. We also acquire spectra for objects with g<17mag using the FAST spectrograph on the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5m Tillinghast telescope. We configured the FAST spectrograph to obtain 3500-5500Å spectral coverage with 1.7Å spectral resolution. (3 data files).

  10. Detection of a tertiary brown dwarf companion in the sdB-typ e eclipsing binary HS 0705+6700

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, S; Zola, S; Liao, W; Liu, L; Li, L; Winiarski, M; Kuligowska, E; Kreiner, J

    2009-01-01

    HS 0705+6700 is a short-period (P=2.3 hours), close binary containing a hot sdB-type primary and a fully convective secondary. We have monitored this eclipsing binary for more than 2 years and as a result, 32 times of light minimum were obtained. Based on our new eclipse times together with these compiled from the literature, it is discovered that the O-C curve of HS 0705+6700 shows a cyclic variation with a period of 7.15 years and a semiamplitude of 92.4 s. The periodic change was analyzed for the light-travel time effect that may be due to the presence of a tertiary companion. The mass of the third body is determined to be M3 sin i = 0.0377 (+/-0.0043) M when a total mass of 0.617 M for HS 0705+6700 is adopted. For orbital inclinations i >= 32.8, the mass of the tertiary component would be below the stable hydrogen-burning limit of M3~0.072 M, and thus it would be a brown dwarf. The third body is orbiting the sdB-type binary at a distance shorter than 3.6 astronomical units (AU). HS 0705+6700 was formed th...

  11. Treatment of overlapping gaseous absorption with the correlated-k method in hot Jupiter and brown dwarf atmosphere models

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, David S; Manners, James; Baraffe, Isabelle; Mayne, Nathan J

    2016-01-01

    The correlated-k method is frequently used to speed up radiation calculations in both one-dimensional and three-dimensional atmosphere models. An inherent difficulty with this method is how to treat overlapping absorption, i.e. absorption by more than one gas in a given spectral region. We have evaluated the applicability of three different methods in hot Jupiter and brown dwarf atmosphere models, all of which have been previously applied within models in the literature: (i) Random overlap, both with and without resorting and rebinning, (ii) equivalent extinction and (iii) pre-mixing of opacities, where (i) and (ii) combine k-coefficients for different gases to obtain k-coefficients for a mixture of gases, while (iii) calculates k-coefficients for a given mixture from the corresponding mixed line-by-line opacities. We find that the random overlap method is the most accurate and flexible of these treatments, and is fast enough to be used in one-dimensional models with resorting and rebinning. In three-dimensio...

  12. Brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Praesepe open cluster: a dynamically unevolved mass function?

    CERN Document Server

    Boudreault, S; Goldman, B; Henning, T; Caballero, J A

    2009-01-01

    [Abridged] In this paper, we present the results of a photometric survey to identify low mass and brown dwarf members of the old open cluster Praesepe (age of 590[+150][-120]Myr and distance of 190[+6.0][-5.8]pc) and use this to infer its mass function which we compare with that of other clusters. We have performed an optical (Ic-band) and near-infrared (J and Ks-band) photometric survey of Praesepe with a spatial coverage of 3.1deg^2. With 5sigma detection limits of Ic=23.4 and J=20.0, our survey is sensitive to objects with masses from about 0.6 to 0.05Msol. The mass function of Praesepe rises from 0.6Msol down to 0.1Msol and then turns-over at ~0.1Msol. The rise observed is in agreement with the mass function derived by previous studies, including a survey based on proper motion and photometry. Comparing our mass function with that for another open cluster with a similar age, the Hyades (age ~ 600Myr), we see a significant difference. Possible reasons are that dynamical evaporation has not influenced the H...

  13. A Gemini/GMOS study of the physical conditions and kinematics of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Eduardo; Thuan, Trinh X.; Izotov, Yuri I.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present an integral field spectroscopic study with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) of the unusual blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy Mrk 996. Methods: We show through velocity and dispersion maps, emission-line intensity and ratio maps, and by a new technique of electron density limit imaging that the ionization properties of different regions in Mrk 996 are correlated with their kinematic properties. Results: From the maps, we can spatially distinguish a very dense high-ionization zone with broad lines in the nuclear region, and a less dense low-ionization zone with narrow lines in the circumnuclear region. Four kinematically distinct systems of lines are identified in the integrated spectrum of Mrk 996, suggesting stellar wind outflows from a population of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the nuclear region, superposed on an underlying rotation pattern. From the intensities of the blue and red bumps, we derive a population of ~473 late nitrogen (WNL) stars and ~98 early carbon (WCE) stars in the nucleus of Mrk 996, resulting in a high N(WR)/N(O+WR) of 0.19. We derive, for the outer narrow-line region, an oxygen abundance 12 + log (O/H) = 7.94 ± 0.30 (~0.2 Z⊙) by using the direct Te method derived from the detected narrow [O iii]λ4363 line. The nucleus of Mrk 996 is, however, nitrogen-enhanced by a factor of ~20, in agreement with previous CLOUDY modeling. This nitrogen enhancement is probably due to nitrogen-enriched WR ejecta, but also to enhanced nitrogen line emission in a high-density environment. Although we have made use here of two new methods - principal component analysis (PCA) tomography and a method for mapping low- and high-density clouds - to analyze our data, new methodology is needed to further exploit the wealth of information provided by integral field spectroscopy. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative

  14. HST ROTATIONAL SPECTRAL MAPPING OF TWO L-TYPE BROWN DWARFS: VARIABILITY IN AND OUT OF WATER BANDS INDICATES HIGH-ALTITUDE HAZE LAYERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Apai, Dániel; Karalidi, Theodora [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Naval Air Station, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA 94035 (United States); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Buenzli, Esther [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Radigan, Jacqueline [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Metchev, Stanimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Mohanty, Subhanjoy [Imperial College London, 1010 Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Lowrance, Patrick J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Showman, Adam P.; Flateau, Davin [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Heinze, Aren N., E-mail: haoyang@email.arizona.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy of two L5 dwarfs, 2MASS J18212815+1414010 and 2MASS J15074759–1627386, observed with the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We study the wavelength dependence of rotation-modulated flux variations between 1.1 μm and 1.7 μm. We find that the water absorption bands of the two L5 dwarfs at 1.15 μm and 1.4 μm vary at similar amplitudes as the adjacent continuum. This differs from the results of previous HST observations of L/T transition dwarfs, in which the water absorption at 1.4 μm displays variations of about half of the amplitude at other wavelengths. We find that the relative amplitude of flux variability out of the water band with respect to that in the water band shows a increasing trend from the L5 dwarfs toward the early T dwarfs. We utilize the models of Saumon and Marley and find that the observed variability of the L5 dwarfs can be explained by the presence of spatially varying high-altitude haze layers above the condensate clouds. Therefore, our observations show that the heterogeneity of haze layers—the driver of the variability—must be located at very low pressures, where even the water opacity is negligible. In the near future, the rotational spectral mapping technique could be utilized for other atomic and molecular species to probe different pressure levels in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and exoplanets and uncover both horizontal and vertical cloud structures.

  15. Quenching of Carbon Monoxide and Methane in the Atmospheres of Cool Brown Dwarfs and Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Visscher, Channon

    2011-01-01

    We explore CO-CH4 quench kinetics in the atmospheres of substellar objects using updated time-scale arguments, as suggested by a thermochemical kinetics and diffusion model that transitions from the thermochemical-equilibrium regime in the deep atmosphere to a quench-chemical regime at higher altitudes. More specifically, we examine CO quench chemistry on the T dwarf Gliese 229B and CH4 quench chemistry on the hot-Jupiter HD 189733b. We describe a method for correctly calculating reverse rate coefficients for chemical reactions, discuss the predominant pathways for CO-CH4 interconversion as indicated by the model, and demonstrate that a simple time-scale approach can be used to accurately describe the behavior of quenched species when updated reaction kinetics and mixing-length-scale assumptions are used. Proper treatment of quench kinetics has important implications for estimates of molecular abundances and/or vertical mixing rates in the atmospheres of substellar objects. Our model results indicate signific...

  16. Dancing in the Dark: New Brown Dwarf Binaries from Kernel Phase Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Benjamin; Tuthill, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits a sample of ultracool dwarfs in the Solar neighborhood previously observed with the Hubble Space Telescope's NICMOS NIC1 instrument. We have applied a novel high angular resolution data analysis technique based on the extraction and fitting of kernel phases to archival data. This was found to deliver a dramatic improvement over earlier analysis methods, permitting a search for companions down to projected separations of $\\sim$1 AU on NIC1 snapshot images. We reveal five new close binary candidates and present revised astrometry on previously-known binaries, all of which were recovered with the technique. The new candidate binaries have sufficiently close separation to determine dynamical masses in a short-term observing campaign. We also present four marginal detections of objects which may be very close binaries or high contrast companions. Including only confident detections within 19 parsecs, we report a binary fraction of at least $\\epsilon_b = 17.2^{+5.7}_{-3.7}%$. The results reporte...

  17. DANCING IN THE DARK: NEW BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM KERNEL PHASE INTERFEROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper revisits a sample of ultracool dwarfs in the solar neighborhood previously observed with the Hubble Space Telescope's NICMOS NIC1 instrument. We have applied a novel high angular resolution data analysis technique based on the extraction and fitting of kernel phases to archival data. This was found to deliver a dramatic improvement over earlier analysis methods, permitting a search for companions down to projected separations of ∼1 AU on NIC1 snapshot images. We reveal five new close binary candidates and present revised astrometry on previously known binaries, all of which were recovered with the technique. The new candidate binaries have sufficiently close separation to determine dynamical masses in a short-term observing campaign. We also present four marginal detections of objects which may be very close binaries or high-contrast companions. Including only confident detections within 19 pc, we report a binary fraction of at least ϵb = 17.2−3.7+5.7%. The results reported here provide new insights into the population of nearby ultracool binaries, while also offering an incisive case study of the benefits conferred by the kernel phase approach in the recovery of companions within a few resolution elements of the point-spread function core.

  18. DANCING IN THE DARK: NEW BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM KERNEL PHASE INTERFEROMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Benjamin; Tuthill, Peter [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2226 (Australia); Martinache, Frantz, E-mail: bjsp@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: p.tuthill@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: frantz@naoj.org [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    This paper revisits a sample of ultracool dwarfs in the solar neighborhood previously observed with the Hubble Space Telescope's NICMOS NIC1 instrument. We have applied a novel high angular resolution data analysis technique based on the extraction and fitting of kernel phases to archival data. This was found to deliver a dramatic improvement over earlier analysis methods, permitting a search for companions down to projected separations of {approx}1 AU on NIC1 snapshot images. We reveal five new close binary candidates and present revised astrometry on previously known binaries, all of which were recovered with the technique. The new candidate binaries have sufficiently close separation to determine dynamical masses in a short-term observing campaign. We also present four marginal detections of objects which may be very close binaries or high-contrast companions. Including only confident detections within 19 pc, we report a binary fraction of at least #Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol#{sub b} = 17.2{sub -3.7}{sup +5.7}%. The results reported here provide new insights into the population of nearby ultracool binaries, while also offering an incisive case study of the benefits conferred by the kernel phase approach in the recovery of companions within a few resolution elements of the point-spread function core.

  19. New Neighbors from 2MASS: Activity and Kinematics at the Bottom of the Main Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizis, John E.; Monet, David G.; Reid, I. Neill; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Liebert, James; Williams, Rik J.

    2000-08-01

    We have combined 2MASS and POSS II data in a search for nearby ultracool (later than M6.5) dwarfs with Ksmass function that is smooth across the stellar/substellar limit. We show the observed frequency of Hα emission peaks at ~100% for M7 dwarfs and then decreases for cooler dwarfs. In absolute terms, however, as measured by the ratio of Hα to bolometric luminosity, none of the ultracool M dwarfs can be considered very active compared to earlier M dwarfs, and we show that the decrease that begins at spectral type M6 continues to the latest L dwarfs. We find that flaring is common among the coolest M dwarfs and estimate the frequency of flares at 7% or higher. We show that the kinematics of relatively active (EW>6 Å) ultracool M dwarfs are consistent with an ordinary old disk stellar population, while the kinematics of inactive ultracool M dwarfs are more typical of a 0.5 Gyr old population. The early L dwarfs in the sample have kinematics consistent with old ages, suggesting that the hydrogen-burning limit is near spectral types L2-L4. We use the available data on M and L dwarfs to show that chromospheric activity drops with decreasing mass and temperature and that at a given (M8 or later) spectral type, the younger field (brown) dwarfs are less active than many of the older, more massive field stellar dwarfs. Thus, contrary to the well-known stellar age-activity relationship, low activity in field ultracool dwarfs can be an indication of comparative youth and substellar mass.

  20. Extended Magnetospheres in Pre-main-sequence Evolution: From T Tauri Stars to the Brown Dwarf Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Marcos-Arenal, Pablo

    2012-04-01

    extended and dense stellar magnetosphere directly driven by local collisional processes. The brown dwarf 2MASS J12073346-3332539 has been found to follow the same flux-flux relations of the TTSs. Thus, TTS-normalized flux scaling laws seem to be extendable to the brown dwarf limit and can be used for identification/diagnosis purposes. We report the discovery of an inverse correlation between the C IV-normalized flux and the magnetospheric radius derived for stars with known magnetic fields. The normalized C IV flux is found to be vpropexp (- αr mag), with α = 0.5-0.7.

  1. SPATIALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS OF THE BIPOLAR OPTICAL OUTFLOW FROM THE BROWN DWARF 2MASS J12073347-3932540

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, School of Cosmic Physics, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Comeron, F. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bacciotti, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kavanagh, P. J. [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls Universitaet, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2012-12-20

    Studies of brown dwarf (BD) outflows provide information pertinent to questions on BD formation, as well as allowing outflow mechanisms to be investigated at the lowest masses. Here new observations of the bipolar outflow from the 24 M{sub JUP} BD 2MASS J12073347-3932540 are presented. The outflow was originally identified through the spectro-astrometric analysis of the [O I]{lambda}6300 emission line. Follow-up observations consisting of spectra and [S II], R-band and I-band images were obtained. The new spectra confirm the original results and are used to constrain the outflow position angle (P.A.) at {approx}65 Degree-Sign . The [O I]{lambda}6300 emission line region is spatially resolved and the outflow is detected in the [S II] images. The detection is firstly in the form of an elongation of the point-spread function (PSF) along the direction of the outflow P.A. Four faint knot-like features (labeled A-D) are also observed to the southwest of 2MASS J12073347-3932540 along the same P.A. suggested by the spectra and the elongation in the PSF. Interestingly, D, the feature furthest from the source, is bow shaped with the apex pointing away from 2MASS J12073347-3932540. A color-color analysis allows us to conclude that at least feature D is part of the outflow under investigation while A is likely a star or galaxy. Follow-up observations are needed to confirm the origin of B and C. This is a first for a BD, as BD optical outflows have to date only been detected using spectro-astrometry. This result also demonstrates for the first time that BD outflows can be collimated and episodic.

  2. DETECTION OF A TERTIARY BROWN DWARF COMPANION IN THE sdB-TYPE ECLIPSING BINARY HS 0705+6700

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HS 0705+6700 is a short-period (P = 2.3 hr), close binary containing a hot sdB-type primary and a fully convective secondary. We have monitored this eclipsing binary for more than two years and as a result, 32 times of light minimum were obtained. Based on our new eclipse times together with these compiled from the literature, it is discovered that the observed-calculated curve of HS 0705+6700 shows a cyclic variation with a period of 7.15 years and a semiamplitude of 92.4 s. The periodic change was analyzed for the light-travel time effect that may be due to the presence of a tertiary companion. The mass of the third body is determined to be M 3sin i' = 0.0377(±0.0043) M sun when a total mass of 0.617 M sun for HS 0705+6700 is adopted. For orbital inclinations i' ≥ 32.08, the mass of the tertiary component would be below the stable hydrogen-burning limit of M 3 ∼ 0.072 M sun, and thus it would be a brown dwarf. The third body is orbiting the sdB-type binary at a distance shorter than 3.6 AU. HS 0705+6700 was formed through the evolution of a common envelope after the primary becomes a red giant. The detection of a substellar companion in HS 0705+6700 system at this distance from the binary could give some constraints on stellar evolution in such systems and the interactions between red giants and their companions.

  3. DEUTERIUM BURNING IN MASSIVE GIANT PLANETS AND LOW-MASS BROWN DWARFS FORMED BY CORE-NUCLEATED ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenheimer, Peter [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); D' Angelo, Gennaro; Lissauer, Jack J. [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Saumon, Didier, E-mail: peter@ucolick.org, E-mail: gennaro.dangelo@nasa.gov, E-mail: Jack.J.Lissauer@nasa.gov, E-mail: jfortney@ucolick.org, E-mail: dsaumon@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Using detailed numerical simulations, we study the formation of bodies near the deuterium-burning limit according to the core-nucleated giant planet accretion scenario. The objects, with heavy-element cores in the range 5-30 M{sub Circled-Plus }, are assumed to accrete gas up to final masses of 10-15 Jupiter masses (M{sub Jup}). After the formation process, which lasts 1-5 Myr and which ends with a ''cold-start'', low-entropy configuration, the bodies evolve at constant mass up to an age of several Gyr. Deuterium burning via proton capture is included in the calculation, and we determined the mass, M{sub 50}, above which more than 50% of the initial deuterium is burned. This often-quoted borderline between giant planets and brown dwarfs is found to depend only slightly on parameters, such as core mass, stellar mass, formation location, solid surface density in the protoplanetary disk, disk viscosity, and dust opacity. The values for M{sub 50} fall in the range 11.6-13.6 M{sub Jup}, in agreement with previous determinations that do not take the formation process into account. For a given opacity law during the formation process, objects with higher core masses form more quickly. The result is higher entropy in the envelope at the completion of accretion, yielding lower values of M{sub 50}. For masses above M{sub 50}, during the deuterium-burning phase, objects expand and increase in luminosity by one to three orders of magnitude. Evolutionary tracks in the luminosity versus time diagram are compared with the observed position of the companion to Beta Pictoris.

  4. SPLAT: Using Spectral Indices to Identify and Characterize Ultracool Stars, Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets in Deep Surveys and as Companions to Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganze, Christian; Burgasser, Adam J.; Martin, Eduardo; Konopacky, Quinn; Masters, Daniel C.

    2016-06-01

    The majority of ultracool dwarf stars and brown dwarfs currently known were identified in wide-field red optical and infrared surveys, enabling measures of the local, typically isolated, population in a relatively shallow (quantitative methodologies to identify and robustly characterize sources for these specific populations, based on templates and tools developed as part of the SpeX Prism Library Analysis Toolkit. In particular, we define and characterize specifically-tuned sets spectral indices that optimize selection of cool dwarfs and distinguish rare populations (subdwarfs, young planetary-mass objects) based on low-resolution, limited-wavelength-coverage spectral data; and present a template-matching classification method for these instruments. We apply these techniques to HST/WFC3 parallel fields data in the WISPS and HST-3D programs, where our spectral index set allows high completeness and low contamination for searches of late M, L and T dwarfs to distances out to ~3 kpc.The material presented here is based on work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX15AI75G.

  5. Sensitivity to interlopers in stellar-kinematic samples for ultrafaint dwarf galaxies: Uncertainty about the dark matter annihilation profile of Segue I

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnivard, V; Walker, M G

    2015-01-01

    The expected gamma-ray flux coming from dark matter annihilation in dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies depends on the so-called 'J-factor', the integral of the squared dark matter density along the line-of-sight. We examine the degree to which estimates of J are sensitive to contamination (by foreground Milky Way stars and stellar streams) of the stellar-kinematic samples that are used to infer dark matter densities in 'ultrafaint' dSphs. Applying standard kinematic analyses to hundreds of mock data sets that include varying levels of contamination, we find that mis-classified contaminants can cause J-factors to be overestimated by orders of magnitude. Stellar-kinematic data sets for which we obtain such biased estimates tend 1) to include relatively large fractions of stars with ambiguous membership status, and 2) to give estimates for J that are sensitive to specific choices about how to weight and/or to exclude stars with ambiguous status. Comparing publicly-available stellar-kinematic samples for the nearby...

  6. Contamination of stellar-kinematic samples and uncertainty about dark matter annihilation profiles in ultrafaint dwarf galaxies: the example of Segue I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnivard, V.; Maurin, D.; Walker, M. G.

    2016-10-01

    The expected gamma-ray flux coming from dark matter annihilation in dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies depends on the so-called J-factor, the integral of the squared dark matter density along the line of sight. We examine the degree to which estimates of J are sensitive to contamination (by foreground Milky Way stars and stellar streams) of the stellar-kinematic samples that are used to infer dark matter densities in `ultrafaint' dSphs. Applying standard kinematic analyses to hundreds of mock data sets that include varying levels of contamination, we find that misclassified contaminants can cause J-factors to be overestimated by orders of magnitude. Stellar-kinematic data sets for which we obtain such biased estimates tend (1) to include relatively large fractions of stars with ambiguous membership status, and (2) to give estimates for J that are sensitive to specific choices about how to weight and/or to exclude stars with ambiguous status. Comparing publicly available stellar-kinematic samples for the nearby dSphs Reticulum II and Segue I, we find that only the latter displays both of these characteristics. Estimates of Segue I's J-factor should therefore be regarded with a larger degree of caution when planning and interpreting gamma-ray observations. Moreover, robust interpretations regarding dark matter annihilation in dSph galaxies in general will require explicit examination of how interlopers might affect the inferred dark matter density profiles.

  7. SIMP J2154–1055: A NEW LOW-GRAVITY L4β BROWN DWARF CANDIDATE MEMBER OF THE ARGUS ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    We present SIMP J21543454–1055308, a new L4β brown dwarf identified in the SIMP survey that displays signs of low gravity in its near-infrared spectrum. Using BANYAN II, we show that it is a candidate member of the Argus association, albeit with a 21% probability that it is a contaminant from the field. Measurements of radial velocity and parallax will be needed to verify its membership. If it is a member of Argus (age 30-50 Myr), then this object would have a planetary mass of 10 ± 0.5 M {sub Jup}.

  8. Cloud Structure of the Nearest Brown Dwarfs II: High-amplitude variability for Luhman 16 A and B in and out of the 0.99 micron FeH feature

    CERN Document Server

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Saumon, Didier; Biller, Beth A; Crossfield, Ian J M; Radigan, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The re-emergence of the 0.99 $\\mu$m FeH feature in brown dwarfs of early- to mid-T spectral type has been suggested as evidence for cloud disruption where flux from deep, hot regions below the Fe cloud deck can emerge. The same mechanism could account for color changes at the L/T transition and photometric variability. We present the first observations of spectroscopic variability of brown dwarfs covering the 0.99 $\\mu$m FeH feature. We observed the spatially resolved very nearby brown dwarf binary WISE J104915.57-531906.1 (Luhman 16AB), a late-L and early-T dwarf, with HST/WFC3 in the G102 grism at 0.8-1.15 $\\mu$m. We find significant variability at all wavelengths for both brown dwarfs, with peak-to-valley amplitudes of 9.3% for Luhman 16B and 4.5% for Luhman 16A. This represents the first unambiguous detection of variability in Luhman 16A. We estimate a rotational period between 4.5 and 5.5 h, very similar to Luhman 16B. Variability in both components complicates the interpretation of spatially unresolved ...

  9. Dust masses of disks around 8 Brown Dwarfs and Very Low-Mass Stars in Upper Sco OB1 and Ophiuchus

    CERN Document Server

    van der Plas, G; Ward-Duong, K; Bulger, J; Harvey, P M; Pinte, C; Patience, J; Hales, A; Casassus, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of ALMA band 7 observations of dust and CO gas in the disks around 7 objects with spectral types ranging between M5.5 and M7.5 in Upper Scorpius OB1, and one M3 star in Ophiuchus. We detect unresolved continuum emission in all but one source, and the $^{12}$CO J=3-2 line in two sources. We constrain the dust and gas content of these systems using a grid of models calculated with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and find disk dust masses between 0.1 and 1 M$_\\oplus$, suggesting that the stellar mass / disk mass correlation can be extrapolated for brown dwarfs with masses as low as 0.05 M$_\\odot$. The one disk in Upper Sco in which we detect CO emission, 2MASS J15555600, is also the disk with warmest inner disk as traced by its H - [4.5] photometric color. Using our radiative transfer grid, we extend the correlation between stellar luminosity and mass-averaged disk dust temperature originally derived for stellar mass objects to the brown dwarf regime to $\\langle T_{dust} \\rangle \\appro...

  10. Aeolus: A Markov--Chain Monte Carlo code for mapping ultracool atmospheres. An application on Jupiter and brown dwarf HST light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Karalidi, Theodora; Schneider, Glenn; Hanson, Jake R; Pasachoff, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    Deducing the cloud cover and its temporal evolution from the observed planetary spectra and phase curves can give us major insight into the atmospheric dynamics. In this paper, we present Aeolus, a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo code that maps the structure of brown dwarf and other ultracool atmospheres. We validated Aeolus on a set of unique Jupiter Hubble Space Telescope (HST) light curves. Aeolus accurately retrieves the properties of the major features of the jovian atmosphere such as the Great Red Spot and a major 5um hot spot. Aeolus is the first mapping code validated on actual observations of a giant planet over a full rotational period. For this study, we applied Aeolus to J and H-bands HST light curves of 2MASSJ21392676+0220226 and 2MASSJ0136565+093347. Aeolus retrieves three spots at the top-of-the-atmosphere (per observational wavelength) of these two brown dwarfs, with a surface coverage of 21+-3% and 20.3+-1.5% respectively. The Jupiter HST light curves will be publicly available via ADS/VIZIR.

  11. Database Cross-Correlation at Scale: A Complete Census of Cool and Peculiar Brown Dwarfs in the 2MASS/SDSS Overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metchev, Stanimir

    Cross-correlation of surveys at different wavelengths is an effective way to leverage existing data for the generation of new science. We propose to perform a cross-match of the complete 2MASS and SDSS surveys as a demonstration of database cross-correlation at scale. The specific science case focuses on identifying cool brown dwarfs. Hundreds of L and T dwarfs have been discovered in the solar neighborhood, ~90% of which from 2MASS or SDSS. These have offered an unprecedented empirical context for the creation of sophisticated substellar phenomenology. A few dozen peculiar L and T dwarfs have also emerged from the larger sample. Their unusual spectral energy distributions have been particularly informative about the ranges of temperature, surface gravity, and dust content in ultra-cool atmospheres. Nevertheless, fundamental aspects of our knowledge of substellar astrophysics remain fragmented. The local space density of T dwarfs is hardly known to better than a factor of several. In fact, some of the nearest cool brown dwarfs may have escaped detection. Dust and cloud dynamics in ultra-cool atmospheres, and their dependence on temperature, gravity, and metallicity remain poorly understood. And in all likelihood, the few known examples of peculiar L and T dwarfs represent merely the extremes of a broad range of existing atmospheric conditions that have yet to be revealed. A combined search on 2MASS and SDSS is an effective way to generate a large, complete sample of L and T dwarfs to address these shortcomings. Cross-correlation of the two surveys can probe deeper, to cooler effective temperatures, and to a higher completeness level than searches on either survey alone. We validated this approach through a test cross-match of the 2099 sq.deg overlap area between 2MASS and SDSS Data Release 1. The demonstration project resulted not only in the first unbiased estimate of the space density and luminosity function of T0-T8 dwarfs, but also in doubling of the then known

  12. STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. III. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND CONSTRAINTS ON FORMATION SCENARIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Boselli, A.; Boissier, S. [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Peletier, R. F. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Emsellem, E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lisker, T. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Van de Ven, G. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Simon, J. D.; Adams, J. J.; Benson, A. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Den Brok, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gorgas, J. [Departamento de Astrofísica y Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Hensler, G. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Janz, J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H. [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Paudel, S., E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo Cluster. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum λ{sub Re} and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo Cluster rotate significantly faster than fast rotators in the inner parts of the cluster. Moreover, 10 out of the 11 slow rotators are located in the inner 3° (D < 1 Mpc) of the cluster. The fast rotators contain subtle disk-like structures that are visible in high-pass filtered optical images, while the slow rotators do not exhibit these structures. In addition, two of the dEs have kinematically decoupled cores and four more have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. These properties suggest that Virgo Cluster dEs may have originated from late-type star-forming galaxies that were transformed by the environment after their infall into the cluster. The correlation between λ{sub Re} and the clustercentric distance can be explained by a scenario where low luminosity star-forming galaxies fall into the cluster, their gas is rapidly removed by ram-pressure stripping, although some of it can be retained in their core, their star formation is quenched but their stellar kinematics are preserved. After a long time in the cluster and several passes through its center, the galaxies are heated up and transformed into slow rotating dEs.

  13. STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. III. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND CONSTRAINTS ON FORMATION SCENARIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo Cluster. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum λRe and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo Cluster rotate significantly faster than fast rotators in the inner parts of the cluster. Moreover, 10 out of the 11 slow rotators are located in the inner 3° (D < 1 Mpc) of the cluster. The fast rotators contain subtle disk-like structures that are visible in high-pass filtered optical images, while the slow rotators do not exhibit these structures. In addition, two of the dEs have kinematically decoupled cores and four more have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. These properties suggest that Virgo Cluster dEs may have originated from late-type star-forming galaxies that were transformed by the environment after their infall into the cluster. The correlation between λRe and the clustercentric distance can be explained by a scenario where low luminosity star-forming galaxies fall into the cluster, their gas is rapidly removed by ram-pressure stripping, although some of it can be retained in their core, their star formation is quenched but their stellar kinematics are preserved. After a long time in the cluster and several passes through its center, the galaxies are heated up and transformed into slow rotating dEs

  14. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission XXVIII. CoRoT-33b, an object in the brown dwarf desert with 2:3 commensurability with its host star

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Sz; Gandolfi, G; Deleuil, M; Bouchy, M; Fridlund, M; Szabados, L; Parviainen, H; Cabrera, J; Aigrain, S; Alonso, R; Almenara, J M; Baglin, A; Bordé, P; Bonomo, A S; Deeg, H J; Dıaz, R F; Erikson, A; Ferraz-Mello, S; Santos, M Tadeu dos; Guenther, E W; Guillot, T; Grziwa, S; Hébrard, G; Klagyivik, P; Ollivier, M; Pätzold, M; Rauer, H; Rouan, D; Santerne, A; Schneider, J; Mazeh, T; Wuchterl, G; Carpano, S; Ofir, A

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of a rare transiting brown dwarf with a mass of 59 M_Jup and radius of 1.1 R_Jup around the metal-rich, [Fe/H] = +0.44, G9V star CoRoT-33. The orbit is eccentric (e = 0.07) with a period of 5.82 d. The companion, CoRoT-33b, is thus a new member in the so-called brown dwarf desert. The orbital period is within 3% to a 3:2 resonance with the rotational period of the star. CoRoT-33b may be an important test case for tidal evolution studies. The true frequency of brown dwarfs close to their host stars (P < 10 d) is estimated to be approximately 0.2% which is about six times smaller than the frequency of hot Jupiters in the same period range. We suspect that the frequency of brown dwarfs declines faster with decreasing period than that of giant planets.

  15. When does an old nova become a dwarf nova? Kinematics and age of the nova shell of the dwarf nova AT Cnc

    CERN Document Server

    Shara, Michael M; Martin, Thomas; Alarie, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The Z Cam-type dwarf nova AT Cnc displays a classical nova (CN) shell, demonstrating that mass transfer in cataclysmic binaries decreases substantially after a CN eruption. The hibernation scenario of cataclysmic binaries predicts such a decrease, on a timescale of a few centuries. In order to measure the time since AT Cnc's last CN eruption, we have measured the radial velocities of a hundred clumps in its ejecta with SITELLE, CFHT's recently commissioned imaging Fourier transform spectrometer. These range from -455 to +490 km/s. Coupled with the known distance to AT Cnc of 460 pc (Shara 2012), the size of AT Cnc's shell, and a simple model of nova ejecta deceleration, we determine that the last CN eruption of this system occurred $330_{-90}^{+135}$ years ago. This is the most rapid transition from a high mass transfer rate, novalike variable to a low mass transfer rate, dwarf nova yet measured, and in accord with the hibernation scenario of cataclysmic binaries. We conclude by noting the similarity in deduc...

  16. New Neighbors from 2MASS Activity and Kinematics at the Bottom of the Main Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Gizis, J E; Reid, I N; Kirkpatrick, J D; Liebert, J; Williams, R J; Gizis, John E.; Monet, David G.; Liebert, James; Williams, Rik J.

    2000-01-01

    We have combined 2MASS and POSS II data in a search for nearby ultracool (later than M6.5) dwarfs with K_s6 Angstroms) ultracool M dwarfs are consistent with an ordinary old disk stellar population, while the kinematics of inactive ultracool M dwarfs are more typical of a 0.5 Gyr old population. The early L dwarfs in the sample have kinematics consistent with old ages, suggesting that the hydrogen burning limit is near spectral types L2-L4. We use the available data on M and L dwarfs to show that chromospheric activity drops with decreasing mass and temperature, and that at a given (M8 or later) spectral type, the younger field (brown) dwarfs are less active than many of the older, more massive field stellar dwarfs. Thus, contrary to the well-known stellar age-activity relationship, low activity in field ultracool dwarfs can be an indication of comparative youth and substellar mass.

  17. Chemistry and Kinematics of the Late-Forming Dwarf Irregular Galaxies Leo A, Aquarius, and Sagittarius DIG

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N; Held, Enrico V; Cohen, Judith G; Cole, Andrew A; Manning, Ellen M; Skillman, Evan D; Weisz, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of individual stars in the relatively isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies Leo A, Aquarius, and the Sagittarius dwarf irregular galaxy. The three galaxies--but especially Leo A and Aquarius--share in common delayed star formation histories relative to many other isolated dwarf galaxies. The stars in all three galaxies are supported by dispersion. We found no evidence of stellar velocity structure, even for Aquarius, which has rotating HI gas. The velocity dispersions indicate that all three galaxies are dark matter-dominated, with dark-to-baryonic mass ratios ranging from $4.4^{+1.1}_{-0.8}$ (SagDIG) to $9.6^{+2.5}_{-1.8}$ (Aquarius). Leo A and SagDIG have lower stellar metallicities than Aquarius, and they also have higher gas fractions, both of which would be expected if Aquarius were farther along in its chemical evolution. The metallicity distribution of Leo A is inconsistent with a Closed or Leaky Box model of chemical evolution, suggesting that the galaxy was pre-enric...

  18. The Collapse of the Wien Tail in the Coldest Brown Dwarf? Hubble Space Telescope Near-Infrared Photometry of WISE J085510.83-071442.5

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Adam C; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Gelino, Chris R

    2016-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near-infrared photometry of the coldest known brown dwarf, WISE J085510.83$-$071442.5 (WISE 0855$-$0714). WISE 0855$-$0714 was observed with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) aboard HST using the F105W, F125W, and F160W filters, which approximate the $Y$, $J$, and $H$ near-infrared bands. WISE 0855$-$0714 is undetected at F105W with a corresponding 2$\\sigma$ magnitude limit of $\\sim$26.9. We marginally detect WISE 0855$-$0714 in the F125W images (S/N $\\sim$4), with a measured magnitude of 26.41 $\\pm$ 0.27, more than a magnitude fainter than the $J-$band magnitude reported by Faherty and coworkers. WISE J0855$-$0714 is clearly detected in the F160W band, with a magnitude of 23.90 $\\pm$ 0.02, the first secure detection of WISE 0855$-$0714 in the near-infrared. Based on these data, we find that WISE 0855$-$0714 has extremely red F105W$-$F125W and F125W$-$F160W colors relative to other known Y dwarfs. We find that when compared to the models of Saumon et al. and Morley et al.,...

  19. Observed Variability at 1um and 4um in the Y0 Brown Dwarf WISEP J173835.52+273258.9

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, S K; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K; Trucks, Jesica L; Marley, M S; Morley, Caroline V; Saumon, D; Carey, S J; Fortney, J J; Gelino, C R; Gizis, J E; Kirkpatrick, J D; Mace, G N

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored photometrically the Y0 brown dwarf WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 (W1738) at both near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. This ~1 Gyr-old 400K dwarf is at a distance of 8pc and has a mass around 5 M_Jupiter. We observed W1738 using two near-infrared filters at lambda~1um, Y and J, on Gemini observatory, and two mid-infrared filters at lambda~4um, [3.6] and [4.5], on the Spitzer observatory. Twenty-four hours were spent on the source by Spitzer on each of June 30 and October 30 2013 UT. Between these observations, around 5 hours were spent on the source by Gemini on each of July 17 and August 23 2013 UT. The mid-infrared light curves show significant evolution between the two observations separated by four months. We find that a double sinusoid can be fit to the [4.5] data, where one sinusoid has a period of 6.0 +/- 0.1 hours and the other a period of 3.0 +/- 0.1 hours. The near-infrared observations suggest variability with a ~3.0 hour period, although only at a <~2 sigma confidence level. We inte...

  20. STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. II. THE SURVEY AND A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF KINEMATIC ANOMALIES AND ASYMMETRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Peletier, R. F. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Lisker, T. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Simon, J. D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Van de Ven, G. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Paudel, S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Emsellem, E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Janz, J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Den Brok, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gorgas, J. [Departamento de Astrofísica y Física de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Hensler, G. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H. [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physics, PO Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Niemi, S.-M., E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    We present spatially resolved kinematics and global stellar populations and mass-to-light ratios for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. This sample is representative of the early-type population in the Virgo cluster in the absolute magnitude range –19.0 < M{sub r} < –16.0 and of all morphological subclasses found in this galaxy population. For each dE, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile and fit an analytic function to the rotation curve. We study the significance of the departure of the rotation curve from the best-fit analytic function (poorly fit) and of the difference between the approaching and receding sides of the rotation curve (asymmetry). Our sample includes two dEs with kinematically decoupled cores that have been previously reported. We find that 62 ± 8% (23 out of the 39) of the dEs have a significant anomaly in their rotation curve. Analysis of the images reveals photometric anomalies for most galaxies. However, there is no clear correlation between the significance of the photometric and kinematic anomalies. We measure age-sensitive (H{sub β} and H{sub γA}) and metallicity sensitive (Fe4668 and Mgb) Lick spectral indices in the LIS-5 Å system. This population of galaxies exhibits a wide range of ages and metallicities; we also find that 4 dEs show clear evidence of emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. Finally, we estimate the total masses and dark matter fractions of the dEs and plot them in the mass-size, the mass-velocity dispersion, and the fundamental plane scaling relations. The dEs seem to be the bridge between massive early-type galaxies and dSphs, and have a median total mass within the R{sub e} of log M{sub e} = 9.1 ± 0.2 and a median dark matter fraction within the R{sub e} of f {sub DM} = 46 ± 18%. Any formation model for the dE galaxy class must account for this

  1. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. VI. The Kinematics of Ultra-compact Dwarfs and Globular Clusters in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Cote, Patrick; Liu, Chengze; Ferrarese, Laura; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Caldwell, Nelson; Gwyn, Stephen D J; Jordan, Andres; Lancon, Ariane; Li, Biao; Munoz, Roberto P; Puzia, Thomas H; Bekki, Kenji; Blakeslee, John; Boselli, Alessandro; Drinkwater, Michael J; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Emsellem, Eric; Firth, Peter; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    The origin of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs)--objects larger and more massive than typical globular clusters (GCs), but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies--has been hotly debated in the 15 years since their discovery. Even whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin, or simply the most extreme GCs, is not yet settled. We present the dynamical properties of 97 spectroscopically confirmed UCDs (rh >~10 pc) and 911 GCs associated with central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. Our UCDs, of which 89% have M_star > ~2X10^6 M_sun and 92% are as blue as the classic blue GCs, nearly triple the sample of previous confirmed Virgo UCDs, providing by far the best opportunity for studying the global dynamics of a UCD system. We found that (1) UCDs have a surface number density profile that is shallower than that of the blue GCs in the inner ~ 70 kpc and as steep as that of the red GCs at larger radii; (2) UCDs exhibit a significantly stronger rotation than the GCs, and the blue GCs seem to have a velocity fi...

  2. ALFALFA Discovery of the Nearby Gas-rich Dwarf Galaxy Leo P. V. Neutral Gas Dynamics and Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z; Elson, Edward C; Warren, Steven R; Chengalur, Jayaram; Skillman, Evan D; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Bolatto, Alberto D; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Pardy, Stephen A; Rhode, Katherine L; Salzer, John J

    2014-01-01

    We present new HI spectral line imaging of the extremely metal-poor, star-forming dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P. Our HI images probe the global neutral gas properties and the local conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). The HI morphology is slightly elongated along the optical major-axis. We do not find obvious signatures of interaction or infalling gas at large spatial scales. The neutral gas disk shows obvious rotation, although the velocity dispersion is comparable to the rotation velocity. The rotation amplitude is estimated to be V_c = 15 +/- 5 km/s. Within the HI radius probed by these observations, the mass ratio of gas to stars is roughly 2:1, while the ratio of the total mass to the baryonic mass is ~15:1. We use this information to place Leo P on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, testing the baryonic content of cosmic structures in a sparsely populated portion of parameter space that has hitherto been occupied primarily by dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We detect the signature of two temperature ...

  3. Analysis of two eclipsing hot subdwarf binaries with a low mass stellar and a brown dwarf companion

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffenroth, Veronika; Geier, Stephan; Heber, Ulrich; Drechsel, Horst; O̸stensen, Roy H.; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Kupfer, Thomas; Barlow, Brad N.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of hot subdwarf stars (sdBs), which are core helium‐burning stars located on the extended horizontal branch, is still not understood. Many of the known hot subdwarf stars reside in close binary systems with short orbital periods between a few hours and a few days with either M star or white dwarf companions. Common envelope ejection is the most probable formation channel. Among these, eclipsing systems are of special importance because it is possible to constrain the parameters ...

  4. Clean Kinematic Samples in Dwarf Spheroidals: An Algorithm for Evaluating Membership and Estimating Distribution Parameters When Contamination is Present

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Matthew G; Olszewski, Edward W; Sen, Bodhisattva; Woodroofe, Michael

    2008-01-01

    (abridged) We develop an algorithm for estimating parameters of a distribution sampled with contamination, employing a statistical technique known as ``expectation maximization'' (EM). Given models for both member and contaminant populations, the EM algorithm iteratively evaluates the membership probability of each discrete data point, then uses those probabilities to update parameter estimates for member and contaminant distributions. The EM approach has wide applicability to the analysis of astronomical data. Here we tailor an EM algorithm to operate on spectroscopic samples obtained with the Michigan-MIKE Fiber System (MMFS) as part of our Magellan survey of stellar radial velocities in nearby dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. These samples are presented in a companion paper and contain discrete measurements of line-of-sight velocity, projected position, and Mg index for ~1000 - 2500 stars per dSph, including some fraction of contamination by foreground Milky Way stars. The EM algorithm quantifies both dSp...

  5. Primeval very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. I. Six new L subdwarfs, classification and atmospheric properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Z H; Galvez-Ortiz, M C; Burningham, B; Lodieu, N; Marocco, F; Burgasser, A J; Day-Jones, A C; Allard, F; Jones, H R A; Homeier, D; Gomes, J; Smart, R L

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a search for L subdwarf candidates within the photometric catalogues of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Six of our candidates are confirmed as L subdwarfs spectroscopically at optical and/or near infrared wavelengths. We also present new optical spectra of three previously known L subdwarfs (WISEA J001450.17-083823.4, 2MASS J00412179+3547133, ULAS J124425.75+102439.3). We examined the spectral types and metallicity subclasses classification of known L subdwarfs. We summarised the spectroscopic properties of L subdwarfs with different spectral types and subclasses. We classify these new L subdwarfs by comparing their spectra to known L subdwarfs and L dwarf standards. We estimate temperatures and metallicities of 22 late type M and L subdwarfs by comparing their spectra to BT-Settl models. We find that L subdwarfs have temperatures between 1500 K and 2700 K, which are higher than similarly-typed L dwarfs by around 100-400 K depending on different subclasses an...

  6. Alfalfa discovery of the nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy LEO P. V. Neutral gas dynamics and kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z.; Pardy, Stephen A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cannon, John M., E-mail: ezbc@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: spardy@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); and others

    2014-08-01

    We present new H I spectral line imaging of the extremely metal-poor, star-forming dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P. Our H I images probe the global neutral gas properties and the local conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM). The H I morphology is slightly elongated along the optical major axis. We do not find obvious signatures of interaction or infalling gas at large spatial scales. The neutral gas disk shows obvious rotation, although the velocity dispersion is comparable to the rotation velocity. The rotation amplitude is estimated to be V {sub c} =15 ± 5 km s{sup –1}. Within the H I radius probed by these observations, the mass ratio of gas to stars is roughly 2:1, while the ratio of the total mass to the baryonic mass is ≳15:1. We use this information to place Leo P on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, testing the baryonic content of cosmic structures in a sparsely populated portion of parameter space that has hitherto been occupied primarily by dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We detect the signature of two temperature components in the neutral ISM of Leo P; the cold and warm components have characteristic velocity widths of 4.2 ± 0.9 km s{sup –1} and 10.1 ± 1.2 km s{sup –1}, corresponding to kinetic temperature upper limits of ∼1100 K and ∼6200 K, respectively. The cold H I component is unresolved at a physical resolution of 200 pc. The highest H I surface densities are observed in close physical proximity to the single H II region. A comparison of the neutral gas properties of Leo P with other extremely metal-deficient (XMD) galaxies reveals that Leo P has the lowest neutral gas mass of any known XMD, and that the dynamical mass of Leo P is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than any known XMD with comparable metallicity.

  7. Dust in brown dwarfs and extra-solar planets IV. Assessing TiO2 and SiO nucleation for cloud formation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G; Giles, H; Bromley, S T

    2014-01-01

    Clouds form in atmospheres of brown dwarfs and planets. The cloud particle formation processes are similar to the dust formation process studied in circumstellar shells of AGB stars and in Supernovae. Cloud formation modelling in substellar objects requires gravitational settling and element replenishment in addition to element depletion. All processes depend on the local conditions, and a simultaneous treatment is required. We apply new material data in order to assess our cloud formation model results regarding the treatment of the formation of condensation seeds. We re-address the question of the primary nucleation species in view of new (TiO2)_N-cluster data and new SiO vapour pressure data. We apply the density functional theory using the computational chemistry package Gaussian 09 to derive updated thermodynamical data for (TiO2)_N-clusters as input for our TiO2 seed formation model. We test different nucleation treatments and their effect on the overall cloud structure by solving a system of dust momen...

  8. Radio Emission and Orbital Motion from the Close-Encounter Star-Brown Dwarf Binary WISE J072003.20-084651.2

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J; Todd, Jacob; Gelino, Christopher R; Hallinan, Gregg; Gagliuffi, Daniella Bardalez

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of radio emission and orbital motion from the nearby star-brown dwarf binary WISE J072003.20-084651.2AB. Radio observations across the 4.5-6.5 GHz band with the Very Large Array identify at the position of the system quiescent emission with a flux density of 15$\\pm$3 $\\mu$Jy, and a highly-polarized radio source that underwent a 2-3 min burst with peak flux density 300$\\pm$90 $\\mu$Jy. The latter emission is likely a low-level magnetic flare similar to optical flares previously observed for this source. No outbursts were detected in separate narrow-band H$\\alpha$ monitoring observations. We report new high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations that confirm the presence of a co-moving T5.5 secondary and provide the first indications of three-dimensional orbital motion. We used these data to revise our estimates for the orbital period (4.1$^{+2.7}_{-1.3}$ yr) and tightly constrain the orbital inclination to be nearly edge-on (93.6\\deg$^{+1.6\\deg}_{-1.4\\deg}$), although robust m...

  9. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars From MARVELS IV: A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-Mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Peng; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R; De Lee, Nathan; de Mello, Gustavo F Porto; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W; Gaudi, B Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hernández, Jonay I González; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Eastman, Jason D; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A G; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L C; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X; Schneider, Donald P; Bradley, Alaina C Shelden; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J C; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A; Zhao, Bo

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 years. Our Keplerian fit using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of $90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187}$ days, an eccentricity of $0.4375 \\pm 0.0040$ and a semi-amplitude of $2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55}$ m s$^{-1}$. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature $T_{\\rm{eff}}=6004 \\pm 34$ K, a surface gravity $\\log g$ [cgs] $=4.55 \\pm 0.17$ and a metallicity [Fe/H] $=+0.04 \\pm 0.06$. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. (2010), yields 1.10$\\pm$0.09 $M_{\\sun}$ and 0.92$\\pm$0.19 $R_{\\sun}$. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is $65.0 \\pm 2.9 M_{Jup}$, indicating that it is likely to be either a...

  10. AB INITIO EQUATIONS OF STATE FOR HYDROGEN (H-REOS.3) AND HELIUM (He-REOS.3) AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE INTERIOR OF BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Schöttler, Manuel; Redmer, Ronald [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nettelmann, Nadine [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present new equations of state (EOSs) for hydrogen and helium covering a wide range of temperatures from 60 K to 10{sup 7} K and densities from 10{sup –10} g cm{sup –3} to 10{sup 3} g cm{sup –3}. They include an extended set of ab initio EOS data for the strongly correlated quantum regime with an accurate connection to data derived from other approaches for the neighboring regions. We compare linear mixing isotherms based on our EOS tables with available real mixture data. A first important astrophysical application of this new EOS data is the calculation of interior models for Jupiter and comparison with recent results. Second, mass-radius relations are calculated for Brown Dwarfs (BDs) which we compare with predictions derived from the widely used EOS of Saumon, Chabrier, and van Horn. Furthermore, we calculate interior models for typical BDs with different masses, namely, Corot-3b, Gliese-229b, and Corot-15b, and the giant planet KOI-889b. The predictions for the central pressures and densities differ by up to 10% dependent on the EOS used. Our EOS tables are made available in the supplemental material of this paper.

  11. A search for pre-substellar cores and proto-brown dwarf candidates in Taurus: multiwavelength analysis in the B213-L1495 clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Palau, Aina; Morata, Ò; Stamatellos, D; Huélamo, N; Eiroa, C; Bayo, A; Morales-Calderón, M; Bouy, H; Ribas, Á; Asmus, D; Barrado, D

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to study whether the formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) takes place as a scaled-down version of low-mass stars, we conducted IRAM30m/MAMBO-II observations at 1.2 mm in a sample of 12 proto-BD candidates selected from Spitzer/IRAC data in the B213-L1495 clouds in Taurus. Subsequent observations with the CSO at 350 micron, VLA at 3.6 and 6 cm, and IRAM30m/EMIR in the 12CO(1-0), 13CO(1-0), and N2H+(1-0) transitions were carried out toward the two most promising Spitzer/IRAC source(s), J042118 and J041757. J042118 is associated with a compact (<10 arcsec or <1400 AU) and faint source at 350 micron, while J041757 is associated with a partially resolved (~16 arcsec or ~2000 AU) and stronger source emitting at centimetre wavelengths with a flat spectral index. The corresponding masses of the dust condensations are ~1 and ~5 Mjup for J042118 and J041757, respectively. In addition, about 40 arcsec to the northeast of J041757 we detect a strong and extended submillimetre source, J041757-NE, which is no...

  12. Atom Resonance Lines for Modeling Atmosphere: Studies of Pressure-Broadening of Alkali Atom Resonance Lines for Modeling Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hashima (Technical Monitor); Kirby, K.; Babb, J.; Yoshino, K.

    2005-01-01

    We report on progress made in a joint program of theoretical and experimental research to study the line-broadening of alkali atom resonance lines due to collisions with species such as helium and molecular hydrogen. Accurate knowledge of the line profiles of Na and K as a function of temperature and pressure will allow such lines to serve as valuable diagnostics of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extra-solar giant planets. A new experimental apparatus has been designed, built and tested over the past year, and we are poised to begin collecting data on the first system of interest, the potassium resonance lines perturbed by collisions with helium. On the theoretical front, calculations of line-broadening due to sodium collisions with helium are nearly complete, using accurate molecular potential energy curves and transition moments just recently computed for this system. In addition we have completed calculations of the three relevant potential energy curves and associated transition moments for K - He, using the MOLPRO quantum chemistry codes. Currently, calculations of the potential surfaces describing K-H2 are in progress.

  13. The Shape of LITTLE THINGS Dwarf Galaxies DDO 46 and DDO 168: Understanding the stellar and gas kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Megan C; Wood, Sarah; Oh, Se-Heon; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Herrmann, Kimberly A; Levine, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and gas kinematics of DDO 46 and DDO 168 from the LITTLE THINGS survey and determine their respective Vmax/sigma_z,0 values. We used the KPNO's 4-meter telescope with the Echelle spectrograph as a long-slit spectrograph. We acquired spectra of DDO 168 along four position angles by placing the slit over the morphological major and minor axes and two intermediate position angles. However, due to poor weather conditions during our observing run for DDO 46, we were able to extract only one useful data point from the morphological major axis. We determined a central stellar velocity dispersion perpendicular to the disk, sigma_z,0, of 13.5+/-8 km/s for DDO 46 and of 10.7+/-2.9 km/s for DDO 168. We then derived the maximum rotation speed in both galaxies using the LITTLE THINGS HI data. We separated bulk motions from non-circular motions using a double Gaussian decomposition technique and applied a tilted-ring model to the bulk velocity field. We corrected the observed HI rotation speeds for ...

  14. The M81 Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy DDO 165. II. Connecting Recent Star Formation with ISM Structures and Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, John M; Skillman, Evan D; Weisz, Daniel R; Cook, David; Dolphin, Andrew E; Kennicutt, Robert C; Jr.,; Lee, Janice; Seth, Anil; Walter, Fabian; Warren, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    We compare the stellar populations and complex neutral gas dynamics of the M81 group dIrr galaxy DDO 165 using data from the HST and the VLA. Paper I identified two kinematically distinct HI components, multiple localized high velocity gas features, and eight HI holes and shells (the largest of which spans ~2.2x1.1 kpc). Using the spatial and temporal information from the stellar populations in DDO 165, we compare the patterns of star formation over the past 500 Myr with the HI dynamics. We extract localized star formation histories within 6 of the 8 HI holes identified in Paper I, as well as 23 other regions that sample a range of stellar densities and neutral gas properties. From population synthesis modeling, we derive the energy outputs (from stellar winds and supernovae) of the stellar populations within these regions over the last 100 Myr, and compare with refined estimates of the energies required to create the HI holes. In all cases, we find that "feedback" is energetically capable of creating the obs...

  15. High-Contrast 3.8 Micron Imaging Of The Brown Dwarf/Planet-Mass Companion to GJ 758

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Fabrycky, Daniel; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rodigas, Timothy; Hinz, Phil

    2010-01-01

    We present L' band (3.8 $\\mu m$) MMT/Clio high-contrast imaging data for the nearby star GJ 758, which was recently reported by Thalmann et al. (2009) to have one -- possibly two-- faint comoving companions (GJ 758B and ``C", respectively). GJ 758B is detected in two distinct datasets. Additionally, we report a \\textit{possible} detection of the object identified by Thalmann et al as ``GJ 758C" in our more sensitive dataset, though it is likely a residual speckle. However, if it is the same object as that reported by Thalmann et al. it cannot be a companion in a bound orbit. GJ 758B has a H-L' color redder than nearly all known L--T8 dwarfs. Based on comparisons with the COND evolutionary models, GJ 758B has T$_{e}$ $\\sim$ 560 K$^{^{+150 K}_{-90K}}$ and a mass ranging from $\\sim$ 10--20 M$_{J}$ if it is $\\sim$ 1 Gyr old to $\\sim$ 25--40 M$_{J}$ if it is 8.7 Gyr old. GJ 758B is likely in a highly eccentric orbit, e $\\sim$ 0.73$^{^{+0.12}_{-0.21}}$, with a semimajor axis of $\\sim$ 44 AU$^{^{+32 AU}_{-14 AU}}$. ...

  16. Identification of the pathogen causing brown rot of Chinese Dwarf Cherry( Cerasus humilis%欧李褐腐病病原菌鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐成楠; 周宗山; 吴玉星; 迟福梅; 张红军

    2011-01-01

    欧李[ Cerasus humilis( Bge.) Sok.]为蔷薇科樱桃属果树,别名钙果,原产中国,分布于我国的黑龙江、辽宁、内蒙古、河北、山东、山西等省区.多生长在向阳山坡或沙丘边缘,资源相当丰富.欧李株高0.3~1.5m,多为0.5~0.7m左右,是目前世界上最矮小的木本果树.果实可鲜食或加工,含糖、蛋白质、维生素C,特别是矿质元素铁和钙的含量很高,每100果肉干分别含有58和360 mg种仁可作药用,中药称之为"郁李仁"可消毒化肿.%One serious disease happened on the fruit of Chinese Dwarf Cherry in Liaoning Province recently. The typical symptom was brown spot formed on the fruit surface. The spot spread quickly through the whole fruits, then the fruits were rotten. There were tomentum round shaped mildew formed on the surface of symptomatic fruits. The pathogen was isolated from infected fruits. After pathogenicity tests in lab and field and re-isolation, the isolate HI was determined to be responsible for the disease. HI colony on PDA was 70 -75 mm in diameter, with concentric rings in grayish or light brown color after 7 days incubation at 221 with illumination of 12 h near-UV/12 h dark. The conidia were one-celled, hyaline, lemon-shaped, (10-27) jun x (7-17) jun on PDA, produced in branched monilioid chains. The rDNA ITS sequence of islolates HI and Gl had 100% similarity with those of Monilinia fructicola in GenBank. The amplification results with three Monilinia specific primer pairs showed that only primer pair ITSlMfcl and ITS4Mfcl could amplify a 356 bp fragment. Based on the morphological characteristics and rDNA molecular analysis, the pathogen was finally identified as M. Fructicola.

  17. Planet Host Stars: Mass, Age and Kinematics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We determine the mass, age and kinematics of 51 extra-solar planet host stars. The results are then used to search for signs of connection of the data with metallicity and to investigate the population nature. We find that the increase in mean metallicity with stellar mass is similar to that in normal field stars, so it seems unsuitable to use this relation as a constraint on the theory of planet formation. The age and kinematic distributions seem to favour the metallicity of extra-solar planet host stars being initial. Although the kinematic data of these stars indicate their origin from two populations - the thin and the thick disks, kinematics may not help in the maintenance of the planet around the host. Stars with planets, brown dwarfs or stellar companions are sorted into three groups and re-investigated separately for their formation mechanism. The main results indicate that stars with M2 < 25MJ have [Fe/H] > -0.1 and a wide period range, but there are no other differences.Thus, there does not seem to be any physically distinguishable characteristics among the three star groups.

  18. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. IV. A CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF OR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO HIP 67526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Agol, Eric, E-mail: jpaty@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2013-09-15

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  19. A THERMAL INFRARED IMAGING STUDY OF VERY LOW MASS, WIDE-SEPARATION BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS TO UPPER SCORPIUS STARS: CONSTRAINING CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a 3-5 μm LBT/MMT adaptive optics imaging study of three Upper Scorpius stars with brown dwarf (BD) companions with very low masses/mass ratios (MBD Jup; MBD/M* ≈ 1%-2%) and wide separations (300-700 AU): GSC 06214, 1RXS 1609, and HIP 78530. We combine these new thermal IR data with existing 1-4 μm and 24 μm photometry to constrain the properties of the BDs and identify evidence for circumprimary/circumsecondary disks in these unusual systems. We confirm that GSC 06214B is surrounded by a disk, further showing that this disk produces a broadband IR excess due to small dust near the dust sublimation radius. An unresolved 24 μm excess in the system may be explained by the contribution from this disk. 1RXS 1609B exhibits no 3-4 μm excess, nor does its primary; however, the system as a whole has a modest 24 μm excess, which may come from warm dust around the primary and/or BD. Neither object in the HIP 78530 system exhibits near- to mid-IR excesses. We additionally find that the 1-4 μm colors of HIP 78530B match a spectral type of M3 ± 2, inconsistent with the M8 spectral type assigned based on its near-IR spectrum, indicating that it may be a low-mass star rather than a BD. We present new upper limits on additional low-mass companions in the system (Jup beyond 175 AU). Finally, we examine the utility of circumsecondary disks as probes of the formation histories of wide BD companions, finding that the presence of a disk may disfavor BD formation near the primary with subsequent outward scattering.

  20. WEATHER ON THE NEAREST BROWN DWARFS: RESOLVED SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-WAVELENGTH VARIABILITY MONITORING OF WISE J104915.57–531906.1AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present two epochs of MPG/ESO 2.2 m GROND simultaneous six-band (r'i'z' JHK) photometric monitoring of the closest known L/T transition brown dwarf binary WISE J104915.57–531906.1AB. We report here the first resolved variability monitoring of both the T0.5 and L7.5 components. We obtained 4 hr of focused observations on the night of 2013 April 22 (UT), as well as 4 hr of defocused (unresolved) observations on the night of 2013 April 16 (UT). We note a number of robust trends in our light curves. The r' and i' light curves appear to be anti-correlated with z' and H for the T0.5 component and in the unresolved light curve. In the defocused dataset, J appears correlated with z' and H and anti-correlated with r' and i', while in the focused dataset we measure no variability for J at the level of our photometric precision, likely due to evolving weather phenomena. In our focused T0.5 component light curve, the K band light curve displays a significant phase offset relative to both H and z'. We argue that the measured phase offsets are correlated with atmospheric pressure probed at each band, as estimated from one-dimensional atmospheric models. We also report low-amplitude variability in i' and z' intrinsic to the L7.5 component

  1. Radio Emission and Orbital Motion from the Close-encounter Star-Brown Dwarf Binary WISE J072003.20-084651.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Melis, Carl; Todd, Jacob; Gelino, Christopher R.; Hallinan, Gregg; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella

    2015-12-01

    We report the detection of radio emission and orbital motion from the nearby star-brown dwarf binary WISE J072003.20-084651.2AB. Radio observations across the 4.5-6.5 GHz band with the Very Large Array identify at the position of the system quiescent emission with a flux density of 15 ± 3 μJy, and a highly polarized radio source that underwent a 2-3 minute burst with peak flux density 300 ± 90 μJy. The latter emission is likely a low-level magnetic flare similar to optical flares previously observed for this source. No outbursts were detected in separate narrow-band Hα monitoring observations. We report new high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations that confirm the presence of a co-moving T5.5 secondary and provide the first indications of three-dimensional orbital motion. We used these data to revise our estimates for the orbital period (4.1{}-1.3+2.7 year) and tightly constrain the orbital inclination to be nearly edge-on (93.°6+1.°6-1.°4), although robust measures of the component and system masses will require further monitoring. The inferred orbital motion does not change the high likelihood that this radio-emitting very low-mass binary made a close pass to the Sun in the past 100 kyr. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  2. Testing Model Atmospheres for Young Very-low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Infrared: Evidence for Significantly Underestimated Dust Opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottle, Jonathan; Mohanty, Subhanjoy

    2015-05-01

    We test state-of-the-art model atmospheres for young very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the infrared, by comparing the predicted synthetic photometry over 1.2-24 μm to the observed photometry of M-type spectral templates in star-forming regions. We find that (1) in both early and late young M types, the model atmospheres imply effective temperatures ({{T}eff}) several hundred Kelvin lower than predicted by the standard pre-main sequence (PMS) spectral type-{{T}eff} conversion scale (based on theoretical evolutionary models). It is only in the mid-M types that the two temperature estimates agree. (2) The {{T}eff} discrepancy in the early M types (corresponding to stellar masses ≳ 0.4 {{M}⊙ } at ages of a few Myr) probably arises from remaining uncertainties in the treatment of atmospheric convection within the atmospheric models, whereas in the late M types it is likely due to an underestimation of dust opacity. (3) The empirical and model-atmosphere J-band bolometric corrections are both roughly flat, and similar to each other, over the M-type {{T}eff} range. Thus the model atmospheres yield reasonably accurate bolometric luminosities ({{L}bol}), but lead to underestimations of mass and age relative to evolutionary expectations (especially in the late M types) due to lower {{T}eff}. We demonstrate this for a large sample of young Cha I and Taurus sources. (4) The trends in the atmospheric model J-Ks colors, and their deviations from the data, are similar at PMS and main sequence ages, suggesting that the model dust opacity errors we postulate here for young ages also apply at field ages.

  3. The Initial Mass Function and Young Brown Dwarf Candidates in NGC 2264. IV. The Initial Mass Function and Star Formation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, Michael S.

    2010-12-01

    2 M sun, but the second did not. We attribute the peak as an artifact of the SED fitting tool because there is no such IMF with a peak at m ≈ 2 M sun. The slope of the IMF of NGC 2264 for massive stars (log m >= 0.5) is -1.7 ± 0.1, which is somewhat steeper than the so-called standard Salpeter-Kroupa IMF. We also present data for 79 young brown dwarf candidates.

  4. K2 Discovery of Young Eclipsing Binaries in Upper Scorpius: Direct Mass and Radius Determinations for the Lowest Mass Stars and Initial Characterization of an Eclipsing Brown Dwarf Binary

    CERN Document Server

    David, Trevor J; Cody, Ann Marie; Carpenter, John M; Howard, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of three low-mass double-lined eclipsing binaries in the pre-main sequence Upper Scorpius association, revealed by $K2$ photometric monitoring of the region over $\\sim$ 78 days. The orbital periods of all three systems are $<$5 days. We use the $K2$ photometry plus multiple Keck/HIRES radial velocities and spectroscopic flux ratios to determine fundamental stellar parameters for both the primary and secondary components of each system, along with the orbital parameters. We present tentative evidence that EPIC 203868608 is a hierarchical triple system comprised of an eclipsing pair of $\\sim$25 $M_\\mathrm{Jup}$ brown dwarfs with a wide M-type companion. If confirmed, it would constitute only the second double-lined eclipsing brown dwarf binary system discovered to date. The double-lined system EPIC 203710387 is composed of nearly identical M4.5-M5 stars with fundamentally determined masses and radii measured to better than 3% precision ($M_1=0.1169\\pm0.0031 M_\\odot$, $M_2=0.1065\\pm0.0...

  5. Very Low-Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars From MARVELS VI: A Giant Planet and a Brown Dwarf Candidate in a Close Binary System HD 87646

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo; Wolszczan, Alex; Muterspaugh, Matthew W; Lee, Brian; Henry, Gregory W; Schneider, Donald P; Martin, Eduardo L; Niedzielski, Andrzej; Xie, Jiwei; Fleming, Scott W; Thomas, Neil; Williamson, Michael; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Jiang, Peng; Fiorenzano, A F Martinez; Hernandez, Jonay I Gonzalez; Guo, Pengcheng; Grieves, Nolan; Li, Rui; Liu, Jane; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mazeh, Tsevi; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Paegert, Martin; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Stassun, Keivan; Thirupathi, Sivarani; van Eyken, Julian C; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P; Zhao, Bo; Zucker, Shay

    2016-01-01

    We report the detections of a giant planet (MARVELS-7b) and a brown dwarf candidate (MARVELS-7c) around the primary star in the close binary system, HD 87646. It is the first close binary system with more than one substellar circum-primary companion discovered to the best of our knowledge. The detection of this giant planet was accomplished using the first multi-object Doppler instrument (KeckET) at the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telescope. Subsequent radial velocity observations using ET at Kitt Peak National Observatory, HRS at HET, the "Classic" spectrograph at the Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope at Fairborn Observatory, and MARVELS from SDSS-III confirmed this giant planet discovery and revealed the existence of a long-period brown dwarf in this binary. HD 87646 is a close binary with a separation of $\\sim22$ AU between the two stars, estimated using the Hipparcos catalogue and our newly acquired AO image from PALAO on the 200-inch Hale Telescope at Palomar. The primary star in the binary, HD 87646...

  6. The EBLM Project I-Physical and orbital parameters, including spin-orbit angles, of two low-mass eclipsing binaries on opposite sides of the Brown Dwarf limit

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Anderson, David R; Cargile, Phill; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Doyle, Amanda P; Faedi, Francesca; Gillon, Michaël; Chew, Yilen Gomez Maqueo; Hellier, Coel; Jehin, Emmanuel; Maxted, Pierre; Naef, Dominique; Pepe, Francesco; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Stassun, Keivan; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a series of papers aiming to study the dozens of low mass eclipsing binaries (EBLM), with F, G, K primaries, that have been discovered in the course of the WASP survey. Our objects are mostly single-line binaries whose eclipses have been detected by WASP and were initially followed up as potential planetary transit candidates. These have bright primaries, which facilitates spectroscopic observations during transit and allows the study of the spin-orbit distribution of F, G, K+M eclipsing binaries through the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Here we report on the spin-orbit angle of WASP-30b, a transiting brown dwarf, and improve its orbital parameters. We also present the mass, radius, spin-orbit angle and orbital parameters of a new eclipsing binary, J1219-39b (1SWAPJ121921.03-395125.6, TYC 7760-484-1), which, with a mass of 95 +/- 2 Mjup, is close to the limit between brown dwarfs and stars. We find that both objects orbit in planes that appear aligned with their primaries' equatorial plane...

  7. HST Rotational Spectral Mapping of Two L-Type Brown Dwarfs: Variability In and Out of Water Bands Indicates High-Altitude Haze Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S; Saumon, Didier; Morley, Caroline V; Buenzli, Esther; Artigau, Etienne; Radigan, Jacqueline; Metchev, Stanimir; Burgasser, Adam J; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Lowrance, Patrick L; Showman, Adam P; Karalidi, Theodora; Flateau, Davin; Heinze, Aren N

    2014-01-01

    We present time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy of two L5 dwarfs, 2MASS J18212815+1414010 and 2MASS J15074759-1627386, observed with the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We study the wavelength dependence of rotation-modulated flux variations between 1.1 $\\mu$m and 1.7 $\\mu$m. We find that the water absorption bands of the two L5 dwarfs at 1.15 $\\mu$m and 1.4 $\\mu$m vary at similar amplitudes as the adjacent continuum. This differs from the results of previous HST observations of L/T transition dwarfs, in which the water absorption at 1.4 $\\mu$m displays variations of about half of the amplitude at other wavelengths. We find that the relative amplitude of flux variability out of the water band with respect to that in the water band shows a increasing trend from the L5 dwarfs toward the early T dwarfs. We utilize the models of Saumon & Marley (2008) and find that the observed variability of the L5 dwarfs can be explained by the presence of spatially varying high-altit...

  8. Two Extraordinary Substellar Binaries at the T/Y Transition and the Y-Band Fluxes of the Coolest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Michael C; Bowler, Brendan P; Leggett, S K; Best, William M J

    2012-01-01

    Using Keck laser guide star adaptive optics imaging, we have found that the T9 dwarf WISE J1217+1626 and T8 dwarf WISE J1711+3500 are exceptional binaries, with unusually wide separations (~0.8 arcsec, 8-15 AU), large near-IR flux ratios (~2-3 mags), and small mass ratios (~0.5). Keck/NIRSPEC H-band spectra give a spectral type of Y0 for WISE J1217+1626B, and photometric estimates suggest T9.5 for WISE J1711+3500B. The WISE J1217+1626AB system is very similar to the T9+Y0 binary CFBDSIR J1458+1013AB; these two systems are the coldest known substellar multiples, having secondary components of ~400 K and being planetary-mass binaries if their ages are <~1 Gyr. Both WISE J1217+1626B and CFBDSIR J1458+1013B have strikingly blue Y-J colors compared to previously known T dwarfs, including their T9 primaries. Combining all available data, we find that Y-J color drops precipitously between the very latest T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. The fact that this is seen in (coeval, mono-metallicity) binaries demonstrates that...

  9. Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph. PMID:24382739

  10. Direct imaging and new technologies to search for substellar companions around MGs cool dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here our project based in a search for sub-stellar companions (brown dwarfs and exo-planets around young ultra-cool dwarfs (UCDs and characterise their properties. We will use current and future technology (high contrast imaging, high-precision Doppler determinations from the ground and space (VLT, ELT and JWST, to find companions to young objects. Members of young moving groups (MGs have clear advantages in this field. We compiled a catalogue of young UCD objects and studied their membership to five known young moving groups: Local Association (Pleiades moving group, 20–150 Myr, Ursa Mayor group (Sirius supercluster, 300 Myr, Hyades supercluster (600 Myr, IC 2391 supercluster (35 Myr and Castor moving group (200 Myr. To assess them as members we used different kinematic and spectroscopic criteria.

  11. LHS 2803B: A VERY WIDE MID-T DWARF COMPANION TO AN OLD M DWARF IDENTIFIED FROM PAN-STARRS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of a wide (∼1400 AU projected separation), common proper motion companion to the nearby M dwarf LHS 2803 (PSO J207.0300-13.7422). This object was discovered during our census of the local T dwarf population using Pan-STARRS1 and Two Micron All Sky Survey data. Using the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX near-infrared spectroscopy, we classify the secondary to be spectral type T5.5. University of Hawaii 2.2 m/SuperNova Integral Field Spectrograph optical spectroscopy indicates that the primary has a spectral type of M4.5, with approximately solar metallicity and no measurable Hα emission. We use this lack of activity to set a lower age limit for the system of 3.5 Gyr. Using a comparison with chance alignments of brown dwarfs and nearby stars, we conclude that the two objects are unlikely to be a chance association. The primary's photometric distance of 21 pc and its proper motion implies thin disk kinematics. Based on these kinematics and its metallicity, we set an upper age limit for the system of 10 Gyr. Evolutionary model calculations suggest that the secondary has a mass of 72±47 MJup, temperature of 1120 ± 80 K, and log g = 5.4 ± 0.1 dex. Model atmosphere fitting to the near-IR spectrum gives similar physical parameters of 1100 K and log g = 5.0.

  12. LHS 2803B: A very wide mid-T dwarf companion to an old M dwarf identified from Pan-STARRS1

    CERN Document Server

    Deacon, Niall R; Magnier, Eugene A; Bowler, Brendan P; Mann, Andrew W; Redstone, Joshua A; Burgett, William S; Chambers, Ken C; Hodapp, Klaus W; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Morgan, Jeff S; Price, Paul A; Tonry, John L; Wainscoat, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a wide (approximately 400 AU projected separation), common proper motion companion to the nearby M dwarf LHS 2803 (PSO J207.0300-13.7422). This object was discovered during our census of the local T dwarf population using Pan-STARRS1 and 2MASS data. Using IRTF/SpeX near-infrared spectroscopy, we classify the secondary to be spectral type T5.5. University of Hawai`i 2.2m/SNIFS optical spectroscopy indicates the primary has a spectral type of M4.5, with approximately solar metallicity and no measurable H_alpha emission. We use this lack of activity to set a lower age limit for the system of 3.5 Gyr. Using a comparison with chance alignments of brown dwarfs and nearby stars, we conclude that the two objects are unlikely to be a chance association. The primary's photometric distance of 21 pc and its proper motion implies thin disk kinematics. Based on these kinematics and its metallicity, we set an upper age limit for the system of 10 Gyr. Evolutionary model calculations suggest the sec...

  13. Binary frequency of planet-host stars at wide separations: A new brown dwarf companion to a planet-host star

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Bejar, V J S; Gauza, B; Ruiz, M T; Rebolo, R; Pinfield, D J; Martin, E L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the project is to improve our knowledge on the multiplicity of planet-host stars at wide physical separations. We cross-matched approximately 6200 square degree area of the Southern sky imaged by the Visible Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Hemisphere Survey (VHS) with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) to look for wide common proper motion companions to known planet-host stars. We complemented our astrometric search with photometric criteria. We confirmed spectroscopically the co-moving nature of seven sources out of 16 companion candidates and discarded eight, while the remaining one stays as a candidate. Among these new wide companions to planet-host stars, we discovered a T4.5 dwarf companion at 6.3 arcmin (~9000 au) from HIP70849, a K7V star which hosts a 9 Jupiter mass planet with an eccentric orbit. We also report two new stellar M dwarf companions to one G and one metal-rich K star. We infer stellar and substellar binary frequencies for our complete sample of 37 targets of...

  14. A Search for Coronal Emission at the Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Stars and Brown Dwarf Candidates with Spectral Types Later than M7 and the Rotation-Activity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy

    2004-01-01

    This program intended to test whether the lowest mass stars at the bottom end of the main sequence and the lower mass brown dwarfs have coronae. If they have coronae, what are the coronal characteristics and what drives them? In the classical dynamo picture, the closed magnetic loop structure is generated near the boundary of the convective envelope and the radiative core. Stars with mass below 0.30 Msun however are fully convective, and the nature of the dynamo responsible for the generation of the coronae in this regime is poorly understood. Previous results from the ROSAT mission (e.g., Fleming et al. 1993, 1995; Schmitt et al. 1995) had confirmed three very important characteristics of M-star coronae: (1) a very high percentage of all M dwarfs have coronae (of order 85% in the local 7 pc sample), (2) those M dwarfs showing high chromospheric activity, such as having the Balmer series in emission or large/numerous optical flaring, indeed exhibit the highest coronal activity, and (3) that the maximum saturation boundary in X-ray luminosity, which amounts to 0.0001-0.001 for Lx/Lbol for the dMe stars, extends down to the current detection limit, through spectral types M7. It was likely that the incompleteness noted for result (1) above was simply a detection limit problem; for more distant sources, the X-ray fainter dM stars will drop below detection thresholds before the more X-ray luminous dMe stars. The latest stars for which direct detection of the corona had been successful were of spectral type dM7 (e.g., VB8, LHS 3003). This program proposed to obtain ROSAT HRI observations for a large number of the coolest known (at that time) stars at the bottom of the main-sequence, which had spectral types of M9 or later. Three stars were approved for observations with ROSAT-HRI totaling 180 ksec. The goal was to obtain X-ray detections or low upper limits for the three approved stars.

  15. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-Like Stars From MARVELS V: A Low Eccentricity Brown Dwarf from the Driest Part of the Desert, MARVELS-6b

    CERN Document Server

    De Lee, Nathan; Crepp, Justin R; Eastman, Jason; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenía, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W; Gaudi, B Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hernández, Jonay I González; Lee, Brian L; Stassun, Keivan G; Wisniewski, John P; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Agol, Eric; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Barnes, Rory; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cargile, Phillip; Chang, Liang; Da Costa, Luiz N; De Mello, G F Porto; Ferreira, Leticia D; Gary, Bruce; Hebb, Leslie; Holtzman, Jon; Liu, Jian; Ma, Bo; Mack, Claude E; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A G; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel J; Paegert, Martin; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X; Schneider, Donald P; Bradley, Alaina C Shelden; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Zhao, Bo

    2013-01-01

    We describe the discovery of a likely brown dwarf (BD) companion with a minimum mass of 31.7 +/- 2.0 M_Jup to GSC 03546-01452 from the MARVELS radial velocity survey, which we designate as MARVELS-6b. For reasonable priors, our analysis gives a probability of 72% that MARVELS-6b has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit of 0.072 M_Sun, and thus it is a high-confidence BD companion. It has a moderately long orbital period of 47.8929 +0.0063/-0.0062 days with a low eccentricty of 0.1442 +0.0078/-0.0073, and a semi-amplitude of 1644 +12/-13 m/s. Moderate resolution spectroscopy of the host star has determined the following parameters: T_eff = 5598 +/- 63, log g = 4.44 +/- 0.17, and [Fe/H] = +0.40 +/- 0.09. Based upon these measurements, GSC 03546-01452 has a probable mass and radius of M_star = 1.11 +/- 0.11 M_Sun and R_star = 1.06 +/- 0.23 R_Sun with an age consistent with less than ~6 Gyr at a distance of 219 +/- 21 pc from the Sun. Although MARVELS-6b is not observed to transit, we cannot definitively rule ...

  16. Very Low-mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from Marvels III: A Short-Period Brown Dwarf Candidate Around An Active G0Iv Subgiant

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo; Barnes, Rory; Crepp, Justin R; De Lee, Nathan; Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W; Gaudi, B Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Hebb, Leslie; Hernandez, Jonay I Gonzalez; Lee, Brian L; de Mello, G F Porto; Stassun, Keivan G; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cargile, Phillip; Chang, Liang; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Eastman, Jason D; Gary, Bruce; Jiang, Peng; Kane, Stephen R; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A G; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L C; Oravetz, Daniel; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X; Schneider, Donald P; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Sivarani, Thirupathi; van Eyken, J C; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A; Zhao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We present an eccentric, short-period brown dwarf candidate orbiting the active, slightly evolved subgiant star TYC 2087-00255-1, which has effective temperature T_eff = 5903+/-42 K, surface gravity log (g) = 4.07+/-0.16 (cgs), and metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.23+/-0.07. This candidate was discovered using data from the first two years of the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey (MARVELS), which is part of the third phase of Sloan Digital Sky Survey. From our 38 radial velocity measurements spread over a two-year time baseline, we derive a Keplerian orbital fit with semi-amplitude K=3.571+/-0.041 km/s, period P=9.0090+/-0.0004 days, and eccentricity e=0.226+/-0.011. Adopting a mass of 1.16+/-0.11 Msun for the subgiant host star, we infer that the companion has a minimum mass of 40.0+/-2.5 M_Jup. Assuming an edge-on orbit, the semimajor axis is 0.090+/-0.003 AU. The host star is photometrically variable at the \\sim1% level with a period of \\sim13.16+/-0.01 days, indicating that the host sta...

  17. Planck cold clumps in the $\\lambda$ Orionis complex: I. Discovery of an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object and a proto-brown dwarf candidate in a bright rimmed clump PGCC G192.32-11.88

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tatematsu, Kenichi; Choi, Minho; Juvela, Mika; Thompson, Mark; Goldsmith, Paul F; Liu, Sheng-yuan; Naomi, Hirano; Koch, Patrick; Henkel, Christian; Sanhueza, Patricio; He, JinHua; Rivera-Ingraham, Alana; Wang, Ke; Cunningham, Maria R; Tang, Ya-Wen; Lai, Shih-Ping; Yuan, Jinghua; Li, Di; Fuller, Gary; Kang, Miju; Luong, Quang Nguyen; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Yang, Ji; Xu, Ye; Hirota, Tomoya; Mardones, Diego; Qin, Sheng-Li; Chen, Huei-Ru; Kwon, Woojin; Meng, FanYi; Zhang, Huawei; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Yi, Hee-Weon

    2015-01-01

    We are performing a series of observations with ground-based telescopes toward Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) in the $\\lambda$ Orionis complex in order to systematically investigate the effects of stellar feedback. In the particular case of PGCC G192.32-11.88, we discovered an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object (G192N) and a proto-brown dwarf candidate (G192S). G192N and G192S are located in a gravitationally bound bright-rimmed clump. The velocity and temperature gradients seen in line emission of CO isotopologues indicate that PGCC G192.32-11.88 is externally heated and compressed. G192N probably has the lowest bolometric luminosity ($\\sim0.8$ L$_{\\sun}$) and accretion rate (6.3$\\times10^{-7}$ M$_{\\sun}$~yr$^{-1}$) when compared with other young Class 0 sources (e.g. PACS Bright Red sources (PBRs)) in the Orion complex. It has slightly larger internal luminosity ($0.21\\pm0.01$ L$_{\\sun}$) and outflow velocity ($\\sim$14 km~s$^{-1}$) than the predictions of first hydrostatic cores (FHSCs). G192N...

  18. Large Amplitude Variations of an L/T Transition Brown Dwarf: Multi-Wavelength Observations of Patchy, High-Contrast Cloud Features

    CERN Document Server

    Radigan, Jacqueline; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Etienne; Marley, Mark; Saumon, Didier

    2012-01-01

    We present multiple-epoch photometric monitoring in the $J$, $H$, and $K_s$ bands of the T1.5 dwarf 2MASS J21392676+0220226 (2M2139), revealing persistent, periodic ($P=7.72\\pm$0.05 hr) variability with a peak-to-peak amplitude as high as 26% in the $J$-band. The light curve shape varies on a timescale of days, suggesting that evolving atmospheric cloud features are responsible. Using interpolations between model atmospheres with differing cloud thicknesses to represent a heterogeneous surface, we find that the multi-wavelength variations and the near-infrared spectrum of 2M2139 can be reproduced by either (1)cool, thick cloud features sitting above a thinner cloud layer, or (2)warm regions of low condensate opacity in an otherwise cloudy atmosphere, possibly indicating the presence of holes or breaks in the cloud layer. We find that temperature contrasts between thick and thin cloud patches must be greater than 175 K and as high as 425 K. We also consider whether the observed variability could arise from an ...

  19. SCExAO and GPI $YJH$ Band Photometry and Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Young Brown Dwarf Companion to HD 1160

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Eugenio V; Guyon, Olivier; Stassun, Keivan; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Doughty, Danielle; Schlieder, Joshua; Kwon, J; Uyama, T; Kuzuhara, M; Carson, J; Nakagawa, T; Hashimoto, J; Kusakabe, N; Abe, L; Brander, W; Brandt, T D; Feldt, M; Goto, M; Grady, C; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Henning, T; Hodapp, K; Ishii, M; Iye, M; Janson, M; Kandori, R; Knapp, G; Matsuo, T; McElwain, M; Miyama, S; Morino, J I; Moro-Martin, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T -S; Serabyn, E; Suenaga, T; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takahashi, Y H; Takami, H; Takato, N; Terada, H; Thalmann, C; Turner, E L; Watanabe, M; Wisniewski, J; Yamada, T; Usuda, T; Tamura, M

    2016-01-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio, precise $YJH$ photometry and $Y$ band (\\gpiwave~$\\mu$m) spectroscopy of HD 1160 B, a young substellar companion discovered from the Gemini NICI Planet Finding Campaign, using the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics instrument and the Gemini Planet Imager. HD 1160 B has typical mid-M dwarf-like infrared colors and a spectral type of M5.5$^{+1.0}_{-0.5}$, where the blue edge of our $Y$ band spectrum rules out earlier spectral types. Atmospheric modeling suggests HD 1160 B having an effective temperature of 3000--3100 $K$, a surface gravity of log $g$ = 4--4.5, a radius of~\\bestfitradius~$R_{\\rm J}$, and a luminosity of log $L$/$L_{\\odot} = -2.76 \\pm 0.05$. Neither the primary's Hertzspring-Russell diagram position nor atmospheric modeling of HD 1160 B show evidence for a sub-solar metallicity. The interpretation of the HD 1160 B depends on which stellar system components are used to estimate an age. Considering HD 1160 A, B and C jointly, we derive an age of 80--1...

  20. DISCOVERY OF AN ∼23 MJup BROWN DWARF ORBITING ∼700 AU FROM THE MASSIVE STAR HIP 78530 IN UPPER SCORPIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the discovery of a substellar companion on a wide orbit around the ∼ 2.5 Msun star HIP 78530, which is a member of the 5 Myr old Upper Scorpius association. We have obtained follow-up imaging over two years and show that the companion and primary share common proper motion. We have also obtained JHK spectroscopy of the companion and confirm its low surface gravity, in accordance with the young age of the system. A comparison with DRIFT-PHOENIX synthetic spectra indicates an effective temperature of 2800 ± 200 K and a comparison with template spectra of young and old dwarfs indicates a spectral type of M8 ± 1. The mass of the companion is estimated to be 19-26 MJup based on its bolometric luminosity and the predictions of evolutionary models. The angular separation of the companion is 4.''5, which at the distance of the primary star, 156.7 pc, corresponds to a projected separation of ∼710 AU. This companion features one of the lowest mass ratios (∼0.009) of any known companion at separations greater than 100 AU.

  1. The Rotation Period and Magnetic Field of the T Dwarf 2MASSI J1047539+212423 Measured From Periodic Radio Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E.

    2015-01-01

    Periodic radio bursts from very low mass stars and brown dwarfs simultaneously probe their magnetic and rotational properties. The brown dwarf 2MASSI J1047539+212423 (2M 1047+21) is currently the only T dwarf (T6.5) detected at radio wavelengths. Previous observations of this source with the Arecibo observatory revealed intermittent, 100%-polarized radio pulses similar to those detected from other brown dwarfs, but were unable to constrain a pulse periodicity; previous VLA observations detect...

  2. Masses and Multiplicity of Nearby Free- floating Methane and L Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Wolfgang

    2000-07-01

    Brown dwarfs never stabilize themselves on the hydrogen main sequence, thus there is an ambiguity between the temperature or luminosity of a given object and its mass or age. In order to test the mass-luminosity relations of {still uncertain} evolutionary models, a direct dynamical determination of mass is required. As a first step towards a dynamical mass estimate for brown dwarfs, we have compiled a sample of 50 very-low-mass objects {Mmasses for brown dwarfs and to calibrate evolutionary tracks. Binary properties like multiplicity, distribution of binary separations and brightness ratios hold clues on the origin of free-floating brown dwarf binaries. Our program will be an important step towards a better understanding of the still elusive class of brown dwarfs.

  3. Ultracool Dwarf Science from Widefield Multi-Epoch Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Deacon, N R; Lucas, P W; Liu, Michael C; Bessell, M S; Burningham, B; Cushing, M C; Day-Jones, A C; Dhital, S; Law, N M; Mainzer, A K; Zhang, Z H

    2010-01-01

    Widefield surveys have always provided a rich hunting ground for the coolest stars and brown dwarfs. The single epoch surveys at the beginning of this century greatly expanded the parameter space for ultracool dwarfs. Here we outline the science possible from new multi-epoch surveys which add extra depth and open the time domain to study.

  4. Relativistic Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.

  5. LHS 2803B: A VERY WIDE MID-T DWARF COMPANION TO AN OLD M DWARF IDENTIFIED FROM PAN-STARRS1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deacon, Niall R. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Mann, Andrew W.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Ken C.; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Morgan, Jeff S.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Redstone, Joshua A. [Facebook, 1601 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Price, Paul A., E-mail: deacon@mpia.de [Princeton University Observatory, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We report the discovery of a wide ({approx}1400 AU projected separation), common proper motion companion to the nearby M dwarf LHS 2803 (PSO J207.0300-13.7422). This object was discovered during our census of the local T dwarf population using Pan-STARRS1 and Two Micron All Sky Survey data. Using the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX near-infrared spectroscopy, we classify the secondary to be spectral type T5.5. University of Hawaii 2.2 m/SuperNova Integral Field Spectrograph optical spectroscopy indicates that the primary has a spectral type of M4.5, with approximately solar metallicity and no measurable H{alpha} emission. We use this lack of activity to set a lower age limit for the system of 3.5 Gyr. Using a comparison with chance alignments of brown dwarfs and nearby stars, we conclude that the two objects are unlikely to be a chance association. The primary's photometric distance of 21 pc and its proper motion implies thin disk kinematics. Based on these kinematics and its metallicity, we set an upper age limit for the system of 10 Gyr. Evolutionary model calculations suggest that the secondary has a mass of 72{+-}{sup 4}{sub 7} M{sub Jup}, temperature of 1120 {+-} 80 K, and log g = 5.4 {+-} 0.1 dex. Model atmosphere fitting to the near-IR spectrum gives similar physical parameters of 1100 K and log g = 5.0.

  6. A brown dwarf orbiting an M-dwarf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachelet, E.; Fouque, P.; Han, C.;

    2012-01-01

    -Collaboration. Alerted as a high-magnification event, it was sensitive to planets. Suspected anomalies in the light curve were not confirmed by a real-time model, but further analysis revealed small deviations from a single lens extended source fit. Methods. Thanks to observations by all the collaborations, this event...... (s,q,α) grids to look for local minima and refine the results by using a downhill method (Markov chain Monte Carlo). Finally, we use a Galactic model to estimate the physical properties of the lens components. Results. We find that the source star is a giant G star with radius 9 R⊙. The grid search...

  7. 49 new T dwarfs identified using methane imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, C. V.; Burningham, B.; Smart, R. L.; van Spaandonk, L.; Baker, D; Smith, L. C.; Andrei, A. H.; Bucciarelli, B.; Dhital, S; Jones, H.R.A.; Lattanzi, M.G.; Magazzu, A.; Pinfield, D. J.; Tinney, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of 49 new photometrically classified T dwarfs from the combination of large infrared and optical surveys combined with follow-up TNG photometry. We used multi-band infrared and optical photometry from the UKIRT and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys to identify possible brown dwarf candidates, which were then confirmed using methane filter photometry. We have defined a new photometric conversion between CH4s - CH4l colour and spectral type for T4 to T8 brown dwarfs based on a ...

  8. Trigonometric Parallaxes and Proper Motions of 134 Southern Late M, L, and T Dwarfs from the Carnegie Astrometric Planet Search Program

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberger, A J; Keiser, S A; Anglada-Escudé, G; Thompson, I B; Burley, G

    2016-01-01

    We report trigonometric parallaxes for 134 low mass stars and brown dwarfs, of which 38 have no previously published measurement and 79 more have improved uncertainties. Our survey targeted nearby targets, so 119 are closer than 30 pc. Of the 38 stars with new parallaxes, 14 are within 20 pc and seven are likely brown dwarfs (spectral types later than L0). These parallaxes are useful for studies of kinematics, multiplicity, and spectrophotometric calibration. Two objects with new parallaxes are confirmed as young stars with membership in nearby young moving groups: LP 870-65 in AB Doradus and G 161-71 in Argus. We also report the first parallax for the planet-hosting star GJ 3470; this allows us to refine the density of its Neptune-mass planet. One T-dwarf, 2MASS J12590470-4336243, previously thought to lie within 4 pc, is found to be at 7.8 pc, and the M-type star 2MASS J01392170-3936088 joins the ranks of nearby stars as it is found to be within 10 pc. Five stars that are over-luminous and/or too red for th...

  9. On the formation of brown dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing Guey Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades de las enanas marrones presentan problemas para la teor a de la formaci on estelar. Como sus masas son mucho menores que la masa de Jeans de las nubes interestelares, las enanas marrones se forman probablemente por fragmentaci on secundaria, y no por el colapso directo del n ucleo de la nube molecular. Para evitar la acreci on de masa posterior, las j ovenes enanas marrones deben salir de las regiones de alta densidad donde se formaron. Proponemos que las enanas marrones se forman en las regiones externas, opticamente delgadas, de los discos circunbinarios. Las interacciones din amicas subsecuentes con sus binarias causan que las enanas marrones sean dispersadas a grandes distancias, o que escapen del sistema a baja velocidad.

  10. Brown Dwarf Binaries from Disintegrating Triple Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Reipurth, Bo

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions, while accreting using Bondi-Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. To illustrate the simulations we introduce the 'triple diagnostic diagram', which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with...

  11. Water Clouds in Y Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Caroline V; Fortney, Jonathan J; Lupu, Roxana; Saumon, Didier; Greene, Tom; Lodders, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The formation of clouds affects brown dwarf and planetary atmospheres of nearly all effective temperatures. Iron and silicate condense in L dwarf atmospheres and dissipate at the L/T transition. Minor species such as sulfides and salts condense in mid-late T dwarfs. For brown dwarfs below Teff=450 K, water condenses in the upper atmosphere to form ice clouds. Currently over a dozen objects in this temperature range have been discovered, and few previous theoretical studies have addressed the effect of water clouds on brown dwarf or exoplanetary spectra. Here we present a new grid of models that include the effect of water cloud opacity. We find that they become optically thick in objects below Teff=350-375 K. Unlike refractory cloud materials, water ice particles are significantly non-gray absorbers; they predominantly scatter at optical wavelengths through J band and absorb in the infrared with prominent features, the strongest of which is at 2.8 microns. H2O, NH3, CH4, and H2 CIA are dominant opacity source...

  12. 49 new T dwarfs identified using methane imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, C V; Smart, R L; van Spaandonk, L; Baker, D; Smith, L C; Andrei, A H; Bucciarelli, B; Dhital, S; Jones, H R A; Lattanzi, M G; Magazzu, A; Pinfield, D J; Tinney, C G

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of 49 new photometrically classified T dwarfs from the combination of large infrared and optical surveys combined with follow-up TNG photometry. We used multi-band infrared and optical photometry from the UKIRT and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys to identify possible brown dwarf candidates, which were then confirmed using methane filter photometry. We have defined a new photometric conversion between CH4s - CH4l colour and spectral type for T4 to T8 brown dwarfs based on a part of the sample that has been followed up using methane photometry and spectroscopy. Using methane differential photometry as a proxy for spectral type for T dwarfs has proved to be a very efficient technique. Of a subset of 45 methane selected brown dwarfs that were observed spectroscopically, 100% were confirmed as T dwarfs. Future deep imaging surveys will produce large samples of faint brown dwarf candidates, for which spectroscopy will not be feasible. When broad wavelength coverage is unavailable, methane imaging...

  13. 49 new T dwarfs identified using methane imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, C. V.; Burningham, B.; Smart, R. L.; van Spaandonk, L.; Baker, D.; Smith, L. C.; Zhang, Z. H.; Andrei, A. H.; Bucciarelli, B.; Dhital, S.; Jones, H. R. A.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Magazzú, A.; Pinfield, D. J.; Tinney, C. G.

    2015-07-01

    We present the discovery of 49 new photometrically classified T dwarfs from the combination of large infrared and optical surveys combined with follow-up Telescopio Nazionale Galileo photometry. We used multiband infrared and optical photometry from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys to identify possible brown dwarf candidates, which were then confirmed using methane filter photometry. We have defined a new photometric conversion between CH4s - CH4l colour and spectral type for T4-T8 brown dwarfs based on a part of the sample that has been followed up using methane photometry and spectroscopy. Using methane differential photometry as a proxy for spectral type for T dwarfs has proved to be a very efficient technique. Of a subset of 45 methane selected brown dwarfs that were observed spectroscopically, 100 per cent were confirmed as T dwarfs. Future deep imaging surveys will produce large samples of faint brown dwarf candidates, for which spectroscopy will not be feasible. When broad wavelength coverage is unavailable, methane imaging offers a means to efficiently classify candidates from such surveys using just a pair of near-infrared images.

  14. The Metamorphosis of Tidally Stirred Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, L; Colpi, M; Moore, B; Quinn, T; Wadsley, J; Lake, J S G; Mayer, Lucio; Governato, Fabio; Colpi, Monica; Moore, Ben; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James; Lake, Joachim Stadel & George

    2001-01-01

    We present results from high-resolution N-Body/SPH simulations of rotationally supported dwarf irregular galaxies moving on bound orbits in the massive dark matter halo of the Milky Way.The dwarf models span a range in disk surface density and the masses and sizes of their dark halos are consistent with the predictions of cold dark matter cosmogonies. We show that the strong tidal field of the Milky Way determines severe mass loss in their halos and disks and induces bar and bending instabilities that transform low surface brightness dwarfs (LSBs) into dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) and high surface brightness dwarfs (HSBs) into dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in less than 10 Gyr. The final central velocity dispersions of the remnants are in the range 8-30 km/s and their final $v/\\sigma$ falls to values $< 0.5$, matching well the kinematics of early-type dwarfs. The transformation requires the orbital time of the dwarf to be $\\simlt 3-4$ Gyr, which implies a halo as massive and extended as predicted by hierarchical mod...

  15. Investigating the long-lived clouds of early L dwarfs with Spitzer and K2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizis, John; Lowrance, Patrick; Paudel, Rishi

    2016-08-01

    We propose to monitor two bright L0 dwarfs with Spitzer. Unlike cooler brown dwarfs whose clouds evolve on timescales of hours and days, the best studied L1 dwarf star has a cloud feature that lasted for over two years. This discovery was enabled by Kepler optical photometry combined with Spitzer mid-infrared photometry. The upcoming K2 Campaign 10 happens to include two bright L0 dwarfs, and they will repeated in K2 Campaign 17, providing two uniquely accurate optical light curves that sample timescales from minutes to years. By probing higher altitudes in the L dwarf atmospheres, the Spitzer IRAC photometry would enable us to test whether the optical variability in these two objects also come from long-lived clouds. This would establish whether the Kepler field L1 dwarf is a fluke or whether the weather and cloud lifetimes in warm (~2300K) atmospheres are qualititatively different than in cooler brown dwarfs.

  16. Rational kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Angeles, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

  17. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  18. The Missing Link: Early Methane ("T") Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leggett, S. K.; Geballe, T. R.; Fan, Xiaohui

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of three cool brown dwarfs which fall in the effective temperature gap between the latest L dwarfs currently known, with no methane absorption bands in the 1-2.5um range, and the previously known methane (T) dwarfs, whose spectra are dominated by methane and water. The newly discovered objects were detected as very red objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data and have JHK colors between the red L dwarfs and the blue Gl229B-like T dwarfs. They show both CO a...

  19. ORIGIN AND KINEMATICS OF THE ERUPTIVE FLOW FROM XZ TAU REVEALED BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Palau, Aina; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan E.; Tafoya, Daniel; Loinard, Laurent [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Curiel, Salvador [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-264, 04510 DF, México (Mexico)

    2015-09-20

    We present high angular resolution (∼0.″94) {sup 12}CO(1-0) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations obtained during the 2014 long baseline campaign from the eruptive bipolar flow from the multiple XZ Tau stellar system discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These observations reveal, for the first time, the kinematics of the molecular flow. The kinematics of the different ejections close to XZ Tau reveal a rotating and expanding structure with a southeast–northwest velocity gradient. The youngest eruptive bubbles unveiled in the optical HST images are inside of this molecular expanding structure. Additionally, we report a very compact and collimated bipolar outflow emanating from XZ Tau A, which indicates that the eruptive outflow is indeed originating from this object. The mass (3 × 10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙}) and energetics (E{sub kin} = 3 × 10{sup 37} erg) for the collimated outflow are comparable to those found in molecular outflows associated with young brown dwarfs.

  20. The 2MASS Wide-Field T Dwarf Search. III. Seven New T Dwarfs and Other Cool Dwarf Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Kirkpatrick, J D; McElwain, M W; Reid, I N; Tinney, C G; Burgasser, Adam J.; Elwain, Michael W. Mc; Cruz, Kelle L.; Tinney, Chris G.

    2004-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven new T dwarfs identified in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Low-resolution (R$\\sim$150) 0.8--2.5 micron spectroscopy obtained with the IRTF SpeX instrument reveal the characteristic H$_2$O and CH$_4$ bands in the spectra of these brown dwarfs. Comparison to spectral standards observed with the same instrument enable us to derive classifications of T3 to T7 for the objects in this sample. Moderate-resolution (R$\\sim$1200) near-infrared spectroscopy for a subset of these discoveries reveal K I line strengths consistent with previously observed trends with spectral type. Follow-up imaging observations provide proper motion measurements for these sources, ranging from $<$ 0$\\farcs$1 to 1$\\farcs$55 yr$^{-1}$. One object, 2MASS 0034+0523, has a spectrophotometric distance placing it within 10 pc of the Sun. This source also exhibits a depressed K-band peak reminiscent of the peculiar T dwarf 2MASS 0937+2931, and may be a metal-poor or old, high-mass brown dwarf. We also present lo...

  1. How chameleons core dwarfs with cusps

    CERN Document Server

    Lombriser, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a scalar field that couples nonminimally and universally to matter can enhance gravitational forces on cosmological scales while restoring general relativity in the Solar neighborhood. In the intermediate regime, kinematically inferred masses experience an additional radial dependence with respect to the underlying distribution of matter, which is caused by the increment of gravitational forces with increasing distance from the Milky Way center. The same effect can influence the internal kinematics of subhalos and cause cuspy matter distributions to appear core-like. Specializing to the chameleon model as a worked example, we demonstrate this effect by tracing the scalar field from the outskirts of the Milky Way halo to its interior, simultaneously fitting observed velocity dispersions of chemo-dynamically discriminated red giant populations in the Fornax and Sculptor dwarf spheroidals. Whereas in standard gravity these observations suggest that the matter distribution of the dwarfs is cored, ...

  2. A Survey for H-alpha Emission from Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Pineda, J Sebastian; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cotter, Garret; Kao, Melodie M; Mooley, Kunal

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies of brown dwarfs have demonstrated that they possess strong magnetic fields and have the potential to produce radio and optical auroral emissions powered by magnetospheric currents. This emission provides the only window on magnetic fields in the coolest brown dwarfs and identifying additional benchmark objects is key to constraining dynamo theory in this regime. To this end, we conducted a new red optical (6300 - 9700 Angstrom) survey with the Keck telescopes looking for H-alpha emission from a sample of late L dwarfs and T dwarfs. Our survey gathered optical spectra for 29 targets, 18 of which did not have previous optical spectra in the literature, greatly expanding the number of moderate resolution (R~2000) spectra available at these spectral types. Combining our sample with previous surveys, we confirm an H-alpha detection rate of 9.2 (+3.5/-2.1) % for L and T dwarfs in the optical spectral range of L4 - T8. This detection rate is consistent with the recently measured detection rate for ...

  3. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  4. First T dwarfs in the VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Day-Jones, A; Scholz, R -D; Marocco, F; Koposov, S; Navascues, D Barrado y; Lucas, P W; Cruz, P; Lillo, J; Jones, H; Perez-Garrido, A; Ruiz, M T; Pinfield, D; Rebolo, R; Bejar, V J S; Boudreault, S; Emerson, J P; Banerji, M; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Hodgkin, S T; McMahon, R; Canty, J; Contreras, C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the project is to improve our current knowledge of the density of T dwarfs and the shape of the substellar initial mass function by identifying a magnitude-limited sample of T dwarfs in the full southern sky. We present the results of a photometric search aimed at discovering cool brown dwarfs in the Southern sky imaged at infrared wavelengths by the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) and the Wide Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite mission. We combined the first data release (DR1) of the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS) and the WISE preliminary data release to extract candidates with red mid-infrared colours and near- to mid-infrared colours characteristics of cool brown dwarfs. The VHS DR1 vs WISE search returned tens of T dwarf candidates, 13 of which are presented here, including two previously published in the literature and five new ones confirmed spectroscopically with spectral types between T4.5 and T8. We estimate that the two T6 dwarfs lie within 16 pc and the ...

  5. Neutral Hydrogen in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grcevich, Jana

    The gas content of the faintest and lowest mass dwarf galaxies provide means to study the evolution of these unique objects. The evolutionary histories of low mass dwarf galaxies are interesting in their own right, but may also provide insight into fundamental cosmological problems. These include the nature of dark matter, the disagreement between the number of observed Local Group dwarf galaxies and that predicted by lambda cold dark matter models, and the discrepancy between the observed census of baryonic matter in the Milky Way's environment and theoretical predictions. This thesis explores these questions by studying the neutral hydrogen (HI) component of dwarf galaxies. First, limits on the HI mass of the ultra-faint dwarfs are presented, and the HI content of all Local Group dwarf galaxies is examined from an environmental standpoint. We find that those Local Group dwarfs within 270 kpc of a massive host galaxy are deficient in HI as compared to those at larger galactocentric distances. Ram-pressure arguments are invoked, which suggest halo densities greater than 2-3 x 10-4 cm-3 out to distances of at least 70 kpc, values which are consistent with theoretical models and suggest the halo may harbor a large fraction of the host galaxy's baryons. We also find that accounting for the incompleteness of the dwarf galaxy count, known dwarf galaxies whose gas has been removed could have provided at most 2.1 x 108 M⊙ of HI gas to the Milky Way. Second, we examine the possibility of discovering unknown gas-rich ultra-faint galaxies in the Local Group using HI. The GALFA-HI Survey catalog is searched for compact, isolated HI clouds which are most similar to the expected HI characteristics of low mass dwarf galaxies. Fifty-one Local Group dwarf galaxy candidates are identified through column density, brightness temperature, and kinematic selection criteria, and their properties are explored. Third, we present hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies experiencing a

  6. Parallel kinematics type, kinematics, and optimal design

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Parallel Kinematics- Type, Kinematics, and Optimal Design presents the results of 15 year's research on parallel mechanisms and parallel kinematics machines. This book covers the systematic classification of parallel mechanisms (PMs) as well as providing a large number of mechanical architectures of PMs available for use in practical applications. It focuses on the kinematic design of parallel robots. One successful application of parallel mechanisms in the field of machine tools, which is also called parallel kinematics machines, has been the emerging trend in advanced machine tools. The book describes not only the main aspects and important topics in parallel kinematics, but also references novel concepts and approaches, i.e. type synthesis based on evolution, performance evaluation and optimization based on screw theory, singularity model taking into account motion and force transmissibility, and others.   This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and postgraduates or above with interes...

  7. Exploring the Role of Sub-micron Sized Dust Grains in the Atmospheres of Red L0 - L6 Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hiranaka, Kay; Douglas, Stephanie T; Marley, Mark S; Baldassare, Vivienne F

    2016-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that the red near-infrared colors of some L dwarfs could be explained by a "dust haze" of small particles in their upper atmospheres. This dust haze would exist in conjunction with the clouds found in dwarfs with more typical colors. We developed a model which uses Mie theory and the Hansen particle size distributions to reproduce the extinction due to the proposed dust haze. We apply our method to 23 young L dwarfs and 23 red field L dwarfs. We constrain the properties of the dust haze including particle size distribution and column density using Markov-Chain Monte Carlo methods. We find that sub-micron range silicate grains reproduce the observed reddening. Current brown dwarf atmosphere models include large grain (1--100~$\\mu m$) dust clouds but not submicron dust grains. Our results provide a strong proof of concept and motivate a combination of large and small dust grains in brown dwarf atmosphere models.

  8. Planets around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). I. A Substellar Companion to the Young M Dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Kraus, Adam L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-07-01

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the young M dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720 as part of a high contrast imaging search for planets around nearby young low-mass stars with Keck-II/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO. The 2farcs4 (~120 AU) pair is confirmed to be comoving from two epochs of high-resolution imaging. Follow-up low- and moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of 1RXS J2351+3127 B with IRTF/SpeX and Keck-II/OSIRIS reveals a spectral type of L0+2 -1. The M2 primary star 1RXS J2351+3127 A exhibits X-ray and UV activity levels comparable to young moving group members with ages of ~10-100 Myr. UVW kinematics based the measured radial velocity of the primary and the system's photometric distance (50 ± 10 pc) indicate it is likely a member of the ~50-150 Myr AB Dor moving group. The near-infrared spectrum of 1RXS J2351+3127 B does not exhibit obvious signs of youth, but its H-band morphology shows subtle hints of intermediate surface gravity. The spectrum is also an excellent match to the ~200 Myr M9 brown dwarf LP 944-20. Assuming an age of 50-150 Myr, evolutionary models imply a mass of 32 ± 6 M Jup for the companion, making 1RXS J2351+3127 B the second lowest-mass member of the AB Dor moving group after the L4 companion CD-35 2722 B and one of the few benchmark brown dwarfs known at young ages. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral Rose

    2016-06-01

    The high dark matter content and the shallow potential wells of low mass galaxies (10^3 Msun important questions in near field cosmology: why are there so few observed dwarfs compared to the number predicted by simulations? What shuts down star formation in ultra-faint galaxies? Why do dwarfs have inverted age gradients and what does it take to convert a dwarf irregular (dIrrs) into a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy?We to attempt to answer these questions by running ultra-high resolution cosmological FIRE simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We predict that many ultra-faint dwarfs should exist as satellites of more massive isolated Local Group dwarfs. The ultra-faints (Mstar 10 Gyr), having had their star formation shut down by reionization. Additionally, we show that the kinematics and ellipticities of isolated simulated dwarf centrals are consistent with observed dSphs satellites without the need for harassment from a massive host. We further show that most (but not all) observed *isolated* dIrrs in the Local Volume also have dispersion-supported stellar populations, contradicting the previous view that these objects are rotating. Finally, we investigate the stellar age gradients in dwarfs — showing that early mergers and strong feedback can create an inverted gradient, with the older stars occupying larger galactocentric radii.These results offer an interesting direction in testing models that attempt to solve dark matter problems via explosive feedback episodes. Can the same models that create large cores in simulated dwarfs preserve the mild stellar rotation that is seen in a minority of isolated dIrrs? Can the bursty star formation that created a dark matter core also match observed stellar gradients in low mass galaxies? Comparisons between our simulations and observed dwarfs should provide an important benchmark for this question going forward.

  10. Searching for Binary Y dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Opitz, Daniela; Faherty, Jacqueline; Sweet, Sarah; Gelino, Christopher R; Kirkpatrick, J Davy

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered almost all the known members of the new class of Y-type brown dwarfs. Most of these Y dwarfs have been identified as isolated objects in the field. It is known that binaries with L- and T-type brown dwarf primaries are less prevalent than either M-dwarf or solar-type primaries, they tend to have smaller separations and are more frequently detected in near-equal mass configurations. The binary statistics for Y-type brown dwarfs, however, are sparse, and so it is unclear if the same trends that hold for L- and T-type brown dwarfs also hold for Y-type ones. In addition, the detection of binary companions to very cool Y dwarfs may well be the best means available for discovering even colder objects. We present results for binary properties of a sample of five WISE Y dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). We find no evidence for binary companions in these data, which suggests these systems are not equal-luminosity (or...

  11. The solar neighborhood. XXXIV. A search for planets orbiting nearby M dwarfs using astrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, John C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Henry, Todd J.; Ianna, Philip A. [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA 17201 (United States); Jao, Wei-Chun; Quinn, Samuel N.; Winters, Jennifer G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); Koerner, David W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Riedel, Adric R. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10034 (United States); Subasavage, John P., E-mail: lurie@uw.edu [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Astrometric measurements are presented for seven nearby stars with previously detected planets: six M dwarfs (GJ 317, GJ 667C, GJ 581, GJ 849, GJ 876, and GJ 1214) and one K dwarf (BD-10 -3166). Measurements are also presented for six additional nearby M dwarfs without known planets, but which are more favorable to astrometric detections of low mass companions, as well as three binary systems for which we provide astrometric orbit solutions. Observations have baselines of 3 to 13 years, and were made as part of the RECONS long-term astrometry and photometry program at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9 m telescope. We provide trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for all 16 systems, and perform an extensive analysis of the astrometric residuals to determine the minimum detectable companion mass for the 12 M dwarfs not having close stellar secondaries. For the six M dwarfs with known planets, we are not sensitive to planets, but can rule out the presence of all but the least massive brown dwarfs at periods of 2–12 years. For the six more astrometrically favorable M dwarfs, we conclude that none have brown dwarf companions, and are sensitive to companions with masses as low as 1 M{sub Jup} for periods longer than two years. In particular, we conclude that Proxima Centauri has no Jovian companions at orbital periods of 2–12 years. These results complement previously published M dwarf planet occurrence rates by providing astrometrically determined upper mass limits on potential super-Jupiter companions at orbits of two years and longer. As part of a continuing survey, these results are consistent with the paucity of super-Jupiter and brown dwarf companions we find among the over 250 red dwarfs within 25 pc observed longer than five years in our astrometric program.

  12. Construction and compression of Dwarf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Long-gang; FENG Yu-cai; GUI Hao

    2005-01-01

    There exists an inherent difficulty in the original algorithm for the construction of Dwarf, which prevents it from constructing true Dwarfs. We explained when and why it introduces suffix redundancies into the Dwarf structure. To solve this problem, we proposed a completely new algorithm called PID. It bottom-up computes partitions of a fact table, and inserts them into the Dwarf structure. Ifa partition is an MSV partition, coalesce its sub-Dwarf; otherwise create necessary nodes and cells. Our performance study showed that PID is efficient. For further condensing of Dwarf, we proposed Condensed Dwarf, a more compressed structure, combining the strength of Dwarf and Condensed Cube. By eliminating unnecessary stores of "ALL" cells from the Dwarf structure, Condensed Dwarf could effectively reduce the size of Dwarf, especially for Dwarfs of the real world, which was illustrated by our experiments. Its query processing is still simple and, only two minor modifications to PID are required for the construction of Condensed Dwarf.

  13. GTC OSIRIS z-band imaging of Y dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Rebolo, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the project is to contribute to the characterisation of the spectral energy distribution of the coolest brown dwarfs discovered to date, the Y dwarfs. We obtained z-band far-red imaging for six Y dwarfs and a T9+Y0 binary with the OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) instrument on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC). We detect five of the seven known Y dwarfs in the $z$-band, infer their optical-to-infrared colours, and measure their proper motions. We find a higher dispersion in the z-J and z-H colours of Y0 dwarfs than in T dwarfs. This dispersion is found to be correlated with H-w2. The high dispersion in the optical-to-infrared colours of Y dwarfs and the possible turn-over towards bluer colours may be a consequence of the presence of sulfide clouds with different thicknesses, the depletion of alcalines, and/or gravity effects.

  14. The Discovery of Y Dwarfs Using Data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Michael C; Gelino, Christopher R; Griffith, Roger L; Skrutskie, Michael F; Mainzer, Amanda K; Marsh, Kenneth A; Beichman, Charles A; Burgasser, Adam J; Prato, Lisa A; Simcoe, Robert A; Marley, Mark S; Saumon, D; Freedman, Richard S; Eisenhardt, Peter R; Wright, Edward L

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H_2O and CH_4 that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, the latest type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f_lambda, so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH_3. These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS J0722-0540 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spect...

  15. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  16. A Survey for Hα Emission from Late L Dwarfs and T Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cotter, Garret; Kao, Melodie M.; Mooley, Kunal

    2016-07-01

    Recently, studies of brown dwarfs have demonstrated that they possess strong magnetic fields and have the potential to produce radio and optical auroral emissions powered by magnetospheric currents. This emission provides the only window on magnetic fields in the coolest brown dwarfs and identifying additional benchmark objects is key to constraining dynamo theory in this regime. To this end, we conducted a new red optical (6300–9700 Å) survey with the Keck telescopes looking for Hα emission from a sample of late L dwarfs and T dwarfs. Our survey gathered optical spectra for 29 targets, 18 of which did not have previous optical spectra in the literature, greatly expanding the number of moderate-resolution (R ∼ 2000) spectra available at these spectral types. Combining our sample with previous surveys, we confirm an Hα detection rate of 9.2±{}2.13.5% for L and T dwarfs in the optical spectral range of L4–T8. This detection rate is consistent with the recently measured detection rate for auroral radio emission from Kao et al., suggesting that geometrical selection effects due to the beaming of the radio emission are small or absent. We also provide the first detection of Hα emission from 2MASS 0036+1821, previously notable as the only electron cyclotron maser radio source without a confirmed detection of Hα emission. Finally, we also establish optical standards for spectral types T3 and T4, filling in the previous gap between T2 and T5. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. Deep $z$-band observations of the coolest Y dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Kopytova, Taisiya G; Deacon, Niall R; Brandner, Wolfgang; Buenzli, Esther; Bayo, Amelia; Schlieder, Joshua E; Manjavacas, Elena; Biller, Beth A; Kopon, Derek

    2014-01-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (hereafter, WISE 0855-07) is the coolest Y dwarf known to date and is located at a distance of 2.31$\\pm 0.08$ pc, giving it the fourth largest parallax of any known star or brown dwarf system. We report deep $z$-band observations of WISE 0855-07 using FORS2 on UT1/VLT. We do not detect any counterpart to WISE 0855-07 in our $z$-band images and estimate a brightness upper limit of AB mag $>$ 24.8 ($F_{\

  18. Uniform Atmospheric Retrieval Analysis of Ultracool Dwarfs I: Characterizing Benchmarks, Gl570D and HD3651B

    CERN Document Server

    Line, Michael R; Burningham, Ben; Fortney, Jonathan; Marley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting the spectra of brown dwarfs is key to determining the fundamental physical and chemical processes occurring in their atmospheres. Powerful Bayesian atmospheric retrieval tools have recently been applied to both exoplanet and brown dwarf spectra to tease out the thermal structures and molecular abundances to understand those processes. In this manuscript we develop a significantly upgraded retrieval method and apply it to the SpeX spectral library data of two benchmark late T-dwarfs, Gl570D and HD3651B, to establish the validity of our upgraded forward model parameterization and Bayesian estimator. Our retrieved metallicities, gravities, and effective temperature are consistent with the metallicity and presumed ages of the systems. We add the carbon-to-oxygen ratio as a new dimension to benchmark systems and find good agreement between carbon-to-oxygens ratio derived in the brown dwarfs and the host stars. Furthermore, we have for the first time unambiguously determined the presence of ammonia in ...

  19. Planets Around Low-Mass Stars (PALMS). I. A Substellar Companion to the Young M Dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Brendan P; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Dupuy, Trent J; Cieza, Lucas A; Kraus, Adam L; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the young M dwarf 1RXS J235133.3+312720 as part of a high contrast imaging search for planets around nearby young low-mass stars with Keck-II/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO. The 2.4" (~120 AU) pair is confirmed to be comoving from two epochs of high resolution imaging. Follow-up low- and moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of 1RXS J2351+3127 B with IRTF/SpeX and Keck-II/OSIRIS reveals a spectral type of L0$^{+2}_{-1}$. The M2 primary star 1RXS J2351+3127 A exhibits X-ray and UV activity levels comparable to young moving group members with ages of ~10-100 Myr. UVW kinematics based the measured radial velocity of the primary and the system's photometric distance (50 +/- 10 pc) indicate it is likely a member of the ~50-150 Myr AB Dor moving group. The near-infrared spectrum of 1RXS J2351+3127 B does not exhibit obvious signs of youth, but its H-band morphology shows subtle hints of intermediate surface gravity. The spectrum is also an excellent match to t...

  20. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are

  1. WEATHER ON OTHER WORLDS. II. SURVEY RESULTS: SPOTS ARE UBIQUITOUS ON L AND T DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from the Weather on Other Worlds Spitzer Exploration Science program to investigate photometric variability in L and T dwarfs, usually attributed to patchy clouds. We surveyed 44 L3-T8 dwarfs, spanning a range of J – Ks colors and surface gravities. We find that 14/23 (61%−20%+17%, 95% confidence) of our single L3-L9.5 dwarfs are variable with peak-to-peak amplitudes between 0.2% and 1.5%, and 5/16 (31%−17%+25%) of our single T0-T8 dwarfs are variable with amplitudes between 0.8% and 4.6%. After correcting for sensitivity, we find that 80%−27%+20% of L dwarfs vary by ≥0.2%, and 36%−17%+26% of T dwarfs vary by ≥0.4%. Given viewing geometry considerations, we conclude that photospheric heterogeneities causing >0.2% 3-5 μm flux variations are present on virtually all L dwarfs, and probably on most T dwarfs. A third of L dwarf variables show irregular light curves, indicating that L dwarfs may have multiple spots that evolve over a single rotation. Also, approximately a third of the periodicities are on timescales >10 hr, suggesting that slowly rotating brown dwarfs may be common. We observe an increase in the maximum amplitudes over the entire spectral type range, revealing a potential for greater temperature contrasts in T dwarfs than in L dwarfs. We find a tentative association (92% confidence) between low surface gravity and high-amplitude variability among L3-L5.5 dwarfs. Although we can not confirm whether lower gravity is also correlated with a higher incidence of variables, the result is promising for the characterization of directly imaged young extrasolar planets through variability

  2. Mystery of a Dimming White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In the wake of the recent media attention over an enigmatic, dimming star, another intriguing object has been discovered: J1529+2928, a white dwarf that periodically dims. This mystery, however, may have a simple solution with interesting consequences for future surveys of white dwarfs.Unexpected VariabilityJ1529+2928 is an isolated white dwarf that appears to have a mass of slightly more than the Sun. But rather than radiating steadily, J1529+2928 dims once every 38 minutes almost as though it were being eclipsed.The team that discovered these variations, led by Mukremin Kilic (University of Oklahoma), used telescopes at the Apache Point Observatory and the McDonald Observatory to obtain follow-up photometric data of J1529+2928 spread across 66 days. The team also took spectra of the white dwarf with the Gemini North telescope.Kilic and collaborators then began, one by one, to rule out possible causes of this objects variability.Eliminating OptionsThe period of the variability is too long for J1529+2928 to be a pulsating white dwarf with luminosity variation caused by gravity-wave pulsations.The variability cant be due to an eclipse by a stellar or brown-dwarf companion, because there isnt any variation in J1529+2928s radial velocity.Its not due to the orbit of a solid-body planetary object; such a transit would be too short to explain observations.It cant be due to the orbit of a disintegrated planet; this wouldnt explain the light curves observed in different filters plus the light curve doesnt change over the 66-day span.Spotty SurfaceTop and middle two panels: light curves from three different nights observing J1529+2928s periodic dimming. Bottom panel: The Fourier transform shows a peak at 37.7 cycles/day (and another, smaller peak at its first harmonic). [Kilic et al. 2015]So what explanation is left? The authors suggest that J1529+2928s variability is likely caused by a starspot on the white dwarfs surface that rotates into and out of our view. Estimates

  3. Dwarf-Galaxy Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina; Brinks, Elias; Kravtsov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our "cosmological backyard"-the Local Group and its vicinity. This special issue of the open-access journal Advances in Astronomy is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.

  4. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaler, Steven; Dahlstrom, Michael

    2000-12-01

    A white dwarf is a very dense star: The earth-sized remains of a Sun-like star that has burned all of its nuclear fuel. Although it's unable to carry out the workaday activities of a living star, a white dwarf is still an interesting object to astronomers. For one thing, white dwarfs experience "starquakes"—gentle pulsations that allow astronomers to deduce certain physical qualities of the star, such as its mass, rate of rotation, its structure and the strength of its magnetic field. The authors have been studying the starquakes with a global network of instruments, collectively called the Whole Earth Telescope, which provide around-the-clock observations of a white dwarf's seismic activity. Kawaler and Dahlstrom discuss what we know about white dwarfs and their significance for questions concerning the age of our Galaxy and the composition of dark matter.

  5. THE 5 GHz ARECIBO SEARCH FOR RADIO FLARES FROM ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Route, Matthew; Wolszczan, Alexander, E-mail: mroute@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    We present the results of a 4.75 GHz survey of 33 brown dwarfs and one young exoplanetary system for flaring radio emission, conducted with the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. The goal of this program was to detect and characterize the magnetic fields of objects cooler than spectral type L3.5, the coolest brown dwarf detected prior to our survey. We have also attempted to detect flaring radio emission from the HR 8799 planetary system, guided by theoretical work indicating that hot, massive exoplanets may have strong magnetic fields capable of generating radio emission at GHz frequencies. We have detected and confirmed radio flares from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+2124234. This detection dramatically extends the temperature range over which brown dwarfs appear to be at least sporadic radio-emitters, from 1900 K (L3.5) down to 900 K (T6.5). It also demonstrates that the utility of radio detection as a unique tool to study the magnetic fields of substellar objects extends to the coolest dwarfs, and, plausibly to hot, massive exoplanets. We have also identified a single, 3.6{sigma} flare from the L1 dwarf, 2MASS J1439284+192915. This detection is tentative and requires confirmation by additional monitoring observations.

  6. SED simulations for young L-dwarf with dusty ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhozhay, Olga; Rosa Zapatero Osorio, Maria; Sánchez Béjar, Victor Javier; Boehler, Yann

    2016-07-01

    We explore the feasibility of the presence of primordial and debris disks by fitting the spectral energy distribution of G196-3B, one L3 brown dwarf with clear near- and mid-infrared color excesses. We estimated age and mass in the intervals 20 - 300 Myr and 0.012 - 0.025 M _{sun}. The best-fit found responds to the scenario of a warm (˜1300 K), very narrow debris ring (˜0.06 R _{sun}) with a mass > 7x10 ^{-10} M _{earth}, located very close to the central brown dwarf (˜0.22 R _{sun}). This ring most probably is composed of sub-micron particles and somehow resemble the rings of Neptune and Jupiter. We also analyze the inclination of the system and possibility of the presence of the outer cold disk, but these two parameters can not be well constrained with available observations.

  7. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  8. KINEMATICS AND VELOCITY ELLIPSOID OF THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD WHITE DWARFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Elsanhoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de determinar la distribuci ́on de velocidades de las enanas blancas en el entorno solar utilizamos las componentes de la velocidad espacial. Utilizamos dos muestras, las m ́as cercanas que 20 y 25 pc. Ade m ́as, calculamos el movimiento solar y las dispersiones de velocidades para c uatro sub-muestras, a saber, DA, no-DA, enanas blancas calientes, y fr ́ıas. La com paraci ́on de nuestros resultados para las muestras de 20 y 25 pc da como resultado un a buena concordan- cia, mientras que los resultados de las comparaciones entre las otras sub-muestras no concuerdan. Se discute la dependencia de las dispersione s de velocidades y el movimiento solar de la composici ́on qu ́ımica y la temperatu ra efectiva

  9. Metallicities and kinematics for dwarf spheroidals in the local group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Irwin, M.; Randich, S; Pasquini, L

    2006-01-01

    We present the first results of Call triplet observations from VLT/FLAMES for Sculptor, Fornax and Sextans dSphs. For each galaxy, we obtained accurate velocity and metallicity measurements for hundreds of stars out to and beyond the tidal radius. In each case, we find clear evidence for the presenc

  10. Jeans Analysis for Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies in Wave Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shu-Rong; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2016-01-01

    Observations suggest that dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies exhibit large constant-density cores in the centers, which can hardly be explained by dissipationless cold dark matter simulations. Wave dark matter (${\\psi {\\rm DM}}$), characterized by a single parameter, the dark matter particle mass $m_{\\psi}$, predicts a central soliton core in every galaxy arising from quantum pressure against gravity. Here we apply Jeans analysis to the kinematic data of eight classical dSphs so as to constrain...

  11. M dwarfs: Theoretical work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Dermott J.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical work on the atmospheres of M dwarfs has progressed along lines parallel to those followed in the study of other classes of stars. Such models have become increasingly sophisticated as improvements in opacities, in the equation of state, and in the treatment of convection were incorporated during the last 15 to 20 years. As a result, spectrophotometric data on M dwarfs can now be fitted rather well by current models. The various attempts at modeling M dwarf photospheres in purely thermal terms are summarized. Some extensions of these models to include the effects of microturbulence and magnetic inhomogeneities are presented.

  12. Near-infrared photometry of Y dwarfs: low ammonia abundance and the onset of water clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, S K; Marley, M S; Saumon, D

    2014-01-01

    We present new near-infrared photometry for seven late-type T dwarfs and nine Y-type dwarfs, and lower limit magnitudes for a tenth Y dwarf, obtained at Gemini Observatory. We also present a reanalysis of H-band imaging data from the Keck Observatory Archive, for an eleventh Y dwarf. These data are combined with earlier MKO-system photometry, Spitzer and WISE mid-infrared photometry, and available trigonometric parallaxes, to create a sample of late-type brown dwarfs which includes ten T9-T9.5 dwarfs or dwarf systems, and sixteen Y dwarfs. We compare the data to our models which include updated H_2 and NH_3 opacity, as well as low-temperature condensate clouds. The models qualitatively reproduce the trends seen in the observed colors, however there are discrepancies of around a factor of two in flux for the Y0-Y1 dwarfs, with T_eff~350-400K. At T_eff~400K, the problems could be addressed by significantly reducing the NH_3 absorption, for example by halving the abundance of NH_3 possibly by vertical mixing. At...

  13. SOME DUAL KINEMATIC FORMULAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, some kinematic formulas for dual quermassintegral of star bodies and for chord power integrals of convex bodies are established by using dual mixed volumes. These formulas are the extensions of the fundamental kinematic formula involving quermassintegral to the case of dual quermassintegral and chord power integrals.

  14. Kinematically lopsided spiral galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, RA; Schoenmakers, RHM; Sancisi, R; van Albada, TS

    1999-01-01

    Asymmetries in the distribution of light and neutral hydrogen are often observed in spiral galaxies, Here, attention is drawn to the presence of large-scale asymmetries in their kinematics. Two examples of kinematically lopsided galaxies are presented and discussed. The shape of the rotation curve -

  15. Kinematic Space and Wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-dong

    2016-01-01

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincar\\'e disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincar\\'e disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the $SL(2,\\mathbb{R})$ leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore...

  16. A Magellanic Origin of the DES Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jethwa, Prashin; Belokurov, Vasily

    2016-01-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of subhaloes in $\\Lambda$CDM, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4 (8) of these with 68% (95%) confidence and that 7 (12) DES dwarfs have probabil...

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the very low mass companion to the hot DA white dwarf PG1234+482

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, P R; Dobbie, P D; Barstow, M A

    2007-01-01

    We present a near-infrared spectrum of the hot ($T_{\\rm eff}$ $\\approx$ 55,000 K) DA white dwarf PG 1234+482. We confirm that a very low mass companion is responsible for the previously recognised infrared photometric excess. We compare spectra of M and L dwarfs, combined with an appropriate white dwarf model, to the data to constrain the spectral type of the secondary. We find that uncertainties in the 2MASS $HK$ photometry of the white dwarf prevent us from distinguishing whether the secondary is stellar or substellar, and assign a spectral type of L0$\\pm$1 (M9-L1).Therefore, this is the hottest and youngest ($\\approx 10^6$ yr) DA white dwarf with a possible brown dwarf companion.

  18. White dwarf pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DA white dwarfs are those which show only the Stark-broadened lines of hydrogen in their spectra. They comprise about 80% of the total white dwarf population. A subset of the DA dwarfs, the ZZ Ceti stars, form a highly homogeneous class of nonradially pulsating variable stars. In this paper we shall review the observations from which both the physical properties of the stars and the characteristics of the pulsations have been derived. Data obtained since the last review of these variables (Robinson 1979) is stressed, as these data are forcing a somewhat revised understanding of the ZZ Ceti stars and their relationship to investigations of white dwarfs and to pulsating variable stars, in general. (orig.)

  19. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  20. Advances in robot kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama

    2014-01-01

    The topics addressed in this book cover the whole range of kinematic analysis, synthesis and design and consider robotic systems possessing serial, parallel and cable driven mechanisms. The robotic systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained.  The fifty-six contributions report the latest results in robot kinematics with emphasis on emerging areas such as design and control of humanoids or humanoid subsystems. The book is of interest to researchers wanting to bring their knowledge up to date regarding modern topics in one of the basic disciplines in robotics, which relates to the essential property of robots, the motion of mechanisms.

  1. A Dark Spot on a Massive White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros; Bell, Keaton J.; Curd, Brandon; Brown, Warren R.; Hermes, J. J.; Dufour, Patrick; Wisniewski, John P.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2015-12-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 minutes due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  2. Neglected Clouds in T and Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Caroline V; Marley, Mark S; Visscher, Channon; Saumon, Didier; Leggett, S K

    2012-01-01

    As brown dwarfs cool, a variety of species condense in their atmospheres, forming clouds. Iron and silicate clouds shape the emergent spectra of L dwarfs, but these clouds dissipate at the L/T transition. A variety of other condensates are expected to form in cooler T dwarf atmospheres. These include Cr, MnS, Na2S, ZnS, and KCl, but the opacity of these optically thinner clouds has not been included in previous atmosphere models. Here, we examine their effect on model T and Y dwarf atmospheres. The cloud structures and opacities are calculated using the Ackerman & Marley (2001) cloud model, which is coupled to an atmosphere model to produce atmospheric pressure-temperature profiles in radiative-convective equilibrium. We generate a suite of models between Teff = 400 and 1300 K, log g=4.0 and 5.5, and condensate sedimentation efficiencies from fsed=2 to 5. Model spectra are compared to two red T dwarfs, Ross 458C and UGPS 0722-05; models that include clouds are found to match observed spectra significantly...

  3. Galactic kinematics with RAVE data - I. The distribution of stars towards the Galactic poles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltz, L.; Bienayme, O.; Freeman, K. C.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of G and K type stars towards the Galactic poles using RAVE and ELODIE radial velocities, 2MASS photometric star counts, and UCAC2 proper motions. The combination of photometric and 3D kinematic data allows us to disentangle and describe the vertical distribution of dwarf

  4. Long-term eclipse timing of white dwarf binaries: an observational hint of a magnetic mechanism at work

    CERN Document Server

    Bours, M C P; Parsons, S G; Dhillon, V S; Ashley, R P; Bento, J P; Breedt, E; Butterley, T; Caceres, C; Copperwheat, C M; Hardy, L K; Hermes, J J; Irawati, P; Kerry, P; Kilkenny, D; Littlefair, S P; McAllister, M J; Rattanasoon, S; Sahman, D I; Vuckovic, M; Wilson, R W

    2016-01-01

    We present a long-term programme for timing the eclipses of white dwarfs in close binaries to measure apparent and/or real variations in their orbital periods. Our programme includes 67 close binaries, both detached and semi-detached and with M-dwarfs, K-dwarfs, brown dwarfs or white dwarfs secondaries. In total, we have observed more than 650 white dwarf eclipses. We use this sample to search for orbital period variations and aim to identify the underlying cause of these variations. We find that the probability of observing orbital period variations increases significantly with the observational baseline. In particular, all binaries with baselines exceeding 10 yrs, with secondaries of spectral type K2 -- M5.5, show variations in the eclipse arrival times that in most cases amount to several minutes. In addition, among those with baselines shorter than 10 yrs, binaries with late spectral type (>M6), brown dwarf or white dwarf secondaries appear to show no orbital period variations. This is in agreement with t...

  5. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....... suite, developed in this project and in [4]. Source code developed for this project includes the CCD method , improvements on the BFGS method and Jacobian inverse originally developed in [4]....

  6. Father Brown, Selected sories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesterton, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Father Brown, a small, round Catholic priest with a remarkable understanding of the criminal mind, is one of literature's most unusual and endearing detectives, able to solve the strangest crimes in a most fascinating manner. This collection draws from all five Father Brown books, and within their r

  7. The Magnetic Properties of an L Dwarf Derived from Simultaneous Radio, X-ray, and H-alpha Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, E.; Rutledge, R. E.; Reid, I N; Bildsten, L.; Gizis, J. E.; Liebert, J.; martin, E.; Basri, G.; Jayawardhana, R.; Brandeker, A.; Fleming, T.A.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Giampapa, M. S.; Hawley, S. L.; Schmitt, J.H.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first simultaneous, multi-wavelength observations of an L dwarf, the L3.5 candidate brown dwarf 2MASS J00361617+1821104, conducted with the Very Large Array, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Kitt Peak 4-m telescope. We detect strongly variable and periodic radio emission (P=3 hr) with a fraction of about 60% circular polarization. No X-ray emission is detected to a limit of L_X/L_{bol}

  8. SHIELD: Neutral Gas Kinematics and Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    McNichols, Andrew T; Nims, Elise; Cannon, John M; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Józsa, Gyula I G; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Salzer, John J; Skillman, Evan D; Warren, Steven R; Dolphin, Andrew; Elson, E C; Haurberg, Nathalie; Ott, Jürgen; Saintonge, Amelie; Cave, Ian; Hagen, Cedric; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Marshall, Melissa V; Thomann, Clara M; Van Sistine, Angela

    2016-01-01

    We present kinematic analyses of the 12 galaxies in the "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs" (SHIELD). We use multi-configuration interferometric observations of the HI 21cm emission line from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to produce image cubes at a variety of spatial and spectral resolutions. Both two- and three-dimensional fitting techniques are employed in an attempt to derive inclination-corrected rotation curves for each galaxy. In most cases, the comparable magnitudes of velocity dispersion and projected rotation result in degeneracies that prohibit unambiguous circular velocity solutions. We thus make spatially resolved position-velocity cuts, corrected for inclination using the stellar components, to estimate the circular rotation velocities. We find circular velocities <30 km/s for the entire survey population. Baryonic masses are calculated using single-dish HI fluxes from Arecibo and stellar masses derived from HST and Spitzer imaging. Comparison is made with total dynamical ...

  9. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.

  10. Axions and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2010-01-01

    White dwarfs are almost completely degenerate objects that cannot obtain energy from the thermonuclear sources and their evolution is just a gravothermal process of cooling. The simplicity of these objects, the fact that the physical inputs necessary to understand them are well identified, although not always well understood, and the impressive observational background about white dwarfs make them the most well studied Galactic population. These characteristics allow to use them as laboratories to test new ideas of physics. In this contribution we discuss the robustness of the method and its application to the axion case.

  11. White dwarf planets

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor Amy; Veras Dimitri; Villaver Eva; Mustill Alexander J.; Wyatt Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙...

  12. SHIELD: Neutral Gas Kinematics and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; Cannon, John M.; SHIELD Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs" (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational study of 12 low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered in Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey data products. Here we present new results of detailed kinematic analyses of these systems using multi-configuration, high spatial (˜300 pc) and spectral (0.82 - 2.46 km s-1 ch-1) resolution HI observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. For each source, we produce velocity fields and dispersion maps using different spatial and spectral resolution representations of the data in order to attempt derivation of an inclination-corrected rotation curve. While both two- and three-dimensional fitting techniques are employed, the comparable magnitudes of velocity dispersion and projected rotation result in degeneracies that prohibit unambiguous circular velocity solutions. We thus make multiple position-velocity cuts across each galaxy to determine the maximum circular rotation velocity (≤ 30 km-1 for the survey population). Baryonic masses are calculated using single-dish H I fluxes from Arecibo and stellar masses derived from HST and Spitzer imaging. Comparison is made with total dynamical masses estimated from the position-velocity analysis. The SHIELD galaxies are contextualized on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College.

  13. The Modular Robots Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Pozna

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper intention is to develop a kinematical foundation for our nextworks in industrial robots (IR modular design. The goal of this works is todevelop cheap and improved robots which are adapted to the costumer needs. Inorder to achieve the mentioned goal, in [43], we have started a bibliographicalresearch of the main modular design aspects. The mentioned analyze of the actualresults in modular robots design gives us the possibility to establish our researchprogram. The idea of this paper is to develop a kinematical formalism which willbe use in the next dedicated to this subject.

  14. How the first stars shaped the faintest gas-dominated dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Verbeke, Robbert; De Rijcke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Low-mass dwarf galaxies are very sensitive test-beds for theories of cosmic structure formation since their weak gravitational fields allow the effects of the relevant physical processes to clearly stand out. Up to now, no unified account exists of the sometimes seemingly conflicting properties of the faintest isolated dwarfs in and around the Local Group, such as Leo T and the recently discovered Leo P and Pisces A systems. Using new numerical simulations, we show that this serious challenge to our understanding of galaxy formation can be effectively resolved by taking into account the regulating influence of the ultraviolet radiation of the first population of stars on a dwarf's star formation rate while otherwise staying within the standard cosmological paradigm for structure formation. These simulations produce faint, gas-dominated, star-forming dwarf galaxies that lie on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and that successfully reproduce a broad range of chemical, kinematical, and structural observables o...

  15. The Parentage of Magnetic White Dwarfs: Implications from Their Space Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselowitz, Tara; Wasatonic, Richard; Matthews, Karen; Sion, Edward M.; McCook, George P.

    1999-06-01

    We have examined the statistical properties, cooling ages, and vector components of the three-dimensional space motion U, V, W for the enlarged sample of 53 magnetic white dwarfs contained in the fourth edition of the Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs (McCook & Sion). Their cooling ages range from 2 million years to 12.6 billion years. A comparison of the total kinematic samples of magnetics and DA stars over the same luminosity range 10.0near miss'' pulsar progenitors. We find preliminary evidence that the magnetic white dwarfs show a peculiar distribution in UV velocity space relative to other spectroscopic subgroups of white dwarfs. However, there is little evidence of a difference in velocity dispersion among the hot and cool magnetic degenerates, despite their having vastly different cooling ages. This may be taken as indirect evidence that the magnetics represent a sample of mixed evolutionary progeny.

  16. A Magellanic Origin of the DES Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-06-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of subhaloes in ΛCDM, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95)% confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the LMC. Marginalising over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  17. A Magellanic origin of the DES dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-09-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves, and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of sub-haloes in Λ cold dark matter, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95) per cent confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Marginalizing over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011 M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  18. On the Assembly of Dwarf Galaxies in Clusters and their Efficient Formation of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mistani, Pouria A; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Vogelsberger, Mark; Nelson, Dylan; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Torrey, Paul; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy clusters contain a large population of low mass dwarf elliptical galaxies whose exact origin is unclear: their colors, structural properties and kinematics differ substantially from those of dwarf irregulars in the field. We use the Illustris cosmological simulation to study differences in the assembly paths of dwarf galaxies (3e8 < M_*/M_sun < 1e10) according to their environment. We find that cluster dwarfs achieve their maximum total and stellar mass on average ~ 8 and ~ 4.5 Gyr ago, respectively, around the time of infall into the clusters. In contrast, field dwarfs not subjected to environmental stripping, reach their maximum mass at redshift z = 0. This different assembly history naturally produces a color bimodality, with blue isolated dwarfs and redder cluster dwarfs exhibiting negligible star-formation today. The cessation of star formation happens over median times 3.5-5 Gyr depending on stellar mass, and shows a large scatter (~ 1-8 Gyr), with the lower values associated with starburst...

  19. New Halo White Dwarf Candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Kyra; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Brown, Warren R.; Williams, Kurtis A.; von Hippel, Ted; Harris, Hugh C.

    2016-08-01

    We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 57 faint (g = 19 - 22) high proper motion white dwarfs identified through repeat imaging of ≈3100 square degrees of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint by Munn et al. (2014). We use ugriz and JH photometry to perform a model atmosphere analysis, and identify ten ultracool white dwarfs with Teff ages larger than 9 Gyr display thick disc kinematics and constrain the age of the thick disc to ≥11 Gyr. There are four white dwarfs in our sample with large tangential velocities (vtan > 120 km s-1) and UVW velocities that are more consistent with the halo than the Galactic disc. For typical 0.6M⊙ white dwarfs, the cooling ages for these halo candidates range from 2.3 to 8.5 Gyr. However, the total main-sequence + white dwarf cooling ages of these stars would be consistent with the Galactic halo if they are slightly undermassive. Given the magnitude limits of the current large scale surveys, many of the coolest and oldest white dwarfs remain undiscovered in the solar neighborhood, but upcoming surveys such as GAIA and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) should find many of these elusive thick disc and halo white dwarfs.

  20. The brightest pure-H ultracool white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan, S; Pinfield, D J; Smith, L C; Zhang, Z H; Napiwotzki, R; Marocco, F; Day-Jones, A C; Gomes, J; Forde, K P; Lucas, P W; Jones, H R A

    2012-01-01

    We report the identification of LSR J0745+2627 in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) as a cool white dwarf with kinematics and age compatible with the thick-disk/halo population. LSR J0745+2627 has a high proper motion (890 mas/yr) and a high reduced proper motion value in the J band (H_J=21.87). We show how the infrared-reduced proper motion diagram is useful for selecting a sample of cool white dwarfs with low contamination. LSR J0745+2627 is also detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We have spectroscopically confirmed this object as a cool white dwarf using X-Shooter on the Very Large Telescope. A detailed analysis of its spectral energy distribution reveals that its atmosphere is compatible with a pure-H composition model with an effective temperature of 3880+-90 K. This object is the brightest pure-H ultracool white dwarf (Teff<4000 K) ever identified. We have constrained the dis...

  1. Space Velocities of L- and T-type Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Osorio, M R Zapatero; Béjar, V J S; Bouy, H; Deshpande, R; Wainscoat, R J

    2007-01-01

    (Abridged) We have obtained radial velocities of a sample of 18 ultracool dwarfs (M6.5-T8) using high-resolution, near-infrared spectra obtained with NIRSPEC and the Keck II telescope. We have confirmed that the radial velocity of Gl 570 D is coincident with that of the K-type primary star Gl 570 A, thus providing additional support for their true companionship. The presence of planetary-mass companions around 2MASS J05591914-1404488 (T4.5V) has been analyzed using five NIRSPEC radial velocity measurements obtained over a period of 4.37 yr. We have computed UVW space motions for a total of 21 L and T dwarfs within 20 pc of the Sun. This population shows UVW velocities that nicely overlap the typical kinematics of solar to M-type stars within the same spatial volume. However, the mean Galactic (44.2 km/s) and tangential (36.5 km/s) velocities of the L and T dwarfs appear to be smaller than those of G to M stars. A significant fraction (~40%) of the L and T dwarfs lies near the Hyades moving group (0.4-2 Gyr), ...

  2. A PATCHY CLOUD MODEL FOR THE L TO T DWARF TRANSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One mechanism suggested for the L to T dwarf spectral type transition is the appearance of relatively cloud-free regions across the disk of brown dwarfs as they cool. The existence of partly cloudy regions has been supported by evidence for variability in dwarfs in the late L to early T spectral range, but no self-consistent atmosphere models of such partly cloudy objects have yet been constructed. Here, we present a new approach for consistently modeling partly cloudy brown dwarfs and giant planets. We find that even a small fraction of cloud holes dramatically alter the atmospheric thermal profile, spectra, and photometric colors of a given object. With decreasing cloudiness objects briskly become bluer in J - K and brighten in J band, as is observed at the L/T transition. Model spectra of partly cloudy objects are similar to our models with globally homogenous, but thinner, clouds. Hence, spectra alone may not be sufficient to distinguish partial cloudiness although variability and polarization measurements are potential observational signatures. Finally, we note that partial cloud cover may be an alternative explanation for the blue L dwarfs.

  3. The white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for $\\sim 10$ Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other...

  4. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    White dwarf and pre-white dwarf atmospheres are one of the best examples for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, due to plasma conditions very favorable for this line broadening mechanism. For example in hot hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarf stars Teff = 75 000 K - 180 000 K and log g = 5.5-8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with typical effective temperatures of 10 000 K - 20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/), containing Stark broadening parameters needed for white dwarf spectra analysis and synthesis, as well as to the new search facilities which will provide the collective effort to develop Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC - http://vamdc.org/).

  5. Solidification of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzman, E.

    1982-01-01

    The internal structure of white dwarfs is discussed. Highly correlated plasmas are reviewed. Implications for phase separation in the core of cooling white dwarfs are considered. The consequences for evolution of white dwarfs are addressed.

  6. Long-term eclipse timing of white dwarf binaries: an observational hint of a magnetic mechanism at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, M. C. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Dhillon, V. S.; Ashley, R. P.; Bento, J. P.; Breedt, E.; Butterley, T.; Caceres, C.; Chote, P.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Kilkenny, D.; Littlefair, S. P.; McAllister, M. J.; Rattanasoon, S.; Sahman, D. I.; Vučković, M.; Wilson, R. W.

    2016-08-01

    We present a long-term programme for timing the eclipses of white dwarfs in close binaries to measure apparent and/or real variations in their orbital periods. Our programme includes 67 close binaries, both detached and semi-detached and with M-dwarfs, K-dwarfs, brown dwarfs or white dwarfs secondaries. In total, we have observed more than 650 white dwarf eclipses. We use this sample to search for orbital period variations and aim to identify the underlying cause of these variations. We find that the probability of observing orbital period variations increases significantly with the observational baseline. In particular, all binaries with baselines exceeding 10 yr, with secondaries of spectral type K2 - M5.5, show variations in the eclipse arrival times that in most cases amount to several minutes. In addition, among those with baselines shorter than 10 yr, binaries with late spectral type (>M6), brown dwarf or white dwarf secondaries appear to show no orbital period variations. This is in agreement with the so-called Applegate mechanism, which proposes that magnetic cycles in the secondary stars can drive variability in the binary orbits. We also present new eclipse times of NN Ser, which are still compatible with the previously published circumbinary planetary system model, although only with the addition of a quadratic term to the ephemeris. Finally, we conclude that we are limited by the relatively short observational baseline for many of the binaries in the eclipse timing programme, and therefore cannot yet draw robust conclusions about the cause of orbital period variations in evolved, white dwarf binaries.

  7. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  8. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia--Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  9. Dwarfs in Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version This false-color mosaic of the central region of the Coma cluster combines infrared and visible-light images to reveal thousands of faint objects (green). Follow-up observations showed that many of these objects, which appear here as faint green smudges, are dwarf galaxies belonging to the cluster. Two large elliptical galaxies, NGC 4889 and NGC 4874, dominate the cluster's center. The mosaic combines visible-light data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (color coded blue) with long- and short-wavelength infrared views (red and green, respectively) from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  10. The Solar Neighborhood. XXXIV. A Search for Planets Orbiting Nearby M Dwarfs using Astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lurie, John C; Jao, Wei-Chun; Quinn, Samuel N; Winters, Jennifer G; Ianna, Philip A; Koerner, David W; Riedel, Adric R; Subasavage, John P

    2014-01-01

    Astrometric measurements are presented for seven nearby stars with previously detected planets: six M dwarfs (GJ 317, GJ 667C, GJ 581, GJ 849, GJ 876, and GJ 1214) and one K dwarf (BD $-$10 3166). Measurements are also presented for six additional nearby M dwarfs without known planets, but which are more favorable to astrometric detections of low mass companions, as well as three binary systems for which we provide astrometric orbit solutions. Observations have baselines of three to thirteen years, and were made as part of the RECONS long-term astrometry and photometry program at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m telescope. We provide trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for all 16 systems, and perform an extensive analysis of the astrometric residuals to determine the minimum detectable companion mass for the 12 M dwarfs not having close stellar secondaries. For the six M dwarfs with known planets, we are not sensitive to planets, but can rule out the presence of all but the least massive brown dwarfs at periods o...

  11. Discovery of a Very Young Field L Dwarf, 2MASS J01415823-4633574

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, J D; Burgasser, A J; McGovern, M R; McLean, I S; Tinney, C G; Lowrance, P J; Barman, Travis S.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Govern, Mark R. Mc; Lean, Ian S. Mc; Tinney, Christopher G.; Lowrance, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    While following up L dwarf candidates selected photometrically from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, we uncovered an unusual object designated 2MASS J01415823-4633574. Its optical spectrum exhibits very strong bands of vanadium oxide but abnormally weak absorptions by titanium oxide, potassium, and sodium. Morphologically such spectroscopic characteristics fall intermediate between old, field early-L dwarfs (log(g)~5) and very late M giants (log(g)~0), leading us to favor low gravity as the explanation for the unique spectral signatures of this L dwarf. Such a low gravity can be explained only if this L dwarf is much lower in mass than a typical old field L dwarf of similar temperature and is still contracting to its final radius. These conditions imply a very young age. Further evidence of youth is found in the near-infrared spectrum, including a triangular-shaped H-band continuum reminiscent of young brown dwarf candidates discovered in the Orion Nebula Cluster. Using the above information along with comparis...

  12. RADIO FLARING FROM THE T6 DWARF WISEPC J112254.73+255021.5 WITH A POSSIBLE ULTRA-SHORT PERIODICITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Route, Matthew; Wolszczan, Alexander, E-mail: mroute@purdue.edu, E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    We present new results from a continuing 5 GHz search for flaring radio emission from a sample of L and T brown dwarfs, conducted with the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. In addition to the previously reported flaring from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+212423, we have detected and confirmed circularly polarized flares from another T6 dwarf, WISEPC J112254.73+255021.5. Although the flares are sporadic, they appear to occur at a stable period of 0.288 hr. Given the current constraints, periods equal to its second and third subharmonic cannot be ruled out. The stability of this period over the eight-month timespan of observations indicates that, if real, it likely reflects the star’s rapid rotation. If confirmed, any of the three inferred periodicities would be much shorter than the shortest, 1.41 hr, rotation period of a brown dwarf measured so far. This finding would place a new observational constraint on the angular momentum evolution and rotational stability of substellar objects. The detection of radio emission from the sixth ∼1000 K dwarf further demonstrates that the coolest brown dwarfs and, possibly, young giant planets, can be efficiently investigated using radio observations at centimeter wavelengths as a tool.

  13. Kinematic geometry of gearing

    CERN Document Server

    Dooner, David B

    2012-01-01

    Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat

  14. Kinematics grounded on light

    CERN Document Server

    Neda, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The space-time of modern physics is tailored on light. We rigorously construct the basic entities needed by kinematics: geometry of the physical space and time, using as tool electromagnetic waves, and particularly light-rays. After such a mathematically orthodox construction, the special theory of relativity will result naturally. One will clearly understand and easily accept all those puzzling consequences that makes presently the special theory of relativity hard to digest. Such an approach is extremely rewarding in teaching the main ideas of Einstein's relativity theory for high-school and/or university students. Interesting speculations regarding the fundaments and future of physics are made.

  15. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Properties of galaxies with kinematically decoupled stellar and gaseous components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yifei; Chen, Yanmei; Shi, Yong; Tremonti, C. A.; Bershady, M. A.; Merrifield, M.; Emsellem, E.; Fu, Hai; Wake, D.; Bundy, K.; Lin, Lihwai; Argudo-Fernandez, M.; Huang, Song; Stark, D. V.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Bizyaev, D.; Brownstein, J.; Chisholm, J.; Guo, Qi; Hao, Lei; Hu, Jian; Li, Cheng; Li, Ran; Masters, K. L.; Malanushenko, E.; Pan, Kaike; Riffel, R. A.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Simmons, A.; Thomas, D.; Wang, Lan; Westfall, K.; Yan, Renbin

    2016-08-01

    We study the properties of 66 galaxies with kinematically misaligned gas and stars from MaNGA survey. The fraction of kinematically misaligned galaxies varies with galaxy physical parameters, i.e. M★, SFR and sSFR. According to their sSFR, we further classify these 66 galaxies into three categories, 10 star-forming, 26 "Green Valley" and 30 quiescent ones. The properties of different types of kinematically misaligned galaxies are different in that the star-forming ones have positive gradient in Dn4000 and higher gas-phase metallicity, while the green valley/quiescent ones have negative Dn4000 gradients and lower gas-phase metallicity on average. There is evidence that all types of the kinematically misaligned galaxies tend to live in more isolated environment. Based on all these observational results, we propose a scenario for the formation of star forming galaxies with kinematically misaligned gas and stars - the progenitor accretes misaligned gas from a gas-rich dwarf or cosmic web, the cancellation of angular momentum from gas-gas collisions between the pre-existing gas and the accreted gas largely accelerates gas inflow, leading to fast centrally-concentrated star-formation. The higher metallicity is due to enrichment from this star formation. For the kinematically misaligned green valley and quiescent galaxies, they might be formed through gas-poor progenitors accreting kinematically misaligned gas from satellites which are smaller in mass.

  16. SDSS-IV MaNGA: properties of galaxies with kinematically decoupled stellar and gaseous components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yifei; Chen, Yanmei; Shi, Yong; Tremonti, C. A.; Bershady, M. A.; Merrifield, M.; Emsellem, E.; Fu, Hai; Wake, D.; Bundy, K.; Lin, Lihwai; Argudo-Fernandez, M.; Huang, Song; Stark, D. V.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Bizyaev, D.; Brownstein, J.; Chisholm, J.; Guo, Qi; Hao, Lei; Hu, Jian; Li, Cheng; Li, Ran; Masters, K. L.; Malanushenko, E.; Pan, Kaike; Riffel, R. A.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Simmons, A.; Thomas, D.; Wang, Lan; Westfall, K.; Yan, Renbin

    2016-11-01

    We study the properties of 66 galaxies with kinematically misaligned gas and stars from MaNGA survey. The fraction of kinematically misaligned galaxies varies with galaxy physical parameters, i.e. M*, SFR and sSFR. According to their sSFR, we further classify these 66 galaxies into three categories, 10 star-forming, 26 `Green Valley' and 30 quiescent ones. The properties of different types of kinematically misaligned galaxies are different in that the star-forming ones have positive gradient in Dn4000 and higher gas-phase metallicity, while the green valley/quiescent ones have negative Dn4000 gradients and lower gas-phase metallicity on average. There is evidence that all types of the kinematically misaligned galaxies tend to live in more isolated environment. Based on all these observational results, we propose a scenario for the formation of star-forming galaxies with kinematically misaligned gas and stars -- the progenitor accretes misaligned gas from a gas-rich dwarf or cosmic web, the cancellation of angular momentum from gas-gas collisions between the pre-existing gas and the accreted gas largely accelerates gas inflow, leading to fast centrally concentrated star formation. The higher metallicity is due to enrichment from this star formation. For the kinematically misaligned green valley and quiescent galaxies, they might be formed through gas-poor progenitors accreting kinematically misaligned gas from satellites which are smaller in mass.

  17. Infrared Colors of Dwarf-Dwarf Galaxy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, Kelsey; Patton, Dave; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2015-10-01

    We request Spitzer Warm Mission IRAC Channel 1 & 2 imaging for a sample of 60 isolated dwarf galaxy pairs as a key component of a larger, multi-wavelength effort to understand the role low-mass mergers play in galaxy evolution. A systematic study of dwarf-dwarf mergers has never been done, and we wish to characterize the impact such interactions have on fueling star formation in the nearby universe. The Spitzer imaging proposed here will allow us to determine the extent to which the 3.6 and 4.5 mum bands are dominated by stellar light and investigate a) the extent to which interacting pairs show IR excess and b) whether the excess is related to the pair separation. Second, we will use this IR photometry to constrain the processes contributing to the observed color excess and scatter in each system. We will take advantage of the wealth of observations available in the Spitzer Heritage Archive for 'normal' non-interacting dwarfs by comparing the stellar populations of those dwarfs with the likely interacting dwarfs in our sample. Ultimately, we can combine the Spitzer imaging proposed here with our current, ongoing efforts to obtain groundbased optical photometry to model the star formation histories of these dwarfs and to help constrain the timescales and impact dwarf-dwarf mergers have on fueling star formation. The sensitivity and resolution offered by Spitzer are necessary to determine the dust properties of these interacting systems, and how these properties vary as a function of pair separation, mass ratio, and gas fraction.

  18. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  19. Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Terrero, D Alvear; Martínez, A Pérez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to obtain more realistic equations of state to describe the matter forming magnetized white dwarfs, and use them to solve its structure equations. The equations of state are determined by considering the weak magnetic field approximation $Bdwarfs. Also, we consider the energy and pressure correction due to the Coulomb interaction of the electron gas with the ions located in a crystal lattice. Moreover, spherically symmetric Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff structure equations are solved independently for the perpendicular and parallel pressures, confirming the necessity of using axisymmetric structure equations, more adequate to describe the anisotropic system. Therefore, we study the solutions in cylindrical coordinates. In this case, the mass per longitude unit is obtained instead of the total mass of the whit...

  20. Kinematics of Strong Discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K.; Nguyen, G.; Sulsky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides a detailed view of the Arctic ice cover. When processed with the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS), it provides estimates of sea ice motion and deformation over large regions of the Arctic for extended periods of time. The deformation is dominated by the appearance of linear kinematic features that have been associated with the presence of leads. The RGPS deformation products are based on the assumption that the displacement and velocity are smooth functions of the spatial coordinates. However, if the dominant deformation of multiyear ice results from the opening, closing and shearing of leads, then the displacement and velocity can be discontinuous. This presentation discusses the kinematics associated with strong discontinuities that describe possible jumps in displacement or velocity. Ice motion from SAR data are analyzed using this framework. It is assumed that RGPS cells deform due to the presence of a lead. The lead orientation is calculated to optimally account for the observed deformation. It is shown that almost all observed deformation can be represented by lead opening and shearing. The procedure used to reprocess motion data to account for leads will be described and applied to regions of the Beaufort Sea. The procedure not only provides a new view of ice deformation, it can be used to obtain information about the presence of leads for initialization and/or validation of numerical simulations.